Science.gov

Sample records for adaptive teaching expertise

  1. The Development of Adaptive Expertise in Biotransport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Taylor; Petrosino, Anthony J.; Rivale, Stephanie; Diller, Kenneth R.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter describes a model for continuous development of adaptive expertise, including growth along the dimensions of innovation and knowledge, examined in the context of a biotransport course in biomedical engineering. Students improved on both knowledge and innovation, moving along a continuum toward adaptive expertise. (Contains 5 figures.)

  2. Adaptive Expertise: A View from the Top and the Ascent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, H. Emily; Rundell, Trisha D.; Smyntek-Gworek, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    Case studies provide two views of adaptive expertise in teaching by analyzing the written reflections of teachers working in a reading clinic. David, with 20?years of experience, described adaptive judgments he made after careful description, data gathering, and analysis of students' responses that allowed him to form hypotheses and craft…

  3. Teaching Metacognitive Knowledge and Developing Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Velzen, Joke H.

    2012-01-01

    Teacher educators' knowledge about metacognitive knowledge and developing expertise can provide for insights about teaching these "difficult" constructs. In this explorative study, six teacher educators' remarks regarding metacognitive knowledge and developing expertise were examined. The teacher educators filled in closed-ended and…

  4. Technology Integration and Teaching Expertise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierson, Melissa E.

    This paper reports on a study that investigated the relationships between technology-use and teaching ability in the practice of elementary teachers. Case study data from exemplary technology integrators, representing various levels of teaching and technology-use ability, led to the formulation of five assertions about ways these teachers taught…

  5. Developing Teaching Expertise in Dental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Lucinda J.

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study was designed to develop a baseline model of expertise in dental education utilizing the Dreyfus and Dreyfus continuum of skill acquisition. The goal was the development of a baseline model of expertise, which will contribute to the body of knowledge about dental faculty skill acquisition and may enable dental schools to…

  6. True Teaching Expertise: The Weaving Together of Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascio, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    How do we strengthen the teaching profession? This question weighs on many educators, researchers, politicians, and parents. The public discourse around teaching often feels very negative; it does not clearly define teaching expertise, but it does reflect a very clear belief that many teachers just do not have it. In this article, a former…

  7. Intercultural Adaptive Expertise: Explicit and Implicit Lessons from Dr. Hatano

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Xiaodong; Schwartz, Daniel L.; Bransford, John

    2007-01-01

    Giyoo Hatano was an international scholar--an adaptive expert himself. His creative methodologies and theoretical insights have enriched the work of researchers in many countries. How Hatano lived his life and treated others provides enriching insights as well. In this essay, we focus on "adaptive expertise", one of Giyoo Hatano's major…

  8. Collaborative Learning with Multi-Touch Technology: Developing Adaptive Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercier, Emma M.; Higgins, Steven E.

    2013-01-01

    Developing fluency and flexibility in mathematics is a key goal of upper primary schooling, however, while fluency can be developed with practice, designing activities that support the development of flexibility is more difficult. Drawing on concepts of adaptive expertise, we developed a task for a multi-touch classroom, NumberNet, that aimed to…

  9. Developing Adaptive Expertise with Pasifika Learners in an Inquiry Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Zain; Hunter, Jodie

    2015-01-01

    In the current reform of mathematics classrooms teachers are charged with the role of facilitating collaborative groups during problem-solving activity. The challenge is for teachers to engage students in making mathematical meaning during collaborative group discussions. In this paper we draw on the concept of adaptive expertise to report on…

  10. In Search of Expertise in Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Common, Dianne L.

    1991-01-01

    Essential qualities of expert teachers are explored, examining the practices of three historical teaching masters: Zeno of Elea, Lao Tzu of Ch'U, and Jesus of Nazareth. The three qualities identified are profound moral and cultural worth; engagement of the imagination; and the story as the primary form of pedagogy. (SLD)

  11. On Teaching Adaptively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corno, Lyn

    2008-01-01

    New theory on adaptive teaching reflects the social dynamics of classrooms to explain what practicing teachers do to address student differences related to learning. In teaching adaptively, teachers respond to learners as they work. Teachers read student signals to diagnose needs on the fly and tap previous experience with similar learners to…

  12. Expertise for Teaching Biology Situated in the Context of Genetic Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van der Zande, Paul; Akkerman, Sanne F.; Brekelmans, Mieke; Waarlo, Arend Jan; Vermunt, Jan D.

    2012-07-01

    Contemporary genomics research will impact the daily practice of biology teachers who want to teach up-to-date genetics in secondary education. This article reports on a research project aimed at enhancing biology teachers' expertise for teaching genetics situated in the context of genetic testing. The increasing body of scientific knowledge concerning genetic testing and the related consequences for decision-making indicate the societal relevance of an educational approach based on situated learning. What expertise do biology teachers need for teaching genetics in the personal health context of genetic testing? This article describes the required expertise by exploring the educational practice. Nine experienced teachers were interviewed about the pedagogical content, moral and interpersonal expertise areas concerning how to teach genetics in the personal health context of genetic testing, and the lessons of five of them were observed. The findings showed that the required teacher expertise encompasses specific pedagogical content expertise, interpersonal expertise and a preference for teacher roles and teaching approaches for the moral aspects of teaching in this context. A need for further development of teaching and learning activities for (reflection on) moral reasoning came to the fore. Suggestions regarding how to apply this expertise into context-based genetics education are discussed.

  13. Developing a Deeper Understanding of "Mathematics Teaching Expertise": An Examination of Three Chinese Mathematics Teachers' Resource Systems as Windows into Their Work and Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepin, Birgit; Xu, Binyan; Trouche, Luc; Wang, Chongyang

    2017-01-01

    In order to develop a deeper understanding of mathematics teaching expertise, in this study we use the Documentational Approach to Didactics to explore the resource systems of three Chinese mathematics "expert" teachers. Exploiting the Western and Eastern literature we examine the notion of "mathematics teaching expertise", as…

  14. Expertise for Teaching Biology Situated in the Context of Genetic Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Zande, Paul; Akkerman, Sanne F.; Brekelmans, Mieke; Waarlo, Arend Jan; Vermunt, Jan D.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary genomics research will impact the daily practice of biology teachers who want to teach up-to-date genetics in secondary education. This article reports on a research project aimed at enhancing biology teachers' expertise for teaching genetics situated in the context of genetic testing. The increasing body of scientific knowledge…

  15. ePortfolios: Promoting Special Educator Adaptive Expertise through Reflection in a Web-Based Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Arment, Serra T.; Wetzel, Angela P.; Reed, Evelyn

    2013-01-01

    In an era of accountability, teachers must be prepared to adapt to the variability they encounter in today's classrooms. Instead of knowing only routine responses to the challenges of practice, teachers need a repertoire that is characterized by adaptive expertise. Preservice preparation can foster teacher candidates' adaptive expertise through…

  16. Using an adaptive expertise lens to understand the quality of teachers' classroom implementation of computer-supported complex systems curricula in high school science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Susan A.; Koehler-Yom, Jessica; Anderson, Emma; Lin, Joyce; Klopfer, Eric

    2015-05-01

    Background: This exploratory study is part of a larger-scale research project aimed at building theoretical and practical knowledge of complex systems in students and teachers with the goal of improving high school biology learning through professional development and a classroom intervention. Purpose: We propose a model of adaptive expertise to better understand teachers' classroom practices as they attempt to navigate myriad variables in the implementation of biology units that include working with computer simulations, and learning about and teaching through complex systems ideas. Sample: Research participants were three high school biology teachers, two females and one male, ranging in teaching experience from six to 16 years. Their teaching contexts also ranged in student achievement from 14-47% advanced science proficiency. Design and methods: We used a holistic multiple case study methodology and collected data during the 2011-2012 school year. Data sources include classroom observations, teacher and student surveys, and interviews. Data analyses and trustworthiness measures were conducted through qualitative mining of data sources and triangulation of findings. Results: We illustrate the characteristics of adaptive expertise of more or less successful teaching and learning when implementing complex systems curricula. We also demonstrate differences between case study teachers in terms of particular variables associated with adaptive expertise. Conclusions: This research contributes to scholarship on practices and professional development needed to better support teachers to teach through a complex systems pedagogical and curricular approach.

  17. Transformative Professional Development: Relationship to Teachers' Beliefs, Expertise and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kose, Brad W.; Lim, Eun Young

    2010-01-01

    Although scholarship demonstrates the value and need for teaching grounded in equity, diversity and social justice, little research has explored the relationship between transformative professional development and transformative teaching. This survey research study conducted in 25 US diverse elementary schools investigated statistical…

  18. Tracing Two Apprentices' Trajectories toward Adaptive Professional Expertise in Fingerprint Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mustonen, Virpi; Hakkarainen, Kai

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyse the development of two apprentices' adaptive expertise in fingerprint examination across a two-year training program. The apprentices were selected from a large number of candidates to be trained at the Forensic Laboratory of the Finnish National Bureau of Investigation. The problem addressed was how the…

  19. Leading for Instructional Improvement: How Successful Leaders Develop Teaching and Learning Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Stephen; Markholt, Anneke; Bransford, John

    2011-01-01

    There is little agreement among school leaders on what constitutes quality teaching and how best to support teachers in improving lessons, assessments, and classroom instruction. This book will show how principals and other school leaders can "grow" the expertise of teachers to deliver high quality instruction that serves all students well. It…

  20. An adaptive toolbox approach to the route to expertise in sport.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Rita F; Lobinger, Babett H; Raab, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Expertise is characterized by fast decision-making which is highly adaptive to new situations. Here we propose that athletes use a toolbox of heuristics which they develop on their route to expertise. The development of heuristics occurs within the context of the athletes' natural abilities, past experiences, developed skills, and situational context, but does not pertain to any of these factors separately. This is a novel approach because it integrates separate factors into a comprehensive heuristic description. The novelty of this approach lies within the integration of separate factors determining expertise into a comprehensive heuristic description. It is our contention that talent identification methods and talent development models should therefore be geared toward the assessment and development of specific heuristics. Specifically, in addition to identifying and developing separate natural abilities and skills as per usual, heuristics should be identified and developed. The application of heuristics to talent and expertise models can bring the field one step away from dichotomized models of nature and nurture toward a comprehensive approach to the route to expertise.

  1. Building Adaptive Expertise and Practice-Based Evidence: Applying the Implementation Stages Framework to Special Education Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason-Williams, Loretta; Frederick, Jacqueline R.; Mulcahy, Candace A.

    2015-01-01

    Preparing pre-service special educators to meet classroom demands requires teacher preparation programs to design experiences for students to demonstrate routine expertise, while also building adaptive expertise. In this article, the authors describe a capstone project that meets these needs and prepares pre-service special educators for their…

  2. Common Core State Standards and Adaptive Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamil, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the issues of how Common Core State Standards (CCSS) will impact adaptive teaching. It focuses on 2 of the major differences between conventional standards and CCSS: the increased complexity of text and the addition of disciplinary literacy standards to reading instruction. The article argues that adaptive teaching under CCSS…

  3. Adaptive Teaching in STEM: Characteristics for Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Melony; Webb, Angela W.; Matthews, Catherine E.

    2016-01-01

    This article defines the process of adaptive teaching in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). We assert that teachers who possess a well-developed STEM pedagogical content knowledge, a constructivist paradigm of teaching and learning, and an ability to draw on a vision while reflecting on and during teaching to help negotiate…

  4. Adapting Content Subject Tasks for Bilingual Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halbach, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Teaching content through a foreign language presents students with the double challenge of having to understand new concepts and of doing so through a foreign language. To be successful in meeting this challenge teachers have to adapt their teaching style and the tasks they work on with their students. Often, however, they do not know how to do…

  5. Teaching Social Work Practice Research to Enhance Research-Minded Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satka, Mirja; Kääriäinen, Aino; Yliruka, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The emphasis on student cognitive knowledge and expertise in social work education has been shifting more toward reflective learning that features learning networks and dialogical interaction. In the context of innovative knowledge communities for promoting social work expertise, educators have become facilitators of learning that is expanding…

  6. Hydrology and hydraulics expertise in participatory processes for climate change adaptation in the Dutch Meuse.

    PubMed

    Wesselink, Anna; de Vriend, Huib; Barneveld, Hermjan; Krol, Maarten; Bijker, Wiebe

    2009-01-01

    Many scientists feel that scientific outcomes are not sufficiently taken into account in policy-making. The research reported in this paper shows what happens with scientific information during such a process. In 2001 the Dutch Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management commissioned their regional office in Limburg to assess how flood management objectives could be achieved in future in the Dutch Meuse valley, assuming climate change will increase peak discharges. To ensure political support, regional discussion rounds were to help assess the measures previously identified. This paper discusses the ways in which hydrological and hydraulic expertise was input, understood and used in this assessment process. Project participants as a group had no trouble contesting assumptions and outcomes. Nevertheless, water expertise was generally accepted as providing facts, once basic choices such as starting situation had been discussed and agreed. The technical constraints determined that politically unacceptable measures would have to be selected to achieve the legally binding flood management objective. As a result, no additional space will be set aside for future flood management beyond the already reserved floodplain. In this case, political arguments clearly prevail over policy objectives, with hydraulic expertise providing decisive arbitration between the two.

  7. Adaptive Learning Systems: Beyond Teaching Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kara, Nuri; Sevim, Nese

    2013-01-01

    Since 1950s, teaching machines have changed a lot. Today, we have different ideas about how people learn, what instructor should do to help students during their learning process. We have adaptive learning technologies that can create much more student oriented learning environments. The purpose of this article is to present these changes and its…

  8. Investigating the Learning to Teach Process: Pedagogy, Innovation Adoption, Expertise Development, and Technology Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation reported three studies whose overarching purpose is to enhance our understanding about how teachers learn to teach by revealing the learning to teach process. Each of three studies revealed the learning to teach process from different perspectives. Guided by the Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) framework, the first study…

  9. Changes in Teachers' Adaptive Expertise in an Engineering Professional Development Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Taylor; Peacock, Stephanie Baker; Ko, Pat; Rudolph, Jennifer J.

    2015-01-01

    Although the consensus seems to be that high-school-level introductory engineering courses should focus on design, this creates a problem for teacher training. Traditionally, math and science teachers are trained to teach and assess factual knowledge and closed-ended problem-solving techniques specific to a particular discipline, which is unsuited…

  10. You can't teach speed: sprinters falsify the deliberate practice model of expertise.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Michael P; Deaner, Robert O

    2014-01-01

    Many scientists agree that expertise requires both innate talent and proper training. Nevertheless, the highly influential deliberate practice model (DPM) of expertise holds that talent does not exist or makes a negligible contribution to performance. It predicts that initial performance will be unrelated to achieving expertise and that 10 years of deliberate practice is necessary. We tested these predictions in the domain of sprinting. In Studies 1 and 2 we reviewed biographies of 15 Olympic champions and the 20 fastest American men in U.S. history. In all documented cases, sprinters were exceptional prior to initiating training, and most reached world class status rapidly (Study 1 median = 3 years; Study 2 = 7.5). In Study 3 we surveyed U.S. national collegiate championships qualifiers in sprinters (n = 20) and throwers (n = 44). Sprinters recalled being faster as youths than did throwers, whereas throwers recalled greater strength and throwing ability. Sprinters' best performances in their first season of high school, generally the onset of formal training, were consistently faster than 95-99% of their peers. Collectively, these results falsify the DPM for sprinting. Because speed is foundational for many sports, they challenge the DPM generally.

  11. You can’t teach speed: sprinters falsify the deliberate practice model of expertise

    PubMed Central

    Deaner, Robert O.

    2014-01-01

    Many scientists agree that expertise requires both innate talent and proper training. Nevertheless, the highly influential deliberate practice model (DPM) of expertise holds that talent does not exist or makes a negligible contribution to performance. It predicts that initial performance will be unrelated to achieving expertise and that 10 years of deliberate practice is necessary. We tested these predictions in the domain of sprinting. In Studies 1 and 2 we reviewed biographies of 15 Olympic champions and the 20 fastest American men in U.S. history. In all documented cases, sprinters were exceptional prior to initiating training, and most reached world class status rapidly (Study 1 median = 3 years; Study 2 = 7.5). In Study 3 we surveyed U.S. national collegiate championships qualifiers in sprinters (n = 20) and throwers (n = 44). Sprinters recalled being faster as youths than did throwers, whereas throwers recalled greater strength and throwing ability. Sprinters’ best performances in their first season of high school, generally the onset of formal training, were consistently faster than 95–99% of their peers. Collectively, these results falsify the DPM for sprinting. Because speed is foundational for many sports, they challenge the DPM generally. PMID:25024914

  12. Using an Adaptive Expertise Lens to Understand the Quality of Teachers' Classroom Implementation of Computer-Supported Complex Systems Curricula in High School Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Susan A.; Koehler-Yom, Jessica; Anderson, Emma; Lin, Joyce; Klopfer, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Background: This exploratory study is part of a larger-scale research project aimed at building theoretical and practical knowledge of complex systems in students and teachers with the goal of improving high school biology learning through professional development and a classroom intervention. Purpose: We propose a model of adaptive expertise to…

  13. Teaching Basic Adaptive Skills to Young Children with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenthal, Barbara

    1996-01-01

    Focuses on methods of teaching toileting and independent eating skills to children with disabilities. Methods for teaching toileting skills include timed toileting, scheduled toileting, and the rapid technique. Methods for teaching self-feeding include systematic instruction, positioning techniques, and adaptive modifications. Notes that both…

  14. Curriculum Autonomy through Curriculum Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimley, Gareth

    2011-01-01

    The author argues that the decisions primary teachers make about the curriculum need to be informed by well-developed expertise in the subjects they are planning and teaching. This expertise is necessary when teachers are exercising professional autonomy in areas such as curriculum design, securing breadth and balance, and managing curriculum…

  15. Eyeballing expertise.

    PubMed

    Coopmans, Catelijne; Button, Graham

    2014-10-01

    'Tacit' and 'explicit' knowledge, and their relation to expertise, have a long-standing importance within social studies of science and technology. At the centre of the development of thinking about these topics has been the work of Harry Collins and Robert Evans. In this article, we bring to bear observations of the work of people involved in grading eye disease, and their seeming display of expertise, tacit and explicit knowledge, on three thrusts identified in the work of Collins, and Collins and Evans. These thrusts are the following: (1) a concern with the appearance of tacit knowledge in the activities of experts, (2) a commitment to studying expertise as 'real' and substantive rather than attributed, and (3) a commitment to promoting the recognition and fostering the management of expertise by providing analytical distinctions regarding expertise and its reliance on tacit knowledge. By considering what is involved in the work of grading eyes, we relocate the interest in tacit and explicit knowledge, and their bearing on expertise, in how expert knowledge is displayed and made recognizable in and through courses of action and interaction.

  16. Teaching for CAD Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chester, Ivan

    2007-01-01

    CAD (Computer Aided Design) has now become an integral part of Technology Education. The recent introduction of highly sophisticated, low-cost CAD software and CAM hardware capable of running on desktop computers has accelerated this trend. There is now quite widespread introduction of solid modeling CAD software into secondary schools but how…

  17. Adapting your teaching to accommodate the net generation of learners.

    PubMed

    Skiba, Diane J; Barton, Amy J

    2006-05-31

    Educators are faced with the challenge of adapting their teaching styles to accommodate a new generation of learners. The Net Generation or Millennials, who are now entering colleges and universities, have learning expectations, styles, and needs different from past students. This article assists educators in teaching the Net Generation by highlighting the characteristics of the Net Generation and providing examples of how to adapt teaching strategies to accommodate the Net Generation, in light of their preferences for digital literacy, experiential learning, interactivity, and immediacy.

  18. How Language Supports Adaptive Teaching through a Responsive Learning Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Peter; Dozier, Cheryl; Smit, Julie

    2016-01-01

    For students to learn optimally, teachers must design classrooms that are responsive to the full range of student development. The teacher must be adaptive, but so must each student and the learning culture itself. In other words, adaptive teaching means constructing a responsive learning culture that accommodates and even capitalizes on diversity…

  19. Emergent Expertise?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGivern, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The concept of emergence appears in various places within the literature on expertise and expert practice. Here, I examine some of these applications of emergence in the light of two prominent accounts of emergence from the philosophy of science and philosophy of mind. I evaluate these accounts with respect to several specific contexts in which…

  20. Teaching about Adaptation: Why Evolutionary History Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kampourakis, Kostas

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation is one of the central concepts in evolutionary theory, which nonetheless has been given different definitions. Some scholars support a historical definition of adaptation, considering it as a trait that is the outcome of natural selection, whereas others support an ahistorical definition, considering it as a trait that contributes to…

  1. Acquiring Expertise.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-31

    LaBerge and Samuels, 1974): The reading process is too complex to operate completely at the declarative processing level. It can only work well when...1978, 85, 363-394. 44 The Acquisition of Expertise Lesgold Laberge , P. , & Samuels, S. J. Toward a theory of automatic information k - processing in...Menlo Park, CA 94025 Box 11A. Yale Station * New Haven, CT 06520 1 William B. Whitten Bell Laboratories 1 Dr. Albert Stevens 2D-610 Bolt Beranek

  2. Adapting Authentic Materials for Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darian, Steven

    2001-01-01

    Illustrates the process of adapting authentic materials for use in the English-as-a-Second-language classroom. Focuses on four areas: semantic elements, lexical elements, syntactic elements, and discourse elements.(Author/VWL)

  3. Aptitudes and Symbol Systems in Adaptive Classroom Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Richard E.

    1997-01-01

    Education at its best is an "aptitude development program" that promotes development of learning abilities and effective personal styles needed for future learning in school and throughout life. Much of this development involves adapting and expanding the symbol systems used in teaching and learning to convey essential meanings. Adaptive…

  4. On Scaffolding Adaptive Teaching Prompts within Virtual Labs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Najjar, Mehdi

    2008-01-01

    Despite a growing development of virtual laboratories which use the advantages of multimedia and Internet for distance education, learning by means of such tutorial tools would be more effective if they were specifically tailored to each student needs. The virtual teaching process would be well adapted if an artificial tutor can identify the…

  5. Teaching Adaptability of Object-Oriented Programming Language Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Xiao-dong

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of object-oriented programming languages includes update of their own versions, update of development environments, and reform of new languages upon old languages. In this paper, the evolution analysis of object-oriented programming languages is presented in term of the characters and development. The notion of adaptive teaching upon…

  6. Teaching adaptive leadership to family medicine residents: what? why? how?

    PubMed

    Eubank, Daniel; Geffken, Dominic; Orzano, John; Ricci, Rocco

    2012-09-01

    Health care reform calls for patient-centered medical homes built around whole person care and healing relationships. Efforts to transform primary care practices and deliver these qualities have been challenging. This study describes one Family Medicine residency's efforts to develop an adaptive leadership curriculum and use coaching as a teaching method to address this challenge. We review literature that describes a parallel between the skills underlying such care and those required for adaptive leadership. We address two questions: What is leadership? Why focus on adaptive leadership? We then present a synthesis of leadership theories as a set of process skills that lead to organization learning through effective work relationships and adaptive leadership. Four models of the learning process needed to acquire such skills are explored. Coaching is proposed as a teaching method useful for going beyond information transfer to create the experiential learning necessary to acquire the process skills. Evaluations of our efforts to date are summarized. We discuss key challenges to implementing such a curriculum and propose that teaching adaptive leadership is feasible but difficult in the current medical education and practice contexts.

  7. Rupture and Adaptation: British Technical Expertise to the Singapore Polytechnic and the Transition to a Nation-State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seng, Loh Kah

    2015-01-01

    The Singapore Polytechnic underwent a period of both rupture and adaptation as British advisers worked with the post-colonial government to facilitate technical education reform and Singapore's transition to a nation-state. Established in 1958 and based on the metropolitan model, the Singapore Polytechnic constituted an imperial project for…

  8. Perceptual load in sport and the heuristic value of the perceptual load paradigm in examining expertise-related perceptual-cognitive adaptations.

    PubMed

    Furley, Philip; Memmert, Daniel; Schmid, Simone

    2013-03-01

    In two experiments, we transferred perceptual load theory to the dynamic field of team sports and tested the predictions derived from the theory using a novel task and stimuli. We tested a group of college students (N = 33) and a group of expert team sport players (N = 32) on a general perceptual load task and a complex, soccer-specific perceptual load task in order to extend the understanding of the applicability of perceptual load theory and further investigate whether distractor interference may differ between the groups, as the sport-specific processing task may not exhaust the processing capacity of the expert participants. In both, the general and the specific task, the pattern of results supported perceptual load theory and demonstrates that the predictions of the theory also transfer to more complex, unstructured situations. Further, perceptual load was the only determinant of distractor processing, as we neither found expertise effects in the general perceptual load task nor the sport-specific task. We discuss the heuristic utility of using response-competition paradigms for studying both general and domain-specific perceptual-cognitive adaptations.

  9. An Expertise Recommender using Web Mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, Anupam; Chandrasekaran, Purnima; ShuYang, Michelle; Ramakrishnan, Ramya

    2001-01-01

    This report explored techniques to mine web pages of scientists to extract information regarding their expertise, build expertise chains and referral webs, and semi automatically combine this information with directory information services to create a recommender system that permits query by expertise. The approach included experimenting with existing techniques that have been reported in research literature in recent past , and adapted them as needed. In addition, software tools were developed to capture and use this information.

  10. Chemistry Teachers' Emerging Expertise in Inquiry Teaching: The Effect of a Professional Development Model on Beliefs and Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushton, Gregory T.; Lotter, Christine; Singer, Jonathan

    2011-02-01

    This study investigates the beliefs and practices of seven high school chemistry teachers as a result of their participation in a year-long inquiry professional development (PD) project. An analysis of oral interviews, written reflections, and in-class observations were used to determine the extent to which the PD affected the teachers' beliefs and practice. The data indicated that the teachers developed more complete conceptions of classroom inquiry, valued a "phenomena first" approach to scientific investigations, and viewed inquiry approaches as helpful for facilitating improved student thinking. Analysis of classroom observations with the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol indicated that features of the PD were observed in the teachers' practice during the academic year follow-up. Implications for effective science teacher professional development models are discussed.

  11. Teaching older adults by adapting for aging changes.

    PubMed

    Weinrich, S P; Weinrich, M C; Boyd, M D; Atwood, J; Cervenka, B

    1994-12-01

    Few teaching programs are geared to meet the special learning needs of the elderly. This pilot study used a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design to measure the effect of the Adaptation for Aging Changes (AAC) Method on fecal occult blood screening (FOBS) at meal sites for the elderly in the South. The AAC Method uses techniques that adjust the presentation to accommodate for normal aging changes and includes a demonstration of the procedure for collection of the stool blood test, memory reminders of the date to return the stool blood test, and written materials adapted to the 5th grade reading level. In addition, actual practice of the FOBS with the use of peanut butter was added to the AAC Method, making it the AAC with Practice Method (AACP) in two sites. The American Cancer Society's colorectal cancer educational slide-tape show served as the basis for all of the methods. Hemoccult II kits were distributed at no cost to the participants. Descriptive statistics, chi 2, and logistic regressions were used to analyze data from 135 Council on Aging meal sites' participants. The average age of the participants was 72 years; the average educational level was 8th grade; over half the sample was African-American; and half of the participants had incomes below the poverty level. Results support a significant increase in participation in FOBS in participants taught by the AACP Method [chi 2 (1, n = 56) = 5.34, p = 0.02; odds ratio = 6.2]. This research provides support for teaching that makes adaptations for aging changes, especially adaptations that include actual practice of the procedure.

  12. Expertise revisited, Part I-Interactional expertise.

    PubMed

    Collins, Harry; Evans, Robert

    2015-12-01

    In Part I of this two part paper we try to set out the 'essence' of the notion of interactional expertise by starting with its origins. In Part II we will look at the notion of contributory expertise. The exercise has been triggered by recent discussion of these concepts in this journal by Plaisance and Kennedy and by Goddiksen.

  13. Expertise revisited, Part II: Contributory expertise.

    PubMed

    Collins, Harry; Evans, Robert; Weinel, Martin

    2016-04-01

    In Part I of this two part paper we tried to elicit the 'essence' of the notion of interactional expertise by looking at its origins. In Part II we will look at the notion of contributory expertise. The exercise has been triggered by recent discussion of these concepts in this journal by Plaisance and Kennedy and by Goddiksen.

  14. Does Thoughtfully Adaptive Teaching Actually Exist? A Challenge to Teacher Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, James V.; Duffy, Gerald G.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we explore the roots of thoughtfully adaptive teaching in reflection. Drawing on the conceptual work of Dewey and Schon, we examine reflective practice in teaching as a tool for resistance against institutional pressures to standardize teaching practices. We describe 2 programs of research related to this topic. One program of…

  15. Rethinking Moral Expertise.

    PubMed

    Priaulx, Nicky; Weinel, Martin; Wrigley, Anthony

    2016-12-01

    We argue that the way in which the concept of expertise is understood and invoked has prevented progress in the debate as to whether moral philosophers can be said to be 'moral experts'. We offer an account of expertise that draws on the role of tacit knowledge in order to provide a basis upon which the debate can progress. Our analysis consists of three parts. In the first part we highlight two specific problems in the way that the concept of expertise has been invoked in the moral expertise debate, namely the understanding of expertise as an exclusive concept and the conflation of expertise with the idea of 'authority'. In the second part we suggest an alternative way of approaching the concept of expertise. This is based on Collins and Evans' sociological theory of expertises. This theory provides a valuable analytical framework for thinking about claims to expertise and for drawing the kinds of distinctions which allow for different kinds of moral expertises and competencies. In the final part, we show how the application of this theory helps to avoid some of the problematic conclusions which theorists have arrived at to date and provides a common platform for debate. Ultimately, it permits the argument to be made that moral philosophers could be considered specialist members of an expert community of moral decision-makers.

  16. What Makes Primary Classteachers Special? Exploring the Features of Expertise in the Primary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaude, Tony

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the nature of teacher expertise in the primary school classroom, drawing on theoretical models of expertise and of teaching expertise. It challenges simplistic models of an "outstanding" or "master" teacher to argue that since teacher expertise is both situated and prototypical, it is manifested in…

  17. Teaching Audience Adaptation Using Connected Presentations and Teamwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opt, Susan K.

    2017-01-01

    Courses: Introduction to Communication, Public Speaking, Persuasion, Business Communication. Objective: This activity increases students' understanding of audience adaptation and improves their ability to adapt presentations to specific audiences.

  18. Teaching-Learning Patterns of Expert and Novice Adapted Physical Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everhart, Brett; Everhart, Kim; McHugh, Heather; Newman, Chelsea Dimon; Hershey, Kacie; Lorenzi, David

    2013-01-01

    This study was intended to provide a description of teaching and learning patterns seen in the lessons taught by experts and novices in Adapted Physical Education. Two experts who had won previous state teaching awards and served in leadership positions in state associations were filmed and their lessons were analyzed first to develop a systematic…

  19. Effects of Class Size and Adaptive Teaching Competency on Classroom Processes and Academic Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruhwiler, Christian; Blatchford, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In many studies of class size effects, teacher characteristics are missing, even though many argue it is not class size that is important but teacher quality. In the present study teachers' effectiveness on the learning progress was assessed while teaching a unit with predefined learning objectives. To measure adaptive teaching competency a…

  20. The Process of Adapting a German Pedagogy for Modern Mathematics Teaching in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamamoto, Shinya

    2006-01-01

    Modern geometry teaching in schools in Japan was modeled on the pedagogies of western countries. However, the core ideas of these pedagogies were often radically changed in the process of adaptation, resulting in teaching differing fundamentally from the original models. This paper discusses the radical changes the pedagogy of a German mathematics…

  1. The National "Expertise Gap"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Kendra

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation's report, "Diversity and the Ph.D.," released in May, which documents in troubling detail the exact dimensions of what the foundation's president, Dr. Robert Weisbuch, is calling the national "expertise gap." Weisbuch states that the expertise gap extends beyond the…

  2. The Development of Disciplinary Expertise: An EAP and RGS-Informed Approach to the Teaching and Learning of Genre at George Mason University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habib, Anna S.; Haan, Jennifer; Mallett, Karyn

    2015-01-01

    In the U.S., international enrollment trends have increased the pedagogical imperative to address multilingual graduate student writers' linguistic needs/growth in the process of their developing disciplinary expertise. In the context of this internationalization effort, what can two disciplines--Applied Linguistics and Composition--constructively…

  3. Tinkering with Tasks Knows No Bounds: ESL Teachers' Adaptations of Task-Based Language-Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plews, John L.; Zhao, Kangxian

    2010-01-01

    Research on implementing task-based language-teaching (TBLT) shows that adapting TBLT in ways that are inconsistent with its principles is common among nonnative-speaker English-as-a-foreign-language teachers. Our study of Canadian native-speaker English-as-a-second language teachers reveals how they also adapt TBLT in ways that are incongruent…

  4. Adaptive Teaching for English Language Arts: Following the Pathway of Classroom Data in Preservice Teacher Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athanases, Steven Z.; Bennett, Lisa H.; Wahleithner, Juliet Michelsen

    2015-01-01

    Consensus exists that effective teaching includes capacity to adapt instruction to respond to student learning challenges as they arise. Adaptive teachers may keep pace with rapidly evolving youth literacies and students' increasing cultural and linguistic diversity. Teachers are challenged to critically examine pedagogy when some contexts expect…

  5. Preparing Adapted Physical Educators to Teach Students with Autism: Current Practices and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Sean; Judge, Joann P.; Block, Martin E.; Kwon, Eun Hye

    2016-01-01

    For many students with autism spectrum disorder, physical education is the responsibility of an adapted physical education specialist. In this study, we examined the training focused on teaching students with autism spectrum disorder received by a sample of 106 adapted physical education specialists. Competencies necessary on a course to train…

  6. A Web-Based Adaptive Tutor to Teach PCR Primer Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Seters, Janneke R.; Wellink, Joan; Tramper, Johannes; Goedhart, Martin J.; Ossevoort, Miriam A.

    2012-01-01

    When students have varying prior knowledge, personalized instruction is desirable. One way to personalize instruction is by using adaptive e-learning to offer training of varying complexity. In this study, we developed a web-based adaptive tutor to teach PCR primer design: the PCR Tutor. We used part of the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (the…

  7. The Teacher and the Teaching Profession - An Ecological Adaptation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zak, Itai

    This study aimed at assessing the relationships between the structures of the teaching occupation and teacher training institutions and the personality characteristics of teachers in Israel. The hypothesis considered was that recruitment by self-selection would promote an image of conservatism by bringing into teaching people with matched…

  8. Teaching Mathematical Biology in High School Using Adapted Primary Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Stephen P.; Stelnicki, Nathan; de Vries, Gerda

    2012-01-01

    The study compared the effect of two adaptations of a scientific article on students' comprehension and use of scientific inquiry skills. One adaptation preserved as much as possible the canonical form of the original article (APL, Adapted Primary Literature) and the other was written in a more narrative mode typical of secondary literature (SL).…

  9. Teaching "Yes, And" … Improv in Sales Classes: Enhancing Student Adaptive Selling Skills, Sales Performance, and Teaching Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocco, Richard A.; Whalen, D. Joel

    2014-01-01

    In an application of experiential learning, assessment, and career development, this article reports a field experiment of teaching sales students adaptive selling skills via an "Improvisational (Improv) Comedy" technique: "Yes, And." Students learn this well-established theatrical improv method via classroom lecture,…

  10. Education in the elderly. Adapting and evaluating teaching tools.

    PubMed

    Weinrich, S P; Boyd, M

    1992-01-01

    1. The patient's Bill of Rights documents the rights of patients to be informed of their illness, health, and treatment. 2. The use of appropriate teaching tools can significantly increase learning, especially if the tools are modified to accommodate normal aging changes. 3. An appropriate teaching tool is a critical component to the learning success of the elderly. 4. With aging changes that result in loss of short-term memory, a teaching tool may make the difference between short-term learning and long-term success.

  11. Acquisition of Human Expertise in Robotic Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Sawaragi, Tetsuo; Tian, Yajie; Horiguchi, Yukio

    Robots must be presently taught by human workers to execute given manufacturing tasks. The current problem is that the task of teaching robots is rather time-consuming, especially within the robotic assembly domain. This problem is caused by insufficient accumulation of human expertise that should be reused in this domain. Therefore, a knowledge-intensive method for acquiring human expertise is proposed in this paper. Our method is able to acquire human expertise in the robotic assembly domain by observing robot-teaching demonstrations of human experts. What distinguishes our method from others is that there are two modes of learning: 1. learning from an example directly given by human workers, and 2. learning expertise on error recovery by observing revisions made by human workers in handling execution errors that occur in reusing previously acquired knowledge. The acquired human expertise is required to be represented in a way that satisfies two requirements. The first one is operability so that the representation is easy to transform into robot programs (commands & parameters). The second one is understandability so that the representation is easy for human workers to understand the robot program. A specific robot assembly example is given to illustrate the proposed method.

  12. Adaptive Instructional Strategies for Teaching Rules in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Steven M.; Rakow, Ernest A.

    1982-01-01

    Describes research on an adaptation approach designed to extend the aptitude treatment interaction (ATI) concept by applying instructional variations to individuals as opposed to groups within the context of an introductory mathematics lesson adapted from the beginning module in an undergraduate statistics course. A 17-item reference list is…

  13. Teaching Students How to Analyze and Adapt to Audiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiter, John S.; Gass, Robert H.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes an exercise that involves providing students with a basic understanding and demonstration of audience adaptation and then asking them to practice and evaluate the skill. In this exercise the instructor begins by providing students with background on analyzing and adapting to audiences. Then the instructor collects several…

  14. Fantastic animals as an experimental model to teach animal adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Guidetti, Roberto; Baraldi, Laura; Calzolai, Caterina; Pini, Lorenza; Veronesi, Paola; Pederzoli, Aurora

    2007-01-01

    Background Science curricula and teachers should emphasize evolution in a manner commensurate with its importance as a unifying concept in science. The concept of adaptation represents a first step to understand the results of natural selection. We settled an experimental project of alternative didactic to improve knowledge of organism adaptation. Students were involved and stimulated in learning processes by creative activities. To set adaptation in a historic frame, fossil records as evidence of past life and evolution were considered. Results The experimental project is schematized in nine phases: review of previous knowledge; lesson on fossils; lesson on fantastic animals; planning an imaginary world; creation of an imaginary animal; revision of the imaginary animals; adaptations of real animals; adaptations of fossil animals; and public exposition. A rubric to evaluate the student's performances is reported. The project involved professors and students of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia and of the "G. Marconi" Secondary School of First Degree (Modena, Italy). Conclusion The educational objectives of the project are in line with the National Indications of the Italian Ministry of Public Instruction: knowledge of the characteristics of living beings, the meanings of the term "adaptation", the meaning of fossils, the definition of ecosystem, and the particularity of the different biomes. At the end of the project, students will be able to grasp particular adaptations of real organisms and to deduce information about the environment in which the organism evolved. This project allows students to review previous knowledge and to form their personalities. PMID:17767729

  15. Science, expertise, and democracy.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Justin; Elliott, Kevin C

    2012-06-01

    The combination of government's significant involvement in science, science's significant effects on the public, and public ignorance (of both politics and science) raise important challenges for reconciling scientific expertise with democratic governance. Nevertheless, there have recently been a variety of encouraging efforts to make scientific activity more responsive to social values and to develop citizens' capacity to engage in more effective democratic governance of science. This essay introduces a special issue of the Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, "Science, Expertise, and Democracy," consisting of five papers that developed from the inaugural Three Rivers Philosophy conference held at the University of South Carolina in April 2011. The pieces range from a general analysis of the in-principle compatibility of scientific expertise and democracy to much more concrete studies of the intersection between scientific practices and democratic values in areas such as weight-of-evidence analysis, climate science, and studies of locally undesirable land uses.

  16. Yoga-teaching protocol adapted for children with visual impairment

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Soubhagyalaxmi; Hankey, Alex; Pradhan, Balaram; Ranjita, Rajashree

    2016-01-01

    Context: Childhood visual deficiency impairs children's neuro-psychomotor development, considerably affecting physical, mental, social, and emotional health. Yoga's multifaceted approach may help children with visual impairment (VI) to cope with their challenges. Aim: This study aimed to develop a special protocol for teaching yoga to children with VI, and to evaluate their preferred method of learning. Methods: The study was carried out at Ramana Maharishi Academy for the Blind, Bengaluru, South India. Forty-one students volunteered to learn yoga practices, and classes were held weekly 5 days, 1 hr per session for 16 weeks. The study introduced a new method using a sequence of five teaching steps: verbal instructions, tactile modeling, step-by-step teaching, learning in a group, and physical guidance. A questionnaire concerning the preferred steps of learning was then given to each student, and verbal answers were obtained. Results: A total of 33 (out of 41), aged 11.97 ± 1.94, 15 girls and 18 boys responded. Twenty-six (78.79%) chose physical guidance as their most favored learning mode. Conclusions: Specially designed protocol may pave the way to impart yoga in an exciting and comfortable way to children with VI. More studies are needed to further investigate the effectiveness of this new yoga protocol in similar settings. PMID:27512318

  17. Modelling district nurse expertise.

    PubMed

    Burke, Michelle

    2014-12-01

    As changes in society and health provision mean that one in four people over the age of 75 will require nursing care at home, pre-registration adult nurse education increasingly prepares student nurses for a future career within the community. District nurses undertake complex, multidimensional health and social assessments and care in a non-clinical setting and work in partnership with patients and their significant others to promote practical and psychological coping mechanisms and self-care. The district nurse's first assessment visit is key to developing a therapeutic partnership and it is often during this visit that expertise in district nursing practice emerges. The holistic, contextual and dynamic aspects of nursing in the home setting can make district nursing expertise difficult to illustrate and demonstrate within the classroom setting. This article explores the ways in which an understanding of expertise development theory can enable the tacit expertise that occurs within the first assessment visit to be made visible to student nurses, using simulation and expert narrative as a pedagogical strategy.

