Science.gov

Sample records for adaptive teaching expertise

  1. Teaching and Learning Physics Expertise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieman, Carl

    2015-05-01

    I will discuss what has been learned about the nature of expertise and how it is learned. Expertise is largely about asking the right questions and making the right decisions (both conscious and unconscious) at the right time. This includes knowing and using all the relevant information, and recognizing the limitations of those decisions. Expertise is acquired by the learner explicitly practicing, with guiding feedback, the necessary decisions and knowledge organization and application, and reflecting on decisions. Measures of expert decision making clearly reflect the degree to which different teaching methods provide the learner with the necessary explicit practice and feedback. I will start with describing the most general features of expertise, then specific elements of physics expertise, and finally the example of quite detailed components of expertise in DAMOP experimental physics. This will set the stage for the other talks in this session which will discuss examples of applying these concepts about the acquisition of expertise to a variety of specific physics courses and showing their effectiveness. This talk will make it clear why subject expertise is a necessary (though not sufficient) condition to be an effective teacher.

  2. The Development of Adaptive Expertise in Biotransport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Taylor; Petrosino, Anthony J.; Rivale, Stephanie; Diller, Kenneth R.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter describes a model for continuous development of adaptive expertise, including growth along the dimensions of innovation and knowledge, examined in the context of a biotransport course in biomedical engineering. Students improved on both knowledge and innovation, moving along a continuum toward adaptive expertise. (Contains 5 figures.)

  3. Technology Integration and Teaching Expertise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierson, Melissa E.

    This paper reports on a study that investigated the relationships between technology-use and teaching ability in the practice of elementary teachers. Case study data from exemplary technology integrators, representing various levels of teaching and technology-use ability, led to the formulation of five assertions about ways these teachers taught…

  4. Climate change: could it help develop 'adaptive expertise'?

    PubMed

    Bell, Erica; Horton, Graeme; Blashki, Grant; Seidel, Bastian M

    2012-05-01

    Preparing health practitioners to respond to the rising burden of disease from climate change is emerging as a priority in health workforce policy and planning. However, this issue is hardly represented in the medical education research. The rapidly evolving wide range of direct and indirect consequences of climate change will require health professionals to have not only broad content knowledge but also flexibility and responsiveness to diverse regional conditions as part of complex health problem-solving and adaptation. It is known that adaptive experts may not necessarily be quick at solving familiar problems, but they do creatively seek to better solve novel problems. This may be the result of an acquired approach to practice or a pathway that can be fostered by learning environments. It is also known that building adaptive expertise in medical education involves putting students on a learning pathway that requires them to have, first, the motivation to innovatively problem-solve and, second, exposure to diverse content material, meaningfully presented. Including curriculum content on the health effects of climate change could help meet these two conditions for some students at least. A working definition and illustrative competencies for adaptive expertise for climate change, as well as examples of teaching and assessment approaches extrapolated from rural curricula, are provided. PMID:21063771

  5. Developing Teaching Expertise in Dental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Lucinda J.

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study was designed to develop a baseline model of expertise in dental education utilizing the Dreyfus and Dreyfus continuum of skill acquisition. The goal was the development of a baseline model of expertise, which will contribute to the body of knowledge about dental faculty skill acquisition and may enable dental schools to…

  6. Collaborative Learning with Multi-Touch Technology: Developing Adaptive Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercier, Emma M.; Higgins, Steven E.

    2013-01-01

    Developing fluency and flexibility in mathematics is a key goal of upper primary schooling, however, while fluency can be developed with practice, designing activities that support the development of flexibility is more difficult. Drawing on concepts of adaptive expertise, we developed a task for a multi-touch classroom, NumberNet, that aimed to…

  7. Expertise for Teaching Biology Situated in the Context of Genetic Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van der Zande, Paul; Akkerman, Sanne F.; Brekelmans, Mieke; Waarlo, Arend Jan; Vermunt, Jan D.

    2012-07-01

    Contemporary genomics research will impact the daily practice of biology teachers who want to teach up-to-date genetics in secondary education. This article reports on a research project aimed at enhancing biology teachers' expertise for teaching genetics situated in the context of genetic testing. The increasing body of scientific knowledge concerning genetic testing and the related consequences for decision-making indicate the societal relevance of an educational approach based on situated learning. What expertise do biology teachers need for teaching genetics in the personal health context of genetic testing? This article describes the required expertise by exploring the educational practice. Nine experienced teachers were interviewed about the pedagogical content, moral and interpersonal expertise areas concerning how to teach genetics in the personal health context of genetic testing, and the lessons of five of them were observed. The findings showed that the required teacher expertise encompasses specific pedagogical content expertise, interpersonal expertise and a preference for teacher roles and teaching approaches for the moral aspects of teaching in this context. A need for further development of teaching and learning activities for (reflection on) moral reasoning came to the fore. Suggestions regarding how to apply this expertise into context-based genetics education are discussed.

  8. Situated Expertise in Integrating Use of Multimedia Simulation into Secondary Science Teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennessy, Sara; Deaney, Rosemary; Ruthven, Kenneth

    2006-06-01

    This study explored teachers’ pedagogical strategies for using multimedia simulation to structure and support secondary science teaching. Expertise was investigated across a range of classroom settings to analyse how specialist knowledge is situated within and adapted to the teaching and learning context. Analysis of data arising from 10 lesson observations and post-lesson interviews with five teachers and their pupils highlighted significant variation in pedagogical approaches shaping simulation use in three topic areas. Two contrasting case studies involving a “terminal velocity” simulation exemplify this: one was characterized by some “dialogic” whole class interaction and collaborative testing of pupils’ own ideas; the other by a more typical, more authoritative, discourse with pupil pairs. Over-structuring of tasks and curricular constraints meant that the rhetoric in the literature and teachers’ aspirations concerning pupil experimentation balanced with structured tasks were not borne out. Implications for mode of use and the design of technology-integrated activity are discussed.

  9. Expertise for Teaching Biology Situated in the Context of Genetic Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Zande, Paul; Akkerman, Sanne F.; Brekelmans, Mieke; Waarlo, Arend Jan; Vermunt, Jan D.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary genomics research will impact the daily practice of biology teachers who want to teach up-to-date genetics in secondary education. This article reports on a research project aimed at enhancing biology teachers' expertise for teaching genetics situated in the context of genetic testing. The increasing body of scientific knowledge…

  10. ePortfolios: Promoting Special Educator Adaptive Expertise through Reflection in a Web-Based Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Arment, Serra T.; Wetzel, Angela P.; Reed, Evelyn

    2013-01-01

    In an era of accountability, teachers must be prepared to adapt to the variability they encounter in today's classrooms. Instead of knowing only routine responses to the challenges of practice, teachers need a repertoire that is characterized by adaptive expertise. Preservice preparation can foster teacher candidates' adaptive expertise through…

  11. Using an adaptive expertise lens to understand the quality of teachers' classroom implementation of computer-supported complex systems curricula in high school science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Susan A.; Koehler-Yom, Jessica; Anderson, Emma; Lin, Joyce; Klopfer, Eric

    2015-05-01

    Background: This exploratory study is part of a larger-scale research project aimed at building theoretical and practical knowledge of complex systems in students and teachers with the goal of improving high school biology learning through professional development and a classroom intervention. Purpose: We propose a model of adaptive expertise to better understand teachers' classroom practices as they attempt to navigate myriad variables in the implementation of biology units that include working with computer simulations, and learning about and teaching through complex systems ideas. Sample: Research participants were three high school biology teachers, two females and one male, ranging in teaching experience from six to 16 years. Their teaching contexts also ranged in student achievement from 14-47% advanced science proficiency. Design and methods: We used a holistic multiple case study methodology and collected data during the 2011-2012 school year. Data sources include classroom observations, teacher and student surveys, and interviews. Data analyses and trustworthiness measures were conducted through qualitative mining of data sources and triangulation of findings. Results: We illustrate the characteristics of adaptive expertise of more or less successful teaching and learning when implementing complex systems curricula. We also demonstrate differences between case study teachers in terms of particular variables associated with adaptive expertise. Conclusions: This research contributes to scholarship on practices and professional development needed to better support teachers to teach through a complex systems pedagogical and curricular approach.

  12. Tracing Two Apprentices' Trajectories toward Adaptive Professional Expertise in Fingerprint Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mustonen, Virpi; Hakkarainen, Kai

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyse the development of two apprentices' adaptive expertise in fingerprint examination across a two-year training program. The apprentices were selected from a large number of candidates to be trained at the Forensic Laboratory of the Finnish National Bureau of Investigation. The problem addressed was how the…

  13. The Characterisation and Development of Professional Expertise in School Management and Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eraut, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Argues that professional education in teaching and management lacks an epistemological basis, a map of progression, and a theory explaining how expertise is acquired. Addresses this problem by exploring interaction between different types of professional knowledge and different types of professional processes. Offers recommendations for developing…

  14. Factors perceived to have enabled 25 women to develop expertise to teach primary science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paige, Kathryn

    1994-12-01

    This paper outlines the findings of a study which involved expert/committed female primary science teachers and examined their perceptions of the main factors that led to the development of their expertise. The study focuses on the women's formal education, early influences outside formal education and their recent training and development. The last of these is the main one identified in research literature as having influenced people to develop an interest in teaching primary science.

  15. Building Adaptive Expertise and Practice-Based Evidence: Applying the Implementation Stages Framework to Special Education Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason-Williams, Loretta; Frederick, Jacqueline R.; Mulcahy, Candace A.

    2015-01-01

    Preparing pre-service special educators to meet classroom demands requires teacher preparation programs to design experiences for students to demonstrate routine expertise, while also building adaptive expertise. In this article, the authors describe a capstone project that meets these needs and prepares pre-service special educators for their…

  16. Adaptation, expertise, and giftedness: towards an understanding of cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar network contributions.

    PubMed

    Koziol, Leonard F; Budding, Deborah Ely; Chidekel, Dana

    2010-12-01

    Current cortico-centric models of cognition lack a cohesive neuroanatomic framework that sufficiently considers overlapping levels of function, from "pathological" through "normal" to "gifted" or exceptional ability. While most cognitive theories presume an evolutionary context, few actively consider the process of adaptation, including concepts of neurodevelopment. Further, the frequent co-occurrence of "gifted" and "pathological" function is difficult to explain from a cortico-centric point of view. This comprehensive review paper proposes a framework that includes the brain's vertical organization and considers "giftedness" from an evolutionary and neurodevelopmental vantage point. We begin by discussing the current cortico-centric model of cognition and its relationship to intelligence. We then review an integrated, dual-tiered model of cognition that better explains the process of adaptation by simultaneously allowing for both stimulus-based processing and higher-order cognitive control. We consider the role of the basal ganglia within this model, particularly in relation to reward circuitry and instrumental learning. We review the important role of white matter tracts in relation to speed of adaptation and development of behavioral mastery. We examine the cerebellum's critical role in behavioral refinement and in cognitive and behavioral automation, particularly in relation to expertise and giftedness. We conclude this integrated model of brain function by considering the savant syndrome, which we believe is best understood within the context of a dual-tiered model of cognition that allows for automaticity in adaptation as well as higher-order executive control.

  17. Common Core State Standards and Adaptive Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamil, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the issues of how Common Core State Standards (CCSS) will impact adaptive teaching. It focuses on 2 of the major differences between conventional standards and CCSS: the increased complexity of text and the addition of disciplinary literacy standards to reading instruction. The article argues that adaptive teaching under CCSS…

  18. Adaptive Teaching in STEM: Characteristics for Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Melony; Webb, Angela W.; Matthews, Catherine E.

    2016-01-01

    This article defines the process of adaptive teaching in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). We assert that teachers who possess a well-developed STEM pedagogical content knowledge, a constructivist paradigm of teaching and learning, and an ability to draw on a vision while reflecting on and during teaching to help negotiate…

  19. Adapting Content Subject Tasks for Bilingual Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halbach, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Teaching content through a foreign language presents students with the double challenge of having to understand new concepts and of doing so through a foreign language. To be successful in meeting this challenge teachers have to adapt their teaching style and the tasks they work on with their students. Often, however, they do not know how to do…

  20. Teaching About Adaptation: Why Evolutionary History Matters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampourakis, Kostas

    2013-02-01

    Adaptation is one of the central concepts in evolutionary theory, which nonetheless has been given different definitions. Some scholars support a historical definition of adaptation, considering it as a trait that is the outcome of natural selection, whereas others support an ahistorical definition, considering it as a trait that contributes to the survival and reproduction of its possessors. Finally, adaptation has been defined as a process, as well. Consequently, two questions arise: the first is a philosophical one and focuses on what adaptation actually is; the second is a pedagogical one and focuses on what science teachers and educators should teach about it. In this article, the various definitions of adaptation are discussed and their uses in some textbooks are presented. It is suggested that, given elementary students' intuitions about purpose and design in nature and secondary students' teleological explanations for the origin of adaptations, any definition of adaptation as a trait should include some information about its evolutionary history.

  1. Teaching Social Work Practice Research to Enhance Research-Minded Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satka, Mirja; Kääriäinen, Aino; Yliruka, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The emphasis on student cognitive knowledge and expertise in social work education has been shifting more toward reflective learning that features learning networks and dialogical interaction. In the context of innovative knowledge communities for promoting social work expertise, educators have become facilitators of learning that is expanding…

  2. Adaptive Learning Systems: Beyond Teaching Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kara, Nuri; Sevim, Nese

    2013-01-01

    Since 1950s, teaching machines have changed a lot. Today, we have different ideas about how people learn, what instructor should do to help students during their learning process. We have adaptive learning technologies that can create much more student oriented learning environments. The purpose of this article is to present these changes and its…

  3. Hydrology and hydraulics expertise in participatory processes for climate change adaptation in the Dutch Meuse.

    PubMed

    Wesselink, Anna; de Vriend, Huib; Barneveld, Hermjan; Krol, Maarten; Bijker, Wiebe

    2009-01-01

    Many scientists feel that scientific outcomes are not sufficiently taken into account in policy-making. The research reported in this paper shows what happens with scientific information during such a process. In 2001 the Dutch Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management commissioned their regional office in Limburg to assess how flood management objectives could be achieved in future in the Dutch Meuse valley, assuming climate change will increase peak discharges. To ensure political support, regional discussion rounds were to help assess the measures previously identified. This paper discusses the ways in which hydrological and hydraulic expertise was input, understood and used in this assessment process. Project participants as a group had no trouble contesting assumptions and outcomes. Nevertheless, water expertise was generally accepted as providing facts, once basic choices such as starting situation had been discussed and agreed. The technical constraints determined that politically unacceptable measures would have to be selected to achieve the legally binding flood management objective. As a result, no additional space will be set aside for future flood management beyond the already reserved floodplain. In this case, political arguments clearly prevail over policy objectives, with hydraulic expertise providing decisive arbitration between the two.

  4. Investigating the Learning to Teach Process: Pedagogy, Innovation Adoption, Expertise Development, and Technology Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation reported three studies whose overarching purpose is to enhance our understanding about how teachers learn to teach by revealing the learning to teach process. Each of three studies revealed the learning to teach process from different perspectives. Guided by the Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) framework, the first study…

  5. Changes in Teachers' Adaptive Expertise in an Engineering Professional Development Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Taylor; Peacock, Stephanie Baker; Ko, Pat; Rudolph, Jennifer J.

    2015-01-01

    Although the consensus seems to be that high-school-level introductory engineering courses should focus on design, this creates a problem for teacher training. Traditionally, math and science teachers are trained to teach and assess factual knowledge and closed-ended problem-solving techniques specific to a particular discipline, which is unsuited…

  6. You can’t teach speed: sprinters falsify the deliberate practice model of expertise

    PubMed Central

    Deaner, Robert O.

    2014-01-01

    Many scientists agree that expertise requires both innate talent and proper training. Nevertheless, the highly influential deliberate practice model (DPM) of expertise holds that talent does not exist or makes a negligible contribution to performance. It predicts that initial performance will be unrelated to achieving expertise and that 10 years of deliberate practice is necessary. We tested these predictions in the domain of sprinting. In Studies 1 and 2 we reviewed biographies of 15 Olympic champions and the 20 fastest American men in U.S. history. In all documented cases, sprinters were exceptional prior to initiating training, and most reached world class status rapidly (Study 1 median = 3 years; Study 2 = 7.5). In Study 3 we surveyed U.S. national collegiate championships qualifiers in sprinters (n = 20) and throwers (n = 44). Sprinters recalled being faster as youths than did throwers, whereas throwers recalled greater strength and throwing ability. Sprinters’ best performances in their first season of high school, generally the onset of formal training, were consistently faster than 95–99% of their peers. Collectively, these results falsify the DPM for sprinting. Because speed is foundational for many sports, they challenge the DPM generally. PMID:25024914

  7. [New methodological approaches in assessing adaptive body reactions in the system of flight medicine expertise].

    PubMed

    Karlov, V N; Balandina, T N

    1995-01-01

    The "cost" of adjustable systemic and cellular reactions in the human body in extreme environments have been assessed from the standpoint of their potentialities for upgrading special methods of evaluating and predicting functional status practiced in flight certification examination. As was stated, the functional reserves of blood circulation should be assessed by chronotropic activity of cardiac regulation in response to hypoxic exposure. The adequacy of adaptive processes on the cellular level can be drawn from the dynamics of malon-dialdehide (the by-product of lipid peroxidation) and plasma monoaminoxidase. The biochemical investigations of peripheral blood and saliva also show promise.

  8. Adaptive Teaching in Literacy Instruction: Case Studies of Two Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Seth A.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers frequently suggest that effective teachers adapt their teaching to navigate the complexity of classroom literacy instruction. However, little research has examined how teachers adapt their instruction, teachers' reflections on their adaptations, or the instructional conditions in which they adapt. To address this gap in the research…

  9. Educational Expertise: The Concept of "Mind Frames" as an Integrative Model for Professionalisation in Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zierer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Professionalisation in teaching has been the topic of extensive research in recent years, following in general two different approaches: the "competence-based approach" and the "critical reflection approach". With large-scale comparative studies such as PISA, TIMMS and PIRLS at the beginning of the 21st century, the former…

  10. Making Sense of Experienced Teachers' Interactive Decisions: Implications for Expertise in Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gün, Bahar

    2014-01-01

    Teachers' decision making has always been an area of curiosity in many studies related to teachers and teaching. One approach to understanding teachers' decisions is through the analysis of their reflection-in-action behaviours. This study, based on the premise that one can gain understanding from examining experienced teachers' classroom…

  11. Using an Adaptive Expertise Lens to Understand the Quality of Teachers' Classroom Implementation of Computer-Supported Complex Systems Curricula in High School Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Susan A.; Koehler-Yom, Jessica; Anderson, Emma; Lin, Joyce; Klopfer, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Background: This exploratory study is part of a larger-scale research project aimed at building theoretical and practical knowledge of complex systems in students and teachers with the goal of improving high school biology learning through professional development and a classroom intervention. Purpose: We propose a model of adaptive expertise to…

  12. The Impact of a Postgraduate Certificate in Teaching in Higher Education on University Lecturers Appointed for Their Professional Expertise at a Teaching-Led University: "It's Made Me Braver"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, John; Stoncel, Di

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the impact of a Postgraduate Certificate in Teaching in Higher Education (PG Cert.) on new lecturers, appointed for their professional expertise. It focuses on staff perceptions of acculturation into the discourses of university learning and teaching. Drawing on a literature review which reveals (at best) ambivalent evidence…

  13. Adapting your teaching to accommodate the net generation of learners.

    PubMed

    Skiba, Diane J; Barton, Amy J

    2006-05-01

    Educators are faced with the challenge of adapting their teaching styles to accommodate a new generation of learners. The Net Generation or Millennials, who are now entering colleges and universities, have learning expectations, styles, and needs different from past students. This article assists educators in teaching the Net Generation by highlighting the characteristics of the Net Generation and providing examples of how to adapt teaching strategies to accommodate the Net Generation, in light of their preferences for digital literacy, experiential learning, interactivity, and immediacy. PMID:17201579

  14. How Language Supports Adaptive Teaching through a Responsive Learning Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Peter; Dozier, Cheryl; Smit, Julie

    2016-01-01

    For students to learn optimally, teachers must design classrooms that are responsive to the full range of student development. The teacher must be adaptive, but so must each student and the learning culture itself. In other words, adaptive teaching means constructing a responsive learning culture that accommodates and even capitalizes on diversity…

  15. Teaching for CAD Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chester, Ivan

    2007-01-01

    CAD (Computer Aided Design) has now become an integral part of Technology Education. The recent introduction of highly sophisticated, low-cost CAD software and CAM hardware capable of running on desktop computers has accelerated this trend. There is now quite widespread introduction of solid modeling CAD software into secondary schools but how…

  16. Eyeballing expertise.

    PubMed

    Coopmans, Catelijne; Button, Graham

    2014-10-01

    'Tacit' and 'explicit' knowledge, and their relation to expertise, have a long-standing importance within social studies of science and technology. At the centre of the development of thinking about these topics has been the work of Harry Collins and Robert Evans. In this article, we bring to bear observations of the work of people involved in grading eye disease, and their seeming display of expertise, tacit and explicit knowledge, on three thrusts identified in the work of Collins, and Collins and Evans. These thrusts are the following: (1) a concern with the appearance of tacit knowledge in the activities of experts, (2) a commitment to studying expertise as 'real' and substantive rather than attributed, and (3) a commitment to promoting the recognition and fostering the management of expertise by providing analytical distinctions regarding expertise and its reliance on tacit knowledge. By considering what is involved in the work of grading eyes, we relocate the interest in tacit and explicit knowledge, and their bearing on expertise, in how expert knowledge is displayed and made recognizable in and through courses of action and interaction. PMID:25362833

  17. Curriculum Autonomy through Curriculum Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimley, Gareth

    2011-01-01

    The author argues that the decisions primary teachers make about the curriculum need to be informed by well-developed expertise in the subjects they are planning and teaching. This expertise is necessary when teachers are exercising professional autonomy in areas such as curriculum design, securing breadth and balance, and managing curriculum…

  18. Teaching about Adaptation: Why Evolutionary History Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kampourakis, Kostas

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation is one of the central concepts in evolutionary theory, which nonetheless has been given different definitions. Some scholars support a historical definition of adaptation, considering it as a trait that is the outcome of natural selection, whereas others support an ahistorical definition, considering it as a trait that contributes to…

  19. Emergent Expertise?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGivern, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The concept of emergence appears in various places within the literature on expertise and expert practice. Here, I examine some of these applications of emergence in the light of two prominent accounts of emergence from the philosophy of science and philosophy of mind. I evaluate these accounts with respect to several specific contexts in which…

  20. On Scaffolding Adaptive Teaching Prompts within Virtual Labs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Najjar, Mehdi

    2008-01-01

    Despite a growing development of virtual laboratories which use the advantages of multimedia and Internet for distance education, learning by means of such tutorial tools would be more effective if they were specifically tailored to each student needs. The virtual teaching process would be well adapted if an artificial tutor can identify the…

  1. Teaching Adaptability of Object-Oriented Programming Language Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Xiao-dong

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of object-oriented programming languages includes update of their own versions, update of development environments, and reform of new languages upon old languages. In this paper, the evolution analysis of object-oriented programming languages is presented in term of the characters and development. The notion of adaptive teaching upon…

  2. The Effect of Expertise-Based Training on the Quality of Digital Stories Created to Teach Mathematics to Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sancar-Tokmak, Hatice; Incikabi, Lutfi

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of expertise-based training (XBT) on the quality of digital stories created by early childhood education (ECE) pre-service teachers. The participants of the study were 69 pre-service teachers from the ECE Department. The study was experimental, utilizing a static-group pre-test/post-test design, supported with…

  3. Teaching adaptive leadership to family medicine residents: what? why? how?

    PubMed

    Eubank, Daniel; Geffken, Dominic; Orzano, John; Ricci, Rocco

    2012-09-01

    Health care reform calls for patient-centered medical homes built around whole person care and healing relationships. Efforts to transform primary care practices and deliver these qualities have been challenging. This study describes one Family Medicine residency's efforts to develop an adaptive leadership curriculum and use coaching as a teaching method to address this challenge. We review literature that describes a parallel between the skills underlying such care and those required for adaptive leadership. We address two questions: What is leadership? Why focus on adaptive leadership? We then present a synthesis of leadership theories as a set of process skills that lead to organization learning through effective work relationships and adaptive leadership. Four models of the learning process needed to acquire such skills are explored. Coaching is proposed as a teaching method useful for going beyond information transfer to create the experiential learning necessary to acquire the process skills. Evaluations of our efforts to date are summarized. We discuss key challenges to implementing such a curriculum and propose that teaching adaptive leadership is feasible but difficult in the current medical education and practice contexts.

  4. Rupture and Adaptation: British Technical Expertise to the Singapore Polytechnic and the Transition to a Nation-State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seng, Loh Kah

    2015-01-01

    The Singapore Polytechnic underwent a period of both rupture and adaptation as British advisers worked with the post-colonial government to facilitate technical education reform and Singapore's transition to a nation-state. Established in 1958 and based on the metropolitan model, the Singapore Polytechnic constituted an imperial project for…

  5. Eliciting Expertise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, William deB.

    1989-01-01

    Recommends using expert systems on personal computers in the classroom to teach international relations. Claims these systems can reach conclusions as reliable as those of a human expert. Explains that the system compels students to draw conclusions based on clarity of thought because they rely on a body of logically consistent rules. (NL)

  6. Teaching Optics and Systems Engineering With Adaptive Optics Workbenches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, D. M.; Ammons, M.; Hunter, L.; Max, C.; Hoffmann, M.; Pitts, M.; Armstrong, J. D.

    2010-12-01

    Adaptive optics workbenches are fully functional optical systems that can be used to illustrate and teach a variety of concepts and cognitive processes. Four systems have been funded, designed and constructed by various institutions and people as part of education programs associated with the Center for Adaptive Optics, the Professional Development Program and the Institute for Scientist & Engineer Educators. Activities can range from first-year undergraduate explorations to professional level training. These workbenches have been used in many venues including the Center for Adaptive Optics AO Summer School, the Maui Community College-hosted Akamai Maui Short Course, classrooms, training of new staff in laboratories and other venues. The activity content has focused on various elements of systems thinking, characterization, feedback and system control, basic optics and optical alignment as well as advanced topics such as phase conjugation, wave-front sensing and correction concepts, and system design. The workbenches have slightly different designs and performance capabilities. We describe here outlines for several activities utilizing these different designs and some examples of common student learner outcomes and experiences.

  7. ITMS: Individualized Teaching Material System: Adaptive Integration of Web Pages Distributed in Some Servers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitsuhara, Hiroyuki; Kurose, Yoshinobu; Ochi, Youji; Yano, Yoneo

    The authors developed a Web-based Adaptive Educational System (Web-based AES) named ITMS (Individualized Teaching Material System). ITMS adaptively integrates knowledge on the distributed Web pages and generates individualized teaching material that has various contents. ITMS also presumes the learners' knowledge levels from the states of their…

  8. Does Thoughtfully Adaptive Teaching Actually Exist? A Challenge to Teacher Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, James V.; Duffy, Gerald G.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we explore the roots of thoughtfully adaptive teaching in reflection. Drawing on the conceptual work of Dewey and Schon, we examine reflective practice in teaching as a tool for resistance against institutional pressures to standardize teaching practices. We describe 2 programs of research related to this topic. One program of…

  9. An Expertise Recommender using Web Mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, Anupam; Chandrasekaran, Purnima; ShuYang, Michelle; Ramakrishnan, Ramya

    2001-01-01

    This report explored techniques to mine web pages of scientists to extract information regarding their expertise, build expertise chains and referral webs, and semi automatically combine this information with directory information services to create a recommender system that permits query by expertise. The approach included experimenting with existing techniques that have been reported in research literature in recent past , and adapted them as needed. In addition, software tools were developed to capture and use this information.

  10. Expertise revisited, Part I-Interactional expertise.

    PubMed

    Collins, Harry; Evans, Robert

    2015-12-01

    In Part I of this two part paper we try to set out the 'essence' of the notion of interactional expertise by starting with its origins. In Part II we will look at the notion of contributory expertise. The exercise has been triggered by recent discussion of these concepts in this journal by Plaisance and Kennedy and by Goddiksen.

  11. Rethinking Moral Expertise.

    PubMed

    Priaulx, Nicky; Weinel, Martin; Wrigley, Anthony

    2014-08-01

    We argue that the way in which the concept of expertise is understood and invoked has prevented progress in the debate as to whether moral philosophers can be said to be 'moral experts'. We offer an account of expertise that draws on the role of tacit knowledge in order to provide a basis upon which the debate can progress. Our analysis consists of three parts. In the first part we highlight two specific problems in the way that the concept of expertise has been invoked in the moral expertise debate, namely the understanding of expertise as an exclusive concept and the conflation of expertise with the idea of 'authority'. In the second part we suggest an alternative way of approaching the concept of expertise. This is based on Collins and Evans' sociological theory of expertises. This theory provides a valuable analytical framework for thinking about claims to expertise and for drawing the kinds of distinctions which allow for different kinds of moral expertises and competencies. In the final part, we show how the application of this theory helps to avoid some of the problematic conclusions which theorists have arrived at to date and provides a common platform for debate. Ultimately, it permits the argument to be made that moral philosophers could be considered specialist members of an expert community of moral decision-makers. PMID:25103422

  12. A Web-Based Adaptive Tutor to Teach PCR Primer Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Seters, Janneke R.; Wellink, Joan; Tramper, Johannes; Goedhart, Martin J.; Ossevoort, Miriam A.

    2012-01-01

    When students have varying prior knowledge, personalized instruction is desirable. One way to personalize instruction is by using adaptive e-learning to offer training of varying complexity. In this study, we developed a web-based adaptive tutor to teach PCR primer design: the PCR Tutor. We used part of the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (the…

  13. Preparing Adapted Physical Educators to Teach Students with Autism: Current Practices and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Sean; Judge, Joann P.; Block, Martin E.; Kwon, Eun Hye

    2016-01-01

    For many students with autism spectrum disorder, physical education is the responsibility of an adapted physical education specialist. In this study, we examined the training focused on teaching students with autism spectrum disorder received by a sample of 106 adapted physical education specialists. Competencies necessary on a course to train…

  14. Perceptions and Practices of Adapted Physical Educators on the Teaching of Social Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samalot-Rivera, Amaury; Porretta, David L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine adapted physical educators' perceptions and practices about teaching social skills to students with disabilities. A questionnaire based on Bandura's social learning theory concept of modeling was developed and mailed to an entire frame of 426 adapted physical education teachers in the state of Ohio. Face…

  15. Adaptive Teaching for English Language Arts: Following the Pathway of Classroom Data in Preservice Teacher Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athanases, Steven Z.; Bennett, Lisa H.; Wahleithner, Juliet Michelsen

    2015-01-01

    Consensus exists that effective teaching includes capacity to adapt instruction to respond to student learning challenges as they arise. Adaptive teachers may keep pace with rapidly evolving youth literacies and students' increasing cultural and linguistic diversity. Teachers are challenged to critically examine pedagogy when some contexts expect…

  16. Teaching Mathematical Biology in High School Using Adapted Primary Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Stephen P.; Stelnicki, Nathan; de Vries, Gerda

    2012-01-01

    The study compared the effect of two adaptations of a scientific article on students' comprehension and use of scientific inquiry skills. One adaptation preserved as much as possible the canonical form of the original article (APL, Adapted Primary Literature) and the other was written in a more narrative mode typical of secondary literature (SL).…

  17. Effects of an Adapted Physical Education Teaching Model on Special Educator Teaching Approaches for Students with Low Incidence Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laughlin, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a training package, which consisted of the Flex Grid Teaching Model along with adapted physical education consultation, on special education teacher instruction of functional motor skill acquisition instruction to secondary students with low incidence disabilities. Special education teachers…

  18. Teaching "Yes, And" … Improv in Sales Classes: Enhancing Student Adaptive Selling Skills, Sales Performance, and Teaching Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocco, Richard A.; Whalen, D. Joel

    2014-01-01

    In an application of experiential learning, assessment, and career development, this article reports a field experiment of teaching sales students adaptive selling skills via an "Improvisational (Improv) Comedy" technique: "Yes, And." Students learn this well-established theatrical improv method via classroom lecture,…

  19. The Development of Disciplinary Expertise: An EAP and RGS-Informed Approach to the Teaching and Learning of Genre at George Mason University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habib, Anna S.; Haan, Jennifer; Mallett, Karyn

    2015-01-01

    In the U.S., international enrollment trends have increased the pedagogical imperative to address multilingual graduate student writers' linguistic needs/growth in the process of their developing disciplinary expertise. In the context of this internationalization effort, what can two disciplines--Applied Linguistics and Composition--constructively…

  20. What Makes Primary Classteachers Special? Exploring the Features of Expertise in the Primary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaude, Tony

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the nature of teacher expertise in the primary school classroom, drawing on theoretical models of expertise and of teaching expertise. It challenges simplistic models of an "outstanding" or "master" teacher to argue that since teacher expertise is both situated and prototypical, it is manifested in…

  1. The National "Expertise Gap"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Kendra

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation's report, "Diversity and the Ph.D.," released in May, which documents in troubling detail the exact dimensions of what the foundation's president, Dr. Robert Weisbuch, is calling the national "expertise gap." Weisbuch states that the expertise gap extends beyond the…

  2. Teaching Students How to Analyze and Adapt to Audiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiter, John S.; Gass, Robert H.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes an exercise that involves providing students with a basic understanding and demonstration of audience adaptation and then asking them to practice and evaluate the skill. In this exercise the instructor begins by providing students with background on analyzing and adapting to audiences. Then the instructor collects several…

  3. Fantastic animals as an experimental model to teach animal adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Guidetti, Roberto; Baraldi, Laura; Calzolai, Caterina; Pini, Lorenza; Veronesi, Paola; Pederzoli, Aurora

    2007-01-01

    Background Science curricula and teachers should emphasize evolution in a manner commensurate with its importance as a unifying concept in science. The concept of adaptation represents a first step to understand the results of natural selection. We settled an experimental project of alternative didactic to improve knowledge of organism adaptation. Students were involved and stimulated in learning processes by creative activities. To set adaptation in a historic frame, fossil records as evidence of past life and evolution were considered. Results The experimental project is schematized in nine phases: review of previous knowledge; lesson on fossils; lesson on fantastic animals; planning an imaginary world; creation of an imaginary animal; revision of the imaginary animals; adaptations of real animals; adaptations of fossil animals; and public exposition. A rubric to evaluate the student's performances is reported. The project involved professors and students of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia and of the "G. Marconi" Secondary School of First Degree (Modena, Italy). Conclusion The educational objectives of the project are in line with the National Indications of the Italian Ministry of Public Instruction: knowledge of the characteristics of living beings, the meanings of the term "adaptation", the meaning of fossils, the definition of ecosystem, and the particularity of the different biomes. At the end of the project, students will be able to grasp particular adaptations of real organisms and to deduce information about the environment in which the organism evolved. This project allows students to review previous knowledge and to form their personalities. PMID:17767729

  4. Communicative English Language Teaching in Japanese Universities: Teacher Adaptations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terdal, Marjorie; And Others

    A study investigated the adjustments made in classroom behavior and teaching techniques by western-trained English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teachers in Japanese universities. Subjects were 16 instructors at three institutions, all with native or native-like English fluency and all trained in Canadian or United States graduate programs for ESL…

  5. Teaching and Scholarship: Adapting American Higher Education to Hard Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, William T.

    1994-01-01

    The balance between college teaching and faculty scholarship is examined in the context of growing economic concern over the education of an internationally competitive workforce. "Aggregative scholarship," the effort to integrate and interpret highly specialized research findings for interconnections and trends, for both specialists and…

  6. Data-Driven Implementation and Adaptation of New Teaching Methodologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Kristen L.; Picione, John; Holme, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an action research approach toward an implementation of a new teaching methodology (specifically active learning) in a preparatory college chemistry classroom. The initial implementation involved the use of process-orientated guided inquiry (POGIL) activities. The treatment classes with either all POGIL activities during…

  7. Perceptions and practices of adapted physical educators on the teaching of social skills.

    PubMed

    Samalot-Rivera, Amaury; Poretta, David L

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine adapted physical educators' perceptions and practices about teaching social skills to students with disabilities. A questionnaire based on Bandura's social learning theory concept of modeling was developed and mailed to an entire frame of 426 adapted physical education teachers in the state of Ohio. Face and content validity as well as test/retest reliability (0.89) were established. Of those that were surveyed, 53% (225 teachers; 148 females and 77 males) responded. Results indicate that 93% (209) believe it is important to explicitly teach social skills in PE; however, 60% (135) expressed not feeling properly prepared to teach them. Teachers with more than 20 years of teaching experience were more likely to actually teach social skills. When compared with other teachers with less years teaching, however, they identified a greater need for training in the teaching of social skills. Results are discussed relative to teacher preparation and practices as well as social skills taught for general education and community integration.

  8. Yoga-teaching protocol adapted for children with visual impairment

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Soubhagyalaxmi; Hankey, Alex; Pradhan, Balaram; Ranjita, Rajashree

    2016-01-01

    Context: Childhood visual deficiency impairs children's neuro-psychomotor development, considerably affecting physical, mental, social, and emotional health. Yoga's multifaceted approach may help children with visual impairment (VI) to cope with their challenges. Aim: This study aimed to develop a special protocol for teaching yoga to children with VI, and to evaluate their preferred method of learning. Methods: The study was carried out at Ramana Maharishi Academy for the Blind, Bengaluru, South India. Forty-one students volunteered to learn yoga practices, and classes were held weekly 5 days, 1 hr per session for 16 weeks. The study introduced a new method using a sequence of five teaching steps: verbal instructions, tactile modeling, step-by-step teaching, learning in a group, and physical guidance. A questionnaire concerning the preferred steps of learning was then given to each student, and verbal answers were obtained. Results: A total of 33 (out of 41), aged 11.97 ± 1.94, 15 girls and 18 boys responded. Twenty-six (78.79%) chose physical guidance as their most favored learning mode. Conclusions: Specially designed protocol may pave the way to impart yoga in an exciting and comfortable way to children with VI. More studies are needed to further investigate the effectiveness of this new yoga protocol in similar settings. PMID:27512318

  9. An Adaptable Investigative Graduate Laboratory Course for Teaching Protein Purification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Christopher W.; Keller, Lani C.

    2014-01-01

    This adaptable graduate laboratory course on protein purification offers students the opportunity to explore a wide range of techniques while allowing the instructor the freedom to incorporate their own personal research interests. The course design involves two sequential purification schemes performed in a single semester. The first part…

  10. The CBT Decade: Teaching for Flexibility and Adaptability. An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billett, Stephen; McKavanagh, Charlie; Beven, Fred; Angus, Lawrence; Seddon, Terri; Gough, John; Hayes, Sharon; Robertson, Ian

    The contribution of competency-based training (CBT) to the development of an adaptable and flexible workforce was examined by analyzing documents and gathering data from teachers, industry representatives, enterprises, and students in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan sites in two Australian states: Victoria and Queensland. The study focused on…

  11. Teaching Mathematical Biology in High School Using Adapted Primary Literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Stephen P.; Stelnicki, Nathan; de Vries, Gerda

    2012-08-01

    The study compared the effect of two adaptations of a scientific article on students' comprehension and use of scientific inquiry skills. One adaptation preserved as much as possible the canonical form of the original article (APL, Adapted Primary Literature) and the other was written in a more narrative mode typical of secondary literature (SL). Both adaptations contained the same content. Two hundred and eleven senior high school students in a Western Canadian school district participated. The numbers of males and females were approximately equal, and all students were registered in an introductory calculus course. All students were given a 90 min class by their teachers that introduced them to the basic mathematical concepts needed to read the articles. Students were randomly assigned to read either the APL or the SL and afterwards to complete a questionnaire, which was common to both groups. Major findings showed that the SL students better understood the article, that the APL students thought more critically about the article, that females understood the article better than males, and that students' attitudes towards reading the articles, regardless of group, were positively associated with their comprehension and use of inquiry skills. The results coincide in important ways with those of similar studies in Israel, and show that asking students to read text that resembles scientific writing increases their use of critical thinking skills when reading.

  12. Teaching a Biotechnology Curriculum Based on Adapted Primary Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Hedda; Brill, Gilat; Yarden, Anat

    2008-01-01

    Adapted primary literature (APL) refers to an educational genre specifically designed to enable the use of research articles for learning biology in high school. The present investigation focuses on the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of four high-school biology teachers who enacted an APL-based curriculum in biotechnology. Using a…

  13. Teaching the Self-Contained Adapted Physical Education Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Martin E.; Taliaferro, Andrea; Campbell, Amanda Love; Harris, Natasha; Tipton, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide information to general physical education teachers on how to conduct a self-contained adapted physical education (APE) class. The article begins with an example of a traditional model for a self-contained APE class, where all students work on the same goals using basically the same equipment and…

  14. Adaptation for a Changing Environment: Developing Learning and Teaching with Information and Communication Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood, Adrian; Price, Linda

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) and learning and teaching, particularly in distance education contexts. We argue that environmental changes (societal, educational, and technological) make it necessary to adapt systems and practices that are no longer appropriate. The need…

  15. Waterless Condensers for the Teaching Laboratory: An Adaptation of Traditional Glassware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Erich W.; Esteb, John J.; Wilson, Anne M.

    2014-01-01

    A simple adaptation of traditional "chemistry kit" condensers for the organic chemistry teaching laboratory is described. These waterless condensers have been employed safely with most solvents. They can be easily fabricated, stored, and used in the same manner as water-cooled condensers. These condensers were utilized in several…

  16. Adapted Physical Education Teachers' Concerns in Teaching Students with Disabilities in an Urban Public School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Samuel R.; Akuffo, Patrick B.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not adapted physical education (APE) teachers had job-related concerns associated with teaching students with disabilities in an urban public school district. The participants were six experienced, itinerant APE teachers, who taught in urban public schools in a midwestern state in the United…

  17. Science, expertise, and democracy.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Justin; Elliott, Kevin C

    2012-06-01

    The combination of government's significant involvement in science, science's significant effects on the public, and public ignorance (of both politics and science) raise important challenges for reconciling scientific expertise with democratic governance. Nevertheless, there have recently been a variety of encouraging efforts to make scientific activity more responsive to social values and to develop citizens' capacity to engage in more effective democratic governance of science. This essay introduces a special issue of the Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, "Science, Expertise, and Democracy," consisting of five papers that developed from the inaugural Three Rivers Philosophy conference held at the University of South Carolina in April 2011. The pieces range from a general analysis of the in-principle compatibility of scientific expertise and democracy to much more concrete studies of the intersection between scientific practices and democratic values in areas such as weight-of-evidence analysis, climate science, and studies of locally undesirable land uses.

  18. Adaptations: Using Darwin's Origin to teach biology and writing.

    PubMed

    Morris, James R; Costa, James T; Berry, Andrew

    2015-10-01

    Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species is at once familiar and unfamiliar. Everyone knows that the Origin introduced the world to the idea of evolution by natural selection, but few of us have actually read it. We suggest that it is worth taking the time not only to read what Darwin had to say, but also to use the Origin to teach both biology and writing. It provides scientific lessons in areas beyond evolutionary biology, such as ecology and biogeography. In addition, it provides valuable rhetorical lessons-how to construct an argument, write persuasively, make use of evidence, know your audience, and anticipate counterarguments. We have been using the Origin in various classes for several years, introducing new generations to Darwin, in his own words. PMID:26315858

  19. Adaptations: Using Darwin's Origin to teach biology and writing.

    PubMed

    Morris, James R; Costa, James T; Berry, Andrew

    2015-10-01

    Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species is at once familiar and unfamiliar. Everyone knows that the Origin introduced the world to the idea of evolution by natural selection, but few of us have actually read it. We suggest that it is worth taking the time not only to read what Darwin had to say, but also to use the Origin to teach both biology and writing. It provides scientific lessons in areas beyond evolutionary biology, such as ecology and biogeography. In addition, it provides valuable rhetorical lessons-how to construct an argument, write persuasively, make use of evidence, know your audience, and anticipate counterarguments. We have been using the Origin in various classes for several years, introducing new generations to Darwin, in his own words.

  20. [False forensic expertise--analysis of occurrences].

    PubMed

    Heitzman, Janusz

    2004-01-01

    Main problems that await the modern Polish forensic psychiatry are presented. The most common mistakes made in forensic expertise are discussed and their causes are shown. The need for a change in the manner of teaching forensic psychiatry at an academic, as well as post graduate level to medical students/doctors as well as law officials, has been stressed. The criteria for calling on experts, system of control and evaluation of the expertise formulated and rules of payment to the experts--all need changing. The altered criminal structure and possibilities of putting pressure on experts through corruption, threatening or blackmail were noted. The clearly defined status of the forensic psychiatric expert gives him a guarantee of legal defence and through this an unbiased position. Giving forensic expertise is not only part of the diagnostics in forensic psychiatry. An even layout of protection, treatment and rehabilitation of psychiatrically ill criminals has to be present in this system.

  1. Beyond Faces and Expertise

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Mintao; Bülthoff, Heinrich H.; Bülthoff, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Holistic processing—the tendency to perceive objects as indecomposable wholes—has long been viewed as a process specific to faces or objects of expertise. Although current theories differ in what causes holistic processing, they share a fundamental constraint for its generalization: Nonface objects cannot elicit facelike holistic processing in the absence of expertise. Contrary to this prevailing view, here we show that line patterns with salient Gestalt information (i.e., connectedness, closure, and continuity between parts) can be processed as holistically as faces without any training. Moreover, weakening the saliency of Gestalt information in these patterns reduced holistic processing of them, which indicates that Gestalt information plays a crucial role in holistic processing. Therefore, holistic processing can be achieved not only via a top-down route based on expertise, but also via a bottom-up route relying merely on object-based information. The finding that facelike holistic processing can extend beyond the domains of faces and objects of expertise poses a challenge to current dominant theories. PMID:26674129

  2. Sharing Expertise: Consulting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Bill

    2011-01-01

    A special breed of superintendents who have developed expertise in a particular area find ways of sharing it in other venues as outside consultants. They pull extra duty to put their special skills into practice, to give back to their communities, to stay current and grounded in the field, or to enhance their professional reputations. They teach…

  3. Development of Legal Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glöckner, Andreas; Towfigh, Emanuel; Traxler, Christian

    2013-01-01

    In a comprehensive empirical investigation (N = 71,405) we analyzed the development of legal expertise in a critical 1-year period of academic legal training in which advanced law students start practicing to solve complex cases. We were particularly interested in the functional form of the learning curve and inter-individual differences in…

  4. Modelling district nurse expertise.

    PubMed

    Burke, Michelle

    2014-12-01

    As changes in society and health provision mean that one in four people over the age of 75 will require nursing care at home, pre-registration adult nurse education increasingly prepares student nurses for a future career within the community. District nurses undertake complex, multidimensional health and social assessments and care in a non-clinical setting and work in partnership with patients and their significant others to promote practical and psychological coping mechanisms and self-care. The district nurse's first assessment visit is key to developing a therapeutic partnership and it is often during this visit that expertise in district nursing practice emerges. The holistic, contextual and dynamic aspects of nursing in the home setting can make district nursing expertise difficult to illustrate and demonstrate within the classroom setting. This article explores the ways in which an understanding of expertise development theory can enable the tacit expertise that occurs within the first assessment visit to be made visible to student nurses, using simulation and expert narrative as a pedagogical strategy. PMID:25475676

  5. The geometry of expertise

    PubMed Central

    Leone, María J.; Fernandez Slezak, Diego; Cecchi, Guillermo A.; Sigman, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Theories of expertise based on the acquisition of chunk and templates suggest a differential geometric organization of perception between experts and novices. It is implied that expert representation is less anchored by spatial (Euclidean) proximity and may instead be dictated by the intrinsic relation in the structure and grammar of the specific domain of expertise. Here we set out to examine this hypothesis. We used the domain of chess which has been widely used as a tool to study human expertise. We reasoned that the movement of an opponent piece to a specific square constitutes an external cue and the reaction of the player to this “perturbation” should reveal his internal representation of proximity. We hypothesized that novice players will tend to respond by moving a piece in closer squares than experts. Similarly, but now in terms of object representations, we hypothesized weak players will more likely focus on a specific piece and hence produce sequence of actions repeating movements of the same piece. We capitalized on a large corpus of data obtained from internet chess servers. Results showed that, relative to experts, weaker players tend to (1) produce consecutive moves in proximal board locations, (2) move more often the same piece and (3) reduce the number of remaining pieces more rapidly, most likely to decrease cognitive load and mental effort. These three principles might reflect the effect of expertise on human actions in complex setups. PMID:24550869

  6. The geometry of expertise.

    PubMed

    Leone, María J; Fernandez Slezak, Diego; Cecchi, Guillermo A; Sigman, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Theories of expertise based on the acquisition of chunk and templates suggest a differential geometric organization of perception between experts and novices. It is implied that expert representation is less anchored by spatial (Euclidean) proximity and may instead be dictated by the intrinsic relation in the structure and grammar of the specific domain of expertise. Here we set out to examine this hypothesis. We used the domain of chess which has been widely used as a tool to study human expertise. We reasoned that the movement of an opponent piece to a specific square constitutes an external cue and the reaction of the player to this "perturbation" should reveal his internal representation of proximity. We hypothesized that novice players will tend to respond by moving a piece in closer squares than experts. Similarly, but now in terms of object representations, we hypothesized weak players will more likely focus on a specific piece and hence produce sequence of actions repeating movements of the same piece. We capitalized on a large corpus of data obtained from internet chess servers. Results showed that, relative to experts, weaker players tend to (1) produce consecutive moves in proximal board locations, (2) move more often the same piece and (3) reduce the number of remaining pieces more rapidly, most likely to decrease cognitive load and mental effort. These three principles might reflect the effect of expertise on human actions in complex setups.

  7. Reflective Teaching via a Problem Exploration--Teaching Adaptations--Resolution Cycle: A Mixed Methods Study of Preservice Teachers' Reflective Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, H. Emily; Chiu, Ming Ming

    2015-01-01

    We explore development of elementary preservice teachers' reflective practices as they solved problems encountered while teaching in a reading clinic. Written reflections (N = 175) were collected across 8 weeks from 23 preservice teachers and analyzed to investigate relationships among problem exploration, teaching adaptations, and problem…

  8. In Pursuit of Expertise. Toward an Educational Model for Expertise Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunphy, Bruce C.; Williamson, Stacey L.

    2004-01-01

    Firstly, the many characteristics of expertise are examined: they include aspects of pattern recognition, knowledge, skill, flexibility, metacognitive monitoring, available cognitive space and teaching abilities. Secondly, three educational models from different domains(Nursing, Surgical Education, Education) are analysed, compared and contrasted,…

  9. Conceptualizing and Exemplifying Science Teachers' Assessment Expertise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geaney Lyon, Edward

    2013-05-01

    Although research in science education has led to new assessment forms and functions, the reality is that little work has been done to unpack and capture what it means for a teacher to develop expertise at assessing science. The purpose of this paper is two-fold. First, I suggest a conceptualization of assessment expertise that is organized around three dimensions: (a) designing aligned and theoretically cohesive assessment (Design), (b) using assessment to support students' science learning (Use), and (c) equitably assessing language minorities (Equity). The second purpose is to suggest and exemplify various levels of teaching expertise across the three conceptual dimensions using written assessment plans gathered from a study on secondary science pre-service teachers' assessment growth. The contribution of this paper lies in its further conceptual development of assessment expertise, instantiated in a rubric, which can spark discussion about how to capture the range of assessment practices that might be found in science classrooms as well as move toward a potential learning progression of assessment expertise.

  10. Adapting to test structure: letting testing teach what to learn.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Marques, Leonel; Nunes, Ludmila D; Marques, Pedro; Carneiro, Paula; Weinstein, Yana

    2015-01-01

    We propose that we encode and store information as a function of the particular ways we have used similar information in the past. More specifically, we contend that the experience of retrieval can serve as a powerful cue to the most effective ways to encode similar information in comparable future learning episodes. To explore these ideas, we did two studies in which all participants went through study-test cycles of single category lists while we manipulated the nature of the recognition tests. The recognition tests either included only same-category lures or only different-category lures. The experience of repeated testing leads participants to avoid conceptual-based strategies but only when conceptual knowledge was poorly diagnostic for recognition (i.e., in the same-category lures condition). In a second study with a similar manipulation, we showed that repeated testing with lures from the same category as study items improved performance in a final recall surprise test compared to conditions in which different-category lures were used. Such a difference is akin to the one obtained when encoding instructions focus on distinctive item features compared to cases in which the focus is on relational processing. We suggest that testing requirements lead to adaptive changes at encoding.

  11. Teaching as Designing: Preparing Pre-Service Teachers for Adaptive Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Michelle E.

    2016-01-01

    This conceptual article explores teaching as design work, arguing that a critical thing teachers do is design systems that enable their students to learn. Designing occurs when teachers generate new learning activities or modify curricular programs to create coherence for themselves and their students. Nonetheless, few teacher education programs…

  12. Nature, nurture, and expertise

    PubMed Central

    Plomin, Robert; Shakeshaft, Nicholas G.; McMillan, Andrew; Trzaskowski, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Rather than investigating the extent to which training can improve performance under experimental conditions (‘what could be’), we ask about the origins of expertise as it exists in the world (‘what is’). We used the twin method to investigate the genetic and environmental origins of exceptional performance in reading, a skill that is a major focus of educational training in the early school years. Selecting reading experts as the top 5% from a sample of 10,000 12-year-old twins assessed on a battery of reading tests, three findings stand out. First, we found that genetic factors account for more than half of the difference in performance between expert and normal readers. Second, our results suggest that reading expertise is the quantitative extreme of the same genetic and environmental factors that affect reading performance for normal readers. Third, growing up in the same family and attending the same schools account for less than a fifth of the difference between expert and normal readers. We discuss implications and interpretations (‘what is inherited is DNA sequence variation’; ‘the abnormal is normal’). Finally, although there is no necessary relationship between ‘what is’ and ‘what could be’, the most far-reaching issues about the acquisition of expertise lie at the interface between them (‘the nature of nurture: from a passive model of imposed environments to an active model of shaped experience’). PMID:24948844

  13. Nature, Nurture, and Expertise.

    PubMed

    Plomin, Robert; Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; McMillan, Andrew; Trzaskowski, Maciej

    2014-07-01

    Rather than investigating the extent to which training can improve performance under experimental conditions ('what could be'), we ask about the origins of expertise as it exists in the world ('what is'). We used the twin method to investigate the genetic and environmental origins of exceptional performance in reading, a skill that is a major focus of educational training in the early school years. Selecting reading experts as the top 5% from a sample of 10,000 12-year-olds twins assessed on a battery of reading tests, three findings stand out. First, we found that genetic factors account for more than half of the difference in performance between expert and normal readers. Second, our results suggest that reading expertise is the quantitative extreme of the same genetic and environmental factors that affect reading performance for normal readers. Third, growing up in the same family and attending the same schools account for less than a fifth of the difference between expert and normal readers. We discuss implications and interpretations ('what is inherited is DNA sequence variation'; 'the abnormal is normal'). Finally, although there is no necessary relationship between 'what is' and 'what could be', the most far-reaching issues about the acquisition of expertise lie at the interface between them ('the nature of nurture: from a passive model of imposed environments to an active model of shaped experience').

  14. Cognitive Transformations and Extended Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menary, Richard; Kirchhoff, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Expertise is extended by becoming immersed in cultural practices. We look at an example of mathematical expertise in which immersion in cognitive practices results in the transformation of expert performance.

  15. Expertise of Early Childhood Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Happo, Iiris; Määttä, Kaarina

    2011-01-01

    Every preschool age child in Finland has the right to day care and the expertise of educators is multidimensional. The aim of this article is to clarify the expertise of those early childhood educators, who have the competence of kindergarten teachers (n = 80). The data consisted of the early educators' stories of their growth towards expertise.…

  16. Expertise, Ethics Expertise, and Clinical Ethics Consultation: Achieving Terminological Clarity.

    PubMed

    Iltis, Ana S; Sheehan, Mark

    2016-08-01

    The language of ethics expertise has become particularly important in bioethics in light of efforts to establish the value of the clinical ethics consultation (CEC), to specify who is qualified to function as a clinical ethics consultant, and to characterize how one should evaluate whether or not a person is so qualified. Supporters and skeptics about the possibility of ethics expertise use the language of ethics expertise in ways that reflect competing views about what ethics expertise entails. We argue for clarity in understanding the nature of expertise and ethics expertise. To be an ethics expert, we argue, is to be an expert in knowing what ought to be done. Any attempt to articulate expertise with respect to knowing what ought to be done must include an account of ethics that specifies the nature of moral truth and the means by which we access this truth or a theoretical account of ethics such that expertise in another domain is linked to knowing or being better at judging what ought to be done and the standards by which this "knowing" or "being better at judging" is determined. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of our analysis for the literature on ethics expertise in CEC. We do think that there are clear domains in which a clinical ethics consultant might be expert but we are skeptical about the possibility that this includes ethics expertise. Clinical ethics consultants should not be referred to as ethics experts.

  17. Reflections on intuition and expertise.

    PubMed

    Perry, M A

    2000-01-01

    Reflective practice now appears firmly established in the English speaking world of professional nursing practice and development. Outside this linguistic context, however, the concept seems less well-known. This paper describes an experience drawn from clinical practice and education in French-speaking Switzerland followed by explicit reflection grounded in questions generated by Johns' model for structured reflection. Thus, a concept well-described in the English-language literature underpins an innovative approach to a French-language clinical teaching situation. The professional implications of this situation are explored through meaningful reflection providing new insight into familiar circumstances as they relate to the nurse tutor's role. This exploration is followed by a critical approach to the experience and the subsequent structured reflection in order to address relationships between intuition and expertise and self-awareness through reflection. A hermeneutic perspective provides additional insight into the nurse-patient relationship where both come to the situation with their own 'pre-understandings'. Individual horizons thus endorse a new understanding going beyond taken-for-granted meanings.

  18. Expertise in fingerprint identification.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Matthew B; Tangen, Jason M; McCarthy, Duncan J

    2013-11-01

    Although fingerprint experts have presented evidence in criminal courts for more than a century, there have been few scientific investigations of the human capacity to discriminate these patterns. A recent latent print matching experiment shows that qualified, court-practicing fingerprint experts are exceedingly accurate (and more conservative) compared with novices, but they do make errors. Here, a rationale for the design of this experiment is provided. We argue that fidelity, generalizability, and control must be balanced to answer important research questions; that the proficiency and competence of fingerprint examiners are best determined when experiments include highly similar print pairs, in a signal detection paradigm, where the ground truth is known; and that inferring from this experiment the statement "The error rate of fingerprint identification is 0.68%" would be unjustified. In closing, the ramifications of these findings for the future psychological study of forensic expertise and the implications for expert testimony and public policy are considered.

  19. Architecture-Adaptive Computing Environment: A Tool for Teaching Parallel Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorband, John E.; Aburdene, Maurice F.

    2002-01-01

    Recently, networked and cluster computation have become very popular. This paper is an introduction to a new C based parallel language for architecture-adaptive programming, aCe C. The primary purpose of aCe (Architecture-adaptive Computing Environment) is to encourage programmers to implement applications on parallel architectures by providing them the assurance that future architectures will be able to run their applications with a minimum of modification. A secondary purpose is to encourage computer architects to develop new types of architectures by providing an easily implemented software development environment and a library of test applications. This new language should be an ideal tool to teach parallel programming. In this paper, we will focus on some fundamental features of aCe C.

  20. Hypermedia Learning and Prior Knowledge: Domain Expertise vs. System Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Timothy J. F.; Chen, Sherry Y.; Macredie, Robert D.

    2005-01-01

    Prior knowledge is often argued to be an important determinant in hypermedia learning, and may be thought of as including two important elements: domain expertise and system expertise. However, there has been a lack of research considering these issues together. In an attempt to address this shortcoming, this paper presents a study that examines…

  1. Transfer of adapted water supply technologies through a demonstration and teaching facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nestmann, F.; Oberle, P.; Ikhwan, M.; Stoffel, D.; Blaß, H. J.; Töws, D.; Schmidt, S.

    2016-05-01

    Water scarcity can be defined as a lack of sufficient water resources or as the limited or even missing access to a safe water supply. Latter can be classified as `economic water scarcity' which among others can commonly be met in tropical and subtropical karst regions of emerging and developing countries. Karst aquifers, mostly consisting of limestone and carbonate rock, show high infiltration rates which leads to a lack of above ground storage possibilities. Thus, the water will drain rapidly into the underground and evolve vast river networks. Considering the lack of appropriate infrastructure and limited human capacities in the affected areas, these underground water resources cannot be exploited adequately. Against this, background innovative and adapted technologies are required to utilize hard-to-access water resources in a sustainable way. In this context, the German-Indonesian joint R&D project "Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) Indonesia" dealt with the development of highly adaptable water technologies and management strategies. Under the aegis of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), these innovative technical concepts were exemplarily implemented to remedy this deficiency in the model region Gunung Sewu, a karst area situated on the southern coast of Java Island, Indonesia. The experiences gained through the interdisciplinary joint R&D activities clearly showed that even in the case of availability of appropriate technologies, a comprising transfer of knowhow and the buildup of capabilities (Capacity Development) is inevitable to sustainably implement and disseminate new methods. In this context, an adapted water supply facility was developed by KIT which hereafter shall serve for demonstration, teaching, and research purposes. The plant's functionality, its teaching and research concept, as well as the design process, which was accomplished in collaboration with the

  2. Transfer of adapted water supply technologies through a demonstration and teaching facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nestmann, F.; Oberle, P.; Ikhwan, M.; Stoffel, D.; Blaß, H. J.; Töws, D.; Schmidt, S.

    2016-09-01

    Water scarcity can be defined as a lack of sufficient water resources or as the limited or even missing access to a safe water supply. Latter can be classified as `economic water scarcity' which among others can commonly be met in tropical and subtropical karst regions of emerging and developing countries. Karst aquifers, mostly consisting of limestone and carbonate rock, show high infiltration rates which leads to a lack of above ground storage possibilities. Thus, the water will drain rapidly into the underground and evolve vast river networks. Considering the lack of appropriate infrastructure and limited human capacities in the affected areas, these underground water resources cannot be exploited adequately. Against this, background innovative and adapted technologies are required to utilize hard-to-access water resources in a sustainable way. In this context, the German-Indonesian joint R&D project "Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) Indonesia" dealt with the development of highly adaptable water technologies and management strategies. Under the aegis of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), these innovative technical concepts were exemplarily implemented to remedy this deficiency in the model region Gunung Sewu, a karst area situated on the southern coast of Java Island, Indonesia. The experiences gained through the interdisciplinary joint R&D activities clearly showed that even in the case of availability of appropriate technologies, a comprising transfer of knowhow and the buildup of capabilities (Capacity Development) is inevitable to sustainably implement and disseminate new methods. In this context, an adapted water supply facility was developed by KIT which hereafter shall serve for demonstration, teaching, and research purposes. The plant's functionality, its teaching and research concept, as well as the design process, which was accomplished in collaboration with the

  3. The Development of Intentions for Adapted Teaching and Inclusive Education Seen in Light of Curriculum Potential. A Content Analysis of Norwegian National Curricula Post 1980

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjornsrud, Halvor; Nilsen, Sven

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses and discusses the development of the principles of adapted teaching and inclusive education in the three most recent Norwegian national curricula, seen in light of curriculum potential as an overarching perspective. This potential highlights teachers' opportunities for choosing and adapting their teaching content. The area of…

  4. A Step Forward: Investigating Expertise in Materials Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Keith; Kim, Mija; Ya-Fang, Liu; Nava, Andrea; Perkins, Dawn; Smith, Anne Margaret; Soler-Canela, Oscar; Lu, Wang

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on a study investigating the textbook evaluation techniques of novice and experienced teachers, which was conducted by the Language Teaching Expertise Research Group (or LATEX) within Lancaster University's Department of Linguistics and English Language. Three ELT teachers were chosen to evaluate the student and teacher…

  5. Educational Applications of a Theory of Clinical Expertise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Stephen; And Others

    Two computer-based instructional projects and a workbook model designed to emphasize three different applications of expertise in medical problem-solving are described. The "CVTEST" Project (cardiovascular) explored the use of a computer program to provide guidance to students and facilitate self-assessment. The program does not directly teach,…

  6. Teaching College Level Content and Reading Comprehension Skills Simultaneously via an Artificially Intelligent Adaptive Computerized Instructional System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Roger D.; Belden, Noelle

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a behavioral model for conceptualizing advanced reading comprehension as a "higher order" behavior class. Also discussed are strategies and tactics utilized by an artificially intelligent adaptive tutoring and testing software system designed to shape such comprehension skills while also teaching subject-specific "content" to…

  7. Teaching the Fluctuation Test "In Silico" by Using Mutate: A Program to Distinguish between the Adaptive and Spontaneous Mutation Hypotheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvajal-Rodriguez, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Mutate is a program developed for teaching purposes to impart a virtual laboratory class for undergraduate students of Genetics in Biology. The program emulates the so-called fluctuation test whose aim is to distinguish between spontaneous and adaptive mutation hypotheses in bacteria. The plan is to train students in certain key multidisciplinary…

  8. Use of Applied Behavioral Techniques and an Adaptive Device to Teach Lip Closure to Severely Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Paul; Ottenbacher, Kenneth

    1986-01-01

    The effectiveness of applied behavioral programming in teaching lip closure was investigated with three severely retarded students (9-13 years old) with oral motor dysfunction. Results revealed dramatic increases in functional lip closure when an appropriate adaptive device was combined with behavioral intervention. Functional lip closure…

  9. Sibling dynamics and sport expertise.

    PubMed

    Hopwood, M J; Farrow, D; MacMahon, C; Baker, J

    2015-10-01

    Family members are known to be highly influential in the development of sport expertise. To date, much of the research in this area has focused on parents, with less known about sibling influences on expertise. This investigation explored associations between sport expertise, sibling characteristics, and sibling participation in sport and physical activity. Athletes representing three skill levels provided details of sibling characteristics and participation in sport and physical activity via the Developmental History of Athletes Questionnaire. Elite athletes were more likely to be later-born children, while pre-elite and non-elite athletes were more likely to be first-born. Compared with siblings of non-elite athletes, siblings of elite athletes were more likely to have participated in regular physical activity and were more likely to have participated in sport at the pre-elite and elite levels. These results suggest siblings may play a key role in sport expertise development.

  10. Visual prediction and perceptual expertise

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Olivia S.; Bar, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    Making accurate predictions about what may happen in the environment requires analogies between perceptual input and associations in memory. These elements of predictions are based on cortical representations, but little is known about how these processes can be enhanced by experience and training. On the other hand, studies on perceptual expertise have revealed that the acquisition of expertise leads to strengthened associative processing among features or objects, suggesting that predictions and expertise may be tightly connected. Here we review the behavioral and neural findings regarding the mechanisms involving prediction and expert processing, and highlight important possible overlaps between them. Future investigation should examine the relations among perception, memory and prediction skills as a function of expertise. The knowledge gained by this line of research will have implications for visual cognition research, and will advance our understanding of how the human brain can improve its ability to predict by learning from experience. PMID:22123523

  11. Non-Certified Environment and Geography Subject Expertise in Chilean Rural Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salinas-Silva, Victor; Arenas-Martija, Andoni; Margalef-García, Leonor

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, environmental and geographical subject expertise is explored, based on the notion of expertise as rooted both in subject knowledge and knowledge of teaching and as acquired through experience. The research questions that guided this study focused on the importance of understanding how teachers negotiate their assumptions and what…

  12. College Students Solving Chemistry Problems: A Theoretical Model of Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Glynn, Shawn M.

    2009-01-01

    A model of expertise in chemistry problem solving was tested on undergraduate science majors enrolled in a chemistry course. The model was based on Anderson's "Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational" (ACT-R) theory. The model shows how conceptualization, self-efficacy, and strategy interact and contribute to the successful solution of quantitative,…

  13. Transitions and the Development of Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallam, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the relationships between the development of expertise and transitions. It sets out what we know about the development of expertise, changes in the brain as expertise develops, and how transitions between different learning contexts and the challenges that they present may impact on developing expertise. It sets out a series of…

  14. Understanding Expertise from Elite Badminton Coaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheu, Feng-Ru

    2011-01-01

    Badminton is a growing sport with a limited amount of expertise both in players and coaches so attempts are being made to extend the expertise internationally. The purpose of this study is to gain an understanding of coaching expertise in badminton because such an understanding might have implications for a more general understanding of expertise,…

  15. Peer-reviewed forensic consultation in practice: multidisciplinary oversight in common expertise.

    PubMed

    Welner, Michael; Davey, Emily E; Bernstein, Adam

    2014-09-01

    The fallibility of forensic science consultation is an ongoing and major justice concern. Prospective peer-reviewed forensic consultation has over 10 years of application in American criminal and civil courts, adapting from the traditional oversight of teaching hospitals, rules of evidence and discovery, conventions of testimony of expert witnesses, and attorneys' overall trial strategy. In systematizing heightened oversight, this process ensures greater accountability in forensic science consultation. The integration of peer reviewers' complementary expertise and experience enhances the sophistication and overall quality of assessment. Forensic examination frequently involves the interface of different specialties. Multidisciplinary peer review augments expert proficiency with that of professional peers having different vantage points from relevant scientific disciplines. This approach ensures greater sophistication of a case inquiry, built-in accountability, and streamlined processes when multiple experts are necessitated. Here, the authors present examples of several cases and the primary and secondary benefits of this collaborative, rigorous, cross-disciplinary exercise. PMID:24593117

  16. Peer-reviewed forensic consultation in practice: multidisciplinary oversight in common expertise.

    PubMed

    Welner, Michael; Davey, Emily E; Bernstein, Adam

    2014-09-01

    The fallibility of forensic science consultation is an ongoing and major justice concern. Prospective peer-reviewed forensic consultation has over 10 years of application in American criminal and civil courts, adapting from the traditional oversight of teaching hospitals, rules of evidence and discovery, conventions of testimony of expert witnesses, and attorneys' overall trial strategy. In systematizing heightened oversight, this process ensures greater accountability in forensic science consultation. The integration of peer reviewers' complementary expertise and experience enhances the sophistication and overall quality of assessment. Forensic examination frequently involves the interface of different specialties. Multidisciplinary peer review augments expert proficiency with that of professional peers having different vantage points from relevant scientific disciplines. This approach ensures greater sophistication of a case inquiry, built-in accountability, and streamlined processes when multiple experts are necessitated. Here, the authors present examples of several cases and the primary and secondary benefits of this collaborative, rigorous, cross-disciplinary exercise.

  17. Distributed Education, Expertise, and Cognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saba, Farhad

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the term distributed education and its relationship to distance education. Topics include distributed training on corporate intranets; distributed expertise, which refers to the use of mediated communication for education and training by experts in different locations; and distributed, or situated, cognition, which would include…

  18. [Neural substrates underlying cognitive expertise].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Hanakawa, Takashi; Honda, Manabu

    2008-03-01

    Recent behavioral and neuro-anatomical studies of cognitive expertise have suggested that that superior performance in memory experts is neither due to extraordinary general intelligence nor anatomical brain difference. Furthermore, functional neuro-imaging studies have revealed that expert performance in mental abacus and memory experts is not attributable to increased brain activities of the process that exists in non-experts or to hyper-activity in the prefrontal cortex. On the contrary, cognitive experts utilize brain areas that are not used by non-experts. These brain regions are directly related to exceptional knowledge and unique strategies that are acquired by experts through extensive practice. These neuro-imaging findings support psychological theories that cognitive expertise is achieved by developing extensive knowledge and novel cognitive strategies not used by non-experts. These lines of evidence suggest that ordinary people could become experts through appropriate practice.

  19. Adapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  20. What is an expert? A systems perspective on expertise.

    PubMed

    Caley, Michael Julian; O'Leary, Rebecca A; Fisher, Rebecca; Low-Choy, Samantha; Johnson, Sandra; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2014-02-01

    Expert knowledge is a valuable source of information with a wide range of research applications. Despite the recent advances in defining expert knowledge, little attention has been given to how to view expertise as a system of interacting contributory factors for quantifying an individual's expertise. We present a systems approach to expertise that accounts for many contributing factors and their inter-relationships and allows quantification of an individual's expertise. A Bayesian network (BN) was chosen for this purpose. For illustration, we focused on taxonomic expertise. The model structure was developed in consultation with taxonomists. The relative importance of the factors within the network was determined by a second set of taxonomists (supra-experts) who also provided validation of the model structure. Model performance was assessed by applying the model to hypothetical career states of taxonomists designed to incorporate known differences in career states for model testing. The resulting BN model consisted of 18 primary nodes feeding through one to three higher-order nodes before converging on the target node (Taxonomic Expert). There was strong consistency among node weights provided by the supra-experts for some nodes, but not others. The higher-order nodes, "Quality of work" and "Total productivity", had the greatest weights. Sensitivity analysis indicated that although some factors had stronger influence in the outer nodes of the network, there was relatively equal influence of the factors leading directly into the target node. Despite the differences in the node weights provided by our supra-experts, there was good agreement among assessments of our hypothetical experts that accurately reflected differences we had specified. This systems approach provides a way of assessing the overall level of expertise of individuals, accounting for multiple contributory factors, and their interactions. Our approach is adaptable to other situations where it is

  1. Adapting a Problem-Solving Approach to Teaching Mathematics to Students with Mild Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salend, Spencer J.; Hofstetter, Elaine

    1996-01-01

    Guidelines for implementing a problem-solving approach to teaching mathematics concepts and skills to students with mild disabilities include: establish connections to daily life; use visual presentations; use manipulatives; use peer-mediated instruction; provide models, cues, and prompts; teach self-management techniques and learning strategies;…

  2. Cognition and Logic: Adaptation and Application of Inclusive Teaching Materials for Hands-On Workshops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunha, Kátia Machinez; Sholl-Franco, Alfred

    2016-01-01

    The use of inclusive teaching materials that motivate and encourage the development of executive functions has been neglected by the mathematic teaching, in which intelligence is valued, but no efforts are made to stimulate it. There are numerous reasons for that, among which are teachers' and students' unawareness that mathematics involves higher…

  3. Teaching Case: Adapting the Access Northwind Database to Support a Database Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, John N.; Rogers, Camille

    2015-01-01

    A common problem encountered when teaching database courses is that few large illustrative databases exist to support teaching and learning. Most database textbooks have small "toy" databases that are chapter objective specific, and thus do not support application over the complete domain of design, implementation and management concepts…

  4. The Expertise Reversal Effect Concerning Instructional Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rey, Gunter Daniel; Fischer, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The expertise reversal effect occurs when learner's expertise moderates design principles derived from cognitive load theory. Although this effect is supported by numerous empirical studies, indicating an overall large effect size, the effect was never tested by inducing expertise experimentally and using instructional explanations in a…

  5. Locating Patient Expertise in Everyday Life

    PubMed Central

    Civan, Andrea; McDonald, David W.; Unruh, Kenton T.; Pratt, Wanda

    2010-01-01

    Coping with a new health issue often requires individuals to acquire knowledge and skills to manage personal health. Many patients turn to one another for experiential expertise outside the formal bounds of the health-care system. Internet-based social software can facilitate expertise sharing among patients, but provides only limited ways for users to locate sources of patient expertise. Although much prior research has investigated expertise location and systems to augment expertise sharing in workplace organizations, the transferability of this knowledge to other contexts, such as personal health, is unclear. Guided by expertise locating frameworks drawn from prior work, we conducted a field study to investigate expertise locating in the informal and everyday context of women diagnosed with breast cancer. Similarities between patients’ expertise locating practices and practices of professionals in workplace organizations suggest similar support strategies could apply in both contexts. However, unlike professionals, unsolicited advice often triggered patients to locate expertise. They identified expertise through various forms of gatekeeping. The high-stakes nature of problems patients faced also led them to use triangulation strategies in anticipation of breakdowns in expertise location. Based on these key differences, we explored five design additions to social software that could support patients in their critical need to locate patient expertise. PMID:20953244

  6. Wine Expertise Predicts Taste Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Hayes, John E; Pickering, Gary J

    2012-03-01

    Taste phenotypes have long been studied in relation to alcohol intake, dependence, and family history, with contradictory findings. However, on balance - with appropriate caveats about populations tested, outcomes measured and psychophysical methods used - an association between variation in taste responsiveness and some alcohol behaviors is supported. Recent work suggests super-tasting (operationalized via propylthiouracil (PROP) bitterness) not only associates with heightened response but also with more acute discrimination between stimuli. Here, we explore relationships between food and beverage adventurousness and taste phenotype. A convenience sample of wine drinkers (n=330) were recruited in Ontario and phenotyped for PROP bitterness via filter paper disk. They also filled out a short questionnaire regarding willingness to try new foods, alcoholic beverages and wines as well as level of wine involvement, which was used to classify them as a wine expert (n=110) or wine consumer (n=220). In univariate logisitic models, food adventurousness predicted trying new wines and beverages but not expertise. Likewise, wine expertise predicted willingness to try new wines and beverages but not foods. In separate multivariate logistic models, willingness to try new wines and beverages was predicted by expertise and food adventurousness but not PROP. However, mean PROP bitterness was higher among wine experts than wine consumers, and the conditional distribution functions differed between experts and consumers. In contrast, PROP means and distributions did not differ with food adventurousness. These data suggest individuals may self-select for specific professions based on sensory ability (i.e., an active gene-environment correlation) but phenotype does not explain willingness to try new stimuli.

  7. Wine Expertise Predicts Taste Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, John E; Pickering, Gary J

    2011-01-01

    Taste phenotypes have long been studied in relation to alcohol intake, dependence, and family history, with contradictory findings. However, on balance – with appropriate caveats about populations tested, outcomes measured and psychophysical methods used – an association between variation in taste responsiveness and some alcohol behaviors is supported. Recent work suggests super-tasting (operationalized via propylthiouracil (PROP) bitterness) not only associates with heightened response but also with more acute discrimination between stimuli. Here, we explore relationships between food and beverage adventurousness and taste phenotype. A convenience sample of wine drinkers (n=330) were recruited in Ontario and phenotyped for PROP bitterness via filter paper disk. They also filled out a short questionnaire regarding willingness to try new foods, alcoholic beverages and wines as well as level of wine involvement, which was used to classify them as a wine expert (n=110) or wine consumer (n=220). In univariate logisitic models, food adventurousness predicted trying new wines and beverages but not expertise. Likewise, wine expertise predicted willingness to try new wines and beverages but not foods. In separate multivariate logistic models, willingness to try new wines and beverages was predicted by expertise and food adventurousness but not PROP. However, mean PROP bitterness was higher among wine experts than wine consumers, and the conditional distribution functions differed between experts and consumers. In contrast, PROP means and distributions did not differ with food adventurousness. These data suggest individuals may self-select for specific professions based on sensory ability (i.e., an active gene-environment correlation) but phenotype does not explain willingness to try new stimuli. PMID:22888174

  8. Deliberate practice for achieving and maintaining expertise in anesthesiology.

    PubMed

    Hastings, Randolph H; Rickard, Timothy C

    2015-02-01

    For the dedicated anesthesiologist, a high level of expertise is needed to deliver good care to patients and to provide excellent service to surgeons, anesthesia colleagues, and others. Expertise helps the anesthesiologist recover from difficult situations and generally makes the practice run more effectively. Expertise also contributes to quality of life through higher self-esteem and long-term career satisfaction. We begin by reviewing the attributes that characterize expert performance and discussing how a specific training format, known as deliberate practice, contributes to acquisition and maintenance of expertise. Deliberate practice involves rehearsal of specific tasks to mastery, ideally under the eye of a mentor to provide feedback. This amounts to an orchestrated effort to improve that enables trainees to progress to expert levels of performance. With few exceptions, people who become recognized experts have pursued deliberate practice on the order of 4 hours per day for 10 to 15 years. In contrast, those who practice their profession in a rote manner see their skills plateau well below the level of top performers. Anesthesiology instruction with attending supervision provides all of the necessary components for deliberate practice, and it can be effective in anesthesia. Using deliberate practice in teaching requires organization in selecting training topics, effort in challenging students to excel, and skill in providing feedback. In this article, we discuss how educational programs can implement deliberate practice in anesthesiology training, review resources for instructors, and suggest how anesthesiologists can continue the practice after residency. PMID:25602455

  9. Peer Mentoring Intervention Teaching Adaptive Skills to Individuals with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarville, Edel

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with High Functioning ASD's (HFA) often have difficulties with adaptive functioning. Due to these deficits in independent functioning, many individuals with High-Functioning ASD's have limitations in adulthood. This study investigated if individuals with HFA would have a greater likelihood of learning independent adaptive daily living…

  10. Changing Minds with the Story of Adaptation: Strategies for Teaching Young Children about Natural Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmons, Natalie; Smith, Hayley; Kelemen, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Educational guidelines recommend a delayed, piecemeal approach to instruction on adaptation by natural selection. This approach is questionable given suggestions that older students' pervasive misunderstandings about adaptation are rooted in cognitive biases that develop early. In response to this, Kelemen et al. (2014) recently…

  11. Adaptive Instructional Aids for Teaching a Blind Student in a Nonmajors College Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd-Kimball, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive tools and techniques for lecture instruction were developed for a blind student in a nonmajors college chemistry course. These adaptive instructional aids assisted the student in writing and balancing chemical reactions, calculating unit conversions and concentrations, drawing Lewis dot structures, understanding structural representations…

  12. The "Ethics" Expertise in Clinical Ethics Consultation.

    PubMed

    Iltis, Ana S; Rasmussen, Lisa M

    2016-08-01

    The nature, possibility, and implications of ethics expertise (or moral expertise) in general and of bioethics expertise in particular has been the focus of extensive debate for over thirty years. What is ethics expertise and what does it enable experts to do? Knowing what ethics expertise is can help answer another important question: What, if anything, makes a claim of expertise legitimate? In other words, how does someone earn the appellation "ethics expert?" There remains deep disagreement on whether ethics expertise is possible, and if so, what constitutes such expertise and what it entails and legitimates. Discussion of bioethics expertise has become particularly important given the growing presence of bioethicists in the clinical setting as well as efforts to professionalize bioethics through codes of ethics and certification (or quasi-certification) efforts. Unlike in the law or in engineering, where there may be a body of knowledge that professional organizations or others have articulated as important for education and training of experts, ethics expertise admits of no such body of knowledge or required experience. Nor is there an entity seen as having the authority to articulate the necessary scope of knowledge. Questions about whether there is such a body of knowledge for particular areas within bioethics have emerged and played a central role in professionalization efforts in recent years, especially in the area of clinical ethics. PMID:27261069

  13. Perceptual learning and human expertise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellman, Philip J.; Garrigan, Patrick

    2009-06-01

    We consider perceptual learning: experience-induced changes in the way perceivers extract information. Often neglected in scientific accounts of learning and in instruction, perceptual learning is a fundamental contributor to human expertise and is crucial in domains where humans show remarkable levels of attainment, such as language, chess, music, and mathematics. In Section 2, we give a brief history and discuss the relation of perceptual learning to other forms of learning. We consider in Section 3 several specific phenomena, illustrating the scope and characteristics of perceptual learning, including both discovery and fluency effects. We describe abstract perceptual learning, in which structural relationships are discovered and recognized in novel instances that do not share constituent elements or basic features. In Section 4, we consider primary concepts that have been used to explain and model perceptual learning, including receptive field change, selection, and relational recoding. In Section 5, we consider the scope of perceptual learning, contrasting recent research, focused on simple sensory discriminations, with earlier work that emphasized extraction of invariance from varied instances in more complex tasks. Contrary to some recent views, we argue that perceptual learning should not be confined to changes in early sensory analyzers. Phenomena at various levels, we suggest, can be unified by models that emphasize discovery and selection of relevant information. In a final section, we consider the potential role of perceptual learning in educational settings. Most instruction emphasizes facts and procedures that can be verbalized, whereas expertise depends heavily on implicit pattern recognition and selective extraction skills acquired through perceptual learning. We consider reasons why perceptual learning has not been systematically addressed in traditional instruction, and we describe recent successful efforts to create a technology of perceptual

  14. Perceptual learning and human expertise.

    PubMed

    Kellman, Philip J; Garrigan, Patrick

    2009-06-01

    We consider perceptual learning: experience-induced changes in the way perceivers extract information. Often neglected in scientific accounts of learning and in instruction, perceptual learning is a fundamental contributor to human expertise and is crucial in domains where humans show remarkable levels of attainment, such as language, chess, music, and mathematics. In Section 2, we give a brief history and discuss the relation of perceptual learning to other forms of learning. We consider in Section 3 several specific phenomena, illustrating the scope and characteristics of perceptual learning, including both discovery and fluency effects. We describe abstract perceptual learning, in which structural relationships are discovered and recognized in novel instances that do not share constituent elements or basic features. In Section 4, we consider primary concepts that have been used to explain and model perceptual learning, including receptive field change, selection, and relational recoding. In Section 5, we consider the scope of perceptual learning, contrasting recent research, focused on simple sensory discriminations, with earlier work that emphasized extraction of invariance from varied instances in more complex tasks. Contrary to some recent views, we argue that perceptual learning should not be confined to changes in early sensory analyzers. Phenomena at various levels, we suggest, can be unified by models that emphasize discovery and selection of relevant information. In a final section, we consider the potential role of perceptual learning in educational settings. Most instruction emphasizes facts and procedures that can be verbalized, whereas expertise depends heavily on implicit pattern recognition and selective extraction skills acquired through perceptual learning. We consider reasons why perceptual learning has not been systematically addressed in traditional instruction, and we describe recent successful efforts to create a technology of perceptual

  15. Studying real-world perceptual expertise

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jianhong; Mack, Michael L.; Palmeri, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Significant insights into visual cognition have come from studying real-world perceptual expertise. Many have previously reviewed empirical findings and theoretical developments from this work. Here we instead provide a brief perspective on approaches, considerations, and challenges to studying real-world perceptual expertise. We discuss factors like choosing to use real-world versus artificial object domains of expertise, selecting a target domain of real-world perceptual expertise, recruiting experts, evaluating their level of expertise, and experimentally testing experts in the lab and online. Throughout our perspective, we highlight expert birding (also called birdwatching) as an example, as it has been used as a target domain for over two decades in the perceptual expertise literature. PMID:25147533

  16. Teaching Consultation-Liaison Psychotherapy: Assessment of Adaptation to Medical and Surgical Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Jonathan J.; Maunder, Robert G.; Gupta, Mona

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Little has been written about teaching consultation-liaison inpatient psychotherapy to residents or other trainees. Method: Resident interviews at completion of consultation-liaison training identified learning needs. In response, the authors created a seminar series and modified it reiteratively eight times. Results: In this approach,…

  17. "These Words Are Not Mine": Are We Still Teaching Literature when We Use Adaptations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoMonico, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Why do educators teach literature? The author thinks they can hear the answer in the voice of Huckleberry Finn and David Copperfield and Holden Caulfield and the omniscient narrator in "Beloved." It's the wonderful sound of those words, the gorgeous flow of those well-crafted sentences, and the marvelous way Twain and Dickens and Morrison and…

  18. Blogs and Wikis as Instructional Tools: A Social Software Adaptation of Just-in-Time Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higdon, Jude; Topaz, Chad

    2009-01-01

    Just-in-Time Teaching (JiTT) methodology uses Web-based tools to gather student responses to questions on preclass reading assignments. However, the technological requirements of JiTT and the content-specific nature of the questions may prevent some instructors from implementing it. Our own JiTT implementation uses publicly and freely available…

  19. Juegos y Diversiones. (Games Collected and Adapted to Teach Spanish to Children.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquez, Nancy, Ed.; And Others

    Games, both from the folklore heritage of children in Spanish-speaking countries and those created in the classroom, are excellent ways to teach language to children because they accomplish their language goals while entertaining and involving the children, often physically. Most games, because they are rigidly patterned and repetitious, are…

  20. Student Learning Styles Adaptation Method Based on Teaching Strategies and Electronic Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzoni, Ana Lidia; Assar, Said

    2009-01-01

    Recent research on the learning process has shown that students tend to learn in different ways and that they prefer to use different teaching resources as well. Many researchers agree on the fact that learning materials shouldn't just reflect of the teacher's style, but should be designed for all kinds of students and all kind of learning styles.…

  1. Musical expertise and second language learning.

    PubMed

    Chobert, Julie; Besson, Mireille

    2013-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that musical expertise influences brain organization and brain functions. Moreover, results at the behavioral and neurophysiological levels reveal that musical expertise positively influences several aspects of speech processing, from auditory perception to speech production. In this review, we focus on the main results of the literature that led to the idea that musical expertise may benefit second language acquisition. We discuss several interpretations that may account for the influence of musical expertise on speech processing in native and foreign languages, and we propose new directions for future research. PMID:24961431

  2. Musical expertise and second language learning.

    PubMed

    Chobert, Julie; Besson, Mireille

    2013-06-06

    Increasing evidence suggests that musical expertise influences brain organization and brain functions. Moreover, results at the behavioral and neurophysiological levels reveal that musical expertise positively influences several aspects of speech processing, from auditory perception to speech production. In this review, we focus on the main results of the literature that led to the idea that musical expertise may benefit second language acquisition. We discuss several interpretations that may account for the influence of musical expertise on speech processing in native and foreign languages, and we propose new directions for future research.