  18. The geometry of expertise.

    PubMed

    Leone, María J; Fernandez Slezak, Diego; Cecchi, Guillermo A; Sigman, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Theories of expertise based on the acquisition of chunk and templates suggest a differential geometric organization of perception between experts and novices. It is implied that expert representation is less anchored by spatial (Euclidean) proximity and may instead be dictated by the intrinsic relation in the structure and grammar of the specific domain of expertise. Here we set out to examine this hypothesis. We used the domain of chess which has been widely used as a tool to study human expertise. We reasoned that the movement of an opponent piece to a specific square constitutes an external cue and the reaction of the player to this "perturbation" should reveal his internal representation of proximity. We hypothesized that novice players will tend to respond by moving a piece in closer squares than experts. Similarly, but now in terms of object representations, we hypothesized weak players will more likely focus on a specific piece and hence produce sequence of actions repeating movements of the same piece. We capitalized on a large corpus of data obtained from internet chess servers. Results showed that, relative to experts, weaker players tend to (1) produce consecutive moves in proximal board locations, (2) move more often the same piece and (3) reduce the number of remaining pieces more rapidly, most likely to decrease cognitive load and mental effort. These three principles might reflect the effect of expertise on human actions in complex setups.

  19. Thoughts on Expertise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Robert

    This paper briefly reviews research on tasks in knowledge-rich domains including developmental studies, work in artificial intelligence, studies of expert/novice problem solving, and information processing analysis of aptitude test tasks that have provided increased understanding of the nature of expertise. Particularly evident is the finding that…

  20. Beyond Faces and Expertise

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Mintao; Bülthoff, Heinrich H.; Bülthoff, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Holistic processing—the tendency to perceive objects as indecomposable wholes—has long been viewed as a process specific to faces or objects of expertise. Although current theories differ in what causes holistic processing, they share a fundamental constraint for its generalization: Nonface objects cannot elicit facelike holistic processing in the absence of expertise. Contrary to this prevailing view, here we show that line patterns with salient Gestalt information (i.e., connectedness, closure, and continuity between parts) can be processed as holistically as faces without any training. Moreover, weakening the saliency of Gestalt information in these patterns reduced holistic processing of them, which indicates that Gestalt information plays a crucial role in holistic processing. Therefore, holistic processing can be achieved not only via a top-down route based on expertise, but also via a bottom-up route relying merely on object-based information. The finding that facelike holistic processing can extend beyond the domains of faces and objects of expertise poses a challenge to current dominant theories. PMID:26674129

  1. The geometry of expertise

    PubMed Central

    Leone, María J.; Fernandez Slezak, Diego; Cecchi, Guillermo A.; Sigman, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Theories of expertise based on the acquisition of chunk and templates suggest a differential geometric organization of perception between experts and novices. It is implied that expert representation is less anchored by spatial (Euclidean) proximity and may instead be dictated by the intrinsic relation in the structure and grammar of the specific domain of expertise. Here we set out to examine this hypothesis. We used the domain of chess which has been widely used as a tool to study human expertise. We reasoned that the movement of an opponent piece to a specific square constitutes an external cue and the reaction of the player to this “perturbation” should reveal his internal representation of proximity. We hypothesized that novice players will tend to respond by moving a piece in closer squares than experts. Similarly, but now in terms of object representations, we hypothesized weak players will more likely focus on a specific piece and hence produce sequence of actions repeating movements of the same piece. We capitalized on a large corpus of data obtained from internet chess servers. Results showed that, relative to experts, weaker players tend to (1) produce consecutive moves in proximal board locations, (2) move more often the same piece and (3) reduce the number of remaining pieces more rapidly, most likely to decrease cognitive load and mental effort. These three principles might reflect the effect of expertise on human actions in complex setups. PMID:24550869

  2. Engineering expertise sought.

    PubMed

    2005-02-01

    RedR-IHE (the merged RedR and International Health Exchange) is responding to requests from humanitarian agencies for skilled aid and development professionals to be deployed to South Asia following the earthquake and tsunami disaster. As assistance programmes gain momentum, and reconstruction activities commence, the expertise of healthcare sector engineers is likely to be in considerable demand.

  3. In Pursuit of Expertise. Toward an Educational Model for Expertise Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunphy, Bruce C.; Williamson, Stacey L.

    2004-01-01

    Firstly, the many characteristics of expertise are examined: they include aspects of pattern recognition, knowledge, skill, flexibility, metacognitive monitoring, available cognitive space and teaching abilities. Secondly, three educational models from different domains(Nursing, Surgical Education, Education) are analysed, compared and contrasted,…

  4. ADAPT: Attention Deficit Accommodation Plan for Teaching. Teacher Accommodation Planbook [and] Student Planbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Harvey C.

    This student workbook and accompanying teacher's guide are designed to help children with attention deficit disorders (ADD). The Attention Deficit Accommodation Plan for Teaching (ADAPT) teacher planbook guides the teacher in evaluating the students' areas of difficulty. This evaluation is the basis for the design and implementation of classroom…

  5. Adapted Physical Education Teachers' Concerns in Teaching Students with Disabilities in an Urban Public School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Samuel R.; Akuffo, Patrick B.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not adapted physical education (APE) teachers had job-related concerns associated with teaching students with disabilities in an urban public school district. The participants were six experienced, itinerant APE teachers, who taught in urban public schools in a midwestern state in the United…

  6. Adaptation for a Changing Environment: Developing Learning and Teaching with Information and Communication Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood, Adrian; Price, Linda

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) and learning and teaching, particularly in distance education contexts. We argue that environmental changes (societal, educational, and technological) make it necessary to adapt systems and practices that are no longer appropriate. The need…

  7. Investigating Purposeful Science Curriculum Adaptation as a Strategy to Improve Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debarger, Angela Haydel; Penuel, William R.; Moorthy, Savitha; Beauvineau, Yves; Kennedy, Cathleen A.; Boscardin, Christy Kim

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the potential and conditions for using curriculum adaptation to support reform of science teaching and learning. With each wave of reform in science education, curriculum has played a central role and the contemporary wave focused on implementation of the principles and vision of the "Framework for K-12 Science…

  8. Adapting to the Online Teaching Environment: Using Literature To Develop Experiential Exercises for International Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusinko, Cathy A.

    2003-01-01

    Proposes that literature may be a valuable tool in adapting teaching methods to the online environment, particularly developing experiential exercises, and in helping students become better international managers by building communication skills, team building skills, and contextual understanding of cultural diversity issues. Includes an example…

  9. The Princess Storyteller, Clara Clarifier, Quincy Questioner, and the Wizard: Reciprocal Teaching Adapted for Kindergarten Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Pamela Ann

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the author adapted reciprocal teaching strategies for use with her kindergarten students. Using puppets to help model strategies, she implemented a series of lessons that showed students how to retell, ask questions, and predict what would happen in a story that was read aloud. The purpose was to provide students with comprehension…

  10. Waterless Condensers for the Teaching Laboratory: An Adaptation of Traditional Glassware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Erich W.; Esteb, John J.; Wilson, Anne M.

    2014-01-01

    A simple adaptation of traditional "chemistry kit" condensers for the organic chemistry teaching laboratory is described. These waterless condensers have been employed safely with most solvents. They can be easily fabricated, stored, and used in the same manner as water-cooled condensers. These condensers were utilized in several…

  11. Conceptualizing and Exemplifying Science Teachers' Assessment Expertise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geaney Lyon, Edward

    2013-05-01

    Although research in science education has led to new assessment forms and functions, the reality is that little work has been done to unpack and capture what it means for a teacher to develop expertise at assessing science. The purpose of this paper is two-fold. First, I suggest a conceptualization of assessment expertise that is organized around three dimensions: (a) designing aligned and theoretically cohesive assessment (Design), (b) using assessment to support students' science learning (Use), and (c) equitably assessing language minorities (Equity). The second purpose is to suggest and exemplify various levels of teaching expertise across the three conceptual dimensions using written assessment plans gathered from a study on secondary science pre-service teachers' assessment growth. The contribution of this paper lies in its further conceptual development of assessment expertise, instantiated in a rubric, which can spark discussion about how to capture the range of assessment practices that might be found in science classrooms as well as move toward a potential learning progression of assessment expertise.

  12. Teaching the Self-Contained Adapted Physical Education Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Martin E.; Taliaferro, Andrea; Campbell, Amanda Love; Harris, Natasha; Tipton, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide information to general physical education teachers on how to conduct a self-contained adapted physical education (APE) class. The article begins with an example of a traditional model for a self-contained APE class, where all students work on the same goals using basically the same equipment and…

  13. An Adaptable Investigative Graduate Laboratory Course for Teaching Protein Purification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Christopher W.; Keller, Lani C.

    2014-01-01

    This adaptable graduate laboratory course on protein purification offers students the opportunity to explore a wide range of techniques while allowing the instructor the freedom to incorporate their own personal research interests. The course design involves two sequential purification schemes performed in a single semester. The first part…

  14. Mental Health and Head Start: Teaching Adaptive Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forness, Steven R.; Serna, Loretta A.; Kavale, Kenneth A.; Nielsen, Elizabeth

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of a self-determination curriculum for mental-health intervention and primary prevention for Head Start children. The curriculum addresses critical adaptive-skills domains, including social skills, self-evaluation, self-direction, networking or friendship, collaboration or support seeking, problem solving and decision making, and…

  15. Teaching a Biotechnology Curriculum Based on Adapted Primary Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Hedda; Brill, Gilat; Yarden, Anat

    2008-01-01

    Adapted primary literature (APL) refers to an educational genre specifically designed to enable the use of research articles for learning biology in high school. The present investigation focuses on the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of four high-school biology teachers who enacted an APL-based curriculum in biotechnology. Using a…

  16. Developing Modular and Adaptable Courseware Using TeachML.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehner, Frank; Lorz, Alexander

    This paper presents the use of an XML grammar for two complementary projects--CHAMELEON (Cooperative Hypermedia Adaptive MultimEdia Learning Objects) and EIT (Enabling Informal Teamwork). Areas of applications are modular courseware documents and the collaborative authoring process of didactical units. A number of requirements for a suitable…

  17. Teaching Mathematical Biology in High School Using Adapted Primary Literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Stephen P.; Stelnicki, Nathan; de Vries, Gerda

    2012-08-01

    The study compared the effect of two adaptations of a scientific article on students' comprehension and use of scientific inquiry skills. One adaptation preserved as much as possible the canonical form of the original article (APL, Adapted Primary Literature) and the other was written in a more narrative mode typical of secondary literature (SL). Both adaptations contained the same content. Two hundred and eleven senior high school students in a Western Canadian school district participated. The numbers of males and females were approximately equal, and all students were registered in an introductory calculus course. All students were given a 90 min class by their teachers that introduced them to the basic mathematical concepts needed to read the articles. Students were randomly assigned to read either the APL or the SL and afterwards to complete a questionnaire, which was common to both groups. Major findings showed that the SL students better understood the article, that the APL students thought more critically about the article, that females understood the article better than males, and that students' attitudes towards reading the articles, regardless of group, were positively associated with their comprehension and use of inquiry skills. The results coincide in important ways with those of similar studies in Israel, and show that asking students to read text that resembles scientific writing increases their use of critical thinking skills when reading.

  18. Adaptations: Using Darwin's Origin to teach biology and writing.

    PubMed

    Morris, James R; Costa, James T; Berry, Andrew

    2015-10-01

    Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species is at once familiar and unfamiliar. Everyone knows that the Origin introduced the world to the idea of evolution by natural selection, but few of us have actually read it. We suggest that it is worth taking the time not only to read what Darwin had to say, but also to use the Origin to teach both biology and writing. It provides scientific lessons in areas beyond evolutionary biology, such as ecology and biogeography. In addition, it provides valuable rhetorical lessons-how to construct an argument, write persuasively, make use of evidence, know your audience, and anticipate counterarguments. We have been using the Origin in various classes for several years, introducing new generations to Darwin, in his own words.

  19. Applying perceptual and adaptive learning techniques for teaching introductory histopathology

    PubMed Central

    Krasne, Sally; Hillman, Joseph D.; Kellman, Philip J.; Drake, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Medical students are expected to master the ability to interpret histopathologic images, a difficult and time-consuming process. A major problem is the issue of transferring information learned from one example of a particular pathology to a new example. Recent advances in cognitive science have identified new approaches to address this problem. Methods: We adapted a new approach for enhancing pattern recognition of basic pathologic processes in skin histopathology images that utilizes perceptual learning techniques, allowing learners to see relevant structure in novel cases along with adaptive learning algorithms that space and sequence different categories (e.g. diagnoses) that appear during a learning session based on each learner's accuracy and response time (RT). We developed a perceptual and adaptive learning module (PALM) that utilized 261 unique images of cell injury, inflammation, neoplasia, or normal histology at low and high magnification. Accuracy and RT were tracked and integrated into a “Score” that reflected students rapid recognition of the pathologies and pre- and post-tests were given to assess the effectiveness. Results: Accuracy, RT and Scores significantly improved from the pre- to post-test with Scores showing much greater improvement than accuracy alone. Delayed post-tests with previously unseen cases, given after 6-7 weeks, showed a decline in accuracy relative to the post-test for 1st-year students, but not significantly so for 2nd-year students. However, the delayed post-test scores maintained a significant and large improvement relative to those of the pre-test for both 1st and 2nd year students suggesting good retention of pattern recognition. Student evaluations were very favorable. Conclusion: A web-based learning module based on the principles of cognitive science showed an evidence for improved recognition of histopathology patterns by medical students. PMID:24524000

  20. Nature, nurture, and expertise

    PubMed Central

    Plomin, Robert; Shakeshaft, Nicholas G.; McMillan, Andrew; Trzaskowski, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Rather than investigating the extent to which training can improve performance under experimental conditions (‘what could be’), we ask about the origins of expertise as it exists in the world (‘what is’). We used the twin method to investigate the genetic and environmental origins of exceptional performance in reading, a skill that is a major focus of educational training in the early school years. Selecting reading experts as the top 5% from a sample of 10,000 12-year-old twins assessed on a battery of reading tests, three findings stand out. First, we found that genetic factors account for more than half of the difference in performance between expert and normal readers. Second, our results suggest that reading expertise is the quantitative extreme of the same genetic and environmental factors that affect reading performance for normal readers. Third, growing up in the same family and attending the same schools account for less than a fifth of the difference between expert and normal readers. We discuss implications and interpretations (‘what is inherited is DNA sequence variation’; ‘the abnormal is normal’). Finally, although there is no necessary relationship between ‘what is’ and ‘what could be’, the most far-reaching issues about the acquisition of expertise lie at the interface between them (‘the nature of nurture: from a passive model of imposed environments to an active model of shaped experience’). PMID:24948844

  1. Nature, Nurture, and Expertise.

    PubMed

    Plomin, Robert; Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; McMillan, Andrew; Trzaskowski, Maciej

    2014-07-01

    Rather than investigating the extent to which training can improve performance under experimental conditions ('what could be'), we ask about the origins of expertise as it exists in the world ('what is'). We used the twin method to investigate the genetic and environmental origins of exceptional performance in reading, a skill that is a major focus of educational training in the early school years. Selecting reading experts as the top 5% from a sample of 10,000 12-year-olds twins assessed on a battery of reading tests, three findings stand out. First, we found that genetic factors account for more than half of the difference in performance between expert and normal readers. Second, our results suggest that reading expertise is the quantitative extreme of the same genetic and environmental factors that affect reading performance for normal readers. Third, growing up in the same family and attending the same schools account for less than a fifth of the difference between expert and normal readers. We discuss implications and interpretations ('what is inherited is DNA sequence variation'; 'the abnormal is normal'). Finally, although there is no necessary relationship between 'what is' and 'what could be', the most far-reaching issues about the acquisition of expertise lie at the interface between them ('the nature of nurture: from a passive model of imposed environments to an active model of shaped experience').

  2. Cognitive Transformations and Extended Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menary, Richard; Kirchhoff, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Expertise is extended by becoming immersed in cultural practices. We look at an example of mathematical expertise in which immersion in cognitive practices results in the transformation of expert performance.

  3. A Network Model of Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunn, Robin

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author proposes a dynamic, interdisciplinary, network conception of expertise that differs from conventional static, linear conceptions. Using a range of graphic images, the author propose specific visualizations of this network conception of expertise. First, he discusses attempts to pin expertise down in a definition. Then…

  4. Expertise of Early Childhood Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Happo, Iiris; Määttä, Kaarina

    2011-01-01

    Every preschool age child in Finland has the right to day care and the expertise of educators is multidimensional. The aim of this article is to clarify the expertise of those early childhood educators, who have the competence of kindergarten teachers (n = 80). The data consisted of the early educators' stories of their growth towards expertise.…

  5. Reflective Teaching via a Problem Exploration--Teaching Adaptations--Resolution Cycle: A Mixed Methods Study of Preservice Teachers' Reflective Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, H. Emily; Chiu, Ming Ming

    2015-01-01

    We explore development of elementary preservice teachers' reflective practices as they solved problems encountered while teaching in a reading clinic. Written reflections (N = 175) were collected across 8 weeks from 23 preservice teachers and analyzed to investigate relationships among problem exploration, teaching adaptations, and problem…

  6. Teaching as Designing: Preparing Pre-Service Teachers for Adaptive Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Michelle E.

    2016-01-01

    This conceptual article explores teaching as design work, arguing that a critical thing teachers do is design systems that enable their students to learn. Designing occurs when teachers generate new learning activities or modify curricular programs to create coherence for themselves and their students. Nonetheless, few teacher education programs…

  7. Expertise, Ethics Expertise, and Clinical Ethics Consultation: Achieving Terminological Clarity.

    PubMed

    Iltis, Ana S; Sheehan, Mark

    2016-08-01

    The language of ethics expertise has become particularly important in bioethics in light of efforts to establish the value of the clinical ethics consultation (CEC), to specify who is qualified to function as a clinical ethics consultant, and to characterize how one should evaluate whether or not a person is so qualified. Supporters and skeptics about the possibility of ethics expertise use the language of ethics expertise in ways that reflect competing views about what ethics expertise entails. We argue for clarity in understanding the nature of expertise and ethics expertise. To be an ethics expert, we argue, is to be an expert in knowing what ought to be done. Any attempt to articulate expertise with respect to knowing what ought to be done must include an account of ethics that specifies the nature of moral truth and the means by which we access this truth or a theoretical account of ethics such that expertise in another domain is linked to knowing or being better at judging what ought to be done and the standards by which this "knowing" or "being better at judging" is determined. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of our analysis for the literature on ethics expertise in CEC. We do think that there are clear domains in which a clinical ethics consultant might be expert but we are skeptical about the possibility that this includes ethics expertise. Clinical ethics consultants should not be referred to as ethics experts.

  8. An Evaluation of Levels of Adaptation Used in the Teaching of Foreign University Degree Programs in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Mike

    2004-01-01

    Many universities now deliver courses and programs in overseas markets such as China. Often these programs are delivered by foreign academics who teach in these overseas locations. This style and format of educational delivery raises the issue of the degree to which subject material and teaching styles need to be adapted to meet the needs of…

  9. Expertise in fingerprint identification.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Matthew B; Tangen, Jason M; McCarthy, Duncan J

    2013-11-01

    Although fingerprint experts have presented evidence in criminal courts for more than a century, there have been few scientific investigations of the human capacity to discriminate these patterns. A recent latent print matching experiment shows that qualified, court-practicing fingerprint experts are exceedingly accurate (and more conservative) compared with novices, but they do make errors. Here, a rationale for the design of this experiment is provided. We argue that fidelity, generalizability, and control must be balanced to answer important research questions; that the proficiency and competence of fingerprint examiners are best determined when experiments include highly similar print pairs, in a signal detection paradigm, where the ground truth is known; and that inferring from this experiment the statement "The error rate of fingerprint identification is 0.68%" would be unjustified. In closing, the ramifications of these findings for the future psychological study of forensic expertise and the implications for expert testimony and public policy are considered.

  10. How to attain expertise in clinical communication?

    PubMed

    Wouda, Jan C; van de Wiel, Harry B M

    2013-12-01

    Several factors complicate the attainment of expertise in clinical communication. Medical curricula and postgraduate training insufficiently provide the required learning conditions of deliberate practice to overcome these obstacles. In this paper we provide recommendations for learning objectives and teaching methods for the attainment of professional expertise in patient education. Firstly, we propose to use functional learning objectives derived from the goals and strategies of clinical communication. Secondly, we recommend using teaching and assessment methods which: (1) contain stimulating learning tasks with opportunities for immediate feedback, reflection and corrections, and (2) give ample opportunity for repetition, gradual refinements and practice in challenging situations. Video-on-the-job fits these requirements and can be used to improve the competency in patient education of residents and medical staff in clinical practice. However, video-on-the-job can only be successful if the working environment supports the teaching and learning of communication and if medical staff which supervises the residents, is motivated to improve their own communication and didactic skills.

  11. Cognition and Expertise in Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, Daniel J.; Barry, John R.

    The influence cognitive components have on expertise in sport is receiving a great deal of attention. Recent research indicates that levels of expertise in sport can be differentiated with cognitive components. This suggests that skilled athletes do not necessarily have superior physiological and biomechanical systems, but have the same type of…

  12. Teaching Genetic Counseling Skills: Incorporating a Genetic Counseling Adaptation Continuum Model to Address Psychosocial Complexity.

    PubMed

    Shugar, Andrea

    2016-11-28

    Genetic counselors are trained health care professionals who effectively integrate both psychosocial counseling and information-giving into their practice. Preparing genetic counseling students for clinical practice is a challenging task, particularly when helping them develop effective and active counseling skills. Resistance to incorporating these skills may stem from decreased confidence, fear of causing harm or a lack of clarity of psycho-social goals. The author reflects on the personal challenges experienced in teaching genetic counselling students to work with psychological and social complexity, and proposes a Genetic Counseling Adaptation Continuum model and methodology to guide students in the use of advanced counseling skills.

  13. Architecture-Adaptive Computing Environment: A Tool for Teaching Parallel Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorband, John E.; Aburdene, Maurice F.

    2002-01-01

    Recently, networked and cluster computation have become very popular. This paper is an introduction to a new C based parallel language for architecture-adaptive programming, aCe C. The primary purpose of aCe (Architecture-adaptive Computing Environment) is to encourage programmers to implement applications on parallel architectures by providing them the assurance that future architectures will be able to run their applications with a minimum of modification. A secondary purpose is to encourage computer architects to develop new types of architectures by providing an easily implemented software development environment and a library of test applications. This new language should be an ideal tool to teach parallel programming. In this paper, we will focus on some fundamental features of aCe C.

  14. A Step Forward: Investigating Expertise in Materials Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Keith; Kim, Mija; Ya-Fang, Liu; Nava, Andrea; Perkins, Dawn; Smith, Anne Margaret; Soler-Canela, Oscar; Lu, Wang

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on a study investigating the textbook evaluation techniques of novice and experienced teachers, which was conducted by the Language Teaching Expertise Research Group (or LATEX) within Lancaster University's Department of Linguistics and English Language. Three ELT teachers were chosen to evaluate the student and teacher…

  15. Educational Applications of a Theory of Clinical Expertise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Stephen; And Others

    Two computer-based instructional projects and a workbook model designed to emphasize three different applications of expertise in medical problem-solving are described. The "CVTEST" Project (cardiovascular) explored the use of a computer program to provide guidance to students and facilitate self-assessment. The program does not directly teach,…

  16. Innovative Teaching: Sharing Expertise through Videoconferencing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luck, Michael; Laurence, Gerard Michael

    2005-01-01

    Guest lectures are a valuable resource in higher education. However, shrinking budgets make it difficult to bring in experts from remote areas of the globe. Videoconferencing, Michael Luck and Gerard Laurence believe, may be a cost-effective way to bring experts to the classroom. Luck and Laurence describe their 2003 study that formally evaluated…

  17. Transfer of adapted water supply technologies through a demonstration and teaching facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nestmann, F.; Oberle, P.; Ikhwan, M.; Stoffel, D.; Blaß, H. J.; Töws, D.; Schmidt, S.

    2016-09-01

    Water scarcity can be defined as a lack of sufficient water resources or as the limited or even missing access to a safe water supply. Latter can be classified as `economic water scarcity' which among others can commonly be met in tropical and subtropical karst regions of emerging and developing countries. Karst aquifers, mostly consisting of limestone and carbonate rock, show high infiltration rates which leads to a lack of above ground storage possibilities. Thus, the water will drain rapidly into the underground and evolve vast river networks. Considering the lack of appropriate infrastructure and limited human capacities in the affected areas, these underground water resources cannot be exploited adequately. Against this, background innovative and adapted technologies are required to utilize hard-to-access water resources in a sustainable way. In this context, the German-Indonesian joint R&D project "Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) Indonesia" dealt with the development of highly adaptable water technologies and management strategies. Under the aegis of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), these innovative technical concepts were exemplarily implemented to remedy this deficiency in the model region Gunung Sewu, a karst area situated on the southern coast of Java Island, Indonesia. The experiences gained through the interdisciplinary joint R&D activities clearly showed that even in the case of availability of appropriate technologies, a comprising transfer of knowhow and the buildup of capabilities (Capacity Development) is inevitable to sustainably implement and disseminate new methods. In this context, an adapted water supply facility was developed by KIT which hereafter shall serve for demonstration, teaching, and research purposes. The plant's functionality, its teaching and research concept, as well as the design process, which was accomplished in collaboration with the

  18. Sibling dynamics and sport expertise.

    PubMed

    Hopwood, M J; Farrow, D; MacMahon, C; Baker, J

    2015-10-01

    Family members are known to be highly influential in the development of sport expertise. To date, much of the research in this area has focused on parents, with less known about sibling influences on expertise. This investigation explored associations between sport expertise, sibling characteristics, and sibling participation in sport and physical activity. Athletes representing three skill levels provided details of sibling characteristics and participation in sport and physical activity via the Developmental History of Athletes Questionnaire. Elite athletes were more likely to be later-born children, while pre-elite and non-elite athletes were more likely to be first-born. Compared with siblings of non-elite athletes, siblings of elite athletes were more likely to have participated in regular physical activity and were more likely to have participated in sport at the pre-elite and elite levels. These results suggest siblings may play a key role in sport expertise development.

  19. Visual prediction and perceptual expertise

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Olivia S.; Bar, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    Making accurate predictions about what may happen in the environment requires analogies between perceptual input and associations in memory. These elements of predictions are based on cortical representations, but little is known about how these processes can be enhanced by experience and training. On the other hand, studies on perceptual expertise have revealed that the acquisition of expertise leads to strengthened associative processing among features or objects, suggesting that predictions and expertise may be tightly connected. Here we review the behavioral and neural findings regarding the mechanisms involving prediction and expert processing, and highlight important possible overlaps between them. Future investigation should examine the relations among perception, memory and prediction skills as a function of expertise. The knowledge gained by this line of research will have implications for visual cognition research, and will advance our understanding of how the human brain can improve its ability to predict by learning from experience. PMID:22123523

  20. Adapting to a New Role as an International Teaching Assistant: Influence of Communicative Competence in This Adaptation Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bengu, Elif

    2009-01-01

    For a variety of reasons, U.S. higher education has employed an increasing number of international teaching assistants (ITAs) to teach undergraduate courses in science, engineering, and humanities departments. Often, ITAs arrive on campus and are placed in undergraduate classrooms without having previous training or teaching experience; they are…

  1. Non-Certified Environment and Geography Subject Expertise in Chilean Rural Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salinas-Silva, Victor; Arenas-Martija, Andoni; Margalef-García, Leonor

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, environmental and geographical subject expertise is explored, based on the notion of expertise as rooted both in subject knowledge and knowledge of teaching and as acquired through experience. The research questions that guided this study focused on the importance of understanding how teachers negotiate their assumptions and what…

  2. 25 CFR 700.525 - Use of government information or expertise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of government information or expertise. 700.525 Section 700.525 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND... expertise. (a) Commission personnel may engage in teaching, lecturing and writing about the...

  3. GSMT Education: Teaching about Adaptive Optics and Site Selection Using Extremely Large Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, R. T.; Pompea, S. M.

    2010-08-01

    Giant Segmented Mirror Telescopes (GSMT) represents the next generation of extremely large telescopes (ELT). Currently there are three active ELT projects, all established as international partnerships to build telescopes of greater than 20 meters aperture. Two of these have major participation by U.S. institutions: the Giant Magellan Telescope and the Thirty Meter Telescope. The ESO-ELT is under development by the European Southern Observatory and other European institutions. We have developed educational activities to accompany the design phase of these projects. The current activities focus on challenges faced in the design and site selection of a large telescope. The first module is on site selection. This online module is based on the successful Astronomy Village program model. Students evaluate several potential sites to decide where to build the GSMT. They must consider factors such as weather, light pollution, seeing, logistics, and geography. The second project has developed adaptive optics teaching units suitable for high school.

  4. Teaching the Fluctuation Test "In Silico" by Using Mutate: A Program to Distinguish between the Adaptive and Spontaneous Mutation Hypotheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvajal-Rodriguez, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Mutate is a program developed for teaching purposes to impart a virtual laboratory class for undergraduate students of Genetics in Biology. The program emulates the so-called fluctuation test whose aim is to distinguish between spontaneous and adaptive mutation hypotheses in bacteria. The plan is to train students in certain key multidisciplinary…

  5. College Students Solving Chemistry Problems: A Theoretical Model of Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Glynn, Shawn M.

    2009-01-01

    A model of expertise in chemistry problem solving was tested on undergraduate science majors enrolled in a chemistry course. The model was based on Anderson's "Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational" (ACT-R) theory. The model shows how conceptualization, self-efficacy, and strategy interact and contribute to the successful solution of quantitative,…

  6. Transitions and the Development of Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallam, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the relationships between the development of expertise and transitions. It sets out what we know about the development of expertise, changes in the brain as expertise develops, and how transitions between different learning contexts and the challenges that they present may impact on developing expertise. It sets out a series of…

  7. Understanding Expertise from Elite Badminton Coaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheu, Feng-Ru

    2011-01-01

    Badminton is a growing sport with a limited amount of expertise both in players and coaches so attempts are being made to extend the expertise internationally. The purpose of this study is to gain an understanding of coaching expertise in badminton because such an understanding might have implications for a more general understanding of expertise,…

  8. Peer-reviewed forensic consultation in practice: multidisciplinary oversight in common expertise.

    PubMed

    Welner, Michael; Davey, Emily E; Bernstein, Adam

    2014-09-01

    The fallibility of forensic science consultation is an ongoing and major justice concern. Prospective peer-reviewed forensic consultation has over 10 years of application in American criminal and civil courts, adapting from the traditional oversight of teaching hospitals, rules of evidence and discovery, conventions of testimony of expert witnesses, and attorneys' overall trial strategy. In systematizing heightened oversight, this process ensures greater accountability in forensic science consultation. The integration of peer reviewers' complementary expertise and experience enhances the sophistication and overall quality of assessment. Forensic examination frequently involves the interface of different specialties. Multidisciplinary peer review augments expert proficiency with that of professional peers having different vantage points from relevant scientific disciplines. This approach ensures greater sophistication of a case inquiry, built-in accountability, and streamlined processes when multiple experts are necessitated. Here, the authors present examples of several cases and the primary and secondary benefits of this collaborative, rigorous, cross-disciplinary exercise.

  9. Regional Expertise and Culture Proficiency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    for culture and language training and education Abbe (2008) Social initiative Willingness to communicate in cross-cultural settings; interest in... intercultural skills during officer formal education Montgomery, AL: Air War College, Air University. Russell et al. (1995, July). Intercultural communication ...JPEC) community with foreign language and regional expertise capabilities, integrate the capabilities into all force planning activities, and obtain

  10. The Problem of Expertise in Knowledge Societies.

    PubMed

    Grundmann, Reiner

    2017-01-01

    This paper puts forward a theoretical framework for the analysis of expertise and experts in contemporary societies. It argues that while prevailing approaches have come to see expertise in various forms and functions, they tend to neglect the broader historical and societal context, and importantly the relational aspect of expertise. This will be discussed with regard to influential theoretical frameworks, such as laboratory studies, regulatory science, lay expertise, post-normal science, and honest brokers. An alternative framework of expertise is introduced, showing the limitations of existing frameworks and emphasizing one crucial element of all expertise, which is their role in guiding action.

  11. What is an expert? A systems perspective on expertise.

    PubMed

    Caley, Michael Julian; O'Leary, Rebecca A; Fisher, Rebecca; Low-Choy, Samantha; Johnson, Sandra; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2014-02-01

    Expert knowledge is a valuable source of information with a wide range of research applications. Despite the recent advances in defining expert knowledge, little attention has been given to how to view expertise as a system of interacting contributory factors for quantifying an individual's expertise. We present a systems approach to expertise that accounts for many contributing factors and their inter-relationships and allows quantification of an individual's expertise. A Bayesian network (BN) was chosen for this purpose. For illustration, we focused on taxonomic expertise. The model structure was developed in consultation with taxonomists. The relative importance of the factors within the network was determined by a second set of taxonomists (supra-experts) who also provided validation of the model structure. Model performance was assessed by applying the model to hypothetical career states of taxonomists designed to incorporate known differences in career states for model testing. The resulting BN model consisted of 18 primary nodes feeding through one to three higher-order nodes before converging on the target node (Taxonomic Expert). There was strong consistency among node weights provided by the supra-experts for some nodes, but not others. The higher-order nodes, "Quality of work" and "Total productivity", had the greatest weights. Sensitivity analysis indicated that although some factors had stronger influence in the outer nodes of the network, there was relatively equal influence of the factors leading directly into the target node. Despite the differences in the node weights provided by our supra-experts, there was good agreement among assessments of our hypothetical experts that accurately reflected differences we had specified. This systems approach provides a way of assessing the overall level of expertise of individuals, accounting for multiple contributory factors, and their interactions. Our approach is adaptable to other situations where it is

  12. Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Broom, Donald M

    2006-01-01

    The term adaptation is used in biology in three different ways. It may refer to changes which occur at the cell and organ level, or at the individual level, or at the level of gene action and evolutionary processes. Adaptation by cells, especially nerve cells helps in: communication within the body, the distinguishing of stimuli, the avoidance of overload and the conservation of energy. The time course and complexity of these mechanisms varies. Adaptive characters of organisms, including adaptive behaviours, increase fitness so this adaptation is evolutionary. The major part of this paper concerns adaptation by individuals and its relationships to welfare. In complex animals, feed forward control is widely used. Individuals predict problems and adapt by acting before the environmental effect is substantial. Much of adaptation involves brain control and animals have a set of needs, located in the brain and acting largely via motivational mechanisms, to regulate life. Needs may be for resources but are also for actions and stimuli which are part of the mechanism which has evolved to obtain the resources. Hence pigs do not just need food but need to be able to carry out actions like rooting in earth or manipulating materials which are part of foraging behaviour. The welfare of an individual is its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment. This state includes various adaptive mechanisms including feelings and those which cope with disease. The part of welfare which is concerned with coping with pathology is health. Disease, which implies some significant effect of pathology, always results in poor welfare. Welfare varies over a range from very good, when adaptation is effective and there are feelings of pleasure or contentment, to very poor. A key point concerning the concept of individual adaptation in relation to welfare is that welfare may be good or poor while adaptation is occurring. Some adaptation is very easy and energetically cheap and

  13. A Self-Driven and Adaptive Adjusting Teaching Learning Method for Optimizing Optical Multicast Network Throughput

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huanlin; Xu, Yifan; Chen, Yong; Zhang, Mingjia

    2016-09-01

    With the development of one point to multiple point applications, network resources become scarcer and wavelength channels become more crowded in optical networks. To improve the bandwidth utilization, the multicast routing algorithm based on network coding can greatly increase the resource utilization, but it is most difficult to maximize the network throughput owing to ignoring the differences between the multicast receiving nodes. For making full use of the destination nodes' receives ability to maximize optical multicast's network throughput, a new optical multicast routing algorithm based on teaching-learning-based optimization (MR-iTLBO) is proposed in the paper. In order to increase the diversity of learning, a self-driven learning method is adopted in MR-iTLBO algorithm, and the mutation operator of genetic algorithm is introduced to prevent the algorithm into a local optimum. For increasing learner's learning efficiency, an adaptive learning factor is designed to adjust the learning process. Moreover, the reconfiguration scheme based on probability vector is devised to expand its global search capability in MR-iTLBO algorithm. The simulation results show that performance in terms of network throughput and convergence rate has been improved significantly with respect to the TLBO and the variant TLBO.

  14. 40 CFR 1508.26 - Special expertise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special expertise. 1508.26 Section 1508.26 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.26 Special expertise. Special expertise means statutory responsibility, agency mission, or related...

  15. The Expertise Reversal Effect Concerning Instructional Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rey, Gunter Daniel; Fischer, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The expertise reversal effect occurs when learner's expertise moderates design principles derived from cognitive load theory. Although this effect is supported by numerous empirical studies, indicating an overall large effect size, the effect was never tested by inducing expertise experimentally and using instructional explanations in a…

  16. The Problem of Expertise in Knowledge Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grundmann, Reiner

    2017-01-01

    This paper puts forward a theoretical framework for the analysis of expertise and experts in contemporary societies. It argues that while prevailing approaches have come to see expertise in various forms and functions, they tend to neglect the broader historical and societal context, and importantly the relational aspect of expertise. This will be…

  17. Expertise in Economics: Recall and Reasoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gijselaers, Wim H.; Woltjer, Geert

    This study attempts to investigate development of expertise in the area of economics. Results suggest that development of expertise in economics has a stage-like development similar to the domain of medicine. Studies in medicine show that expertise development is not simply a process of extending knowledge in existing semantic networks. The study…

  18. Wine Expertise Predicts Taste Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Hayes, John E; Pickering, Gary J

    2012-03-01

    Taste phenotypes have long been studied in relation to alcohol intake, dependence, and family history, with contradictory findings. However, on balance - with appropriate caveats about populations tested, outcomes measured and psychophysical methods used - an association between variation in taste responsiveness and some alcohol behaviors is supported. Recent work suggests super-tasting (operationalized via propylthiouracil (PROP) bitterness) not only associates with heightened response but also with more acute discrimination between stimuli. Here, we explore relationships between food and beverage adventurousness and taste phenotype. A convenience sample of wine drinkers (n=330) were recruited in Ontario and phenotyped for PROP bitterness via filter paper disk. They also filled out a short questionnaire regarding willingness to try new foods, alcoholic beverages and wines as well as level of wine involvement, which was used to classify them as a wine expert (n=110) or wine consumer (n=220). In univariate logisitic models, food adventurousness predicted trying new wines and beverages but not expertise. Likewise, wine expertise predicted willingness to try new wines and beverages but not foods. In separate multivariate logistic models, willingness to try new wines and beverages was predicted by expertise and food adventurousness but not PROP. However, mean PROP bitterness was higher among wine experts than wine consumers, and the conditional distribution functions differed between experts and consumers. In contrast, PROP means and distributions did not differ with food adventurousness. These data suggest individuals may self-select for specific professions based on sensory ability (i.e., an active gene-environment correlation) but phenotype does not explain willingness to try new stimuli.

  19. Adapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  20. The "Ethics" Expertise in Clinical Ethics Consultation.

    PubMed

    Iltis, Ana S; Rasmussen, Lisa M

    2016-08-01

    The nature, possibility, and implications of ethics expertise (or moral expertise) in general and of bioethics expertise in particular has been the focus of extensive debate for over thirty years. What is ethics expertise and what does it enable experts to do? Knowing what ethics expertise is can help answer another important question: What, if anything, makes a claim of expertise legitimate? In other words, how does someone earn the appellation "ethics expert?" There remains deep disagreement on whether ethics expertise is possible, and if so, what constitutes such expertise and what it entails and legitimates. Discussion of bioethics expertise has become particularly important given the growing presence of bioethicists in the clinical setting as well as efforts to professionalize bioethics through codes of ethics and certification (or quasi-certification) efforts. Unlike in the law or in engineering, where there may be a body of knowledge that professional organizations or others have articulated as important for education and training of experts, ethics expertise admits of no such body of knowledge or required experience. Nor is there an entity seen as having the authority to articulate the necessary scope of knowledge. Questions about whether there is such a body of knowledge for particular areas within bioethics have emerged and played a central role in professionalization efforts in recent years, especially in the area of clinical ethics.

  1. Teaching Case: Adapting the Access Northwind Database to Support a Database Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, John N.; Rogers, Camille

    2015-01-01

    A common problem encountered when teaching database courses is that few large illustrative databases exist to support teaching and learning. Most database textbooks have small "toy" databases that are chapter objective specific, and thus do not support application over the complete domain of design, implementation and management concepts…

  2. Cognition and Logic: Adaptation and Application of Inclusive Teaching Materials for Hands-On Workshops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunha, Kátia Machinez; Sholl-Franco, Alfred

    2016-01-01

    The use of inclusive teaching materials that motivate and encourage the development of executive functions has been neglected by the mathematic teaching, in which intelligence is valued, but no efforts are made to stimulate it. There are numerous reasons for that, among which are teachers' and students' unawareness that mathematics involves higher…

  3. Eyeglasses elicit effects similar to face-like perceptual expertise: evidence from the N170 response.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaohua; Yang, Qi; Hu, Fengpei

    2016-03-01

    Studies of event-related potentials show that the specific N170 response has become a stable electrophysiological hallmark of objects related to expertise in early perceptual processing. In the present study, we investigated whether eyeglasses can elicit N170 effects similar to those elicited by objects of expertise. Our results showed that the N170 response elicited by eyeglasses was larger than the response elicited by objects that do not generate perceptual expertise (e.g., houses). Importantly, we found that eyeglasses could produce a within-category N170 adaptation effect, similar to that produced in response to objects of expertise (e.g., faces). Our results have revealed for the first time that with a large amount of experience, eyeglasses could evoke the face-like N170 response, which suggested that eyeglasses may become an object of perceptual expertise to some human observers.