  3. Using Cognitive Load Theory to Tailor Instruction to Levels of Accounting Students' Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blayney, Paul; Kalyuga, Slava; Sweller, John

    2015-01-01

    Tailoring of instructional methods to learner levels of expertise may reduce extraneous cognitive load and improve learning. Contemporary technology-based learning environments have the potential to substantially enable learner-adapted instruction. This paper investigates the effects of adaptive instruction based on using the isolated-interactive…

  4. Robust expertise effects in right FFA.

    PubMed

    McGugin, Rankin Williams; Newton, Allen T; Gore, John C; Gauthier, Isabel

    2014-10-01

    The fusiform face area (FFA) is one of several areas in occipito-temporal cortex whose activity is correlated with perceptual expertise for objects. Here, we investigate the robustness of expertise effects in FFA and other areas to a strong task manipulation that increases both perceptual and attentional demands. With high-resolution fMRI at 7T, we measured responses to images of cars, faces and a category globally visually similar to cars (sofas) in 26 subjects who varied in expertise with cars, in (a) a low load 1-back task with a single object category and (b) a high load task in which objects from two categories were rapidly alternated and attention was required to both categories. The low load condition revealed several areas more active as a function of expertise, including both posterior and anterior portions of FFA bilaterally (FFA1/FFA2, respectively). Under high load, fewer areas were positively correlated with expertise and several areas were even negatively correlated, but the expertise effect in face-selective voxels in the anterior portion of FFA (FFA2) remained robust. Finally, we found that behavioral car expertise also predicted increased responses to sofa images but no behavioral advantages in sofa discrimination, suggesting that global shape similarity to a category of expertise is enough to elicit a response in FFA and other areas sensitive to experience, even when the category itself is not of special interest. The robustness of expertise effects in right FFA2 and the expertise effects driven by visual similarity both argue against attention being the sole determinant of expertise effects in extrastriate areas.

  5. Robust expertise effects in right FFA

    PubMed Central

    McGugin, Rankin Williams; Newton, Allen T; Gore, John C; Gauthier, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    The fusiform face area (FFA) is one of several areas in occipito-temporal cortex whose activity is correlated with perceptual expertise for objects. Here, we investigate the robustness of expertise effects in FFA and other areas to a strong task manipulation that increases both perceptual and attentional demands. With high-resolution fMRI at 7Telsa, we measured responses to images of cars, faces and a category globally visually similar to cars (sofas) in 26 subjects who varied in expertise with cars, in (a) a low load 1-back task with a single object category and (b) a high load task in which objects from two categories rapidly alternated and attention was required to both categories. The low load condition revealed several areas more active as a function of expertise, including both posterior and anterior portions of FFA bilaterally (FFA1/FFA2 respectively). Under high load, fewer areas were positively correlated with expertise and several areas were even negatively correlated, but the expertise effect in face-selective voxels in the anterior portion of FFA (FFA2) remained robust. Finally, we found that behavioral car expertise also predicted increased responses to sofa images but no behavioral advantages in sofa discrimination, suggesting that global shape similarity to a category of expertise is enough to elicit a response in FFA and other areas sensitive to experience, even when the category itself is not of special interest. The robustness of expertise effects in right FFA2 and the expertise effects driven by visual similarity both argue against attention being the sole determinant of expertise effects in extrastriate areas. PMID:25192631

  6. [Specialist and lay ethical expertise in public health: issues and challenges for discourse ethics].

    PubMed

    Massé, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, both public health professionals and the populations targeted by prevention and health promotion programs have shown an increasing interest in ethical issues since some interventions have been seen as impinging on fundamental rights and values. Insofar as bioethics is not adapted to population interventions and community health issues, a specific expertise in public health ethics is now required. However, ethical expertise in this area faces many challenges. The purpose of this paper is to examine four of these challenges. The first three challenges concern professional or specialist expertise. The paper suggests that expertise in public health ethics should go beyond the search for greater sophistication in defining ethical principles. Experts in public health ethics also need to identify appropriate strategies to include public health professionals in ethical analysis and to adopt a critical and reflexive approach to the status of moral experts and moral expertise. However, the main challenge is to identify appropriate ways of reconciling lay and specialist ethical expertise. The paper argues that secular morality and common morality represent two key sources of lay ethics expertise and that the fundamental values that inform discourse ethics should be derived from both forms of expertise.

  7. Should We Reject the Expertise Hypothesis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, Isabel; Bukach, Cindy

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of a review of the literature and the results of three experiments with dog experts, Robbins and McKone [Robbins, R. A., & McKone, E. (2006). No face-like processing for objects-of-expertise in three behavioural tasks, "Cognition"] argue that there is little or no evidence supporting an expertise account of the differences in…

  8. Intuitive Expertise: Theories and Empirical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harteis, Christian; Billett, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Intuition has been long seen as an element of effective human performance in demanding tasks (i.e. expertise). But its form, constitutive elements and development remain subject to diverse explanations. This paper discusses these elements and explores theories and empirical evidence about what constitutes intuitive expertise, and offers an account…

  9. Fostering Social Expertise in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porath, Marion

    2009-01-01

    Social competence is an essential capability to bring to school because of its relationship to academic success. Development and consolidation of social understanding in early childhood ensures that young children have a solid foundation of social expertise when they begin formal schooling. Social expertise, conceptualized within the framework of…

  10. Issues in teaching and learning time-limited psychodynamic psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Binder, J L

    1999-09-01

    Psychodynamic psychotherapy training is briefly reviewed, with particular attention to short-term forms of treatment and to empirical investigations of therapy training. There have been relatively few investigations of actual psychotherapy training, and the prospect is for even fewer in the future. The traditional pedagogic strategy for conceptualizing and developing psychodynamic training programs has been to adapt psychoanalytic clinical theory for instructional purposes. It is proposed that concepts, principles, and instructional strategies from the area of the cognitive sciences concerned with the development of generic expertise offers a potentially more fruitful theoretical/empirical framework for understanding therapeutic expertise and can be applied to developing improved psychotherapy teaching methods. The mental processes of therapists are discussed from this perspective. A teaching format based on multimedia computer technology and designed to fill a gap between didactic course work and actual therapy supervision is briefly described. In addition, recommendations are offered for improving psychotherapy training using existing methods. PMID:10421953

  11. Seeing Coloured Fruits: Utilisation of the Theory of Adaptive Memory in Teaching Botany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokop, Pavol; Fancovicová, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Plants are characterised by a great diversity of easily observed features such as colours or shape, but children show low interest in learning about them. Here, we integrated modern theory of adaptive memory and evolutionary views of the function of fruit colouration on children's retention of information. Survival-relevant (fruit toxicity)…

  12. Weaving Clinical Expertise in Online Health Communities

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Jina; Pratt, Wanda

    2015-01-01

    Many patients visit online health communities to receive support. In face-to-face support groups, health professionals facilitate peer-patients exchanging experience while adding their clinical expertise when necessary. However, the large scale of online health communities makes it challenging for such health professional moderators’ involvement to happen. To address this challenge of delivering clinical expertise to where patients need them, we explore the idea of semi-automatically providing clinical expertise in online health communities. We interviewed 14 clinicians showing them example peer-patient conversation threads. From the interviews, we examined the ideal practice of clinicians providing expertise to patients. The clinicians continuously assessed when peer-patients were providing appropriate support, what kinds of clinical help they could give online, and when to defer to patients’ healthcare providers. The findings inform requirements for building a semi-automated system delivering clinical expertise in online health communities. PMID:26413582

  13. Teaching matters-academic professional development in the early 21st century.

    PubMed

    Fahnert, Beatrix

    2015-10-01

    Academic work at different career stages has changed and a broadened portfolio of expertise enables academics to adapt, maintain and advance their career. Development related to research activity is naturally driven by methodology and technology. Institutions and peers largely support development in the contexts of dissemination, measuring impact and obtaining funding. A European Commission High Level Group recommended pedagogic training for everyone teaching in Higher Education by 2020 with mandatory continuing professional development and with academic staff recruitment and promotion being linked to teaching performance. Early career teaching experience is already an expectation, and advantage is gained by developing recognized teaching expertise. More senior academics gain an advantage through recognition of higher levels of expertise, also covering elements of leadership and innovation in teaching. This review aims to raise awareness particularly of teaching-related skills within the dimensions of academic professional development in Higher Education, outlining some general directions for development and recognition in context of current challenges to support planning and identifying training needs and opportunities at different career stages. PMID:26347300

  14. Teaching matters-academic professional development in the early 21st century.

    PubMed

    Fahnert, Beatrix

    2015-10-01

    Academic work at different career stages has changed and a broadened portfolio of expertise enables academics to adapt, maintain and advance their career. Development related to research activity is naturally driven by methodology and technology. Institutions and peers largely support development in the contexts of dissemination, measuring impact and obtaining funding. A European Commission High Level Group recommended pedagogic training for everyone teaching in Higher Education by 2020 with mandatory continuing professional development and with academic staff recruitment and promotion being linked to teaching performance. Early career teaching experience is already an expectation, and advantage is gained by developing recognized teaching expertise. More senior academics gain an advantage through recognition of higher levels of expertise, also covering elements of leadership and innovation in teaching. This review aims to raise awareness particularly of teaching-related skills within the dimensions of academic professional development in Higher Education, outlining some general directions for development and recognition in context of current challenges to support planning and identifying training needs and opportunities at different career stages.

  15. Teacher knowledge, instructional expertise, and the development of reading proficiency.

    PubMed

    Reid Lyon, G; Weiser, Beverly

    2009-01-01

    Teacher knowledge and instructional expertise have been found in correlational and pre- and posttest studies to be related to student reading achievement. This article summarizes data presented in this special issue and additional research to address four questions: (a) What do expert reading teachers know? (b) Why do teachers need to acquire this knowledge? (c) Do teachers believe they have this knowledge? and (d) Are teachers being adequately prepared to teach reading? Well-designed studies relevant to this topic have been sparse with a noticeable lack of attention given to identifying specific causal links between teacher knowledge, teaching expertise, and student reading achievement. Until the appropriate research designs and methodologies are applied to address the question of causal effects, conclusions about the specific content that teachers must know and the instructional practices that are most beneficial in presenting this content are preliminary at best. Future studies of the effect of essential reading content knowledge must be extended beyond word-level skills to vocabulary, reading comprehension, and writing.

  16. The Importance of Domain-Specific Expertise in Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, John

    2015-01-01

    Although creativity and expertise are related, they are nonetheless very different things. Expertise does not usually require creativity, but creativity generally does require a certain level of expertise. There are similarities in the relationships of both expertise and creativity to domains, however. Research has shown that just as expertise in…

  17. "Who Are You Callin' Expert?": Using Student Narratives to Redefine Expertise and Advocacy Lower Track Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerrick, Randy; Schiller, Jennifer; Reisfeld, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to construct an interpretation of lower track science students' notions of expertise in science teaching. Data were collected and transcribed from focus groups, teacher journals, classrooms events, and student artifacts. Students responded to focus group prompts over the course of a years regarding how and why they…

  18. Skills-Based Learning for Reproducible Expertise: Looking Elsewhere for Guidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessger, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of adult skills-based learning, adult education researchers continue to ignore effective interdisciplinary skills-based methods. Prominent researchers dismiss empirically supported teaching guidelines, preferring situational, emancipatory methods with no demonstrable effect on skilled performance or reproducible expertise.…

  19. The Use of Cognitive Task Analysis to Capture Expertise for Tracheal Extubation Training in Anesthesiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embrey, Karen K.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive task analysis (CTA) is a knowledge elicitation technique employed for acquiring expertise from domain specialists to support the effective instruction of novices. CTA guided instruction has proven effective in improving surgical skills training for medical students and surgical residents. The standard, current method of teaching clinical…

  20. Hands-on demonstrations and teaching tools for optics and adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arion, Douglas N.; Crosby, Kevin M.; Lyons, Daniel; Rand, Kendra; Randolph, Ann

    2003-10-01

    A set of demonstrations suitable for use in classrooms at the secondary, undergraduate and graduate level, and for public use in museums and science centers were developed to exhibit basic optics principles, vision science, and adaptive optics techniques. This paper will exhibit these demonstrations, and how they can be used to promote understanding of optics principles in a wide range of applicable areas. Demonstrations include units showing image formation, orientation, and scale; a unit showing 3-dimensional ray tracing through optical systems using a scattering medium and laser diodes; a unit allowing users to directly observe the color sensitivity of their eyes; and a demonstration directly demonstrating wavefront errors, image distortion, and a Shack-Hartmann sensor for wavefront measurement. Together, these bring real-world optical principles into the hands-on regime, and demystify optics principles that are difficult to visualize in three dimensions. These demonstrations are currently in use at the Keck Observatory in Hawaii, at Nauticus in Virginia, at the Yerkes Observatory and at Carthage College in Wisconsin, as well as at several middle and high schools in Illinois and Wisconsin. They have also been integrated into a unit in the Hands on Universe program published by the Lawrence Hall of Science. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation through the Center for Adaptive Optics.

  1. Climate Change: Could It Help Develop "Adaptive Expertise"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Erica; Horton, Graeme; Blashki, Grant; Seidel, Bastian M.

    2012-01-01

    Preparing health practitioners to respond to the rising burden of disease from climate change is emerging as a priority in health workforce policy and planning. However, this issue is hardly represented in the medical education research. The rapidly evolving wide range of direct and indirect consequences of climate change will require health…

  2. Development of the Biology Card Sorting Task to Measure Conceptual Expertise in Biology

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Julia I.; Combs, Elijah D.; Nagami, Paul H.; Alto, Valerie M.; Goh, Henry G.; Gourdet, Muryam A. A.; Hough, Christina M.; Nickell, Ashley E.; Peer, Adrian G.; Coley, John D.; Tanner, Kimberly D.

    2013-01-01

    There are widespread aspirations to focus undergraduate biology education on teaching students to think conceptually like biologists; however, there is a dearth of assessment tools designed to measure progress from novice to expert biological conceptual thinking. We present the development of a novel assessment tool, the Biology Card Sorting Task, designed to probe how individuals organize their conceptual knowledge of biology. While modeled on tasks from cognitive psychology, this task is unique in its design to test two hypothesized conceptual frameworks for the organization of biological knowledge: 1) a surface feature organization focused on organism type and 2) a deep feature organization focused on fundamental biological concepts. In this initial investigation of the Biology Card Sorting Task, each of six analytical measures showed statistically significant differences when used to compare the card sorting results of putative biological experts (biology faculty) and novices (non–biology major undergraduates). Consistently, biology faculty appeared to sort based on hypothesized deep features, while non–biology majors appeared to sort based on either surface features or nonhypothesized organizational frameworks. Results suggest that this novel task is robust in distinguishing populations of biology experts and biology novices and may be an adaptable tool for tracking emerging biology conceptual expertise. PMID:24297290

  3. Development of the biology card sorting task to measure conceptual expertise in biology.

    PubMed

    Smith, Julia I; Combs, Elijah D; Nagami, Paul H; Alto, Valerie M; Goh, Henry G; Gourdet, Muryam A A; Hough, Christina M; Nickell, Ashley E; Peer, Adrian G; Coley, John D; Tanner, Kimberly D

    2013-01-01

    There are widespread aspirations to focus undergraduate biology education on teaching students to think conceptually like biologists; however, there is a dearth of assessment tools designed to measure progress from novice to expert biological conceptual thinking. We present the development of a novel assessment tool, the Biology Card Sorting Task, designed to probe how individuals organize their conceptual knowledge of biology. While modeled on tasks from cognitive psychology, this task is unique in its design to test two hypothesized conceptual frameworks for the organization of biological knowledge: 1) a surface feature organization focused on organism type and 2) a deep feature organization focused on fundamental biological concepts. In this initial investigation of the Biology Card Sorting Task, each of six analytical measures showed statistically significant differences when used to compare the card sorting results of putative biological experts (biology faculty) and novices (non-biology major undergraduates). Consistently, biology faculty appeared to sort based on hypothesized deep features, while non-biology majors appeared to sort based on either surface features or nonhypothesized organizational frameworks. Results suggest that this novel task is robust in distinguishing populations of biology experts and biology novices and may be an adaptable tool for tracking emerging biology conceptual expertise.

  4. Domain-Specific Expertise of Chemistry Teachers on Context-Based Education about Macro-Micro Thinking in Structure-Property Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolfing, Ria; Bulte, Astrid M. W.; Pilot, Albert; Vermunt, Jan D.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to determine and describe the new domain-specific expertise of experienced chemistry teachers in teaching an innovative context-based unit about macro-micro thinking in structure-property relations. The construct of "teachers' domain-specific expertise" was used to analyse the new repertoire chemistry teachers need to acquire to…

  5. Using Highlighting to Train Attentional Expertise.

    PubMed

    Roads, Brett; Mozer, Michael C; Busey, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    Acquiring expertise in complex visual tasks is time consuming. To facilitate the efficient training of novices on where to look in these tasks, we propose an attentional highlighting paradigm. Highlighting involves dynamically modulating the saliency of a visual image to guide attention along the fixation path of a domain expert who had previously viewed the same image. In Experiment 1, we trained naive subjects via attentional highlighting on a fingerprint-matching task. Before and after training, we asked subjects to freely inspect images containing pairs of prints and determine whether the prints matched. Fixation sequences were automatically scored for the degree of expertise exhibited using a Bayesian discriminative model of novice and expert gaze behavior. Highlighted training causes gaze behavior to become more expert-like not only on the trained images but also on transfer images, indicating generalization of learning. In Experiment 2, to control for the possibility that the increase in expertise is due to mere exposure, we trained subjects via highlighting of fixation sequences from novices, not experts, and observed no transition toward expertise. In Experiment 3, to determine the specificity of the training effect, we trained subjects with expert fixation sequences from images other than the one being viewed, which preserves coarse-scale statistics of expert gaze but provides no information about fine-grain features. Observing at least a partial transition toward expertise, we obtain only weak evidence that the highlighting procedure facilitates the learning of critical local features. We discuss possible improvements to the highlighting procedure.

  6. Using Highlighting to Train Attentional Expertise

    PubMed Central

    Roads, Brett; Mozer, Michael C.; Busey, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Acquiring expertise in complex visual tasks is time consuming. To facilitate the efficient training of novices on where to look in these tasks, we propose an attentional highlighting paradigm. Highlighting involves dynamically modulating the saliency of a visual image to guide attention along the fixation path of a domain expert who had previously viewed the same image. In Experiment 1, we trained naive subjects via attentional highlighting on a fingerprint-matching task. Before and after training, we asked subjects to freely inspect images containing pairs of prints and determine whether the prints matched. Fixation sequences were automatically scored for the degree of expertise exhibited using a Bayesian discriminative model of novice and expert gaze behavior. Highlighted training causes gaze behavior to become more expert-like not only on the trained images but also on transfer images, indicating generalization of learning. In Experiment 2, to control for the possibility that the increase in expertise is due to mere exposure, we trained subjects via highlighting of fixation sequences from novices, not experts, and observed no transition toward expertise. In Experiment 3, to determine the specificity of the training effect, we trained subjects with expert fixation sequences from images other than the one being viewed, which preserves coarse-scale statistics of expert gaze but provides no information about fine-grain features. Observing at least a partial transition toward expertise, we obtain only weak evidence that the highlighting procedure facilitates the learning of critical local features. We discuss possible improvements to the highlighting procedure. PMID:26744839

  7. Using Highlighting to Train Attentional Expertise.

    PubMed

    Roads, Brett; Mozer, Michael C; Busey, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    Acquiring expertise in complex visual tasks is time consuming. To facilitate the efficient training of novices on where to look in these tasks, we propose an attentional highlighting paradigm. Highlighting involves dynamically modulating the saliency of a visual image to guide attention along the fixation path of a domain expert who had previously viewed the same image. In Experiment 1, we trained naive subjects via attentional highlighting on a fingerprint-matching task. Before and after training, we asked subjects to freely inspect images containing pairs of prints and determine whether the prints matched. Fixation sequences were automatically scored for the degree of expertise exhibited using a Bayesian discriminative model of novice and expert gaze behavior. Highlighted training causes gaze behavior to become more expert-like not only on the trained images but also on transfer images, indicating generalization of learning. In Experiment 2, to control for the possibility that the increase in expertise is due to mere exposure, we trained subjects via highlighting of fixation sequences from novices, not experts, and observed no transition toward expertise. In Experiment 3, to determine the specificity of the training effect, we trained subjects with expert fixation sequences from images other than the one being viewed, which preserves coarse-scale statistics of expert gaze but provides no information about fine-grain features. Observing at least a partial transition toward expertise, we obtain only weak evidence that the highlighting procedure facilitates the learning of critical local features. We discuss possible improvements to the highlighting procedure. PMID:26744839

  8. Expertise in law, medicine, and health care.

    PubMed

    Shuman, D W

    2001-04-01

    As the practice of science-based medical evidence has challenged the medical profession to consider the scientific bases for its methods and procedures, on a seemingly parallel path, the United States Supreme Court's 1993 decision in Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals has challenged the legal system to consider the science underlying claims of medical expertise. This article examines how the legal system has responded to that challenge and why the response has been more limited than many had expected; the implications of the legal system's approach to scrutiny of claims of medical expertise for the practice of science-based medical evidence; and, the central elements of any meaningful change in legal assessments of expertise in medicine and health care.

  9. Medical expertise, existential suffering and ending life.

    PubMed

    Varelius, Jukka

    2014-02-01

    In this article, I assess the position that voluntary euthanasia (VE) and physician-assisted suicide (PAS) ought not to be accepted in the cases of persons who suffer existentially but who have no medical condition, because existential questions do not fall within the domain of physicians' professional expertise. I maintain that VE and PAS based on suffering arising from medical conditions involves existential issues relevantly similar to those confronted in connection with existential suffering. On that basis I conclude that if VE and PAS based on suffering arising from medical conditions is taken to fall within the domain of medical expertise, it is not consistent to use the view that physicians' professional expertise does not extend to existential questions as a reason for denying requests for VE and PAS from persons who suffer existentially but have no medical condition.

  10. Teaching about Teaching Science: Aims, Strategies, and Backgrounds of Science Teacher Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Amanda; Van Driel, Jan H.

    2013-01-01

    Despite pressing concerns about the need to prepare high-quality teachers and the central role of teacher educators (TEs) in this process, little is known about how TEs teach about teaching specific subject matter, and how they develop their expertise. This empirical study focuses on the specific expertise that science TEs bring into teacher…

  11. Expertise Increases the Functional Overlap between Face and Object Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeeff, Thomas J.; McGugin, Rankin W.; Tong, Frank; Gauthier, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that expertise with objects can interfere with face processing. Although competition occurs between faces and objects of expertise, it remains unclear whether this reflects an expertise-specific bottleneck or the fact that objects of expertise grab attention and thereby consume more central resources. We investigated the…

  12. Clustering Teachers' Motivations for Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visser-Wijnveen, Gerda J.; Stes, Ann; Van Petegem, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The motivation to teach is a powerful, yet neglected, force in teaching at institutes of higher education. A better understanding of academics' motivations for teaching is necessary. The aim of this mixed-method study was to identify groups with distinctively different motivations for teaching. Six clusters were identified: expertise, duty,…

  13. Gender Differences in Science: An Expertise Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Carr, Martha

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a new approach to research on gender differences in science that uses the work on expertise in science as a framework for understanding gender differences. Because gender differences in achievement and participation in the sciences are largest in physics, the focus of this review is on physics. The nature of…

  14. Distributed and Relative Nature of Professional Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillay, Hitendra; McCrindle, Andrea R.

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory study investigates the distributed nature and complexity of professional expertise by examining the patterns of cognitive processes in novices and experts who are using ultrasound technology to make diagnoses. The study aims to identify and provide an explanation for such patterns in light of the recent debate on the locus of…

  15. Virtues, Teacher Professional Expertise, and Socioscientific Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melville, Wayne; Yaxley, Bevis; Wallace, John

    2007-01-01

    This article develops the notion that virtues can be utilized as a means of understanding the professional expertise that science teachers demonstrate when they deal with socioscientific issues. Socioscientific issues are those contentious issues that connect science to the society in which it operates--environmental issues being a prime example.…

  16. Expertise in Psychological Inquiry: A Computerized Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brammer, Robert

    The ways in which experience and academic training influence the types of questions therapists ask of their clients were studied. Psychologists and psychology students of varying degrees of expertise (n=138) were provided an artificial intelligence program that simulated a date rape client's responses to typed questions and were asked to conduct a…

  17. Developing expectations regarding the boundaries of expertise.

    PubMed

    Landrum, Asheley R; Mills, Candice M

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments examined elementary school-aged children's and adults' expectations regarding what specialists (i.e., those with narrow domains of expertise) and generalists (i.e., those with broad domains of expertise) are likely to know. Experiment 1 demonstrated developmental differences in the ability to differentiate between generalists and specialists, with younger children believing generalists have more specific trivia knowledge than older children and adults believed. Experiment 2 demonstrated that children and adults expected generalists to have more underlying principles knowledge than specific trivia knowledge about unfamiliar animals. However, they believed that generalists would have more of both types of knowledge than themselves. Finally, Experiment 3 demonstrated that children and adults recognized that underlying principles knowledge can be generalized between topics closely related to the specialists' domains of expertise. However, they did not recognize when this knowledge was generalizable to topics slightly less related, expecting generalists to know only as much as they would. Importantly, this work contributes to the literature by showing how much of and what kinds of knowledge different types of experts are expected to have. In sum, this work provides insight into some of the ways children's notions of expertise change over development. The current research demonstrates that between the ages of 5 and 10, children are developing the ability to recognize how experts' knowledge is likely to be limited. That said, even older children at times struggle to determine the breadth of an experts' knowledge. PMID:25460394

  18. Deliberate Performance: Accelerating Expertise in Natural Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fadde, Peter J.; Klein, Gary A.

    2010-01-01

    Deliberate practice--meaning drill-like practice under the direction of a coach--is key to developing expertise in sports and music. But working professionals and businesspeople typically have no time for practice. We propose deliberate performance as a type of practice that professionals and businesspeople can pursue while they work as a way to…

  19. Universities and the Public Recognition of Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnoldi, Jakob

    2007-01-01

    This article argues that new sites of knowledge production, increasingly cultivated by the mass media, are threatening the role of academics and universities as traditional sources of expertise. Drawing upon the conceptual categories of Pierre Bourdieu, the article suggests an alternative way of understanding this "crisis of legitimacy."

  20. Developing expectations regarding the boundaries of expertise.

    PubMed

    Landrum, Asheley R; Mills, Candice M

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments examined elementary school-aged children's and adults' expectations regarding what specialists (i.e., those with narrow domains of expertise) and generalists (i.e., those with broad domains of expertise) are likely to know. Experiment 1 demonstrated developmental differences in the ability to differentiate between generalists and specialists, with younger children believing generalists have more specific trivia knowledge than older children and adults believed. Experiment 2 demonstrated that children and adults expected generalists to have more underlying principles knowledge than specific trivia knowledge about unfamiliar animals. However, they believed that generalists would have more of both types of knowledge than themselves. Finally, Experiment 3 demonstrated that children and adults recognized that underlying principles knowledge can be generalized between topics closely related to the specialists' domains of expertise. However, they did not recognize when this knowledge was generalizable to topics slightly less related, expecting generalists to know only as much as they would. Importantly, this work contributes to the literature by showing how much of and what kinds of knowledge different types of experts are expected to have. In sum, this work provides insight into some of the ways children's notions of expertise change over development. The current research demonstrates that between the ages of 5 and 10, children are developing the ability to recognize how experts' knowledge is likely to be limited. That said, even older children at times struggle to determine the breadth of an experts' knowledge.

  1. It's Not Magic! Research on Developing Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peskin, Joan

    2011-01-01

    In the past two decades, a large body of research has examined the differences between novices and experts in subject areas ranging from physics to poetry. Yet research on developing expertise has found no "magic bullet" in becoming an expert and has concluded that innate talent plays a less prominent role than previously imagined. Various studies…

  2. Orchestrating Expertise in Reading and Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hibbert, Kathryn M.; Scheffel, Tara-Lynn; Rich, Sharon; Heydon, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    With increased attention focused on the economic cache afforded through literacy and numeracy skills, governments around the world have turned their attention to developing the expertise of their teachers. Improving teachers' levels of competency leads to improvement in student achievement. In this qualitative case study, we focus on the…

  3. Learning and Development Expertise: An Australian Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Steven; Harvey, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Learning and development (L&D) practitioners draw on a distinctive range of knowledge, skills and techniques in their work. Over the years, there have been attempts to capture this range and identify typical L&D roles. The research presented here was undertaken to identify characteristic areas of expertise (AOEs) of L&D practice in…

  4. Educational Expertise, Advocacy, and Media Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malin, Joel R.; Lubienski, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The efforts of many advocacy organizations to advance their preferred policies despite conflicting evidence of the effectiveness of these policies raise questions about factors that shape successful policy promotion. While many may like to think that expertise on an issue in question is an essential prerequisite for influence in public policy…

  5. Expertise of body injuries in criminal procedure.

    PubMed

    Gutevska, A; Cakar, Z; Duma, A; Poposka, V

    2008-10-01

    In the every day practice of answering questions from the area of medicine, today there is growing need for forensic medical expertise of body injuries in the criminal procedure. Furthermore, when qualifying the body injury, the expert must possess knowledge and experience not only medical, but also he/she must be aware of the legal requirements and norms from the Code of Criminal Procedure and the Criminal Code of R. Macedonia. This will enable the expert to contribute to explanation and clarification of certain facts and issues related to the body injury. In this paper, by citing Articles 255 and 256 from the Code of Criminal Procedure, it is explained how expert can be adequately selected by the court. In addition to this, by citing Article 271 from the aforementioned Code, a way of analysing body injuries is defined; and finally, defining of body injuries is explained through citing of Article 130 and 131 from the Criminal Code of R. Macedonia, which is regarding body injury and grave body injury. The aim of this paper is to outline the method of performing these forensic medical expertises, i.e. by who and when can expertise of body injuries be asked and moreover, what is the legal and ethical responsiblity of the expert during the execution of the expertise. Additionally, the steps that the expert should follow when preparing a written statement and opinion for the type of the body injury are explained. More specifically, emphasis is placed on expert's requirements after examination of injured individual; after revision of the medical documentation during expertise of body injuries in criminal subjects; and providing oral statement and opinion during the criminal procedure.

  6. Perfumers' expertise induces structural reorganization in olfactory brain regions.

    PubMed

    Delon-Martin, Chantal; Plailly, Jane; Fonlupt, Pierre; Veyrac, Alexandra; Royet, Jean-Pierre

    2013-03-01

    The human brain's ability to adapt to environmental changes is obvious in specific sensory domains of experts, and olfaction is one of the least investigated senses. As we have previously demonstrated that olfactory expertise is related to functional brain modifications, we investigated here whether olfactory expertise is also coupled with structural changes. We used voxel-based morphometry to compare the gray-matter volume in student and professional perfumers, as well as untrained control subjects, and accounted for all methodological improvements that have been recently developed to limit possible errors associated with image processing. In all perfumers, we detected an increase in gray-matter volume in the bilateral gyrus rectus/medial orbital gyrus (GR/MOG), an orbitofrontal area that surrounds the olfactory sulcus. In addition, gray-matter volume in the anterior PC and left GR/MOG was positively correlated with experience in professional perfumers. We concluded that the acute olfactory knowledge acquired through extensive olfactory training leads to the structural reorganization of olfactory brain areas.

  7. West Nile Virus: Using Adapted Primary Literature in Mathematical Biology to Teach Scientific and Mathematical Reasoning in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Stephen P.; Macnab, John S.; Wonham, Marjorie; de Vries, Gerda

    2009-01-01

    This paper promotes the use of adapted primary literature as a curriculum and instruction innovation for use in high school. Adapted primary literature is useful for promoting an understanding of scientific and mathematical reasoning and argument and for introducing modern science into the schools. We describe a prototype adapted from a published…

  8. Expertise and processing distorted structure in chess

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, James C.; Boggan, Amy L.; Krawczyk, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    A classic finding in research on human expertise and knowledge is that of enhanced memory for stimuli in a domain of expertise as compared to either stimuli outside that domain, or within-domain stimuli that have been degraded or distorted in some way. However, we do not understand how experts process degradation or distortion of stimuli within the expert domain (e.g., a face with the eyes, nose, and mouth in the wrong positions, or a chessboard with pieces placed randomly). Focusing on the domain of chess, we present new fMRI evidence that when experts view such distorted/within-domain stimuli, they engage an active search for structure—a kind of exploratory chunking—that involves a component of a prefrontal-parietal network linked to consciousness, attention and working memory. PMID:24348371

  9. Rethinking global health research: towards integrative expertise

    PubMed Central

    MacLachlan, Malcolm

    2009-01-01

    The Bamako Call for Action on Research for Health stresses the importance of inter-disciplinary, inter-ministerial and inter-sectoral working. This challenges much of our current research and postgraduate research training in health, which mostly seeks to produce narrowly focused content specialists. We now need to compliment this type of research and research training, by offering alternative pathways that seek to create expertise, not only in specific narrow content areas, but also in the process and context of research, as well as in the interaction of these different facets of knowledge. Such an approach, developing 'integrative expertise', could greatly facilitate better research utilisation, helping policy makers and practitioners work through more evidence-based practice and across traditional research boundaries. PMID:19643021

  10. [Simulation of deafness in expertise affairs].

    PubMed

    Jahnke, K; Solzbacher, D

    2005-07-01

    The simulation of deafness rarely occurs in the course of medical expertise. However, it is a problem that needs to be recognized and demonstrated by proving methods of investigation. For this purpose, a number of subjective and objective hearing tests exist which can provide evidence for the simulation of uni- or bilateral hearing loss. These methods include the measurement of oto-acoustic emissions, brainstem-evoked response audiometry and the determination of the stapedius reflex threshold as well as subjective methods such as Stenger- and Lee-test. Among the expertise carried out in our department during the past few years, we found 5 cases of simulation of deafness. In these cases -- as opposed to simulated traffic accidents -- there was no criminal prosecution regarding insurance fraud.

  11. Expertise in bodily injuries in criminal procedure.

    PubMed

    Gutevska, A; Cakar, Z; Duma, A; Poposka, V

    2008-07-01

    In the day-to-day practice of answering questions from the area of medicine today, there is a growing need for forensic medical expertise in bodily injuries in criminal procedure. Furthermore, when qualifying a bodily injury, the expert must possess knowledge and experience not only medical, but s/he must also be aware of the legal requirements and norms of the Code of Criminal Procedure and the Criminal Code of R. Macedonia. This will enable the expert to contribute to the explanation and clarification of certain facts and issues relating to the bodily injury. In this paper, by citing Articles 255 and 256 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, it is explained how an expert can be appropriately selected by the court. In addition to this, by citing Article 271 of the afore-mentioned Code, a way of analysing bodily injuries is defined; and finally, the definition of bodily injuries is explained through citing Articles 130 and 131 of the Criminal Code of R. Macedonia, relating to bodily injury and grave bodily injury. The aim of this paper is to outline the method of performing this forensic medical expertise, i.e. by whom and when can expertise in bodily injuries be sought and, moreover, what is the legal and ethical responsibility of the expert during the execution of the expertise. Additionally, the steps that the expert should follow when preparing a written statement and opinion on the type of the bodily injury are explained. More specifically, emphasis is placed on the expert's requirements after examination of the injured individual; after revision of the medical documentation during expert assessment of bodily injuries in the case of criminal subjects; and providing oral statements and opinions during the criminal procedure.

  12. Expertise transfer for expert system design

    SciTech Connect

    Boose, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    This book is about the Expertise Transfer System-a computer program which interviews experts and helps them build expert systems, i.e. computer programs that use knowledge from experts to make decisions and judgements under conditions of uncertainty. The techniques are useful to anyone who uses decision-making information based on the expertise of others. The methods can also be applied to personal decision-making. The interviewing methodology is borrowed from a branch of psychology called Personal Construct Theory. It is not necessary to use a computer to take advantage of the techniques from Personal Construction Theory; the fundamental procedures used by the Expertise Transfer System can be performed using paper and pencil. It is not necessary that the reader understand very much about computers to understand the ideas in this book. The few relevant concepts from computer science and expert systems that are needed are explained in a straightforward manner. Ideas from Personal Construct Psychology are also introduced as needed.

  13. Guiding the Design of Lessons by Using the MAPLET Framework: Matching Aims, Processes, Learner Expertise and Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ifenthaler, Dirk; Gosper, Maree

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the MAPLET framework that was developed to map and link teaching aims, learning processes, learner expertise and technologies. An experimental study with 65 participants is reported to test the effectiveness of the framework as a guide to the design of lessons embedded within larger units of study. The findings indicate the…

  14. Expert Teaching in College Education: An Investigation of Sternberg and Horvath's Prototype View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdom, Daniel M.; Laframboise, Kathryn L.; Kromery, Jeffrey D.

    This study examined the nature of teaching expertise at the postsecondary level. Using the prototype view of teaching expertise set forth by Sternberg and Horvath (1995), which focuses on domain knowledge, efficiency, and insight, the teaching portfolios of 16 award-winning teacher educators from one of the largest colleges of education in the…

  15. Expertise in Clinical Pathology: Combining the Visual and Cognitive Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaarsma, Thomas; Jarodzka, Halszka; Nap, Marius; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J. G.; Boshuizen, Henny P. A.

    2015-01-01

    Expertise studies in the medical domain often focus on either visual or cognitive aspects of expertise. As a result, characteristics of expert behaviour are often described as either cognitive or visual abilities. This study focuses on both aspects of expertise and analyses them along three overarching constructs: (1) encapsulations, (2)…

  16. Adaptation and Evaluation of Online Self-learning Modules to Teach Critical Appraisal and Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing: An International Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Johanne; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Buteau, Rose-Anne; Azizah, Ginette Mbourou; Jetté, Sylvie; Lampron, Amélie; Simonyan, David; Asua, José; Reviriego, Eva

    2015-07-01

    Healthcare professionals need to update their knowledge and acquire skills to continually inform their practice based on scientific evidence. This study was designed to evaluate online self-learning modules on critical appraisal skills to promote the use of research in clinical practice among nurses from Quebec (Canada) and the Basque Country (Spain). The teaching material was developed in Quebec and adapted to the Basque Country as part of an international collaboration project. A prospective pre-post study was conducted with 36 nurses from Quebec and 47 from the Basque Country. Assessment comprised the administration of questionnaires before and after the course in order to explore the main intervention outcomes: knowledge acquisition and self-learning readiness. Satisfaction was also measured at the end of the course. Two of the three research hypotheses were confirmed: (1) participants significantly improved their overall knowledge score after the educational intervention; and (2) they were, in general, satisfied with the course, giving it a rating of seven out of 10. Participants also reported a greater readiness for self-directed learning after the course, but this result was not significant in Quebec. The study provides unique knowledge on the cultural adaptation of online self-learning modules for teaching nurses about critical appraisal skills and evidence-based practice.

  17. Teaching Expatriate Adaptation While Dealing with Reality: The Impact of a Tragedy on the Study-Abroad Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Kenneth J.; Levine, Sally L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the relevance of the accepted U-shaped models of expatriate adaptation to students engaged in an international educational experience when they are faced with a tragedy. In this study-abroad course, an examination of the existing adaptation models and how they provide a set of expectations for the process of cultural adjustment…

  18. Developing an Instructional Material Using a Concept Cartoon Adapted to the 5E Model: A Sample of Teaching Erosion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birisci, Salih; Metin, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Using different instructional materials adapted within the constructivist learning theory will enhance students' conceptual understanding. From this point of view, an instructional instrument using a concept cartoon adapted with 5E model has developed and introduced in this study. The study has some deficiencies in investigating students'…

  19. National Nuclear Forensics Expertise Development Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kentis, Samantha E.; Ulicny, William D.

    2009-08-01

    Over the course of the 2009 Federal Fiscal Year the United States (U.S.) Department of Homeland Security (DHS), in partnership with the Departments of Defense (DoD) and Energy (DOE), is continuing existing programs and introducing new programs designed to maintain a highly qualified, enduring workforce capable of performing the technical nuclear forensics mission. These student and university programs are designed to recruit the best and brightest students, develop university faculty and research capabilities, and engage the national laboratories in fields of study with application in nuclear forensics. This comprehensive effort constitutes the National Nuclear Forensics Expertise Development Program.

  20. Computers in My Curriculum? 18 Lesson Plans for Teaching Computer Awareness without a Computer. Adaptable Grades 3-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Suzanne Powers; Jeffers, Marcia

    Eighteen interrelated, sequential lesson plans and supporting materials for teaching computer literacy at the elementary and secondary levels are presented. The activities, intended to be infused into the regular curriculum, do not require the use of a computer. The introduction presents background information on computer literacy, suggests a…

  1. Quality Assurance: Adapting SERVQUAL to Measure the Perceived Quality of Pre-Service Teachers' Teaching Practice Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Henry; Koeberg, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a work in progress study which extends traditional quality assurance mechanisms through the application of the SERVQUAL instrument. It assesses the difference between pre-service teacher expectations and actual experience during a Teaching Practice period. Anecdotal evidence points to students being the recipients of poor…

  2. Beyond Faces and Expertise: Facelike Holistic Processing of Nonface Objects in the Absence of Expertise.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mintao; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Bülthoff, Isabelle

    2016-02-01

    Holistic processing-the tendency to perceive objects as indecomposable wholes-has long been viewed as a process specific to faces or objects of expertise. Although current theories differ in what causes holistic processing, they share a fundamental constraint for its generalization: Nonface objects cannot elicit facelike holistic processing in the absence of expertise. Contrary to this prevailing view, here we show that line patterns with salient Gestalt information (i.e., connectedness, closure, and continuity between parts) can be processed as holistically as faces without any training. Moreover, weakening the saliency of Gestalt information in these patterns reduced holistic processing of them, which indicates that Gestalt information plays a crucial role in holistic processing. Therefore, holistic processing can be achieved not only via a top-down route based on expertise, but also via a bottom-up route relying merely on object-based information. The finding that facelike holistic processing can extend beyond the domains of faces and objects of expertise poses a challenge to current dominant theories.

  3. Competence, Expertise, and Accountability: Classical Foundations of the Cult of Expertise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartzman, Roy

    Rhetoricians since Plato's day have been concerned with how much knowledge speakers should possess in order to speak effectively as well as ethically. The expert, like anyone, can err, but the chance of factual error decreases when speakers have a thorough grasp of their subject matter. However, the expertise position can potentially become a…

  4. Effectiveness of a Video-Feedback and Questioning Programme to Develop Cognitive Expertise in Sport

    PubMed Central

    García-González, Luis; Moreno, M. Perla; Moreno, Alberto; Gil, Alexander; del Villar, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    The importance within sport expertise of cognitive factors has been emphasised in many research studies. Adaptations that take place in athletes’ long-term memories are going to condition their decision-making and performance, and training programmes must be developed that improve these adaptations. In our study, we provide a tactical-cognitive training programme based on video-feedback and questioning in order to improve tactical knowledge in tennis players and verify its effect when transferred to athletes’ decision-making. 11 intermediate tennis players participated in this study (12.9±0.7 years old), distributed into two groups (experimental, n = 5; control, n = 6). Tactical knowledge was measured by problem representation and strategy planning with a verbal protocol. Decision-making was measured by a systematic observation instrument. Results confirm the effectiveness of a combination of video-feedback and questioning on cognitive expertise, developing adaptations in long-term memory that produce an improvement in the quality of tactical knowledge (content, sophistication and structure). This, in turn, is transferred to the athletes’ decision-making capacity, leading to a higher percentage of successful decisions made during game play. Finally, we emphasise the need to develop effective programmes to develop cognitive expertise and improve athletes' performance, and include it in athletes’ formative stages. PMID:24340012

  5. Facilitating physician referrals on the World Wide Web: representation and appropriate utilization of clinical expertise.

    PubMed

    McHolm, G; Obeid, J; Karson, T H; Sato, L; Schaffer, J L; Greenes, R A

    1996-01-01

    In highly integrated and increasingly complex health care systems, the identification and proper utilization of clinical staff expertise are key factors for efficiently delivering high quality patient care. To achieve these capabilities on an enterprise-wide scale, we have embarked on a multi-phased project to develop World Wide Web (WWW)-based physician referral capabilities for two large teaching hospitals. Currently, users may search for information concerning the education, training, board certifications, and self-designated clinical interests of staff members. Address, phone number, email address, and a photo are also presented. Our experience indicates that institutional changes are required to successfully deploy and maintain online physician referral services and that accurate and equitable representation of clinical expertise and the incorporation of referral guidelines require an incremental introduction of a carefully planned program that addresses the needs of clinicians, administrators, and health care policy-makers. PMID:8947760

  6. Teaching the Repeated Prisoner's Dilemma with a Non-Computerised Adaptation of Axelrod's Tournament

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Darwin's theory of evolution is explicitly competitive, yet co-operation between individuals is a common phenomenon. The Prisoner's Dilemma model is central to the teaching of the evolution of co-operation. The best-known explorations of the Prisoner's Dilemma are the tournaments run by Robert Axelrod in the 1980s. Aimed at students…

  7. Expertise effects in cutaneous wind perception.

    PubMed

    Pluijms, Joost P; Cañal-Bruland, Rouwen; Bergmann Tiest, Wouter M; Mulder, Fabian A; Savelsbergh, Geert J P

    2015-08-01

    We examined whether expertise effects are present in cutaneous wind perception. To this end, we presented wind stimuli consisting of different wind directions and speeds in a wind simulator. The wind simulator generated wind stimuli from 16 directions and with three speeds by means of eight automotive wind fans. Participants were asked to judge cutaneously perceived wind directions and speeds without having access to any visual or auditory information. Expert sailors (n = 6), trained to make the most effective use of wind characteristics, were compared to less-skilled sailors (n = 6) and to a group of nonsailors (n = 6). The results indicated that expert sailors outperformed nonsailors in perceiving wind direction (i.e., smaller mean signed errors) when presented with low wind speeds. This suggests that expert sailors are more sensitive in picking up differences in wind direction, particularly when confronted with low wind speeds that demand higher sensitivity.

  8. Color, reference, and expertise in language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Clark, Eve V

    2006-08-01

    In learning the meaning of a new term, children need to fix its reference, learn its conventional meaning, and discover the meanings with which it contrasts. To do this, children must attend to adult speakers--the experts--and to their patterns of use. In the domain of color, children need to identify color terms as such, fix the reference of each one, and learn how each is used in the language. But color is a property, and terms for properties appear to be more difficult to grasp than do those for objects, actions, and relations. Although children find some domains easier to learn than others, they depend in each case on the expertise of adult speakers. PMID:16600283

  9. On conveying and not conveying expertise.

    PubMed

    Rappert, Brian; Coopmans, Catelijne

    2015-08-01

    This article attends to the movement between disclosing and non-disclosing in accounts of expertise. While referencing discussions about tacit knowledge ('experts know more than they can say') and the politics of non-disclosure ('withholding can help as well as harm the credibility of experts'), in the main it considers how experts move between conveying and not conveying in order to make their proficiencies recognized and accessible to others. The article examines this movement through a form that partakes in it, thus drawing attention to conventions and tensions in how authors make themselves accountable, and their subject matter available, to audiences. It thereby proposes to explore the possibilities of careful, and generative, non-disclosure as part of expert writing practices. PMID:26502661

  10. Cognitive Expertise: An ALE Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Nicola; Lotze, Martin; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2016-01-01

    Expert performance constitutes the endpoint of skill acquisition and is accompanied by widespread neuroplastic changes. To reveal common mechanisms of reorganization associated with long-term expertise in a cognitive domain (mental calculation, chess, language, memory, music without motor involvement), we used activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis and compared brain activation of experts to nonexperts. Twenty-six studies matched inclusion criteria, most of which reported an increase and not a decrease of activation foci in experts. Increased activation occurred in the left rolandic operculum (OP 4) and left primary auditory cortex and in bilateral premotor cortex in studies that used auditory stimulation. In studies with visual stimulation, experts showed enhanced activation in the right inferior parietal cortex (area PGp) and the right lingual gyrus. Experts' brain activation patterns seem to be characterized by enhanced or additional activity in domain-specific primary, association, and motor structures, confirming that learning is localized and very specialized. PMID:26467981

  11. Expertise among professional magicians: an interview study

    PubMed Central

    Rissanen, Olli; Pitkänen, Petteri; Juvonen, Antti; Kuhn, Gustav; Hakkarainen, Kai

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to analyse interviews of highly regarded Finnish magicians. Social network analysis (N = 120) was used to identify Finland's most highly regarded magicians (N = 16). The selected participants' careers in professional magic and various aspects of their professional conduct were examined by relying on semi-structured interviews. The results revealed that cultivation of professional level competence in magic usually requires an extensive period of time compared with other domains of expertise. Magic is a unique performing art and it differs from other professions focusing on deceiving the audience. A distinctive feature of magical expertise is that the process takes place entirely through informal training supported by communities of magical practitioners. Three interrelated aspects of magical activity were distinguished: magic tricks, performance, and audience. Although magic tricks constitute a central aspect of magic activity, the participants did not talk about their tricks extensively; this is in accordance with the secretive nature of magic culture. The interviews revealed that a core aspect of the magicians' activity is performance in front of an audience that repeatedly validates competence cultivated through years of practice. The interviewees reported investing a great deal of effort in planning, orchestrating, and reflecting on their performances. Close interaction with the audience plays an important role in most interviewees' activity. Many participants put a great deal of effort in developing novel magic tricks. It is common to borrow magic effects from fellow magicians and develop novel methods of implementation. Because magic tricks or programs are not copyrighted, many interviewees considered “stealing” an unacceptable and unethical aspect of magical activity. The interviewees highlighted the importance of personality and charisma in the successful pursuit of magic activity. PMID:25566156

  12. Expertise increases the functional overlap between face and object perception.

    PubMed

    McKeeff, Thomas J; McGugin, Rankin W; Tong, Frank; Gauthier, Isabel

    2010-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that expertise with objects can interfere with face processing. Although competition occurs between faces and objects of expertise, it remains unclear whether this reflects an expertise-specific bottleneck or the fact that objects of expertise grab attention and thereby consume more central resources. We investigated the perceptual costs of expertise by measuring visual thresholds for identifying targets embedded within RSVP sequences presented at varying temporal rates. Car experts and novices searched for face targets among face and car distractors, or watch targets among watch and car distractors. Remarkably, car experts were slower than novices at identifying faces among task-irrelevant cars, yet faster than novices at identifying watches among cars. This suggests that car expertise leads to greater functional overlap between cars and faces while reducing the functional overlap between cars and objects, a result incompatible with the notion of an encapsulated module for exclusive processing of faces.

  13. Translation, Adaptation and Invariance Testing of the Teaching Perspectives Inventory: Comparing Faculty of Malaysia and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misieng, Jecky

    2013-01-01

    As a result of growing attention in cross-cultural research, existing measurement instruments developed in one language are being translated and adapted for use in other languages and cultural contexts. Producing invariant measurement instruments that assess educational and psychological constructs provide a way of testing the cross-cultural…

  14. Harnessing Distributed Musical Expertise through Edublogging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chong, Eddy K. M.

    2008-01-01

    The pedagogical potential of edublogging--blogging used as an educational tool and strategy--in music teaching has been explored in two previous studies; a third exploration has now been conducted. Recognising the social and contextual dimensions of knowledge and of the learning process, I reflect on all three experiences from a distributed…

  15. [The teaching of microbiology and parasitology in undergraduate medical education and its adaptation to the European Higher Education Area].

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Vicente Ausina; Otero, Beatriz Mirelis; Pastor, Guillem Prats

    2010-10-01

    The creation of the European Higher Education Area provides a series of opportunities for far-reaching reform of medical education and changes in the way both students and teachers work. The Bologna process must be implemented before 2010 in signatory countries, which include Spain, and must allow education and academic titles to be homologated. Medical degrees must consist of 360 European Credit Transfer System (ECTS) credits, divided into six academic years (60 credits per academic year). The Faculty of Medicine of the Autonomous University of Barcelona has already put the finishing touches to a proposal for the distribution of subjects in the new curriculum. This proposal strengthens and reassesses the teaching of microbiology and parasitology compared with current curricula, giving these subjects appropriate weight in undergraduate medical education. The teaching of medical microbiology and parasitology is included as a core subject worth 8 ECTS in the third year and two free-choice modules of 2.5 and 3 ECTS to be taken in the first semesters of the fifth and sixth years as part of the minor in "Clinical and Experimental Laboratory"(30 ECTS). The teaching of microbiology will also play an important role in the Integrated Learning in Medicine (INTEL-M) course in the third, fourth and fifth years. INTEL-M is an innovation in the syllabus based on the joint planning, organization and evaluation of a series of subjects (24.5 ECTS) that are developed in small groups of students and in the form of problem-based learning.

  16. Adapting AV for Mainstreamed Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Judy W.

    1984-01-01

    The article describes possible adaptations of standard audiovisual equipment (overhead projectors, videotapes, tape recorders, graphic materials and bulletin boards) for use in teaching mainstreamed handicapped students. (CL)

  17. The temporal advantage for individuating objects of expertise: perceptual expertise is an early riser.

    PubMed

    Curby, Kim M; Gauthier, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    The identification of faces has a temporal advantage over that of other object categories. The orientation-specific nature of this advantage suggests that it stems from our extensive experience and resulting expertise with upright faces. While experts can identify objects faster than novices, it is unclear exactly how the temporal dynamics of identification are changed by expertise and whether the nature of this temporal advantage is similar for face and non-face objects of expertise. Here, we titrated encoding time using a backward-masking paradigm with variable stimulus-mask onset-asynchronies and mapped the resulting effect on recognition for upright and inverted faces (Experiment 1) and for cars among car experts and car novices (Experiment 2). Performance for upright faces and cars among car experts rose above chance between 33 and 70 ms before that for inverted faces or cars among car novices. A shifted exponential function fitted to these data suggested that performance started to rise earlier for experts than for novices, but that additional encoding time increased performance at a similar rate. Experience influences the availability of information early in processing, possibly through the recruitment of more category-selective neurons, while the rate of perceptual processing may be less flexible and limited by inherent physiological constraints. PMID:19761298

  18. CIVA: an expertise platform for simulation and processing NDT data.

    PubMed

    Calmon, P; Mahaut, S; Chatillon, S; Raillon, R

    2006-12-22

    Ultrasonic modeling and simulation are more and more widely used by the different actors of industrial NDT. The applications are numerous and show a great variety: help for diagnosis, data reconstruction, performance demonstration, probe design and inspection parameters settling, virtual testing etc. The CEA (the French Atomic Energy Commission) is strongly involved in this evolution with the development of the CIVA expertise platform which gathers in the same software advanced processing and modeling tools. In the aim of fulfilling requirements of an intensive use the choice has been made to mainly adopt semi-analytical approximated methods. The wave propagation modeling is based on an integral formulation of the radiated field and applies the so-called pencil method. The modeling of beam-defect interaction and echoes formation mechanisms apply approximated theories such as Kirchhoff approximation or GTD. Over the years and with successive versions of the software, this approach is enriched by adaptations and improvements of the existing models or by new models, in order to extend the field of applicability of the simulation.

  19. [Clinical reasoning learning (CRL) sessions. An example of a contextualized teaching activity adapted to clinical stages in medicine].

    PubMed

    Chamberland, M

    1998-12-01

    Clinical reasoning learning (CRL) sessions stem from an educational reform brought about since 1987 at the Faculty of Medicine of the Université de Sherbrooke. This reform is student-centered and based on situated learning and teaching. The objective of the CRL sessions, designed and implemented at the clerkship level, is to help students develop problem solving competencies through the use of effective general clinical reasoning strategies and the development of a highly organized network of specific knowledge. These sessions also strive to offset the difficulties of random clinical exposure and often highly complex cases encountered by trainees during clinical rotations in teaching hospitals. Formed of small groups, sessions recreate a clinical consultation setting focused on a specific priority problem and clinical condition identified among the mandatory objectives of the rotation. Emphasis is placed on early generation and subsequent testing of diagnostic hypothesis, and the active search and gradual disclosure of clinical data using hypothesis-driven inquiry strategy. Students are asked to verbalize their reasoning process under the close supervision of a clinical expert in the field under discussion. Implemented in 5 different clinical disciplines since 1990 in Sherbrooke, assessment data are now available and support the relevance and usefulness of CRL sessions.

  20. Balanced Expertise Distribution in Remote Ultrasound Imaging Aboard The International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargsyan, Ashot; Dulchavsky, Scott; Hamilton, Douglas; Melton, Shannon; Martin, David

    2004-01-01

    Astronaut training for ISS operations usually ensures independent performance. With small crew size same crews also conduct all science work onboard. With diverse backgrounds, a good "match" between the existing and required skills can only be anecdotal. Furthermore, full proficiency in most of the complex tasks can be attained only through long training and practice, which may not be justified and may be impossible given the scarcity of training time. To enable a number of operational and science advancements, authors have developed a new approach to expertise distribution in time and among the space and ground personnel. Methods: As part of NASA Operational Ultrasound Project (1998-2003) and the NASA-solicited experiment "Advanced Diagnostic Ultrasound in Microgravity-ADUM" (P.I. -S.D., ongoing), the authors have created a "Balanced Expertise Distribution" approach to perform complex ultrasound imaging tasks on ISS for both operational and science use. The four components of expertise are a) any pre-existing pertinent expertise; b) limited preflight training c) adaptive onboard proficiency enhancement tools; d) real-time ' guidance from the ground. Throughout the pre-flight training and flight time preceding the experiments, the four components are shaped in a dynamic fashion to meet in an optimum combination during the experiment sessions. Results: Procedure validation sessions and feasibility studies have given encouraging results. While several successful real-time remote guidance sessions have been conducted on ISS, Expedition 8 is the first to use an "on-orbit proficiency enhancement" tool. Conclusions: In spite of severely limited training time, daring peer-reviewed research and operational enhancements are feasible through a balanced distribution of expertise in time, as well as among the crewmembers and ground personnel. This approach shows great promise for biomedical research, but may be applicable for other areas of micro gravity-based science

  1. Perceptual expertise in forensic facial image comparison

    PubMed Central

    White, David; Phillips, P. Jonathon; Hahn, Carina A.; Hill, Matthew; O'Toole, Alice J.

    2015-01-01

    Forensic facial identification examiners are required to match the identity of faces in images that vary substantially, owing to changes in viewing conditions and in a person's appearance. These identifications affect the course and outcome of criminal investigations and convictions. Despite calls for research on sources of human error in forensic examination, existing scientific knowledge of face matching accuracy is based, almost exclusively, on people without formal training. Here, we administered three challenging face matching tests to a group of forensic examiners with many years' experience of comparing face images for law enforcement and government agencies. Examiners outperformed untrained participants and computer algorithms, thereby providing the first evidence that these examiners are experts at this task. Notably, computationally fusing responses of multiple experts produced near-perfect performance. Results also revealed qualitative differences between expert and non-expert performance. First, examiners' superiority was greatest at longer exposure durations, suggestive of more entailed comparison in forensic examiners. Second, experts were less impaired by image inversion than non-expert students, contrasting with face memory studies that show larger face inversion effects in high performers. We conclude that expertise in matching identity across unfamiliar face images is supported by processes that differ qualitatively from those supporting memory for individual faces. PMID:26336174

  2. Attitudes toward patient expertise in chronic illness.

    PubMed

    Thorne, S E; Ternulf Nyhlin, K; Paterson, B L

    2000-08-01

    Although it has become an accepted standard to acknowledge the patient as a full partner in health care decisions, replacing traditional authoritative relationships with those based on an emancipatory model, the experiences of persons living with chronic illness confirm that this paradigm shift is not yet apparent in many health care relationships. In this paper, the authors present a qualitative secondary analysis of combined data sets from their research into chronic illness experience with two quite different chronic diseases - Type I Diabetes (a socially legitimized chronic disease) and Environmental Sensitivities (a disease which is currently treated with considerable scepticism). Comparing the experiences of individuals with diseases that are quite differently socially constructed, it becomes possible to detect common underlying health professional values and attitudes that powerfully influence the experience of living with and negotiating health care for a chronic illness. In the discussion of findings from this study, the authors examine the implications of the spiral of behaviors that fuels mutual alienation in chronic illness care relationships if professionals are unable to value patient expertise.

  3. Sherlock Holmes: an expert's view of expertise.

    PubMed

    André, Didierjean; Fernand, Gobet

    2008-02-01

    In recent years, there has been an intense research effort to understand the cognitive processes and structures underlying expert behaviour. Work in different fields, including scientific domains, sports, games and mnemonics, has shown that there are vast differences in perceptual abilities between experts and novices, and that these differences may underpin other cognitive differences in learning, memory and problem solving. In this article, we evaluate the progress made in the last years through the eyes of an outstanding, albeit fictional, expert: Sherlock Holmes. We first use the Sherlock Holmes character to illustrate expert processes as described by current research and theories. In particular, the role of perception, as well as the nature and influence of expert knowledge, are all present in the description of Conan Doyle's hero. In the second part of the article, we discuss a number of issues that current research on expertise has barely addressed. These gaps include, for example, several forms of reasoning, the influence of emotions on cognition, and the effect of age on experts' knowledge and cognitive processes. Thus, although nearly 120-year-old, Conan Doyle's books show remarkable illustrations of expert behaviour, including the coverage of themes that have mostly been overlooked by current research.

  4. Perceptual expertise in forensic facial image comparison.

    PubMed

    White, David; Phillips, P Jonathon; Hahn, Carina A; Hill, Matthew; O'Toole, Alice J

    2015-09-01

    Forensic facial identification examiners are required to match the identity of faces in images that vary substantially, owing to changes in viewing conditions and in a person's appearance. These identifications affect the course and outcome of criminal investigations and convictions. Despite calls for research on sources of human error in forensic examination, existing scientific knowledge of face matching accuracy is based, almost exclusively, on people without formal training. Here, we administered three challenging face matching tests to a group of forensic examiners with many years' experience of comparing face images for law enforcement and government agencies. Examiners outperformed untrained participants and computer algorithms, thereby providing the first evidence that these examiners are experts at this task. Notably, computationally fusing responses of multiple experts produced near-perfect performance. Results also revealed qualitative differences between expert and non-expert performance. First, examiners' superiority was greatest at longer exposure durations, suggestive of more entailed comparison in forensic examiners. Second, experts were less impaired by image inversion than non-expert students, contrasting with face memory studies that show larger face inversion effects in high performers. We conclude that expertise in matching identity across unfamiliar face images is supported by processes that differ qualitatively from those supporting memory for individual faces.

  5. ITER Creation Safety File Expertise Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrault, D.

    2013-06-01

    In March 2010, the ITER operator delivered the facility safety file to the French "Autorité de Sûreté Nucléaire" (ASN) as part of its request for the creation decree, legally necessary before building works can begin on the site. The French "Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire" (IRSN), in support to the ASN, recently completed its expertise of the safety measures proposed for ITER, on the basis of this file and of additional technical documents from the operator. This paper presents the IRSN's main conclusions. In particular, they focus on the radioactive materials involved, the safety and radiation protection demonstration (suitability of risk management measures…), foreseeable accidents, building and safety important component design and, finally, wastes and effluents to be produced. This assessment was just the first legally-required step in on-going safety monitoring of the ITER project, which will include other complete regulatory re-evaluations.

  6. Toward Adaptability: Where to from Here?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Seth A.; Vaughn, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the collection of articles in this issue are synthesized to discuss conceptualizations of adaptive teaching as a means to foster spaces for adaptive teaching in today's complex educational system. Themes that exist across this collection of articles include adaptive teachers as constructivists, adaptive teachers as knowledgeable…

  7. Visuo-motor delay, information-movement coupling, and expertise in ball sports.

    PubMed

    Le Runigo, Cyrille; Benguigui, Nicolas; Bardy, Benoit G

    2010-02-01

    We compared the performance of tennis experts and non-experts using a simulated interceptive task, in which the ball could be unexpectedly deviated 400 ms before contact. The results showed that experts were more accurate than non-experts when intercepting balls that deviated in their trajectory and that this could be explained by their shorter visuo-motor delay in adapting their interceptive movement. In addition, multiple regression analyses revealed that visuo-motor delay was a good predictor of accuracy in this task. Finally, accuracy in the simulated interceptive task was shown to be a reasonable predictor of expertise in tennis assessed by national ranking. In combination, the present results suggest that an important component of expertise in interceptive skills is fast information-movement coupling, which corresponds to a reduced delay in integrating vision and action. Our findings highlight the potential of the virtual interceptive task used here to predict performance in tennis. PMID:20131141

  8. An Investigation of Expertise: Implications for Adult Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandernach, Janice B.

    To examine the characteristics of expertise, a study at the University of Minnesota cardiac clinic compared differences in diagnostic ability and strategies between novices (fourth year medical students) and experts (specialists in pediatric cardiology). The investigator presented a model for expertise based on knowledge of subject matter content…

  9. Quality of Feedback Following Performance Assessments: Does Assessor Expertise Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Govaerts, Marjan J. B.; van de Wiel, Margje W. J.; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to investigate quality of feedback as offered by supervisor-assessors with varying levels of assessor expertise following assessment of performance in residency training in a health care setting. It furthermore investigates if and how different levels of assessor expertise influence feedback characteristics.…

  10. Learning Stories from IT Workers--Development of Professional Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Tak S.

    2015-01-01

    In the knowledge economy, many companies are well aware of the vital need to maintain the professional expertise of their workers at a high level. Though there have been a lot of research studies in the areas of professional expertise and workplace learning, few examined the learning pathways novice workers went through to become experts in their…

  11. The Evidence Rejects the Expertise Hypothesis: Reply to Gauthier & Bukach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKone, Elinor; Robbins, Rachel

    2007-01-01

    In Robbins, R. & McKone, E. (2006). No face-like processing for object-of-expertise in three behavioural tasks. "Cognition" this issue, we showed face-like holistic/configural processing does not occur for objects-of-expertise on standard paradigms including inversion, part-whole, part-in-configurally-transformed-whole, and the standard composite…

  12. Change Blindness as a Means of Studying Expertise in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feil, Adam; Mestre, Jose P.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies examining expertise have used a wide range of methods. Beyond characterizing expert and novice behavior in different contexts and circumstances, many studies have examined the processes that comprise the behavior itself and, more recently, processes that comprise training and practice that develop expertise. Other studies, dating…

  13. The Expertise Reversal Effect: Cognitive Load and Motivational Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rey, Gunter Daniel; Buchwald, Florian

    2011-01-01

    The expertise reversal effect occurs when a learner's expertise moderates design principles such as the redundancy principle (i.e., redundant information should be excluded rather than included) derived from the cognitive load theory. Although this effect is supported by numerous experiments, indicating an overall large effect size, a variety of…

  14. The Development of Expertise: The Journey from Acclimation to Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Patricia A.

    2003-01-01

    The Model of Domain Learning (MDL) is an alternative perspective on expertise that arose from studies of student learning in academic domains, such as reading, history, physics, and biology. A comparison of the MDL and traditional models of expertise is made. The key components and stages of the MDL are then overviewed. Discussion concludes with a…

  15. Knowledge Building Expertise: Nanomodellers' Education as an Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tala, Suvi

    2013-01-01

    The content of the expertise which young natural scientists try to gain by doing science in research groups is a relatively little-explored subject. What makes learning in such settings challenging is that a central part of the expertise is tacit. This study employs empirical methods together with a contextualized approach and interdisciplinary…

  16. The Problem of Developing Professional Expertise of Vocational College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakirova, Venera G.; Gilmiyarova, Sophia G.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the paper is to study the problem of developing the professional expertise of vocational college students, future technicians of the road transport industry. The nature and content of the concept "the professional expertise of a technician of road transport industry" has been defined. This concept is considered as a set of…

  17. Cognition at Work: The Development of Vocational Expertise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, J., Ed.

    This book contains eight papers examining vocational expertise and how best to develop it. The first paper, "Vocational Expertise" (John Stevenson), presents five approaches to developing it. The role of context in patterning cognition is considered in "Authenticity in Workplace Learning Settings" (Stephen Billett). In "Learning in Apprenticeship…

  18. Faculty Computer Expertise and Use of Instructional Technology. Technology Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriner, Robert; Mery, Pamela

    This report shows the findings of a 1997 technology survey used to assess degrees of faculty computer expertise and the use of instructional technology. Part 1 reviews general findings of the fall 1997 technology survey: (1) the level of computer expertise among faculty, staff and administrators appears to be increasing; (2) in comparison with the…

  19. Becoming an Expert: Developing Expertise in an Applied Discipline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhlmann, Diane Orlich; Ardichvili, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the development of expertise in an applied discipline by addressing the research question: How is professional expertise developed in an applied profession? Design/methodology/approach: Using a grounded theory methodology (GTM), nine technical-tax experts, and three experienced, non-expert tax professionals were…

  20. A Multimodal Neural Network Recruited by Expertise with Musical Notation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Yetta Kwailing; Gauthier, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Prior neuroimaging work on visual perceptual expertise has focused on changes in the visual system, ignoring possible effects of acquiring expert visual skills in nonvisual areas. We investigated expertise for reading musical notation, a skill likely to be associated with multimodal abilities. We compared brain activity in music-reading experts…

  1. An Investigation of Development toward Instructional Design Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardre, Patricia L.; Ge, Xun; Thomas, Michael K.

    2006-01-01

    This research investigated expertise development among instructional designers by tracking novice designers' unfolding perceptions of instructional design (ID), design-related self-perceptions, and other individual differences. It examined development toward ID expertise from multiple aspects: processes, product, and cognition, through a case…

  2. A multimodal neural network recruited by expertise with musical notation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yetta Kwailing; Gauthier, Isabel

    2010-04-01

    Prior neuroimaging work on visual perceptual expertise has focused on changes in the visual system, ignoring possible effects of acquiring expert visual skills in nonvisual areas. We investigated expertise for reading musical notation, a skill likely to be associated with multimodal abilities. We compared brain activity in music-reading experts and novices during perception of musical notation, Roman letters, and mathematical symbols and found selectivity for musical notation for experts in a widespread multimodal network of areas. The activity in several of these areas was correlated with a behavioral measure of perceptual fluency with musical notation, suggesting that activity in nonvisual areas can predict individual differences in visual expertise. The visual selectivity for musical notation is distinct from that for faces, single Roman letters, and letter strings. Implications of the current findings to the study of visual perceptual expertise, music reading, and musical expertise are discussed.

  3. Knowledge Building Expertise: Nanomodellers' Education as an Example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tala, Suvi

    2013-06-01

    The content of the expertise which young natural scientists try to gain by doing science in research groups is a relatively little-explored subject. What makes learning in such settings challenging is that a central part of the expertise is tacit. This study employs empirical methods together with a contextualized approach and interdisciplinary cooperation in order to reveal practicing nanomodellers' (N = 10) perspectives on their knowledge-building expertise, and on young scientists' expertise education. Modelling in the virtual world plays a major role in the science of these nanomodellers, as it increasingly does in many fields of science. This study therefore adds to our understanding of the nature of recent scientific knowledge building and expertise development, which can be used in the education of the scientists of the future.

  4. Transforming Expertise from Individual to Regional Community Expertise: A Four-Year Study of an Education Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piirainen, Arja; Viitanen, Elina

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present the empirical results of a study showing that individualised expertise can be transformed into regional community expertise by means of an education intervention programme. In view of the ongoing reform of the municipal and service structures in Finland, during which small municipalities are combined into areas with…

  5. Prospective Adaptation in the Use of External Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Lee; Schwartz, Daniel L.

    2009-01-01

    An important element of adaptive expertise involves stepping away from a routine to retool one's knowledge or environment. The current study investigated two forms of this adaptive pattern: fault-driven adaptations, which are reactions to a difficulty, and prospective adaptations, which are proactive reformulations. Graduate and undergraduate…

  6. Changing teaching techniques and adapting new technologies to improve student learning in an introductory meteorology and climate course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutrim, E. M.; Rudge, D.; Kits, K.; Mitchell, J.; Nogueira, R.

    2006-06-01

    Responding to the call for reform in science education, changes were made in an introductory meteorology and climate course offered at a large public university. These changes were a part of a larger project aimed at deepening and extending a program of science content courses that model effective teaching strategies for prospective middle school science teachers. Therefore, revisions were made to address misconceptions about meteorological phenomena, foster deeper understanding of key concepts, encourage engagement with the text, and promote inquiry-based learning. Techniques introduced include: use of a flash cards, student reflection questionnaires, writing assignments, and interactive discussions on weather and forecast data using computer technology such as Integrated Data Viewer (IDV). The revision process is described in a case study format. Preliminary results (self-reflection by the instructor, surveys of student opinion, and measurements of student achievement), suggest student learning has been positively influenced. This study is supported by three grants: NSF grant No. 0202923, the Unidata Equipment Award, and the Lucia Harrison Endowment Fund.

  7. The Energy Forum of Sri Lanka: Working toward appropriate expertise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieusma, Dean

    Taking my cue from the knowledge base and practices comprising appropriate technology development, and building on politics of expertise scholarship, this dissertation develops the concept of appropriate expertise: the combination of social and technical competences required to address marginalization through technological interventions. The dissertation asks what appropriate expertise looks like "on the ground" in the context of development as practiced by an exceptional group of technology designers from the Energy Forum of Sri Lanka: What design goals did they strive toward? What challenges did they face? What strategies did they employ? In an effort to answer these questions, the dissertation looks at how these designers interacted across a range of contexts with a broad spectrum of people and institutions, each with its own expertise to draw upon. In particular, it looks at how they situated their work in a highly contoured field of social power, where different types of expertise were used as resources for reinforcing or resisting existing power relations. I use the concept relations of expertise to denote the structure of expert interactions across multiple contexts of activity. Although this concept links to broad political-economic conditions that order varied expert practices, my analytic focus is at a different level: the situated experiences of expert practitioners. By starting with ground-level practices and understandings, I argue that creating new relations of expertise---that is, changing the nature of the interactions among experts and between experts and those they work with---is the key way my informants worked to legitimate marginalized perspectives and thereby empower marginalized social groups around technology-development practices. Appropriate expertise enables the creation of appropriate technologies, but it does more. It enables the creation of new relations of expertise, both through inspiring new forms of interpersonal interaction

  8. Teaching World History: A Resource Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roupp, Heidi, Ed.

    This resource book provides essays on relevant topics, conceptual overviews, courses of study, successful lessons and other ideas by individuals widely recognized for their expertise in teaching world history. Lessons illustrate cross-cultural exchange, global themes, and comparative analyses to teach the skills of thinking historically. The book…

  9. Promoting Science Teacher Ownership through STL Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rannikmäe, Miia

    2005-01-01

    A sad fact of teaching is that once the classroom door is closed, teachers are on their own under "normal" conditions. They are in charge of the teaching direction, the choice of materials, the pace of learning, the atmosphere created and the learning emphasis. Developing these skills requires expertise and experience and is aided by…

  10. National Standards for Quality Online Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North American Council for Online Learning, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The mission of the North American Council for Online Learning (NACOL) is to increase educational opportunities and enhance learning by providing collegial expertise and leadership in K-12 online teaching and learning. "National Standards for Quality Online Teaching" is designed to provide states, districts, online programs, and other organizations…

  11. Teaching Symbiosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, G. H.

    1985-01-01

    Argues that the meaning of the word "symbiosis" be standardized and that it should be used in a broad sense. Also criticizes the orthodox teaching of general principles in this subject and recommends that priority be given to continuity, intimacy, and associated adaptations, rather than to the harm/benefit relationship. (Author/JN)

  12. Clinical expertise and the limits of explicit knowledge.

    PubMed

    Luchins, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This article questions the view that medical decision-making can be reduced to a series of explicit rules, adherence to which will necessarily improve outcomes. Instead, it attempts to rehabilitate the concepts of clinical expertise and clinical experience, arguing that medicine, like other areas of expertise, depends on forms of implicit knowledge that can only be acquired through years of experience. Recent research on "fast and frugal" heuristics in medical decision-making suggest that statistical techniques are not necessarily superior to clinician judgment. Since clinical decisions are made on individual patients within the constraint of limited information, they must rest on clinical expertise and not clinical rules. PMID:22643764

  13. Practising What They Preach? An Investigation into the Pedagogical Beliefs and Online Teaching Practices of National Teaching Fellows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Tessa

    2015-01-01

    National Teaching Fellows (NTFs) in the UK are celebrated individuals who have made a successful claim for teaching excellence to the Higher Education Academy. This paper reports the results of an empirical study of NTFs with expertise in online learning, which measured their pedagogical beliefs and online teaching practices, using a…

  14. Inferring expertise in knowledge and prediction ranking tasks.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael D; Steyvers, Mark; de Young, Mindy; Miller, Brent

    2012-01-01

    We apply a cognitive modeling approach to the problem of measuring expertise on rank ordering problems. In these problems, people must order a set of items in terms of a given criterion (e.g., ordering American holidays through the calendar year). Using a cognitive model of behavior on this problem that allows for individual differences in knowledge, we are able to infer people's expertise directly from the rankings they provide. We show that our model-based measure of expertise outperforms self-report measures, taken both before and after completing the ordering of items, in terms of correlation with the actual accuracy of the answers. These results apply to six general knowledge tasks, like ordering American holidays, and two prediction tasks, involving sporting and television competitions. Based on these results, we discuss the potential and limitations of using cognitive models in assessing expertise. PMID:22253187

  15. Irrelevant objects of expertise compete with faces during visual search

    PubMed Central

    McGugin, Rankin W.; McKeeff, Thomas J.; Tong, Frank; Gauthier, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Prior work suggests that non-face objects of expertise can interfere with the perception of faces when the two categories are alternately presented, suggesting competition for shared perceptual resources. Here we ask whether task-irrelevant distractors from a category of expertise compete when faces are presented in a standard visual search task. Participants searched for a target (face or sofa) in an array containing both relevant and irrelevant distractors. The number of distractors from the target category (face or sofa) remained constant, while the number of distractors from the irrelevant category (cars) varied. Search slopes, calculated as a function of the number of irrelevant cars, were correlated with car expertise. The effect was not due to car distractors grabbing attention because they did not compete with sofa targets. Objects of expertise interfere with face perception even when they are task irrelevant, visually distinct and separated in space from faces. PMID:21264705

  16. [The expertise situation as pathoplastic factor].

    PubMed

    Barolin, G S; Schmid, H; Cziudaj, E

    1991-01-01

    Underlying attitudes of apprehension or desire have an essential pathoplastic function, especially in the situation of medical assessment. The functionality of symptoms and complaints requires a diagnostic approach which is not oriented simply towards the "exclusion of organic causes". Interaction between somatogenic and psychogenic factors is by far more common than sheer functionality. Although widely neglected in our medical teaching and literature, these problems are not confined to the mere assessment of temporary or permanent invalidity, but are of great importance for the entire medical sphere, including manifestations and course of a disease, therapeutic success etc. In Austria, the population of foreign workers is in a special position due to socio-economic preconditions, partly due to short-sighted policy devoid of psycho-hygienic considerations. This situation requires thorough analysis free of emotions, which should lead to the development of sensible, although in some respects belated, measures. The latest economical recession has revealed several faulty courses of development in our system of social and health insurance, which needs revision urgently lest it should collapse. In this respect, the medical profession is called upon to contribute to a necessary curtailment of excessive misuse within a system that has become inflexible during the past decades, thereby endangering the valuable achievements of social medicine.

  17. Structured hints : extracting and abstracting domain expertise.

    SciTech Connect

    Hereld, M.; Stevens, R.; Sterling, T.; Gao, G. R.; Mathematics and Computer Science; California Inst. of Tech.; Louisiana State Univ.; Univ. of Delaware

    2009-03-16

    We propose a new framework for providing information to help optimize domain-specific application codes. Its design addresses problems that derive from the widening gap between the domain problem statement by domain experts and the architectural details of new and future high-end computing systems. The design is particularly well suited to program execution models that incorporate dynamic adaptive methodologies for live tuning of program performance and resource utilization. This new framework, which we call 'structured hints', couples a vocabulary of annotations to a suite of performance metrics. The immediate target is development of a process by which a domain expert describes characteristics of objects and methods in the application code that would not be readily apparent to the compiler; the domain expert provides further information about what quantities might provide the best indications of desirable effect; and the interactive preprocessor identifies potential opportunities for the domain expert to evaluate. Our development of these ideas is progressing in stages from case study, through manual implementation, to automatic or semi-automatic implementation. In this paper we discuss results from our case study, an examination of a large simulation of a neural network modeled after the neocortex.

  18. Talent in the taxi: a model system for exploring expertise

    PubMed Central

    Woollett, Katherine; Spiers, Hugo J.; Maguire, Eleanor A.

    2009-01-01

    While there is widespread interest in and admiration of individuals with exceptional talents, surprisingly little is known about the cognitive and neural mechanisms underpinning talent, and indeed how talent relates to expertise. Because many talents are first identified and nurtured in childhood, it can be difficult to determine whether talent is innate, can be acquired through extensive practice or can only be acquired in the presence of the developing brain. We sought to address some of these issues by studying healthy adults who acquired expertise in adulthood. We focused on the domain of memory and used licensed London taxi drivers as a model system. Taxi drivers have to learn the layout of 25 000 streets in London and the locations of thousands of places of interest, and pass stringent examinations in order to obtain an operating licence. Using neuropsychological assessment and structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, we addressed a range of key questions: in the context of a fully developed brain and an average IQ, can people acquire expertise to an exceptional level; what are the neural signatures, both structural and functional, associated with the use of expertise; does expertise change the brain compared with unskilled control participants; does it confer any cognitive advantages, and similarly, does it come at a cost to other functions? By studying retired taxi drivers, we also consider what happens to their brains and behaviour when experts stop using their skill. Finally, we discuss how the expertise of taxi drivers might relate to the issue of talent and innate abilities. We suggest that exploring talent and expertise in this manner could have implications for education, rehabilitation of patients with cognitive impairments, understanding individual differences and possibly conditions such as autism where exceptional abilities can be a feature. PMID:19528024

  19. The value of practice: A critique of interactional expertise.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Rodrigo; Lima, Francisco P A

    2016-04-01

    Collins and Evans have proposed a 'normative theory of expertise' as a way to solve the 'problem of demarcation' in public debates involving technical matters. Their argument is that all citizens have the right to participate in the 'political' phases of such debates, while only three types of experts should have a voice in the 'technical' phases. In this article, Collins and Evans' typology of expertise--in particular, the idea of 'interactional expertise'--is the focus of a detailed empirical, methodological and philosophical analysis. As a result, we reaffirm the difference between practitioners and non-practitioners, contesting the four central claims about interactional expertise--namely, that (1) the idea of interactional expertise has been proven empirically, (2) it is possible to develop interactional expertise through 'linguistic socialization alone', (3) the idea of interactional expertise supports the 'the minimal embodiment thesis' that the individual human body or, more broadly, 'embodiment' is not as relevant as linguistic socialization for acquiring a language and (4) interactional experts have the same linguistic fluency, understanding and judgemental abilities of practitioners within discursive settings. Instead, we argue, individuals' abilities and understandings vary according to the 'type of immersion' they have experienced within a given practice and whether they bring with them another 'perspective'. Acknowledging these differences helps with demarcation but does not solve the 'problem of demarcation'. Every experience is perspectival and cannot handle, alone, the intertwined and complex issues found in public debates involving technical matters. The challenge, then, concerns the ways to mediate interactions between actors with distinct perspectives, experiences and abilities. PMID:27263240

  20. Electrical innovations, authority and consulting expertise in late Victorian Britain

    PubMed Central

    Arapostathis, Stathis

    2013-01-01

    In this article I examine the practices of electrical engineering experts, with special reference to their role in the implementation of innovations in late Victorian electrical networks. I focus on the consulting work of two leading figures in the scientific and engineering world of the period, Alexander Kennedy and William Preece. Both were Fellows of the Royal Society and both developed large-scale consulting activities in the emerging electrical industry of light and power. At the core of the study I place the issues of trust and authority, and the bearing of these on the engineering expertise of consultants in late Victorian Britain. I argue that the ascription of expertise to these engineers and the trust placed in their advice were products of power relations on the local scale. The study seeks to unravel both the technical and the social reasons for authoritative patterns of consulting expertise. PMID:24686584

  1. Expertise, wisdom and moral philosophers: a response to Gesang.

    PubMed

    Cowley, Christopher

    2012-07-01

    In a recent issue of Bioethics, Bernard Gesang asks whether a moral philosopher possesses greater moral expertise than a non-philosopher, and his answer is a qualified yes, based not so much on his infallible access to the truth, but on the quality of his theoretically-informed moral justifications. I reject Gesang's claim that there is such a thing as moral expertise, although the moral philosopher may well make a valid contribution to the ethics committee as a concerned and educated citizen. I suggest that wisdom is a lot more interesting to examine than moral expertise. Again, however, moral philosophers have no monopoly on wisdom, and the study of philosophy may even impede its cultivation.

  2. Detecting deception in a bluffing body: the role of expertise.

    PubMed

    Sebanz, Natalie; Shiffrar, Maggie

    2009-02-01

    Studies of deception detection traditionally have focused on verbal communication. Nevertheless, people commonly deceive others through nonverbal cues. Previous research has shown that intentions can be inferred from the ways in which people move their bodies. Furthermore, motor expertise within a given domain has been shown to increase visual sensitivity to other people's movements within that domain. Does expertise also enhance deception detection from bodily movement? In two psychophysical studies, experienced basketball players and novices attempted to distinguish deceptive intentions (fake passes) and veridical intentions (true passes) from an observed individual's actions. Whereas experts and novices performed similarly with postural cues, only experts could detect deception from kinematics alone. These results demonstrate a link between action expertise and the detection of nonverbal deception.

  3. Cultivating Data Expertise and Roles at a National Research Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    As research becomes more computation and data-intensive, it brings new demands for staff that can manage complex data, design user services, and facilitate open access. Responding to these new demands, universities and research institutions are developing data services to support their scientists and scholarly communities. As more organizations extend their operations to research data, a better understanding of the staff roles and expertise required to support data-intensive research services is needed. What is data expertise - knowledge, skills, and roles? This study addresses this question through a case study of an exemplar research center, the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in Boulder, CO. The NCAR case study results were supplemented and validated with a set of interviews of managers at additional geoscience data centers. To date, 11 interviews with NCAR staff and 19 interviews with managers at supplementary data centers have been completed. Selected preliminary results from the qualitative analysis will be reported in the poster: Data professionals have cultivated expertise in areas such as managing scientific data and products, understanding use and users, harnessing technology for data solutions, and standardizing metadata and data sets. Staff roles and responsibilities have evolved over the years to create new roles for data scientists, data managers/curators, data engineers, and senior managers of data teams, embedding data expertise into each NCAR lab. Explicit career paths and ladders for data professionals are limited but starting to emerge. NCAR has supported organization-wide efforts for data management, leveraging knowledge and best practices across all the labs and their staff. Based on preliminary results, NCAR provides a model for how organizations can build expertise and roles into their data service models. Data collection for this study is ongoing. The author anticipates that the results will help answer questions on what are

  4. A Review of Expertise and Judgment Processes for Risk Estimation

    SciTech Connect

    R. L. Boring

    2007-06-01

    A major challenge of risk and reliability analysis for human errors or hardware failures is the need to enlist expert opinion in areas for which adequate operational data are not available. Experts enlisted in this capacity provide probabilistic estimates of reliability, typically comprised of a measure of central tendency and uncertainty bounds. While formal guidelines for expert elicitation are readily available, they largely fail to provide a theoretical basis for expertise and judgment. This paper reviews expertise and judgment in the context of risk analysis; overviews judgment biases, the role of training, and multivariate judgments; and provides guidance on the appropriate use of atomistic and holistic judgment processes.

  5. Toward reflexive climate adaptation research

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, Benjamin L.; Rickards, Lauren; Fünfgeld, Hartmut; Keenan, Rodney J.

    2015-06-22

    Climate adaptation research is expanding very quickly within an increasingly reflexive society where the relationship between academia and other social institutions is in a state of flux. Tensions exist between the two dominant research orientations of research about and research for adaptation. In particular, the research community is challenged to develop processes for successfully executing transdisciplinary research for adaptation when academic institutions and researchers are largely structured around traditional, disciplinary expertise and funding models. One tool for helping to manage this tension is a third, more reflexive, orientation toward adaptation research that is emerging in the literature. Finally, this new ‘research on adaptation research’ promises to help enhance understanding of the research enterprise itself and how it can become more adaptive.

  6. Toward reflexive climate adaptation research

    DOE PAGES

    Preston, Benjamin L.; Rickards, Lauren; Fünfgeld, Hartmut; Keenan, Rodney J.