  4. Studying real-world perceptual expertise.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jianhong; Mack, Michael L; Palmeri, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Significant insights into visual cognition have come from studying real-world perceptual expertise. Many have previously reviewed empirical findings and theoretical developments from this work. Here we instead provide a brief perspective on approaches, considerations, and challenges to studying real-world perceptual expertise. We discuss factors like choosing to use real-world versus artificial object domains of expertise, selecting a target domain of real-world perceptual expertise, recruiting experts, evaluating their level of expertise, and experimentally testing experts in the lab and online. Throughout our perspective, we highlight expert birding (also called birdwatching) as an example, as it has been used as a target domain for over two decades in the perceptual expertise literature.

  5. Studying real-world perceptual expertise

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jianhong; Mack, Michael L.; Palmeri, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Significant insights into visual cognition have come from studying real-world perceptual expertise. Many have previously reviewed empirical findings and theoretical developments from this work. Here we instead provide a brief perspective on approaches, considerations, and challenges to studying real-world perceptual expertise. We discuss factors like choosing to use real-world versus artificial object domains of expertise, selecting a target domain of real-world perceptual expertise, recruiting experts, evaluating their level of expertise, and experimentally testing experts in the lab and online. Throughout our perspective, we highlight expert birding (also called birdwatching) as an example, as it has been used as a target domain for over two decades in the perceptual expertise literature. PMID:25147533

  6. Perceptual learning and human expertise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellman, Philip J.; Garrigan, Patrick

    2009-06-01

    We consider perceptual learning: experience-induced changes in the way perceivers extract information. Often neglected in scientific accounts of learning and in instruction, perceptual learning is a fundamental contributor to human expertise and is crucial in domains where humans show remarkable levels of attainment, such as language, chess, music, and mathematics. In Section 2, we give a brief history and discuss the relation of perceptual learning to other forms of learning. We consider in Section 3 several specific phenomena, illustrating the scope and characteristics of perceptual learning, including both discovery and fluency effects. We describe abstract perceptual learning, in which structural relationships are discovered and recognized in novel instances that do not share constituent elements or basic features. In Section 4, we consider primary concepts that have been used to explain and model perceptual learning, including receptive field change, selection, and relational recoding. In Section 5, we consider the scope of perceptual learning, contrasting recent research, focused on simple sensory discriminations, with earlier work that emphasized extraction of invariance from varied instances in more complex tasks. Contrary to some recent views, we argue that perceptual learning should not be confined to changes in early sensory analyzers. Phenomena at various levels, we suggest, can be unified by models that emphasize discovery and selection of relevant information. In a final section, we consider the potential role of perceptual learning in educational settings. Most instruction emphasizes facts and procedures that can be verbalized, whereas expertise depends heavily on implicit pattern recognition and selective extraction skills acquired through perceptual learning. We consider reasons why perceptual learning has not been systematically addressed in traditional instruction, and we describe recent successful efforts to create a technology of perceptual

  7. [Specialist and lay ethical expertise in public health: issues and challenges for discourse ethics].

    PubMed

    Massé, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, both public health professionals and the populations targeted by prevention and health promotion programs have shown an increasing interest in ethical issues since some interventions have been seen as impinging on fundamental rights and values. Insofar as bioethics is not adapted to population interventions and community health issues, a specific expertise in public health ethics is now required. However, ethical expertise in this area faces many challenges. The purpose of this paper is to examine four of these challenges. The first three challenges concern professional or specialist expertise. The paper suggests that expertise in public health ethics should go beyond the search for greater sophistication in defining ethical principles. Experts in public health ethics also need to identify appropriate strategies to include public health professionals in ethical analysis and to adopt a critical and reflexive approach to the status of moral experts and moral expertise. However, the main challenge is to identify appropriate ways of reconciling lay and specialist ethical expertise. The paper argues that secular morality and common morality represent two key sources of lay ethics expertise and that the fundamental values that inform discourse ethics should be derived from both forms of expertise.

  8. Using Cognitive Load Theory to Tailor Instruction to Levels of Accounting Students' Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blayney, Paul; Kalyuga, Slava; Sweller, John

    2015-01-01

    Tailoring of instructional methods to learner levels of expertise may reduce extraneous cognitive load and improve learning. Contemporary technology-based learning environments have the potential to substantially enable learner-adapted instruction. This paper investigates the effects of adaptive instruction based on using the isolated-interactive…

  9. Robust expertise effects in right FFA

    PubMed Central

    McGugin, Rankin Williams; Newton, Allen T; Gore, John C; Gauthier, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    The fusiform face area (FFA) is one of several areas in occipito-temporal cortex whose activity is correlated with perceptual expertise for objects. Here, we investigate the robustness of expertise effects in FFA and other areas to a strong task manipulation that increases both perceptual and attentional demands. With high-resolution fMRI at 7Telsa, we measured responses to images of cars, faces and a category globally visually similar to cars (sofas) in 26 subjects who varied in expertise with cars, in (a) a low load 1-back task with a single object category and (b) a high load task in which objects from two categories rapidly alternated and attention was required to both categories. The low load condition revealed several areas more active as a function of expertise, including both posterior and anterior portions of FFA bilaterally (FFA1/FFA2 respectively). Under high load, fewer areas were positively correlated with expertise and several areas were even negatively correlated, but the expertise effect in face-selective voxels in the anterior portion of FFA (FFA2) remained robust. Finally, we found that behavioral car expertise also predicted increased responses to sofa images but no behavioral advantages in sofa discrimination, suggesting that global shape similarity to a category of expertise is enough to elicit a response in FFA and other areas sensitive to experience, even when the category itself is not of special interest. The robustness of expertise effects in right FFA2 and the expertise effects driven by visual similarity both argue against attention being the sole determinant of expertise effects in extrastriate areas. PMID:25192631

  10. Robust expertise effects in right FFA.

    PubMed

    McGugin, Rankin Williams; Newton, Allen T; Gore, John C; Gauthier, Isabel

    2014-10-01

    The fusiform face area (FFA) is one of several areas in occipito-temporal cortex whose activity is correlated with perceptual expertise for objects. Here, we investigate the robustness of expertise effects in FFA and other areas to a strong task manipulation that increases both perceptual and attentional demands. With high-resolution fMRI at 7T, we measured responses to images of cars, faces and a category globally visually similar to cars (sofas) in 26 subjects who varied in expertise with cars, in (a) a low load 1-back task with a single object category and (b) a high load task in which objects from two categories were rapidly alternated and attention was required to both categories. The low load condition revealed several areas more active as a function of expertise, including both posterior and anterior portions of FFA bilaterally (FFA1/FFA2, respectively). Under high load, fewer areas were positively correlated with expertise and several areas were even negatively correlated, but the expertise effect in face-selective voxels in the anterior portion of FFA (FFA2) remained robust. Finally, we found that behavioral car expertise also predicted increased responses to sofa images but no behavioral advantages in sofa discrimination, suggesting that global shape similarity to a category of expertise is enough to elicit a response in FFA and other areas sensitive to experience, even when the category itself is not of special interest. The robustness of expertise effects in right FFA2 and the expertise effects driven by visual similarity both argue against attention being the sole determinant of expertise effects in extrastriate areas.

  11. Adaptive Instructional Aids for Teaching a Blind Student in a Nonmajors College Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd-Kimball, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive tools and techniques for lecture instruction were developed for a blind student in a nonmajors college chemistry course. These adaptive instructional aids assisted the student in writing and balancing chemical reactions, calculating unit conversions and concentrations, drawing Lewis dot structures, understanding structural representations…

  12. Changing Minds with the Story of Adaptation: Strategies for Teaching Young Children about Natural Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmons, Natalie; Smith, Hayley; Kelemen, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Educational guidelines recommend a delayed, piecemeal approach to instruction on adaptation by natural selection. This approach is questionable given suggestions that older students' pervasive misunderstandings about adaptation are rooted in cognitive biases that develop early. In response to this, Kelemen et al. (2014) recently…

  13. Designing Education for Professional Expertise Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elvira, Quincy; Imants, Jeroen; Dankbaar, Ben; Segers, Mien

    2017-01-01

    How to facilitate learning by novices (students) on their road to expertise has attracted the attention of a vast number of researchers in cognitive and educational psychology as well in the field of learning and instruction. Although many studies have investigated the phenomenon of expertise development, the implications of the findings for…

  14. Conceptualizing and Exemplifying Science Teachers' Assessment Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Edward Geaney

    2013-01-01

    Although research in science education has led to new assessment forms and functions, the reality is that little work has been done to unpack and capture what it means for a teacher to develop expertise at assessing science. The purpose of this paper is two-fold. First, I suggest a conceptualization of assessment expertise that is organized around…

  15. Fostering Social Expertise in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porath, Marion

    2009-01-01

    Social competence is an essential capability to bring to school because of its relationship to academic success. Development and consolidation of social understanding in early childhood ensures that young children have a solid foundation of social expertise when they begin formal schooling. Social expertise, conceptualized within the framework of…

  16. Should We Reject the Expertise Hypothesis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, Isabel; Bukach, Cindy

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of a review of the literature and the results of three experiments with dog experts, Robbins and McKone [Robbins, R. A., & McKone, E. (2006). No face-like processing for objects-of-expertise in three behavioural tasks, "Cognition"] argue that there is little or no evidence supporting an expertise account of the differences in…

  17. Weaving Clinical Expertise in Online Health Communities.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jina; Pratt, Wanda

    Many patients visit online health communities to receive support. In face-to-face support groups, health professionals facilitate peer-patients exchanging experience while adding their clinical expertise when necessary. However, the large scale of online health communities makes it challenging for such health professional moderators' involvement to happen. To address this challenge of delivering clinical expertise to where patients need them, we explore the idea of semi-automatically providing clinical expertise in online health communities. We interviewed 14 clinicians showing them example peer-patient conversation threads. From the interviews, we examined the ideal practice of clinicians providing expertise to patients. The clinicians continuously assessed when peer-patients were providing appropriate support, what kinds of clinical help they could give online, and when to defer to patients' healthcare providers. The findings inform requirements for building a semi-automated system delivering clinical expertise in online health communities.

  18. Clustering Teachers' Motivations for Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visser-Wijnveen, Gerda J.; Stes, Ann; Van Petegem, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The motivation to teach is a powerful, yet neglected, force in teaching at institutes of higher education. A better understanding of academics' motivations for teaching is necessary. The aim of this mixed-method study was to identify groups with distinctively different motivations for teaching. Six clusters were identified: expertise, duty,…

  19. Teaching matters-academic professional development in the early 21st century.

    PubMed

    Fahnert, Beatrix

    2015-10-01

    Academic work at different career stages has changed and a broadened portfolio of expertise enables academics to adapt, maintain and advance their career. Development related to research activity is naturally driven by methodology and technology. Institutions and peers largely support development in the contexts of dissemination, measuring impact and obtaining funding. A European Commission High Level Group recommended pedagogic training for everyone teaching in Higher Education by 2020 with mandatory continuing professional development and with academic staff recruitment and promotion being linked to teaching performance. Early career teaching experience is already an expectation, and advantage is gained by developing recognized teaching expertise. More senior academics gain an advantage through recognition of higher levels of expertise, also covering elements of leadership and innovation in teaching. This review aims to raise awareness particularly of teaching-related skills within the dimensions of academic professional development in Higher Education, outlining some general directions for development and recognition in context of current challenges to support planning and identifying training needs and opportunities at different career stages.

  20. "These Words Are Not Mine": Are We Still Teaching Literature when We Use Adaptations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoMonico, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Why do educators teach literature? The author thinks they can hear the answer in the voice of Huckleberry Finn and David Copperfield and Holden Caulfield and the omniscient narrator in "Beloved." It's the wonderful sound of those words, the gorgeous flow of those well-crafted sentences, and the marvelous way Twain and Dickens and Morrison and…

  1. Juegos y Diversiones. (Games Collected and Adapted to Teach Spanish to Children.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquez, Nancy, Ed.; And Others

    Games, both from the folklore heritage of children in Spanish-speaking countries and those created in the classroom, are excellent ways to teach language to children because they accomplish their language goals while entertaining and involving the children, often physically. Most games, because they are rigidly patterned and repetitious, are…

  2. Teaching Consultation-Liaison Psychotherapy: Assessment of Adaptation to Medical and Surgical Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Jonathan J.; Maunder, Robert G.; Gupta, Mona

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Little has been written about teaching consultation-liaison inpatient psychotherapy to residents or other trainees. Method: Resident interviews at completion of consultation-liaison training identified learning needs. In response, the authors created a seminar series and modified it reiteratively eight times. Results: In this approach,…

  3. Student Learning Styles Adaptation Method Based on Teaching Strategies and Electronic Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzoni, Ana Lidia; Assar, Said

    2009-01-01

    Recent research on the learning process has shown that students tend to learn in different ways and that they prefer to use different teaching resources as well. Many researchers agree on the fact that learning materials shouldn't just reflect of the teacher's style, but should be designed for all kinds of students and all kind of learning styles.…

  4. Blogs and Wikis as Instructional Tools: A Social Software Adaptation of Just-in-Time Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higdon, Jude; Topaz, Chad

    2009-01-01

    Just-in-Time Teaching (JiTT) methodology uses Web-based tools to gather student responses to questions on preclass reading assignments. However, the technological requirements of JiTT and the content-specific nature of the questions may prevent some instructors from implementing it. Our own JiTT implementation uses publicly and freely available…

  5. Teaching the Repeated Prisoner's Dilemma with a Non-Computerised Adaptation of Axelrod's Tournament

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Darwin's theory of evolution is explicitly competitive, yet co-operation between individuals is a common phenomenon. The Prisoner's Dilemma model is central to the teaching of the evolution of co-operation. The best-known explorations of the Prisoner's Dilemma are the tournaments run by Robert Axelrod in the 1980s. Aimed at students of biological…

  6. The Importance of Domain-Specific Expertise in Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, John

    2015-01-01

    Although creativity and expertise are related, they are nonetheless very different things. Expertise does not usually require creativity, but creativity generally does require a certain level of expertise. There are similarities in the relationships of both expertise and creativity to domains, however. Research has shown that just as expertise in…

  7. Neuroanatomical correlates of visual car expertise.

    PubMed

    Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon; Harel, Assaf; Bentin, Shlomo; Kanai, Ryota; Rees, Geraint

    2012-08-01

    Expertise in non-visual domains such as musical performance is associated with differences in gray matter volume of particular regions of the human brain. Whether this is also the case for expertise in visual object recognition is unknown. Here we tested whether individual variability in the ability to recognize car models, from novice performance to high level of expertise, is associated with specific structural changes in gray matter volume. We found that inter-individual variability in expertise with cars was significantly and selectively correlated with gray matter volume in prefrontal cortex. Inter-individual differences in the recognition of airplanes, that none of the participants had expertise with, were correlated with structural variability of regions bordering the visual cortex. These results highlight the role of prefrontal regions outside the visual cortex in accessing and processing visual knowledge about objects from the domain of expertise and suggest that expertise in visual object recognition may entail structural changes in regions associated with semantic knowledge.

  8. "Who Are You Callin' Expert?": Using Student Narratives to Redefine Expertise and Advocacy Lower Track Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerrick, Randy; Schiller, Jennifer; Reisfeld, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to construct an interpretation of lower track science students' notions of expertise in science teaching. Data were collected and transcribed from focus groups, teacher journals, classrooms events, and student artifacts. Students responded to focus group prompts over the course of a years regarding how and why they…

  9. The Use of Cognitive Task Analysis to Capture Expertise for Tracheal Extubation Training in Anesthesiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embrey, Karen K.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive task analysis (CTA) is a knowledge elicitation technique employed for acquiring expertise from domain specialists to support the effective instruction of novices. CTA guided instruction has proven effective in improving surgical skills training for medical students and surgical residents. The standard, current method of teaching clinical…

  10. Skills-Based Learning for Reproducible Expertise: Looking Elsewhere for Guidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessger, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of adult skills-based learning, adult education researchers continue to ignore effective interdisciplinary skills-based methods. Prominent researchers dismiss empirically supported teaching guidelines, preferring situational, emancipatory methods with no demonstrable effect on skilled performance or reproducible expertise.…

  11. Adapting problem-based learning to a traditional curriculum: teaching about prevention.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, A J; Moore-West, M; Palmateer, D R; Radebaugh, J; Reed, S; Clauson, B

    1990-01-01

    How best to teach medical students is an issue of importance in medical education. At Dartmouth Medical School, a required first-year course emphasizes small-group learning through five modules that are both problem-based and task-oriented. The prevention module that requires small groups to plan the solution to a problem in prevention is described. Evaluation reveals that the program is feasible for teaching about prevention, and that the following principles are important to consider when implementing problem-based, task-oriented learning in an otherwise traditional curriculum: (1) Be clear in explaining the unique expectations and requirements of small-group learning to students. (2) Limit the duration of any special learning module to less than a week. (3) Take into account the demands of the traditional curriculum when scheduling to minimize competition with traditional examinations.

  12. Children monitor individuals' expertise for word learning.

    PubMed

    Sobel, David M; Corriveau, Kathleen H

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments examined preschoolers' ability to learn novel words using others' expertise about objects' nonobvious properties. In Experiment 1, 4-year-olds (n = 24) endorsed individuals' labels for objects based on their differing causal knowledge about those objects. Experiment 2 examined the robustness of this inference and its development. Four-year-olds (n = 40) endorsed labels from confederates who accurately predicted objects' nonobvious internal properties but not nonobvious external properties. Three-year-olds (n = 40) performed at chance levels in both cases and were less likely to recognize the informants' expertise, suggesting that they might be unable to monitor individuals' expertise. These data suggest that children's ability to learn from testimony is necessary for their understanding of the relevance of an individual's expertise.

  13. Teaching Rapid and Slow Learners in High Schools: The Status of Adaptations in Junior, Senior, and Regular High Schools Enrolling More than 300 Pupils. Bulletin, 1954, No. 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewett, Arno; Hull, J. Dan; Brown, Kenneth E.; Cummings, Howard H.; Johnson, Philip G.; Laxson, Mary; Ludington, John R.; Mallory, Berenice; Segel, David

    1954-01-01

    This bulletin represents a cooperative effort of nine secondary school specialists in the Office of Education to picture the provisions used in large high schools to adapt teaching methods in different subjects for pupils who are not average. It is recognized that a pupil may be a rapid learner in one subject and a slow learner in another. Each of…

  14. Seeing Coloured Fruits: Utilisation of the Theory of Adaptive Memory in Teaching Botany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokop, Pavol; Fancovicová, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Plants are characterised by a great diversity of easily observed features such as colours or shape, but children show low interest in learning about them. Here, we integrated modern theory of adaptive memory and evolutionary views of the function of fruit colouration on children's retention of information. Survival-relevant (fruit toxicity) and…

  15. Analysis of the Same Subject in Diverse Periodicals: One Method for Teaching Audience Adaptation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradford, Annette N.; Whitburn, Merrill D.

    1982-01-01

    Examines two technical writing assignments involving analysis of particular audience adaptive techniques used in five published technical articles from diverse sources on the same limited subject. The first is a discussion exercise involving the entire class, and the second is an individual written exercise. (HTH)

  16. Development of the biology card sorting task to measure conceptual expertise in biology.

    PubMed

    Smith, Julia I; Combs, Elijah D; Nagami, Paul H; Alto, Valerie M; Goh, Henry G; Gourdet, Muryam A A; Hough, Christina M; Nickell, Ashley E; Peer, Adrian G; Coley, John D; Tanner, Kimberly D

    2013-01-01

    There are widespread aspirations to focus undergraduate biology education on teaching students to think conceptually like biologists; however, there is a dearth of assessment tools designed to measure progress from novice to expert biological conceptual thinking. We present the development of a novel assessment tool, the Biology Card Sorting Task, designed to probe how individuals organize their conceptual knowledge of biology. While modeled on tasks from cognitive psychology, this task is unique in its design to test two hypothesized conceptual frameworks for the organization of biological knowledge: 1) a surface feature organization focused on organism type and 2) a deep feature organization focused on fundamental biological concepts. In this initial investigation of the Biology Card Sorting Task, each of six analytical measures showed statistically significant differences when used to compare the card sorting results of putative biological experts (biology faculty) and novices (non-biology major undergraduates). Consistently, biology faculty appeared to sort based on hypothesized deep features, while non-biology majors appeared to sort based on either surface features or nonhypothesized organizational frameworks. Results suggest that this novel task is robust in distinguishing populations of biology experts and biology novices and may be an adaptable tool for tracking emerging biology conceptual expertise.

  17. Perception-action coupling and expertise in interceptive actions.

    PubMed

    Le Runigo, Cyrille; Benguigui, Nicolas; Bardy, Benoit G

    2005-06-01

    The goal of this experiment was to show that expertise in interceptive actions can be explained by a shorter delay in movement regulation. In this contribution, we tested tennis experts and non-experts using a simulated interceptive task. The experimental device simulated linear motion of an object toward a target on a horizontal runway. Participants had to intercept the simulated moving object with their right hand holding a cart that could slide along a horizontal track perpendicular to the runway. Three different velocity conditions were used: a constant velocity condition that maintained the initial velocity (2m/s) constant until arriving on the target; the decelerated and accelerated velocity conditions, in which the velocity suddenly changed (400 ms before its arrival on the target) from 2 to 1m/s or 3m/s, respectively. Timing accuracy and movement correction after the unexpected velocity change were analysed. The experts were more accurate in the decelerative case (-29 and -124 ms respectively), in the accelerative case (69 and 116 ms respectively), but not in the constant velocity case (2 and 13 ms respectively). Findings can be explained by the shorter visuo-motor delay (VMD: the time required to adapt the movement to the new velocity) for the experts (162 ms) than for the non-experts (221 ms). This shorter VMD offers more time to adapt the interceptive movement to the new velocity. These results can be interpreted as an optimization of the perception-action coupling with expertise.

  18. Climate Change: Could It Help Develop "Adaptive Expertise"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Erica; Horton, Graeme; Blashki, Grant; Seidel, Bastian M.

    2012-01-01

    Preparing health practitioners to respond to the rising burden of disease from climate change is emerging as a priority in health workforce policy and planning. However, this issue is hardly represented in the medical education research. The rapidly evolving wide range of direct and indirect consequences of climate change will require health…

  19. Using Highlighting to Train Attentional Expertise

    PubMed Central

    Roads, Brett; Mozer, Michael C.; Busey, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Acquiring expertise in complex visual tasks is time consuming. To facilitate the efficient training of novices on where to look in these tasks, we propose an attentional highlighting paradigm. Highlighting involves dynamically modulating the saliency of a visual image to guide attention along the fixation path of a domain expert who had previously viewed the same image. In Experiment 1, we trained naive subjects via attentional highlighting on a fingerprint-matching task. Before and after training, we asked subjects to freely inspect images containing pairs of prints and determine whether the prints matched. Fixation sequences were automatically scored for the degree of expertise exhibited using a Bayesian discriminative model of novice and expert gaze behavior. Highlighted training causes gaze behavior to become more expert-like not only on the trained images but also on transfer images, indicating generalization of learning. In Experiment 2, to control for the possibility that the increase in expertise is due to mere exposure, we trained subjects via highlighting of fixation sequences from novices, not experts, and observed no transition toward expertise. In Experiment 3, to determine the specificity of the training effect, we trained subjects with expert fixation sequences from images other than the one being viewed, which preserves coarse-scale statistics of expert gaze but provides no information about fine-grain features. Observing at least a partial transition toward expertise, we obtain only weak evidence that the highlighting procedure facilitates the learning of critical local features. We discuss possible improvements to the highlighting procedure. PMID:26744839

  20. Using Highlighting to Train Attentional Expertise.

    PubMed

    Roads, Brett; Mozer, Michael C; Busey, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    Acquiring expertise in complex visual tasks is time consuming. To facilitate the efficient training of novices on where to look in these tasks, we propose an attentional highlighting paradigm. Highlighting involves dynamically modulating the saliency of a visual image to guide attention along the fixation path of a domain expert who had previously viewed the same image. In Experiment 1, we trained naive subjects via attentional highlighting on a fingerprint-matching task. Before and after training, we asked subjects to freely inspect images containing pairs of prints and determine whether the prints matched. Fixation sequences were automatically scored for the degree of expertise exhibited using a Bayesian discriminative model of novice and expert gaze behavior. Highlighted training causes gaze behavior to become more expert-like not only on the trained images but also on transfer images, indicating generalization of learning. In Experiment 2, to control for the possibility that the increase in expertise is due to mere exposure, we trained subjects via highlighting of fixation sequences from novices, not experts, and observed no transition toward expertise. In Experiment 3, to determine the specificity of the training effect, we trained subjects with expert fixation sequences from images other than the one being viewed, which preserves coarse-scale statistics of expert gaze but provides no information about fine-grain features. Observing at least a partial transition toward expertise, we obtain only weak evidence that the highlighting procedure facilitates the learning of critical local features. We discuss possible improvements to the highlighting procedure.

  1. Expertise Increases the Functional Overlap between Face and Object Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeeff, Thomas J.; McGugin, Rankin W.; Tong, Frank; Gauthier, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that expertise with objects can interfere with face processing. Although competition occurs between faces and objects of expertise, it remains unclear whether this reflects an expertise-specific bottleneck or the fact that objects of expertise grab attention and thereby consume more central resources. We investigated the…

  2. Medical expertise, existential suffering and ending life.

    PubMed

    Varelius, Jukka

    2014-02-01

    In this article, I assess the position that voluntary euthanasia (VE) and physician-assisted suicide (PAS) ought not to be accepted in the cases of persons who suffer existentially but who have no medical condition, because existential questions do not fall within the domain of physicians' professional expertise. I maintain that VE and PAS based on suffering arising from medical conditions involves existential issues relevantly similar to those confronted in connection with existential suffering. On that basis I conclude that if VE and PAS based on suffering arising from medical conditions is taken to fall within the domain of medical expertise, it is not consistent to use the view that physicians' professional expertise does not extend to existential questions as a reason for denying requests for VE and PAS from persons who suffer existentially but have no medical condition.

  3. On the development of expertise in interpreting medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupinsky, Elizabeth A.

    2012-03-01

    Medical images represent a core portion of the information clinicians utilize to render diagnostic and treatment decisions. Fundamentally, viewing a medical image involves two basic processes - visually inspecting the image (visual perception) and rendering an interpretation (cognition). The interpretation is often followed by a recommendation. The likelihood of error in the interpretation of medical images is unfortunately not negligible. Errors occur and patients' lives are impacted. Thus we need to understand how clinicians interact with the information in an image during the interpretation process. We also need to understand how clinicians develop expertise throughout their careers and why some people are better at interpreting medical images than others. If we can better understand how expertise develops, perhaps we can develop better training programs, incorporate more effective ways of teaching image interpretation into the medical school and residency curriculums, and create new tools that would enhance and perhaps speed up the learning process. With improved understanding we can also develop ways to further improve decision-making in general and at every level of the medical imaging profession, thus improving patient care. The science of medical image perception is dedicated to understanding and improving the clinical interpretation process.

  4. Teaching about Teaching Science: Aims, Strategies, and Backgrounds of Science Teacher Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Amanda; Van Driel, Jan H.

    2013-01-01

    Despite pressing concerns about the need to prepare high-quality teachers and the central role of teacher educators (TEs) in this process, little is known about how TEs teach about teaching specific subject matter, and how they develop their expertise. This empirical study focuses on the specific expertise that science TEs bring into teacher…

  5. Orchestrating Expertise in Reading and Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hibbert, Kathryn M.; Scheffel, Tara-Lynn; Rich, Sharon; Heydon, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    With increased attention focused on the economic cache afforded through literacy and numeracy skills, governments around the world have turned their attention to developing the expertise of their teachers. Improving teachers' levels of competency leads to improvement in student achievement. In this qualitative case study, we focus on the…

  6. Developing expectations regarding the boundaries of expertise.

    PubMed

    Landrum, Asheley R; Mills, Candice M

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments examined elementary school-aged children's and adults' expectations regarding what specialists (i.e., those with narrow domains of expertise) and generalists (i.e., those with broad domains of expertise) are likely to know. Experiment 1 demonstrated developmental differences in the ability to differentiate between generalists and specialists, with younger children believing generalists have more specific trivia knowledge than older children and adults believed. Experiment 2 demonstrated that children and adults expected generalists to have more underlying principles knowledge than specific trivia knowledge about unfamiliar animals. However, they believed that generalists would have more of both types of knowledge than themselves. Finally, Experiment 3 demonstrated that children and adults recognized that underlying principles knowledge can be generalized between topics closely related to the specialists' domains of expertise. However, they did not recognize when this knowledge was generalizable to topics slightly less related, expecting generalists to know only as much as they would. Importantly, this work contributes to the literature by showing how much of and what kinds of knowledge different types of experts are expected to have. In sum, this work provides insight into some of the ways children's notions of expertise change over development. The current research demonstrates that between the ages of 5 and 10, children are developing the ability to recognize how experts' knowledge is likely to be limited. That said, even older children at times struggle to determine the breadth of an experts' knowledge.

  7. Critical Dispositions: Evidence and Expertise in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitriadis, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Set against the current proliferation of global "difference" and economic realignment, "Critical Dispositions" explores the notions of "evidence" and "expertise" in times of material scarcity. Both have come to the forefront of national and international debate in education as "evidence" and "evidence-based" research and pedagogical practices…

  8. Expertise Makes Psychology in the Schools Indispensable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naglieri, Jack A.

    To be indispensable, any professional who works within the school environment must have expertise that others do not have. In the case of psychologists in schools, they must be able to uncover, use, and communicate essential and necessary information about students which facilitates academic and personal growth either directly or indirectly and…

  9. Psychological Factors Associated with Paranursing Expertise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brammer, Robert; Haller, Katherine

    The psychological factors associated with paranursing expertise were examined in a study of 135 certified nursing assistants (CNAs) at a geriatric nursing facility in Amarillo, Texas. Data were collected through a project-developed screening tool called the Geriatric Employee Screening Tool (GEST), which is a true-false instrument patterned after…

  10. Universities and the Public Recognition of Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnoldi, Jakob

    2007-01-01

    This article argues that new sites of knowledge production, increasingly cultivated by the mass media, are threatening the role of academics and universities as traditional sources of expertise. Drawing upon the conceptual categories of Pierre Bourdieu, the article suggests an alternative way of understanding this "crisis of legitimacy."

  11. Distributed and Relative Nature of Professional Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillay, Hitendra; McCrindle, Andrea R.

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory study investigates the distributed nature and complexity of professional expertise by examining the patterns of cognitive processes in novices and experts who are using ultrasound technology to make diagnoses. The study aims to identify and provide an explanation for such patterns in light of the recent debate on the locus of…

  12. Educational Expertise, Advocacy, and Media Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malin, Joel R.; Lubienski, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The efforts of many advocacy organizations to advance their preferred policies despite conflicting evidence of the effectiveness of these policies raise questions about factors that shape successful policy promotion. While many may like to think that expertise on an issue in question is an essential prerequisite for influence in public policy…

  13. Measuring the Expertise of Paediatric Rehabilitation Therapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Gillian; Bartlett, Doreen J.; Currie, Melissa; Gilpin, Michelle; Baxter, Donna; Willoughby, Colleen; Tucker, Mary Ann; Strachan, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the development of a classification system to measure the expertise levels of practicing paediatric rehabilitation therapists. Seventy-five therapists from five disciplines (physical, occupational, speech-language, behaviour, and recreational therapy) were involved, along with 170 peers, and 188 parents of children with…

  14. It's Not Magic! Research on Developing Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peskin, Joan

    2011-01-01

    In the past two decades, a large body of research has examined the differences between novices and experts in subject areas ranging from physics to poetry. Yet research on developing expertise has found no "magic bullet" in becoming an expert and has concluded that innate talent plays a less prominent role than previously imagined.…

  15. Learning and Development Expertise: An Australian Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Steven; Harvey, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Learning and development (L&D) practitioners draw on a distinctive range of knowledge, skills and techniques in their work. Over the years, there have been attempts to capture this range and identify typical L&D roles. The research presented here was undertaken to identify characteristic areas of expertise (AOEs) of L&D practice in…

  16. The impact of expertise in olfaction

    PubMed Central

    Royet, Jean-Pierre; Plailly, Jane; Saive, Anne-Lise; Veyrac, Alexandra; Delon-Martin, Chantal

    2013-01-01

    Olfactory expertise remains poorly understood, most likely because experts in odor, such as perfumers, sommeliers, and oenologists, are much rarer than experts in other modalities, such as musicians or sportsmen. In this review, we address the specificities of odor expertise in both odor experts and in a priori untrained individuals who have undergone specific olfactory training in the frame of an experiment, such as repeated exposure to odors or associative learning. Until the 21st century, only the behavioral effects of olfactory training of untrained control individuals had been reported, revealing an improvement of olfactory performance in terms of sensitivity, discrimination, memory, and identification. Behavioral studies of odor experts have been scarce, with inconsistent or inconclusive results. Recently, the development of cerebral imaging techniques has enabled the identification of brain areas and neural networks involved in odor processing, revealing functional and structural modifications as a function of experience. The behavioral approach to odor expertise has also evolved. Researchers have particularly focused on odor mental imagery, which is characteristic of odor experts, because this ability is absent in the average person but is part of a perfumer’s professional practice. This review summarizes behavioral, functional, and structural findings on odor expertise. These data are compared with those obtained using animals subjected to prolonged olfactory exposure or to olfactory-enriched environments and are discussed in the context of functional and structural plasticity. PMID:24379793

  17. Children Monitor Individuals' Expertise for Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobel, David M.; Corriveau, Kathleen H.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments examined preschoolers' ability to learn novel words using others' expertise about objects' nonobvious properties. In Experiment 1, 4-year-olds (n = 24) endorsed individuals' labels for objects based on their differing causal knowledge about those objects. Experiment 2 examined the robustness of this inference and its development.…

  18. [Psychiatric and psychological problems of the court expertise in military crimes].

    PubMed

    Florkowski, Antoni; Szubert, Sławomir; Bobińska, Kinga; Zboralski, Krzysztof; Gałecki, Piotr

    2008-01-01

    The responsibility for committing the military crime by an active service soldier is not always depending on the level of the accountability by the offender. The basis of the psychiatric and psychological court expertise in giving an opinion on military crimes have to be the motivation process. It is known that the motivation is creating by individualistic, biological and situational factors. Among soldiers the situational factors are connected with the decompensation of the personal accountability or with the adaptive disorders. Therefore, it is necessery and obligatory to appoint the psychologist for making court expertise.

  19. Adaptation and Fallibility in Experts' Judgments of Novice Performers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Jeffrey S.; Billeter, Darron M.

    2017-01-01

    Competition judges are often selected for their expertise, under the belief that a high level of performance expertise should enable accurate judgments of the competitors. Contrary to this assumption, we find evidence that expertise can reduce judgment accuracy. Adaptation level theory proposes that discriminatory capacity decreases with greater…

  20. Effects of expertise on football betting

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Football (soccer) is one of the most popular sports in the world, including Europe. It is associated with important betting activities. A common belief, widely spread among those who participate in gambling activities, is that knowledge and expertise on football lead to better prediction skills for match outcomes. If unfounded, however, this belief should be considered as a form of “illusion of control.” The aim of this study was to examine whether football experts are better than nonexperts at predicting football match scores. Methods Two hundred and fifty-eight persons took part in the study: 21.3% as football experts, 54.3% as laypersons (non-initiated to football), and 24.4% as football amateurs. They predicted the scores of the first 10 matches of the 2008 UEFA European Football Championship. Logistic regressions were carried out to assess the link between the accuracy of the forecasted scores and the expertise of the participants (expert, amateur, layperson), controlling for age and gender. Results The variables assessed did not predict the accuracy of scoring prognosis (R2 ranged from 1% to 6%). Conclusions Expertise, age, and gender did not appear to have an impact on the accuracy of the football match prognoses. Therefore, the belief that football expertise improves betting skills is no more than a cognitive distortion called the “illusion of control.” Gamblers may benefit from psychological interventions that target the illusion of control related to their believed links between betting skills and football expertise. Public health policies may need to consider the phenomenon in order to prevent problem gambling related to football betting. PMID:22578101

  1. Procedural Adaptations for Use of Constant Time Delay to Teach Highly Motivating Words to Beginning Braille Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivy, Sarah E.; Guerra, Jennifer A.; Hatton, Deborah D.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Constant time delay is an evidence-based practice to teach sight word recognition to students with a variety of disabilities. To date, two studies have documented its effectiveness for teaching braille. Methods: Using a multiple-baseline design, we evaluated the effectiveness of constant time delay to teach highly motivating words to…

  2. Disciplinary Expertise Revisited: The Scholarship of Teaching and Learning Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riordan, Tim

    2008-01-01

    How should students be able to think and what should they be able to do as a result of studying philosophy? What will most readily engage students in the practice of the discipline? And how do we determine the learning strengths and needs of students in order to assist them in the practice of the discipline? These are the questions taken up in…

  3. In Respect to the Cognitive Load Theory: Adjusting Instructional Guidance with Student Expertise.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Jim

    2017-01-01

    The amount of guidance supplied by educators to students in allied health programs is a factor in student learning. According to the cognitive load theory of learning, without adequate instructional support, novice learners will be overwhelmed and unable to store information, while unnecessary guidance supplied to advanced students will cause extraneous cognitive load on the working memory system. Adjusting instructional guidance for students according to their level of expertise to minimize extraneous cognitive load and optimize working memory storage capacity will enhance learning effectiveness. Novice students presented with complex subject matter require significant guidance during the initial stages, using strategies such as worked examples. As students comprehend information, instructional guidance needs to gradually fade to avoid elevated extraneous cognitive load from the expertise reversal effect. An instructional strategy that utilizes a systemic (fixed) or adjustable (adaptive) tapering of guidance to students in allied health programs depending on their expertise will optimize learning capability.

  4. Rethinking global health research: towards integrative expertise

    PubMed Central

    MacLachlan, Malcolm

    2009-01-01

    The Bamako Call for Action on Research for Health stresses the importance of inter-disciplinary, inter-ministerial and inter-sectoral working. This challenges much of our current research and postgraduate research training in health, which mostly seeks to produce narrowly focused content specialists. We now need to compliment this type of research and research training, by offering alternative pathways that seek to create expertise, not only in specific narrow content areas, but also in the process and context of research, as well as in the interaction of these different facets of knowledge. Such an approach, developing 'integrative expertise', could greatly facilitate better research utilisation, helping policy makers and practitioners work through more evidence-based practice and across traditional research boundaries. PMID:19643021

  5. Human Expertise Helps Computer Classify Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rorvig, Mark E.

    1991-01-01

    Two-domain method of computational classification of images requires less computation than other methods for computational recognition, matching, or classification of images or patterns. Does not require explicit computational matching of features, and incorporates human expertise without requiring translation of mental processes of classification into language comprehensible to computer. Conceived to "train" computer to analyze photomicrographs of microscope-slide specimens of leucocytes from human peripheral blood to distinguish between specimens from healthy and specimens from traumatized patients.

  6. Portuguese Language Expertise Center for the OAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doran, Rosa; Canas, Lina; Anjos, Sara; Heenatigala, Thilina; Retrê, João; Afonso, José; Alves, Ana

    2016-10-01

    Supporting the use of astronomy as a tool for development in specific regions and languages, the International Astronomical Union's (IAU) Office of Astronomy for Development (OAD) has established a Portuguese `Language Expertise Centre for the OAD' (PLOAD), hosted at Núcleo Interactivo de Astronomia (NUCLIO), in collaboration with the Institute of Astrophysics and Space Sciences (IA) in Portugal. The centre is one of the new coordinating offices announced at the IAU General Assembly in Honolulu, Hawaii on 13 August 2015.

  7. Expertise transfer for expert system design

    SciTech Connect

    Boose, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    This book is about the Expertise Transfer System-a computer program which interviews experts and helps them build expert systems, i.e. computer programs that use knowledge from experts to make decisions and judgements under conditions of uncertainty. The techniques are useful to anyone who uses decision-making information based on the expertise of others. The methods can also be applied to personal decision-making. The interviewing methodology is borrowed from a branch of psychology called Personal Construct Theory. It is not necessary to use a computer to take advantage of the techniques from Personal Construction Theory; the fundamental procedures used by the Expertise Transfer System can be performed using paper and pencil. It is not necessary that the reader understand very much about computers to understand the ideas in this book. The few relevant concepts from computer science and expert systems that are needed are explained in a straightforward manner. Ideas from Personal Construct Psychology are also introduced as needed.

  8. Seeing Fluid Physics via Visual Expertise Training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertzberg, Jean; Goodman, Katherine; Curran, Tim

    2016-11-01

    In a course on Flow Visualization, students often expressed that their perception of fluid flows had increased, implying the acquisition of a type of visual expertise, akin to that of radiologists or dog show judges. In the first steps towards measuring this expertise, we emulated an experimental design from psychology. The study had two groups of participants: "novices" with no formal fluids education, and "experts" who had passed as least one fluid mechanics course. All participants were trained to place static images of fluid flows into two categories (laminar and turbulent). Half the participants were trained on flow images with a specific format (Von Kármán vortex streets), and the other half on a broader group. Novices' results were in line with past perceptual expertise studies, showing that it is easier to transfer learning from a broad category to a new specific format than vice versa. In contrast, experts did not have a significant difference between training conditions, suggesting the experts did not undergo the same learning process as the novices. We theorize that expert subjects were able to access their conceptual knowledge about fluids to perform this new, visual task. This finding supports new ways of understanding conceptual learning.

  9. Guiding the Design of Lessons by Using the MAPLET Framework: Matching Aims, Processes, Learner Expertise and Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ifenthaler, Dirk; Gosper, Maree

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the MAPLET framework that was developed to map and link teaching aims, learning processes, learner expertise and technologies. An experimental study with 65 participants is reported to test the effectiveness of the framework as a guide to the design of lessons embedded within larger units of study. The findings indicate the…

  10. Expertise in Clinical Pathology: Combining the Visual and Cognitive Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaarsma, Thomas; Jarodzka, Halszka; Nap, Marius; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J. G.; Boshuizen, Henny P. A.