    2015-06-22

    Climate adaptation research is expanding very quickly within an increasingly reflexive society where the relationship between academia and other social institutions is in a state of flux. Tensions exist between the two dominant research orientations of research about and research for adaptation. In particular, the research community is challenged to develop processes for successfully executing transdisciplinary research for adaptation when academic institutions and researchers are largely structured around traditional, disciplinary expertise and funding models. One tool for helping to manage this tension is a third, more reflexive, orientation toward adaptation research that is emerging in the literature. Finally, this newmore » ‘research on adaptation research’ promises to help enhance understanding of the research enterprise itself and how it can become more adaptive.« less

  7. Teaching as an exaptation.

    PubMed

    Smaldino, Paul E; Newton, Emily K

    2015-01-01

    We appreciate and endorse Kline's ethological taxonomy and its application. However, the definition of teaching she presents is problematic, as it replaces mentalistic intent with intention on the part of natural selection. We discuss problems with the strict adaptationist view and suggest instead that the five forms of teaching presented in the taxonomy may constitute exaptations rather than adaptations. PMID:26785704

  8. Technology Integration Practice as a Function of Pedagogical Expertise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierson, Melissa E.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated how teachers at various levels of technology use and teaching abilities used technology and how technology use related to general teaching practice. Highlights include teachers' personal definitions of technology integration; planning habits for technology inclusion; strategies for teaching about technology that matched teacher…

  9. Authority, Expertise, and Impression Management: Gendered Professionalization of Chemists in the Academy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirshfield, Laura Ellen

    Women face more barriers to their success than their men counterparts in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) disciplines. While much of the research on women's experience in science has focused on their entry into or exit out of STEM fields (the "leaky pipeline"), less is known about the obstacles that women scientists face at work, due to the dearth of ethnographic work exploring gender and day-to-day experiences in the academic workplace. Using data from a qualitative study of graduate students and postdoctoral fellows in chemistry involving over 120 hours of ethnographic observation and 40 semi-structured interviews, I focus specifically on the gendered nature of authority, expertise, and impression management to investigate several of the obstacles women scientists face at work. In the first chapter, I investigate men and women graduate students' and postdocs' expectations of expertise. I argue that overall, men are more likely than their women peers to be seen as experts in chemistry. As a result, men graduate students benefit from more practice with skills that are applicable to their future careers: applying scientific knowledge to relevant questions and communicating this information to others. In the second chapter, I focus on gender and graduate student socialization. I find that the link between men, science, and academia creates a context in which men do not need to work as hard to establish their claim to scientific authority. Therefore, men are able to perform masculinity in varied and complex ways, while women, who do not embody masculinity, feel more pressure to conform to strict norms of competition that are associated with traditional masculinity. In the last chapter, I discuss the impression management strategies that men and women chemists-in-training use to navigate authority and expertise. I find that men are more likely than women to employ interactional styles that feature their expertise when in group situations, while women

  10. An embodied perspective on expertise in solving the problem of making a geologic map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callahan, Caitlin Norah

    The task of constructing a geologic map is a cognitively and physically demanding field-based problem. The map produced is understood to be an individual's two-dimensional interpretation or mental model of the three-dimensional underlying geology. A popular view within the geoscience community is that teaching students how to make a geologic map is valuable for preparing them to deal with disparate and incomplete data sets, for helping them develop problem-solving skills, and for acquiring expertise in geology. Few previous studies have focused specifically on expertise in geologic mapping. Drawing from literature related to expertise, to problem solving, and to mental models, two overarching research questions were identified: How do geologists of different levels of expertise constrain and solve an ill-structured problem such as making a geologic map? How do geologists address the uncertainties inherent to the processes and interpretations involved in solving a geologic mapping problem? These questions were answered using a methodology that captured the physical actions, expressed thoughts, and navigation paths of geologists as they made a geologic map. Eight geologists, from novice to expert, wore a head-mounted video camera with an attached microphone to record those actions and thoughts, creating "video logs" while in the field. The video logs were also time-stamped, which allowed the visual and audio data to be synchronized with the GPS data that tracked participants' movements in the field. Analysis of the video logs yielded evidence that all eight participants expressed thoughts that reflected the process of becoming mentally situated in the mapping task (e.g. relating between distance on a map and distance in three-dimensional space); the prominence of several of these early thoughts waned in the expressed thoughts later in the day. All participants collected several types of data while in the field; novices, however, did so more continuously throughout

  11. Expertise Reversal Effects in Writing-to-Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuckles, Matthias; Hubner, Sandra; Dumer, Sandra; Renkl, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    This article presents two longitudinal studies that investigated expertise reversal effects in journal writing. In Experiment 1, students wrote regular journal entries over a whole term. The experimental group received a combination of cognitive and metacognitive prompts. The control group received no prompts. In the first half of the term, the…

  12. Music Educators' Expertise and Mandate: Who Decides, Based on What?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelo, Elin

    2016-01-01

    Who should define music educators' expertise and mandate, and on what basis? Is this for example individual music educators, diverse collectives, employment institutions or political frameworks? How can one discuss professional quality and codes of ethic in this field, where these questions inseparably adhere to personal qualities and quality of a…

  13. Some Implications of Expertise Research for Educational Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mislevy, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    An educational assessment embodies an argument from a handful of observations of what students say, do or make in a handful of particular circumstances, to what they know or can do in what kinds of situations more broadly. This article discusses ways in which research into the nature and development of expertise can help assessment designers…

  14. Ritualizing Expertise: Non-Montessorian View of the Montessori Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cossentino, Jacqueline

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the practice of Montessori education through the lens of ritual. Anchored by description and analysis of a lesson in an elementary classroom, the lesson is viewed as a series of ritualized interactions in which both teacher and student act out multiple layers of expertise within the cultural frame of the Montessori method.…

  15. Public University Trustees: New Expertise Needed as Funding Diversifies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, John; Tuby, Kimberly

    2008-01-01

    A long-term decline in state-government funding and an increase in funds from other sources are creating the need for broader types of expertise on boards of public universities. Public universities are becoming increasingly market-driven and consequently must deal with a broader base of stakeholders. As a result of these changes, public boards…

  16. Cognitive Ability and Non-Ability Trait Determinants of Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Phillip L.

    2003-01-01

    Traditional approaches to understanding individual differences determinants of domain-specific expertise have focused on individual trait components, such as ability or topic interest. In contrast, trait complex approaches consider whether combinations of cognitive, affective, and conative traits are particularly facilitative or impeding of the…

  17. Using Information Expertise to Enhance Massive Open Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahraj, Katy

    2012-01-01

    It is a truth not yet universally acknowledged that a venture based on information must be in want of a librarian. Librarians offer expertise in organizing and managing information, clarifying and supporting people's information needs, and enhancing people's information literacy skills. There are innumerable endeavors today in education, health,…

  18. Being an Expert Mathematics Online Tutor: What Does Expertise Entail?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinovic, Dragana

    2009-01-01

    This article is derived from the qualitative portion of a larger study conducted on mathematics websites that provide expert volunteer help. Data consist of tutoring logs of five expert tutors from two help sites, plus interviews with these tutors. The researcher has employed theories about expertise in the educational domain to elicit details of…

  19. 7 CFR 205.504 - Evidence of expertise and ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evidence of expertise and ability. 205.504 Section 205.504 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC...

  20. Practitioner Expertise in Evidence-Based Practice Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCracken, Stanley G.; Marsh, Jeanne C.

    2008-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) is an orientation to practice that values evidence as a resource for clinical decision making while recognizing that evidence alone is never sufficient to make a clinical decision. Critics of EBP typically ignore, negate, or misrepresent the role of practitioner thinking processes and expertise in clinical settings.…

  1. A Structural Equation Model of Expertise in College Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Carr, Martha

    2009-01-01

    A model of expertise in physics was tested on a sample of 374 college students in 2 different level physics courses. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypothesized relationships among variables linked to expert performance in physics including strategy use, pictorial representation, categorization skills, and motivation, and these…

  2. Development of Information Search Expertise: Postgraduates' Knowledge of Searching Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Samuel Kai-Wah; Law, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of the development of information searching expertise by 12 postgraduate research students. Six of the students were studying education, and six were studying engineering. The paper focuses on the students' perception of the importance of searching skills and the growth of their knowledge with these skills as they…

  3. Constructing Librarians' Information Literacy Expertise in the Domain of Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundin, Olof; Limberg, Louise; Lundh, Anna

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates negotiations of librarians' expertise in relation to information literacy at the micro-level, specifically in the domain of nursing education. A qualitative empirical framework is employed. The study draws on 18 semi-structured interviews, 16 with Swedish nursing students, one with a librarian and one with a nursing…

  4. Managing & Re-Using Didactical Expertise: The Didactical Object Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawlowski, Jan M.; Bick, Markus

    2006-01-01

    The DIN Didactical Object Model extends the approaches of existing Educational Modeling Languages introducing specifications for contexts and experiences. In this paper, we show how the Didactical Object Model can be used for sharing didactical expertise. Educational Modeling Languages change the design paradigm from content orientation towards…

  5. Conceptions of Giftedness and Expertise Put to the Empirical Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harder, Bettina; Vialle, Wilma; Ziegler, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Recent handbooks of giftedness or expertise propose a plethora of conceptions on the development of excellent performance but, to our knowledge, there are no comparative studies that provide empirical evidence of their validity to guide researchers and practitioners in their adoption of a particular conception. This study sought to close that gap…

  6. The Role of Human Expertise in Enhancing Data Mining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaddouri, Abdelaaziz

    2011-01-01

    Current data mining (DM) technology is not domain-specific and therefore rarely generates reliable, business actionable knowledge that can be used to improve the effectiveness of the decision-making process in the banking industry. DM is mainly an autonomous, data-driven process with little focus on domain expertise, constraints, or requirements…

  7. Talent "and" Expertise: The Empirical Evidence for Genetic Endowment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonton, Dean Keith

    2007-01-01

    In this commentary, the author focuses on the claim summarized in the last sentence of the target article's abstract. To begin, the concept of talent does not require the existence of "innate constraints to the attainment of elite achievement". On the contrary, genetic endowment may merely influence the rate at which domain-specific expertise is…

  8. Capturing flight system test engineering expertise: Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woerner, Irene Wong

    1991-01-01

    Within a few years, JPL will be challenged by the most active mission set in history. Concurrently, flight systems are increasingly more complex. Presently, the knowledge to conduct integration and test of spacecraft and large instruments is held by a few key people, each with many years of experience. JPL is in danger of losing a significant amount of this critical expertise, through retirement, during a period when demand for this expertise is rapidly increasing. The most critical issue at hand is to collect and retain this expertise and develop tools that would ensure the ability to successfully perform the integration and test of future spacecraft and large instruments. The proposed solution was to capture and codity a subset of existing knowledge, and to utilize this captured expertise in knowledge-based systems. First year results and activities planned for the second year of this on-going effort are described. Topics discussed include lessons learned in knowledge acquisition and elicitation techniques, life-cycle paradigms, and rapid prototyping of a knowledge-based advisor (Spacecraft Test Assistant) and a hypermedia browser (Test Engineering Browser). The prototype Spacecraft Test Assistant supports a subset of integration and test activities for flight systems. Browser is a hypermedia tool that allows users easy perusal of spacecraft test topics. A knowledge acquisition tool called ConceptFinder which was developed to search through large volumes of data for related concepts is also described and is modified to semi-automate the process of creating hypertext links.

  9. Perceptions and Predictions of Expertise in Advanced Musical Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papageorgi, Ioulia; Creech, Andrea; Haddon, Elizabeth; Morton, Frances; De Bezenac, Christophe; Himonides, Evangelos; Potter, John; Duffy, Celia; Whyton, Tony; Welch, Graham

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article was to compare musicians' views on (a) the importance of musical skills and (b) the nature of expertise. Data were obtained from a specially devised web-based questionnaire completed by advanced musicians representing four musical genres (classical, popular, jazz, Scottish traditional) and varying degrees of professional…

  10. Negative Expertise: Comparing Differently Tenured Elder Care Nurses' Negative Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartmeier, Martin; Lehtinen, Erno; Gruber, Hans; Heid, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Negative expertise is conceptualised as the professional's ability to avoid errors during practice due to certain cognitive agencies. In this study, negative knowledge (i.e. knowledge about what is wrong in a certain context and situation) is conceptualised as one such agency. This study compares and investigates the negative knowledge of elder…

  11. Revisiting the Role of the Fusiform Face Area in Expertise.

    PubMed

    Bilalić, Merim

    2016-09-01

    The fusiform face area (FFA) is considered to be a highly specialized brain module because of its central importance for face perception. However, many researchers claim that the FFA is a general visual expertise module that distinguishes between individual examples within a single category. Here, I circumvent the shortcomings of some previous studies on the FFA controversy by using chess stimuli, which do not visually resemble faces, together with more sensitive methods of analysis such as multivariate pattern analysis. I also extend the previous research by presenting chess positions, complex scenes with multiple objects, and their interrelations to chess experts and novices as well as isolated chess objects. The first experiment demonstrates that chess expertise modulated the FFA activation when chess positions were presented. In contrast, single chess objects did not produce different activation patterns among experts and novices even when the multivariate pattern analysis was used. The second experiment focused on the single chess objects and featured an explicit task of identifying the chess objects but failed to demonstrate expertise effects in the FFA. The experiments provide support for the general expertise view of the FFA function but also extend the scope of our understanding about the function of the FFA. The FFA does not merely distinguish between different exemplars within the same category of stimuli. More likely, it parses complex multiobject stimuli that contain numerous functional and spatial relations. PMID:27082047

  12. Expertise in clinical pathology: combining the visual and cognitive perspective.

    PubMed

    Jaarsma, Thomas; Jarodzka, Halszka; Nap, Marius; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J G; Boshuizen, Henny P A

    2015-10-01

    Expertise studies in the medical domain often focus on either visual or cognitive aspects of expertise. As a result, characteristics of expert behaviour are often described as either cognitive or visual abilities. This study focuses on both aspects of expertise and analyses them along three overarching constructs: (1) encapsulations, (2) efficiency, and (3) hypothesis testing. This study was carried out among clinical pathologists performing an authentic task: diagnosing microscopic slides. Participants were 13 clinical pathologists (experts), 12 residents in pathology (intermediates), and 13 medical students (novices). They all diagnosed seven cases in a virtual microscope and gave post hoc explanations for their diagnoses. The collected data included eye movements, microscope navigation, and verbal protocols. Results showed that experts used lower magnifications and verbalized their findings as diagnoses. Also, their diagnostic paths were more efficient, including fewer microscope movements and shorter reasoning chains. Experts entered relevant areas later in their diagnostic process, and visited fewer of them. Intermediates used relatively high magnifications and based their diagnoses on specific abnormalities. Also, they took longer to reach their diagnosis and checked more relevant areas. Novices searched in detail, described findings by their appearances, and uttered long reasoning chains. These results indicate that overarching constructs can justly be identified: encapsulations and efficiency are apparent in both visual and cognitive aspects of expertise.

  13. The Role of Context Expertise when Comparing Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langrall, Cynthia; Nisbet, Steven; Mooney, Edward; Jansem, Sinchai

    2011-01-01

    Our research addresses the role that context expertise plays when students compare data. We report findings from a study conducted in 3 countries: Australia, United States, and Thailand. In each country, six middle school students analyzed authentic data relating to selected students' areas of interest. We examined the data analysis processes and…

  14. Expertise in Performance Assessment: Assessors' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berendonk, Christoph; Stalmeijer, Renée E.; Schuwirth, Lambert W. T.

    2013-01-01

    The recent rise of interest among the medical education community in individual faculty making subjective judgments about medical trainee performance appears to be directly related to the introduction of notions of integrated competency-based education and assessment for learning. Although it is known that assessor expertise plays an important…

  15. Building Expertise to Support Digital Scholarship: A Global Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Vivian; Spiro, Lisa; Wang, Xuemao; Cawthorne, Jon E.

    2015-01-01

    This report sheds light on the expertise required to support a robust and sustainable digital scholarship (DS) program. It focuses first on defining and describing the key domain knowledge, skills, competencies, and mindsets at some of the world's most prominent digital scholarship programs. It then identifies the main strategies used to build…

  16. Differential language expertise related to white matter architecture in regions subserving sensory-motor coupling, articulation, and interhemispheric transfer.

    PubMed

    Elmer, Stefan; Hänggi, Jürgen; Meyer, Martin; Jäncke, Lutz

    2011-12-01

    The technique of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been used to investigate alterations in white matter architecture following long-term training and expertise. Professional simultaneous interpreters (SI) provide an ideal model for the investigation of training-induced plasticity due to the high demands placed on sound to motor mapping mechanisms, which are vital for executing fast interpretations. In line with our hypothesis, we found clusters with decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) in the SI group in brain regions previously shown to support sensory-motor coupling mechanisms and speech articulation (cluster extent family-wise error corrected, P < 0.01). Furthermore, we found an altered white matter architecture indicated by lower FA values in the SI group in the most anterior and posterior parts of the corpus callosum. Our results suggest that language expertise is accompanied by plastic adaptations in regions strongly involved in motor aspects of speech and in interhemispheric information transfer. These results have implications for our understanding of language expertise in relation to white matter adaptations.

  17. Climate Science Centers: Growing Federal and Academic Expertise in the Nation's Interests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryker, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Department of the Interior's (Interior) natural and cultural resource managers face increasingly complex challenges exacerbated by climate change. In 2009, under Secretarial Order 3289, Interior created eight regional Climate Science Centers managed by the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center and in partnership with universities. Secretarial Order 3289 provides a framework to coordinate climate change science and adaptation efforts across Interior and to integrate science and resource management expertise from Federal, State, Tribal, private, non-profit, and academic partners. In addition to broad research expertise, these Federal/university partnerships provide opportunities to develop a next generation of climate science professionals. These include opportunities to increase the climate science knowledge base of students and practicing professionals; build students' skills in working across the boundary between research and implementation; facilitate networking among researchers, students, and professionals for the application of research to on-the-ground issues; and support the science pipeline in climate-related fields through structured, intensive professional development. In 2013, Climate Science Centers supported approximately 10 undergraduates, 60 graduate students, and 26 postdoctoral researchers. Additional students trained by Climate Science Center-affiliated faculty also contribute valuable time and expertise, and are effectively part of the Climate Science Center network. The Climate Science Centers' education and training efforts have also reached a number of high school students interested in STEM careers, and professionals in natural and cultural resource management. The Climate Science Centers are coordinating to build on each other's successful education and training efforts. Early successes include several intensive education experiences, such as the Alaska Climate Science Center's Girls on

  18. BOOK REVIEW: The Expertise and Deployment of Science Teachers at Key Stage 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, Ken

    2000-03-01

    experienced head of department (biologist) considered himself to be: ... probably a better physics teacher than most physicists for many GCSE candidates. I know their difficulties from personal experience. Another biologist: We operate a detailed scheme of work and have subject advisers within the Faculty to help those less confident in particular disciplines. Most enjoy the variety. In contrast: A chemist: I have no expertise in physics or biology and no training to teach these disciplines at any level. ... I consider [my teaching programme] to be a terrible waste of the school's resources and my expertise. An environmental scientist: I feel that [the pupils] have a raw deal from my lack of physics expertise. However, a common feeling is that there is a good case for teaching science so that pupils benefit from cross-disciplinary links, but that there is a tension between this and what teachers feel professionally confident about being able to do. The authors conclude that: ` ... the shift towards teaching of the sciences by non-specialists has gone too far to be halted.' They discuss what this implies in practice. A major recommendation is that ` ... the recruitment and motivation of young science teachers would be promoted ... by a greater emphasis on their disciplinary specialisms.' The final message is that the kids can tell: `Biology with you is OK. Chemistry is fun. But you like physics don't you?' (my emphasis)

  19. Influence of expertise on rockfall hazard assessment using empirical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delonca, Adeline; Verdel, Thierry; Gunzburger, Yann

    2016-07-01

    To date, many rockfall hazard assessment methods still consider qualitative observations within their analysis. Based on this statement, knowledge and expertise are supposed to be major parameters of rockfall assessment. To test this hypothesis, an experiment was carried out in order to evaluate the influence of knowledge and expertise on rockfall hazard assessment. Three populations were selected, having different levels of expertise: (1) students in geosciences, (2) researchers in geosciences and (3) confirmed experts. These three populations evaluated the rockfall hazard level on the same site, considering two different methods: the Laboratoire des Ponts et Chaussées (LPC) method and a method partly based on the "slope mass rating" (SMR) method. To complement the analysis, the completion of an "a priori" assessment of the rockfall hazard was requested of each population, without using any method. The LPC method is the most widely used method in France for official hazard mapping. It combines two main indicators: the predisposition to instability and the expected magnitude. Reversely, the SMR method was used as an ad hoc quantitative method to investigate the effect of quantification within a method. These procedures were applied on a test site divided into three different sectors. A statistical treatment of the results (descriptive statistical analysis, chi-square independent test and ANOVA) shows that there is a significant influence of the method used on the rockfall hazard assessment, whatever the sector. However, there is a non-significant influence of the level of expertise of the population the sectors 2 and 3. On sector 1, there is a significant influence of the level of expertise, explained by the importance of the temporal probability assessment in the rockfall hazard assessment process. The SMR-based method seems highly sensitive to the "site activity" indicator and exhibits an important dispersion in its results. However, the results are more similar

  20. The Racer’s Brain – How Domain Expertise is Reflected in the Neural Substrates of Driving

    PubMed Central

    Lappi, Otto

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental question in human brain plasticity is how sensory, motor, and cognitive functions adapt in the process of skill acquisition extended over a period of many years. Recently, there has emerged a growing interest in cognitive neuroscience on studying the functional and structural differences in the brains of elite athletes. Elite performance in sports, music, or the arts, allows us to observe sensorimotor and cognitive performance at the limits of human capability. In this mini-review, we look at driving expertise. The emerging brain imaging literature on the neural substrates of real and simulated driving is reviewed (for the first time), and used as the context for interpreting recent findings on the differences between racing drivers and non-athlete controls. Also the cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience of expertise are discussed. PMID:26635586

  1. Spontaneously spotting and applying shortcuts in arithmetic—a primary school perspective on expertise

    PubMed Central

    Godau, Claudia; Haider, Hilde; Hansen, Sonja; Schubert, Torsten; Frensch, Peter A.; Gaschler, Robert

    2014-01-01

    One crucial feature of expertise is the ability to spontaneously recognize where and when knowledge can be applied to simplify task processing. Mental arithmetic is one domain in which people should start to develop such expert knowledge in primary school by integrating conceptual knowledge about mathematical principles and procedural knowledge about shortcuts. If successful, knowledge integration should lead to transfer between procedurally different shortcuts that are based on the same mathematical principle and therefore likely are both associated to the respective conceptual knowledge. Taking commutativity principle as a model case, we tested this conjecture in two experiments with primary school children. In Experiment 1, we obtained eye tracking data suggesting that students indeed engaged in search processes when confronted with mental arithmetic problems to which a formerly feasible shortcut no longer applied. In Experiment 2, children who were first provided material allowing for one commutativity-based shortcut later profited from material allowing for a different shortcut based on the same principle. This was not the case for a control group, who had first worked on material that allowed for a shortcut not based on commutativity. The results suggest that spontaneous shortcut usage triggers knowledge about different shortcuts based on the same principle. This is in line with the notion of adaptive expertise linking conceptual and procedural knowledge. PMID:24959156

  2. The Development of ISRU and ISSE Technologies Leveraging Canadian Mining Expertise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, Dale S.; Richard, Jim; Dupuis, Erick

    2003-01-01

    F uture space missions to planetary bodies, both manned and robotic, will require the efficient utilization of in-situ resources to ensure longevity and success. In Situ Resources Utilization (ISRU) and In Situ Support Equipment (ISSE), while requiring the development of new technologies and methods for commodity extraction, will still rely upon some method of mining technology for the harvesting and pre-beneficiation of the raw materials prior to processing. The Northern Centre for Advanced Technologies Inc., in partnership with Electric Vehicle Controllers Ltd., is presently engaged in the development and adaptation of existing mining technologies and methodologies for use extra-terrestrially as pre cursor and enabling technologies for ISRU and for use as ISSE in support of longer term missions. More specifically, NORCAT and EVC, in partnership with MD Robotics and under contract to the Canadian Space Agency, are developing a drill and sample handler system for sub surface sampling of planetary bodies, specifically Mars. The partnership brings to the table some formidable world leading expertise in space robotics coupled with world leading expertise in mining technologies.

  3. Nurturing Undergraduate Tutors' Role in the University Teaching Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Kathryn A.

    2009-01-01

    University students often serve as tutors who supplement the lecture-based teaching of permanent academic staff. However, potential issues arise when student tutors are employed with similar expectations of expertise and experience as the industry professionals and permanent staff they teach alongside. Arguably, successful and sustainable…

  4. Teaching Online: A Theory-Based Approach to Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Maureen Snow

    2015-01-01

    Concerns about a lack of face-to-face contact with students, a focus on grading rather than teaching, and limited expertise with technology or needed pedagogical strategies, may contribute to instructor reluctance to teach online. The interaction between the instructor and learner and among learners affects the quality and success of online…

  5. The Gender-Related Role of Teaching Profession in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uygun, Selcuk

    2014-01-01

    Teaching is a professional job that requires expertise. The characteristics of the professionals can affect the quality of the profession. One of these characteristics is gender. In this study, the gender-related role of teaching profession in Turkey is examined. The analysis in a historical perspective of gender distributions of students who have…

  6. No Respect, No Respect at All: Some Thoughts on Teaching History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Gregory Kent; Baines, Lawrence A.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the teaching of history in schools. Addresses the prevalent view that history is one of the easiest subjects to teach; the lack of subject expertise among history teachers, examining Georgia (United States) in particular; and the link between teaching history and coaching sports. (CMK)

  7. Tactical expertise assessment in youth football using representative tasks.

    PubMed

    Serra-Olivares, Jaime; Clemente, Filipe Manuel; González-Víllora, Sixto

    2016-01-01

    Specific football drills improve the development of technical/tactical and physical variables in players. Based on this principle, in recent years it has been possible to observe in daily training a growing volume of small-sided and conditioned games. These games are smaller and modified forms of formal games that augment players' perception of specific tactics. Despite this approach, the assessment of players' knowledge and tactical execution has not been well documented, due mainly to the difficulty in measuring tactical behavior. For that reason, this study aims to provide a narrative review about the tactical assessment of football training by using representative tasks to measure the tactical expertise of youth football players during small-sided and conditioned games. This study gives an overview of the ecological approach to training and the principles used for representative task design, providing relevant contribution and direction for future research into the assessment of tactical expertise in youth football. PMID:27547675

  8. Memory of psychodiagnostic information: biases and effects of expertise.

    PubMed

    Brailey, K; Vasterling, J J; Franks, J J

    2001-01-01

    Problem-solving expertise has been associated with enhanced memory of domain-specific information. This enhanced memory is thought to play an important role in expert decisions. Meanwhile, research on psychodiagnostic decision making has found consistent limitations in experienced clinicians' ability to make optimal decisions. To what extent are these limitations associated with suboptimal memory processes? We compared memories of expert clinicians and novice graduate students for information learned while viewing a videotaped psychodiagnostic interview. Results of 3 tests suggest that expert clinicians exhibit enhanced memory that is flexible, selective, and accurate but with limitations that might contribute to poor decisions. Experts exhibited superior memory of personal criteria and disconfirmatory information. However, a framing manipulation induced performance in experts consistent with suboptimal decision making, and both groups needed exhaustive prompts for optimal memory search. Implications of these findings for expertise models are discussed.

  9. Psychiatric expertise in the sentencing phase of capital murder cases.

    PubMed

    Dekleva, K B

    2001-01-01

    The role of forensic psychiatry in the sentencing phase of capital murder cases continues to attract intense attention in the psychiatric and legal professions as well as in the public eye. Such cases are high stakes, placing psychiatric experts under intense scrutiny. Issues of professional identity, roles, and ethics arise in capital cases, highlighting the increased psychiatric complexity and need for psychiatric expertise. This article will highlight these issues in the context of recent state (Texas) appellate and federal court rulings. The increased use of capital punishment and the need for increased psychiatric expertise in the sentencing phase of capital cases possesses important educational and ethics issues for our profession in its "quest for excellence."

  10. [The Netherlands Expertise Center for Occupational and Respiratory Disorders].

    PubMed

    Rooyackers, J M

    2006-06-01

    In 2000 the Netherlands Expertise Centre for Occupational Respiratory Disorders (NECORD) was started as a centre of expertise in occupational health. The centre received a grant from the ministry of Health Welfare and Sport for a period of 5 years. Their mission was to collect, develop and implement knowledge in the fields of diagnosis, treatment, reintegration and prevention of work-related health- and occupational disorders. In cooperation with two other institutes for health, NECORD has become a multidisciplinary clinical occupational respiratory health service. Occupational hygienists, occupational health physicians and chest physicians are working on three programmes: research projects on the prevalence and monitoring of respiratory health effects resulting from exposure to substances in the work place; patient care (out-patient clinic); and support of professionals (website, helpdesk, development and implementation of guidelines, education and postgraduate training).

  11. Tactical expertise assessment in youth football using representative tasks.

    PubMed

    Serra-Olivares, Jaime; Clemente, Filipe Manuel; González-Víllora, Sixto

    2016-01-01

    Specific football drills improve the development of technical/tactical and physical variables in players. Based on this principle, in recent years it has been possible to observe in daily training a growing volume of small-sided and conditioned games. These games are smaller and modified forms of formal games that augment players' perception of specific tactics. Despite this approach, the assessment of players' knowledge and tactical execution has not been well documented, due mainly to the difficulty in measuring tactical behavior. For that reason, this study aims to provide a narrative review about the tactical assessment of football training by using representative tasks to measure the tactical expertise of youth football players during small-sided and conditioned games. This study gives an overview of the ecological approach to training and the principles used for representative task design, providing relevant contribution and direction for future research into the assessment of tactical expertise in youth football.

  12. Professional Development to Promote Teacher Adaptability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Allison Ward; Ankrum, Julie Winneur; Morewood, Aimee

    2016-01-01

    Effective professional development (PD) follows adaptive teaching principles; it increases teacher understanding and instructional purpose, which ultimately supports and extends adaptive teaching. Through this article, we compare and contrast training models with educative models of PD (Duffy, 2004). We discuss characteristics of effective PD that…

  13. Context-specific effects of musical expertise on audiovisual integration.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Laura; Goebl, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Ensemble musicians exchange auditory and visual signals that can facilitate interpersonal synchronization. Musical expertise improves how precisely auditory and visual signals are perceptually integrated and increases sensitivity to asynchrony between them. Whether expertise improves sensitivity to audiovisual asynchrony in all instrumental contexts or only in those using sound-producing gestures that are within an observer's own motor repertoire is unclear. This study tested the hypothesis that musicians are more sensitive to audiovisual asynchrony in performances featuring their own instrument than in performances featuring other instruments. Short clips were extracted from audio-video recordings of clarinet, piano, and violin performances and presented to highly-skilled clarinetists, pianists, and violinists. Clips either maintained the audiovisual synchrony present in the original recording or were modified so that the video led or lagged behind the audio. Participants indicated whether the audio and video channels in each clip were synchronized. The range of asynchronies most often endorsed as synchronized was assessed as a measure of participants' sensitivities to audiovisual asynchrony. A positive relationship was observed between musical training and sensitivity, with data pooled across stimuli. While participants across expertise groups detected asynchronies most readily in piano stimuli and least readily in violin stimuli, pianists showed significantly better performance for piano stimuli than for either clarinet or violin. These findings suggest that, to an extent, the effects of expertise on audiovisual integration can be instrument-specific; however, the nature of the sound-producing gestures that are observed has a substantial effect on how readily asynchrony is detected as well. PMID:25324819

  14. Context-specific effects of musical expertise on audiovisual integration.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Laura; Goebl, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Ensemble musicians exchange auditory and visual signals that can facilitate interpersonal synchronization. Musical expertise improves how precisely auditory and visual signals are perceptually integrated and increases sensitivity to asynchrony between them. Whether expertise improves sensitivity to audiovisual asynchrony in all instrumental contexts or only in those using sound-producing gestures that are within an observer's own motor repertoire is unclear. This study tested the hypothesis that musicians are more sensitive to audiovisual asynchrony in performances featuring their own instrument than in performances featuring other instruments. Short clips were extracted from audio-video recordings of clarinet, piano, and violin performances and presented to highly-skilled clarinetists, pianists, and violinists. Clips either maintained the audiovisual synchrony present in the original recording or were modified so that the video led or lagged behind the audio. Participants indicated whether the audio and video channels in each clip were synchronized. The range of asynchronies most often endorsed as synchronized was assessed as a measure of participants' sensitivities to audiovisual asynchrony. A positive relationship was observed between musical training and sensitivity, with data pooled across stimuli. While participants across expertise groups detected asynchronies most readily in piano stimuli and least readily in violin stimuli, pianists showed significantly better performance for piano stimuli than for either clarinet or violin. These findings suggest that, to an extent, the effects of expertise on audiovisual integration can be instrument-specific; however, the nature of the sound-producing gestures that are observed has a substantial effect on how readily asynchrony is detected as well.

  15. The neural circuitry of expertise: perceptual learning and social cognition.

    PubMed

    Harré, Michael

    2013-12-17

    Amongst the most significant questions we are confronted with today include the integration of the brain's micro-circuitry, our ability to build the complex social networks that underpin society and how our society impacts on our ecological environment. In trying to unravel these issues one place to begin is at the level of the individual: to consider how we accumulate information about our environment, how this information leads to decisions and how our individual decisions in turn create our social environment. While this is an enormous task, we may already have at hand many of the tools we need. This article is intended to review some of the recent results in neuro-cognitive research and show how they can be extended to two very specific and interrelated types of expertise: perceptual expertise and social cognition. These two cognitive skills span a vast range of our genetic heritage. Perceptual expertise developed very early in our evolutionary history and is a highly developed part of all mammals' cognitive ability. On the other hand social cognition is most highly developed in humans in that we are able to maintain larger and more stable long term social connections with more behaviorally diverse individuals than any other species. To illustrate these ideas I will discuss board games as a toy model of social interactions as they include many of the relevant concepts: perceptual learning, decision-making, long term planning and understanding the mental states of other people. Using techniques that have been developed in mathematical psychology, I show that we can represent some of the key features of expertise using stochastic differential equations (SDEs). Such models demonstrate how an expert's long exposure to a particular context influences the information they accumulate in order to make a decision.These processes are not confined to board games, we are all experts in our daily lives through long exposure to the many regularities of daily tasks and social

  16. [Topical issues of organisation and implementation of forensic medical expertise].

    PubMed

    Kapustin, A V; Isaev, A I

    2004-01-01

    The shaped-up experience of management and implementation of expertise as applicable to civil and criminal cases and with respect to the requirements of new legislative acts was analyzed. Issues connected with composing a commission of experts, with the range of competence of forensic medical expert and of clinical practitioner, as well as with the content and form of the expert conclusions are under discussion.

  17. The neural circuitry of expertise: perceptual learning and social cognition

    PubMed Central

    Harré, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Amongst the most significant questions we are confronted with today include the integration of the brain's micro-circuitry, our ability to build the complex social networks that underpin society and how our society impacts on our ecological environment. In trying to unravel these issues one place to begin is at the level of the individual: to consider how we accumulate information about our environment, how this information leads to decisions and how our individual decisions in turn create our social environment. While this is an enormous task, we may already have at hand many of the tools we need. This article is intended to review some of the recent results in neuro-cognitive research and show how they can be extended to two very specific and interrelated types of expertise: perceptual expertise and social cognition. These two cognitive skills span a vast range of our genetic heritage. Perceptual expertise developed very early in our evolutionary history and is a highly developed part of all mammals' cognitive ability. On the other hand social cognition is most highly developed in humans in that we are able to maintain larger and more stable long term social connections with more behaviorally diverse individuals than any other species. To illustrate these ideas I will discuss board games as a toy model of social interactions as they include many of the relevant concepts: perceptual learning, decision-making, long term planning and understanding the mental states of other people. Using techniques that have been developed in mathematical psychology, I show that we can represent some of the key features of expertise using stochastic differential equations (SDEs). Such models demonstrate how an expert's long exposure to a particular context influences the information they accumulate in order to make a decision.These processes are not confined to board games, we are all experts in our daily lives through long exposure to the many regularities of daily tasks and social

  18. Context-specific effects of musical expertise on audiovisual integration

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Laura; Goebl, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Ensemble musicians exchange auditory and visual signals that can facilitate interpersonal synchronization. Musical expertise improves how precisely auditory and visual signals are perceptually integrated and increases sensitivity to asynchrony between them. Whether expertise improves sensitivity to audiovisual asynchrony in all instrumental contexts or only in those using sound-producing gestures that are within an observer's own motor repertoire is unclear. This study tested the hypothesis that musicians are more sensitive to audiovisual asynchrony in performances featuring their own instrument than in performances featuring other instruments. Short clips were extracted from audio-video recordings of clarinet, piano, and violin performances and presented to highly-skilled clarinetists, pianists, and violinists. Clips either maintained the audiovisual synchrony present in the original recording or were modified so that the video led or lagged behind the audio. Participants indicated whether the audio and video channels in each clip were synchronized. The range of asynchronies most often endorsed as synchronized was assessed as a measure of participants' sensitivities to audiovisual asynchrony. A positive relationship was observed between musical training and sensitivity, with data pooled across stimuli. While participants across expertise groups detected asynchronies most readily in piano stimuli and least readily in violin stimuli, pianists showed significantly better performance for piano stimuli than for either clarinet or violin. These findings suggest that, to an extent, the effects of expertise on audiovisual integration can be instrument-specific; however, the nature of the sound-producing gestures that are observed has a substantial effect on how readily asynchrony is detected as well. PMID:25324819

  19. Musical Expertise and the Ability to Imagine Loudness

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Laura; Bailes, Freya; Dean, Roger T.

    2013-01-01

    Most perceived parameters of sound (e.g. pitch, duration, timbre) can also be imagined in the absence of sound. These parameters are imagined more veridically by expert musicians than non-experts. Evidence for whether loudness is imagined, however, is conflicting. In music, the question of whether loudness is imagined is particularly relevant due to its role as a principal parameter of performance expression. This study addressed the hypothesis that the veridicality of imagined loudness improves with increasing musical expertise. Experts, novices and non-musicians imagined short passages of well-known classical music under two counterbalanced conditions: 1) while adjusting a slider to indicate imagined loudness of the music and 2) while tapping out the rhythm to indicate imagined timing. Subtests assessed music listening abilities and working memory span to determine whether these factors, also hypothesised to improve with increasing musical expertise, could account for imagery task performance. Similarity between each participant’s imagined and listening loudness profiles and reference recording intensity profiles was assessed using time series analysis and dynamic time warping. The results suggest a widespread ability to imagine the loudness of familiar music. The veridicality of imagined loudness tended to be greatest for the expert musicians, supporting the predicted relationship between musical expertise and musical imagery ability. PMID:23460791

  20. Anticipatory Governance: Bioethical Expertise for Human/Animal Chimeras

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Alison; Salter, Brian

    2012-01-01

    The governance demands generated by the use of human/animal chimeras in scientific research offer both a challenge and an opportunity for the development of new forms of anticipatory governance through the novel application of bioethical expertise. Anticipatory governance can be seen to have three stages of development whereby bioethical experts move from a reactive to a proactive stance at the edge of what is scientifically possible. In the process, the ethicists move upstream in their engagement with the science of human-to-animal chimeras. To what extent is the anticipatory coestablishment of the principles and operational rules of governance at this early stage in the development of the human-to-animal research field likely to result in a framework for bioethical decision making that is in support of science? The process of anticipatory governance is characterised by the entwining of the scientific and the philosophical so that judgements against science are also found to be philosophically unfounded, and conversely, those activities that are permissible are deemed so on both scientific and ethical grounds. Through what is presented as an organic process, the emerging bioethical framework for human-to-animal chimera research becomes a legitimating framework within which ‘good’ science can safely progress. Science gives bioethical expertise access to new governance territory; bioethical expertise gives science access to political acceptability. PMID:23576848

  1. The changing role of veterinary expertise in the food chain.

    PubMed

    Enticott, Gareth; Donaldson, Andrew; Lowe, Philip; Power, Megan; Proctor, Amy; Wilkinson, Katy

    2011-07-12

    This paper analyses how the changing governance of animal health has impacted upon veterinary expertise and its role in providing public health benefits. It argues that the social sciences can play an important role in understanding the nature of these changes, but also that their ideas and methods are, in part, responsible for them. The paper begins by examining how veterinary expertise came to be crucial to the regulation of the food chain in the twentieth century. The relationship between the veterinary profession and the state proved mutually beneficial, allowing the state to address the problems of animal health, and the veterinary profession to become identified as central to public health and food supply. However, this relationship has been gradually eroded by the application of neoliberal management techniques to the governance of animal health. This paper traces the impact of these techniques that have caused widespread unease within and beyond the veterinary profession about the consequences for its role in maintaining the public good of animal health. In conclusion, this paper suggests that the development of the social sciences in relation to animal health could contribute more helpfully to further changes in veterinary expertise. PMID:21624916

  2. The changing role of veterinary expertise in the food chain

    PubMed Central

    Enticott, Gareth; Donaldson, Andrew; Lowe, Philip; Power, Megan; Proctor, Amy; Wilkinson, Katy

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses how the changing governance of animal health has impacted upon veterinary expertise and its role in providing public health benefits. It argues that the social sciences can play an important role in understanding the nature of these changes, but also that their ideas and methods are, in part, responsible for them. The paper begins by examining how veterinary expertise came to be crucial to the regulation of the food chain in the twentieth century. The relationship between the veterinary profession and the state proved mutually beneficial, allowing the state to address the problems of animal health, and the veterinary profession to become identified as central to public health and food supply. However, this relationship has been gradually eroded by the application of neoliberal management techniques to the governance of animal health. This paper traces the impact of these techniques that have caused widespread unease within and beyond the veterinary profession about the consequences for its role in maintaining the public good of animal health. In conclusion, this paper suggests that the development of the social sciences in relation to animal health could contribute more helpfully to further changes in veterinary expertise. PMID:21624916

  3. Musical expertise and the ability to imagine loudness.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Laura; Bailes, Freya; Dean, Roger T

    2013-01-01

    Most perceived parameters of sound (e.g. pitch, duration, timbre) can also be imagined in the absence of sound. These parameters are imagined more veridically by expert musicians than non-experts. Evidence for whether loudness is imagined, however, is conflicting. In music, the question of whether loudness is imagined is particularly relevant due to its role as a principal parameter of performance expression. This study addressed the hypothesis that the veridicality of imagined loudness improves with increasing musical expertise. Experts, novices and non-musicians imagined short passages of well-known classical music under two counterbalanced conditions: 1) while adjusting a slider to indicate imagined loudness of the music and 2) while tapping out the rhythm to indicate imagined timing. Subtests assessed music listening abilities and working memory span to determine whether these factors, also hypothesised to improve with increasing musical expertise, could account for imagery task performance. Similarity between each participant's imagined and listening loudness profiles and reference recording intensity profiles was assessed using time series analysis and dynamic time warping. The results suggest a widespread ability to imagine the loudness of familiar music. The veridicality of imagined loudness tended to be greatest for the expert musicians, supporting the predicted relationship between musical expertise and musical imagery ability.

  4. The changing role of veterinary expertise in the food chain.

    PubMed

    Enticott, Gareth; Donaldson, Andrew; Lowe, Philip; Power, Megan; Proctor, Amy; Wilkinson, Katy

    2011-07-12

    This paper analyses how the changing governance of animal health has impacted upon veterinary expertise and its role in providing public health benefits. It argues that the social sciences can play an important role in understanding the nature of these changes, but also that their ideas and methods are, in part, responsible for them. The paper begins by examining how veterinary expertise came to be crucial to the regulation of the food chain in the twentieth century. The relationship between the veterinary profession and the state proved mutually beneficial, allowing the state to address the problems of animal health, and the veterinary profession to become identified as central to public health and food supply. However, this relationship has been gradually eroded by the application of neoliberal management techniques to the governance of animal health. This paper traces the impact of these techniques that have caused widespread unease within and beyond the veterinary profession about the consequences for its role in maintaining the public good of animal health. In conclusion, this paper suggests that the development of the social sciences in relation to animal health could contribute more helpfully to further changes in veterinary expertise.