    2015-01-01

    Expertise studies in the medical domain often focus on either visual or cognitive aspects of expertise. As a result, characteristics of expert behaviour are often described as either cognitive or visual abilities. This study focuses on both aspects of expertise and analyses them along three overarching constructs: (1) encapsulations, (2)…

  11. Measuring the Learning-Centered Leadership Expertise of School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldring, Ellen; Huff, Jason; Spillane, James P.; Barnes, Carol

    2009-01-01

    We as a field believe that school principals can acquire new expertise by participating in principal preparation and professional development programs; however, we have few methodologies to measure leadership expertise, especially expertise that links leadership to improved student learning. In this article, we present the results of a study that…

  12. Interactive Expertise: Studies in Distributed Working Intelligence. Research Bulletin 83.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engestrom, Yrjo

    The four studies presented show how expertise, from the cultural-historical theory of activity, is constructed interactively in everyday problem situations. They also demonstrate that purely situational analyses of discourse are insufficient as attempts to explain expertise. The four studies are presented as individual chapters: (1) Expertise as…

  13. Urology at the European university: adaptations to the Bologna Plan. The model of the Autonomous University of Madrid.

    PubMed

    Vela-Navarrete, R; Carballido, J; Gonzalez-Enguita, C; Olivier Gómez, C; Rodríguez de Betancourt, F

    2015-09-01

    The fundamental objective of the Convergence Plan of Bologna is to normalize, harmonize and standardize the teaching of medicine in European medical schools by implementing a similar curriculum. This objective assumes the presence of Urology as a university discipline in all European medical schools. At the same time, the teaching techniques and subject distributions have been modified, emphasizing practical teaching and active participation of the student in the acquisition of expertise and skills. This approach enhances the curricular presence of Urology and requires increased dedication from the teaching staff. These staff members, with limited face-to-face and classroom time, must inform and educate medical students on the broad healthcare commitment of urology as a surgical/medical specialty. The adaptation of the numerous European medical schools to the Bologna Plan raises a number of problems that can be easily overcome, as can be seen in the plan designed by the Faculty of Medicine at the Universidad Autonoma de Madrid.

  14. West Nile Virus: Using Adapted Primary Literature in Mathematical Biology to Teach Scientific and Mathematical Reasoning in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Stephen P.; Macnab, John S.; Wonham, Marjorie; de Vries, Gerda

    2009-01-01

    This paper promotes the use of adapted primary literature as a curriculum and instruction innovation for use in high school. Adapted primary literature is useful for promoting an understanding of scientific and mathematical reasoning and argument and for introducing modern science into the schools. We describe a prototype adapted from a published…

  15. Loss of clinical nursing expertise: a discussion paper.

    PubMed

    Cioffi, Jane Marie

    2012-10-01

    There is evidence to suggest that there is a general decline in clinical expertise in nursing as a result of experienced clinicians leaving the profession. The expertise of clinical nursing practice is an important resource and needs to be captured and made available to others as loss of this knowledge and expertise has implications for clinical outcomes. This paper aims to discuss the current nursing workforce, loss of clinical expertise, the nature of expertise and the way it can be captured. Clarification and articulation of clinical knowledge of nursing experts provides the means for knowledge to be transferred to a less experienced workforce and be available in an accessible form in the workplace. Leverage of nursing expertise in this manner has the potential to benefit less experienced staff, hold clinical nursing expertise in the workplace and improve clinical outcomes and satisfaction with performance.

  16. National Nuclear Forensics Expertise Development Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kentis, Samantha E.; Ulicny, William D.

    2009-08-01

    Over the course of the 2009 Federal Fiscal Year the United States (U.S.) Department of Homeland Security (DHS), in partnership with the Departments of Defense (DoD) and Energy (DOE), is continuing existing programs and introducing new programs designed to maintain a highly qualified, enduring workforce capable of performing the technical nuclear forensics mission. These student and university programs are designed to recruit the best and brightest students, develop university faculty and research capabilities, and engage the national laboratories in fields of study with application in nuclear forensics. This comprehensive effort constitutes the National Nuclear Forensics Expertise Development Program.

  17. Teaching Strategies To Facilitate Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Cathleen; And Others

    Teaching is a complex act requiring expertise relative to content, students, and the myriad of alternatives available to bring the two together in meaningful ways. This monograph is designed to assist teachers in examining and altering their own teaching practices and in transforming the classroom from a place of "dull sameness" to an…

  18. Effectiveness of a Video-Feedback and Questioning Programme to Develop Cognitive Expertise in Sport

    PubMed Central

    García-González, Luis; Moreno, M. Perla; Moreno, Alberto; Gil, Alexander; del Villar, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    The importance within sport expertise of cognitive factors has been emphasised in many research studies. Adaptations that take place in athletes’ long-term memories are going to condition their decision-making and performance, and training programmes must be developed that improve these adaptations. In our study, we provide a tactical-cognitive training programme based on video-feedback and questioning in order to improve tactical knowledge in tennis players and verify its effect when transferred to athletes’ decision-making. 11 intermediate tennis players participated in this study (12.9±0.7 years old), distributed into two groups (experimental, n = 5; control, n = 6). Tactical knowledge was measured by problem representation and strategy planning with a verbal protocol. Decision-making was measured by a systematic observation instrument. Results confirm the effectiveness of a combination of video-feedback and questioning on cognitive expertise, developing adaptations in long-term memory that produce an improvement in the quality of tactical knowledge (content, sophistication and structure). This, in turn, is transferred to the athletes’ decision-making capacity, leading to a higher percentage of successful decisions made during game play. Finally, we emphasise the need to develop effective programmes to develop cognitive expertise and improve athletes' performance, and include it in athletes’ formative stages. PMID:24340012

  19. Effectiveness of a video-feedback and questioning programme to develop cognitive expertise in sport.

    PubMed

    García-González, Luis; Moreno, M Perla; Moreno, Alberto; Gil, Alexander; del Villar, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    The importance within sport expertise of cognitive factors has been emphasised in many research studies. Adaptations that take place in athletes' long-term memories are going to condition their decision-making and performance, and training programmes must be developed that improve these adaptations. In our study, we provide a tactical-cognitive training programme based on video-feedback and questioning in order to improve tactical knowledge in tennis players and verify its effect when transferred to athletes' decision-making. 11 intermediate tennis players participated in this study (12.9 ± 0.7 years old), distributed into two groups (experimental, n = 5; control, n = 6). Tactical knowledge was measured by problem representation and strategy planning with a verbal protocol. Decision-making was measured by a systematic observation instrument. Results confirm the effectiveness of a combination of video-feedback and questioning on cognitive expertise, developing adaptations in long-term memory that produce an improvement in the quality of tactical knowledge (content, sophistication and structure). This, in turn, is transferred to the athletes' decision-making capacity, leading to a higher percentage of successful decisions made during game play. Finally, we emphasise the need to develop effective programmes to develop cognitive expertise and improve athletes' performance, and include it in athletes' formative stages.

  20. What is special about expertise? Visual expertise reveals the interactive nature of real-world object recognition.

    PubMed

    Harel, Assaf

    2016-03-01

    Ever since Diamond and Carey (1986. J. Exp. Psychol.: Gen., vol. 115, pp. 107-117) seminal work, the main model for studying expertise in visual object recognition ("visual expertise") has been face perception. The underlying assumption was that since faces may be considered the ultimate domain of visual expertise, any face-processing signature might actually be a general characteristic of visual expertise. However, while humans are clearly experts in face recognition, visual expertise is not restricted to faces and can be observed in a variety of domains. This raises the question of whether face recognition is in fact the right model to study visual expertise, and if not, what are the common cognitive and neural characteristics of visual expertise. The current perspective article addresses this question by revisiting past and recent neuroimaging and behavioural works on visual expertise. The view of visual expertise that emerges from these works is that expertise is a unique phenomenon, with distinctive neural and cognitive characteristics. Specifically, visual expertise is a controlled, interactive process that develops from the reciprocal interactions between the visual system and multiple top-down factors, including semantic knowledge, top-down attentional control, and task relevance. These interactions enable the ability to flexibly access domain-specific information at multiple scales and levels guided by multiple recognition goals. Extensive visual experience with a given object category culminates in the recruitment of these multiple systems, and is reflected in widespread neural activity, extending well beyond visual cortex, to include higher-level cortical areas.

  1. Musical expertise and foreign speech perception.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Montes, Eduardo; Hernández-Pérez, Heivet; Chobert, Julie; Morgado-Rodríguez, Lisbet; Suárez-Murias, Carlos; Valdés-Sosa, Pedro A; Besson, Mireille

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to investigate the influence of musical expertise on the automatic perception of foreign syllables and harmonic sounds. Participants were Cuban students with high level of expertise in music or in visual arts and with the same level of general education and socio-economic background. We used a multi-feature Mismatch Negativity (MMN) design with sequences of either syllables in Mandarin Chinese or harmonic sounds, both comprising deviants in pitch contour, duration and Voice Onset Time (VOT) or equivalent that were either far from (Large deviants) or close to (Small deviants) the standard. For both Mandarin syllables and harmonic sounds, results were clear-cut in showing larger MMNs to pitch contour deviants in musicians than in visual artists. Results were less clear for duration and VOT deviants, possibly because of the specific characteristics of the stimuli. Results are interpreted as reflecting similar processing of pitch contour in speech and non-speech sounds. The implications of these results for understanding the influence of intense musical training from childhood to adulthood and of genetic predispositions for music on foreign language perception are discussed.

  2. Forensic handwriting examiners' expertise for signature comparison.

    PubMed

    Sita, Jodi; Found, Bryan; Rogers, Douglas K

    2002-09-01

    This paper reports on the performance of forensic document examiners (FDEs) in a signature comparison task that was designed to address the issue of expertise. The opinions of FDEs regarding 150 genuine and simulated questioned signatures were compared with a control group of non-examiners' opinions. On the question of expertise, results showed that FDEs were statistically better than the control group at accurately determining the genuineness or non-genuineness of questioned signatures. The FDE group made errors (by calling a genuine signature simulated or by calling a simulated signature genuine) in 3.4% of their opinions while 19.3% of the control group's opinions were erroneous. The FDE group gave significantly more inconclusive opinions than the control group. Analysis of FDEs' responses showed that more correct opinions were expressed regarding simulated signatures and more inconclusive opinions were made on genuine signatures. Further, when the complexity of a signature was taken into account, FDEs made more correct opinions on high complexity signatures than on signatures of lower complexity. There was a wide range of skill amongst FDEs and no significant relationship was found between the number of years FDEs had been practicing and their correct, inconclusive and error rates.

  3. Beyond Faces and Expertise: Facelike Holistic Processing of Nonface Objects in the Absence of Expertise.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mintao; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Bülthoff, Isabelle

    2016-02-01

    Holistic processing-the tendency to perceive objects as indecomposable wholes-has long been viewed as a process specific to faces or objects of expertise. Although current theories differ in what causes holistic processing, they share a fundamental constraint for its generalization: Nonface objects cannot elicit facelike holistic processing in the absence of expertise. Contrary to this prevailing view, here we show that line patterns with salient Gestalt information (i.e., connectedness, closure, and continuity between parts) can be processed as holistically as faces without any training. Moreover, weakening the saliency of Gestalt information in these patterns reduced holistic processing of them, which indicates that Gestalt information plays a crucial role in holistic processing. Therefore, holistic processing can be achieved not only via a top-down route based on expertise, but also via a bottom-up route relying merely on object-based information. The finding that facelike holistic processing can extend beyond the domains of faces and objects of expertise poses a challenge to current dominant theories.

  4. Adaptation and Evaluation of Online Self-learning Modules to Teach Critical Appraisal and Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing: An International Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Johanne; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Buteau, Rose-Anne; Azizah, Ginette Mbourou; Jetté, Sylvie; Lampron, Amélie; Simonyan, David; Asua, José; Reviriego, Eva

    2015-07-01

    Healthcare professionals need to update their knowledge and acquire skills to continually inform their practice based on scientific evidence. This study was designed to evaluate online self-learning modules on critical appraisal skills to promote the use of research in clinical practice among nurses from Quebec (Canada) and the Basque Country (Spain). The teaching material was developed in Quebec and adapted to the Basque Country as part of an international collaboration project. A prospective pre-post study was conducted with 36 nurses from Quebec and 47 from the Basque Country. Assessment comprised the administration of questionnaires before and after the course in order to explore the main intervention outcomes: knowledge acquisition and self-learning readiness. Satisfaction was also measured at the end of the course. Two of the three research hypotheses were confirmed: (1) participants significantly improved their overall knowledge score after the educational intervention; and (2) they were, in general, satisfied with the course, giving it a rating of seven out of 10. Participants also reported a greater readiness for self-directed learning after the course, but this result was not significant in Quebec. The study provides unique knowledge on the cultural adaptation of online self-learning modules for teaching nurses about critical appraisal skills and evidence-based practice.

  5. Developing technical expertise in emergency medicine--the role of simulation in procedural skill acquisition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ernest E; Quinones, Joshua; Fitch, Michael T; Dooley-Hash, Suzanne; Griswold-Theodorson, Sharon; Medzon, Ron; Korley, Frederick; Laack, Torrey; Robinett, Adam; Clay, Lamont

    2008-11-01

    Developing technical expertise in medical procedures is an integral component of emergency medicine (EM) practice and training. This article is the work of an expert panel composed of members from the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM) Interest Group, the SAEM Technology in Medical Education Committee, and opinions derived from the May 2008 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference, "The Science of Simulation in Healthcare." The writing group reviewed the simulation literature on procedures germane to EM training, virtual reality training, and instructional learning theory as it pertains to skill acquisition and procedural skills decay. The authors discuss the role of simulation in teaching technical expertise, identify training conditions that lead to effective learning, and provide recommendations for future foci of research.

  6. Developing an Instructional Material Using a Concept Cartoon Adapted to the 5E Model: A Sample of Teaching Erosion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birisci, Salih; Metin, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Using different instructional materials adapted within the constructivist learning theory will enhance students' conceptual understanding. From this point of view, an instructional instrument using a concept cartoon adapted with 5E model has developed and introduced in this study. The study has some deficiencies in investigating students'…

  7. Teaching Expatriate Adaptation While Dealing with Reality: The Impact of a Tragedy on the Study-Abroad Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Kenneth J.; Levine, Sally L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the relevance of the accepted U-shaped models of expatriate adaptation to students engaged in an international educational experience when they are faced with a tragedy. In this study-abroad course, an examination of the existing adaptation models and how they provide a set of expectations for the process of cultural adjustment…

  8. Expertise effects in cutaneous wind perception.

    PubMed

    Pluijms, Joost P; Cañal-Bruland, Rouwen; Bergmann Tiest, Wouter M; Mulder, Fabian A; Savelsbergh, Geert J P

    2015-08-01

    We examined whether expertise effects are present in cutaneous wind perception. To this end, we presented wind stimuli consisting of different wind directions and speeds in a wind simulator. The wind simulator generated wind stimuli from 16 directions and with three speeds by means of eight automotive wind fans. Participants were asked to judge cutaneously perceived wind directions and speeds without having access to any visual or auditory information. Expert sailors (n = 6), trained to make the most effective use of wind characteristics, were compared to less-skilled sailors (n = 6) and to a group of nonsailors (n = 6). The results indicated that expert sailors outperformed nonsailors in perceiving wind direction (i.e., smaller mean signed errors) when presented with low wind speeds. This suggests that expert sailors are more sensitive in picking up differences in wind direction, particularly when confronted with low wind speeds that demand higher sensitivity.

  9. On conveying and not conveying expertise.

    PubMed

    Rappert, Brian; Coopmans, Catelijne

    2015-08-01

    This article attends to the movement between disclosing and non-disclosing in accounts of expertise. While referencing discussions about tacit knowledge ('experts know more than they can say') and the politics of non-disclosure ('withholding can help as well as harm the credibility of experts'), in the main it considers how experts move between conveying and not conveying in order to make their proficiencies recognized and accessible to others. The article examines this movement through a form that partakes in it, thus drawing attention to conventions and tensions in how authors make themselves accountable, and their subject matter available, to audiences. It thereby proposes to explore the possibilities of careful, and generative, non-disclosure as part of expert writing practices.

  10. Expertise among professional magicians: an interview study

    PubMed Central

    Rissanen, Olli; Pitkänen, Petteri; Juvonen, Antti; Kuhn, Gustav; Hakkarainen, Kai

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to analyse interviews of highly regarded Finnish magicians. Social network analysis (N = 120) was used to identify Finland's most highly regarded magicians (N = 16). The selected participants' careers in professional magic and various aspects of their professional conduct were examined by relying on semi-structured interviews. The results revealed that cultivation of professional level competence in magic usually requires an extensive period of time compared with other domains of expertise. Magic is a unique performing art and it differs from other professions focusing on deceiving the audience. A distinctive feature of magical expertise is that the process takes place entirely through informal training supported by communities of magical practitioners. Three interrelated aspects of magical activity were distinguished: magic tricks, performance, and audience. Although magic tricks constitute a central aspect of magic activity, the participants did not talk about their tricks extensively; this is in accordance with the secretive nature of magic culture. The interviews revealed that a core aspect of the magicians' activity is performance in front of an audience that repeatedly validates competence cultivated through years of practice. The interviewees reported investing a great deal of effort in planning, orchestrating, and reflecting on their performances. Close interaction with the audience plays an important role in most interviewees' activity. Many participants put a great deal of effort in developing novel magic tricks. It is common to borrow magic effects from fellow magicians and develop novel methods of implementation. Because magic tricks or programs are not copyrighted, many interviewees considered “stealing” an unacceptable and unethical aspect of magical activity. The interviewees highlighted the importance of personality and charisma in the successful pursuit of magic activity. PMID:25566156

  11. Expertise among professional magicians: an interview study.

    PubMed

    Rissanen, Olli; Pitkänen, Petteri; Juvonen, Antti; Kuhn, Gustav; Hakkarainen, Kai

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to analyse interviews of highly regarded Finnish magicians. Social network analysis (N = 120) was used to identify Finland's most highly regarded magicians (N = 16). The selected participants' careers in professional magic and various aspects of their professional conduct were examined by relying on semi-structured interviews. The results revealed that cultivation of professional level competence in magic usually requires an extensive period of time compared with other domains of expertise. Magic is a unique performing art and it differs from other professions focusing on deceiving the audience. A distinctive feature of magical expertise is that the process takes place entirely through informal training supported by communities of magical practitioners. Three interrelated aspects of magical activity were distinguished: magic tricks, performance, and audience. Although magic tricks constitute a central aspect of magic activity, the participants did not talk about their tricks extensively; this is in accordance with the secretive nature of magic culture. The interviews revealed that a core aspect of the magicians' activity is performance in front of an audience that repeatedly validates competence cultivated through years of practice. The interviewees reported investing a great deal of effort in planning, orchestrating, and reflecting on their performances. Close interaction with the audience plays an important role in most interviewees' activity. Many participants put a great deal of effort in developing novel magic tricks. It is common to borrow magic effects from fellow magicians and develop novel methods of implementation. Because magic tricks or programs are not copyrighted, many interviewees considered "stealing" an unacceptable and unethical aspect of magical activity. The interviewees highlighted the importance of personality and charisma in the successful pursuit of magic activity.

  12. Quality Assurance: Adapting SERVQUAL to Measure the Perceived Quality of Pre-Service Teachers' Teaching Practice Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Henry; Koeberg, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a work in progress study which extends traditional quality assurance mechanisms through the application of the SERVQUAL instrument. It assesses the difference between pre-service teacher expectations and actual experience during a Teaching Practice period. Anecdotal evidence points to students being the recipients of poor…

  13. Computers in My Curriculum? 18 Lesson Plans for Teaching Computer Awareness without a Computer. Adaptable Grades 3-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Suzanne Powers; Jeffers, Marcia

    Eighteen interrelated, sequential lesson plans and supporting materials for teaching computer literacy at the elementary and secondary levels are presented. The activities, intended to be infused into the regular curriculum, do not require the use of a computer. The introduction presents background information on computer literacy, suggests a…

  14. Piagetian Study of Science Teaching: An Adaptation of SCIIS to Schools in San Ramon, Alajuela, Costa Rica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Maria del Carmen Hernandez; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary project from the University of Costa Rica conducted to contribute to the improvement of science teaching in primary schools by adopting the Science Curriculum Improvement Study. Changes included the use of woods, rocks, shells, and rain water in science class and integration of science with other subjects. Student…

  15. The temporal advantage for individuating objects of expertise: perceptual expertise is an early riser.

    PubMed

    Curby, Kim M; Gauthier, Isabel

    2009-06-10

    The identification of faces has a temporal advantage over that of other object categories. The orientation-specific nature of this advantage suggests that it stems from our extensive experience and resulting expertise with upright faces. While experts can identify objects faster than novices, it is unclear exactly how the temporal dynamics of identification are changed by expertise and whether the nature of this temporal advantage is similar for face and non-face objects of expertise. Here, we titrated encoding time using a backward-masking paradigm with variable stimulus-mask onset-asynchronies and mapped the resulting effect on recognition for upright and inverted faces (Experiment 1) and for cars among car experts and car novices (Experiment 2). Performance for upright faces and cars among car experts rose above chance between 33 and 70 ms before that for inverted faces or cars among car novices. A shifted exponential function fitted to these data suggested that performance started to rise earlier for experts than for novices, but that additional encoding time increased performance at a similar rate. Experience influences the availability of information early in processing, possibly through the recruitment of more category-selective neurons, while the rate of perceptual processing may be less flexible and limited by inherent physiological constraints.

  16. Harnessing Distributed Musical Expertise through Edublogging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chong, Eddy K. M.

    2008-01-01

    The pedagogical potential of edublogging--blogging used as an educational tool and strategy--in music teaching has been explored in two previous studies; a third exploration has now been conducted. Recognising the social and contextual dimensions of knowledge and of the learning process, I reflect on all three experiences from a distributed…

  17. Balanced Expertise Distribution in Remote Ultrasound Imaging Aboard The International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargsyan, Ashot; Dulchavsky, Scott; Hamilton, Douglas; Melton, Shannon; Martin, David

    2004-01-01

    Astronaut training for ISS operations usually ensures independent performance. With small crew size same crews also conduct all science work onboard. With diverse backgrounds, a good "match" between the existing and required skills can only be anecdotal. Furthermore, full proficiency in most of the complex tasks can be attained only through long training and practice, which may not be justified and may be impossible given the scarcity of training time. To enable a number of operational and science advancements, authors have developed a new approach to expertise distribution in time and among the space and ground personnel. Methods: As part of NASA Operational Ultrasound Project (1998-2003) and the NASA-solicited experiment "Advanced Diagnostic Ultrasound in Microgravity-ADUM" (P.I. -S.D., ongoing), the authors have created a "Balanced Expertise Distribution" approach to perform complex ultrasound imaging tasks on ISS for both operational and science use. The four components of expertise are a) any pre-existing pertinent expertise; b) limited preflight training c) adaptive onboard proficiency enhancement tools; d) real-time ' guidance from the ground. Throughout the pre-flight training and flight time preceding the experiments, the four components are shaped in a dynamic fashion to meet in an optimum combination during the experiment sessions. Results: Procedure validation sessions and feasibility studies have given encouraging results. While several successful real-time remote guidance sessions have been conducted on ISS, Expedition 8 is the first to use an "on-orbit proficiency enhancement" tool. Conclusions: In spite of severely limited training time, daring peer-reviewed research and operational enhancements are feasible through a balanced distribution of expertise in time, as well as among the crewmembers and ground personnel. This approach shows great promise for biomedical research, but may be applicable for other areas of micro gravity-based science

  18. GSS Technology as a Moderator of Influence and Perceived Expertise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-01

    equation modeling the study tested the relationships between expertise and participation rates, and overall group performance. An experiment was developed...results found in previous GSS research. The study developed a theoretical model of influence, perceived expertise, and performance. Using structural

  19. Expertise of Team Leaders in Analysing Team Conflicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rupprecht, Maria; Strasser, Josef; Gruber, Hans; Harteis, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Team leaders are expected to adequately analyse team conflicts. Both content and analytical depth of cognitive processes determine team leaders' performance and are assumed to differ with level of expertise. A study is reported in which team leaders at four different levels of expertise (novices, semi-experts, experts, mediators) were compared in…

  20. An Investigation of Development toward Instructional Design Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardre, Patricia L.; Ge, Xun; Thomas, Michael K.

    2006-01-01

    This research investigated expertise development among instructional designers by tracking novice designers' unfolding perceptions of instructional design (ID), design-related self-perceptions, and other individual differences. It examined development toward ID expertise from multiple aspects: processes, product, and cognition, through a case…

  1. Learning Stories from IT Workers--Development of Professional Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Tak S.

    2015-01-01

    In the knowledge economy, many companies are well aware of the vital need to maintain the professional expertise of their workers at a high level. Though there have been a lot of research studies in the areas of professional expertise and workplace learning, few examined the learning pathways novice workers went through to become experts in their…

  2. Leadership Development Expertise: A Mixed-Method Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okpala, Comfort O.; Hopson, Linda B.; Chapman, Bernadine; Fort, Edward

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the impact of graduate curriculum, experience, and standards in the development of leadership expertise were examined. The major goals of the study were to (1) examine the impact of college content curriculum in the development of leadership expertise, (2) examine the impact of on the job experience in the development of leadership…

  3. Knowledge Building Expertise: Nanomodellers' Education as an Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tala, Suvi

    2013-01-01

    The content of the expertise which young natural scientists try to gain by doing science in research groups is a relatively little-explored subject. What makes learning in such settings challenging is that a central part of the expertise is tacit. This study employs empirical methods together with a contextualized approach and interdisciplinary…

  4. The Expertise Reversal Effect: Cognitive Load and Motivational Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rey, Gunter Daniel; Buchwald, Florian

    2011-01-01

    The expertise reversal effect occurs when a learner's expertise moderates design principles such as the redundancy principle (i.e., redundant information should be excluded rather than included) derived from the cognitive load theory. Although this effect is supported by numerous experiments, indicating an overall large effect size, a variety of…

  5. An Investigation of Expertise: Implications for Adult Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandernach, Janice B.

    To examine the characteristics of expertise, a study at the University of Minnesota cardiac clinic compared differences in diagnostic ability and strategies between novices (fourth year medical students) and experts (specialists in pediatric cardiology). The investigator presented a model for expertise based on knowledge of subject matter content…

  6. Quality of Feedback Following Performance Assessments: Does Assessor Expertise Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Govaerts, Marjan J. B.; van de Wiel, Margje W. J.; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to investigate quality of feedback as offered by supervisor-assessors with varying levels of assessor expertise following assessment of performance in residency training in a health care setting. It furthermore investigates if and how different levels of assessor expertise influence feedback characteristics.…

  7. The Evidence Rejects the Expertise Hypothesis: Reply to Gauthier & Bukach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKone, Elinor; Robbins, Rachel

    2007-01-01

    In Robbins, R. & McKone, E. (2006). No face-like processing for object-of-expertise in three behavioural tasks. "Cognition" this issue, we showed face-like holistic/configural processing does not occur for objects-of-expertise on standard paradigms including inversion, part-whole, part-in-configurally-transformed-whole, and the standard composite…

  8. A Multimodal Neural Network Recruited by Expertise with Musical Notation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Yetta Kwailing; Gauthier, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Prior neuroimaging work on visual perceptual expertise has focused on changes in the visual system, ignoring possible effects of acquiring expert visual skills in nonvisual areas. We investigated expertise for reading musical notation, a skill likely to be associated with multimodal abilities. We compared brain activity in music-reading experts…

  9. Assessing Expertise in Introductory Physics Using Categorization Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Andrew; Singh, Chandralekha

    2011-01-01

    The ability to categorize problems based upon underlying principles, rather than surface features or contexts, is considered one of several proxy predictors of expertise in problem solving. With inspiration from the classic study by Chi, Feltovich, and Glaser, we assess the distribution of expertise among introductory physics students by asking…

  10. Context and Expertise: The Case of Electronic Troubleshooting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flesher, Jeffrey W.

    Electronic troubleshooting expertise was explored in the three contexts (design, production, and repair) that reflect distinct problem solving task environments. The purpose of the effort was to provide a more precise definition of the boundaries of expertise in electronics troubleshooting and the relationship of context to the development of…

  11. The Problem of Developing Professional Expertise of Vocational College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakirova, Venera G.; Gilmiyarova, Sophia G.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the paper is to study the problem of developing the professional expertise of vocational college students, future technicians of the road transport industry. The nature and content of the concept "the professional expertise of a technician of road transport industry" has been defined. This concept is considered as a set of…

  12. Change Blindness as a Means of Studying Expertise in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feil, Adam; Mestre, Jose P.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies examining expertise have used a wide range of methods. Beyond characterizing expert and novice behavior in different contexts and circumstances, many studies have examined the processes that comprise the behavior itself and, more recently, processes that comprise training and practice that develop expertise. Other studies, dating…

  13. The Teenage Expertise Network (TEN): An Online Ethnographic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Nicola F.; Humphry, Nicoli

    2012-01-01

    The take-up of digital technology by young people is a well-known phenomenon and has been subject to socio-cultural analysis in areas such as youth studies and cultural studies. The Teenage Expertise Network (TEN) research project investigates how teenagers develop technological expertise in techno-cultural contexts via the use of a purposefully…

  14. Becoming an Expert: Developing Expertise in an Applied Discipline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhlmann, Diane Orlich; Ardichvili, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the development of expertise in an applied discipline by addressing the research question: How is professional expertise developed in an applied profession? Design/methodology/approach: Using a grounded theory methodology (GTM), nine technical-tax experts, and three experienced, non-expert tax professionals were…

  15. Locomotor expertise predicts infants' perseverative errors.

    PubMed

    Berger, Sarah E

    2010-03-01

    This research examined the development of inhibition in a locomotor context. In a within-subjects design, infants received high- and low-demand locomotor A-not-B tasks. In Experiment 1, walking 13-month-old infants followed an indirect path to a goal. In a control condition, infants took a direct route. In Experiment 2, crawling and walking 13-month-old infants crawled through a tunnel to reach a goal at the other end and received the same control condition as in Experiment 1. In both experiments, perseverative errors occurred more often in the high-demand condition than in the low-demand condition. Moreover, in Experiment 2, walkers perseverated more than crawlers, and extent of perseveration was related to infants' locomotor experience. In Experiment 3, the authors addressed a possible confound in Experiment 2 between locomotor expertise and locomotor posture. Novice crawlers perseverated in the difficult tunnels condition, behaving more like novice walkers than expert crawlers. As predicted by a cognitive capacity account of infant perseveration, overtaxed attentional resources resulted in a cognition-action trade-off. Experts who found the task less motorically effortful than novices had more cognitive resources available for problem solving.

  16. Sherlock Holmes: an expert's view of expertise.

    PubMed

    André, Didierjean; Fernand, Gobet

    2008-02-01

    In recent years, there has been an intense research effort to understand the cognitive processes and structures underlying expert behaviour. Work in different fields, including scientific domains, sports, games and mnemonics, has shown that there are vast differences in perceptual abilities between experts and novices, and that these differences may underpin other cognitive differences in learning, memory and problem solving. In this article, we evaluate the progress made in the last years through the eyes of an outstanding, albeit fictional, expert: Sherlock Holmes. We first use the Sherlock Holmes character to illustrate expert processes as described by current research and theories. In particular, the role of perception, as well as the nature and influence of expert knowledge, are all present in the description of Conan Doyle's hero. In the second part of the article, we discuss a number of issues that current research on expertise has barely addressed. These gaps include, for example, several forms of reasoning, the influence of emotions on cognition, and the effect of age on experts' knowledge and cognitive processes. Thus, although nearly 120-year-old, Conan Doyle's books show remarkable illustrations of expert behaviour, including the coverage of themes that have mostly been overlooked by current research.

  17. Perceptual expertise in forensic facial image comparison

    PubMed Central

    White, David; Phillips, P. Jonathon; Hahn, Carina A.; Hill, Matthew; O'Toole, Alice J.

    2015-01-01

    Forensic facial identification examiners are required to match the identity of faces in images that vary substantially, owing to changes in viewing conditions and in a person's appearance. These identifications affect the course and outcome of criminal investigations and convictions. Despite calls for research on sources of human error in forensic examination, existing scientific knowledge of face matching accuracy is based, almost exclusively, on people without formal training. Here, we administered three challenging face matching tests to a group of forensic examiners with many years' experience of comparing face images for law enforcement and government agencies. Examiners outperformed untrained participants and computer algorithms, thereby providing the first evidence that these examiners are experts at this task. Notably, computationally fusing responses of multiple experts produced near-perfect performance. Results also revealed qualitative differences between expert and non-expert performance. First, examiners' superiority was greatest at longer exposure durations, suggestive of more entailed comparison in forensic examiners. Second, experts were less impaired by image inversion than non-expert students, contrasting with face memory studies that show larger face inversion effects in high performers. We conclude that expertise in matching identity across unfamiliar face images is supported by processes that differ qualitatively from those supporting memory for individual faces. PMID:26336174

  18. Perceptual expertise in forensic facial image comparison.

    PubMed

    White, David; Phillips, P Jonathon; Hahn, Carina A; Hill, Matthew; O'Toole, Alice J

    2015-09-07

    Forensic facial identification examiners are required to match the identity of faces in images that vary substantially, owing to changes in viewing conditions and in a person's appearance. These identifications affect the course and outcome of criminal investigations and convictions. Despite calls for research on sources of human error in forensic examination, existing scientific knowledge of face matching accuracy is based, almost exclusively, on people without formal training. Here, we administered three challenging face matching tests to a group of forensic examiners with many years' experience of comparing face images for law enforcement and government agencies. Examiners outperformed untrained participants and computer algorithms, thereby providing the first evidence that these examiners are experts at this task. Notably, computationally fusing responses of multiple experts produced near-perfect performance. Results also revealed qualitative differences between expert and non-expert performance. First, examiners' superiority was greatest at longer exposure durations, suggestive of more entailed comparison in forensic examiners. Second, experts were less impaired by image inversion than non-expert students, contrasting with face memory studies that show larger face inversion effects in high performers. We conclude that expertise in matching identity across unfamiliar face images is supported by processes that differ qualitatively from those supporting memory for individual faces.

  19. ITER Creation Safety File Expertise Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrault, D.

    2013-06-01

    In March 2010, the ITER operator delivered the facility safety file to the French "Autorité de Sûreté Nucléaire" (ASN) as part of its request for the creation decree, legally necessary before building works can begin on the site. The French "Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire" (IRSN), in support to the ASN, recently completed its expertise of the safety measures proposed for ITER, on the basis of this file and of additional technical documents from the operator. This paper presents the IRSN's main conclusions. In particular, they focus on the radioactive materials involved, the safety and radiation protection demonstration (suitability of risk management measures…), foreseeable accidents, building and safety important component design and, finally, wastes and effluents to be produced. This assessment was just the first legally-required step in on-going safety monitoring of the ITER project, which will include other complete regulatory re-evaluations.

  20. Integrating energy expertise into building design

    SciTech Connect

    Brambley, M.R.; Stratton, R.C. ); Bailey, M.L. . Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Building Technologies)

    1990-08-01

    Most commercial buildings designed to today will use more energy to operate, and cost more to design and construct than necessary. Significant energy savings cold be achieved with little or not increase in first cost if energy-efficient design technologies were used. Research into integration of building systems indicates that by considering energy performance early in the design process, energy savings between 30% and 50% of current energy consumption rates are technically and economically feasible. However, most building design teams do not adequately consider the energy impacts of design decisions to achieve these savings. The US Department of Energy has initiated a project, led by Pacific Northwest Laboratory, to develop advanced computer-based technologies that will help designers take advantage of these large potential energy savings. The objective of this work is to develop automated, intelligent, energy design assistance that can be integrated into computer aided design systems of the future. This paper examines the need for this technology by identifying the impediments to energy-efficient design, identifies essential and desirable features of such systems, presents the concept under development in this effort, illustrates how energy expertise might be incorporated into design, and discusses the importance of an integrated approach. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  1. Knowledge Building Expertise: Nanomodellers' Education as an Example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tala, Suvi

    2013-06-01

    The content of the expertise which young natural scientists try to gain by doing science in research groups is a relatively little-explored subject. What makes learning in such settings challenging is that a central part of the expertise is tacit. This study employs empirical methods together with a contextualized approach and interdisciplinary cooperation in order to reveal practicing nanomodellers' (N = 10) perspectives on their knowledge-building expertise, and on young scientists' expertise education. Modelling in the virtual world plays a major role in the science of these nanomodellers, as it increasingly does in many fields of science. This study therefore adds to our understanding of the nature of recent scientific knowledge building and expertise development, which can be used in the education of the scientists of the future.

  2. [Mechanisms of psychological adaptation of anesthesiologists-resuscitators to the stress-induced conditions of professional occupation and possibilities of their correction within a teaching process].

    PubMed

    Shchelkova, O Iu; Mazurok, V A

    2007-01-01

    High psychological tension results in the development of specific coping behavior. Ninety-six anesthesiologists, including 62 (64.6%) males and 34 (35.4%) females, were examined to reveal the mechanisms of psychological adaptation to stress-induced conditions of professional occupation. The respondents were ascertained to most frequently use cognitive, emotional, and behavioral constructive copings in settling stress situations. Nonadaptive copings most commonly contemplate a refusal to get over difficulties due to the lack of faith in power, to the underestimation of the importance of negative events, to passivity, isolation, etc., which is traditionally considered to be a manifestation of the emotional burnout syndrome in attendants. Psychological training within a teaching process may be regarded as a help to physicians in developing constructive coping strategies, training in self-diagnosis and self-help in the early manifestations of emotional burnout.

  3. Translation, Adaptation and Invariance Testing of the Teaching Perspectives Inventory: Comparing Faculty of Malaysia and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misieng, Jecky

    2013-01-01

    As a result of growing attention in cross-cultural research, existing measurement instruments developed in one language are being translated and adapted for use in other languages and cultural contexts. Producing invariant measurement instruments that assess educational and psychological constructs provide a way of testing the cross-cultural…

  4. Teaching Multiethnic Urban Adolescents How To Enhance Their Competencies: Effects of a Middle School Primary Prevention Program on Adaptation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayotte, Violaine; Saucier, Jean-Francois; Bowen, Francois; Laurendeau, Marie-Claire; Fournier, Michel; Blais, Jean-Guy

    2003-01-01

    Evaluates a program that promoted adaptation of students in their first year of secondary school. The program focused on developing healthy self-perceptions, and cognitive, affective and behavioral skills. Analyses revealed the predicted positive effects of the program on psychological and social outcomes. Findings underline the need to address…

  5. Prospective Adaptation in the Use of External Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Lee; Schwartz, Daniel L.

    2009-01-01

    An important element of adaptive expertise involves stepping away from a routine to retool one's knowledge or environment. The current study investigated two forms of this adaptive pattern: fault-driven adaptations, which are reactions to a difficulty, and prospective adaptations, which are proactive reformulations. Graduate and undergraduate…

  6. [The teaching of microbiology and parasitology in undergraduate medical education and its adaptation to the European Higher Education Area].

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Vicente Ausina; Otero, Beatriz Mirelis; Pastor, Guillem Prats

    2010-10-01

    The creation of the European Higher Education Area provides a series of opportunities for far-reaching reform of medical education and changes in the way both students and teachers work. The Bologna process must be implemented before 2010 in signatory countries, which include Spain, and must allow education and academic titles to be homologated. Medical degrees must consist of 360 European Credit Transfer System (ECTS) credits, divided into six academic years (60 credits per academic year). The Faculty of Medicine of the Autonomous University of Barcelona has already put the finishing touches to a proposal for the distribution of subjects in the new curriculum. This proposal strengthens and reassesses the teaching of microbiology and parasitology compared with current curricula, giving these subjects appropriate weight in undergraduate medical education. The teaching of medical microbiology and parasitology is included as a core subject worth 8 ECTS in the third year and two free-choice modules of 2.5 and 3 ECTS to be taken in the first semesters of the fifth and sixth years as part of the minor in "Clinical and Experimental Laboratory"(30 ECTS). The teaching of microbiology will also play an important role in the Integrated Learning in Medicine (INTEL-M) course in the third, fourth and fifth years. INTEL-M is an innovation in the syllabus based on the joint planning, organization and evaluation of a series of subjects (24.5 ECTS) that are developed in small groups of students and in the form of problem-based learning.

  7. Touch perception throughout working life: effects of age and expertise.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Eva-Maria; Voelcker-Rehage, Claudia; Vieluf, Solveig; Godde, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Fine motor skills including precise tactile and haptic perception are essential to the manipulation of objects. With increasing age, one's perception decreases; however, little is known about the state of touch perception in middle-aged adults. This study investigated the extent to which the decline in touch perception affects adults throughout their working life. In addition, the influence of work-related expertise on tactile and haptic perception was examined in an attempt to determine whether expertise, in the form of the frequent use of the fingers, affects perception and counters age-related losses. The study was conducted with subjects from three age groups (18-25, 34-46, and 54-65 years) with two levels of expertise. Expertise was classified by the subjects' occupations. Five sensory tasks of touch perception were conducted. The results confirmed age-related changes in tactile perception over the span of one's working life. Older workers were proven to have lower tactile performance than younger adults. However, middle-aged workers were hardly affected by the perception losses and did not differ significantly from younger adults. Work-related expertise was not proven to either affect tactile and haptic perception or counteract age-related declines. We conclude that the age-related decline gets steeper in the late working life and that specific work-related expertise does not lead to generally improved touch perception that would result in lower thresholds and improved performance in non-expertise specific tasks.