  5. Instructional Design for Accelerated Macrocognitive Expertise in the Baseball Workplace

    PubMed Central

    Fadde, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of accelerating expertise can leave researchers and trainers in human factors, naturalistic decision making, sport science, and expertise studies concerned about seemingly insufficient application of expert performance theories, findings and methods for training macrocognitive aspects of human performance. Video-occlusion methods perfected by sports expertise researchers have great instructional utility, in some cases offering an effective and inexpensive alternative to high-fidelity simulation. A key problem for instructional designers seems to be that expertise research done in laboratory and field settings doesn't get adequately translated into workplace training. Therefore, this article presents a framework for better linkage of expertise research/training across laboratory, field, and workplace settings. It also uses a case study to trace the development and implementation of a macrocognitive training program in the very challenging workplace of the baseball batters' box. This training, which was embedded for a full season in a college baseball team, targeted the perceptual-cognitive skill of pitch recognition that allows expert batters to circumvent limitations of human reaction time in order to hit a 90 mile-per-hour slider. While baseball batting has few analogous skills outside of sports, the instructional design principles of the training program developed to improve batting have wider applicability and implications. Its core operational principle, supported by information processing models but challenged by ecological models, decouples the perception-action link for targeted part-task training of the perception component, in much the same way that motor components routinely are isolated to leverage instructional efficiencies. After targeted perceptual training, perception and action were recoupled via transfer-appropriate tasks inspired by in situ research tasks. Using NCAA published statistics as performance measures, the cooperating team

  6. Instructional Design for Accelerated Macrocognitive Expertise in the Baseball Workplace.

    PubMed

    Fadde, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    The goal of accelerating expertise can leave researchers and trainers in human factors, naturalistic decision making, sport science, and expertise studies concerned about seemingly insufficient application of expert performance theories, findings and methods for training macrocognitive aspects of human performance. Video-occlusion methods perfected by sports expertise researchers have great instructional utility, in some cases offering an effective and inexpensive alternative to high-fidelity simulation. A key problem for instructional designers seems to be that expertise research done in laboratory and field settings doesn't get adequately translated into workplace training. Therefore, this article presents a framework for better linkage of expertise research/training across laboratory, field, and workplace settings. It also uses a case study to trace the development and implementation of a macrocognitive training program in the very challenging workplace of the baseball batters' box. This training, which was embedded for a full season in a college baseball team, targeted the perceptual-cognitive skill of pitch recognition that allows expert batters to circumvent limitations of human reaction time in order to hit a 90 mile-per-hour slider. While baseball batting has few analogous skills outside of sports, the instructional design principles of the training program developed to improve batting have wider applicability and implications. Its core operational principle, supported by information processing models but challenged by ecological models, decouples the perception-action link for targeted part-task training of the perception component, in much the same way that motor components routinely are isolated to leverage instructional efficiencies. After targeted perceptual training, perception and action were recoupled via transfer-appropriate tasks inspired by in situ research tasks. Using NCAA published statistics as performance measures, the cooperating team

  7. Instructional Design for Accelerated Macrocognitive Expertise in the Baseball Workplace.

    PubMed

    Fadde, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    The goal of accelerating expertise can leave researchers and trainers in human factors, naturalistic decision making, sport science, and expertise studies concerned about seemingly insufficient application of expert performance theories, findings and methods for training macrocognitive aspects of human performance. Video-occlusion methods perfected by sports expertise researchers have great instructional utility, in some cases offering an effective and inexpensive alternative to high-fidelity simulation. A key problem for instructional designers seems to be that expertise research done in laboratory and field settings doesn't get adequately translated into workplace training. Therefore, this article presents a framework for better linkage of expertise research/training across laboratory, field, and workplace settings. It also uses a case study to trace the development and implementation of a macrocognitive training program in the very challenging workplace of the baseball batters' box. This training, which was embedded for a full season in a college baseball team, targeted the perceptual-cognitive skill of pitch recognition that allows expert batters to circumvent limitations of human reaction time in order to hit a 90 mile-per-hour slider. While baseball batting has few analogous skills outside of sports, the instructional design principles of the training program developed to improve batting have wider applicability and implications. Its core operational principle, supported by information processing models but challenged by ecological models, decouples the perception-action link for targeted part-task training of the perception component, in much the same way that motor components routinely are isolated to leverage instructional efficiencies. After targeted perceptual training, perception and action were recoupled via transfer-appropriate tasks inspired by in situ research tasks. Using NCAA published statistics as performance measures, the cooperating team

  8. Disciplinary Literacy: "Adapt" Not Adopt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that every teacher is not a teacher of literacy, but instead posits that teachers in content areas must adapt literacy strategies to the content being taught and to the context in which that teaching occurs. Examples of adaptations of a literacy strategy for use in English/language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies…

  9. Reframing the Dialogue about Committed Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Richard F.

    2003-01-01

    There is a pressing need to refocus teacher education on five professional mind sets: reflective (self), collaborative (relationships), analytic (organizations), worldly (context), and action (change). These mind sets affirm that effective, committed teaching requires integration of content expertise and organizational and relationship skills.…

  10. Teaching, Teacher Formation, and Specialised Professional Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hordern, Jim

    2015-01-01

    This paper starts by exploring the relevance of Bernstein's work on vertical and horizontal discourses and the constitution of professional knowledge for conceptualisation of the knowledge needed for teaching practice. Building on arguments for the differentiated nature of knowledge, and drawing on the work of Winch, Young and Muller on expertise,…

  11. Virtue, Practical Wisdom and Character in Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Sandra; Carr, David

    2014-01-01

    Recent reflection on the professional knowledge of teachers has been marked by a shift away from more reductive competence and skill-focused models of teaching towards a view of teacher expertise as involving complex context-sensitive deliberation and judgement. Much of this shift has been inspired by an Aristotelian conception of practical wisdom…

  12. Critical Pedagogy as Collective Social Expertise in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suoranta, Juha; Moisio, Olli-Pekka

    2006-01-01

    In this article, dedicated to the revolutionary educational work of Peter McLaren, we will deal with the question of practical teaching methods in higher education from the point of view of critical pedagogy. We argue that nowadays teaching and learning in educational and social sciences are too often meaningless from the point of view of critical…

  13. Assessing the Quality of Expertise Differences in the Comprehension of Medical Visualizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gegenfurtner, Andreas; Siewiorek, Anna; Lehtinen, Erno; Saljo, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how best to assess expertise, the situational variations of expertise, and distinctive qualities of expertise that arises from particular workplace experiences, presents an important challenge. Certainly, at this time, there is much interest in identifying standard occupational measures and competences, which are not well aligned…

  14. A Chronological Synopsis of the Dimensions of Expertise: Towards the Expert of the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germain, Marie-Line

    2006-01-01

    This paper concisely chronicles the evolution of the concept of expertise since the 1960s. After presenting the key themes of expertise throughout the years, we propose a breakdown of the evolution into three waves: information-processing wave, speed/problem solving wave, and emotional intelligence/ways of expertise wave. We then show the…

  15. Toward an Integrated Model of Expertise Redevelopment and Its Implications for HRD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenier, Robin S.; Kehrhahn, Marijke

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, expertise theories have focused on skills acquisition with little regard for the domain or contextual factors affecting expertise development and retention. Because the development, retention, and recruiting of individuals with expertise is critical to organizational success, it is essential that HRD professionals understand the…

  16. Curricular Design and Implementation as a Site of Teacher Expertise and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peercy, Megan Madigan; Martin-Beltrán, Melinda; Silverman, Rebecca D.; Daniel, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    Previously, research about teacher expertise has adhered to relatively fixed notions of teacher expertise. However, in this study, we share data from teacher study group (TSG) meetings, which demonstrate a dynamic understanding of teacher expertise. In these meetings, teachers discursively positioned themselves, their colleagues, and the research…

  17. The Psychological Costs of Knowledge Specialization in Groups: Unique Expertise Leaves You out of the Loop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Eric E.; Kelly, Janice R.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge specialization, such as that present in cross-functional teams, produces both positive and negative outcomes. Our research investigated how unique expertise can lead to feelings of ostracism in the form of being out of the loop. Compared to group members with shared expertise, members with unique expertise felt out of the loop and…

  18. SPATIAL Short Courses Build Expertise and Community in Isotope Geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riggs, E. M.; Bowen, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    The SPATIAL short course at the University of Utah is designed for graduate students and professionals in the earth and environmental sciences from around the globe. An integral part of the broader, NSF-funded Inter-university Training for Continental-scale Ecology (ITCE) project, the course is an intensive two-week field, classroom and laboratory experience with internationally-known researchers as instructors. The course focuses on stable isotope geochemistry coupled with spatial analysis techniques. Participants do not typically know each other or this research community well upon entering. One of the stated goals of the overall project is to build a community of practice around these techniques. This design is common in many professional fields, but is not often applied at the graduate level nor formally assessed in the earth sciences. Paired pre- and post-tests were administered before the start and after the close of the short courses over 3 years. The survey is a set of instruments adapted from social-cognitive psychology measuring changes in identity and community with other items to measure content knowledge outcomes. We see a subtle, consistent convergence of identities between large-scale isotope geochemistry and participants' research areas. Results also show that the course generates an increase in understanding about stable isotopes' use and application. The data show the SPATIAL course is very effective at bringing students together socially with each other and with faculty to create an environment that fosters community and scientific cooperation. Semi-structured pre-and post- interviews were conducted to understand the program elements that generated gains in learning and community. Participants were selected based on initial responses on the pre-survey to capture the range of initial conditions for the group. Qualitative analysis shows that the major factors for participants were 1) ready access to researchers in an informal setting during the

  19. The Role of Expertise in Tool Use: Skill Differences in Functional Action Adaptations to Task Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bril, Blandine; Rein, Robert; Nonaka, Tetsushi; Wenban-Smith, Francis; Dietrich, Gilles

    2010-01-01

    Tool use can be considered a particularly useful model to understand the nature of functional actions. In 3 experiments, tool-use actions typified by stone knapping were investigated. Participants had to detach stone flakes from a flint core through a conchoidal fracture. Successful flake detachment requires controlling various functional…

  20. Education for Sustainable Development: Enhancing Climate Change Adaptation Expertise in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahey, Shireen; Verstraten, Luke; Berry, Ashton J.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results of an innovative education capacity assessment and delivery project to promote sustainable development in large ocean states in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) region. Science education can help prepare the present and coming generations for stability in an uncertain future. Limited financial, geographical and…

  1. How Well Do Computer-Generated Faces Tap Face Expertise?

    PubMed Central

    Crookes, Kate; Ewing, Louise; Gildenhuys, Ju-dith; Kloth, Nadine; Hayward, William G.; Oxner, Matt; Pond, Stephen; Rhodes, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    The use of computer-generated (CG) stimuli in face processing research is proliferating due to the ease with which faces can be generated, standardised and manipulated. However there has been surprisingly little research into whether CG faces are processed in the same way as photographs of real faces. The present study assessed how well CG faces tap face identity expertise by investigating whether two indicators of face expertise are reduced for CG faces when compared to face photographs. These indicators were accuracy for identification of own-race faces and the other-race effect (ORE)–the well-established finding that own-race faces are recognised more accurately than other-race faces. In Experiment 1 Caucasian and Asian participants completed a recognition memory task for own- and other-race real and CG faces. Overall accuracy for own-race faces was dramatically reduced for CG compared to real faces and the ORE was significantly and substantially attenuated for CG faces. Experiment 2 investigated perceptual discrimination for own- and other-race real and CG faces with Caucasian and Asian participants. Here again, accuracy for own-race faces was significantly reduced for CG compared to real faces. However the ORE was not affected by format. Together these results signal that CG faces of the type tested here do not fully tap face expertise. Technological advancement may, in the future, produce CG faces that are equivalent to real photographs. Until then caution is advised when interpreting results obtained using CG faces. PMID:26535910

  2. Are Places Concepts? Familarity and Expertise Effects in Neighborhood Cognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Clare

    Named urban neighborhoods (localities) are often examples of vague place extents. These are compared with current knowledge of vagueness in concepts and categories within semantic memory, implying graded membership and typicality. If places are mentally constructed and used like concepts, this might account for their cognitive variability, and help us choose suitable geospatial (GIS) data models. An initial within-subjects study with expert geographic surveyors tested specific predictions about the role of central tendency, ideals, context specificity, familiarity and expertise in location judgements - theoretically equivalent to categorization. Implications for spatial data models and a further research agenda are suggested.

  3. A phenomenological investigation of science center exhibition developers' expertise development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Denise L.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the exhibition developer role in the context of United States (U.S.) science centers, and more specifically, to investigate the way science center exhibition developers build their professional expertise. This research investigated how successfully practicing exhibition developers described their current practices, how they learned to be exhibition developers, and what factors were the most important to the developers in building their professional expertise. Qualitative data was gathered from 10 currently practicing exhibition developers from three science centers: the Exploratorium, San Francisco, California; the Field Museum, Chicago, Illinois; and the Science Museum of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota. In-depth, semistructured interviews were used to collect the data. The study embraced aspects of the phenomenological tradition and sought to derive a holistic understanding of the position and how expertise was built for it. The data were methodically coded and organized into themes prior to analysis. The data analysis found that the position consisted of numerous and varied activities, but the developers' primary roles were advocating for the visitor, storytelling, and mediating information and ideas. They conducted these activities in the context of a team and relied on an established exhibition planning process to guide their work. Developers described a process of learning exhibition development that was experiential in nature. Learning through daily practice was key, though they also consulted with mentors and relied on visitor studies to gauge the effectiveness of their work. They were adept at integrating prior knowledge gained from many aspects of their lives into their practice. The developers described several internal factors that contributed to their expertise development including the desire to help others, a natural curiosity about the world, a commitment to learning, and the ability to accept critique. They

  4. Advances of Simulation and Expertise Capabilities in CIVA Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Ber, L.; Calmon, P.; Sollier, Th.; Mahaut, S.; Benoist, Ph.

    2006-03-01

    Simulation is more and more widely used by the different actors of industrial NDT. The French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) launched the development of expertise software for NDT named CIVA which, at its beginning, only contained ultrasonic models from CEA laboratories. CIVA now includes Eddy current simulation tools while present work aims at facilitating integration of algorithms and models from different laboratories and to include X-ray modeling. This communication gives an overview of existing CIVA capabilities and its evolution towards an integration platform.

  5. Teaching Languages, Teaching Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddicoat, Anthony J., Ed.; Crozet, Chantal, Ed.

    This collection of papers examines what it means to teach culture as an integrated part of language from both the language learner's and the language teacher's perspectives. The 11 papers include the following: "Teaching Cultures as an Integrated Part of Language: Implications for the Aims, Approaches and Pedagogies of Language Teaching" (Chantal…

  6. A multilevel approach to the path to expertise in three different competitive settings.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Carlos Eduardo; Carvalho, Humberto Moreira; Diogo, Frederico Lemos

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to analyze the deliberate practice variables in three different youth competitive sport settings; to analyze the effects of a season-long exposure on deliberate practice variables. The study explores three contexts in two different sports, soccer and volleyball, and at two competitive levels. The athletes fulfilled the questionnaire at the beginning and at the end of the season. A multilevel analysis was performed. Forty eight boys aged 15-17 years (14 from a volleyball club; 14 from an elite volleyball centre; 20 from a professional soccer club) participated in the study. The measure was an adapted version for soccer and volleyball of the Deliberate Practice Motivation Questionnaire, which assesses two dimensions: the will to compete and the will to excel. Fewer people in the volleyball group showed a will to excel, the soccer group showed an increase in the scores. In will to compete, the three teams showed a decrease in their means. The decrease is more pronounced in the will to excel but the context effect is not significant. The biggest decrease is shown by the elite volleyball team, followed by the club teams. The findings raise questions for managers and coaches who look for physical and technical gifted young athletes and aim to develop their qualities through a careful planned training programme. The insertion in programmes that are believed to foster expertise seems to have unexpected consequences. Sport participation cannot rely exclusively on an orientation toward expertise, forgetting the autonomy of young people to set their goals. Key PointsThe need for the adolescents to focus on game performance can be a deterrent for their own perspectives of a career or just to have fun.The crucial factor to influence the players' answers seems to be the perspective of a rewarding professional career in sport.It is possible that young athletes, after a hard season, re-evaluate their priorities and think that their dedication to

  7. A multilevel approach to the path to expertise in three different competitive settings.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Carlos Eduardo; Carvalho, Humberto Moreira; Diogo, Frederico Lemos

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to analyze the deliberate practice variables in three different youth competitive sport settings; to analyze the effects of a season-long exposure on deliberate practice variables. The study explores three contexts in two different sports, soccer and volleyball, and at two competitive levels. The athletes fulfilled the questionnaire at the beginning and at the end of the season. A multilevel analysis was performed. Forty eight boys aged 15-17 years (14 from a volleyball club; 14 from an elite volleyball centre; 20 from a professional soccer club) participated in the study. The measure was an adapted version for soccer and volleyball of the Deliberate Practice Motivation Questionnaire, which assesses two dimensions: the will to compete and the will to excel. Fewer people in the volleyball group showed a will to excel, the soccer group showed an increase in the scores. In will to compete, the three teams showed a decrease in their means. The decrease is more pronounced in the will to excel but the context effect is not significant. The biggest decrease is shown by the elite volleyball team, followed by the club teams. The findings raise questions for managers and coaches who look for physical and technical gifted young athletes and aim to develop their qualities through a careful planned training programme. The insertion in programmes that are believed to foster expertise seems to have unexpected consequences. Sport participation cannot rely exclusively on an orientation toward expertise, forgetting the autonomy of young people to set their goals. Key PointsThe need for the adolescents to focus on game performance can be a deterrent for their own perspectives of a career or just to have fun.The crucial factor to influence the players' answers seems to be the perspective of a rewarding professional career in sport.It is possible that young athletes, after a hard season, re-evaluate their priorities and think that their dedication to

  8. Sharing Tacit Knowledge among Expert Teaching Professors and Mentees: Considerations for Career and Technical Education Teacher Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shim, Han Sik; Roth, Gene L.

    2007-01-01

    This case study provides viewpoints of knowledge sharing by expert teaching professors and their mentees. Professors who were recognized as expert teachers with an annual award at a mid-western USA university were the units of analysis of this study. Expert teaching professors had difficulty articulating much of their teaching expertise. The…

  9. Forensic entomology: implementing quality assurance for expertise work.

    PubMed

    Gaudry, Emmanuel; Dourel, Laurent

    2013-09-01

    The Department of Forensic Entomology (Institut de Recherche Criminelle de la Gendarmerie Nationale, France) was accredited by the French Committee of Accreditation (Cofrac's Healthcare section) in October 2007 on the basis of NF EN ISO/CEI 17025 standard. It was the first accreditation in this specific field of forensic sciences in France and in Europe. The present paper introduces the accreditation process in forensic entomology (FE) through the experience of the Department of Forensic Entomology. Based upon the identification of necrophagous insects and the study of their biology, FE must, as any other expertise work in forensic sciences, demonstrate integrity and good working practice to satisfy both the courts and the scientific community. FE does not, strictly speaking, follow an analytical method. This could explain why, to make up for a lack of appropriate quality reference, a specific documentation was drafted and written by the staff of the Department of Forensic Entomology in order to define working methods complying with quality standards (testing methods). A quality assurance system is laborious to set up and maintain and can be perceived as complex, time-consuming and never-ending. However, a survey performed in 2011 revealed that the accreditation process in the frame of expertise work has led to new well-defined working habits, based on an effort at transparency. It also requires constant questioning and a proactive approach, both profitable for customers (magistrates, investigators) and analysts (forensic entomologists).

  10. Dynamic Patterns of Expertise: The Case of Orthopedic Medical Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Assaf, Dan; Amar, Eyal; Marwan, Norbert; Neuman, Yair; Salai, Moshe; Rath, Ehud

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze dynamic patterns for scanning femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) radiographs in orthopedics, in order to better understand the nature of expertise in radiography. Seven orthopedics residents with at least two years of expertise and seven board-certified orthopedists participated in the study. The participants were asked to diagnose 15 anteroposterior (AP) pelvis radiographs of 15 surgical patients, diagnosed with FAI syndrome. Eye tracking data were recorded using the SMI desk-mounted tracker and were analyzed using advanced measures and methodologies, mainly recurrence quantification analysis. The expert orthopedists presented a less predictable pattern of scanning the radiographs although there was no difference between experts and non-experts in the deterministic nature of their scan path. In addition, the experts presented a higher percentage of correct areas of focus and more quickly made their first comparison between symmetric regions of the pelvis. We contribute to the understanding of experts' process of diagnosis by showing that experts are qualitatively different from residents in their scanning patterns. The dynamic pattern of scanning that characterizes the experts was found to have a more complex and less predictable signature, meaning that experts' scanning is simultaneously both structured (i.e. deterministic) and unpredictable. PMID:27414794

  11. Paths to Expertise in Portuguese National Team Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Nuno; Baker, Joseph; Sampaio, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the quantity and type of sporting activities undertaken by expert team sport athletes in the earlier stages of the long- term athlete development. Experts in roller-hockey (n = 19), volleyball (n = 14), soccer (n = 42) and basketball (n = 37) provided detailed information about the sporting activities they undertook throughout their careers. Results showed considerable variation between and within sports; however, generally, athletes began participating in sports between 6 and 10 years of age. The pattern of participation in specific and non-specific (team, individual and combat) sports for each stage of involvement demonstrated an increase in the number of activities participated in until early adolescence. Our results suggest that involvement in multiple sports during early stages of development is an alternative to early specialization and add further evidence of the complexity of skill acquisition in sport. Key points Although most athletes began sport participation between 6 and 10 years of age, there was significant variation across groups suggesting considerable flexibility in the pathways to expertise. The path to expertise in volleyball was clearly distinct from the paths of basketball, soccer and roller-hockey. There is a considerable involvement in sports other than the athlete’s primary sport, suggesting early specialization is not required for these sports. The pattern of participation in specific and non-specific sports for each stage of involvement demonstrated an increase in the number of activities participated in until early adolescence. PMID:24149598

  12. Dynamic Patterns of Expertise: The Case of Orthopedic Medical Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Marwan, Norbert; Neuman, Yair; Salai, Moshe; Rath, Ehud

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze dynamic patterns for scanning femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) radiographs in orthopedics, in order to better understand the nature of expertise in radiography. Seven orthopedics residents with at least two years of expertise and seven board-certified orthopedists participated in the study. The participants were asked to diagnose 15 anteroposterior (AP) pelvis radiographs of 15 surgical patients, diagnosed with FAI syndrome. Eye tracking data were recorded using the SMI desk-mounted tracker and were analyzed using advanced measures and methodologies, mainly recurrence quantification analysis. The expert orthopedists presented a less predictable pattern of scanning the radiographs although there was no difference between experts and non-experts in the deterministic nature of their scan path. In addition, the experts presented a higher percentage of correct areas of focus and more quickly made their first comparison between symmetric regions of the pelvis. We contribute to the understanding of experts’ process of diagnosis by showing that experts are qualitatively different from residents in their scanning patterns. The dynamic pattern of scanning that characterizes the experts was found to have a more complex and less predictable signature, meaning that experts’ scanning is simultaneously both structured (i.e. deterministic) and unpredictable. PMID:27414794

  13. Qualitative Understanding of Magnetism at Three Levels of Expertise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefani, Francesco; Marshall, Jill

    2009-04-01

    This work set out to investigate the state of qualitative understanding of magnetism at various stages of expertise, and what approaches to problem-solving are used across the spectrum of expertise. We studied three groups: 10 novices, 10 experts-in-training, and 11 experts. Data collection involved structured interviews during which participants solved a series of non-standard problems designed to test for conceptual understanding of magnetism. The interviews were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. None of the novices and only a few of the experts in training showed a strong understanding of inductance, magnetic energy, and magnetic pressure; and for the most part they tended not to approach problems visually. Novices frequently described gist memories of demonstrations, text book problems, and rules (heuristics). However, these fragmentary mental models were not complete enough to allow them to reason productively. Experts-in-training were able to solve problems that the novices were not able to solve, many times simply because they had greater recall of the material, and therefore more confidence in their facts. Much of their thinking was concrete, based on mentally manipulating objects. The experts solved most of the problems in ways that were both effective and efficient. Part of the efficiency derived from their ability to visualize and thus reason in terms of field lines.

  14. Qualitative Understanding of Magnetism at Three Levels of Expertise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefani, Francesco; Marshall, Jill

    2010-03-01

    This work set out to investigate the state of qualitative understanding of magnetism at various stages of expertise, and what approaches to problem-solving are used across the spectrum of expertise. We studied three groups: 10 novices, 10 experts-in-training, and 11 experts. Data collection involved structured interviews during which participants solved a series of non-standard problems designed to test for conceptual understanding of magnetism. The interviews were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. None of the novices and only a few of the experts in training showed a strong understanding of inductance, magnetic energy, and magnetic pressure; and for the most part they tended not to approach problems visually. Novices frequently described gist memories of demonstrations, text book problems, and rules (heuristics). However, these fragmentary mental models were not complete enough to allow them to reason productively. Experts-in-training were able to solve problems that the novices were not able to solve, many times simply because they had greater recall of the material, and therefore more confidence in their facts. Much of their thinking was concrete, based on mentally manipulating objects. The experts solved most of the problems in ways that were both effective and efficient. Part of the efficiency derived from their ability to visualize and thus reason in terms of field lines.

  15. Experiencing Art: The Influence of Expertise and Painting Abstraction Level

    PubMed Central

    Pihko, Elina; Virtanen, Anne; Saarinen, Veli-Matti; Pannasch, Sebastian; Hirvenkari, Lotta; Tossavainen, Timo; Haapala, Arto; Hari, Riitta

    2011-01-01

    How does expertise influence the perception of representational and abstract paintings? We asked 20 experts on art history and 20 laypersons to explore and evaluate a series of paintings ranging in style from representational to abstract in five categories. We compared subjective esthetic judgments and emotional evaluations, gaze patterns, and electrodermal reactivity between the two groups of participants. The level of abstraction affected esthetic judgments and emotional valence ratings of the laypersons but had no effect on the opinions of the experts: the laypersons’ esthetic and emotional ratings were highest for representational paintings and lowest for abstract paintings, whereas the opinions of the experts were independent of the abstraction level. The gaze patterns of both groups changed as the level of abstraction increased: the number of fixations and the length of the scanpaths increased while the duration of the fixations decreased. The viewing strategies – reflected in the target, location, and path of the fixations – however indicated that experts and laypersons paid attention to different aspects of the paintings. The electrodermal reactivity did not vary according to the level of abstraction in either group but expertise was reflected in weaker responses, compared with laypersons, to information received about the paintings. PMID:21941475

  16. Multi-team dynamics and distributed expertise in imission operations.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Barrett S

    2005-06-01

    The evolution of space exploration has brought an increased awareness of the social and socio-technical issues associated with team performance and task coordination, both for the onboard astronauts and in mission control. Spaceflight operations create a unique environment in which to address classic group dynamics topics including communication, group process, knowledge development and sharing, and time-critical task performance. Mission operations in the early years of the 21st century have developed into a set of complex, multi-team task settings incorporating multiple mission control teams and flight crews interacting in novel ways. These more complex operational settings help highlight the emergence of a new paradigm of distributed supervisory coordination, and the need to consider multiple dimensions of expertise being supported and exchanged among team members. The creation of new mission profiles with very long-duration time scales (months, rather than days) for the International Space Station, as well as planned exploration missions to the Moon and Mars, emphasize fundamental distinctions from the 40 yr from Mercury to the Space Shuttle. Issues in distributed expertise and information flow in mission control settings from two related perspectives are described. A general conceptual view of knowledge sharing and task synchronization is presented within the context of the mission control environment. This conceptual presentation is supplemented by analysis of quasi-experimental data collected from actual flight controllers at NASA-Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX. PMID:15943207

  17. Paths to expertise in portuguese national team athletes.

    PubMed

    Leite, Nuno; Baker, Joseph; Sampaio, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the quantity and type of sporting activities undertaken by expert team sport athletes in the earlier stages of the long- term athlete development. Experts in roller-hockey (n = 19), volleyball (n = 14), soccer (n = 42) and basketball (n = 37) provided detailed information about the sporting activities they undertook throughout their careers. Results showed considerable variation between and within sports; however, generally, athletes began participating in sports between 6 and 10 years of age. The pattern of participation in specific and non-specific (team, individual and combat) sports for each stage of involvement demonstrated an increase in the number of activities participated in until early adolescence. Our results suggest that involvement in multiple sports during early stages of development is an alternative to early specialization and add further evidence of the complexity of skill acquisition in sport. Key pointsAlthough most athletes began sport participation between 6 and 10 years of age, there was significant variation across groups suggesting considerable flexibility in the pathways to expertise.The path to expertise in volleyball was clearly distinct from the paths of basketball, soccer and roller-hockey.There is a considerable involvement in sports other than the athlete's primary sport, suggesting early specialization is not required for these sports.The pattern of participation in specific and non-specific sports for each stage of involvement demonstrated an increase in the number of activities participated in until early adolescence.

  18. Multi-team dynamics and distributed expertise in imission operations.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Barrett S

    2005-06-01

    The evolution of space exploration has brought an increased awareness of the social and socio-technical issues associated with team performance and task coordination, both for the onboard astronauts and in mission control. Spaceflight operations create a unique environment in which to address classic group dynamics topics including communication, group process, knowledge development and sharing, and time-critical task performance. Mission operations in the early years of the 21st century have developed into a set of complex, multi-team task settings incorporating multiple mission control teams and flight crews interacting in novel ways. These more complex operational settings help highlight the emergence of a new paradigm of distributed supervisory coordination, and the need to consider multiple dimensions of expertise being supported and exchanged among team members. The creation of new mission profiles with very long-duration time scales (months, rather than days) for the International Space Station, as well as planned exploration missions to the Moon and Mars, emphasize fundamental distinctions from the 40 yr from Mercury to the Space Shuttle. Issues in distributed expertise and information flow in mission control settings from two related perspectives are described. A general conceptual view of knowledge sharing and task synchronization is presented within the context of the mission control environment. This conceptual presentation is supplemented by analysis of quasi-experimental data collected from actual flight controllers at NASA-Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX.

  19. Forensic entomology: implementing quality assurance for expertise work.

    PubMed

    Gaudry, Emmanuel; Dourel, Laurent

    2013-09-01

    The Department of Forensic Entomology (Institut de Recherche Criminelle de la Gendarmerie Nationale, France) was accredited by the French Committee of Accreditation (Cofrac's Healthcare section) in October 2007 on the basis of NF EN ISO/CEI 17025 standard. It was the first accreditation in this specific field of forensic sciences in France and in Europe. The present paper introduces the accreditation process in forensic entomology (FE) through the experience of the Department of Forensic Entomology. Based upon the identification of necrophagous insects and the study of their biology, FE must, as any other expertise work in forensic sciences, demonstrate integrity and good working practice to satisfy both the courts and the scientific community. FE does not, strictly speaking, follow an analytical method. This could explain why, to make up for a lack of appropriate quality reference, a specific documentation was drafted and written by the staff of the Department of Forensic Entomology in order to define working methods complying with quality standards (testing methods). A quality assurance system is laborious to set up and maintain and can be perceived as complex, time-consuming and never-ending. However, a survey performed in 2011 revealed that the accreditation process in the frame of expertise work has led to new well-defined working habits, based on an effort at transparency. It also requires constant questioning and a proactive approach, both profitable for customers (magistrates, investigators) and analysts (forensic entomologists). PMID:23842668

  20. Is It the Teaching or the Discipline? Influences of Disciplinary Epistemology and Pedagogy on Students Adapting Study Behaviour and Epistemological Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kember, David; Hong, Celina; Yau, Vickie; Ho, Amaly

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the pace and degree of adaptation of study behaviour and personal epistemological beliefs between school and university through interviews with 110 final-year university students. The study took place in Hong Kong, where the highly competitive school system encourages remembering modelling answers for the public examinations;…

  1. Inquiry Teaching in Clinical Periodontics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heins, Paul J.; Mackenzie, Richard S.

    1987-01-01

    An adaptation of the inquiry method of teaching, which develops skills of information retrieval and reasoning through systematic questioning by the teacher, is proposed for instruction in clinical periodontics. (MSE)

  2. Rapid knowledge assessment (RKA): Assessing students content knowledge through rapid, in class assessment of expertise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, Erin

    Understanding how students go about problem solving in chemistry lends many possible advantages for interventions in teaching strategies for the college classroom. The work presented here is the development of an in-classroom, real-time, formative instrument to assess student expertise in chemistry with the purpose of developing classroom interventions. The development of appropriate interventions requires the understanding of how students go about starting to solve tasks presented to them, what their mental effort (load on working memory) is, and whether or not their performance was accurate. To measure this, the Rapid Knowledge Assessment (RKA) instrument uses clickers (handheld electronic instruments for submitting answers) as a means of data collection. The classroom data was used to develop an algorithm to deliver student assessment scores, which when correlated to external measure of standardized American Chemical Society (ACS) examinations and class score show a significant relationship between the accuracy of knowledge assessment (p=0.000). Use of eye-tracking technology and student interviews supports the measurements found in the classroom.

  3. Enhancing undergraduate teaching and research with a Drosophila virginizing system.

    PubMed

    Venema, Dennis R

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory exercises using Drosophila crosses are an effective pedagogical method to complement traditional lecture and textbook presentations of genetics. Undergraduate thesis research is another common setting for using Drosophila. A significant barrier to using Drosophila for undergraduate teaching or research is the time and skill required to accurately collect virgins for use in controlled crosses. Erroneously collecting males or nonvirgin females contaminates crosses with unintended genotypes and confounds the results. Collecting adequate numbers of virgins requires large amounts of time, even for those skilled in virgin collection. I have adapted an effective method for virgin collection that eliminates these concerns and is straightforward to use in undergraduate settings. Using a heat-shock-induced, conditional lethal transgene specifically in males, male larvae can be eliminated from a culture before adults eclose. Females thus eclose in the absence of males and remain virgin, eliminating the need to laboriously score and segregate freshly eclosed females. This method is reliable, easily adaptable to any desired phenotypic marker, and readily scaleable to provide sufficient virgins for large laboratory classes or undergraduate research projects. In addition, it allows instructors lacking Drosophila expertise to use this organism as a pedagogical tool. PMID:17146043

  4. Unitizing worker expertise and maximizing the brain reward centers

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, Anthony Bert

    2010-01-01

    People are experts when it comes to the work they do; unfortunately their expertise is not utilized as frequently as it could be. More opportunities need to be provided that allow people to participate in the design of their work including: accident investigations, job planning, and process improvements. Many employers use some form of job hazard analysis process to identify and document hazards and controls, but the front line worker is rarely involved. This presentation will show the core principles supporting employee involvement, provide examples where workers had brilliant ideas but no one listened, and provide examples where workers were given the opportunity to use their expertise to improve occupational safety. According to Abraham Maslow's Hierarch of Needs model, one essential human need is to be innovative and solve problems. Advances in brain science have proven, through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, the brain reward pathway is activated when people are recognized for their intellectual contributions. As people contribute their expertise to improve occupational safety more frequently they will feel a sense of gratification. In addition, safety professionals will have more time to spend on strategic planning of emerging occupational safety issues. One effect of the current global recession is that SH&E professionals are asked to do more with less. Therefore, to be successful it is essential that SH&E professionals incorporate worker expertise in job planning. This will be illustrated in the presentation through an example where a worker had the answer to a difficult decision on appropriate personal protective equipment for a job but no one asked the worker for his idea during the job planning phase. Fortunately the worker was eventually consulted and his recommendation for the appropriate personal protective equipment for the job was implemented before work began. The goal of this presentation is to expand the awareness and

  5. Chemical Expertise: Chemistry in the Royal Prussian Porcelain Manufactory.

    PubMed

    Klein, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    Eighteenth-century chemists defined chemistry as both a "science and an art." By "chemical art" they meant not merely experimentation but also parts of certain arts and crafts. This raises the question of how to identify the "chemical parts" of the arts and crafts in eighteenth-century Europe. In this essay I tackle this question with respect to porcelain manufacture. My essay begins with a brief discussion of historiographical problems related to this question. It then analyzes practices involved in porcelain manufacture that can be reasonably identified as chemical practices or a chemical art. My analysis yields evidence for the argument that chemical experts and expertise fulfilled distinct technical functions in porcelain manufacture and, by extension, in eighteenth-century "big industry," along with its system of division of labor.

  6. Improving training for sensory augmentation using the science of expertise.

    PubMed

    Bertram, Craig; Stafford, Tom

    2016-09-01

    Sensory substitution and augmentation devices (SSADs) allow users to perceive information about their environment that is usually beyond their sensory capabilities. Despite an extensive history, SSADs are arguably not used to their fullest, both as assistive technology for people with sensory impairment or as research tools in the psychology and neuroscience of sensory perception. Studies of the non-use of other assistive technologies suggest one factor is the balance of benefits gained against the costs incurred. We argue that improving the learning experience would improve this balance, suggest three ways in which it can be improved by leveraging existing cognitive science findings on expertise and skill development, and acknowledge limitations and relevant concerns. We encourage the systematic evaluation of learning programs, and suggest that a more effective learning process for SSADs could reduce the barrier to uptake and allow users to reach higher levels of overall capacity. PMID:27264831

  7. Widening Expertise in Space Science in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willmore, P.

    For some time, COSPAR has been planning a programme of capacity-building workshops to be held in developing countries with the intention of widening expertise in space science and promoting the use of data archives from space missions. The first of these was held at Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), São José dos Campos, Brazil from 4-13th December 2001. The next two will be held at the Udaipur Solar Observatory, Udaipur, India and in Beijing, China, respectively, during 2003. The workshops are innovative in character, and their objectives and their concepts will be described, as well as the experience gained from the first workshop in Brazil.

  8. Musical Expertise and Statistical Learning of Musical and Linguistic Structures

    PubMed Central

    Schön, Daniele; François, Clément

    2011-01-01

    Adults and infants can use the statistical properties of syllable sequences to extract words from continuous speech. Here we present a review of a series of electrophysiological studies investigating (1) Speech segmentation resulting from exposure to spoken and sung sequences (2) The extraction of linguistic versus musical information from a sung sequence (3) Differences between musicians and non-musicians in both linguistic and musical dimensions. The results show that segmentation is better after exposure to sung compared to spoken material and moreover, that linguistic structure is better learned than the musical structure when using sung material. In addition, musical expertise facilitates the learning of both linguistic and musical structures. Finally, an electrophysiological approach, which directly measures brain activity, appears to be more sensitive than a behavioral one. PMID:21811482

  9. Neural basis of nonanalytical reasoning expertise during clinical evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Durning, Steven J; Costanzo, Michelle E; Artino, Anthony R; Graner, John; van der Vleuten, Cees; Beckman, Thomas J; Wittich, Christopher M; Roy, Michael J; Holmboe, Eric S; Schuwirth, Lambert

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Understanding clinical reasoning is essential for patient care and medical education. Dual-processing theory suggests that nonanalytic reasoning is an essential aspect of expertise; however, assessing nonanalytic reasoning is challenging because it is believed to occur on the subconscious level. This assumption makes concurrent verbal protocols less reliable assessment tools. Methods Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to explore the neural basis of nonanalytic reasoning in internal medicine interns (novices) and board-certified staff internists (experts) while completing United States Medical Licensing Examination and American Board of Internal Medicine multiple-choice questions. Results The results demonstrated that novices and experts share a common neural network in addition to nonoverlapping neural resources. However, experts manifested greater neural processing efficiency in regions such as the prefrontal cortex during nonanalytical reasoning. Conclusions These findings reveal a multinetwork system that supports the dual-process mode of expert clinical reasoning during medical evaluation. PMID:25798328

  10. The development of expertise on an intelligent tutoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Debra Steele

    1989-01-01

    An initial examination was conducted of an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) developed for use in industry. The ITS, developed by NASA, simulated a satellite deployment task. More specifically, the PD (Payload Assist Module Deployment)/ICAT (Intelligent Computer Aided Training) System simulated a nominal Payload Assist Module (PAM) deployment. The development of expertise on this task was examined using three Flight Dynamics Officer (FDO) candidates who had no previous experience with this task. The results indicated that performance improved rapidly until Trial 5, followed by more gradual improvements through Trial 12. The performance dimensions measured included performance speed, actions completed, errors, help required, and display fields checked. Suggestions for further refining the software and for deciding when to expose trainees to more difficult task scenarios are discussed. Further, the results provide an initial demonstration of the effectiveness of the PD/ICAT system in training the nominal PAM deployment task and indicate the potential benefits of using ITS's for training other FDO tasks.

  11. Expertise and sexual offending: a preliminary empirical model.

    PubMed

    Bourke, Patrice; Ward, Tony; Rose, Chelsea

    2012-08-01

    Rehabilitation and treatment perspectives and interventions have concentrated efforts on areas where perpetrators of sexual abuse are deficient, neglecting those where offenders actively seek and strategically plan sexual offence situations and scenarios. Whereas sexual offenders may display deficiencies in some aspects of their lives, there are domain-relevant competencies such as the selection and manipulation of victims, decision making and problem solving, and eluding detection, in which some individuals appear to excel. Semistructured interviews are conducted with 47 male child sexual offenders in New Zealand, and data are analyzed using grounded theory to generate a model of offence-specific decision making. The outcome of the research is a descriptive model of expertise-related competency (ERC) of child sexual offending. The model identifies and emphasizes the variability of knowledge and skill acquisition among offenders.

  12. Chemical Expertise: Chemistry in the Royal Prussian Porcelain Manufactory.

    PubMed

    Klein, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    Eighteenth-century chemists defined chemistry as both a "science and an art." By "chemical art" they meant not merely experimentation but also parts of certain arts and crafts. This raises the question of how to identify the "chemical parts" of the arts and crafts in eighteenth-century Europe. In this essay I tackle this question with respect to porcelain manufacture. My essay begins with a brief discussion of historiographical problems related to this question. It then analyzes practices involved in porcelain manufacture that can be reasonably identified as chemical practices or a chemical art. My analysis yields evidence for the argument that chemical experts and expertise fulfilled distinct technical functions in porcelain manufacture and, by extension, in eighteenth-century "big industry," along with its system of division of labor. PMID:26103759

  13. Financial managers' costing expertise is needed in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    West, D A; Balas, E A; West, T D

    2000-01-01

    In addition to providing comparable and verifiable evidence regarding outcomes, clinical trials could also serve as sources of accurate and replicable financial information. Trial reports that identify expenses associated with effective diagnostic and therapeutic interventions enable cost controls. Standardized cost calculations could help clinicians and administrators identify more efficient health care technologies. Unfortunately, relatively few published trials include economic analyses and when they do, data are incomplete. Based on analyses of 97 clinical trial reports, this article proposes a standard costing format. Health care financial managers have the costing expertise necessary to implement and interpret standardized cost calculations for clinical trials. With the active involvement of financial managers, a standard costing format for clinical trials can be achieved. PMID:10961828

  14. An early electrophysiological response associated with expertise in letter perception.

    PubMed

    Wong, Alan C N; Gauthier, Isabel; Woroch, Brion; DeBuse, Casey; Curran, Tim

    2005-09-01

    Expertise with print is likely to optimize visual processes for recognizing characters of a familiar writing system. Although brain activations have been identified for words and letter strings in contrast with other stimuli, relatively little work has focused on the neural basis of single-letter perception. English readers and Chinese-English bilinguals participated in an ERP study and performed a 1-back identity judgment on Roman letters, Chinese characters, pseudofonts, and their string versions. The Chinese-English bilinguals showed an enhanced N170 for both Roman letters and Chinese characters relative to pseudofonts. For the non-Chinese readers, the N170 amplitude was larger for Roman letters relative to Chinese characters and pseudofonts. Our results suggest that changes in relatively early visual processes underlie expert letter perception.

  15. Musical expertise affects neural bases of letter recognition.

    PubMed

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Manfredi, Mirella; Zani, Alberto; Adorni, Roberta

    2013-02-01

    It is known that early music learning (playing of an instrument) modifies functional brain structure (both white and gray matter) and connectivity, especially callosal transfer, motor control/coordination and auditory processing. We compared visual processing of notes and words in 15 professional musicians and 15 controls by recording their synchronized bioelectrical activity (ERPs) in response to words and notes. We found that musical training in childhood (from age ~8 years) modifies neural mechanisms of word reading, whatever the genetic predisposition, which was unknown. While letter processing was strongly left-lateralized in controls, the fusiform (BA37) and inferior occipital gyri (BA18) were activated in both hemispheres in musicians for both word and music processing. The evidence that the neural mechanism of letter processing differed in musicians and controls (being absolutely bilateral in musicians) suggests that musical expertise modifies the neural mechanisms of letter reading.