  8. Toward Adaptability: Where to from Here?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Seth A.; Vaughn, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the collection of articles in this issue are synthesized to discuss conceptualizations of adaptive teaching as a means to foster spaces for adaptive teaching in today's complex educational system. Themes that exist across this collection of articles include adaptive teachers as constructivists, adaptive teachers as knowledgeable…

  9. Motivating Teachers towards Expertise Development: A Mixed-Methods Study of the Relationships between School Culture, Internal Factors, and State of Flow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayeaux, Amanda Shuford

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this sequential mixed-methods research was to discover the impact school culture, internal factors, and the state of flow has upon motivating a teacher to develop teaching expertise. This research was designed to find answers concerning why and how individual teachers can nurture their existing internal factors to increase their…

  10. Fostering expertise in occupational health nursing: levels of skill development.

    PubMed

    Rees, P G; Hays, B J

    1996-02-01

    1. Levels of nursing expertise described by Benner--novice, advanced beginner, competent, proficient, and expert--hold potential for fostering improved practice among occupational health nurses. 2. Lacking a clear understanding of the full potential of the role of the occupational health nurse, employers may not reward the development of clinical expertise that incorporates employee advocacy within the context of written standards and guidelines. 3. Expertise in occupational health nursing can be fostered by job descriptions that incorporate a broader view of nursing (one that stresses judgment and advocacy), retention and longevity, innovative strategies for consultation and collegial interaction to foster mentoring, and distance learning strategies.

  11. Nurturing Sport Expertise: Factors Influencing the Development of Elite Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Joseph; Horton, Sean; Robertson-Wilson, Jennifer; Wall, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The development of expertise in sport is the result of successful interaction of biological, psychological, and sociological constraints. This review examines the training and environmental factors that influence the acquisition of sport expertise. Research examining the quality and quantity of training indicate that these two elements are crucial predictors of attainment. In addition, the possession of resources such as parental support and adequate coaching are essential. Social factors such as cultural influences and the relative age effect are also considered as determinants of sport expertise. Although it is evident that environmental factors are essential to the acquisition of high levels of sport development, further research is clearly required. PMID:24616603

  12. Professional Development to Support Online Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvitz, Brian S.; Beach, Andrea L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the details and examines the outcomes of a professional development program created for instructors who are beyond the novice stage as online instructors, but desire and require further support to develop their online teaching expertise to meet their students' learning needs and their own teaching goals. This program…

  13. National Standards for Quality Online Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North American Council for Online Learning, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The mission of the North American Council for Online Learning (NACOL) is to increase educational opportunities and enhance learning by providing collegial expertise and leadership in K-12 online teaching and learning. "National Standards for Quality Online Teaching" is designed to provide states, districts, online programs, and other organizations…

  14. The effects of age on visual expertise for print.

    PubMed

    Curzietti, Maxime; Bonnefond, Anne; Staub, Bérengère; Vidailhet, Pierre; Doignon-Camus, Nadège

    2017-03-16

    Progressive visual processing decline is a known factor in aging. The present study investigates the evolution of visual expertise for printed stimuli with aging. Fifty-five participants of increasing age (20-30, 40-50, 60-70, 75-85years old) were recruited. Behavioral and EEG data were collected during a lexical decision task, in which words and symbol strings were presented. Analyses of EEG data focused mainly on three major points: visual expertise for print, automatization of the expertise and differences in attentional demand between the processing of words and symbols. Results indicated a preservation of visual expertise with age, with larger N170 amplitude for words than for symbols. Moreover, a decrease in stimulus processing speed was observed as a function of age. No difference in attentional demand as a function of stimulus was observed.

  15. Technical Support Project for Cleaning Up Contaminated Sites - Expertise Directory

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This directory is searchable and provides a snapshot of the various types of expertise possessed by the current members of the three Technical Support Project forums. It is based on input provided by the members themselves.

  16. 7 CFR 205.504 - Evidence of expertise and ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Accreditation of Certifying Agents § 205.504 Evidence of... submit the following documents and information to demonstrate its expertise in organic production...

  17. 7 CFR 205.504 - Evidence of expertise and ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Accreditation of Certifying Agents § 205.504 Evidence of... submit the following documents and information to demonstrate its expertise in organic production...

  18. 7 CFR 205.504 - Evidence of expertise and ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Accreditation of Certifying Agents § 205.504 Evidence of... submit the following documents and information to demonstrate its expertise in organic production...

  19. 7 CFR 205.504 - Evidence of expertise and ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Accreditation of Certifying Agents § 205.504 Evidence of... submit the following documents and information to demonstrate its expertise in organic production...

  20. 7 CFR 205.504 - Evidence of expertise and ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Accreditation of Certifying Agents § 205.504 Evidence of... submit the following documents and information to demonstrate its expertise in organic production...

  1. Perceptual expertise improves category detection in natural scenes.

    PubMed

    Reeder, Reshanne R; Stein, Timo; Peelen, Marius V

    2016-02-01

    There is much debate about how detection, categorization, and within-category identification relate to one another during object recognition. Whether these tasks rely on partially shared perceptual mechanisms may be determined by testing whether training on one of these tasks facilitates performance on another. In the present study we asked whether expertise in discriminating objects improves the detection of these objects in naturalistic scenes. Self-proclaimed car experts (N = 34) performed a car discrimination task to establish their level of expertise, followed by a visual search task where they were asked to detect cars and people in hundreds of photographs of natural scenes. Results revealed that expertise in discriminating cars was strongly correlated with car detection accuracy. This effect was specific to objects of expertise, as there was no influence of car expertise on person detection. These results indicate a close link between object discrimination and object detection performance, which we interpret as reflecting partially shared perceptual mechanisms and neural representations underlying these tasks: the increased sensitivity of the visual system for objects of expertise - as a result of extensive discrimination training - may benefit both the discrimination and the detection of these objects. Alternative interpretations are also discussed.

  2. Practising What They Preach? An Investigation into the Pedagogical Beliefs and Online Teaching Practices of National Teaching Fellows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Tessa

    2015-01-01

    National Teaching Fellows (NTFs) in the UK are celebrated individuals who have made a successful claim for teaching excellence to the Higher Education Academy. This paper reports the results of an empirical study of NTFs with expertise in online learning, which measured their pedagogical beliefs and online teaching practices, using a…

  3. Adaptation and fallibility in experts' judgments of novice performers.

    PubMed

    Larson, Jeffrey S; Billeter, Darron M

    2017-02-01

    Competition judges are often selected for their expertise, under the belief that a high level of performance expertise should enable accurate judgments of the competitors. Contrary to this assumption, we find evidence that expertise can reduce judgment accuracy. Adaptation level theory proposes that discriminatory capacity decreases with greater distance from one's adaptation level. Because experts' learning has produced an adaptation level close to ideal performance standards, they may be less able to discriminate among lower-level competitors. As a result, expertise increases judgment accuracy of high-level competitions but decreases judgment accuracy of low-level competitions. Additionally, we demonstrate that, consistent with an adaptation level theory account of expert judgment, experts systematically give more critical ratings than intermediates or novices. In summary, this work demonstrates a systematic change in human perception that occurs as task learning increases. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. The value of practice: A critique of interactional expertise.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Rodrigo; Lima, Francisco P A

    2016-04-01

    Collins and Evans have proposed a 'normative theory of expertise' as a way to solve the 'problem of demarcation' in public debates involving technical matters. Their argument is that all citizens have the right to participate in the 'political' phases of such debates, while only three types of experts should have a voice in the 'technical' phases. In this article, Collins and Evans' typology of expertise--in particular, the idea of 'interactional expertise'--is the focus of a detailed empirical, methodological and philosophical analysis. As a result, we reaffirm the difference between practitioners and non-practitioners, contesting the four central claims about interactional expertise--namely, that (1) the idea of interactional expertise has been proven empirically, (2) it is possible to develop interactional expertise through 'linguistic socialization alone', (3) the idea of interactional expertise supports the 'the minimal embodiment thesis' that the individual human body or, more broadly, 'embodiment' is not as relevant as linguistic socialization for acquiring a language and (4) interactional experts have the same linguistic fluency, understanding and judgemental abilities of practitioners within discursive settings. Instead, we argue, individuals' abilities and understandings vary according to the 'type of immersion' they have experienced within a given practice and whether they bring with them another 'perspective'. Acknowledging these differences helps with demarcation but does not solve the 'problem of demarcation'. Every experience is perspectival and cannot handle, alone, the intertwined and complex issues found in public debates involving technical matters. The challenge, then, concerns the ways to mediate interactions between actors with distinct perspectives, experiences and abilities.

  5. A neural marker of medical visual expertise: implications for training.

    PubMed

    Rourke, Liam; Cruikshank, Leanna C; Shapke, Larissa; Singhal, Anthony

    2016-12-01

    Researchers have identified a component of the EEG that discriminates visual experts from novices. The marker indexes a comprehensive model of visual processing, and if it is apparent in physicians, it could be used to investigate the development and training of their visual expertise. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a neural marker of visual expertise-the enhanced N170 event-related potential-is apparent in the EEGs of physicians as they interpret diagnostic images. We conducted a controlled trial with 10 cardiologists and 9 pulmonologists. Each participant completed 520 trials of a standard visual processing task involving the rapid evaluation of EKGs and CXRs-indicating-lung-disease. Ostensibly, each participant is expert with one type of image and competent with the other. We collected behavioral data on the participants' expertise with EKGs and CXRs and electrophysiological data on the magnitude, latency, and scalp location of their N170 ERPs as they interpreted the two types of images. Cardiologists demonstrated significantly more expertise with EKGs than CXRs, and this was reflected in an increased amplitude of their N170 ERPs while reading EKGs compared to CXRs. Pulmonologists demonstrated equal expertise with both types of images, and this was reflected in equal N170 ERP amplitudes for EKGs and CXRs. The results suggest provisionally that visual expertise has a similar substrate in medical practice as it does in other domains that have been studied extensively. This provides support for applying a sophisticated body of literature to questions about training and assessment of visual expertise among physicians.

  6. Contributions of visual and embodied expertise to body perception.

    PubMed

    Reed, Catherine L; Nyberg, Andrew A; Grubb, Jefferson D

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that our perception of the human body differs from that of inanimate objects. This study investigated whether the visual perception of the human body differs from that of other animate bodies and, if so, whether that difference could be attributed to visual experience and/or embodied experience. To dissociate differential effects of these two types of expertise, inversion effects (recognition of inverted stimuli is slower and less accurate than recognition of upright stimuli) were compared for two types of bodies in postures that varied in typicality: humans in human postures (human-typical), humans in dog postures (human-atypical), dogs in dog postures (dog-typical), and dogs in human postures (dog-atypical). Inversion disrupts global configural processing. Relative changes in the size and presence of inversion effects reflect changes in visual processing. Both visual and embodiment expertise predict larger inversion effects for human over dog postures because we see humans more and we have experience producing human postures. However, our design that crosses body type and typicality leads to distinct predictions for visual and embodied experience. Visual expertise predicts an interaction between typicality and orientation: greater inversion effects should be found for typical over atypical postures regardless of body type. Alternatively, embodiment expertise predicts a body, typicality, and orientation interaction: larger inversion effects should be found for all human postures but only for atypical dog postures because humans can map their bodily experience onto these postures. Accuracy data supported embodiment expertise with the three-way interaction. However, response-time data supported contributions of visual expertise with larger inversion effects for typical over atypical postures. Thus, both types of expertise affect the visual perception of bodies.

  7. Talent in the taxi: a model system for exploring expertise.

    PubMed

    Woollett, Katherine; Spiers, Hugo J; Maguire, Eleanor A

    2009-05-27

    While there is widespread interest in and admiration of individuals with exceptional talents, surprisingly little is known about the cognitive and neural mechanisms underpinning talent, and indeed how talent relates to expertise. Because many talents are first identified and nurtured in childhood, it can be difficult to determine whether talent is innate, can be acquired through extensive practice or can only be acquired in the presence of the developing brain. We sought to address some of these issues by studying healthy adults who acquired expertise in adulthood. We focused on the domain of memory and used licensed London taxi drivers as a model system. Taxi drivers have to learn the layout of 25,000 streets in London and the locations of thousands of places of interest, and pass stringent examinations in order to obtain an operating licence. Using neuropsychological assessment and structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, we addressed a range of key questions: in the context of a fully developed brain and an average IQ, can people acquire expertise to an exceptional level; what are the neural signatures, both structural and functional, associated with the use of expertise; does expertise change the brain compared with unskilled control participants; does it confer any cognitive advantages, and similarly, does it come at a cost to other functions? By studying retired taxi drivers, we also consider what happens to their brains and behaviour when experts stop using their skill. Finally, we discuss how the expertise of taxi drivers might relate to the issue of talent and innate abilities. We suggest that exploring talent and expertise in this manner could have implications for education, rehabilitation of patients with cognitive impairments, understanding individual differences and possibly conditions such as autism where exceptional abilities can be a feature.

  8. Challenges of Teaching Physiology in an Integrated System-Based Curriculum.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Zuheir; Sequeira, Reginald

    2012-01-01

    The transformation of a traditional discipline-based medical curriculum into a system-based integrated curriculum often poses dilemmas to faculty involved in teaching basic medical sciences. This paper examines the challenges of teaching physiology to medical students in a system-based curriculum. Some of these challenges include: defining the core curriculum, curriculum links, sequencing curriculum content, interdisciplinary integration, and student assessment. A number of relevant issues including defining the core physiology content, faculty expertise, and coping and adapting to curriculum transitions are discussed from a personal perspective. For successful implementation of a system-based curriculum and to overcome the challenges, educational issues should be debated in regional and international forums.

  9. Structured hints : extracting and abstracting domain expertise.

    SciTech Connect

    Hereld, M.; Stevens, R.; Sterling, T.; Gao, G. R.; Mathematics and Computer Science; California Inst. of Tech.; Louisiana State Univ.; Univ. of Delaware

    2009-03-16

    We propose a new framework for providing information to help optimize domain-specific application codes. Its design addresses problems that derive from the widening gap between the domain problem statement by domain experts and the architectural details of new and future high-end computing systems. The design is particularly well suited to program execution models that incorporate dynamic adaptive methodologies for live tuning of program performance and resource utilization. This new framework, which we call 'structured hints', couples a vocabulary of annotations to a suite of performance metrics. The immediate target is development of a process by which a domain expert describes characteristics of objects and methods in the application code that would not be readily apparent to the compiler; the domain expert provides further information about what quantities might provide the best indications of desirable effect; and the interactive preprocessor identifies potential opportunities for the domain expert to evaluate. Our development of these ideas is progressing in stages from case study, through manual implementation, to automatic or semi-automatic implementation. In this paper we discuss results from our case study, an examination of a large simulation of a neural network modeled after the neocortex.

  10. Beliefs of Teachers Who Teach Intensive One-to-One Intervention about Links to Classroom Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Thi L.; Wright, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports teachers' beliefs about the extent to which expertise in one-to-one teaching can be transferred to classroom teaching. The study involved 21 mathematics intervention specialists. Data collection involved a structured questionnaire with six openended questions. Participants were found to be very positive towards transferring…

  11. Privileged access to awareness for faces and objects of expertise.

    PubMed

    Stein, Timo; Reeder, Reshanne R; Peelen, Marius V

    2016-06-01

    Access to visual awareness for human faces is strongly influenced by spatial orientation: Under continuous flash suppression (CFS), upright faces break into awareness more quickly than inverted faces. This effect of inversion for faces is larger than for a wide range of other animate and inanimate objects. Here we asked whether this apparently specific sensitivity to upright faces reflects face-specific detection mechanisms or whether it reflects perceptual expertise more generally. We tested car experts who varied in their degree of car and face expertise and measured the time upright and inverted faces, cars, and chairs needed to overcome CFS and break into awareness. Results showed that greater car expertise was correlated with larger car inversion effects under CFS. A similar relation between better discrimination performance and larger CFS inversion effects was found for faces. CFS inversion effects are thus modulated by perceptual expertise for both faces and cars. These results demonstrate that inversion effects in conscious access are not unique to faces but similarly exist for other objects of expertise. More generally, we interpret these findings as suggesting that access to awareness and exemplar-level discrimination rely on partially shared perceptual mechanisms. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. Time to Tango: expertise and contextual anticipation during action observation.

    PubMed

    Amoruso, Lucía; Sedeño, Lucas; Huepe, David; Tomio, Ailin; Kamienkowski, Juan; Hurtado, Esteban; Cardona, Juan Felipe; Álvarez González, Miguel Ángel; Rieznik, Andrés; Sigman, Mariano; Manes, Facundo; Ibáñez, Agustín

    2014-09-01

    Predictive theories of action observation propose that we use our own motor system as a guide for anticipating and understanding other people's actions through the generation of context-based expectations. According to this view, people should be better in predicting and interpreting those actions that are present in their own motor repertoire compared to those that are not. We recorded high-density event-related potentials (ERPs: P300, N400 and Slow Wave, SW) and source estimation in 80 subjects separated by their level of expertise (experts, beginners and naïves) as they observed realistic videos of Tango steps with different degrees of execution correctness. We also performed path analysis to infer causal relationships between ongoing anticipatory brain activity, evoked semantic responses, expertise measures and behavioral performance. We found that anticipatory activity, with sources in a fronto-parieto-occipital network, early discriminated between groups according to their level of expertise. Furthermore, this early activity significantly predicted subsequent semantic integration indexed by semantic responses (N400 and SW, sourced in temporal and motor regions) which also predicted motor expertise. In addition, motor expertise was a good predictor of behavioral performance. Our results show that neural and temporal dynamics underlying contextual action anticipation and comprehension can be interpreted in terms of successive levels of contextual prediction that are significantly modulated by subject's prior experience.

  13. Trading Places: When Teachers Utilize Student Expertise in Technology-Intensive Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringstaff, Cathy; And Others

    Utilizing self-report data from 32 elementary and secondary teachers, this longitudinal, qualitative study examines the role shifts of both teachers and students as they adapted to teaching and learning in educational, technology-rich, Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow environments. At first, teachers in these instructionally innovative classrooms…

  14. From Meaning Well to Doing Well: Ethical Expertise in the GIS Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huff, Chuck

    2014-01-01

    There is evidence to support the idea that moral action can be thought of in terms of expertise in a domain. This paper reviews work on the development of moral expertise across five levels, from novice to expertise. It addresses the role of habit in expertise and self-regulation strategies that signal when habitual action is not working and that…

  15. The role of lexical expertise in reading homophones.

    PubMed

    Burt, Jennifer S; Jared, Debra

    2016-01-01

    In Experiment 1, university students classified on lexical expertise on the basis of spelling plus nonword pronunciation accuracy made lexical decisions to homophones and control words. Homophones were accepted as words more slowly than control words, but lexical experts showed a smaller homophone cost than the less skilled group. In Experiment 2, similarly classified groups showed a large difference in their ability to detect homophones, with the low-expertise group showing a yes bias to high-frequency words, and having difficulty detecting homophones when mate-frequency was low. The results suggest superior use of orthography in the lexical experts and more reliance on semantic information in nonexperts, and support the importance of facility with orthography-phonology mappings in lexical expertise.

  16. Electrical innovations, authority and consulting expertise in late Victorian Britain.

    PubMed

    Arapostathis, Stathis

    2013-03-20

    In this article I examine the practices of electrical engineering experts, with special reference to their role in the implementation of innovations in late Victorian electrical networks. I focus on the consulting work of two leading figures in the scientific and engineering world of the period, Alexander Kennedy and William Preece. Both were Fellows of the Royal Society and both developed large-scale consulting activities in the emerging electrical industry of light and power. At the core of the study I place the issues of trust and authority, and the bearing of these on the engineering expertise of consultants in late Victorian Britain. I argue that the ascription of expertise to these engineers and the trust placed in their advice were products of power relations on the local scale. The study seeks to unravel both the technical and the social reasons for authoritative patterns of consulting expertise.

  17. Electrical innovations, authority and consulting expertise in late Victorian Britain

    PubMed Central

    Arapostathis, Stathis

    2013-01-01

    In this article I examine the practices of electrical engineering experts, with special reference to their role in the implementation of innovations in late Victorian electrical networks. I focus on the consulting work of two leading figures in the scientific and engineering world of the period, Alexander Kennedy and William Preece. Both were Fellows of the Royal Society and both developed large-scale consulting activities in the emerging electrical industry of light and power. At the core of the study I place the issues of trust and authority, and the bearing of these on the engineering expertise of consultants in late Victorian Britain. I argue that the ascription of expertise to these engineers and the trust placed in their advice were products of power relations on the local scale. The study seeks to unravel both the technical and the social reasons for authoritative patterns of consulting expertise. PMID:24686584

  18. Cultivating Data Expertise and Roles at a National Research Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    As research becomes more computation and data-intensive, it brings new demands for staff that can manage complex data, design user services, and facilitate open access. Responding to these new demands, universities and research institutions are developing data services to support their scientists and scholarly communities. As more organizations extend their operations to research data, a better understanding of the staff roles and expertise required to support data-intensive research services is needed. What is data expertise - knowledge, skills, and roles? This study addresses this question through a case study of an exemplar research center, the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in Boulder, CO. The NCAR case study results were supplemented and validated with a set of interviews of managers at additional geoscience data centers. To date, 11 interviews with NCAR staff and 19 interviews with managers at supplementary data centers have been completed. Selected preliminary results from the qualitative analysis will be reported in the poster: Data professionals have cultivated expertise in areas such as managing scientific data and products, understanding use and users, harnessing technology for data solutions, and standardizing metadata and data sets. Staff roles and responsibilities have evolved over the years to create new roles for data scientists, data managers/curators, data engineers, and senior managers of data teams, embedding data expertise into each NCAR lab. Explicit career paths and ladders for data professionals are limited but starting to emerge. NCAR has supported organization-wide efforts for data management, leveraging knowledge and best practices across all the labs and their staff. Based on preliminary results, NCAR provides a model for how organizations can build expertise and roles into their data service models. Data collection for this study is ongoing. The author anticipates that the results will help answer questions on what are

  19. A Review of Expertise and Judgment Processes for Risk Estimation

    SciTech Connect

    R. L. Boring

    2007-06-01

    A major challenge of risk and reliability analysis for human errors or hardware failures is the need to enlist expert opinion in areas for which adequate operational data are not available. Experts enlisted in this capacity provide probabilistic estimates of reliability, typically comprised of a measure of central tendency and uncertainty bounds. While formal guidelines for expert elicitation are readily available, they largely fail to provide a theoretical basis for expertise and judgment. This paper reviews expertise and judgment in the context of risk analysis; overviews judgment biases, the role of training, and multivariate judgments; and provides guidance on the appropriate use of atomistic and holistic judgment processes.

  20. Authority, Expertise, and Impression Management: Gendered Professionalization of Chemists in the Academy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirshfield, Laura Ellen

    Women face more barriers to their success than their men counterparts in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) disciplines. While much of the research on women's experience in science has focused on their entry into or exit out of STEM fields (the "leaky pipeline"), less is known about the obstacles that women scientists face at work, due to the dearth of ethnographic work exploring gender and day-to-day experiences in the academic workplace. Using data from a qualitative study of graduate students and postdoctoral fellows in chemistry involving over 120 hours of ethnographic observation and 40 semi-structured interviews, I focus specifically on the gendered nature of authority, expertise, and impression management to investigate several of the obstacles women scientists face at work. In the first chapter, I investigate men and women graduate students' and postdocs' expectations of expertise. I argue that overall, men are more likely than their women peers to be seen as experts in chemistry. As a result, men graduate students benefit from more practice with skills that are applicable to their future careers: applying scientific knowledge to relevant questions and communicating this information to others. In the second chapter, I focus on gender and graduate student socialization. I find that the link between men, science, and academia creates a context in which men do not need to work as hard to establish their claim to scientific authority. Therefore, men are able to perform masculinity in varied and complex ways, while women, who do not embody masculinity, feel more pressure to conform to strict norms of competition that are associated with traditional masculinity. In the last chapter, I discuss the impression management strategies that men and women chemists-in-training use to navigate authority and expertise. I find that men are more likely than women to employ interactional styles that feature their expertise when in group situations, while women

  1. An embodied perspective on expertise in solving the problem of making a geologic map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callahan, Caitlin Norah

    The task of constructing a geologic map is a cognitively and physically demanding field-based problem. The map produced is understood to be an individual's two-dimensional interpretation or mental model of the three-dimensional underlying geology. A popular view within the geoscience community is that teaching students how to make a geologic map is valuable for preparing them to deal with disparate and incomplete data sets, for helping them develop problem-solving skills, and for acquiring expertise in geology. Few previous studies have focused specifically on expertise in geologic mapping. Drawing from literature related to expertise, to problem solving, and to mental models, two overarching research questions were identified: How do geologists of different levels of expertise constrain and solve an ill-structured problem such as making a geologic map? How do geologists address the uncertainties inherent to the processes and interpretations involved in solving a geologic mapping problem? These questions were answered using a methodology that captured the physical actions, expressed thoughts, and navigation paths of geologists as they made a geologic map. Eight geologists, from novice to expert, wore a head-mounted video camera with an attached microphone to record those actions and thoughts, creating "video logs" while in the field. The video logs were also time-stamped, which allowed the visual and audio data to be synchronized with the GPS data that tracked participants' movements in the field. Analysis of the video logs yielded evidence that all eight participants expressed thoughts that reflected the process of becoming mentally situated in the mapping task (e.g. relating between distance on a map and distance in three-dimensional space); the prominence of several of these early thoughts waned in the expressed thoughts later in the day. All participants collected several types of data while in the field; novices, however, did so more continuously throughout

  2. Climate Science Centers: Growing Federal and Academic Expertise in the Nation's Interests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryker, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Department of the Interior's (Interior) natural and cultural resource managers face increasingly complex challenges exacerbated by climate change. In 2009, under Secretarial Order 3289, Interior created eight regional Climate Science Centers managed by the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center and in partnership with universities. Secretarial Order 3289 provides a framework to coordinate climate change science and adaptation efforts across Interior and to integrate science and resource management expertise from Federal, State, Tribal, private, non-profit, and academic partners. In addition to broad research expertise, these Federal/university partnerships provide opportunities to develop a next generation of climate science professionals. These include opportunities to increase the climate science knowledge base of students and practicing professionals; build students' skills in working across the boundary between research and implementation; facilitate networking among researchers, students, and professionals for the application of research to on-the-ground issues; and support the science pipeline in climate-related fields through structured, intensive professional development. In 2013, Climate Science Centers supported approximately 10 undergraduates, 60 graduate students, and 26 postdoctoral researchers. Additional students trained by Climate Science Center-affiliated faculty also contribute valuable time and expertise, and are effectively part of the Climate Science Center network. The Climate Science Centers' education and training efforts have also reached a number of high school students interested in STEM careers, and professionals in natural and cultural resource management. The Climate Science Centers are coordinating to build on each other's successful education and training efforts. Early successes include several intensive education experiences, such as the Alaska Climate Science Center's Girls on

  3. Managing & Re-Using Didactical Expertise: The Didactical Object Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawlowski, Jan M.; Bick, Markus

    2006-01-01

    The DIN Didactical Object Model extends the approaches of existing Educational Modeling Languages introducing specifications for contexts and experiences. In this paper, we show how the Didactical Object Model can be used for sharing didactical expertise. Educational Modeling Languages change the design paradigm from content orientation towards…

  4. Interactions among the Imagination, Expertise Reversal, and Element Interactivity Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahy, Wayne; Sweller, John

    2005-01-01

    Interactions among the imagination, expertise reversal, and element interactivity effects were investigated in 2 experiments. In Experiment 1, less knowledgeable primary school students learning to use a bus timetable produced better performance under study than imagination conditions, but an increase in their experience reversed the result,…

  5. Building Expertise to Support Digital Scholarship: A Global Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Vivian; Spiro, Lisa; Wang, Xuemao; Cawthorne, Jon E.

    2015-01-01

    This report sheds light on the expertise required to support a robust and sustainable digital scholarship (DS) program. It focuses first on defining and describing the key domain knowledge, skills, competencies, and mindsets at some of the world's most prominent digital scholarship programs. It then identifies the main strategies used to build…

  6. Expertise, Competence and Reflection in the Rhetoric of Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Richard; Nicoll, Katherine

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the rhetorical work done by discourses of professional development in education. In particular it outlines the ways in which the rhetoric of technical expertise, competence and reflective practice are deployed to mobilise professional practices and identities in particular ways and position certain practices and dispositions…

  7. A Phenomenological Investigation of Science Center Exhibition Developers' Expertise Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Denise L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the exhibition developer role in the context of United States (U.S.) science centers, and more specifically, to investigate the way science center exhibition developers build their professional expertise. This research investigated how successfully practicing exhibition developers described their current…

  8. Music Educators' Expertise and Mandate: Who Decides, Based on What?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelo, Elin

    2016-01-01

    Who should define music educators' expertise and mandate, and on what basis? Is this for example individual music educators, diverse collectives, employment institutions or political frameworks? How can one discuss professional quality and codes of ethic in this field, where these questions inseparably adhere to personal qualities and quality of a…

  9. Expertise in clinical pathology: combining the visual and cognitive perspective.

    PubMed

    Jaarsma, Thomas; Jarodzka, Halszka; Nap, Marius; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J G; Boshuizen, Henny P A

    2015-10-01

    Expertise studies in the medical domain often focus on either visual or cognitive aspects of expertise. As a result, characteristics of expert behaviour are often described as either cognitive or visual abilities. This study focuses on both aspects of expertise and analyses them along three overarching constructs: (1) encapsulations, (2) efficiency, and (3) hypothesis testing. This study was carried out among clinical pathologists performing an authentic task: diagnosing microscopic slides. Participants were 13 clinical pathologists (experts), 12 residents in pathology (intermediates), and 13 medical students (novices). They all diagnosed seven cases in a virtual microscope and gave post hoc explanations for their diagnoses. The collected data included eye movements, microscope navigation, and verbal protocols. Results showed that experts used lower magnifications and verbalized their findings as diagnoses. Also, their diagnostic paths were more efficient, including fewer microscope movements and shorter reasoning chains. Experts entered relevant areas later in their diagnostic process, and visited fewer of them. Intermediates used relatively high magnifications and based their diagnoses on specific abnormalities. Also, they took longer to reach their diagnosis and checked more relevant areas. Novices searched in detail, described findings by their appearances, and uttered long reasoning chains. These results indicate that overarching constructs can justly be identified: encapsulations and efficiency are apparent in both visual and cognitive aspects of expertise.

  10. Capturing flight system test engineering expertise: Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woerner, Irene Wong

    1991-01-01

    Within a few years, JPL will be challenged by the most active mission set in history. Concurrently, flight systems are increasingly more complex. Presently, the knowledge to conduct integration and test of spacecraft and large instruments is held by a few key people, each with many years of experience. JPL is in danger of losing a significant amount of this critical expertise, through retirement, during a period when demand for this expertise is rapidly increasing. The most critical issue at hand is to collect and retain this expertise and develop tools that would ensure the ability to successfully perform the integration and test of future spacecraft and large instruments. The proposed solution was to capture and codity a subset of existing knowledge, and to utilize this captured expertise in knowledge-based systems. First year results and activities planned for the second year of this on-going effort are described. Topics discussed include lessons learned in knowledge acquisition and elicitation techniques, life-cycle paradigms, and rapid prototyping of a knowledge-based advisor (Spacecraft Test Assistant) and a hypermedia browser (Test Engineering Browser). The prototype Spacecraft Test Assistant supports a subset of integration and test activities for flight systems. Browser is a hypermedia tool that allows users easy perusal of spacecraft test topics. A knowledge acquisition tool called ConceptFinder which was developed to search through large volumes of data for related concepts is also described and is modified to semi-automate the process of creating hypertext links.

  11. A Structural Equation Model of Expertise in College Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Carr, Martha

    2009-01-01

    A model of expertise in physics was tested on a sample of 374 college students in 2 different level physics courses. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypothesized relationships among variables linked to expert performance in physics including strategy use, pictorial representation, categorization skills, and motivation, and these…

  12. Talent "and" Expertise: The Empirical Evidence for Genetic Endowment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonton, Dean Keith

    2007-01-01

    In this commentary, the author focuses on the claim summarized in the last sentence of the target article's abstract. To begin, the concept of talent does not require the existence of "innate constraints to the attainment of elite achievement". On the contrary, genetic endowment may merely influence the rate at which domain-specific expertise is…

  13. Expertise in Performance Assessment: Assessors' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berendonk, Christoph; Stalmeijer, Renée E.; Schuwirth, Lambert W. T.

    2013-01-01

    The recent rise of interest among the medical education community in individual faculty making subjective judgments about medical trainee performance appears to be directly related to the introduction of notions of integrated competency-based education and assessment for learning. Although it is known that assessor expertise plays an important…

  14. Expertise: Myth or Reality of a Cross-National Definition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germain, Marie-Line; Ruiz, Carlos Enrique

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to offer a comparison of how human expertise is perceived by human resource development (HRD) scholars across several Western European countries and in the USA. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative, exploratory approach using electronic mail was used for this study. In total, 36 leading HRD scholars from…

  15. Public University Trustees: New Expertise Needed as Funding Diversifies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, John; Tuby, Kimberly

    2008-01-01

    A long-term decline in state-government funding and an increase in funds from other sources are creating the need for broader types of expertise on boards of public universities. Public universities are becoming increasingly market-driven and consequently must deal with a broader base of stakeholders. As a result of these changes, public boards…

  16. The Role of Human Expertise in Enhancing Data Mining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaddouri, Abdelaaziz

    2011-01-01

    Current data mining (DM) technology is not domain-specific and therefore rarely generates reliable, business actionable knowledge that can be used to improve the effectiveness of the decision-making process in the banking industry. DM is mainly an autonomous, data-driven process with little focus on domain expertise, constraints, or requirements…

  17. The Makana Regional Centre of Expertise: Experiments in Social Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotz-Sisitka, Heila; O'Donoghue, Rob; Wilmot, Di

    2010-01-01

    This article deliberates the possibilities for Regional Centres of Expertise (RCEs) to become "experiments" in social learning. The purpose of the article is to advance the broader research agenda of RCEs through reflection on the empirical research agenda of one RCE, Makana RCE in South Africa. As such it opens questions on how we might…

  18. Expertise Reversal Effects in Writing-to-Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuckles, Matthias; Hubner, Sandra; Dumer, Sandra; Renkl, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    This article presents two longitudinal studies that investigated expertise reversal effects in journal writing. In Experiment 1, students wrote regular journal entries over a whole term. The experimental group received a combination of cognitive and metacognitive prompts. The control group received no prompts. In the first half of the term, the…

  19. Using Information Expertise to Enhance Massive Open Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahraj, Katy

    2012-01-01

    It is a truth not yet universally acknowledged that a venture based on information must be in want of a librarian. Librarians offer expertise in organizing and managing information, clarifying and supporting people's information needs, and enhancing people's information literacy skills. There are innumerable endeavors today in education, health,…

  20. Flight nursing expertise: towards a middle-range theory

    PubMed Central

    Reimer, Andrew P.; Moore, Shirley M.

    2010-01-01

    Aim This paper presents a middle-range Theory of Flight Nursing Expertise. Background Rotary-wing (helicopter) medical transport has grown rapidly in the USA since its introduction, particularly during the past 5 years. Patients once considered too sick to transport are now being transported more frequently and over longer distances. Many limitations are imposed by the air medical transport environment and these require nurses to alter their practice. Data sources A literature search was conducted using Pubmed, Medline, CINAHL, secondary referencing and an Internet search from 1960 to 2008 for studies related to the focal concepts in flight nursing. Discussion The middle-range Theory of Flight Nursing Expertise is composed of nine concepts (experience, training, transport environment of care, psychomotor skills, flight nursing knowledge, cue recognition, pattern recognition, decision-making and action) and their relationships. Five propositions describe the relationships between those concepts and how they apply to flight nursing expertise. Implications for nursing After empirical testing, this theory may be a useful tool to assist novice flight nurses to attain the skills necessary to provide safe and competent care more efficiently, and may aid in designing curricula and programmes of research. Conclusion Research is needed to determine the usefulness of this theory in both rotary and fixed-wing medical transport settings, and to examine the similarities and differences related to expertise needed for different flight nurse team compositions. Curriculum and training innovations can result from increased understanding of the concepts and relationships proposed in this theory. PMID:20337803

  1. Perceptions and Predictions of Expertise in Advanced Musical Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papageorgi, Ioulia; Creech, Andrea; Haddon, Elizabeth; Morton, Frances; De Bezenac, Christophe; Himonides, Evangelos; Potter, John; Duffy, Celia; Whyton, Tony; Welch, Graham

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article was to compare musicians' views on (a) the importance of musical skills and (b) the nature of expertise. Data were obtained from a specially devised web-based questionnaire completed by advanced musicians representing four musical genres (classical, popular, jazz, Scottish traditional) and varying degrees of professional…

  2. A Neural Marker of Medical Visual Expertise: Implications for Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rourke, Liam; Cruikshank, Leanna C.; Shapke, Larissa; Singhal, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have identified a component of the EEG that discriminates visual experts from novices. The marker indexes a comprehensive model of visual processing, and if it is apparent in physicians, it could be used to investigate the development and training of their visual expertise. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a neural…

  3. Assessing Expertise in Economic Problem Solving: A Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Steven L.; VanFossen, Phillip J.

    1994-01-01

    Examines research literature and schematic models associated with the expert-novice model in cognitive psychology. Describes a model for rendering expertise in problem solving within economics. Reports that a preliminary study indicates that this model effectively rendered both expert and novice problem solving in economics. (CFR)

  4. The Role of Children's Expertise in a Strategic Memory Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaultney, Jane F.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Two experiments with 42 second graders, 55 fourth graders, and 36 fifth graders investigated previous findings of a lack of strategic advantage for expert children dealing with information in their area of expertise. Results from using an expert-novice paradigm suggest that expert children's task advantage is mediated primarily by nonstrategic…

  5. Toward reflexive climate adaptation research

    DOE PAGES

    Preston, Benjamin L.; Rickards, Lauren; Fünfgeld, Hartmut; ...

    2015-06-22

    Climate adaptation research is expanding very quickly within an increasingly reflexive society where the relationship between academia and other social institutions is in a state of flux. Tensions exist between the two dominant research orientations of research about and research for adaptation. In particular, the research community is challenged to develop processes for successfully executing transdisciplinary research for adaptation when academic institutions and researchers are largely structured around traditional, disciplinary expertise and funding models. One tool for helping to manage this tension is a third, more reflexive, orientation toward adaptation research that is emerging in the literature. Finally, this newmore » ‘research on adaptation research’ promises to help enhance understanding of the research enterprise itself and how it can become more adaptive.« less

  6. Toward reflexive climate adaptation research

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, Benjamin L.; Rickards, Lauren; Fünfgeld, Hartmut; Keenan, Rodney J.

    2015-06-22

    Climate adaptation research is expanding very quickly within an increasingly reflexive society where the relationship between academia and other social institutions is in a state of flux. Tensions exist between the two dominant research orientations of research about and research for adaptation. In particular, the research community is challenged to develop processes for successfully executing transdisciplinary research for adaptation when academic institutions and researchers are largely structured around traditional, disciplinary expertise and funding models. One tool for helping to manage this tension is a third, more reflexive, orientation toward adaptation research that is emerging in the literature. Finally, this new ‘research on adaptation research’ promises to help enhance understanding of the research enterprise itself and how it can become more adaptive.

  7. The Racer’s Brain – How Domain Expertise is Reflected in the Neural Substrates of Driving

    PubMed Central

    Lappi, Otto

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental question in human brain plasticity is how sensory, motor, and cognitive functions adapt in the process of skill acquisition extended over a period of many years. Recently, there has emerged a growing interest in cognitive neuroscience on studying the functional and structural differences in the brains of elite athletes. Elite performance in sports, music, or the arts, allows us to observe sensorimotor and cognitive performance at the limits of human capability. In this mini-review, we look at driving expertise. The emerging brain imaging literature on the neural substrates of real and simulated driving is reviewed (for the first time), and used as the context for interpreting recent findings on the differences between racing drivers and non-athlete controls. Also the cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience of expertise are discussed. PMID:26635586

  8. Influence of expertise on rockfall hazard assessment using empirical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delonca, Adeline; Verdel, Thierry; Gunzburger, Yann

    2016-07-01

    To date, many rockfall hazard assessment methods still consider qualitative observations within their analysis. Based on this statement, knowledge and expertise are supposed to be major parameters of rockfall assessment. To test this hypothesis, an experiment was carried out in order to evaluate the influence of knowledge and expertise on rockfall hazard assessment. Three populations were selected, having different levels of expertise: (1) students in geosciences, (2) researchers in geosciences and (3) confirmed experts. These three populations evaluated the rockfall hazard level on the same site, considering two different methods: the Laboratoire des Ponts et Chaussées (LPC) method and a method partly based on the "slope mass rating" (SMR) method. To complement the analysis, the completion of an "a priori" assessment of the rockfall hazard was requested of each population, without using any method. The LPC method is the most widely used method in France for official hazard mapping. It combines two main indicators: the predisposition to instability and the expected magnitude. Reversely, the SMR method was used as an ad hoc quantitative method to investigate the effect of quantification within a method. These procedures were applied on a test site divided into three different sectors. A statistical treatment of the results (descriptive statistical analysis, chi-square independent test and ANOVA) shows that there is a significant influence of the method used on the rockfall hazard assessment, whatever the sector. However, there is a non-significant influence of the level of expertise of the population the sectors 2 and 3. On sector 1, there is a significant influence of the level of expertise, explained by the importance of the temporal probability assessment in the rockfall hazard assessment process. The SMR-based method seems highly sensitive to the "site activity" indicator and exhibits an important dispersion in its results. However, the results are more similar

  9. Recognition of physiotherapists’ expertise in Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Publicly available information comparing performance across quality and costs has proliferated in recent years, both about individual healthcare professionals and hospitals. This type of information is now becoming increasingly available for physiotherapists with expertise in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Our study aimed to explore the ability of people with Parkinson’s disease to recognise expertise, and to what extent respondents selectively choose such expert physiotherapists. Methods We used claim data from the period 2009–2010 to select customers with PD who claimed physiotherapy. A random sample of 500 eligible respondents received a paper-based survey. We used descriptive statistics to compare the respondent characteristics, a qualitative programme to analyse the qualitative items, and univariate and multivariate regression. Results Most respondents (89%) took their referring physician’s advice when selecting a physiotherapist, although this advice rarely was supported with arguments. The remaining respondents (11%) searched for comparative performance information about physiotherapists. Respondents who recognised the added value of PD expertise among physiotherapists were 3.28 times as likely to search for comparative performance information as those who did not understand. Respondents were willing to switch to an expert physiotherapist (68%), and this willingness increased if they recognised the value of PD expertise (p < .001). Conclusion The participants were able to recognise certain aspects of expertise. Though they showed relatively few signs of selectively choice behaviour for expert physiotherapists. Both respondents and referring professionals need more understanding about the added value of an expert physiotherapist, to foster selective provider choice. PMID:24152942

  10. The Development of ISRU and ISSE Technologies Leveraging Canadian Mining Expertise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, Dale S.; Richard, Jim; Dupuis, Erick

    2003-01-01

    F uture space missions to planetary bodies, both manned and robotic, will require the efficient utilization of in-situ resources to ensure longevity and success. In Situ Resources Utilization (ISRU) and In Situ Support Equipment (ISSE), while requiring the development of new technologies and methods for commodity extraction, will still rely upon some method of mining technology for the harvesting and pre-beneficiation of the raw materials prior to processing. The Northern Centre for Advanced Technologies Inc., in partnership with Electric Vehicle Controllers Ltd., is presently engaged in the development and adaptation of existing mining technologies and methodologies for use extra-terrestrially as pre cursor and enabling technologies for ISRU and for use as ISSE in support of longer term missions. More specifically, NORCAT and EVC, in partnership with MD Robotics and under contract to the Canadian Space Agency, are developing a drill and sample handler system for sub surface sampling of planetary bodies, specifically Mars. The partnership brings to the table some formidable world leading expertise in space robotics coupled with world leading expertise in mining technologies.

  11. Spontaneously spotting and applying shortcuts in arithmetic—a primary school perspective on expertise

    PubMed Central

    Godau, Claudia; Haider, Hilde; Hansen, Sonja; Schubert, Torsten; Frensch, Peter A.; Gaschler, Robert

    2014-01-01

    One crucial feature of expertise is the ability to spontaneously recognize where and when knowledge can be applied to simplify task processing. Mental arithmetic is one domain in which people should start to develop such expert knowledge in primary school by integrating conceptual knowledge about mathematical principles and procedural knowledge about shortcuts. If successful, knowledge integration should lead to transfer between procedurally different shortcuts that are based on the same mathematical principle and therefore likely are both associated to the respective conceptual knowledge. Taking commutativity principle as a model case, we tested this conjecture in two experiments with primary school children. In Experiment 1, we obtained eye tracking data suggesting that students indeed engaged in search processes when confronted with mental arithmetic problems to which a formerly feasible shortcut no longer applied. In Experiment 2, children who were first provided material allowing for one commutativity-based shortcut later profited from material allowing for a different shortcut based on the same principle. This was not the case for a control group, who had first worked on material that allowed for a shortcut not based on commutativity. The results suggest that spontaneous shortcut usage triggers knowledge about different shortcuts based on the same principle. This is in line with the notion of adaptive expertise linking conceptual and procedural knowledge. PMID:24959156

  12. BOOK REVIEW: The Expertise and Deployment of Science Teachers at Key Stage 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, Ken

    2000-03-01

    experienced head of department (biologist) considered himself to be: ... probably a better physics teacher than most physicists for many GCSE candidates. I know their difficulties from personal experience. Another biologist: We operate a detailed scheme of work and have subject advisers within the Faculty to help those less confident in particular disciplines. Most enjoy the variety. In contrast: A chemist: I have no expertise in physics or biology and no training to teach these disciplines at any level. ... I consider [my teaching programme] to be a terrible waste of the school's resources and my expertise. An environmental scientist: I feel that [the pupils] have a raw deal from my lack of physics expertise. However, a common feeling is that there is a good case for teaching science so that pupils benefit from cross-disciplinary links, but that there is a tension between this and what teachers feel professionally confident about being able to do. The authors conclude that: ` ... the shift towards teaching of the sciences by non-specialists has gone too far to be halted.' They discuss what this implies in practice. A major recommendation is that ` ... the recruitment and motivation of young science teachers would be promoted ... by a greater emphasis on their disciplinary specialisms.' The final message is that the kids can tell: `Biology with you is OK. Chemistry is fun. But you like physics don't you?' (my emphasis)

  13. Does Expertise or Pretty Please? The Influence of Attractiveness, Gender and Expertise on Children's Evaluations of Models in Advertisements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerma, Sheila; Downs, A. Chris

    The extent to which children evaluated non-television advertisements differentially on the basis of performers' gender, expertise, and attractiveness was assessed. Participating were 56 girls and 47 boys attending first-, third-, and fifth-grade classes in Galveston, Texas. A total of 24 pairs of specially prepared advertisements were used as…

  14. Teaching Online: A Theory-Based Approach to Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Maureen Snow

    2015-01-01

    Concerns about a lack of face-to-face contact with students, a focus on grading rather than teaching, and limited expertise with technology or needed pedagogical strategies, may contribute to instructor reluctance to teach online. The interaction between the instructor and learner and among learners affects the quality and success of online…

  15. The Gender-Related Role of Teaching Profession in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uygun, Selcuk

    2014-01-01

    Teaching is a professional job that requires expertise. The characteristics of the professionals can affect the quality of the profession. One of these characteristics is gender. In this study, the gender-related role of teaching profession in Turkey is examined. The analysis in a historical perspective of gender distributions of students who have…

  16. Nurturing Undergraduate Tutors' Role in the University Teaching Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Kathryn A.

    2009-01-01

    University students often serve as tutors who supplement the lecture-based teaching of permanent academic staff. However, potential issues arise when student tutors are employed with similar expectations of expertise and experience as the industry professionals and permanent staff they teach alongside. Arguably, successful and sustainable…

  17. Dynamic Context-Sensitive PageRank for Expertise Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schall, Daniel; Dustdar, Schahram

    Online tools for collaboration and social platforms have become omnipresent in Web-based environments. Interests and skills of people evolve over time depending in performed activities and joint collaborations. We believe that ranking models for recommending experts or collaboration partners should not only rely on profiles or skill information that need to be manually maintained and updated by the user. In this work we address the problem of expertise mining based on performed interactions between people. We argue that an expertise mining algorithm must consider a person's interest and activity level in a certain collaboration context. Our approach is based on the PageRank algorithm enhanced by techniques to incorporate contextual link information. An approach comprising two steps is presented. First, offline analysis of human interactions considering tagged interaction links and second composition of ranking scores based on preferences. We evaluate our approach using an email interaction network.

  18. The Behavioral and Neural Mechanisms Underlying the Tracking of Expertise

    PubMed Central

    Boorman, Erie D.; O’Doherty, John P.; Adolphs, Ralph; Rangel, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Summary Evaluating the abilities of others is fundamental for successful economic and social behavior. We investigated the computational and neurobiological basis of ability tracking by designing an fMRI task that required participants to use and update estimates of both people and algorithms’ expertise through observation of their predictions. Behaviorally, we find a model-based algorithm characterized subject predictions better than several alternative models. Notably, when the agent’s prediction was concordant rather than discordant with the subject’s own likely prediction, participants credited people more than algorithms for correct predictions and penalized them less for incorrect predictions. Neurally, many components of the mentalizing network—medial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate gyrus, temporoparietal junction, and precuneus—represented or updated expertise beliefs about both people and algorithms. Moreover, activity in lateral orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal cortex reflected behavioral differences in learning about people and algorithms. These findings provide basic insights into the neural basis of social learning. PMID:24360551

  19. Tactical expertise assessment in youth football using representative tasks.

    PubMed

    Serra-Olivares, Jaime; Clemente, Filipe Manuel; González-Víllora, Sixto

    2016-01-01

    Specific football drills improve the development of technical/tactical and physical variables in players. Based on this principle, in recent years it has been possible to observe in daily training a growing volume of small-sided and conditioned games. These games are smaller and modified forms of formal games that augment players' perception of specific tactics. Despite this approach, the assessment of players' knowledge and tactical execution has not been well documented, due mainly to the difficulty in measuring tactical behavior. For that reason, this study aims to provide a narrative review about the tactical assessment of football training by using representative tasks to measure the tactical expertise of youth football players during small-sided and conditioned games. This study gives an overview of the ecological approach to training and the principles used for representative task design, providing relevant contribution and direction for future research into the assessment of tactical expertise in youth football.

  20. Motor expertise modulates movement processing in working memory.

    PubMed

    Moreau, David

    2013-03-01

    A substantial amount of literature has demonstrated individuals' tendency to code verbally a series of movements for subsequent recall. However, the mechanisms underlying movement encoding remain unclear. In this paper, I argue that sensorimotor expertise influences the involvement of motor processes to store movements in working memory. Experts in motor activities and individuals with limited motor expertise were compared in three experimental conditions assessing movement recall: (a) without suppression task, (b) with verbal suppression, and (c) with motor suppression. Athletes outperformed controls in movement recall, but the suppression tasks affected the two groups differently. Verbal suppression affected controls more than athletes, whereas the effect was reversed with motor suppression. Together, these findings suggest that controls and athletes favor different mechanisms to encode movements, either based on verbal or on motor processes, providing further evidence for a tight relationship between sensorimotor and cognitive processes.

  1. Measuring renewed expertise for integrated care among health- and social-care professionals: Development and preliminary validation of the ICE-Q questionnaire.

    PubMed

    van der Aa, Maartje J; van den Broeke, Jennifer R; Stronks, Karien; Busschers, Wim B; Plochg, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Accumulations of health and social problems challenge current health systems. It is hypothesized that professionals should renew their expertise by adapting generalist, coaching, and population health orientation capacities to address these challenges. This study aimed to develop and validate an instrument for evaluating this renewal of professional expertise. The (Dutch) Integrated Care Expertise Questionnaire (ICE-Q) was developed and piloted. Psychometric analysis evaluated item, criterion, construct, and content validity. Theory and an iterative process of expert consultation constructed the ICE-Q, which was sent to 616 professionals, of whom 294 participated in the pilot (47.7%). Factor analysis (FA) identified six areas of expertise: holistic attitude towards patients (Cronbach's alpha [CA] = 0.61) and considering their social context (CA = 0.77), both related to generalism; coaching to support patient empowerment (CA = 0.66); preventive action (CA = 0.48); valuing local health knowledge (CA = 0.81); and valuing local facility knowledge (CA = 0.67) point at population health orientation. Inter-scale correlations ranged between 0.01 and 0.34. Item-response theory (IRT) indicated some items were less informative. The resulting 26-item questionnaire is a first tool for measuring integrated care expertise. The study process led to a developed understanding of the concept. Further research is warranted to improve the questionnaire.

  2. Context-specific effects of musical expertise on audiovisual integration.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Laura; Goebl, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Ensemble musicians exchange auditory and visual signals that can facilitate interpersonal synchronization. Musical expertise improves how precisely auditory and visual signals are perceptually integrated and increases sensitivity to asynchrony between them. Whether expertise improves sensitivity to audiovisual asynchrony in all instrumental contexts or only in those using sound-producing gestures that are within an observer's own motor repertoire is unclear. This study tested the hypothesis that musicians are more sensitive to audiovisual asynchrony in performances featuring their own instrument than in performances featuring other instruments. Short clips were extracted from audio-video recordings of clarinet, piano, and violin performances and presented to highly-skilled clarinetists, pianists, and violinists. Clips either maintained the audiovisual synchrony present in the original recording or were modified so that the video led or lagged behind the audio. Participants indicated whether the audio and video channels in each clip were synchronized. The range of asynchronies most often endorsed as synchronized was assessed as a measure of participants' sensitivities to audiovisual asynchrony. A positive relationship was observed between musical training and sensitivity, with data pooled across stimuli. While participants across expertise groups detected asynchronies most readily in piano stimuli and least readily in violin stimuli, pianists showed significantly better performance for piano stimuli than for either clarinet or violin. These findings suggest that, to an extent, the effects of expertise on audiovisual integration can be instrument-specific; however, the nature of the sound-producing gestures that are observed has a substantial effect on how readily asynchrony is detected as well.

  3. The neural circuitry of expertise: perceptual learning and social cognition

    PubMed Central

    Harré, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Amongst the most significant questions we are confronted with today include the integration of the brain's micro-circuitry, our ability to build the complex social networks that underpin society and how our society impacts on our ecological environment. In trying to unravel these issues one place to begin is at the level of the individual: to consider how we accumulate information about our environment, how this information leads to decisions and how our individual decisions in turn create our social environment. While this is an enormous task, we may already have at hand many of the tools we need. This article is intended to review some of the recent results in neuro-cognitive research and show how they can be extended to two very specific and interrelated types of expertise: perceptual expertise and social cognition. These two cognitive skills span a vast range of our genetic heritage. Perceptual expertise developed very early in our evolutionary history and is a highly developed part of all mammals' cognitive ability. On the other hand social cognition is most highly developed in humans in that we are able to maintain larger and more stable long term social connections with more behaviorally diverse individuals than any other species. To illustrate these ideas I will discuss board games as a toy model of social interactions as they include many of the relevant concepts: perceptual learning, decision-making, long term planning and understanding the mental states of other people. Using techniques that have been developed in mathematical psychology, I show that we can represent some of the key features of expertise using stochastic differential equations (SDEs). Such models demonstrate how an expert's long exposure to a particular context influences the information they accumulate in order to make a decision.These processes are not confined to board games, we are all experts in our daily lives through long exposure to the many regularities of daily tasks and social

  4. Theories of Expertise as Models for Understanding Situation Awareness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-17

    3 DTIC-TID AD-P006 943 CD CO Theories ot Expertise as Models for Understanding Situation Awareness Peter M. Crane, PhD Aircrew Training...reference in directly accessible long term memory. 3 . As memory skill increases, the time required to encode and retrieve task relevant information...recall events will be correlated with increasing ability to maintain situation awareness and ultimately to increasing combat success. 3 . The

  5. [Topical issues of organisation and implementation of forensic medical expertise].

    PubMed

    Kapustin, A V; Isaev, A I

    2004-01-01

    The shaped-up experience of management and implementation of expertise as applicable to civil and criminal cases and with respect to the requirements of new legislative acts was analyzed. Issues connected with composing a commission of experts, with the range of competence of forensic medical expert and of clinical practitioner, as well as with the content and form of the expert conclusions are under discussion.

  6. Context-specific effects of musical expertise on audiovisual integration

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Laura; Goebl, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Ensemble musicians exchange auditory and visual signals that can facilitate interpersonal synchronization. Musical expertise improves how precisely auditory and visual signals are perceptually integrated and increases sensitivity to asynchrony between them. Whether expertise improves sensitivity to audiovisual asynchrony in all instrumental contexts or only in those using sound-producing gestures that are within an observer's own motor repertoire is unclear. This study tested the hypothesis that musicians are more sensitive to audiovisual asynchrony in performances featuring their own instrument than in performances featuring other instruments. Short clips were extracted from audio-video recordings of clarinet, piano, and violin performances and presented to highly-skilled clarinetists, pianists, and violinists. Clips either maintained the audiovisual synchrony present in the original recording or were modified so that the video led or lagged behind the audio. Participants indicated whether the audio and video channels in each clip were synchronized. The range of asynchronies most often endorsed as synchronized was assessed as a measure of participants' sensitivities to audiovisual asynchrony. A positive relationship was observed between musical training and sensitivity, with data pooled across stimuli. While participants across expertise groups detected asynchronies most readily in piano stimuli and least readily in violin stimuli, pianists showed significantly better performance for piano stimuli than for either clarinet or violin. These findings suggest that, to an extent, the effects of expertise on audiovisual integration can be instrument-specific; however, the nature of the sound-producing gestures that are observed has a substantial effect on how readily asynchrony is detected as well. PMID:25324819

  7. Musical expertise and the ability to imagine loudness.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Laura; Bailes, Freya; Dean, Roger T

    2013-01-01

    Most perceived parameters of sound (e.g. pitch, duration, timbre) can also be imagined in the absence of sound. These parameters are imagined more veridically by expert musicians than non-experts. Evidence for whether loudness is imagined, however, is conflicting. In music, the question of whether loudness is imagined is particularly relevant due to its role as a principal parameter of performance expression. This study addressed the hypothesis that the veridicality of imagined loudness improves with increasing musical expertise. Experts, novices and non-musicians imagined short passages of well-known classical music under two counterbalanced conditions: 1) while adjusting a slider to indicate imagined loudness of the music and 2) while tapping out the rhythm to indicate imagined timing. Subtests assessed music listening abilities and working memory span to determine whether these factors, also hypothesised to improve with increasing musical expertise, could account for imagery task performance. Similarity between each participant's imagined and listening loudness profiles and reference recording intensity profiles was assessed using time series analysis and dynamic time warping. The results suggest a widespread ability to imagine the loudness of familiar music. The veridicality of imagined loudness tended to be greatest for the expert musicians, supporting the predicted relationship between musical expertise and musical imagery ability.

  8. Variability in functional brain networks predicts expertise during action observation.

    PubMed

    Amoruso, Lucía; Ibáñez, Agustín; Fonseca, Bruno; Gadea, Sebastián; Sedeño, Lucas; Sigman, Mariano; García, Adolfo M; Fraiman, Ricardo; Fraiman, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Observing an action performed by another individual activates, in the observer, similar circuits as those involved in the actual execution of that action. This activation is modulated by prior experience; indeed, sustained training in a particular motor domain leads to structural and functional changes in critical brain areas. Here, we capitalized on a novel graph-theory approach to electroencephalographic data (Fraiman et al., 2016) to test whether variability in functional brain networks implicated in Tango observation can discriminate between groups differing in their level of expertise. We found that experts and beginners significantly differed in the functional organization of task-relevant networks. Specifically, networks in expert Tango dancers exhibited less variability and a more robust functional architecture. Notably, these expertise-dependent effects were captured within networks derived from electrophysiological brain activity recorded in a very short time window (2s). In brief, variability in the organization of task-related networks seems to be a highly sensitive indicator of long-lasting training effects. This finding opens new methodological and theoretical windows to explore the impact of domain-specific expertise on brain plasticity, while highlighting variability as a fruitful measure in neuroimaging research.

  9. Anticipatory Governance: Bioethical Expertise for Human/Animal Chimeras

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Alison; Salter, Brian

    2012-01-01

    The governance demands generated by the use of human/animal chimeras in scientific research offer both a challenge and an opportunity for the development of new forms of anticipatory governance through the novel application of bioethical expertise. Anticipatory governance can be seen to have three stages of development whereby bioethical experts move from a reactive to a proactive stance at the edge of what is scientifically possible. In the process, the ethicists move upstream in their engagement with the science of human-to-animal chimeras. To what extent is the anticipatory coestablishment of the principles and operational rules of governance at this early stage in the development of the human-to-animal research field likely to result in a framework for bioethical decision making that is in support of science? The process of anticipatory governance is characterised by the entwining of the scientific and the philosophical so that judgements against science are also found to be philosophically unfounded, and conversely, those activities that are permissible are deemed so on both scientific and ethical grounds. Through what is presented as an organic process, the emerging bioethical framework for human-to-animal chimera research becomes a legitimating framework within which ‘good’ science can safely progress. Science gives bioethical expertise access to new governance territory; bioethical expertise gives science access to political acceptability. PMID:23576848

  10. Anticipatory Governance: Bioethical Expertise for Human/Animal Chimeras.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Alison; Salter, Brian

    2012-09-01

    The governance demands generated by the use of human/animal chimeras in scientific research offer both a challenge and an opportunity for the development of new forms of anticipatory governance through the novel application of bioethical expertise. Anticipatory governance can be seen to have three stages of development whereby bioethical experts move from a reactive to a proactive stance at the edge of what is scientifically possible. In the process, the ethicists move upstream in their engagement with the science of human-to-animal chimeras. To what extent is the anticipatory coestablishment of the principles and operational rules of governance at this early stage in the development of the human-to-animal research field likely to result in a framework for bioethical decision making that is in support of science? The process of anticipatory governance is characterised by the entwining of the scientific and the philosophical so that judgements against science are also found to be philosophically unfounded, and conversely, those activities that are permissible are deemed so on both scientific and ethical grounds. Through what is presented as an organic process, the emerging bioethical framework for human-to-animal chimera research becomes a legitimating framework within which 'good' science can safely progress. Science gives bioethical expertise access to new governance territory; bioethical expertise gives science access to political acceptability.

  11. The changing role of veterinary expertise in the food chain.

    PubMed

    Enticott, Gareth; Donaldson, Andrew; Lowe, Philip; Power, Megan; Proctor, Amy; Wilkinson, Katy

    2011-07-12

    This paper analyses how the changing governance of animal health has impacted upon veterinary expertise and its role in providing public health benefits. It argues that the social sciences can play an important role in understanding the nature of these changes, but also that their ideas and methods are, in part, responsible for them. The paper begins by examining how veterinary expertise came to be crucial to the regulation of the food chain in the twentieth century. The relationship between the veterinary profession and the state proved mutually beneficial, allowing the state to address the problems of animal health, and the veterinary profession to become identified as central to public health and food supply. However, this relationship has been gradually eroded by the application of neoliberal management techniques to the governance of animal health. This paper traces the impact of these techniques that have caused widespread unease within and beyond the veterinary profession about the consequences for its role in maintaining the public good of animal health. In conclusion, this paper suggests that the development of the social sciences in relation to animal health could contribute more helpfully to further changes in veterinary expertise.

  12. The changing role of veterinary expertise in the food chain

    PubMed Central

    Enticott, Gareth; Donaldson, Andrew; Lowe, Philip; Power, Megan; Proctor, Amy; Wilkinson, Katy

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses how the changing governance of animal health has impacted upon veterinary expertise and its role in providing public health benefits. It argues that the social sciences can play an important role in understanding the nature of these changes, but also that their ideas and methods are, in part, responsible for them. The paper begins by examining how veterinary expertise came to be crucial to the regulation of the food chain in the twentieth century. The relationship between the veterinary profession and the state proved mutually beneficial, allowing the state to address the problems of animal health, and the veterinary profession to become identified as central to public health and food supply. However, this relationship has been gradually eroded by the application of neoliberal management techniques to the governance of animal health. This paper traces the impact of these techniques that have caused widespread unease within and beyond the veterinary profession about the consequences for its role in maintaining the public good of animal health. In conclusion, this paper suggests that the development of the social sciences in relation to animal health could contribute more helpfully to further changes in veterinary expertise. PMID:21624916

  13. How Well Do Computer-Generated Faces Tap Face Expertise?

    PubMed

    Crookes, Kate; Ewing, Louise; Gildenhuys, Ju-Dith; Kloth, Nadine; Hayward, William G; Oxner, Matt; Pond, Stephen; Rhodes, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    The use of computer-generated (CG) stimuli in face processing research is proliferating due to the ease with which faces can be generated, standardised and manipulated. However there has been surprisingly little research into whether CG faces are processed in the same way as photographs of real faces. The present study assessed how well CG faces tap face identity expertise by investigating whether two indicators of face expertise are reduced for CG faces when compared to face photographs. These indicators were accuracy for identification of own-race faces and the other-race effect (ORE)-the well-established finding that own-race faces are recognised more accurately than other-race faces. In Experiment 1 Caucasian and Asian participants completed a recognition memory task for own- and other-race real and CG faces. Overall accuracy for own-race faces was dramatically reduced for CG compared to real faces and the ORE was significantly and substantially attenuated for CG faces. Experiment 2 investigated perceptual discrimination for own- and other-race real and CG faces with Caucasian and Asian participants. Here again, accuracy for own-race faces was significantly reduced for CG compared to real faces. However the ORE was not affected by format. Together these results signal that CG faces of the type tested here do not fully tap face expertise. Technological advancement may, in the future, produce CG faces that are equivalent to real photographs. Until then caution is advised when interpreting results obtained using CG faces.

  14. Instructional Design for Accelerated Macrocognitive Expertise in the Baseball Workplace.

    PubMed

    Fadde, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    The goal of accelerating expertise can leave researchers and trainers in human factors, naturalistic decision making, sport science, and expertise studies concerned about seemingly insufficient application of expert performance theories, findings and methods for training macrocognitive aspects of human performance. Video-occlusion methods perfected by sports expertise researchers have great instructional utility, in some cases offering an effective and inexpensive alternative to high-fidelity simulation. A key problem for instructional designers seems to be that expertise research done in laboratory and field settings doesn't get adequately translated into workplace training. Therefore, this article presents a framework for better linkage of expertise research/training across laboratory, field, and workplace settings. It also uses a case study to trace the development and implementation of a macrocognitive training program in the very challenging workplace of the baseball batters' box. This training, which was embedded for a full season in a college baseball team, targeted the perceptual-cognitive skill of pitch recognition that allows expert batters to circumvent limitations of human reaction time in order to hit a 90 mile-per-hour slider. While baseball batting has few analogous skills outside of sports, the instructional design principles of the training program developed to improve batting have wider applicability and implications. Its core operational principle, supported by information processing models but challenged by ecological models, decouples the perception-action link for targeted part-task training of the perception component, in much the same way that motor components routinely are isolated to leverage instructional efficiencies. After targeted perceptual training, perception and action were recoupled via transfer-appropriate tasks inspired by in situ research tasks. Using NCAA published statistics as performance measures, the cooperating team

  15. Instructional Design for Accelerated Macrocognitive Expertise in the Baseball Workplace

    PubMed Central

    Fadde, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of accelerating expertise can leave researchers and trainers in human factors, naturalistic decision making, sport science, and expertise studies concerned about seemingly insufficient application of expert performance theories, findings and methods for training macrocognitive aspects of human performance. Video-occlusion methods perfected by sports expertise researchers have great instructional utility, in some cases offering an effective and inexpensive alternative to high-fidelity simulation. A key problem for instructional designers seems to be that expertise research done in laboratory and field settings doesn't get adequately translated into workplace training. Therefore, this article presents a framework for better linkage of expertise research/training across laboratory, field, and workplace settings. It also uses a case study to trace the development and implementation of a macrocognitive training program in the very challenging workplace of the baseball batters' box. This training, which was embedded for a full season in a college baseball team, targeted the perceptual-cognitive skill of pitch recognition that allows expert batters to circumvent limitations of human reaction time in order to hit a 90 mile-per-hour slider. While baseball batting has few analogous skills outside of sports, the instructional design principles of the training program developed to improve batting have wider applicability and implications. Its core operational principle, supported by information processing models but challenged by ecological models, decouples the perception-action link for targeted part-task training of the perception component, in much the same way that motor components routinely are isolated to leverage instructional efficiencies. After targeted perceptual training, perception and action were recoupled via transfer-appropriate tasks inspired by in situ research tasks. Using NCAA published statistics as performance measures, the cooperating team

  16. Assessing the Quality of Expertise Differences in the Comprehension of Medical Visualizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gegenfurtner, Andreas; Siewiorek, Anna; Lehtinen, Erno; Saljo, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how best to assess expertise, the situational variations of expertise, and distinctive qualities of expertise that arises from particular workplace experiences, presents an important challenge. Certainly, at this time, there is much interest in identifying standard occupational measures and competences, which are not well aligned…

  17. The Psychological Costs of Knowledge Specialization in Groups: Unique Expertise Leaves You out of the Loop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Eric E.; Kelly, Janice R.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge specialization, such as that present in cross-functional teams, produces both positive and negative outcomes. Our research investigated how unique expertise can lead to feelings of ostracism in the form of being out of the loop. Compared to group members with shared expertise, members with unique expertise felt out of the loop and…

  18. A Preliminary Exploration on the Measurement of Expertise: An Initial Development of a Psychometric Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germain, Marie-Line; Tejeda, Manuel J.

    2012-01-01

    The development of employee expertise is described as a strategic imperative for ever-changing organizations in a hyper-competitive economic environment. However, the lack of an adequate assessment tool for expertise has hindered empirical research. This paper conceptually and empirically develops the generalized expertise measure (GEM) and…

  19. Toward an Integrated Model of Expertise Redevelopment and Its Implications for HRD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenier, Robin S.; Kehrhahn, Marijke

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, expertise theories have focused on skills acquisition with little regard for the domain or contextual factors affecting expertise development and retention. Because the development, retention, and recruiting of individuals with expertise is critical to organizational success, it is essential that HRD professionals understand the…

  20. Expertise Amiss: Interactivity Fosters Learning but Expert Tutors Are Less Interactive than Novice Tutors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herppich, Stephanie; Wittwer, Jörg; Nückles, Matthias; Renkl, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The extent to which tutors are interactive and engage in dialogue with a student tends to depend on their pedagogical expertise. Normally, tutors with pedagogical expertise are more interactive than tutors without pedagogical expertise. This finding, however, has largely been obtained when examining tutoring in procedural domains such as…

  1. Curricular Design and Implementation as a Site of Teacher Expertise and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peercy, Megan Madigan; Martin-Beltrán, Melinda; Silverman, Rebecca D.; Daniel, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    Previously, research about teacher expertise has adhered to relatively fixed notions of teacher expertise. However, in this study, we share data from teacher study group (TSG) meetings, which demonstrate a dynamic understanding of teacher expertise. In these meetings, teachers discursively positioned themselves, their colleagues, and the research…

  2. [Course system and teaching practice of genomics].

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Li-Ming; Zhang, Hui-Zhan

    2011-03-01

    Genomics is the core subject of "omics" theories and research methods in modern life science. Teaching of genomics has characteristics such as more content, more difficult points, higher demands on English and comprehensive expertise etc. We proposed the course system established for Genomics and summarized some experiences based on our teaching practice that emphasizes on increasing the study autonomy and course interactivity by group study on stimulating questions, innovative experiment, multi-media materials, and bilingual exercises etc.

  3. Navigating Teaching Tensions for Civic Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenstein, Ethan

    2010-01-01

    This article seeks to build on current and emerging conceptions of teacher expertise as they relate to education for civic engagement and social awareness in the university classroom context. I explore the notion of teaching tensions between vulnerability and authority, authenticity and distance, safety and challenge, disclosure and neutrality,…

  4. Competence and Performance in Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Jack C.

    2010-01-01

    In order to plan for the professional development of English language teachers, we need to have a comprehensive understanding of what competence and expertise in language teaching consists of. What essential skills, knowledge, values, attitudes and goals do language teachers need, and how can these be acquired? This paper seeks to explore these…

  5. Virtue, Practical Wisdom and Character in Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Sandra; Carr, David

    2014-01-01

    Recent reflection on the professional knowledge of teachers has been marked by a shift away from more reductive competence and skill-focused models of teaching towards a view of teacher expertise as involving complex context-sensitive deliberation and judgement. Much of this shift has been inspired by an Aristotelian conception of practical wisdom…

  6. Teaching, Teacher Formation, and Specialised Professional Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hordern, Jim

    2015-01-01

    This paper starts by exploring the relevance of Bernstein's work on vertical and horizontal discourses and the constitution of professional knowledge for conceptualisation of the knowledge needed for teaching practice. Building on arguments for the differentiated nature of knowledge, and drawing on the work of Winch, Young and Muller on expertise,…

  7. Professional Development to Promote Teacher Adaptability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Allison Ward; Ankrum, Julie Winneur; Morewood, Aimee

    2016-01-01

    Effective professional development (PD) follows adaptive teaching principles; it increases teacher understanding and instructional purpose, which ultimately supports and extends adaptive teaching. Through this article, we compare and contrast training models with educative models of PD (Duffy, 2004). We discuss characteristics of effective PD that…

  8. Adapted Aquatics and Inclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Martin E.; Conatser, Phillip

    2002-01-01

    Presents strategies and techniques to help instructors and directors promote successful inclusive aquatics programs for students with disabilities, discussing the importance of considering issues related to: teaching style, collaborative planning, goal determination, appropriate inclusive placement, personnel preparation, curriculum adaptation,…

  9. Science operations planning expertise: A neglected component of mission design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaizy, P. A.; Dimbylow, T. G.; Allan, P. M.; Hapgood, M. A.

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, Science Operations Planning Expertise (SOPE) is defined as the expertise that is held by people who have the two following qualities. First they have both theoretical and practical experience in operations planning, in general, and in space science operations planning in particular. Second, they can be used, on request and at least, to provide with advice the teams that design and implement science operations systems in order to optimise the performance and productivity of the mission. However, the relevance and use of such SOPE early on during the Mission Design Phase (MDP) is not sufficiently recognised. As a result, science operations planning is often neglected or poorly assessed during the mission definition phases. This can result in mission architectures that are not optimum in terms of cost and scientific returns, particularly for missions that require a significant amount of science operations planning. Consequently, science operations planning difficulties and cost underestimations are often realised only when it is too late to design and implement the most appropriate solutions. In addition, higher costs can potentially reduce both the number of new missions and the chances of existing ones to be extended. Moreover, the quality, and subsequently efficiency, of SOPE can vary greatly. This is why we also believe that the best possible type of SOPE requires a structure similar to the ones of existing bodies of expertise dedicated to the data processing such as the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA), the Space Physics Archive Search and Extract (SPASE) or the Planetary Data System (PDS). Indeed, this is the only way of efficiently identifying science operations planning issues and their solutions as well as of keeping track of them in order to apply them to new missions. Therefore, this paper advocates for the need to allocate resources in order to both optimise the use of SOPE early on during the MDP and to perform, at least, a

  10. How Well Do Computer-Generated Faces Tap Face Expertise?

    PubMed Central

    Crookes, Kate; Ewing, Louise; Gildenhuys, Ju-dith; Kloth, Nadine; Hayward, William G.; Oxner, Matt; Pond, Stephen; Rhodes, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    The use of computer-generated (CG) stimuli in face processing research is proliferating due to the ease with which faces can be generated, standardised and manipulated. However there has been surprisingly little research into whether CG faces are processed in the same way as photographs of real faces. The present study assessed how well CG faces tap face identity expertise by investigating whether two indicators of face expertise are reduced for CG faces when compared to face photographs. These indicators were accuracy for identification of own-race faces and the other-race effect (ORE)–the well-established finding that own-race faces are recognised more accurately than other-race faces. In Experiment 1 Caucasian and Asian participants completed a recognition memory task for own- and other-race real and CG faces. Overall accuracy for own-race faces was dramatically reduced for CG compared to real faces and the ORE was significantly and substantially attenuated for CG faces. Experiment 2 investigated perceptual discrimination for own- and other-race real and CG faces with Caucasian and Asian participants. Here again, accuracy for own-race faces was significantly reduced for CG compared to real faces. However the ORE was not affected by format. Together these results signal that CG faces of the type tested here do not fully tap face expertise. Technological advancement may, in the future, produce CG faces that are equivalent to real photographs. Until then caution is advised when interpreting results obtained using CG faces. PMID:26535910

  11. SPATIAL Short Courses Build Expertise and Community in Isotope Geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riggs, E. M.; Bowen, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    The SPATIAL short course at the University of Utah is designed for graduate students and professionals in the earth and environmental sciences from around the globe. An integral part of the broader, NSF-funded Inter-university Training for Continental-scale Ecology (ITCE) project, the course is an intensive two-week field, classroom and laboratory experience with internationally-known researchers as instructors. The course focuses on stable isotope geochemistry coupled with spatial analysis techniques. Participants do not typically know each other or this research community well upon entering. One of the stated goals of the overall project is to build a community of practice around these techniques. This design is common in many professional fields, but is not often applied at the graduate level nor formally assessed in the earth sciences. Paired pre- and post-tests were administered before the start and after the close of the short courses over 3 years. The survey is a set of instruments adapted from social-cognitive psychology measuring changes in identity and community with other items to measure content knowledge outcomes. We see a subtle, consistent convergence of identities between large-scale isotope geochemistry and participants' research areas. Results also show that the course generates an increase in understanding about stable isotopes' use and application. The data show the SPATIAL course is very effective at bringing students together socially with each other and with faculty to create an environment that fosters community and scientific cooperation. Semi-structured pre-and post- interviews were conducted to understand the program elements that generated gains in learning and community. Participants were selected based on initial responses on the pre-survey to capture the range of initial conditions for the group. Qualitative analysis shows that the major factors for participants were 1) ready access to researchers in an informal setting during the

  12. Moral Expertise in the Clinic: Lessons Learned from Medicine and Science.

    PubMed

    McClimans, Leah; Slowther, Anne

    2016-08-01

    Philosophers and others have questioned whether or not expertise in morality is possible. This debate is not only theoretical, but also affects the perceived legitimacy of clinical ethicists. One argument against moral expertise is that in a pluralistic society with competing moral theories no one can claim expertise regarding what another ought morally to do. There are simply too many reasonable moral values and intuitions that affect theory choice and its application; expertise is epistemically uniform. In this article, we discuss how similar concerns have recently threatened to undermine expertise in medicine and science. In contrast, we argue that the application of values is needed to exercise medical, scientific, and moral expertise. As long as these values are made explicit, worries about a pretense to authority in the context of a liberal democracy are ill-conceived. In conclusion, we argue for an expertise that is epistemically diverse.

  13. A phenomenological investigation of science center exhibition developers' expertise development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Denise L.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the exhibition developer role in the context of United States (U.S.) science centers, and more specifically, to investigate the way science center exhibition developers build their professional expertise. This research investigated how successfully practicing exhibition developers described their current practices, how they learned to be exhibition developers, and what factors were the most important to the developers in building their professional expertise. Qualitative data was gathered from 10 currently practicing exhibition developers from three science centers: the Exploratorium, San Francisco, California; the Field Museum, Chicago, Illinois; and the Science Museum of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota. In-depth, semistructured interviews were used to collect the data. The study embraced aspects of the phenomenological tradition and sought to derive a holistic understanding of the position and how expertise was built for it. The data were methodically coded and organized into themes prior to analysis. The data analysis found that the position consisted of numerous and varied activities, but the developers' primary roles were advocating for the visitor, storytelling, and mediating information and ideas. They conducted these activities in the context of a team and relied on an established exhibition planning process to guide their work. Developers described a process of learning exhibition development that was experiential in nature. Learning through daily practice was key, though they also consulted with mentors and relied on visitor studies to gauge the effectiveness of their work. They were adept at integrating prior knowledge gained from many aspects of their lives into their practice. The developers described several internal factors that contributed to their expertise development including the desire to help others, a natural curiosity about the world, a commitment to learning, and the ability to accept critique. They

  14. The art of assessment in psychology: ethics, expertise, and validity.

    PubMed

    Cates, J A

    1999-05-01

    Psychological assessment is a hybrid, both art and science. The empirical foundations of testing are indispensable in providing reliable and valid data. At the level of the integrated assessment, however, science gives way to art. Standards of reliability and validity account for the individual instrument; they do not account for the integration of data into a comprehensive assessment. This article examines the current climate of psychological assessment, selectively reviewing the literature of the past decade. Ethics, expertise, and validity are the components under discussion. Psychologists can and do take precautions to ensure that the "art" of their work holds as much merit as the science.

  15. Manual medicine - osteopathy in France organization - education - fields of expertise.

    PubMed

    Vautravers, P; Isner, M E; Blaes, C

    2010-06-01

    Manual medicine-osteopathy (MMO) is of keen interest among young doctors, generalists and specialists alike. Through a discerning semiological approach, MMO allows non-pharmaceutical physical treatments to be proposed for many musculoskeletal pathologies. In March 2007, some manual therapies (e.g., osteopathy), until then the exclusive preserve of physicians, were recognized in France as a part of the field of professional expertise of non-physicians. This new opening of the manual medicine profession must make non-physicians and physicians aware of their responsibilities.

  16. Teaching portfolios: documenting teaching.

    PubMed

    Regan-Smith, M G

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, teaching portfolios have been developed as a way teachers can document teaching scholarship and demonstrate their teaching accomplishments, skills, and strategies. Most medical schools reward good teaching, often with promotion on clinician-teacher tracks, thereby acknowledging the contributions made by clinical faculty who serve the academic mission as teachers. Teaching portfolios provide a means for teachers to demonstrate their teaching achievements and display their best work. This article gives recommendations for constructing a teaching portfolio and includes examples of what can be included.

  17. The Role of Expertise in Tool Use: Skill Differences in Functional Action Adaptations to Task Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bril, Blandine; Rein, Robert; Nonaka, Tetsushi; Wenban-Smith, Francis; Dietrich, Gilles

    2010-01-01

    Tool use can be considered a particularly useful model to understand the nature of functional actions. In 3 experiments, tool-use actions typified by stone knapping were investigated. Participants had to detach stone flakes from a flint core through a conchoidal fracture. Successful flake detachment requires controlling various functional…

  18. Education for Sustainable Development: Enhancing Climate Change Adaptation Expertise in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahey, Shireen; Verstraten, Luke; Berry, Ashton J.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results of an innovative education capacity assessment and delivery project to promote sustainable development in large ocean states in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) region. Science education can help prepare the present and coming generations for stability in an uncertain future. Limited financial, geographical and…

  19. Bioethics as politics: the limits of moral expertise.

    PubMed

    Powers, Madison

    2005-09-01

    The increasing reliance upon, and perhaps the growing public and professional skepticism about, the special expertise of bioethicists suggests the need to consider the limits of moral expertise. For all the talk about method in bioethics, we, bioethicists, are still rather far off the mark in understanding what we are doing, even when we may be going about what we are doing fairly well. Quite often, what is most fundamentally at stake, but equally often insufficiently acknowledged, are inherently political, essentially contested visions of the most compelling and attractive forms of life for individuals and social organization. The current situation in bioethics parallels similar debates in eighteenth-century jurisprudence, especially Jeremy Bentham's withering critique of the prevalent forms of judicial argument and his own, equally unsuccessful, attempt to develop a decision-making procedure in ethics that would operate on a plane above politics. The risk, both then and now, is that we will fail to appreciate the wide range of reasonable disagreement that will remain past the point of extended reflection and discussion.