  16. A conceptual review of interprofessional expertise in child safeguarding.

    PubMed

    Hood, Rick; Gillespie, Judy; Davies, Jonathon

    2016-07-01

    It is increasingly accepted that practitioners across a range of professional fields must work together in order to promote children's welfare and protect them from harm. However, it has also become apparent that interprofessional working is a challenging area of practice that cannot simply be prescribed through protocols and procedures, nor acquired as a set of technical competences. This article develops the concept of interprofessional expertise in order to explain how practitioners become more proficient at working with others to manage complex child welfare issues. Key principles are outlined with reference to relevant theoretical frameworks, including models of skill acquisition. The article concludes by discussing some potential implications for future research and contemporary developments in child safeguarding practice. PMID:27294315

  17. Malpractice and system of expertise in anaesthetic procedures in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, M Hakan; Cekin, Necmi; Can, I Ozgür; Hilal, Ahmet

    2005-10-29

    Deaths which occur during the administration of anaesthetics require medicolegal investigations. The objective of this study is to form a database for future comparisons related to anaesthetic-associated malpractice claims and also to investigate the system of expertise, pertaining to such procedures. The decisions of the Supreme Health Council, whose expert opinion is requested by legal authorities (judges, prosecutors) for health workers brought to trial in a criminal court, were examined retrospectively over the period 1995-1999. In 21 (2.3%) of the 888 decision reports prepared by the council the team members (the anaesthesiologist , the anaesthetic assistant, the anaesthetic technician, the nurse) were directly interrogated. Data concerning these 21 council decisions were evaluated within the scope of this study. It was found that 57% of the 21 decisions were related to medical procedures carried out in state hospitals. Of the 21 cases, 62% were males, 38% females. General anaesthesia was applied to 19 of the cases while one received regional (local) anaesthesia and one axillary blockade. Twenty died of complications associated with anaesthesia. Autopsy was performed on 11 (55%) of the dead. Health workers were found to have different degrees of liability in the 16 (76%) of the 21 decision reports. In their medical practices, anaesthesiologists , like other specialists, are subject to legal procedures in the country where they perform their duties, to national and international principles of ethics, and to diagnostic and curative standards/procedures relevant to the scientific level of the country concerned. In anaesthetic malpractice claims, certain standards need to be followed in inquiries and approaches so as to determine the real reasons behind the disabilities and/or deaths which occur. In order that sound evaluations could be made in such cases, the experts as well as the system of expertise should be efficient and authorized.

  18. Developing Teaching Expertise Where It Matters: Radio-Assisted Practice as an Application of Skills Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Peter D.

    This paper introduces the concept of radio-assisted practice (RAP) and outlines the nature and initial findings of a British research project which is investigating the potential of RAP in preservice teacher education. The paper falls into three main parts. The first situates matters in terms of information-processing skill (IPS) psychology and…

  19. Teaching towards Historical Expertise. Developing a Pedagogy for Fostering Causal Reasoning in History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoel, G. L.; van Drie, J. P.; van Boxtel, C. A. M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study seeks to develop a pedagogy aimed at fostering a student's ability to reason causally about history. The Model of Domain Learning was used as a framework to align domain-specific content with pedagogical principles. Developing causal historical reasoning was conceptualized as a multidimensional process, in which knowledge of…

  20. Development of Teaching Expertise Viewed through the Dreyfus Model of Skill Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Lucinda J.

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to explore development of skill acquisition in dental education, utilizing the Dreyfus and Dreyfus continuum. By identifying what skill progression may be recognized in the expert dental educator and what experiences appear to influence this growth, the knowledge gained may inform more efficient, effective faculty support,…

  1. The Importance of Automaticity for Developing Expertise in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, S. Jay; Flor, Richard F.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses how students become automatic at reading sub-skills, the indicators that can be used to determine whether a student is automatic, and the psychological mechanisms that allow students to perform complex skills automatically. Discusses implications of automaticity research for teaching reading. (RS)

  2. Interference between face and non-face domains of perceptual expertise: a replication and extension

    PubMed Central

    Curby, Kim M.; Gauthier, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    As car expertise increases, so does interference between the visual processing of faces and that of cars; this suggests performance trade-offs across domains of real-world expertise. Such interference between expert domains has been previously revealed in a relatively complex design, interleaving 2-back part-judgment task with faces and cars (Gauthier et al., 2003). However, the basis of this interference is unclear. Experiment 1A replicated the finding of interference between faces and cars, as a function of car expertise. Experiments 1B and 2 investigated the mechanisms underlying this effect by (1) providing baseline measures of performance and (2) assessing the specificity of this interference effect. Our findings support the presence of expertise-dependent interference between face and non-face domains of expertise. However, surprisingly, it is in the condition where faces are processed among cars with a disrupted configuration where expertise has a greater influence on faces. This finding highlights how expertise-related processing changes also occur for transformed objects of expertise and that such changes can also drive interference across domains of expertise. PMID:25346702

  3. Why is the Fusiform Face Area recruited for novel categories of expertise?: A neurocomputational investigation

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Carrie A.; Tong, Matthew H.; Cottrell, Garrison W.

    2008-01-01

    What is the role of the Fusiform Face Area (FFA)? Is it specific to face processing, or is it a visual expertise area? The expertise hypothesis is appealing due to a number of studies showing that the FFA is activated by pictures of objects within the subject’s domain of expertise (e.g., cars for car experts, birds for birders, etc.), and that activation of the FFA increases as new expertise is acquired in the lab. However, it is incumbent upon the proponents of the expertise hypothesis to explain how it is that an area that is initially specialized for faces becomes recruited for new classes of stimuli. We dub this the “visual expertise mystery.” One suggested answer to this mystery is that the FFA is used simply because it is a fine discrimination area, but this account has historically lacked a mechanism describing exactly how the FFA would be recruited for novel domains of expertise. In this study, we show that a neurocomputational model trained to perform subordinate-level discrimination within a visually homogeneous class develops transformations that magnify differences between similar objects, in marked contrast to networks trained to simply categorize the objects. This magnification generalizes to novel classes, leading to faster learning of new discriminations. We suggest this is why the FFA is recruited for new expertise. The model predicts that individual FFA neurons will have highly variable responses to stimuli within expertise domains. PMID:17959155

  4. Brain functional plasticity associated with the emergence of expertise in extreme language control.

    PubMed

    Hervais-Adelman, Alexis; Moser-Mercer, Barbara; Golestani, Narly

    2015-07-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to longitudinally examine brain plasticity arising from long-term, intensive simultaneous interpretation training. Simultaneous interpretation is a bilingual task with heavy executive control demands. We compared brain responses observed during simultaneous interpretation with those observed during simultaneous speech repetition (shadowing) in a group of trainee simultaneous interpreters, at the beginning and at the end of their professional training program. Age, sex and language-proficiency matched controls were scanned at similar intervals. Using multivariate pattern classification, we found distributed patterns of changes in functional responses from the first to second scan that distinguished the interpreters from the controls. We also found reduced recruitment of the right caudate nucleus during simultaneous interpretation as a result of training. Such practice-related change is consistent with decreased demands on multilingual language control as the task becomes more automatized with practice. These results demonstrate the impact of simultaneous interpretation training on the brain functional response in a cerebral structure that is not specifically linguistic, but that is known to be involved in learning, in motor control, and in a variety of domain-general executive functions. Along with results of recent studies showing functional and structural adaptations in the caudate nuclei of experts in a broad range of domains, our results underline the importance of this structure as a central node in expertise-related networks.

  5. Outcomes: Coaching, Teaching Standards, and Feedback Mark the Teacher's Road to Mastery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saphier, Jon

    2011-01-01

    What would happen if people found agreement around the world on what constitutes high-expertise teaching? For one thing, there would be a set of standards universally embraced that clearly defines core agreements about good teaching and learning. It would be obvious that proficiency in the knowledge, skills, and practices that comprise good…

  6. Modelling Human Teaching Tactics and Strategies for Tutoring Systems: 14 Years On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    du Boulay, Benedict; Luckin, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    Our original paper tried to characterize the richness of the teaching repertoire of expert human teachers and to give a sense of how far there still was to go in the development of pedagogic expertise in AIED systems. It considered three ways in which more expert teaching strategies and tactics might be developed. These were via (i) the…

  7. Problems in Teaching the Topic of Redox Reactions: Actions and Conceptions of Chemistry Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Jong, Onno; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents a case study of problems that can occur when teaching the topic of redox reactions to grade-11 students. Concludes that the teachers' scientific expertise is an important source of difficulties when teaching redox reactions. Discusses implications for improvement of current chemistry classroom practice and content-related teacher…

  8. Using Formative Assessment in Professional Learning Communities to Advance Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takacs, Jill A.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between teaching and learning requires a coordinated effort between teachers and students that depends upon common goals aligned to the teachers' expertise and the students' academic needs. Without a systematic approach to teaching, instructional practice can neglect learning targets. Formative practices afford teachers a…

  9. Predictors of Involvement in Online Teaching among Faculty in Technical Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunay, Nihal

    2013-01-01

    The student demand for online learning is forcing college administrators to identify faculty who have expertise in their discipline, technological skills sufficient to navigate the demands of online teaching, and willingness to be involved in online teaching. Before this work had been started, the review of literature indicated that research had…

  10. In Their Own Words: Teachers' Reflections on Adaptability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Margaret; Parsons, Seth A.; Burrowbridge, Sarah Cohen; Weesner, Janice; Taylor, Laurel

    2016-01-01

    Current research explores adaptability by gathering teachers' reflections on their adaptations. However, the field knows little of what the term "adaptability" means to teachers who currently teach in today's educational context. In this article, adaptability is discussed from the perspectives of 3 practicing classroom educators,…

  11. [Stages of development of flight medical expertise in Russia].

    PubMed

    Chaplyuk, A L; Vovkodav, V S; Churilov, Yu K; Klepikov, A N

    2015-07-01

    Flight medical expertise (FME) in military aviation is one of the most important areas of medical support of flight crews manning, maintaining of aircrew health and flight safety. The authors analyse the main stages of development of this area of medical practice. The priority in creation of FME system belongs to our country. Domestic scientists, prominent organizers of military medicine and a large group of aviation physicians developed organizational and methodological basis for studying different impacts of flight factors on the health of flight personnel, development of criteria for admission to flight operations, principles of organization of the examination, implementation of effective methods of disease diagnosis. At the present stage FME development is determined by the needs of medical, technical and psycho-physiological support of supersonic aircraft, the need to adjust to the requirements of aircrew health, advanced diagnostics of the functional state and the search for means to improve the stability of his body to flight factors. The main principles of the FME remains the complexity of the study of the human body in terms of its professional and individual approach to a medical examination, a thorough clinical, clinical and physiological and psychological examinations, regular medical supervision of the health of flight crews. PMID:26821462

  12. Combining regional expertise to form a bereavement support alliance.

    PubMed

    Friedrichs, Judy B; Kobler, Kathie; Roose, Rosmarie E; Meyer, Charlotte; Schmitz, Nancy; Kavanaugh, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Providing compassionate bereavement care for families experiencing perinatal loss is a standard of care in most healthcare organizations. In this article, we describe the development of The Alliance of Perinatal Bereavement Support Facilitators, begun over 25 years ago in Chicago by staff who identified the need to reach out to colleagues at other area institutions for advice and support in this work. This collaboration created a regional support network that has resulted in a long-lasting, active, sustainable organization of excellence focused on enhancing practice, education, and perinatal bereavement care. Alliance activities center around four main areas: education, networking/support, policy, and recognizing outstanding service to families. By continuing to draw upon the collective talent, wisdom, and expertise of its members, The Alliance still serves grieving families and provides mentoring for future interdisciplinary team members engaged in this work. The path taken to build this organization can be used by professionals in other specialties who are looking to create their own alliance infrastructure based on mutual benefit and interest.

  13. The effects of alphabet and expertise on letter perception.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Robert W; Wilson, Colin; Rapp, Brenda

    2016-08-01

    Long-standing questions in human perception concern the nature of the visual features that underlie letter recognition and the extent to which the visual processing of letters is affected by differences in alphabets and levels of viewer expertise. We examined these issues in a novel approach using a same-different judgment task on pairs of letters from the Arabic alphabet with 2 participant groups: 1 with no prior exposure to Arabic and 1 with reading proficiency. Hierarchical clustering and linear mixed-effects modeling of reaction times and accuracy provide evidence that both the specific characteristics of the alphabet and observers' previous experience with it affect how letters are perceived and visually processed. The findings of this research further our understanding of the multiple factors that affect letter perception and support the view of a visual system that dynamically adjusts its weighting of visual features as expert readers come to more efficiently and effectively discriminate the letters of the specific alphabet they are viewing. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26913778

  14. Insanity, methamphetamine and psychiatric expertise in New Zealand courtrooms.

    PubMed

    Thom, Katey; Finlayson, Mary; McKenna, Brian

    2011-06-01

    The use of methamphetamine in New Zealand has increased significantly over the last decade. Due to the potential of methamphetamine to induce, exacerbate and precipitate psychotic symptoms, this drug has also taken centre stage in several criminal trials considering the sanity of defendants. Highly publicised and often involving contested expert evidence, these criminal trials have illustrated the limits of using psychiatric expertise to answer legal questions. This article considers the implications of such cases in light of material from a qualitative study that aimed to generate insights into the difficulties forensic psychiatrists and their instructing lawyers face when providing expert evidence on the relationship between methamphetamine, psychosis and insanity. It reports material from 31 in-depth interviews with lawyers and forensic psychiatrists and observation of one criminal trial that considered the relationship between methamphetamine and legal insanity. The findings are correlated with the clinical and medico-legal literature on the topic and subjected to scrutiny through the lens of "sanism". The article concludes that the continued use of forensic psychiatry to meet the legal objectives of insanity, where methamphetamine is involved, has the potential to reinforce sanist attitudes and practices.

  15. Combining regional expertise to form a bereavement support alliance.

    PubMed

    Friedrichs, Judy B; Kobler, Kathie; Roose, Rosmarie E; Meyer, Charlotte; Schmitz, Nancy; Kavanaugh, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Providing compassionate bereavement care for families experiencing perinatal loss is a standard of care in most healthcare organizations. In this article, we describe the development of The Alliance of Perinatal Bereavement Support Facilitators, begun over 25 years ago in Chicago by staff who identified the need to reach out to colleagues at other area institutions for advice and support in this work. This collaboration created a regional support network that has resulted in a long-lasting, active, sustainable organization of excellence focused on enhancing practice, education, and perinatal bereavement care. Alliance activities center around four main areas: education, networking/support, policy, and recognizing outstanding service to families. By continuing to draw upon the collective talent, wisdom, and expertise of its members, The Alliance still serves grieving families and provides mentoring for future interdisciplinary team members engaged in this work. The path taken to build this organization can be used by professionals in other specialties who are looking to create their own alliance infrastructure based on mutual benefit and interest. PMID:24759313

  16. [Stages of development of flight medical expertise in Russia].

    PubMed

    Chaplyuk, A L; Vovkodav, V S; Churilov, Yu K; Klepikov, A N

    2015-07-01

    Flight medical expertise (FME) in military aviation is one of the most important areas of medical support of flight crews manning, maintaining of aircrew health and flight safety. The authors analyse the main stages of development of this area of medical practice. The priority in creation of FME system belongs to our country. Domestic scientists, prominent organizers of military medicine and a large group of aviation physicians developed organizational and methodological basis for studying different impacts of flight factors on the health of flight personnel, development of criteria for admission to flight operations, principles of organization of the examination, implementation of effective methods of disease diagnosis. At the present stage FME development is determined by the needs of medical, technical and psycho-physiological support of supersonic aircraft, the need to adjust to the requirements of aircrew health, advanced diagnostics of the functional state and the search for means to improve the stability of his body to flight factors. The main principles of the FME remains the complexity of the study of the human body in terms of its professional and individual approach to a medical examination, a thorough clinical, clinical and physiological and psychological examinations, regular medical supervision of the health of flight crews.

  17. Hello World! - Experiencing Usability Methods without Usability Expertise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, Elina; Cajander, Åsa; Gulliksen, Jan

    How do you do usability work when no usability expertise is available? What happens in an organization when system developers, with no previous HCI knowledge, after a 3-day course, start applying usability methods, and particularly field studies? In order to answer these questions qualitative data were gathered through participatory observations, a feed back survey, field study documentation and interviews from 47 system developers from a public authority. Our results suggest that field studies enhance the developer’s understanding of the user perspective, and provide a more holistic overview of the use situation, but that some developers were unable to interpret their observations and see solutions to the users’ problems. The field study method was very much appreciated and has now become standard operating procedure within the organization. However, although field studies may be useful, it does not replace the need for usability pro fes sion als, as their knowledge is essential for more complex observations, analysis and for keeping the focus on usability.

  18. Developing English Communication Expertise for Engineers in the Global Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Yoshimasa A.; Morimura, Kumiko

    This paper discusses contents and results of a new graduate course “English for Engineers and Scientists” given at School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo. This course is a new attempt to develop English communication expertise for engineering graduate students: how to write technical papers and how to make technical presentations in English. For these purposes, differences in the writing styles and in the sentence structures of English and Japanese are stressed: conclusions come first in English versus conclusions come last in Japanese; the three-step style of introduction, body, and conclusion in English versus the four-step style of ki-sho-ten-ketsu in Japanese. In addition, proper styles of technical papers (rhetoric) and related grammatical points are discussed. Technical presentation course consists of four-week lecture and seven-week practice session. In the lecture, essential points of technical presentations in English are discussed in detail, and in the practice session students‧ presentation skills are improved through guidance and instructions given by native-speaker moderators. The class evaluation results show that most students have obtained necessary skills of technical presentation, indicating that the combined course of lecture and practice session is essential for training students to make better technical presentations in English.

  19. Effects of expertise and auditory guidance on traditional dance performance.

    PubMed

    Sofianidis, George; Hatzitaki, Vassilia; McKinley, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how the dancer's level of expertise and the type of auditory guidance provided influence the kinematic profile of the lower limbs during traditional dance performance. Ten experts in traditional Greek dance (age: 25±3.29 years, five males and five females) and eleven novice participants (age: 26.45±3.88 years, six males and five females), all Greek natives, performed a series of Greek and Irish dance steps with auditory guidance of the metrics (verbal counting) and the music of the respective dances. An electromagnetic tracking system sampled (at 100 Hz) the angular displacement of the two lower legs about the Mediolateral axis during dance performance. Segment rotations were analyzed in the time and frequency domain. Expert dancers displayed significantly lower variability of lower leg rotation and stronger interlimb coupling when compared to novice performers. In novice performers, the power of the lower limb angular displacement extended to higher frequencies when dance performance was guided by music compared to metrical guidance. The addition of music and the origin of the dance interfered with performance for novices but not experienced dancers. Kinematic analysis of the lower limbs may open a new window for the investigation of learning and auditory guidance effects on dance performance.

  20. Adaptive Educational Software by Applying Reinforcement Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennane, Abdellah

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of the intelligence in teaching software is the object of this paper. In software elaboration process, one uses some learning techniques in order to adapt the teaching software to characteristics of student. Generally, one uses the artificial intelligence techniques like reinforcement learning, Bayesian network in order to adapt…

  1. "Unwalling" the Classroom: Teacher Reaction and Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deed, Craig; Lesko, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Modern open school architecture abstractly expresses ideas about choice, flexibility and autonomy. While open spaces express and authorise different teaching practice, these versions of school and classrooms present challenges to teaching routines and practice. This paper examines how teachers adapt as they move into new school buildings designed…

  2. Adapting the forms of yesterday to the functions of today and the needs of tomorrow: a genealogical case study of clinical teaching units in Canada.

    PubMed

    Schrewe, Brett; Pratt, Daniel D; McKellin, William H

    2016-05-01

    Emergent discourses of social responsibility and accountability have in part fuelled the expansion of distributed medical education (DME). In addition to its potential for redressing physician maldistribution, DME has conferred multiple unexpected educational benefits. In several countries, its recent rise has occurred around the boundaries of traditional medical education practices. Canada has been no exception, with DME proliferating against a backdrop of its longstanding central node, the clinical teaching unit (CTU). The CTU first appeared just over 50 years ago with its position in Canadian health care largely taken-for-granted. Given the increasing prominence of DME, however, it is timely to reconsider what the place of tertiary centre-based practices such as the CTU might be in shifting medical education systems. From a genealogical perspective, it becomes clear that the CTU did not just "happen". Rather, its creation was made possible by multiple interrelated cultural, social, and political changes in Canadian society that, while subtle, are powerfully influential. Making them visible offers a better opportunity to harmonize the benefits of longstanding entities such as the CTU with novel practices such as DME. In so doing, the medical education field may sidestep the pitfalls of investing significant resources that may only produce superficial changes while unwittingly obstructing deeper transformations and improvements. Although this work is refracted through a Canadian prism, reconceptualizing the overall design of medical education systems to take advantage of both tradition and innovation is a persistent challenge across the international spectrum, resistant to tests of time and constraints of context. PMID:25925722

  3. Computer-Based Scaffolding to Facilitate Students' Development of Expertise in Academic Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proske, Antje; Narciss, Susanne; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2012-01-01

    Research on expert performance suggests that deliberate practice provides optimal opportunities for expertise development. This study examined whether the provision of computer-based scaffolding (CBS) guiding deliberate practice facilitates students' development of writing expertise. A CBS environment "escribo" was designed to externally support…

  4. Normal acquisition of expertise with greebles in two cases of acquired prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Rezlescu, Constantin; Barton, Jason J S; Pitcher, David; Duchaine, Bradley

    2014-04-01

    Face recognition is generally thought to rely on different neurocognitive mechanisms than most types of objects, but the specificity of these mechanisms is debated. One account suggests the mechanisms are specific to upright faces, whereas the expertise view proposes the mechanisms operate on objects of high within-class similarity with which an observer has become proficient at rapid individuation. Much of the evidence cited in support of the expertise view comes from laboratory-based training experiments involving computer-generated objects called greebles that are designed to place face-like demands on recognition mechanisms. A fundamental prediction of the expertise hypothesis is that recognition deficits with faces will be accompanied by deficits with objects of expertise. Here we present two cases of acquired prosopagnosia, Herschel and Florence, who violate this prediction: Both show normal performance in a standard greeble training procedure, along with severe deficits on a matched face training procedure. Herschel and Florence also meet several response time criteria that advocates of the expertise view suggest signal successful acquisition of greeble expertise. Furthermore, Herschel's results show that greeble learning can occur without normal functioning of the right fusiform face area, an area proposed to mediate greeble expertise. The marked dissociation between face and greeble expertise undermines greeble-based claims challenging face-specificity and indicates face recognition mechanisms are not necessary for object recognition after laboratory-based training.

  5. Rethinking a Writing Teacher's Expertise: Following Students under the Kitchen Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Maja

    2010-01-01

    In society, expertise bestows directive power--the authority to tell others what to do and how to do it, or simply to do it for them. In a school system that still operates on an authoritarian model, the author's expertise as a writer and teacher gives her directive prerogative when responding to student writing. Traditionally, teachers have used…

  6. No Face-Like Processing for Objects-of-Expertise in Three Behavioural Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Rachel; McKone, Elinor

    2007-01-01

    In the debate between expertise and domain-specific explanations of "special" processing for faces, a common belief is that behavioural studies support the expertise hypothesis. The present article refutes this view, via a combination of new data and review. We tested dog experts with confirmed good individuation of exemplars of their…

  7. An Integrated Model of Professional Expertise and Its Implications for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yielder, Jill

    2004-01-01

    The nature of professional expertise has been widely debated in the literature. However it has been examined primarily from a dichotomy of perspectives--either from an experiential or a cognitive focus, without the attempt to integrate these, and other aspects of expertise into an integrated and coherent model. This article presents the…

  8. Transfer of Expertise: An Eye Tracking and Think Aloud Study Using Dynamic Medical Visualizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gegenfurtner, Andreas; Seppanen, Marko

    2013-01-01

    Expertise research has produced mixed results regarding the problem of transfer of expertise. Is expert performance context-bound or can the underlying processes be applied to more general situations? The present study tests whether expert performance and its underlying processes transfer to novel tasks within a domain. A mixed method study using…

  9. Factors influencing increased expertise for a sustainable workforce at a research centre in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Draper, H. R.; Enarson, D. A.; Beyers, N.; Claassens, M.

    2014-01-01

    Setting: The Desmond Tutu Tuberculosis (TB) Centre (DTTC), Stellenbosch University, South Africa. Objectives: 1) To determine whether access to designated funding is associated with the development of expertise in employees, and 2) which other factors are associated with the development of expertise in employees. Design: This was a retrospective study. The target population consisted of all employees at the DTTC during the period 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2011. Improvement in expertise during employment was the primary outcome; the secondary outcome was an increase in educational level linked to the National Qualifications Framework. Results: There was no association between access to funding and expertise development, but an association between the number of months employed and improvement of expertise during employment was observed (OR 1.03, 95%CI 1.02–1.04, P < 0.001), controlling for age at appointment, sex, access to designated funding and education level. Conclusion: The study shows that almost a third of employees increased their expertise, more than 90% had access to designated funding and personnel employed for a longer duration were more likely to experience improvements in expertise. We encourage research organisations in low- and middle-income countries to implement strategies to retain employees in order to build their expertise. PMID:26400709

  10. The Newest Technology Crisis: Teacher Expertise and How To Foster It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddux, Cleborne D.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses problems with the use of technology, especially the Internet, for providing inservice teacher education. Highlights include the gap between available technology and the expertise to use it; antiquated hardware; the rapid growth and acceptance of the World Wide Web and graphical browsers; and the expertise gap between rural and urban…

  11. [The reconstruction of gunshot circumstances by means of situational forensic medical expertise].

    PubMed

    Kolkutin, V V; Makarov, I Iu; Evteeva, I A

    2012-01-01

    The authors discuss the objective potential of situational forensic medical expertise for the determination of the direction and the distance of a gunshot as well as the position of the gun in the shooter's hand. The use of fundamental theoretical propositions determining the essence of the form of expertise being considered is illustrated by an example from forensic medical practice.

  12. The Role of Initial Attack and Performer Expertise on Instrument Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Jane W.; Schlegel, Amanda L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role initial attack and expertise play in the identification of instrumental tones. A stimulus CD was made of 32 excerpts of instrumental tones. Sixteen possible combinations of the variables of initial attack (present or absent), expertise (beginner versus professional), and timbre (flute, clarinet,…

  13. The Curse of Expertise: When More Knowledge Leads to Miscalibrated Explanatory Insight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Matthew; Keil, Frank C.

    2016-01-01

    Does expertise within a domain of knowledge predict accurate self-assessment of the ability to explain topics in that domain? We find that expertise increases confidence in the ability to explain a wide variety of phenomena. However, this confidence is unwarranted; after actually offering full explanations, people are surprised by the limitations…

  14. Defining Expertise across Nations: Myth or Reality of a Global Definition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germain, Marie-Line; Ruiz, Carlos E.

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge acquisition and knowledge management have become central managerial themes and skills in the 21st century workplace; so has human expertise. The importance of finding and developing talented "experts" is now a requisite activity of all competitive organizations. This exploratory research investigates how the concept of expertise is…

  15. Expertise in Auditing: Case Representation Differences between Economy Students, Novice, Intermediate and Expert Auditors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaatstra, Rina F.; And Others

    Medical expertise research methods were used to explore the relationship between auditing expertise and case representation. Subjects were 8 first-year economy students, 8 fourth-year auditing students, 8 postgraduate students in auditing, and 8 experienced auditors in the Netherlands, ranging in experience from only a limited knowledge of…

  16. Measuring the Teaching Self-Efficacy of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math Graduate Teaching Assistants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeChenne, Sue Ellen; Enochs, Larry

    2010-01-01

    An instrument to measure the teaching self-efficacy of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) GTAs is adapted from a general college teaching instrument (Prieto Navarro, 2005) for the specific teaching environment of the STEM GTAs. The construct and content validity and reliability of the final instrument are indicated. The final…

  17. Developing Trainee School Teachers' Expertise as Health Promoters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speller, Viv; Byrne, Jenny; Dewhirst, Sue; Almond, Palo; Mohebati, Lisa; Norman, Melanie; Polack, Sarah; Memon, Anjum; Grace, Marcus; Margetts, Barrie; Roderick, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report the outcome of an education and public health collaboration investigating the impact of adapted training to enhance teachers' potential role to promote child health and wellbeing. Design/methodology/approach: The study was conducted in three phases: a survey of the health education content in…

  18. Fostering and Measuring General Scientific Reasoning Expertise at the Second Year Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, F. M.; Jellinek, M.; Bostock, M. G.

    2010-12-01

    Geoscience faculty members often debate about the definition and development of scientific expertise. Some will argue it emerges at the graduate level, others that novice students can develop relevant skills. The debate hinges on definitions of “expertise”, “scientific skills” and how these abilities are assessed. We present data from a second year geoscience course specifically designed to help research scientists foster generic skills associated with critical scientific thinking, presentation, and framing of scientific arguments and questions. To develop the course, key characteristics that professional scientists exhibit were identified from the literature and our experience. These are the abilities to: a) read critically; b) succinctly summarize and communicate; c) pose insightful questions; d) use and discuss models, data and their relationships; and e) work effectively as part of a team. To help with learning and assessment of these skills in students who do not yet have significant discipline-specific background, classroom practices were chosen so that students must think and act more like professional scientists. These include use of some team-based learning strategies, replacing exams with quizzes and projects, mixing team-teaching with solo-teaching, discursive rather than didactic instruction, and use of diverse topics representative of research in our Department. Specific strategies employed which enable “master geoscientists” to actively guide and assess novices as they practice desired skills are: homework involving reading, writing abstracts and posing questions for one or two articles each week, pre-post testing of model based reasoning abilities, interaction with guest scientists, and oral and poster presentations on topics chosen by students. Results of collecting data over two terms of using these general and specific strategies include: 1. Abstract writing skills improved during the first two thirds of the course, then leveled off in

  19. Reflections on clinical expertise and silent know-how in voice therapy.

    PubMed

    Iwarsson, Jenny

    2015-07-01

    The concept of 'clinical expertise' is described as a part of evidence-based practice (EBP) together with 'external scientific evidence' and 'patient values and perspectives'. However, clinical expertise in the management of voice disorders has not been described or discussed in much detail. The expertise seems to consist partly of silent know-how that, from the outside, may seem improperly related to the personality of the speech-language pathologist or exclusively dependent on the number of years in the field. In this paper, it is suggested that clinical expertise in voice therapy consists of specific skills that can be explicitly described and trained. These skills are discussed together with educational aspects that contribute to the development of clinical expertise. The skills are also discussed from the perspectives of the past, present, and future.

  20. Electrophysiological correlates of looking at paintings and its association with art expertise.

    PubMed

    Pang, C Y; Nadal, M; Müller-Paul, J S; Rosenberg, R; Klein, C

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated the electrocortical correlates of art expertise, as defined by a newly developed, content-valid and internally consistent 23-item art expertise questionnaire in N=27 participants that varied in their degree of art expertise. Participants viewed each 50 paintings, filtering-distorted versions of these paintings and plain colour stimuli under free-viewing conditions whilst the EEG was recorded from 64 channels. Results revealed P3b-/LPC-like bilateral posterior event-related potentials (ERP) that were larger over the right hemisphere than over the left hemisphere. Art expertise correlated negatively with the amplitude of the ERP responses to paintings and control stimuli. We conclude that art expertise is associated with reduced ERP responses to visual stimuli in general that can be considered to reflect increased neural efficiency due to extensive practice in the contemplation of visual art.

  1. Adaptive Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, adaptive managem...

  2. Teaching Posttraining : Influencing Diagnostic Strategy with Instructions at Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulatunga-Moruzi, Chan; Brooks, Lee R.; Norman, Geoffrey R.

    2011-01-01

    It is believed that medical diagnosis involves two complementary processes, analytic and similarity-based. There is considerable debate as to which of these processes defines diagnostic expertise and how best to teach clinical diagnosis and reduce diagnostic errors. The purpose of these studies is to document the use of these strategies in medical…

  3. The Teaching American History Program: An Introduction and Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Alex

    2003-01-01

    The Teaching American History (TAH) program began in 2001 as a bold new idea: that history content could be delivered directly to United States history teachers through ongoing partnerships with providers of history expertise. The program awards three-year federal education grants for up to $1 million to develop and carry out these professional…

  4. Breathing and the Oboe: Playing, Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaunt, Helena

    2004-01-01

    Breathing and breath control are central to playing the oboe, yet few detailed educational resources are available to support their teaching and learning. This paper presents a review of existing knowledge and expertise in the field. It highlights common ground and points of controversy, and indicates some key areas for consideration. It points to…

  5. Teachers Teaching Teachers (T3)[TM]. Volume 5, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Frank, Valerie, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Teachers Teaching Teachers" ("T3") focuses on coaches' roles in the professional development of teachers. Each issue also explores the challenges and rewards that teacher leaders encounter. This issue includes: (1) Districts Harness the Expertise of Classroom Teachers (Valerie von Frank); (2) Tool: Measuring Collaborative Norms; (3) Lessons from…

  6. CORDEX.be: COmbining Regional climate Downscaling EXpertise in Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Termonia, Piet; Van Schaeybroeck, Bert; De Ridder, Koen; Fettweis, Xavier; Gobin, Anne; Luyten, Patrick; Marbaix, Philippe; Pottiaux, Eric; Stavrakou, Trissevgeni; Van Lipzig, Nicole; van Ypersele, Jean-Pascal; Willems, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    The main objective of the ongoing project CORDEX.be, "COmbining Regional Downscaling EXpertise in Belgium: CORDEX and Beyond" is to gather existing and ongoing Belgian research activities in the domain of climate modelling to create a coherent scientific basis for future climate services in Belgium. The project regroups eight Belgian Institutes under a single research program of the Belgian Science Policy (BELSPO). The project involves three regional climate models: the ALARO model, the COSMO-CLM model and the MAR model running according to the guidelines of the CORDEX project and at convection permitting resolution on small domains over Belgium. The project creates a framework to address four objectives/challenges. First, this projects aims to contribute to the EURO-CORDEX project. Secondly, RCP simulations are executed at convection-permitting resolutions (3 to 5 km) on small domains. Thirdly, the output of the atmospheric models is used to drive land surface models (the SURFEX model and the Urbclim model) with urban modules, a crop model (REGCROP), a tides and storm model (COHERENS) and the MEGAN-MOHYCAN model that simulates the fluxes emitted by vegetation. Finally, one work package will translate the uncertainty present in the CORDEX database to the high-resolution output of the CORDEX.be project. The organization of the project will be presented and first results will be shown, demonstrating that convection-permitting models can add extra skill to the mesoscale version of the regional climate models, in particular regarding the extreme value statistics and the diurnal cycle.

  7. Both novelty and expertise increase action observation network activity.

    PubMed

    Liew, Sook-Lei; Sheng, Tong; Margetis, John L; Aziz-Zadeh, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Our experiences with others affect how we perceive their actions. In particular, activity in bilateral premotor and parietal cortices during action observation, collectively known as the action observation network (AON), is modulated by one's expertise with the observed actions or individuals. However, conflicting reports suggest that AON activity is greatest both for familiar and unfamiliar actions. The current study examines the effects of different types and amounts of experience (e.g., visual, interpersonal, personal) on AON activation. fMRI was used to scan 16 healthy participants without prior experience with individuals with amputations (novices), 11 experienced occupational therapists (OTs) who had varying amounts of experience with individuals with amputations, and one individual born with below-elbow residual limbs (participant CJ), as they viewed video clips of goal-matched actions performed by an individual with residual limbs and by an individual with hands. Participants were given increased visual exposure to actions performed by both effectors midway through the scanning procedure. Novices demonstrated a large AON response to the initial viewing of an individual with residual limbs compared to one with hands, but this signal was attenuated after they received visual exposure to both effectors. In contrast, OTs, who had moderate familiarity with residual limbs, demonstrated a lower AON response upon initial viewing-similar to novices after they received visual exposure. At the other extreme, CJ, who has extreme familiarity with residual limbs both visually and motorically, shows a largely increased left-lateralized AON response, exceeding that of novices and experienced OTs, when viewing the residual limb compared to hand actions. These results suggest that a nuanced model of AON engagement is needed to explain how cases of both extreme experience (CJ) and extreme novelty (novices) can result in the greatest AON activity.

  8. [Complex expertise on the psychiatric health of a criminal].

    PubMed

    Gierowski, Józef Krzysztof

    2006-01-01

    The development of psychiatry and psychology has brought about a situation in need of newer evaluation of the surroundings in which the justice department tries to use specialist knowledge of the processes governing human psychic life and health. The lacking of clear criteria between the competencies of psychiatrists and psychologists is a certain standard in dealing with the disturbed or mentally ill persons. This is a result of the application of a multidisciplinary approach towards the patient in the area of diagnosis, therapy and rehabilitation. The advancing psychiatric and psychological knowledge has a difficulty in findings its way to forensic psychiatry and psychology. However, owing to the fact that current legal regulations require complex psychiatric-psychological opinions to be formulated, it is worthy to take a closer look at the issue. The fore-mentioned model has its benefits and its flaws. The compiling of the complex opinion may bring about the risk of "mixing up" of the contents as used by the various experts and cause certain methodological problems. From another perspective it would appear that it is impossible to refrain from applying the newly developing interdisciplinary links. Positive experiences with the DSM classification give a strong argument to the sensibility of this approach. The author analyses the bases for cooperation between the psychiatric-psychological expertise which arises from the rules and regulations of the penal law and the code of penal conduct. They pertain to the rules of being able in body and mind and the application of the so called security measures. The model of psychiatric-psychological cooperation taken up by the law-giver does not pertain fully to the essential competencies of psychiatry and psychology and is not a compact consequential solution.

  9. Effect of expertise level on the perceptual characteristics of gymnasts.

    PubMed

    Croix, Gaëlle; Chollet, Didier; Thouvarecq, Régis

    2010-06-01

    The first aim of this study was to investigate how visual and somatosensory information influence handstand performance according to the expertise level of gymnasts. The second aim was to determine whether the general perceptual characteristics of gymnasts are linked with their handstand performances. In the first experiment, expert and nonexpert gymnasts performed a handstand on a force platform in 4 conditions: open or closed eyes on a firm or foam support. To assess the gymnasts' performance, the surface area (mm) covered by the trajectory of the center of pressure (CoP) was recorded. The results showed that (a) experts had significantly (p<0.05) better postural performance during the handstand than did nonexperts, whatever the visual condition, (b) nonexperts were unable to maintain the handstand without vision, whatever the support, and (c) the CoP surface was significantly greater on the foam surface than on the firm surface for both experts and nonexperts and, only for experts, whatever the visual condition. In the second experiment, the gymnasts' general perceptual characteristics (field dependence-independence) were evaluated using the rod-and-frame test (RFT). Experts were less field dependent than nonexperts, and the RFT results were positively correlated with postural performance. We thus suggest that, although they did not cope more efficiently with the somatosensory perturbation, expert gymnasts had developed a capacity to use the remaining sensory modalities efficiently when vision was removed. Also, a high level of gymnastics training may improve the ability to change the frame of reference. For the handstand, exercises alternating the use of visual and nonvisual information could be an interesting technique for trainers to improve gymnasts' performance.

  10. Teaching Practice in the Making: Shaping and Reshaping the Field of Adult Language, Literacy and Numeracy Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widin, Jacquie; Yasukawa, Keiko; Chodkiewicz, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The field of adult language, literacy and numeracy in Australia is a site of struggle as policy changes, new learner groups and new economic imperatives challenge teachers' expertise and beliefs about good teaching practice. This article examines the ways in which experienced adult language, literacy and numeracy teachers shape and reshape their…

  11. Fireplace adapters

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, R.L.

    1983-12-27

    An adapter is disclosed for use with a fireplace. The stove pipe of a stove standing in a room to be heated may be connected to the flue of the chimney so that products of combustion from the stove may be safely exhausted through the flue and outwardly of the chimney. The adapter may be easily installed within the fireplace by removing the damper plate and fitting the adapter to the damper frame. Each of a pair of bolts has a portion which hooks over a portion of the damper frame and a threaded end depending from the hook portion and extending through a hole in the adapter. Nuts are threaded on the bolts and are adapted to force the adapter into a tight fit with the adapter frame.

  12. The effect of expertise on memory conformity: a test of informational influence.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Paul; Weber, Nathan; Robertson, Marie-Therese

    2013-01-01

    Conforming to erroneous memory reports of co-witnesses can have serious impacts on subsequent forensic investigation and court reports. One theoretical explanation proposed is that memory conformity arises due to informational influence; the co-witness desires to give accurate information and reports the co-witness's version because they perceive the co-witness as being more credible. We tested the idea that perceptions of credibility drive memory conformity. We manipulated credibility through expertise; specifically, by telling participants that the (confederate) co-witness had previously worked as either a policeman (high expertise) or an electrician (low expertise). After a discussion with the co-witness, we assessed cued-recall memory and perceptions of credibility about the co-witness and the self. We found that higher expertise led to greater memory conformity. Although higher expertise also led to higher credibility assessments of the co-witness, this was only for perceptions of the credibility as an eye-witness and memory confidence, neither of which predicted memory conformity. By contrast, memory accuracy of the co-witness relative to self-memory accuracy predicted memory conformity, but this was not affected by expertise. These results show support for an informational influence explanation but suggest that expertise perceptions operate differently from our explanation. PMID:24108576

  13. The Influence of Peer Reviewer Expertise on the Evaluation of Research Funding Applications

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Joanne H.; Glisson, Scott R.

    2016-01-01

    Although the scientific peer review process is crucial to distributing research investments, little has been reported about the decision-making processes used by reviewers. One key attribute likely to be important for decision-making is reviewer expertise. Recent data from an experimental blinded review utilizing a direct measure of expertise has found that closer intellectual distances between applicant and reviewer lead to harsher evaluations, possibly suggesting that information is differentially sampled across subject-matter expertise levels and across information type (e.g. strengths or weaknesses). However, social and professional networks have been suggested to play a role in reviewer scoring. In an effort to test whether this result can be replicated in a real-world unblinded study utilizing self-assessed reviewer expertise, we conducted a retrospective multi-level regression analysis of 1,450 individual unblinded evaluations of 725 biomedical research funding applications by 1,044 reviewers. Despite the large variability in the scoring data, the results are largely confirmatory of work from blinded reviews, by which a linear relationship between reviewer expertise and their evaluations was observed—reviewers with higher levels of self-assessed expertise tended to be harsher in their evaluations. However, we also found that reviewer and applicant seniority could influence this relationship, suggesting social networks could have subtle influences on reviewer scoring. Overall, these results highlight the need to explore how reviewers utilize their expertise to gather and weight information from the application in making their evaluations. PMID:27768760

  14. The effect of expertise on memory conformity: a test of informational influence.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Paul; Weber, Nathan; Robertson, Marie-Therese

    2013-01-01

    Conforming to erroneous memory reports of co-witnesses can have serious impacts on subsequent forensic investigation and court reports. One theoretical explanation proposed is that memory conformity arises due to informational influence; the co-witness desires to give accurate information and reports the co-witness's version because they perceive the co-witness as being more credible. We tested the idea that perceptions of credibility drive memory conformity. We manipulated credibility through expertise; specifically, by telling participants that the (confederate) co-witness had previously worked as either a policeman (high expertise) or an electrician (low expertise). After a discussion with the co-witness, we assessed cued-recall memory and perceptions of credibility about the co-witness and the self. We found that higher expertise led to greater memory conformity. Although higher expertise also led to higher credibility assessments of the co-witness, this was only for perceptions of the credibility as an eye-witness and memory confidence, neither of which predicted memory conformity. By contrast, memory accuracy of the co-witness relative to self-memory accuracy predicted memory conformity, but this was not affected by expertise. These results show support for an informational influence explanation but suggest that expertise perceptions operate differently from our explanation.

  15. The role of domain expertise and judgment in dealing with unexpected events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochan, Janeen Adrion

    Unexpected events, particularly those creating surprise, interrupt ongoing mental and behavioral processes, creating an increased potential for unwanted outcomes to the situation. Human reactions to unexpected events vary. One can hypothesize a number of reasons for this variation, including level of domain expertise, previous experience with similar events, emotional connotation, and the contextual surround of the event. Whereas interrupting ongoing activities and focusing attention temporarily on a surprising event may be a useful evolutionary response to a threatening situation, the same process may be maladaptive in today's highly dynamic world. The purpose of this study was to investigate how different aspects of expertise affected one's ability to detect and react to an unexpected event. It was hypothesized that there were two general types of expertise, domain expertise and judgment (Hammond, 2000), which influenced one's performance on dealing with an unexpected event. The goal of the research was to parse out the relative contribution of domain expertise, so the role of judgment could be revealed. The research questions for this study were: (a) Can we identify specific knowledges and skills which enhance one's ability to deal with unexpected events? (b) Are these skills "automatically" included in domain expertise? (c) How does domain expertise improve or deter one's reaction and response to unexpected events? (d) What role does judgment play in responding to surprise? The general hypothesis was that good judgment would influence the process of surprise at different stages and in different ways than would domain expertise. The conclusions from this research indicated that good judgment had a significant positive effect in helping pilots deal with unexpected events. This was most pronounced when domain expertise was low.

  16. Teaching Shakespeare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, James E., Ed.

    1976-01-01

    This issue of "Focus: Teaching English in Southeastern Ohio" contains articles about teaching Shakespeare, student summaries of a Shakespeare conference held at Ohio University-Zanesville in April 1976, and suggested projects for teaching poetry writing. It also contains lists of materials and articles related to the teaching of Shakespeare, and…

  17. Teaching Pronunciation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Michael

    1975-01-01

    Gives practical hints for teaching pronunciation with special attention to accent: 1. Teaching of pronunciation should take place in a "meaningful context." 2. Mimicry drills form the basis for teaching pronunciation. 3. Discrimination drills are a prerequisite for successful teaching of pronunciation. 4. Speaking in chorus is a useful method for…

  18. Teaching thanatology in a foreign country: implications for death educators.

    PubMed

    Shatz, Mark A

    2002-06-01

    Although an increasing number of death educators will have the opportunity to teach abroad, many may not be fully aware of the issues that arise in intercultural instruction and are not prepared to handle the pedagogical challenges associated with teaching thanatology in a foreign country. On the basis of experience of teaching in China, the author describes the challenges of intercultural teaching, strategies for adapting instruction to address the pedagogical obstacles, and the ways an international teaching experience can enrich instruction.

  19. The expertise reversal effect for sequential presentation in dynamic soccer visualizations.

    PubMed

    Khacharem, Aïmen; Zoudji, Bachir; Kalyuga, Slava; Ripoll, Hubert

    2013-06-01

    Cognitive load perspective was used as a theoretical framework to investigate effects of expertise and type of presentation of interacting elements of information in learning from dynamic visualizations. Soccer players (N = 48) were required to complete a recall reconstruction test and to rate their invested mental effort after studying a concurrent or sequential presentation of the elements of play. The results provided evidence for an expertise reversal effect. For novice players, the sequential presentation produced better learning outcomes. In contrast, expert players performed better after studying the concurrent presentation. The findings suggest that the effectiveness of different visual presentation formats depend on levels of learner expertise.

  20. Clinical Ethics Consultants are not "Ethics" Experts-But They do Have Expertise.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Lisa M

    2016-08-01

    The attempt to critique the profession of clinical ethics consultation by establishing the impossibility of ethics expertise has been a red herring. Decisions made in clinical ethics cases are almost never based purely on moral judgments. Instead, they are all-things-considered judgments that involve determining how to balance other values as well. A standard of justified decision-making in this context would enable us to identify experts who could achieve these standards more often than others, and thus provide a basis for expertise in clinical ethics consultation. This expertise relies in part on what Richard Zaner calls the "expert knowledge of ethical phenomena" (1988, 8). PMID:27302970

  1. [The application of evaluation tools for criminal responsibility in forensic psychiatric expertise].

    PubMed

    Fu, Pei-Xin; Wang, Jing; Shi, Tian-Tao; Hu, Ji-Nian; Zhu, Ming-Xia

    2010-06-01

    Criminal responsibility is divided into three types: full criminal responsibility, diminished criminal responsibility and criminal irresponsibility in China. In forensic psychiatric expertise, doctors often have different opinions about the responsibility in a given case because of lacking objective criteria. The evaluation of criminal responsibility is always unresolved problem in forensic psychiatric expertise. Application of these evaluation tools in forensic psychiatric expertise were reviewed in this article. The value of the tools were still controversial in the reliability and validity, but it is clear that these tools have the positive roles in ensuring the standardization and the uniformity of the forensic investigation.

  2. Adaptive SPECT

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Harrison H.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Freed, Melanie; Hesterman, Jacob Y.; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Clarkson, Eric; Whitaker, Meredith K.

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive imaging systems alter their data-acquisition configuration or protocol in response to the image information received. An adaptive pinhole single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system might acquire an initial scout image to obtain preliminary information about the radiotracer distribution and then adjust the configuration or sizes of the pinholes, the magnifications, or the projection angles in order to improve performance. This paper briefly describes two small-animal SPECT systems that allow this flexibility and then presents a framework for evaluating adaptive systems in general, and adaptive SPECT systems in particular. The evaluation is in terms of the performance of linear observers on detection or estimation tasks. Expressions are derived for the ideal linear (Hotelling) observer and the ideal linear (Wiener) estimator with adaptive imaging. Detailed expressions for the performance figures of merit are given, and possible adaptation rules are discussed. PMID:18541485

  3. How Expert Secondary Special Education Teachers Conceptualize Teaching Literacy in Their Content Area to Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauterbach, Alexandra A.

    2013-01-01

    This study provides insight into the cognition of expert content area teachers with specialized knowledge in teaching literacy to students with learning disabilities (LD), with the purpose of developing an understanding of expertise in teaching literacy in the content areas to secondary students with LD. This study used hermeneutic phenomenology…

  4. Phenomenology without phenomena: a discussion of the use of phenomenology to examine expertise in long-term care of elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Reed, J

    1994-02-01

    Phenomenological approaches to research have gained popularity in nursing research over past years, in particular the use of critical incident technique. Phenomenology can be traced back to existentialist philosophy where it is expounded in the work of Husserl and Heidegger. One of the most notable examples of phenomenological research in nursing has been the work of Benner who has used this approach to examine expertise in nursing. This paper is an account of a study which attempted to adapt phenomenological methods to the investigation of expertise in nurses working in long-term care settings, which was curtailed by the apparent inability of nurses in the study to identify any significant incidents. The paper examines this problem in the light of existentialist philosophy and suggests that the apparent lack of expertise identified in the nurses might be due more to a tendency of phenomenological studies to focus more on articulation than on attunement or potential, the other elements of dasein. The paper concludes that attention to these elements is required when phenomenology is used. PMID:8188966

  5. Adaptive Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, William

    1999-01-01

    Provides information on various adaptive technology resources available to people with disabilities. (Contains 19 references, an annotated list of 129 websites, and 12 additional print resources.) (JOW)

  6. Contour adaptation.

    PubMed

    Anstis, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    It is known that adaptation to a disk that flickers between black and white at 3-8 Hz on a gray surround renders invisible a congruent gray test disk viewed afterwards. This is contrast adaptation. We now report that adapting simply to the flickering circular outline of the disk can have the same effect. We call this "contour adaptation." This adaptation does not transfer interocularly, and apparently applies only to luminance, not color. One can adapt selectively to only some of the contours in a display, making only these contours temporarily invisible. For instance, a plaid comprises a vertical grating superimposed on a horizontal grating. If one first adapts to appropriate flickering vertical lines, the vertical components of the plaid disappears and it looks like a horizontal grating. Also, we simulated a Cornsweet (1970) edge, and we selectively adapted out the subjective and objective contours of a Kanisza (1976) subjective square. By temporarily removing edges, contour adaptation offers a new technique to study the role of visual edges, and it demonstrates how brightness information is concentrated in edges and propagates from them as it fills in surfaces.

  7. The Roles of Intuition and Informants’ Expertise in Children’s Epistemic Trust

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Jonathan D.; Harris, Paul L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined how children’s intuitions and informants’ expertise influence children’s trust in informants’ claims. Three- to 8-year-olds (N=192) watched videos in which experts (animal/biology experts or artifact/physics experts) made either intuitively plausible or counterintuitive claims about obscure animals or artifacts. Claims fell either within or beyond experts’ domains of expertise. Children of all ages were more trusting of claims made by informants with relevant, as opposed to irrelevant, expertise. Children also showed greater acceptance of intuitive rather than counterintuitive claims, a differentiation that increased with age as they developed firmer intuitions about what can ordinarily happen. In summary, children’s trust in testimony depends on whether informants have the relevant expertise as well as on children’s own developing intuitions. PMID:25425347

  8. [The state of forensic medical expertise of civil cases concerning medical disputes].

    PubMed

    Barinov, E Kh; Romodanovskiĭ, P O

    2013-01-01

    It is concluded that the current state of forensic medical expertise of civil cases concerning disputable issues, such as causing harm to health in medical practice, does not meet the requirements of the relevant legal procedures.

  9. Perceptual expertise enhances the resolution but not the number of representations in working memory.

    PubMed

    Scolari, Miranda; Vogel, Edward K; Awh, Edward

    2008-02-01

    Despite its central role in cognition, capacity in visual working memory is restricted to about three or four items. Curby and Gauthier (2007) examined whether perceptual expertise can help to overcome this limit by enabling more efficient coding of visual information. In line with this, they observed higher capacity estimates for upright than for inverted faces, suggesting that perceptual expertise enhances visual working memory. In the present work, we examined whether the improved capacity estimates for upright faces indicates an increased number of "slots" in working memory, or improved resolution within the existing slots. Our results suggest that perceptual expertise enhances the resolution but not the number of representations that can be held in working memory. These results clarify the effects of perceptual expertise in working memory and support recent suggestions that number and resolution represent distinct facets of working memory ability.

  10. Field Studies—Essential Cognitive Foundations for Geoscience Expertise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, C.; Mogk, D. W.

    2010-12-01

    Learning in the field has traditionally been one of the fundamental components of the geoscience curriculum. Field experiences have been attributed to having positive impacts on cognitive, affective, metacognitive, mastery of skills and social components of learning geoscience. The development of geoscience thinking, and of geoscience expertise, encompasses a number of learned behaviors that contribute to the progress of Science and the development of scientists. By getting out into Nature, students necessarily engage active and experiential learning. The open, dynamic, heterogeneous and complex Earth system provides ample opportunities to learn by inquiry and discovery. Learning in this environment requires that students make informed decisions and to think critically about what is important to observe, and what should be excluded in the complex overload of information provided by Nature. Students must learn to employ the full range of cognitive skills that include observation, description, interpretation, analysis and synthesis that lead to “deep learning”. They must be able to integrate and rationalize observations of Nature with modern experimental, analytical, theoretical, and modeling approaches to studying the Earth system, and they must be able to iterate between what is known and what is yet to be discovered. Immersion in the field setting provides students with a sense of spatial and temporal scales of natural phenomena that can not be derived in other learning environments. The field setting provides strong sensory inputs that stimulate cognition and memories that will be available for future application. The field environment also stimulates strong affective responses related to motivation, curiosity, a sense of “ownership” of field projects, and inclusion in shared experiences that carry on throughout professional careers. The nature of field work also contains a strong metacognitive component, as students learn to be aware of what and how they

  11. Video & Micro-Teaching: Adaptable Medium, Adaptable Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Development Communication Report, 1979

    1979-01-01

    The title reflects the first and major article in an issue of this newsletter devoted heavily to video technology. The flexible capabilities of videotape used with microteaching are presented and illustrated with case studies of childhood education and rural health development programs in Nigeria, improvement of nurses' communication skills, and…

  12. What kind of computation is intelligence. A framework for integrating different kinds of expertise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandrasekaran, B.

    1989-01-01

    The view that the deliberative aspect of intelligent behavior is a distinct type of algorithm; in particular, a goal-seeking exploratory process using qualitative representations of knowledge and inference is elaborated. There are other kinds of algorithms that also embody expertise in domains. The different types of expertise and how they can and should be integrated to give full account of expert behavior are discussed.

  13. Bringing the Field into Focus: User-centered Design of a Patient Expertise Locator

    PubMed Central

    Civan-Hartzler, Andrea; McDonald, David W.; Powell, Chris; Skeels, Meredith M; Mukai, Marlee; Pratt, Wanda

    2010-01-01

    Managing personal aspects of health is challenging for many patients, particularly those facing a serious condition such as cancer. Finding experienced patients, who can share their knowledge from managing a similar health situation, is of tremendous value. Users of health-related social software form a large base of such knowledge, yet these tools often lack features needed to locate peers with expertise. Informed directly by our field work with breast cancer patients, we designed a patient expertise locator for users of online health communities. Using feedback from two focus groups with breast cancer survivors, we took our design through two iterations. Focus groups concluded that expertise locating features proved useful for extending social software. They guided design enhancements by suggesting granular user control through (1) multiple mechanisms to identify expertise, (2) detailed user profiles to select expertise, and (3) varied collaboration levels. Our user-centered approach links field work to design through close collaboration with patients. By illustrating trade-offs made when sharing sensitive health information, our findings inform the incorporation of expertise locating features into social software for patients. PMID:21243114

  14. Developing Preservice Teachers' Expertise in Equitable Assessment for English Learners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Marcelle A.

    2014-04-01

    This study illustrated a pathway of growth that a preservice teacher might traverse when learning to use and develop equitable assessments (EA). The study is rare in that it looks at the development of preservice teachers' understanding and ability to design EA. I examined the understanding and implementation of EA of 23 secondary preservice teachers within two classes. The methods classes focused on the academic content area of science. Participants' journals, teaching philosophies, and inquiry-based science units served as data sources. Participants progressed from a simple view of EA as "fairness" to a more sophisticated view of EA, including: ways to increase fairness, the importance of challenging students, and using assessments for learning. Results also showed changes in preservice teachers' views of learners and the purpose of assessment. While understanding developed robustly, teachers' assessment plans in their units were not as strong. Teacher education programs need to place more emphasis on developing critical understanding of EA practices to meet the needs of diverse learners.

  15. Climate adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinzig, Ann P.

    2015-03-01

    This paper is intended as a brief introduction to climate adaptation in a conference devoted otherwise to the physics of sustainable energy. Whereas mitigation involves measures to reduce the probability of a potential event, such as climate change, adaptation refers to actions that lessen the impact of climate change. Mitigation and adaptation differ in other ways as well. Adaptation does not necessarily have to be implemented immediately to be effective; it only needs to be in place before the threat arrives. Also, adaptation does not necessarily require global, coordinated action; many effective adaptation actions can be local. Some urban communities, because of land-use change and the urban heat-island effect, currently face changes similar to some expected under climate change, such as changes in water availability, heat-related morbidity, or changes in disease patterns. Concern over those impacts might motivate the implementation of measures that would also help in climate adaptation, despite skepticism among some policy makers about anthropogenic global warming. Studies of ancient civilizations in the southwestern US lends some insight into factors that may or may not be important to successful adaptation.

  16. [The informational analytical support of management of regional health care on the basis of expertise].

    PubMed

    Finchenko, E A; Tsytsorina, I A; Shalygina, L S; Ivaninskii, O I; Sharapov, I V

    2014-01-01

    The development of the system of informational analytical support based on expertise data is one of most important stage of increasing of effectiveness of management of regional health care. The study was organized to substantiate formation of the system of informational analytical support of management of regional health care on the basis of expertise data. The study was carried out on the basis of expertise data from subjects involved in informational analytical support of management of regional health care (health care management executives, chief specialists and directors of medical organizations in the subjects of the Russian Federation situated in the Siberian federal okrug). The study established that alongside with statistical information the expertise is enough important, objective and informative information to be applied in developing of managerial decisions. The highest integral estimated value of importance, objectiveness and informativeness has the information concerning competence of medical personnel, proportions of medical care of population and conditions of material technical base of health institutions. The most foreground issues concerning expertise are population health condition, pharmaceutical and medical equipment support of medical institutions, level and quality of population medical care. The degree of impact of expertise information on managerial decision making is highest in such directions as support of population with medical care, increasing of availability of medical care and degree of organization of medical care rendering. The probability of increasing of degree of impact of expertise information on managerial decision making is the highest in such directions as population provision with medical care, competence of medical personnel, level and quality of medical care, level of organization of medical care support, that is to be considered during implementation of expertise. The study data was used in developing the major

  17. [The informational analytical support of management of regional health care on the basis of expertise].

    PubMed

    Finchenko, E A; Tsytsorina, I A; Shalygina, L S; Ivaninskii, O I; Sharapov, I V

    2014-01-01

    The development of the system of informational analytical support based on expertise data is one of most important stage of increasing of effectiveness of management of regional health care. The study was organized to substantiate formation of the system of informational analytical support of management of regional health care on the basis of expertise data. The study was carried out on the basis of expertise data from subjects involved in informational analytical support of management of regional health care (health care management executives, chief specialists and directors of medical organizations in the subjects of the Russian Federation situated in the Siberian federal okrug). The study established that alongside with statistical information the expertise is enough important, objective and informative information to be applied in developing of managerial decisions. The highest integral estimated value of importance, objectiveness and informativeness has the information concerning competence of medical personnel, proportions of medical care of population and conditions of material technical base of health institutions. The most foreground issues concerning expertise are population health condition, pharmaceutical and medical equipment support of medical institutions, level and quality of population medical care. The degree of impact of expertise information on managerial decision making is highest in such directions as support of population with medical care, increasing of availability of medical care and degree of organization of medical care rendering. The probability of increasing of degree of impact of expertise information on managerial decision making is the highest in such directions as population provision with medical care, competence of medical personnel, level and quality of medical care, level of organization of medical care support, that is to be considered during implementation of expertise. The study data was used in developing the major

  18. Cultural variant interaction in teaching and transmission.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Marshall

    2015-01-01

    Focus on the way in which cultural variants affect other variants' probabilities of transmission in modeling and empirical work can enrich Kline's conceptualization of teaching. For example, the problem of communicating complex cumulative culture is an adaptive problem; teaching methods that manage transmission so that acquisition of some cultural variants increases the probability of acquiring others, provide a partial solution. PMID:26786769

  19. Teaching the Perpendicular Bisector: A Kinesthetic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touval, Ayana

    2011-01-01

    Kinesthetic intelligence is one of the seven kinds of intelligence identified by Gardner's multiple intelligence theory (1983). The kinesthetic approach to teaching has numerous pedagogical advantages and can be adapted to the teaching of mathematics. This article describes a series of kinesthetic activities designed to explore the properties of…

  20. Tasks for Integrating Language and Culture Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Peter; Rucynski, John, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the role of culture in language teaching and provides activities for introducing culture in the classroom, focusing on teaching context and methodology to integrate culture. The authors outline five activities that can be adapted to the language level and interests of students. Instructions for each activity include language…

  1. Teaching Physical Education in International Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, David LeRoy; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the opportunity of teaching physical education at international schools. Common challenges (e.g., communication differences, adapting to the host culture, teaching individuals from various cultural backgrounds) and positive aspects (e.g., smart and engaged students, a positive learning environment for teachers, great…

  2. Training experts in family medicine teaching.

    PubMed

    Švab, Igor; Allen, Justin; Žebiene, Egle; Petek Šter, Marija; Windak, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Family medicine teachers require specific educational skills. A framework for their professional development is essential for future development of the discipline in Europe. EURACT developed a framework on educational expertise, and subsequently applied it in a curriculum of teaching-skills courses of various levels. The aim of this article is to describe the development of the teaching framework, and of an international three-level course programme for 'teaching-the-teachers'. Furthermore, we describe our experiences and lessons learned, in particular with regard to the level-three programme for proficient teachers, which was new. We conclude that it is possible to develop a theoretical framework of family medicine teaching expertise and to apply it in an international high-level educational programme for future experts in family medicine education. Research evidence of the usefulness of this approach is needed, and the threats for its further development into a sustainable activity are its high teacher/student ratio associated with relatively high costs and difficulties in recruiting suitable participants.

  3. An Adaption Tool Kit for Teaching Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Music-education majors often struggle when making classroom and curricular modifications for their lesson plans during their university coursework. This article offers behavioral, curricular, environmental, motivational, organizational, and presentational strategies for planning instruction for various disabilities in the music classroom.…

  4. Emphatic, interactive volume rendering to support variance in user expertise.

    PubMed

    Stredney, Don; Ebert, David S; Svakhine, Nikolai; Bryan, Jason; Sessanna, Dennis; Wiet, Gregory J

    2005-01-01

    Various levels of representation, from abstract to schematic to realistic, have been exploited for millennia to facilitate the transfer of information from one individual to another. Learning complex information, such as that found in biomedicine, proves specifically problematic to many, and requires incremental, step-wise depictions of the information to clarify structural, functional, and procedural relationships.Emerging volume-rendering technique, such as non-photorealistic representation, coupled with advances in computational speeds, especially new graphical processing units, provide unique capabilities to explore the use of various levels of representation in interactive sessions. We have developed a system that produces images that simulate pictorial representations for both scientific and biomedical visualization. The system combines traditional and novel volume illustration techniques. We present examples from our efforts to distill representational techniques for both creative exploration and emphatic presentation for clarity. More specifically, we present our efforts to adapt these techniques for interactive simulation sessions being developed in a concurrent project for resident training in temporal bone dissection simulation. The goal of this effort is to evaluate the use of emphatic rendering to guide the user in an interactive session and to facilitate the learning of complex biomedical information, including structural, functional, and procedural information.

  5. The Foreign TA: A Guide to Teaching Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gburek, Janice L., Ed.; Dunnett, Stephen C., Ed.

    Articles on teaching effectiveness for foreign teaching assistants (TAs) are presented. Topics include: adapting to the U.S. academic environment, understanding the role of the TA and gaining confidence, anticipating undergraduates' expectations, improving communication skills, and teaching laboratory classes and recitation classes. Titles and…

  6. Sylvia Ashton-Warner: Reclaiming Personal Meaning in Literacy Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Nancy S.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the work of New Zealand educator and writer Sylvia Ashton-Warner. Describes her organic philosophy and how it is the basis for whole-language teaching; describes her Key Vocabulary method. Discusses adapting organic learning and whole language to upper-level literacy teaching. Discusses group inquiry learning and personalized teaching.…

  7. Current Approaches to the Teaching of Foreign Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Martin T.; And Others

    Five papers presented at a language conference are compiled in this report. They include: (1) "Le Francais au Pot-Pourri," or "Adapting the 'Open-Classroom' to the Teaching of Foreign Languages," (2) "We Can Teach Anyone to Speak French," (3) "The Use of Puppetry in the Teaching of Foreign Languages," (4) "A New Perspective for Integrated Foreign…

  8. Research Methodologies Explored for a Paradigm Shift in University Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venter, I. M.; Blignaut, R. J.; Stoltz, D.

    2001-01-01

    Innovative teaching methods such as collaborative learning, teamwork, and mind maps were introduced to teach computer science and statistics courses at a South African university. Soft systems methodology was adapted and used to manage the research process of evaluating the effectiveness of the teaching methods. This research method provided proof…

  9. "No level up!": no effects of video game specialization and expertise on cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Gobet, Fernand; Johnston, Stephen J; Ferrufino, Gabriella; Johnston, Matthew; Jones, Michael B; Molyneux, Antonia; Terzis, Argyrios; Weeden, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Previous research into the effects of action video gaming on cognition has suggested that long term exposure to this type of game might lead to an enhancement of cognitive skills that transfer to non-gaming cognitive tasks. However, these results have been controversial. The aim of the current study was to test the presence of positive cognitive transfer from action video games to two cognitive tasks. More specifically, this study investigated the effects that participants' expertise and genre specialization have on cognitive improvements in one task unrelated to video gaming (a flanker task) and one related task (change detection task with both control and genre-specific images). This study was unique in three ways. Firstly, it analyzed a continuum of expertise levels, which has yet to be investigated in research into the cognitive benefits of video gaming. Secondly, it explored genre-specific skill developments on these tasks by comparing Action and Strategy video game players (VGPs). Thirdly, it used a very tight experiment design, including the experimenter being blind to expertise level and genre specialization of the participant. Ninety-two university students aged between 18 and 30 (M = 21.25) were recruited through opportunistic sampling and were grouped by video game specialization and expertise level. While the results of the flanker task were consistent with previous research (i.e., effect of congruence), there was no effect of expertise, and the action gamers failed to outperform the strategy gamers. Additionally, contrary to expectation, there was no interaction between genre specialization and image type in the change detection task, again demonstrating no expertise effect. The lack of effects for game specialization and expertise goes against previous research on the positive effects of action video gaming on other cognitive tasks. PMID:25506330

  10. "No level up!": no effects of video game specialization and expertise on cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Gobet, Fernand; Johnston, Stephen J; Ferrufino, Gabriella; Johnston, Matthew; Jones, Michael B; Molyneux, Antonia; Terzis, Argyrios; Weeden, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Previous research into the effects of action video gaming on cognition has suggested that long term exposure to this type of game might lead to an enhancement of cognitive skills that transfer to non-gaming cognitive tasks. However, these results have been controversial. The aim of the current study was to test the presence of positive cognitive transfer from action video games to two cognitive tasks. More specifically, this study investigated the effects that participants' expertise and genre specialization have on cognitive improvements in one task unrelated to video gaming (a flanker task) and one related task (change detection task with both control and genre-specific images). This study was unique in three ways. Firstly, it analyzed a continuum of expertise levels, which has yet to be investigated in research into the cognitive benefits of video gaming. Secondly, it explored genre-specific skill developments on these tasks by comparing Action and Strategy video game players (VGPs). Thirdly, it used a very tight experiment design, including the experimenter being blind to expertise level and genre specialization of the participant. Ninety-two university students aged between 18 and 30 (M = 21.25) were recruited through opportunistic sampling and were grouped by video game specialization and expertise level. While the results of the flanker task were consistent with previous research (i.e., effect of congruence), there was no effect of expertise, and the action gamers failed to outperform the strategy gamers. Additionally, contrary to expectation, there was no interaction between genre specialization and image type in the change detection task, again demonstrating no expertise effect. The lack of effects for game specialization and expertise goes against previous research on the positive effects of action video gaming on other cognitive tasks.

  11. Beyond perceptual expertise: revisiting the neural substrates of expert object recognition

    PubMed Central

    Harel, Assaf; Kravitz, Dwight; Baker, Chris I.

    2013-01-01

    Real-world expertise provides a valuable opportunity to understand how experience shapes human behavior and neural function. In the visual domain, the study of expert object recognition, such as in car enthusiasts or bird watchers, has produced a large, growing, and often-controversial literature. Here, we synthesize this literature, focusing primarily on results from functional brain imaging, and propose an interactive framework that incorporates the impact of high-level factors, such as attention and conceptual knowledge, in supporting expertise. This framework contrasts with the perceptual view of object expertise that has concentrated largely on stimulus-driven processing in visual cortex. One prominent version of this perceptual account has almost exclusively focused on the relation of expertise to face processing and, in terms of the neural substrates, has centered on face-selective cortical regions such as the Fusiform Face Area (FFA). We discuss the limitations of this face-centric approach as well as the more general perceptual view, and highlight that expert related activity is: (i) found throughout visual cortex, not just FFA, with a strong relationship between neural response and behavioral expertise even in the earliest stages of visual processing, (ii) found outside visual cortex in areas such as parietal and prefrontal cortices, and (iii) modulated by the attentional engagement of the observer suggesting that it is neither automatic nor driven solely by stimulus properties. These findings strongly support a framework in which object expertise emerges from extensive interactions within and between the visual system and other cognitive systems, resulting in widespread, distributed patterns of expertise-related activity across the entire cortex. PMID:24409134

  12. Teaching English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemanich, Donald, Ed.

    1975-01-01

    Articles in this volume of the "Illinois English Bulletin" include "Competencies in Teaching English" by Alan C. Purves, which sets forth a tentative model for planning competency-based instruction and certification based on concepts, teaching acts, skills, and strategies; "Passing the Buck Versus the Teaching of English" by Dennis Q. McInerny,…

  13. Teaching Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomas, Z.; Kostka, I.; Mott-Smith, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    The authors of "Teaching Writing" draw on their years of teaching and their knowledge of theory and research to present major concepts in teaching L2 writing. These concepts encompass how cultural differences affect the writing class, planning instruction, text-based writing, writing strategies, modeling, and responding to student…

  14. Teaching Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemtchinova, Ekaterina

    2013-01-01

    Ekaterina Nemtchinova's book "Teaching Listening" explores different approaches to teaching listening in second language classrooms. Presenting up-to-date research and theoretical issues associated with second language listening, Nemtchinova explains how these new findings inform everyday teaching and offers practical suggestions…

  15. Teaching Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanervo, Ellen; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Contains teaching ideas from six journalism teachers on the following topics: teaching electronic editing, using minicomputers in an advertising media course, five ways to make grading stories easier, the point and code system of grading, student coverage of state government, and the "guided design" teaching technique. (RL)

  16. Power Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fluellen, Jerry E., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Power Teaching weaves four factors into a seamless whole: standards, teaching thinking, research based strategies, and critical inquiry. As a prototype in its first year of development with an urban fifth grade class, the power teaching model connects selected district standards, thinking routines from Harvard University Project Zero Research…

  17. Teaching Artistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeder, Laura

    2007-01-01

    The profession of teaching artist is an increasingly accepted career path. Teaching artists have generated plentiful testimonials to support what was once only backed up by anecdote and is now increasingly supported by objective data. They are finding that very definite and specific benefits await the artist who teaches. While the impacts are not…

  18. Toothbrush Adaptations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Suggestions are presented for helping disabled individuals learn to use or adapt toothbrushes for proper dental care. A directory lists dental health instructional materials available from various organizations. (CB)

  19. Network reciprocity by coexisting learning and teaching strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimoto, Jun; Brede, Markus; Yamauchi, Atsuo

    2012-03-01

    We propose a network reciprocity model in which an agent probabilistically adopts learning or teaching strategies. In the learning adaptation mechanism, an agent may copy a neighbor's strategy through Fermi pairwise comparison. The teaching adaptation mechanism involves an agent imposing its strategy on a neighbor. Our simulations reveal that the reciprocity is significantly affected by the frequency with which learning and teaching agents coexist in a network and by the structure of the network itself.

  20. Does acquisition of Greeble expertise in prosopagnosia rule out a domain-general deficit?

    PubMed

    Bukach, Cindy M; Gauthier, Isabel; Tarr, Michael J; Kadlec, Helena; Barth, Sara; Ryan, Emily; Turpin, Justin; Bub, Daniel N

    2012-01-01

    According to the expertise account of face specialization, a deficit that affects general expertise mechanisms should similarly impair the expert individuation of both faces and other visually homogeneous object classes. To test this possibility, we attempted to train a prosopagnosic patient, LR, to become a Greeble expert using the standard Greeble expertise-training paradigm (Gauthier & Tarr, 2002). Previous research demonstrated that LR's prosopagnosia was related to an inability to simultaneously use multiple features in a speeded face recognition task (Bukach, Bub, Gauthier, & Tarr, 2006). We hypothesized that LR's inability to use multiple face features would manifest in his acquisition of Greeble expertise, even though his basic object recognition is unimpaired according to standard neuropsychological testing. Although LR was eventually able to reach expertise criterion, he took many more training sessions than controls, suggesting use of an abnormal strategy. To further explore LR's Greeble processing strategies, we assessed his ability to use multiple Greeble features both before and after Greeble training. LR's performance in two versions of this task demonstrates that, even after training, he relies heavily on a single feature to identify Greebles. This correspondence between LR's face recognition and post-training Greeble recognition supports the idea that impaired face recognition is simply the most visible symptom of a more general object recognition impairment in acquired prosopagnosia.

  1. Delusions of expertise: the high standard of proof needed to demonstrate skills at horserace handicapping.

    PubMed

    Browne, Matthew; Rockloff, Matthew J; Blaszcynski, Alex; Allcock, Clive; Windross, Allen

    2015-03-01

    Gamblers who participate in skill-oriented games (such as poker and sports-betting) are motivated to win over the long-term, and some monitor their betting outcomes to evaluate their performance and proficiency. In this study of Australian off-track horserace betting, we investigated which levels of sustained returns would be required to establish evidence of skill/expertise. We modelled a random strategy to simulate 'naïve' play, in which equal bets were placed on randomly selected horses using a representative sample of 211 weekend races. Results from a Monte Carlo simulation yielded a distribution of return-on-investments for varying number of bets (N), showing surprising volatility, even after a large number of repeated bets. After adjusting for the house advantage, a gambler would have to place over 10,000 bets in individual races with net returns exceeding 9 % to be reasonably considered an expert punter (α = .05). Moreover, a record of fewer bets would require even greater returns for demonstrating expertise. As such, validated expertise is likely to be rare among race bettors. We argue that the counter-intuitively high threshold for demonstrating expertise by tracking historical performance is likely to exacerbate known cognitive biases in self-evaluation of expertise.

  2. Brain correlates of aesthetic expertise: a parametric fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Ulrich; Skov, Martin; Christensen, Mark Schram; Nygaard, Niels

    2009-03-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that acquired expertise influences aesthetic judgments. In this paradigm we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study aesthetic judgments of visually presented architectural stimuli and control-stimuli (faces) for a group of architects and a group of non-architects. This design allowed us to test whether level of expertise modulates neural activity in brain areas associated with either perceptual processing, memory, or reward processing. We show that experts and non-experts recruit bilateral medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and subcallosal cingulate gyrus differentially during aesthetic judgment, even in the absence of behavioural aesthetic rating differences between experts and non-experts. By contrast, activity in nucleus accumbens (NAcc) exhibits a differential response profile compared to OFC and subcallosal cingulate gyrus, suggesting a dissociable role between these regions in the reward processing of expertise. Finally, categorical responses (irrespective of aesthetic ratings) resulted in expertise effects in memory-related areas such as hippocampus and precuneus. These results highlight the fact that expertise not only modulates cognitive processing, but also modulates the response in reward related brain areas.

  3. Varying Use of Conceptual Metaphors across Levels of Expertise in Thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeppsson, Fredrik; Haglund, Jesper; Amin, Tamer G.

    2015-04-01

    Many studies have previously focused on how people with different levels of expertise solve physics problems. In early work, focus was on characterising differences between experts and novices and a key finding was the central role that propositionally expressed principles and laws play in expert, but not novice, problem-solving. A more recent line of research has focused on characterising continuity between experts and novices at the level of non-propositional knowledge structures and processes such as image-schemas, imagistic simulation and analogical reasoning. This study contributes to an emerging literature addressing the coordination of both propositional and non-propositional knowledge structures and processes in the development of expertise. Specifically, in this paper, we compare problem-solving across two levels of expertise-undergraduate students of chemistry and Ph.D. students in physical chemistry-identifying differences in how conceptual metaphors (CMs) are used (or not) to coordinate propositional and non-propositional knowledge structures in the context of solving problems on entropy. It is hypothesised that the acquisition of expertise involves learning to coordinate the use of CMs to interpret propositional (linguistic and mathematical) knowledge and apply it to specific problem situations. Moreover, we suggest that with increasing expertise, the use of CMs involves a greater degree of subjective engagement with physical entities and processes. Implications for research on learning and instructional practice are discussed. Third contribution to special issue entitled: Conceptual metaphor and embodied cognition in science learning

  4. Expertise dissimilarity and creativity: the contingent roles of tacit and explicit knowledge sharing.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xu; Hsieh, J J Po-An; He, Wei

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we investigated whether team-level knowledge sharing moderates the effects of individual-level expertise dissimilarity on individual employees' creativity in research and development (R&D) project teams. Expertise dissimilarity--defined as the difference in expertise and knowledge between a focal team member and her or his fellow team members--was operationalized in terms of the research department to which each member belonged. In Study 1, multilevel analyses of data collected from 200 members of 40 R&D project teams in a telecommunications company revealed that a team member with expertise dissimilar to that of her or his teammates was more likely to exhibit creativity when the project team as a whole engaged in higher levels of tacit, rather than explicit, knowledge sharing. In contrast, a member whose expertise was similar to that of her or his teammates was more likely to exhibit creative behavior when the team engaged in higher levels of explicit, rather than tacit, knowledge sharing. These findings were largely replicated in Study 2 using data collected from 82 members of 25 project teams from another telecommunications company. PMID:24820927

  5. [Dr. Sackett & "Mr. Sacketeer"... Enchantment and disenchantment in the land of expertise in evidence-based medicine].

    PubMed

    Castiel, L D; Póvoa, E C

    2001-01-01

    In May 2000, Prof. David L. Sackett, one of the founders of the evidence-based medicine movement (EBM), published an article in the British Medical Journal in which he renounced writing, teaching, or serving as a referee for topics related to EBM. He justified his stance based on his frustration over what he considered the harmful effects of an alleged excess of experts in this field. Sackett's position was the raw material whereby we approached aspects linked to the definition and scope of EBM as well as related critiques. We also stress the movement's various rhetorical strategies. In addition, we discuss both the notion of expertise and the role of "expert systems" and "specialized competence" in our societal milieu, developed respectively by Anthony Giddens and Zygmunt Bauman. The main focus of this commentary is to emphasize that while we are dealing with a progressive trend towards acquiring control and intelligibility vis-à-vis the objects of our research, we must consider the possibility of dimensions that cannot be reached by way of the rationalistic Western mode of thought. PMID:11241943

  6. Teaching Morally and Teaching Morality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenstermacher, Gary D.; Osguthorpe, Richard D.; Sanger, Matthew N.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors introduce what they believe is an important distinction between teaching morality and teaching morally. In P-12 schools, the moral education debate often focuses on character education programs or other moral curricula. Such programs and curricula are championed as a means of teaching morality and transmitting moral…

  7. Teaching Chemical Engineers about Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Daniel E.; Hoy, Mary; Rathman, James F.; Rohdieck, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    The Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department at The Ohio State University in collaboration with the University Center for the Advancement of Teaching developed the Chemical Engineering Mentored Teaching Experience. The Mentored Teaching Experience is an elective for Ph.D. students interested in pursuing faculty careers. Participants are…

  8. Teaching Materials for German. G3: Readers. Teaching Materials Lists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centre for Information on Language Teaching, London (England).

    This publication, part of a bibliography of language teaching materials, lists 91 readers. It contains a contents list, annotated entries, an index of authors, editors, compilers and adapters, and a title index. In addition to basic bibliographical details, the following are provided for each entry: an annotation describing the reader, a statement…

  9. Constructivist teaching behaviors of recipients of Presidential Awards for Excellence in mathematics and science teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra, Hector

    , perceptions of classroom learning environments, and the teaching strategies they employed. The information can be used in planning professional development activities with the continued emphasis on changes in teaching recommended in the National Science Education Standards. This study provides definition for developing expertise and potential for mentoring programs.

  10. Teaching Applied Genetics and Molecular Biology to Agriculture Engineers. Application of the European Credit Transfer System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, J.; Egea-Cortines, M.

    2008-01-01

    We have been teaching applied molecular genetics to engineers and adapted the teaching methodology to the European Credit Transfer System. We teach core principles of genetics that are universal and form the conceptual basis of most molecular technologies. The course then teaches widely used techniques and finally shows how different techniques…

  11. Effects of varying levels of expertise on the basic level of categorization.

    PubMed

    Johnson, K E; Mervis, C B

    1997-09-01

    Six experiments were conducted on the effects of expertise on basic-level categorization. Individuals with varying levels of knowledge about songbirds generated lists of attributes, named objects, identified and discriminated among object silhouettes, verified category membership at 4 hierarchical levels, and visually identified songbirds primed either by species-specific, related, or unrelated birdsong. Results indicated that the original basic level never lost its privileged status. Expertise increased access to categorical information at the subordinate level for intermediate exports and at both the subordinate and sub-subordinate levels for advanced experts, causing these sublevels to function as basic. Throughout the continuum of expertise, conceptual knowledge interacted with perception. Accordingly, experts attended to different and more subtle perceptual features than novices. PMID:9281832

  12. Influences of APOE ε4 and expertise on performance of older pilots.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Joy L; Kennedy, Quinn; Adamson, Maheen M; Lazzeroni, Laura C; Noda, Art; Murphy, Greer M; Yesavage, Jerome A

    2011-06-01

    Little is known about how APOE ε4-related differences in cognitive performance translate to real-life performance, where training and experience may help to sustain performance. We investigated the influences of APOE ε4 status, expertise (FAA pilot proficiency ratings), and their interaction on longitudinal flight simulator performance. Over a 2-year period, 139 pilots aged 42-69 years were tested annually. APOE ε4 carriers had lower memory performance than noncarriers (p = .019). APOE interacted with Expertise (p = .036), such that the beneficial influence of expertise (p = .013) on longitudinal flight simulator performance was more pronounced for ε4 carriers. Results suggest that relevant training and activity may help sustain middle-aged and older adults' real-world performance, especially among APOE ε4 carriers.

  13. Perceptual expertise and top-down expectation of musical notation engages the primary visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Yetta Kwailing; Peng, Cynthia; Fratus, Kristyn N.; Woodman, Geoffrey F.; Gauthier, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Most theories of visual processing propose that object recognition is achieved in higher visual cortex. However, we show that category selectivity for musical notation can be observed in the first event-related potential component called the C1 (measured 40-60ms after stimulus onset) with music-reading expertise. Moreover, the C1 note selectivity was observed only when the stimulus category was blocked but not when the stimulus category was randomized. Under blocking, the C1 activity for notes predicted individual music reading ability, and behavioral judgments of musical stimuli reflected music-reading skill. Our results challenge current theories of object recognition, indicating that the primary visual cortex can be selective for musical notation within the initial feedforward sweep of activity with perceptual expertise and with a testing context that is consistent with the expertise training, such as blocking the stimulus category for music reading. PMID:24666163

  14. Source expertise and persuasion: the effects of perceived opposition or support on message scrutiny.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jason K; Wegener, Duane T; Habashi, Meara M; Evans, Abigail T

    2012-01-01

    Compared to nonexperts, expert sources have been considered to elicit more processing of persuasive messages because of expectations that the information is likely to be valid or accurate. However, depending on the position of an advocacy, source expertise could activate other motives that may produce a very different relation from that found in past research. When messages are counterattitudinal (disagreeable), experts should motivate greater processing than nonexpert sources because of expectations that they will likely provide robust opposition to one's existing views. In contrast, when advocacies are proattitudinal (agreeable), nonexpert rather than expert sources should elicit more scrutiny because of perceptions that they will likely provide inadequate support to recipients' current views. Two studies offer evidence consistent with these predictions. Manipulations of source expertise created different expectations regarding the strength of opposition or support, and these perceptions accounted for effects of source expertise on the amount of message scrutiny.

  15. Expertise in complex decision making: the role of search in chess 70 years after de Groot.

    PubMed

    Connors, Michael H; Burns, Bruce D; Campitelli, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    One of the most influential studies in all expertise research is de Groot's (1946) study of chess players, which suggested that pattern recognition, rather than search, was the key determinant of expertise. Many changes have occurred in the chess world since de Groot's study, leading some authors to argue that the cognitive mechanisms underlying expertise have also changed. We decided to replicate de Groot's study to empirically test these claims and to examine whether the trends in the data have changed over time. Six Grandmasters, five International Masters, six Experts, and five Class A players completed the think-aloud procedure for two chess positions. Findings indicate that Grandmasters and International Masters search more quickly than Experts and Class A players, and that both groups today search substantially faster than players in previous studies. The findings, however, support de Groot's overall conclusions and are consistent with predictions made by pattern recognition models. PMID:21981829

  16. Teaching to Different Learning Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickle, Julia E.

    1999-01-01

    Illustrates how to support and incorporate different student learning styles into teaching. Presents example materials pertaining to laboratory diagnosis of liver disease in a veterinary medical curriculum and demonstrates how a body of material can be adapted to multiple presentation formats. (EV)

  17. Five Resources on Teaching Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Linda Wright

    2009-01-01

    This article offers five resources on teaching approaches that enhance learner participation and can be adapted inmost congregational learning contexts. These models emerge from diverse religious and secular perspectives; some are tailored for adult learners and some are ideal for learning in multicultural contexts. In alphabetical order, they are…

  18. A Soldier of Service: An Interview with Playwright and Teaching Artist Dominique Cieri. Teaching At-Risk, Juvenile Justice, and the Holocaust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Catlin

    2010-01-01

    Inner-city public school classrooms, group homes, juvenile detention centers and facilities will be with Americans forever. Their populations can deflate, challenge, or improve any artist's skills and expertise. The author thinks of teaching artists who work these strenuous communities as soldiers of service, dedicated individuals who fight with…

  19. Adaptive Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this research is to develop and demonstrate innovative adaptive seal technologies that can lead to dramatic improvements in engine performance, life, range, and emissions, and enhance operability for next generation gas turbine engines. This work is concentrated on the development of self-adaptive clearance control systems for gas turbine engines. Researchers have targeted the high-pressure turbine (HPT) blade tip seal location for following reasons: Current active clearance control (ACC) systems (e.g., thermal case-cooling schemes) cannot respond to blade tip clearance changes due to mechanical, thermal, and aerodynamic loads. As such they are prone to wear due to the required tight running clearances during operation. Blade tip seal wear (increased clearances) reduces engine efficiency, performance, and service life. Adaptive sealing technology research has inherent impact on all envisioned 21st century propulsion systems (e.g. distributed vectored, hybrid and electric drive propulsion concepts).

  20. Predicting soccer matches after unconscious and conscious thought as a function of expertise.

    PubMed

    Dijksterhuis, Ap; Bos, Maarten W; van der Leij, Andries; van Baaren, Rick B

    2009-11-01

    In two experiments, we investigated the effects of expertise and mode of thought on the accuracy of people's predictions. Both experts and nonexperts predicted the results of soccer matches after conscious thought, after unconscious thought, or immediately. In Experiment 1, experts who thought unconsciously outperformed participants in all other conditions. Whereas unconscious thinkers showed a correlation between expertise and accuracy of prediction, no such relation was observed for conscious thinkers or for immediate decision makers. In Experiment 2, this general pattern was replicated. In addition, experts who thought unconsciously were better at applying diagnostic information than experts who thought consciously or who decided immediately. The results are consistent with unconscious-thought theory.