  20. Forensic entomology: implementing quality assurance for expertise work.

    PubMed

    Gaudry, Emmanuel; Dourel, Laurent

    2013-09-01

    The Department of Forensic Entomology (Institut de Recherche Criminelle de la Gendarmerie Nationale, France) was accredited by the French Committee of Accreditation (Cofrac's Healthcare section) in October 2007 on the basis of NF EN ISO/CEI 17025 standard. It was the first accreditation in this specific field of forensic sciences in France and in Europe. The present paper introduces the accreditation process in forensic entomology (FE) through the experience of the Department of Forensic Entomology. Based upon the identification of necrophagous insects and the study of their biology, FE must, as any other expertise work in forensic sciences, demonstrate integrity and good working practice to satisfy both the courts and the scientific community. FE does not, strictly speaking, follow an analytical method. This could explain why, to make up for a lack of appropriate quality reference, a specific documentation was drafted and written by the staff of the Department of Forensic Entomology in order to define working methods complying with quality standards (testing methods). A quality assurance system is laborious to set up and maintain and can be perceived as complex, time-consuming and never-ending. However, a survey performed in 2011 revealed that the accreditation process in the frame of expertise work has led to new well-defined working habits, based on an effort at transparency. It also requires constant questioning and a proactive approach, both profitable for customers (magistrates, investigators) and analysts (forensic entomologists).

  1. Qualitative Understanding of Magnetism at Three Levels of Expertise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefani, Francesco; Marshall, Jill

    2010-03-01

    This work set out to investigate the state of qualitative understanding of magnetism at various stages of expertise, and what approaches to problem-solving are used across the spectrum of expertise. We studied three groups: 10 novices, 10 experts-in-training, and 11 experts. Data collection involved structured interviews during which participants solved a series of non-standard problems designed to test for conceptual understanding of magnetism. The interviews were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. None of the novices and only a few of the experts in training showed a strong understanding of inductance, magnetic energy, and magnetic pressure; and for the most part they tended not to approach problems visually. Novices frequently described gist memories of demonstrations, text book problems, and rules (heuristics). However, these fragmentary mental models were not complete enough to allow them to reason productively. Experts-in-training were able to solve problems that the novices were not able to solve, many times simply because they had greater recall of the material, and therefore more confidence in their facts. Much of their thinking was concrete, based on mentally manipulating objects. The experts solved most of the problems in ways that were both effective and efficient. Part of the efficiency derived from their ability to visualize and thus reason in terms of field lines.

  2. Qualitative Understanding of Magnetism at Three Levels of Expertise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefani, Francesco; Marshall, Jill

    2009-04-01

    This work set out to investigate the state of qualitative understanding of magnetism at various stages of expertise, and what approaches to problem-solving are used across the spectrum of expertise. We studied three groups: 10 novices, 10 experts-in-training, and 11 experts. Data collection involved structured interviews during which participants solved a series of non-standard problems designed to test for conceptual understanding of magnetism. The interviews were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. None of the novices and only a few of the experts in training showed a strong understanding of inductance, magnetic energy, and magnetic pressure; and for the most part they tended not to approach problems visually. Novices frequently described gist memories of demonstrations, text book problems, and rules (heuristics). However, these fragmentary mental models were not complete enough to allow them to reason productively. Experts-in-training were able to solve problems that the novices were not able to solve, many times simply because they had greater recall of the material, and therefore more confidence in their facts. Much of their thinking was concrete, based on mentally manipulating objects. The experts solved most of the problems in ways that were both effective and efficient. Part of the efficiency derived from their ability to visualize and thus reason in terms of field lines.

  3. Dynamic Patterns of Expertise: The Case of Orthopedic Medical Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Marwan, Norbert; Neuman, Yair; Salai, Moshe; Rath, Ehud

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze dynamic patterns for scanning femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) radiographs in orthopedics, in order to better understand the nature of expertise in radiography. Seven orthopedics residents with at least two years of expertise and seven board-certified orthopedists participated in the study. The participants were asked to diagnose 15 anteroposterior (AP) pelvis radiographs of 15 surgical patients, diagnosed with FAI syndrome. Eye tracking data were recorded using the SMI desk-mounted tracker and were analyzed using advanced measures and methodologies, mainly recurrence quantification analysis. The expert orthopedists presented a less predictable pattern of scanning the radiographs although there was no difference between experts and non-experts in the deterministic nature of their scan path. In addition, the experts presented a higher percentage of correct areas of focus and more quickly made their first comparison between symmetric regions of the pelvis. We contribute to the understanding of experts’ process of diagnosis by showing that experts are qualitatively different from residents in their scanning patterns. The dynamic pattern of scanning that characterizes the experts was found to have a more complex and less predictable signature, meaning that experts’ scanning is simultaneously both structured (i.e. deterministic) and unpredictable. PMID:27414794

  4. Dynamic Patterns of Expertise: The Case of Orthopedic Medical Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Assaf, Dan; Amar, Eyal; Marwan, Norbert; Neuman, Yair; Salai, Moshe; Rath, Ehud

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze dynamic patterns for scanning femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) radiographs in orthopedics, in order to better understand the nature of expertise in radiography. Seven orthopedics residents with at least two years of expertise and seven board-certified orthopedists participated in the study. The participants were asked to diagnose 15 anteroposterior (AP) pelvis radiographs of 15 surgical patients, diagnosed with FAI syndrome. Eye tracking data were recorded using the SMI desk-mounted tracker and were analyzed using advanced measures and methodologies, mainly recurrence quantification analysis. The expert orthopedists presented a less predictable pattern of scanning the radiographs although there was no difference between experts and non-experts in the deterministic nature of their scan path. In addition, the experts presented a higher percentage of correct areas of focus and more quickly made their first comparison between symmetric regions of the pelvis. We contribute to the understanding of experts' process of diagnosis by showing that experts are qualitatively different from residents in their scanning patterns. The dynamic pattern of scanning that characterizes the experts was found to have a more complex and less predictable signature, meaning that experts' scanning is simultaneously both structured (i.e. deterministic) and unpredictable.

  5. Experiencing Art: The Influence of Expertise and Painting Abstraction Level

    PubMed Central

    Pihko, Elina; Virtanen, Anne; Saarinen, Veli-Matti; Pannasch, Sebastian; Hirvenkari, Lotta; Tossavainen, Timo; Haapala, Arto; Hari, Riitta

    2011-01-01

    How does expertise influence the perception of representational and abstract paintings? We asked 20 experts on art history and 20 laypersons to explore and evaluate a series of paintings ranging in style from representational to abstract in five categories. We compared subjective esthetic judgments and emotional evaluations, gaze patterns, and electrodermal reactivity between the two groups of participants. The level of abstraction affected esthetic judgments and emotional valence ratings of the laypersons but had no effect on the opinions of the experts: the laypersons’ esthetic and emotional ratings were highest for representational paintings and lowest for abstract paintings, whereas the opinions of the experts were independent of the abstraction level. The gaze patterns of both groups changed as the level of abstraction increased: the number of fixations and the length of the scanpaths increased while the duration of the fixations decreased. The viewing strategies – reflected in the target, location, and path of the fixations – however indicated that experts and laypersons paid attention to different aspects of the paintings. The electrodermal reactivity did not vary according to the level of abstraction in either group but expertise was reflected in weaker responses, compared with laypersons, to information received about the paintings. PMID:21941475

  6. Multi-team dynamics and distributed expertise in imission operations.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Barrett S

    2005-06-01

    The evolution of space exploration has brought an increased awareness of the social and socio-technical issues associated with team performance and task coordination, both for the onboard astronauts and in mission control. Spaceflight operations create a unique environment in which to address classic group dynamics topics including communication, group process, knowledge development and sharing, and time-critical task performance. Mission operations in the early years of the 21st century have developed into a set of complex, multi-team task settings incorporating multiple mission control teams and flight crews interacting in novel ways. These more complex operational settings help highlight the emergence of a new paradigm of distributed supervisory coordination, and the need to consider multiple dimensions of expertise being supported and exchanged among team members. The creation of new mission profiles with very long-duration time scales (months, rather than days) for the International Space Station, as well as planned exploration missions to the Moon and Mars, emphasize fundamental distinctions from the 40 yr from Mercury to the Space Shuttle. Issues in distributed expertise and information flow in mission control settings from two related perspectives are described. A general conceptual view of knowledge sharing and task synchronization is presented within the context of the mission control environment. This conceptual presentation is supplemented by analysis of quasi-experimental data collected from actual flight controllers at NASA-Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX.

  7. Visual expertise for horses in a case of congenital prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Nilly; Mardo, Elite; Avidan, Galia

    2016-03-01

    A major question in the domain of face perception is whether faces comprise a distinct visual category that is processed by specialized mechanisms, or whether face processing merely represents an extreme case of visual expertise. Here, we examined O.H, a 22 years old woman with congenital prosopagnosia (CP), who despite her severe deficits in face processing, acquired superior recognition skills for horses. To compare the nature of face and horse processing, we utilised the inversion manipulation, known to disproportionally affect faces compared to other objects, with both faces and horses. O.H's performance was compared to data obtained from two control groups that were either horse experts, or non-experts. As expected, both control groups exhibited the face inversion effect, while O.H did not show the effect, but importantly, none of the participants showed an inversion effect for horses. Finally, gaze behaviour toward upright and inverted faces and horses was indicative of visual skill but in a distinct fashion for each category. Particularly, both control groups showed different gaze patterns for upright compared to inverted faces, while O.H presented a similar gaze pattern for the two orientations that differed from that of the two control groups. In contrast, O.H and the horse experts exhibited a similar gaze pattern for upright and inverted horses, while non-experts showed different gaze patterns for different orientations. Taken together, these results suggest that visual expertise can be acquired independently from the mechanisms mediating face recognition.

  8. Association and dissociation between detection and discrimination of objects of expertise: Evidence from visual search.

    PubMed

    Golan, Tal; Bentin, Shlomo; DeGutis, Joseph M; Robertson, Lynn C; Harel, Assaf

    2014-02-01

    Expertise in face recognition is characterized by high proficiency in distinguishing between individual faces. However, faces also enjoy an advantage at the early stage of basic-level detection, as demonstrated by efficient visual search for faces among nonface objects. In the present study, we asked (1) whether the face advantage in detection is a unique signature of face expertise, or whether it generalizes to other objects of expertise, and (2) whether expertise in face detection is intrinsically linked to expertise in face individuation. We compared how groups with varying degrees of object and face expertise (typical adults, developmental prosopagnosics [DP], and car experts) search for objects within and outside their domains of expertise (faces, cars, airplanes, and butterflies) among a variable set of object distractors. Across all three groups, search efficiency (indexed by reaction time slopes) was higher for faces and airplanes than for cars and butterflies. Notably, the search slope for car targets was considerably shallower in the car experts than in nonexperts. Although the mean face slope was slightly steeper among the DPs than in the other two groups, most of the DPs' search slopes were well within the normative range. This pattern of results suggests that expertise in object detection is indeed associated with expertise at the subordinate level, that it is not specific to faces, and that the two types of expertise are distinct facilities. We discuss the potential role of experience in bridging between low-level discriminative features and high-level naturalistic categories.

  9. Neural basis of nonanalytical reasoning expertise during clinical evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Durning, Steven J; Costanzo, Michelle E; Artino, Anthony R; Graner, John; van der Vleuten, Cees; Beckman, Thomas J; Wittich, Christopher M; Roy, Michael J; Holmboe, Eric S; Schuwirth, Lambert

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Understanding clinical reasoning is essential for patient care and medical education. Dual-processing theory suggests that nonanalytic reasoning is an essential aspect of expertise; however, assessing nonanalytic reasoning is challenging because it is believed to occur on the subconscious level. This assumption makes concurrent verbal protocols less reliable assessment tools. Methods Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to explore the neural basis of nonanalytic reasoning in internal medicine interns (novices) and board-certified staff internists (experts) while completing United States Medical Licensing Examination and American Board of Internal Medicine multiple-choice questions. Results The results demonstrated that novices and experts share a common neural network in addition to nonoverlapping neural resources. However, experts manifested greater neural processing efficiency in regions such as the prefrontal cortex during nonanalytical reasoning. Conclusions These findings reveal a multinetwork system that supports the dual-process mode of expert clinical reasoning during medical evaluation. PMID:25798328

  10. The development of expertise on an intelligent tutoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Debra Steele

    1989-01-01

    An initial examination was conducted of an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) developed for use in industry. The ITS, developed by NASA, simulated a satellite deployment task. More specifically, the PD (Payload Assist Module Deployment)/ICAT (Intelligent Computer Aided Training) System simulated a nominal Payload Assist Module (PAM) deployment. The development of expertise on this task was examined using three Flight Dynamics Officer (FDO) candidates who had no previous experience with this task. The results indicated that performance improved rapidly until Trial 5, followed by more gradual improvements through Trial 12. The performance dimensions measured included performance speed, actions completed, errors, help required, and display fields checked. Suggestions for further refining the software and for deciding when to expose trainees to more difficult task scenarios are discussed. Further, the results provide an initial demonstration of the effectiveness of the PD/ICAT system in training the nominal PAM deployment task and indicate the potential benefits of using ITS's for training other FDO tasks.

  11. Improving training for sensory augmentation using the science of expertise.

    PubMed

    Bertram, Craig; Stafford, Tom

    2016-09-01

    Sensory substitution and augmentation devices (SSADs) allow users to perceive information about their environment that is usually beyond their sensory capabilities. Despite an extensive history, SSADs are arguably not used to their fullest, both as assistive technology for people with sensory impairment or as research tools in the psychology and neuroscience of sensory perception. Studies of the non-use of other assistive technologies suggest one factor is the balance of benefits gained against the costs incurred. We argue that improving the learning experience would improve this balance, suggest three ways in which it can be improved by leveraging existing cognitive science findings on expertise and skill development, and acknowledge limitations and relevant concerns. We encourage the systematic evaluation of learning programs, and suggest that a more effective learning process for SSADs could reduce the barrier to uptake and allow users to reach higher levels of overall capacity.

  12. Unitizing worker expertise and maximizing the brain reward centers

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, Anthony Bert

    2010-01-01

    People are experts when it comes to the work they do; unfortunately their expertise is not utilized as frequently as it could be. More opportunities need to be provided that allow people to participate in the design of their work including: accident investigations, job planning, and process improvements. Many employers use some form of job hazard analysis process to identify and document hazards and controls, but the front line worker is rarely involved. This presentation will show the core principles supporting employee involvement, provide examples where workers had brilliant ideas but no one listened, and provide examples where workers were given the opportunity to use their expertise to improve occupational safety. According to Abraham Maslow's Hierarch of Needs model, one essential human need is to be innovative and solve problems. Advances in brain science have proven, through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, the brain reward pathway is activated when people are recognized for their intellectual contributions. As people contribute their expertise to improve occupational safety more frequently they will feel a sense of gratification. In addition, safety professionals will have more time to spend on strategic planning of emerging occupational safety issues. One effect of the current global recession is that SH&E professionals are asked to do more with less. Therefore, to be successful it is essential that SH&E professionals incorporate worker expertise in job planning. This will be illustrated in the presentation through an example where a worker had the answer to a difficult decision on appropriate personal protective equipment for a job but no one asked the worker for his idea during the job planning phase. Fortunately the worker was eventually consulted and his recommendation for the appropriate personal protective equipment for the job was implemented before work began. The goal of this presentation is to expand the awareness and

  13. EPA`s CRADA agreements: Sharing expertise with industry

    SciTech Connect

    Preuss, P.W.

    1994-12-31

    In the past, legal and institutional barriers have hindered government/industry partnerships from developing and marketing technologies for preventing, controlling, or cleaning up pollution. Many companies, struggling to translate their ideas into innovative technologies, have been held back by lack of access to scientific experts in a particular field or to highly specialized equipment. In 1986, Congress passed the Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA), which removed many of the barriers to the public-private partnerships needed to develop and commercialize innovative environmental technologies. The Act makes possible Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) between federal laboratories, industry, and academic institutions. CRADAs set forth the terms of government-industry collaboration and allow the free flow of ideas, expertise, and material essential to the development of commercially competitive technologies.

  14. Musical expertise affects neural bases of letter recognition.

    PubMed

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Manfredi, Mirella; Zani, Alberto; Adorni, Roberta

    2013-02-01

    It is known that early music learning (playing of an instrument) modifies functional brain structure (both white and gray matter) and connectivity, especially callosal transfer, motor control/coordination and auditory processing. We compared visual processing of notes and words in 15 professional musicians and 15 controls by recording their synchronized bioelectrical activity (ERPs) in response to words and notes. We found that musical training in childhood (from age ~8 years) modifies neural mechanisms of word reading, whatever the genetic predisposition, which was unknown. While letter processing was strongly left-lateralized in controls, the fusiform (BA37) and inferior occipital gyri (BA18) were activated in both hemispheres in musicians for both word and music processing. The evidence that the neural mechanism of letter processing differed in musicians and controls (being absolutely bilateral in musicians) suggests that musical expertise modifies the neural mechanisms of letter reading.

  15. Acquiring expertise. Technical report 1 October 80-30 September 83

    SciTech Connect

    Lesgold, A.M.

    1983-01-31

    This report reviews the roles played by knowledge and automatized skill in expert performance. Special attention is given to the importance of initial problem representations in expertise and to capacity limitations that make using such initial representations difficult at intermediate levels of skill. The role of strategy in skilled performance is discussed in light of the especial importance of domain specific knowledge to expertise. Suggestions are made for development of a theory of coaching based upon emerging cognitive psychological principles of expertise.

  16. Enhancing undergraduate teaching and research with a Drosophila virginizing system.

    PubMed

    Venema, Dennis R

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory exercises using Drosophila crosses are an effective pedagogical method to complement traditional lecture and textbook presentations of genetics. Undergraduate thesis research is another common setting for using Drosophila. A significant barrier to using Drosophila for undergraduate teaching or research is the time and skill required to accurately collect virgins for use in controlled crosses. Erroneously collecting males or nonvirgin females contaminates crosses with unintended genotypes and confounds the results. Collecting adequate numbers of virgins requires large amounts of time, even for those skilled in virgin collection. I have adapted an effective method for virgin collection that eliminates these concerns and is straightforward to use in undergraduate settings. Using a heat-shock-induced, conditional lethal transgene specifically in males, male larvae can be eliminated from a culture before adults eclose. Females thus eclose in the absence of males and remain virgin, eliminating the need to laboriously score and segregate freshly eclosed females. This method is reliable, easily adaptable to any desired phenotypic marker, and readily scaleable to provide sufficient virgins for large laboratory classes or undergraduate research projects. In addition, it allows instructors lacking Drosophila expertise to use this organism as a pedagogical tool.

  17. Enhancing Undergraduate Teaching and Research with a Drosophila Virginizing System

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory exercises using Drosophila crosses are an effective pedagogical method to complement traditional lecture and textbook presentations of genetics. Undergraduate thesis research is another common setting for using Drosophila. A significant barrier to using Drosophila for undergraduate teaching or research is the time and skill required to accurately collect virgins for use in controlled crosses. Erroneously collecting males or nonvirgin females contaminates crosses with unintended genotypes and confounds the results. Collecting adequate numbers of virgins requires large amounts of time, even for those skilled in virgin collection. I have adapted an effective method for virgin collection that eliminates these concerns and is straightforward to use in undergraduate settings. Using a heat-shock–induced, conditional lethal transgene specifically in males, male larvae can be eliminated from a culture before adults eclose. Females thus eclose in the absence of males and remain virgin, eliminating the need to laboriously score and segregate freshly eclosed females. This method is reliable, easily adaptable to any desired phenotypic marker, and readily scaleable to provide sufficient virgins for large laboratory classes or undergraduate research projects. In addition, it allows instructors lacking Drosophila expertise to use this organism as a pedagogical tool. PMID:17146043

  18. Interference between face and non-face domains of perceptual expertise: a replication and extension.

    PubMed

    Curby, Kim M; Gauthier, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    As car expertise increases, so does interference between the visual processing of faces and that of cars; this suggests performance trade-offs across domains of real-world expertise. Such interference between expert domains has been previously revealed in a relatively complex design, interleaving 2-back part-judgment task with faces and cars (Gauthier et al., 2003). However, the basis of this interference is unclear. Experiment 1A replicated the finding of interference between faces and cars, as a function of car expertise. Experiments 1B and 2 investigated the mechanisms underlying this effect by (1) providing baseline measures of performance and (2) assessing the specificity of this interference effect. Our findings support the presence of expertise-dependent interference between face and non-face domains of expertise. However, surprisingly, it is in the condition where faces are processed among cars with a disrupted configuration where expertise has a greater influence on faces. This finding highlights how expertise-related processing changes also occur for transformed objects of expertise and that such changes can also drive interference across domains of expertise.

  19. Why is the fusiform face area recruited for novel categories of expertise? A neurocomputational investigation.

    PubMed

    Tong, Matthew H; Joyce, Carrie A; Cottrell, Garrison W

    2008-04-02

    What is the role of the Fusiform Face Area (FFA)? Is it specific to face processing, or is it a visual expertise area? The expertise hypothesis is appealing due to a number of studies showing that the FFA is activated by pictures of objects within the subject's domain of expertise (e.g., cars for car experts, birds for birders, etc.), and that activation of the FFA increases as new expertise is acquired in the lab. However, it is incumbent upon the proponents of the expertise hypothesis to explain how it is that an area that is initially specialized for faces becomes recruited for new classes of stimuli. We dub this the "visual expertise mystery." One suggested answer to this mystery is that the FFA is used simply because it is a fine discrimination area, but this account has historically lacked a mechanism describing exactly how the FFA would be recruited for novel domains of expertise. In this study, we show that a neurocomputational model trained to perform subordinate-level discrimination within a visually homogeneous class develops transformations that magnify differences between similar objects, in marked contrast to networks trained to simply categorize the objects. This magnification generalizes to novel classes, leading to faster learning of new discriminations. We suggest this is why the FFA is recruited for new expertise. The model predicts that individual FFA neurons will have highly variable responses to stimuli within expertise domains.

  20. An Adaption of Gagné's Instructional Model to Increase the Teaching Effectiveness in the Classroom: The Impact in Romanian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilie, Marian D.

    2014-01-01

    Gagné's instructional events are more focused on the human internal learning process than on the learning context. This study fills this gap because it presents certain instructional events that are focused on the construction of a positive learning context through the teacher-student relationship. Therefore, it's proposing an adaption of Gagné's…

  1. Is It the Teaching or the Discipline? Influences of Disciplinary Epistemology and Pedagogy on Students Adapting Study Behaviour and Epistemological Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kember, David; Hong, Celina; Yau, Vickie; Ho, Amaly

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the pace and degree of adaptation of study behaviour and personal epistemological beliefs between school and university through interviews with 110 final-year university students. The study took place in Hong Kong, where the highly competitive school system encourages remembering modelling answers for the public examinations;…

  2. Inquiry Teaching in Clinical Periodontics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heins, Paul J.; Mackenzie, Richard S.

    1987-01-01

    An adaptation of the inquiry method of teaching, which develops skills of information retrieval and reasoning through systematic questioning by the teacher, is proposed for instruction in clinical periodontics. (MSE)

  3. Postural control and perceptive configuration: influence of expertise in gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Gautier, Geoffroy; Thouvarecq, Régis; Vuillerme, Nicolas

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of the present experiment was to investigate how postural adaptations to the perceptive configuration are modified by specific gymnastics experience. Two groups, one expert in gymnastics and the other non-expert, had to maintain the erected posture while optical flow was imposed as follows: 20s motionless, 30s approaching motion, and 20s motionless. The centre of pressure and head displacements were analysed. The postural adaptations were characterised by the variability of movements for the flow conditions and by the postural latencies for the flow transitions. The results showed that the gymnasts tended to minimise their body movements and were more stationary (head) but not more stable (COP) than the non-gymnasts. These results suggest that gymnastics experience develops a specific postural adaptability relative to the perceptive configuration. We conclude that a specific postural experience could be considered as an intrinsic constraint, which leads to modification in the patterns of functional adaptation in the perceptive motor space.

  4. Learning to teach effectively: Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics graduate teaching assistants' teaching self-efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dechenne, Sue Ellen

    Graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) from science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) are important in the teaching of undergraduate students (Golde & Dore, 2001). However, they are often poorly prepared for teaching (Luft, Kurdziel, Roehrig, & Turner, 2004). This dissertation addresses teaching effectiveness in three related manuscripts: (1) A position paper that summarizes the current research on and develops a model of GTA teaching effectiveness. (2) An adaptation and validation of two instruments; GTA perception of teaching training and STEM GTA teaching self-efficacy. (3) A model test of factors that predict STEM GTA teaching self-efficacy. Together these three papers address key questions in the understanding of teaching effectiveness in STEM GTAs including: (a) What is our current knowledge of factors that affect the teaching effectiveness of GTAs? (b) Given that teaching self-efficacy is strongly linked to teaching performance, how can we measure STEM GTAs teaching self-efficacy? (c) Is there a better way to measure GTA teaching training than currently exists? (d) What factors predict STEM GTA teaching self-efficacy? An original model for GTA teaching effectiveness was developed from a thorough search of the GTA teaching literature. The two instruments---perception of training and teaching self-efficacy---were tested through self-report surveys using STEM GTAs from six different universities including Oregon State University (OSU). The data was analyzed using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Using GTAs from the OSU colleges of science and engineering, the model of sources of STEM GTA teaching self-efficacy was tested by administering self-report surveys and analyzed by using OLS regression analysis. Language and cultural proficiency, departmental teaching climate, teaching self-efficacy, GTA training, and teaching experience affect GTA teaching effectiveness. GTA teaching self-efficacy is a second-order factor combined from self

  5. Development of Teaching Expertise Viewed through the Dreyfus Model of Skill Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Lucinda J.

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to explore development of skill acquisition in dental education, utilizing the Dreyfus and Dreyfus continuum. By identifying what skill progression may be recognized in the expert dental educator and what experiences appear to influence this growth, the knowledge gained may inform more efficient, effective faculty support,…

  6. The Importance of Automaticity for Developing Expertise in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, S. Jay; Flor, Richard F.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses how students become automatic at reading sub-skills, the indicators that can be used to determine whether a student is automatic, and the psychological mechanisms that allow students to perform complex skills automatically. Discusses implications of automaticity research for teaching reading. (RS)

  7. Assessing Student Evaluations of Resources: Approximation of Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Ernie

    2010-01-01

    Teaching the evaluation of information resources can be daunting for both students and educators. In an information environment in which resource types are ever-changing, how does the school librarian assess the evaluative skills of students? The assessments ought to reflect the malleable nature of online resources. To engage students in a…

  8. A Faculty Wellness Workshop Series: Leveraging On-Campus Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinthaupt, Thomas M.; Neal, Arielle; Otto, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Centers for Teaching and Learning (CTL) that suffer from funding and staffing issues must rely on outside resources to enhance their effectiveness. Even if funds and staff are adequate, most CTL can improve their reach and effectiveness by the partnerships they establish across their campuses. In this article, we describe a faculty wellness…

  9. Building Potential for Pilot Expertise: Can Understanding How People Think and Make Decisions Improve the Ability of Military Flight Training to Create Potential Pilot Expertise?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-24

    the video a girl in a full body gorilla suit walked into the middle of the scene, stopped in the middle of the players, faced the camera, thumped her...chest, and then walked off after spending nine seconds on the screen. Roughly half of the observers never saw the gorilla . The invisible gorilla ...of the invisible gorilla is expertise. Experienced basketball players are much more likely to Tempest – Building Potential for Pilot Expertise B

  10. Brain functional plasticity associated with the emergence of expertise in extreme language control.

    PubMed

    Hervais-Adelman, Alexis; Moser-Mercer, Barbara; Golestani, Narly

    2015-07-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to longitudinally examine brain plasticity arising from long-term, intensive simultaneous interpretation training. Simultaneous interpretation is a bilingual task with heavy executive control demands. We compared brain responses observed during simultaneous interpretation with those observed during simultaneous speech repetition (shadowing) in a group of trainee simultaneous interpreters, at the beginning and at the end of their professional training program. Age, sex and language-proficiency matched controls were scanned at similar intervals. Using multivariate pattern classification, we found distributed patterns of changes in functional responses from the first to second scan that distinguished the interpreters from the controls. We also found reduced recruitment of the right caudate nucleus during simultaneous interpretation as a result of training. Such practice-related change is consistent with decreased demands on multilingual language control as the task becomes more automatized with practice. These results demonstrate the impact of simultaneous interpretation training on the brain functional response in a cerebral structure that is not specifically linguistic, but that is known to be involved in learning, in motor control, and in a variety of domain-general executive functions. Along with results of recent studies showing functional and structural adaptations in the caudate nuclei of experts in a broad range of domains, our results underline the importance of this structure as a central node in expertise-related networks.

  11. Effect of expertise on coincident-timing accuracy in a fast ball game.

    PubMed

    Ripoll, H; Latiri, I

    1997-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of intensive practice in table tennis on perceptual coincident timing. The main question was whether the perceptual demands encountered in fast ball sports produce modifications of the perceptual visual system. Expert table tennis players and novices were compared in a perceptual task which consisted of estimating, by pressing a key, the arrival of a moving stimulus at a target. The stimulus, which was presented either at constant velocity or at constant deceleration, reproduced as closely as possible the natural visual demands encountered in table tennis. The difference between the time of response and the time of arrival of the stimulus at a target position was measured over 40 trials for each of the 16 participants. The results showed no effect of expertise under the constant-velocity condition but an effect under the decelerative condition, indicating that experts were less trajectory-dependent than novices. This result was interpreted as reflecting a better adaptation of the perceptual system of experts to the constraints encountered during table tennis and specifically to the perceptual demands resulting from varied and decelerated ball trajectories. Finally, some limitations of the coincidence anticipation procedure are highlighted, concerning its use in practical settings for evaluating athletes or detecting sport talents, and the need for the simulation conditions during testing to reproduce as closely as possible the perceptual demands of real life is discussed.

  12. The evolution of teaching.

    PubMed

    Fogarty, L; Strimling, P; Laland, K N

    2011-10-01

    Teaching, alongside imitation, is widely thought to underlie the success of humanity by allowing high-fidelity transmission of information, skills, and technology between individuals, facilitating both cumulative knowledge gain and normative culture. Yet, it remains a mystery why teaching should be widespread in human societies but extremely rare in other animals. We explore the evolution of teaching using simple genetic models in which a single tutor transmits adaptive information to a related pupil at a cost. Teaching is expected to evolve where its costs are outweighed by the inclusive fitness benefits that result from the tutor's relatives being more likely to acquire the valuable information. We find that teaching is not favored where the pupil can easily acquire the information on its own, or through copying others, or for difficult to learn traits, where teachers typically do not possess the information to pass on to relatives. This leads to a narrow range of traits for which teaching would be efficacious, which helps to explain the rarity of teaching in nature, its unusual distribution, and its highly specific nature. Further models that allow for cumulative cultural knowledge gain suggest that teaching evolved in humans because cumulative culture renders otherwise difficult-to-acquire valuable information available to teach.

  13. Predictors of Involvement in Online Teaching among Faculty in Technical Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunay, Nihal

    2013-01-01

    The student demand for online learning is forcing college administrators to identify faculty who have expertise in their discipline, technological skills sufficient to navigate the demands of online teaching, and willingness to be involved in online teaching. Before this work had been started, the review of literature indicated that research had…

  14. Problems in Teaching the Topic of Redox Reactions: Actions and Conceptions of Chemistry Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Jong, Onno; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents a case study of problems that can occur when teaching the topic of redox reactions to grade-11 students. Concludes that the teachers' scientific expertise is an important source of difficulties when teaching redox reactions. Discusses implications for improvement of current chemistry classroom practice and content-related teacher…

  15. Modelling Human Teaching Tactics and Strategies for Tutoring Systems: 14 Years On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    du Boulay, Benedict; Luckin, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    Our original paper tried to characterize the richness of the teaching repertoire of expert human teachers and to give a sense of how far there still was to go in the development of pedagogic expertise in AIED systems. It considered three ways in which more expert teaching strategies and tactics might be developed. These were via (i) the…

  16. New Trade and Industrial Teachers' Perceptions of Formal Learning versus Informal Learning and Teaching Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Janet Z.; Schaefer, Karen; Hayden, Jessie M.

    2005-01-01

    Trade and industrial (T&I) teachers enter the classroom as content level experts who may have acquired their content expertise through a combination of formal industry training and informal on-the-job experiences. When they make the career transition from industry to teaching, they must acquire professional teaching competencies. Like the content…

  17. The Role of Initial Attack and Performer Expertise on Instrument Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Jane W.; Schlegel, Amanda L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role initial attack and expertise play in the identification of instrumental tones. A stimulus CD was made of 32 excerpts of instrumental tones. Sixteen possible combinations of the variables of initial attack (present or absent), expertise (beginner versus professional), and timbre (flute, clarinet,…

  18. The Curse of Expertise: When More Knowledge Leads to Miscalibrated Explanatory Insight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Matthew; Keil, Frank C.

    2016-01-01

    Does expertise within a domain of knowledge predict accurate self-assessment of the ability to explain topics in that domain? We find that expertise increases confidence in the ability to explain a wide variety of phenomena. However, this confidence is unwarranted; after actually offering full explanations, people are surprised by the limitations…

  19. Normal acquisition of expertise with greebles in two cases of acquired prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Rezlescu, Constantin; Barton, Jason J S; Pitcher, David; Duchaine, Bradley

    2014-04-08

    Face recognition is generally thought to rely on different neurocognitive mechanisms than most types of objects, but the specificity of these mechanisms is debated. One account suggests the mechanisms are specific to upright faces, whereas the expertise view proposes the mechanisms operate on objects of high within-class similarity with which an observer has become proficient at rapid individuation. Much of the evidence cited in support of the expertise view comes from laboratory-based training experiments involving computer-generated objects called greebles that are designed to place face-like demands on recognition mechanisms. A fundamental prediction of the expertise hypothesis is that recognition deficits with faces will be accompanied by deficits with objects of expertise. Here we present two cases of acquired prosopagnosia, Herschel and Florence, who violate this prediction: Both show normal performance in a standard greeble training procedure, along with severe deficits on a matched face training procedure. Herschel and Florence also meet several response time criteria that advocates of the expertise view suggest signal successful acquisition of greeble expertise. Furthermore, Herschel's results show that greeble learning can occur without normal functioning of the right fusiform face area, an area proposed to mediate greeble expertise. The marked dissociation between face and greeble expertise undermines greeble-based claims challenging face-specificity and indicates face recognition mechanisms are not necessary for object recognition after laboratory-based training.

  20. Nursing expertise: a course of ambiguity and evolution in a concept.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Marie; Higson, Mary; Cleary, Michelle; Jackson, Debra

    2016-12-01

    In this article, we clarify and describe the nature of nursing expertise and provide a framework to guide its identification and further development. To have utility and rigour, concept-driven research and theories of practice require underlying concepts that are robust, valid and reliable. Advancing understanding of a concept requires careful attention to explicating its knowledge, metaphors and conceptual meaning. Examining the concepts and metaphors of nursing expertise, and how they have been interpreted into the nursing discourse, we aimed to synthesise definitions and similarities between concepts and elicit the defining characteristics and properties of nursing expertise. In clarifying the concept, we sought to move beyond the ambiguity that currently surrounds expertise in nursing and unravel it to make explicit the characteristics of nursing expertise from published peer-reviewed studies and structured literature synthesis. Findings indicate a lack of clarity surrounding the use of the term expertise. Traditional reliance upon intuition as a way of explaining expert performance is slowly evolving. Emerging from the analysis is a picture of expertise as the relationship between networks of contextual reasoning, understanding and practice. Striking absences in the discourse include limited explication of ethical reasoning and theorising a broader interpretation of expertise reflective of contemporary forms of nursing.

  1. Self-Processes and Learning Environment as Influences in the Development of Expertise in Instructional Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ge, Xun; Hardre, Patricia L.

    2010-01-01

    A major challenge for learning theories is to illuminate how particular kinds of learning experiences and environments promote the development of expertise. Research has been conducted into novice-expert differences in various domains, but few studies have examined the processes involved in learners' expertise development. In an attempt to…

  2. Rethinking a Writing Teacher's Expertise: Following Students under the Kitchen Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Maja

    2010-01-01

    In society, expertise bestows directive power--the authority to tell others what to do and how to do it, or simply to do it for them. In a school system that still operates on an authoritarian model, the author's expertise as a writer and teacher gives her directive prerogative when responding to student writing. Traditionally, teachers have used…

  3. [The reconstruction of gunshot circumstances by means of situational forensic medical expertise].

    PubMed

    Kolkutin, V V; Makarov, I Iu; Evteeva, I A

    2012-01-01

    The authors discuss the objective potential of situational forensic medical expertise for the determination of the direction and the distance of a gunshot as well as the position of the gun in the shooter's hand. The use of fundamental theoretical propositions determining the essence of the form of expertise being considered is illustrated by an example from forensic medical practice.

  4. Developing Teachers' Professional Expertise through Collaboration in an Innovative ICT-Based Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasku-Puttonen, Helena; Etelapelto, Anneli; Lehtonen, Olli; Nummila, Leena; Hakkinen, Paivi

    2004-01-01

    Recent research emphasizes the context-specific nature of professional knowledge and expertise, implying that developing novel practices in authentic environments is a prerequisite for teachers' professional development. The aim of this study was to find out how teachers develop their practical knowledge and expertise through shared planning and…

  5. Expertise in Auditing: Case Representation Differences between Economy Students, Novice, Intermediate and Expert Auditors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaatstra, Rina F.; And Others

    Medical expertise research methods were used to explore the relationship between auditing expertise and case representation. Subjects were 8 first-year economy students, 8 fourth-year auditing students, 8 postgraduate students in auditing, and 8 experienced auditors in the Netherlands, ranging in experience from only a limited knowledge of…

  6. Intensive Use of ICT in School: Developing Differences in Students' ICT Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilomaki, Liisa; Rantanen, Pirkko

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the development of students' high-level computer skills and competence (student expertise) in information and communication technology (ICT), and to examine the characteristics of such expertise. Eighteen lower secondary school students, selected to represent both genders and all school achievement levels,…

  7. Transfer of Expertise: An Eye Tracking and Think Aloud Study Using Dynamic Medical Visualizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gegenfurtner, Andreas; Seppanen, Marko

    2013-01-01

    Expertise research has produced mixed results regarding the problem of transfer of expertise. Is expert performance context-bound or can the underlying processes be applied to more general situations? The present study tests whether expert performance and its underlying processes transfer to novel tasks within a domain. A mixed method study using…

  8. Are Expert Users Always Better Searchers? Interaction of Expertise and Semantic Grouping in Hypertext Search Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmeron, L.; Canas, J. J.; Fajardo, I.

    2005-01-01

    The facilitative effect of expertise in hypertext information retrieval (IR) tasks has been widely reported in related literature. However, recent theories of human expertise question the robustness of this result, since previous works have not fully considered the interaction between user and system characteristics. In this study, the constraint…

  9. Computer-Based Scaffolding to Facilitate Students' Development of Expertise in Academic Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proske, Antje; Narciss, Susanne; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2012-01-01

    Research on expert performance suggests that deliberate practice provides optimal opportunities for expertise development. This study examined whether the provision of computer-based scaffolding (CBS) guiding deliberate practice facilitates students' development of writing expertise. A CBS environment "escribo" was designed to externally…

  10. Defining Expertise across Nations: Myth or Reality of a Global Definition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germain, Marie-Line; Ruiz, Carlos E.

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge acquisition and knowledge management have become central managerial themes and skills in the 21st century workplace; so has human expertise. The importance of finding and developing talented "experts" is now a requisite activity of all competitive organizations. This exploratory research investigates how the concept of expertise is…

  11. Insanity, methamphetamine and psychiatric expertise in New Zealand courtrooms.

    PubMed

    Thom, Katey; Finlayson, Mary; McKenna, Brian

    2011-06-01

    The use of methamphetamine in New Zealand has increased significantly over the last decade. Due to the potential of methamphetamine to induce, exacerbate and precipitate psychotic symptoms, this drug has also taken centre stage in several criminal trials considering the sanity of defendants. Highly publicised and often involving contested expert evidence, these criminal trials have illustrated the limits of using psychiatric expertise to answer legal questions. This article considers the implications of such cases in light of material from a qualitative study that aimed to generate insights into the difficulties forensic psychiatrists and their instructing lawyers face when providing expert evidence on the relationship between methamphetamine, psychosis and insanity. It reports material from 31 in-depth interviews with lawyers and forensic psychiatrists and observation of one criminal trial that considered the relationship between methamphetamine and legal insanity. The findings are correlated with the clinical and medico-legal literature on the topic and subjected to scrutiny through the lens of "sanism". The article concludes that the continued use of forensic psychiatry to meet the legal objectives of insanity, where methamphetamine is involved, has the potential to reinforce sanist attitudes and practices.

  12. Elliott's ethics of expertise proposal and application: a dangerous precedent.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Edward J

    2007-06-01

    In a recent paper in Science and Engineering Ethics (SEE) Elliott proposed an ethics of expertise, providing its theoretical foundation along with its application in a case study devoted to the topic of hormesis. The application is based on a commentary in the journal Nature, and it includes assertions of ethical breaches. Elliott concludes that the authors of the commentary failed to promote the informed consent of decision makers by not providing representative information about alternative frequency estimates of hormesis in the literature, thereby hindering the capacity of the scientific community to promote informed consent relating to chemical regulation. This paper argues that Elliott should have incorporated due process into his system of evaluation. His argument is also seriously deficient technically, in that it misinterprets the toxicological issues, misrepresents the scientific literature with respect to the frequency of hormesis, and incorrectly assesses the extent to which the Nature paper revealed opposing/alternative views on hormesis. Given the seriousness of assertions of noncompliance to ethical norms, there must be procedures to protect those whose ethics were called into question, to fairly evaluate the technical justification for an assertion, and to enable corrections in the event of errors. If a journal is willing to publish assertions that individuals acted in an ethically questionable way, it should be guided by a documented code of ethics and meet a standard of responsibility far greater than normal peer-review processes for papers that do not entail such ethical judgments.

  13. Expertise about herbs and dietary supplements among diverse health professionals

    PubMed Central

    Kemper, Kathi J; Gardiner, Paula; Gobble, Jessica; Woods, Charles

    2006-01-01

    Background Herbs and other dietary supplements are among the most commonly used complementary medical therapies. However, clinicians generally have limited knowledge, confidence and communication about herbs and dietary supplements (HDS). We compared diverse clinicians' expertise about HDS to better target future curricula. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of physicians, pharmacists, nurses, dietitians and trainees in these professions prior to e-curriculum about HDS in 2004–2005. The survey had 28 questions about knowledge, 19 questions about their confidence and 11 questions about their communication practices about HDS. Results Of the 1,268 participants, 25% were male; the average age was 40 years. Mean scores were 66% correct for knowledge; 53/95 on the confidence scale and 2.2 out of possible 10 on the communication practices scale. On average, scores were lowest for those who used fewer HDS; and trainees and nurses compared with physicians, pharmacists and dietitians (P<0.01 for all comparisons). Conclusion Clinicians have moderate levels of knowledge and confidence, but poor communication skills about HDS. Future curricula about HDS should target nurses, students, practitioners and those not currently using HDS. Research is needed to determine the most cost-effective educational strategies for diverse health professionals. PMID:16646964

  14. Visual attention and expertise for forensic signature analysis.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Adrian G; Found, Bryan; Rogers, Doug

    2006-11-01

    Eye tracking was used to measure visual attention of nine forensic document examiners (FDEs) and 12 control subjects on a blind signature comparison trial. Subjects evaluated 32 questioned signatures (16 genuine, eight disguised, and eight forged) which were compared, on screen, with four known signatures of the specimen provider while their eye movements, response times, and opinions were recorded. FDEs' opinions were significantly more accurate than controls, providing further evidence of FDE expertise. Both control and FDE subjects looked at signature features in a very similar way and the difference in the accuracy of their opinions can be accounted for by different cognitive processing of the visual information that they extract from the images. In a separate experiment the FDEs re-examined a reordered set of the same 32 questioned signatures. In this phase each signature was presented for only 100 msec to test if eye movements are relevant in forming opinions; performance significantly dropped, but not to chance levels indicating that the examination process comprises a combination of both global and local feature extraction strategies.

  15. Hello World! - Experiencing Usability Methods without Usability Expertise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, Elina; Cajander, Åsa; Gulliksen, Jan

    How do you do usability work when no usability expertise is available? What happens in an organization when system developers, with no previous HCI knowledge, after a 3-day course, start applying usability methods, and particularly field studies? In order to answer these questions qualitative data were gathered through participatory observations, a feed back survey, field study documentation and interviews from 47 system developers from a public authority. Our results suggest that field studies enhance the developer’s understanding of the user perspective, and provide a more holistic overview of the use situation, but that some developers were unable to interpret their observations and see solutions to the users’ problems. The field study method was very much appreciated and has now become standard operating procedure within the organization. However, although field studies may be useful, it does not replace the need for usability pro fes sion als, as their knowledge is essential for more complex observations, analysis and for keeping the focus on usability.

  16. The effects of alphabet and expertise on letter perception.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Robert W; Wilson, Colin; Rapp, Brenda

    2016-08-01

    Long-standing questions in human perception concern the nature of the visual features that underlie letter recognition and the extent to which the visual processing of letters is affected by differences in alphabets and levels of viewer expertise. We examined these issues in a novel approach using a same-different judgment task on pairs of letters from the Arabic alphabet with 2 participant groups: 1 with no prior exposure to Arabic and 1 with reading proficiency. Hierarchical clustering and linear mixed-effects modeling of reaction times and accuracy provide evidence that both the specific characteristics of the alphabet and observers' previous experience with it affect how letters are perceived and visually processed. The findings of this research further our understanding of the multiple factors that affect letter perception and support the view of a visual system that dynamically adjusts its weighting of visual features as expert readers come to more efficiently and effectively discriminate the letters of the specific alphabet they are viewing. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Effects of expertise and auditory guidance on traditional dance performance.

    PubMed

    Sofianidis, George; Hatzitaki, Vassilia; McKinley, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how the dancer's level of expertise and the type of auditory guidance provided influence the kinematic profile of the lower limbs during traditional dance performance. Ten experts in traditional Greek dance (age: 25±3.29 years, five males and five females) and eleven novice participants (age: 26.45±3.88 years, six males and five females), all Greek natives, performed a series of Greek and Irish dance steps with auditory guidance of the metrics (verbal counting) and the music of the respective dances. An electromagnetic tracking system sampled (at 100 Hz) the angular displacement of the two lower legs about the Mediolateral axis during dance performance. Segment rotations were analyzed in the time and frequency domain. Expert dancers displayed significantly lower variability of lower leg rotation and stronger interlimb coupling when compared to novice performers. In novice performers, the power of the lower limb angular displacement extended to higher frequencies when dance performance was guided by music compared to metrical guidance. The addition of music and the origin of the dance interfered with performance for novices but not experienced dancers. Kinematic analysis of the lower limbs may open a new window for the investigation of learning and auditory guidance effects on dance performance.

  18. Developing English Communication Expertise for Engineers in the Global Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Yoshimasa A.; Morimura, Kumiko

    This paper discusses contents and results of a new graduate course “English for Engineers and Scientists” given at School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo. This course is a new attempt to develop English communication expertise for engineering graduate students: how to write technical papers and how to make technical presentations in English. For these purposes, differences in the writing styles and in the sentence structures of English and Japanese are stressed: conclusions come first in English versus conclusions come last in Japanese; the three-step style of introduction, body, and conclusion in English versus the four-step style of ki-sho-ten-ketsu in Japanese. In addition, proper styles of technical papers (rhetoric) and related grammatical points are discussed. Technical presentation course consists of four-week lecture and seven-week practice session. In the lecture, essential points of technical presentations in English are discussed in detail, and in the practice session students‧ presentation skills are improved through guidance and instructions given by native-speaker moderators. The class evaluation results show that most students have obtained necessary skills of technical presentation, indicating that the combined course of lecture and practice session is essential for training students to make better technical presentations in English.

  19. The role of volleyball expertise in motor simulation.

    PubMed

    Tomasino, Barbara; Guatto, Elisa; Rumiati, Raffaella Ida; Fabbro, Franco

    2012-01-01

    We explored the impact of motor experience on the interaction between implicit motor simulation and language-processing. In an action familiarity judgment task, expert volleyball players, fans and novices were presented with semantically correct sentences describing possible and not possible motor actions, all as negative or positive contexts, e.g., "Don't shank!" or "Assist!". As processing negated action-phrases is known to reduce simulation states, exposure to negative or positive contexts was used here to test how simulation varies according to motor feasibility (possible, impossible) and experience (experts and fans). A significant group×stimulus×context interaction showed that athletes and fans, took longer to process negative than positive contexts for possible actions, compared to action-impossible sentences. In addition, experts were significantly faster and more accurate than fans and, in turn, they were both more accurate than novices. Thus, implicit motor simulation impacts on action-verb processing depending on (i) the domain-relevant expertise, (ii) the feasibility of the actions, and (iii) on whether scenes are presented in a negated context. These results suggest that the implicit triggering of motor representations is modulated by the context and it is tuned to people's motor repertoire, even when actions are described linguistically.

  20. The Curse of Expertise: When More Knowledge Leads to Miscalibrated Explanatory Insight.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Matthew; Keil, Frank C

    2016-07-01

    Does expertise within a domain of knowledge predict accurate self-assessment of the ability to explain topics in that domain? We find that expertise increases confidence in the ability to explain a wide variety of phenomena. However, this confidence is unwarranted; after actually offering full explanations, people are surprised by the limitations in their understanding. For passive expertise (familiar topics), miscalibration is moderated by education; those with more education are accurate in their self-assessments (Experiment 1). But when those with more education consider topics related to their area of concentrated study (college major), they also display an illusion of understanding (Experiment 2). This "curse of expertise" is explained by a failure to recognize the amount of detailed information that had been forgotten (Experiment 3). While expertise can sometimes lead to accurate self-knowledge, it can also create illusions of competence.

  1. Variation of Linear and Nonlinear Parameters in the Swim Strokes According to the Level of Expertise.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Tiago M; Goh, Wan Xiu; Morais, Jorge E; Costa, Mário J

    2016-08-19

    The aim was to examine the variation of linear and nonlinear proprieties of the behaviour in participants with different levels of swimming expertise among the four swim strokes. Seventy-five swimmers were split into three groups (highly qualified experts, experts and non-experts) and performed a maximal 25m trial for each of the four competitive swim strokes. A speed-meter cable was attached to the swimmer's hip to measure hip speed; from which speed fluctuation (dv), approximate entropy (ApEn) and fractal dimension (D) variables were derived. Although simple main effects of expertise and swim stroke were obtained for dv and D, no significant interaction of expertise and stroke were found except in ApEn. The ApEn and D were prone to decrease with increasing expertise. As a conclusion, swimming does exhibit nonlinear properties but its magnitude differs according to the swim stroke and level of expertise of the performer.

  2. Reflections on clinical expertise and silent know-how in voice therapy.

    PubMed

    Iwarsson, Jenny

    2015-07-01

    The concept of 'clinical expertise' is described as a part of evidence-based practice (EBP) together with 'external scientific evidence' and 'patient values and perspectives'. However, clinical expertise in the management of voice disorders has not been described or discussed in much detail. The expertise seems to consist partly of silent know-how that, from the outside, may seem improperly related to the personality of the speech-language pathologist or exclusively dependent on the number of years in the field. In this paper, it is suggested that clinical expertise in voice therapy consists of specific skills that can be explicitly described and trained. These skills are discussed together with educational aspects that contribute to the development of clinical expertise. The skills are also discussed from the perspectives of the past, present, and future.

  3. Growing our own: teaching and doing research in CLS.

    PubMed

    Rohde, Rodney E; Falleur, David M; Redwine, Gerald D; Patterson, Thomas L

    2010-01-01

    The shortage of clinical laboratory scientists (CLS) has been well-documented in the healthcare environment. This growing concern only becomes more critical as we enter the retiring baby boomer era in our society. Concomitantly, the problem of addressing how university CLS programs recruit and retain faculty to teach and satisfy research agendas is not being studied. These two problems, if allowed to collide, will provide a "perfect storm" with serious implications for an ongoing shortage of personnel and overall quality for the profession. CLS faculty, in the university setting, must typically satisfy the three tenets for tenure and promotion - teaching, scholarship, and service. While teaching and service will always be critical, scholarship (research) is an area of expertise that must be "taught" and mentored for future CLS faculty to be successful in the very real arena of "publish or perish". This article provides a commentary with specific details associated with our experience in offering an evolving dedicated CLS clinical research course to purposively "grow our own" students in the art of conducting successful research. It offers a flexible template for adapting or incorporating a lecture and laboratory course to address theoretical and practical knowledge in the realm of clinical research. Additionally, a discussion of other research mentoring activities in our program will be outlined. The long term goal (and hope) of these program objectives is to build a culture of research for current faculty and for CLS graduates. This paper provides an approach to embedding these research ideals in all CLS graduates and, importantly, an intentional attempt to create a mindset for a possible career as a future CLS faculty member who can be successful in both the university and clinical environment.

  4. Fostering and Measuring General Scientific Reasoning Expertise at the Second Year Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, F. M.; Jellinek, M.; Bostock, M. G.

    2010-12-01

    Geoscience faculty members often debate about the definition and development of scientific expertise. Some will argue it emerges at the graduate level, others that novice students can develop relevant skills. The debate hinges on definitions of “expertise”, “scientific skills” and how these abilities are assessed. We present data from a second year geoscience course specifically designed to help research scientists foster generic skills associated with critical scientific thinking, presentation, and framing of scientific arguments and questions. To develop the course, key characteristics that professional scientists exhibit were identified from the literature and our experience. These are the abilities to: a) read critically; b) succinctly summarize and communicate; c) pose insightful questions; d) use and discuss models, data and their relationships; and e) work effectively as part of a team. To help with learning and assessment of these skills in students who do not yet have significant discipline-specific background, classroom practices were chosen so that students must think and act more like professional scientists. These include use of some team-based learning strategies, replacing exams with quizzes and projects, mixing team-teaching with solo-teaching, discursive rather than didactic instruction, and use of diverse topics representative of research in our Department. Specific strategies employed which enable “master geoscientists” to actively guide and assess novices as they practice desired skills are: homework involving reading, writing abstracts and posing questions for one or two articles each week, pre-post testing of model based reasoning abilities, interaction with guest scientists, and oral and poster presentations on topics chosen by students. Results of collecting data over two terms of using these general and specific strategies include: 1. Abstract writing skills improved during the first two thirds of the course, then leveled off in

  5. Developing Trainee School Teachers' Expertise as Health Promoters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speller, Viv; Byrne, Jenny; Dewhirst, Sue; Almond, Palo; Mohebati, Lisa; Norman, Melanie; Polack, Sarah; Memon, Anjum; Grace, Marcus; Margetts, Barrie; Roderick, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report the outcome of an education and public health collaboration investigating the impact of adapted training to enhance teachers' potential role to promote child health and wellbeing. Design/methodology/approach: The study was conducted in three phases: a survey of the health education content in…

  6. In Their Own Words: Teachers' Reflections on Adaptability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Margaret; Parsons, Seth A.; Burrowbridge, Sarah Cohen; Weesner, Janice; Taylor, Laurel

    2016-01-01

    Current research explores adaptability by gathering teachers' reflections on their adaptations. However, the field knows little of what the term "adaptability" means to teachers who currently teach in today's educational context. In this article, adaptability is discussed from the perspectives of 3 practicing classroom educators,…

  7. Cinemeducation: teaching family assessment skills using full-length movies.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Astrid H; Blake, Barbara J; Taylor, Gloria A; Hannings, Glenda

    2013-05-01

    A thorough family assessment provides a foundation for the nursing process when working with families. Therefore, nurses, along with other health care providers must develop expertise in conducting family assessments to provide the best possible care within the community. This article describes an innovative educational strategy using movies to teach family assessment skills and puts forth recommendations for future research to provide evidence to support this teaching modality.

  8. Vocational thresholds: developing expertise without certainty in general practice medicine.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Karen

    2016-06-01

    INTRODUCTION This paper argues that particular experiences in the workplace are more important than others and can lead to transformational learning. This may enable practitioners to cross 'vocational thresholds' to new ways of being. AIM A notion of 'vocational thresholds' is developed, aiming to help build an understanding of the most powerful learning experiences of general practitioners (GPs). Vocational thresholds takes its cue from the idea of 'threshold concepts' - concepts that transform perspectives and integrate previously disconnected or hidden knowledge, sometimes in ways that are 'troublesome' to previously held beliefs. METHODS The paper is based on a thematic analysis of 57 GPs' brief written accounts of a particularly powerful learning experience during their development. Accounts were provided in a conference session about an ongoing study of workplace-based structured learning arrangements in the fields of general practice medicine, engineering, and building. FINDINGS Most GPs' accounts focused on development of dispositional attributes that moved them to a new understanding of themselves in relation to their work and patients. Just under two-thirds picked out informal and formal collegial relationships within purposeful learning arrangements as pivotal. A third picked out direct experiences with patients as shifting their perspective. CONCLUSION The emergent idea of vocational thresholds is offered as a way to frame the most important learning experiences identified by GPs. It supports a focus in early and ongoing development beyond accumulating clinical expertise and skills (knowing and doing), to dispositional capability (being) - vital for practitioners negotiating inherent and daily uncertainty. KEYWORDS General practitioners; Medical education; Vocational education; Identity; Learning experiences; Threshold concepts.

  9. Both novelty and expertise increase action observation network activity

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Sook-Lei; Sheng, Tong; Margetis, John L.; Aziz-Zadeh, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Our experiences with others affect how we perceive their actions. In particular, activity in bilateral premotor and parietal cortices during action observation, collectively known as the action observation network (AON), is modulated by one's expertise with the observed actions or individuals. However, conflicting reports suggest that AON activity is greatest both for familiar and unfamiliar actions. The current study examines the effects of different types and amounts of experience (e.g., visual, interpersonal, personal) on AON activation. fMRI was used to scan 16 healthy participants without prior experience with individuals with amputations (novices), 11 experienced occupational therapists (OTs) who had varying amounts of experience with individuals with amputations, and one individual born with below-elbow residual limbs (participant CJ), as they viewed video clips of goal-matched actions performed by an individual with residual limbs and by an individual with hands. Participants were given increased visual exposure to actions performed by both effectors midway through the scanning procedure. Novices demonstrated a large AON response to the initial viewing of an individual with residual limbs compared to one with hands, but this signal was attenuated after they received visual exposure to both effectors. In contrast, OTs, who had moderate familiarity with residual limbs, demonstrated a lower AON response upon initial viewing—similar to novices after they received visual exposure. At the other extreme, CJ, who has extreme familiarity with residual limbs both visually and motorically, shows a largely increased left-lateralized AON response, exceeding that of novices and experienced OTs, when viewing the residual limb compared to hand actions. These results suggest that a nuanced model of AON engagement is needed to explain how cases of both extreme experience (CJ) and extreme novelty (novices) can result in the greatest AON activity. PMID:24062656

  10. CORDEX.be: COmbining Regional climate Downscaling EXpertise in Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Termonia, Piet; Van Schaeybroeck, Bert; De Ridder, Koen; Fettweis, Xavier; Gobin, Anne; Luyten, Patrick; Marbaix, Philippe; Pottiaux, Eric; Stavrakou, Trissevgeni; Van Lipzig, Nicole; van Ypersele, Jean-Pascal; Willems, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    The main objective of the ongoing project CORDEX.be, "COmbining Regional Downscaling EXpertise in Belgium: CORDEX and Beyond" is to gather existing and ongoing Belgian research activities in the domain of climate modelling to create a coherent scientific basis for future climate services in Belgium. The project regroups eight Belgian Institutes under a single research program of the Belgian Science Policy (BELSPO). The project involves three regional climate models: the ALARO model, the COSMO-CLM model and the MAR model running according to the guidelines of the CORDEX project and at convection permitting resolution on small domains over Belgium. The project creates a framework to address four objectives/challenges. First, this projects aims to contribute to the EURO-CORDEX project. Secondly, RCP simulations are executed at convection-permitting resolutions (3 to 5 km) on small domains. Thirdly, the output of the atmospheric models is used to drive land surface models (the SURFEX model and the Urbclim model) with urban modules, a crop model (REGCROP), a tides and storm model (COHERENS) and the MEGAN-MOHYCAN model that simulates the fluxes emitted by vegetation. Finally, one work package will translate the uncertainty present in the CORDEX database to the high-resolution output of the CORDEX.be project. The organization of the project will be presented and first results will be shown, demonstrating that convection-permitting models can add extra skill to the mesoscale version of the regional climate models, in particular regarding the extreme value statistics and the diurnal cycle.

  11. [Complex expertise on the psychiatric health of a criminal].

    PubMed

    Gierowski, Józef Krzysztof

    2006-01-01

    The development of psychiatry and psychology has brought about a situation in need of newer evaluation of the surroundings in which the justice department tries to use specialist knowledge of the processes governing human psychic life and health. The lacking of clear criteria between the competencies of psychiatrists and psychologists is a certain standard in dealing with the disturbed or mentally ill persons. This is a result of the application of a multidisciplinary approach towards the patient in the area of diagnosis, therapy and rehabilitation. The advancing psychiatric and psychological knowledge has a difficulty in findings its way to forensic psychiatry and psychology. However, owing to the fact that current legal regulations require complex psychiatric-psychological opinions to be formulated, it is worthy to take a closer look at the issue. The fore-mentioned model has its benefits and its flaws. The compiling of the complex opinion may bring about the risk of "mixing up" of the contents as used by the various experts and cause certain methodological problems. From another perspective it would appear that it is impossible to refrain from applying the newly developing interdisciplinary links. Positive experiences with the DSM classification give a strong argument to the sensibility of this approach. The author analyses the bases for cooperation between the psychiatric-psychological expertise which arises from the rules and regulations of the penal law and the code of penal conduct. They pertain to the rules of being able in body and mind and the application of the so called security measures. The model of psychiatric-psychological cooperation taken up by the law-giver does not pertain fully to the essential competencies of psychiatry and psychology and is not a compact consequential solution.

  12. CORDEX.be: COmbining Regional climate Downscaling EXpertise in Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Termonia, P.

    2015-12-01

    The main objective of the ongoing project CORDEX.be, "COmbining Regional Downscaling EXpertise in Belgium: CORDEX and Beyond", is to gather existing and ongoing Belgian research activities in the domain of climate modelling to create a coherent scientific basis for future climate services in Belgium. The project regroups 8 Belgian Institutes under a single research program of the Belgian Science Policy (BELSPO). The project involves three regional climate models: the ALARO model, the COSMO-CLM model and the MAR model running according to the guidelines of the CORDEX project and at convection permitting resolution on small domains over Belgium. The project creates a framework to address four objectives/challenges. First, this projects aims to contribute to the EURO-CORDEX project. Secondly, RCP simulations are executed at convection-permitting resolutions (3 to 5 km) on small domains. Thirdly, the output of the atmospheric models is used to drive land surface models (the SURFEX model and the Urbclim model) with urban modules, a crop model (REGCROP), a tides and storm model (COHERENS) and the MEGAN-MOHYCAN model that simulates the fluxes emitted by vegetation. Finally, one work package will translate the uncertainty present in the CORDEX database to the high-resolution output of the CORDEX.be project. The organization of the project will be presented and first results will be shown, demonstrating that convection-permitting models can add extra skill to the mesoscale version of the regional climate models, in particular regarding the extreme value statistics and the diurnal cycle.

  13. Co-Planning in Co-Teaching: A Practical Solution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Sharon M.; Imbody, Sarah M.; Wolf, Lindsay D.; Patterson, Amanda L.

    2017-01-01

    Co-planning is considered an integral part of a successful co-teaching relationship in which both teachers have parity and use their individual expertise to benefit all students. However, the literature has not discussed adequately how co-planning is achieved within the parameters of the already full schedules of two teachers. This column shares…

  14. Teaching Posttraining : Influencing Diagnostic Strategy with Instructions at Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulatunga-Moruzi, Chan; Brooks, Lee R.; Norman, Geoffrey R.

    2011-01-01

    It is believed that medical diagnosis involves two complementary processes, analytic and similarity-based. There is considerable debate as to which of these processes defines diagnostic expertise and how best to teach clinical diagnosis and reduce diagnostic errors. The purpose of these studies is to document the use of these strategies in medical…

  15. Breathing and the Oboe: Playing, Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaunt, Helena

    2004-01-01

    Breathing and breath control are central to playing the oboe, yet few detailed educational resources are available to support their teaching and learning. This paper presents a review of existing knowledge and expertise in the field. It highlights common ground and points of controversy, and indicates some key areas for consideration. It points to…

  16. Transdisciplinary Learning and Teaching as Answers to Urban Sustainability Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biberhofer, Petra; Rammel, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explain the relevance of science-society interfaces and their potential for higher education institutions to engage stakeholders in supporting sustainable change in cities, via the transdisciplinary learning and teaching approach of the Regional Centre of Expertise on Education for Sustainable Development Vienna.…

  17. Teachers' Perceptions, Teaching Practices, and Learning Opportunities for Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Bomna; Boswell, Boni

    2013-01-01

    Lack of expertise of general physical educators relative to teaching students with disabilities in inclusive general physical education (GPE) has been identified as a major challenge affecting the implementation of inclusion in the United States (Block & Obrusnikova, 2007). Several studies indicated that insufficient inclusion training (Hodge,…

  18. Teachers Teaching Teachers (T3)[TM]. Volume 5, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Frank, Valerie, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Teachers Teaching Teachers" ("T3") focuses on coaches' roles in the professional development of teachers. Each issue also explores the challenges and rewards that teacher leaders encounter. This issue includes: (1) Districts Harness the Expertise of Classroom Teachers (Valerie von Frank); (2) Tool: Measuring Collaborative…

  19. The Influence of Peer Reviewer Expertise on the Evaluation of Research Funding Applications

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Joanne H.; Glisson, Scott R.

    2016-01-01

    Although the scientific peer review process is crucial to distributing research investments, little has been reported about the decision-making processes used by reviewers. One key attribute likely to be important for decision-making is reviewer expertise. Recent data from an experimental blinded review utilizing a direct measure of expertise has found that closer intellectual distances between applicant and reviewer lead to harsher evaluations, possibly suggesting that information is differentially sampled across subject-matter expertise levels and across information type (e.g. strengths or weaknesses). However, social and professional networks have been suggested to play a role in reviewer scoring. In an effort to test whether this result can be replicated in a real-world unblinded study utilizing self-assessed reviewer expertise, we conducted a retrospective multi-level regression analysis of 1,450 individual unblinded evaluations of 725 biomedical research funding applications by 1,044 reviewers. Despite the large variability in the scoring data, the results are largely confirmatory of work from blinded reviews, by which a linear relationship between reviewer expertise and their evaluations was observed—reviewers with higher levels of self-assessed expertise tended to be harsher in their evaluations. However, we also found that reviewer and applicant seniority could influence this relationship, suggesting social networks could have subtle influences on reviewer scoring. Overall, these results highlight the need to explore how reviewers utilize their expertise to gather and weight information from the application in making their evaluations. PMID:27768760

  20. The influence of expertise on essence beliefs for mental and medical disorder categories.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Jessica A; Marsh, Jessecae K

    2015-11-01

    Research suggests that expertise in a specific category domain influences categorization. Work related to beliefs about mental disorders finds that laypeople treat mental disorders as if they do have causal essences, while clinicians do not-differences that may be attributable to expertise (Ahn, Flanagan, Marsh, & Sanislow, 2006). To test whether reduced beliefs in essences are indicative of an overall influence of expertise or a demonstration of a phenomenon specific to expertise in the mental health domain we compared beliefs about mental and medical disorders held by practicing physicians (n = 43; 19 primary care and 24 non-psychiatry specialists) and laypeople (n = 40). We found differences between these groups in beliefs held concerning the necessity of removing shared category features to effectively cure disorders. While laypeople endorsed the idea that the cause needed to be removed to cure both mental and medical disorders, this endorsement decreased with expertise. Primary care providers were less willing to endorse this for mental disorders than for medical disorders. Our results support the notion that the reduction of beliefs concerning the existence of essences is a unique effect of expertise in the mental health domain, and does not extend to other areas of expertise. In physicians, this reduction of essentialist beliefs was most evident in questions regarding treatment. Similarities and differences to the results from Ahn et al. (2006) are discussed.

  1. Developing expertise in gynecologic surgery: reflective perspectives of international experts on learning environments and processes.

    PubMed

    Hardré, Patricia L; Nihira, Mikio; LeClaire, Edgar L

    2017-01-01

    Research in medical education does not provide a clear understanding of how professional expertise develops among surgeons and what experiential factors contribute to that development. To address this gap, the researchers interviewed 16 international experts in female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgery to assess their reflective perceptions of what specific opportunities and experiences initiated and supported their development toward expertise in their field. Characteristics and influences explaining the speed and quality of expertise development were sorted into the following themes: the dynamic process of expertise development, internal and personal characteristics, general aptitudes and preparatory skills, role modeling and interpersonal influences, opportunities to learn and practice, and roles and reference points. Across the narratives and perspectives of these expert surgeons, both individual characteristics and choices, and contextual activities and opportunities were necessary and important. Experiences with greatest impact on quality of expertise development included those provided by the environment and mentors, as well as those sought out by learners themselves, to elaborate and supplement existing opportunities. The ideal combination across experts was interaction and integration of individual characteristics with experiential opportunities. Grounded in theory and research in expertise development, these findings can support improvement of medical education, both for individual mentors and strategic program development. As surgery evolves at a continuously increasing pace, effective mentoring of promising surgical trainees will be critical to ensure that future generations of gynecologic surgeons will remain excellent. Effective, efficient surgical expertise development requires identifying trainees with the appropriate characteristics and providing them with the best development opportunities.

  2. The Influence of Peer Reviewer Expertise on the Evaluation of Research Funding Applications.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Stephen A; Sullivan, Joanne H; Glisson, Scott R

    2016-01-01

    Although the scientific peer review process is crucial to distributing research investments, little has been reported about the decision-making processes used by reviewers. One key attribute likely to be important for decision-making is reviewer expertise. Recent data from an experimental blinded review utilizing a direct measure of expertise has found that closer intellectual distances between applicant and reviewer lead to harsher evaluations, possibly suggesting that information is differentially sampled across subject-matter expertise levels and across information type (e.g. strengths or weaknesses). However, social and professional networks have been suggested to play a role in reviewer scoring. In an effort to test whether this result can be replicated in a real-world unblinded study utilizing self-assessed reviewer expertise, we conducted a retrospective multi-level regression analysis of 1,450 individual unblinded evaluations of 725 biomedical research funding applications by 1,044 reviewers. Despite the large variability in the scoring data, the results are largely confirmatory of work from blinded reviews, by which a linear relationship between reviewer expertise and their evaluations was observed-reviewers with higher levels of self-assessed expertise tended to be harsher in their evaluations. However, we also found that reviewer and applicant seniority could influence this relationship, suggesting social networks could have subtle influences on reviewer scoring. Overall, these results highlight the need to explore how reviewers utilize their expertise to gather and weight information from the application in making their evaluations.

  3. Domain-specific reports of visual imagery vividness are not related to perceptual expertise.

    PubMed

    Sunday, Mackenzie; McGugin, Rankin W; Gauthier, Isabel

    2016-04-08

    Just as people vary in their perceptual expertise with a given domain, they also vary in their abilities to imagine objects. Visual imagery and perception share common mechanisms. However, it is unclear whether domain-specific expertise is relevant to visual imagery. Although the vividness of visual imagery is typically measured as a domain-general construct, a component of this vividness may be domain-specific. For example, individuals who have gained perceptual expertise with a specific domain might experience clearer mental images within this domain. Here we investigated whether perceptual expertise for cars relates to visual imagery vividness in the same domain, by assessing the correlations between a widely used domain-general measure of visual imagery vividness (the Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire; Marks in British Journal of Psychology, 64, 17-24, 1973), a new measure of visual imagery vividness specific to cars, and behavioral tests of car expertise. We found that domain-specific imagery relates most strongly to general imagery vividness and less strongly to self-reported expertise, while it does not relate to perceptual or semantic expertise.

  4. The effect of expertise on memory conformity: a test of informational influence.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Paul; Weber, Nathan; Robertson, Marie-Therese

    2013-01-01

    Conforming to erroneous memory reports of co-witnesses can have serious impacts on subsequent forensic investigation and court reports. One theoretical explanation proposed is that memory conformity arises due to informational influence; the co-witness desires to give accurate information and reports the co-witness's version because they perceive the co-witness as being more credible. We tested the idea that perceptions of credibility drive memory conformity. We manipulated credibility through expertise; specifically, by telling participants that the (confederate) co-witness had previously worked as either a policeman (high expertise) or an electrician (low expertise). After a discussion with the co-witness, we assessed cued-recall memory and perceptions of credibility about the co-witness and the self. We found that higher expertise led to greater memory conformity. Although higher expertise also led to higher credibility assessments of the co-witness, this was only for perceptions of the credibility as an eye-witness and memory confidence, neither of which predicted memory conformity. By contrast, memory accuracy of the co-witness relative to self-memory accuracy predicted memory conformity, but this was not affected by expertise. These results show support for an informational influence explanation but suggest that expertise perceptions operate differently from our explanation.

  5. Developing expertise in gynecologic surgery: reflective perspectives of international experts on learning environments and processes

    PubMed Central

    Hardré, Patricia L; Nihira, Mikio; LeClaire, Edgar L

    2017-01-01

    Research in medical education does not provide a clear understanding of how professional expertise develops among surgeons and what experiential factors contribute to that development. To address this gap, the researchers interviewed 16 international experts in female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgery to assess their reflective perceptions of what specific opportunities and experiences initiated and supported their development toward expertise in their field. Characteristics and influences explaining the speed and quality of expertise development were sorted into the following themes: the dynamic process of expertise development, internal and personal characteristics, general aptitudes and preparatory skills, role modeling and interpersonal influences, opportunities to learn and practice, and roles and reference points. Across the narratives and perspectives of these expert surgeons, both individual characteristics and choices, and contextual activities and opportunities were necessary and important. Experiences with greatest impact on quality of expertise development included those provided by the environment and mentors, as well as those sought out by learners themselves, to elaborate and supplement existing opportunities. The ideal combination across experts was interaction and integration of individual characteristics with experiential opportunities. Grounded in theory and research in expertise development, these findings can support improvement of medical education, both for individual mentors and strategic program development. As surgery evolves at a continuously increasing pace, effective mentoring of promising surgical trainees will be critical to ensure that future generations of gynecologic surgeons will remain excellent. Effective, efficient surgical expertise development requires identifying trainees with the appropriate characteristics and providing them with the best development opportunities. PMID:28123313

  6. Visual Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Sensory systems continuously mold themselves to the widely varying contexts in which they must operate. Studies of these adaptations have played a long and central role in vision science. In part this is because the specific adaptations remain a powerful tool for dissecting vision, by exposing the mechanisms that are adapting. That is, “if it adapts, it's there.” Many insights about vision have come from using adaptation in this way, as a method. A second important trend has been the realization that the processes of adaptation are themselves essential to how vision works, and thus are likely to operate at all levels. That is, “if it's there, it adapts.” This has focused interest on the mechanisms of adaptation as the target rather than the probe. Together both approaches have led to an emerging insight of adaptation as a fundamental and ubiquitous coding strategy impacting all aspects of how we see. PMID:26858985

  7. Adapting the forms of yesterday to the functions of today and the needs of tomorrow: a genealogical case study of clinical teaching units in Canada.

    PubMed

    Schrewe, Brett; Pratt, Daniel D; McKellin, William H

    2016-05-01

    Emergent discourses of social responsibility and accountability have in part fuelled the expansion of distributed medical education (DME). In addition to its potential for redressing physician maldistribution, DME has conferred multiple unexpected educational benefits. In several countries, its recent rise has occurred around the boundaries of traditional medical education practices. Canada has been no exception, with DME proliferating against a backdrop of its longstanding central node, the clinical teaching unit (CTU). The CTU first appeared just over 50 years ago with its position in Canadian health care largely taken-for-granted. Given the increasing prominence of DME, however, it is timely to reconsider what the place of tertiary centre-based practices such as the CTU might be in shifting medical education systems. From a genealogical perspective, it becomes clear that the CTU did not just "happen". Rather, its creation was made possible by multiple interrelated cultural, social, and political changes in Canadian society that, while subtle, are powerfully influential. Making them visible offers a better opportunity to harmonize the benefits of longstanding entities such as the CTU with novel practices such as DME. In so doing, the medical education field may sidestep the pitfalls of investing significant resources that may only produce superficial changes while unwittingly obstructing deeper transformations and improvements. Although this work is refracted through a Canadian prism, reconceptualizing the overall design of medical education systems to take advantage of both tradition and innovation is a persistent challenge across the international spectrum, resistant to tests of time and constraints of context.

  8. Adaptive Educational Software by Applying Reinforcement Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennane, Abdellah

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of the intelligence in teaching software is the object of this paper. In software elaboration process, one uses some learning techniques in order to adapt the teaching software to characteristics of student. Generally, one uses the artificial intelligence techniques like reinforcement learning, Bayesian network in order to adapt…

  9. "Unwalling" the Classroom: Teacher Reaction and Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deed, Craig; Lesko, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Modern open school architecture abstractly expresses ideas about choice, flexibility and autonomy. While open spaces express and authorise different teaching practice, these versions of school and classrooms present challenges to teaching routines and practice. This paper examines how teachers adapt as they move into new school buildings designed…

  10. Clinical Ethics Consultants are not "Ethics" Experts-But They do Have Expertise.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Lisa M

    2016-08-01

    The attempt to critique the profession of clinical ethics consultation by establishing the impossibility of ethics expertise has been a red herring. Decisions made in clinical ethics cases are almost never based purely on moral judgments. Instead, they are all-things-considered judgments that involve determining how to balance other values as well. A standard of justified decision-making in this context would enable us to identify experts who could achieve these standards more often than others, and thus provide a basis for expertise in clinical ethics consultation. This expertise relies in part on what Richard Zaner calls the "expert knowledge of ethical phenomena" (1988, 8).

  11. The expertise reversal effect for sequential presentation in dynamic soccer visualizations.

    PubMed

    Khacharem, Aïmen; Zoudji, Bachir; Kalyuga, Slava; Ripoll, Hubert

    2013-06-01

    Cognitive load perspective was used as a theoretical framework to investigate effects of expertise and type of presentation of interacting elements of information in learning from dynamic visualizations. Soccer players (N = 48) were required to complete a recall reconstruction test and to rate their invested mental effort after studying a concurrent or sequential presentation of the elements of play. The results provided evidence for an expertise reversal effect. For novice players, the sequential presentation produced better learning outcomes. In contrast, expert players performed better after studying the concurrent presentation. The findings suggest that the effectiveness of different visual presentation formats depend on levels of learner expertise.

  12. Measuring the Teaching Self-Efficacy of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math Graduate Teaching Assistants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeChenne, Sue Ellen; Enochs, Larry

    2010-01-01

    An instrument to measure the teaching self-efficacy of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) GTAs is adapted from a general college teaching instrument (Prieto Navarro, 2005) for the specific teaching environment of the STEM GTAs. The construct and content validity and reliability of the final instrument are indicated. The final…

  13. Teaching and Assessing Complex Skills in Simulation With Application to Rifle Marksmanship Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    Interservice /Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC) 2009 2009 Paper No. 9086 Page 1 of 10 Teaching and Assessing Complex...integrate key areas of knowledge related to skill acquisition and expertise, address strategies for teaching and assessing complex skills, and examine the...complex skill development, based upon learning principles and enhanced performance feedback. Our emphasis is on teaching the “warrior” skills needed for

  14. Adaptive Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, adaptive managem...

  15. FIGENIX: Intelligent automation of genomic annotation: expertise integration in a new software platform

    PubMed Central

    Gouret, Philippe; Vitiello, Vérane; Balandraud, Nathalie; Gilles, André; Pontarotti, Pierre; Danchin, Etienne GJ

    2005-01-01

    Background Two of the main objectives of the genomic and post-genomic era are to structurally and functionally annotate genomes which consists of detecting genes' position and structure, and inferring their function (as well as of other features of genomes). Structural and functional annotation both require the complex chaining of numerous different software, algorithms and methods under the supervision of a biologist. The automation of these pipelines is necessary to manage huge amounts of data released by sequencing projects. Several pipelines already automate some of these complex chaining but still necessitate an important contribution of biologists for supervising and controlling the results at various steps. Results Here we propose an innovative automated platform, FIGENIX, which includes an expert system capable to substitute to human expertise at several key steps. FIGENIX currently automates complex pipelines of structural and functional annotation under the supervision of the expert system (which allows for example to make key decisions, check intermediate results or refine the dataset). The quality of the results produced by FIGENIX is comparable to those obtained by expert biologists with a drastic gain in terms of time costs and avoidance of errors due to the human manipulation of data. Conclusion The core engine and expert system of the FIGENIX platform currently handle complex annotation processes of broad interest for the genomic community. They could be easily adapted to new, or more specialized pipelines, such as for example the annotation of miRNAs, the classification of complex multigenic families, annotation of regulatory elements and other genomic features of interest. PMID:16083500

  16. Top-down modulation of auditory processing: effects of sound context, musical expertise and attentional focus.

    PubMed

    Tervaniemi, M; Kruck, S; De Baene, W; Schröger, E; Alter, K; Friederici, A D

    2009-10-01

    By recording auditory electrical brain potentials, we investigated whether the basic sound parameters (frequency, duration and intensity) are differentially encoded among speech vs. music sounds by musicians and non-musicians during different attentional demands. To this end, a pseudoword and an instrumental sound of comparable frequency and duration were presented. The accuracy of neural discrimination was tested by manipulations of frequency, duration and intensity. Additionally, the subjects' attentional focus was manipulated by instructions to ignore the sounds while watching a silent movie or to attentively discriminate the different sounds. In both musicians and non-musicians, the pre-attentively evoked mismatch negativity (MMN) component was larger to slight changes in music than in speech sounds. The MMN was also larger to intensity changes in music sounds and to duration changes in speech sounds. During attentional listening, all subjects more readily discriminated changes among speech sounds than among music sounds as indexed by the N2b response strength. Furthermore, during attentional listening, musicians displayed larger MMN and N2b than non-musicians for both music and speech sounds. Taken together, the data indicate that the discriminative abilities in human audition differ between music and speech sounds as a function of the sound-change context and the subjective familiarity of the sound parameters. These findings provide clear evidence for top-down modulatory effects in audition. In other words, the processing of sounds is realized by a dynamically adapting network considering type of sound, expertise and attentional demands, rather than by a strictly modularly organized stimulus-driven system.

  17. Adapting for Students with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darrow, Alice-Ann

    2009-01-01

    Autism is the most common condition in a group of developmental disorders known as the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Although autism is considered a low-incidence disorder, many music educators in schools today teach students with autism each week. Students with ASDs usually require similar educational interventions that are adapted to their…

  18. Music and words in the visual cortex: The impact of musical expertise.

    PubMed

    Mongelli, Valeria; Dehaene, Stanislas; Vinckier, Fabien; Peretz, Isabelle; Bartolomeo, Paolo; Cohen, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    How does the human visual system accommodate expertise for two simultaneously acquired symbolic systems? We used fMRI to compare activations induced in the visual cortex by musical notation, written words and other classes of objects, in professional musicians and in musically naïve controls. First, irrespective of expertise, selective activations for music were posterior and lateral to activations for words in the left occipitotemporal cortex. This indicates that symbols characterized by different visual features engage distinct cortical areas. Second, musical expertise increased the volume of activations for music and led to an anterolateral displacement of word-related activations. In musicians, there was also a dramatic increase of the brain-scale networks connected to the music-selective visual areas. Those findings reveal that acquiring a double visual expertise involves an expansion of category-selective areas, the development of novel long-distance functional connectivity, and possibly some competition between categories for the colonization of cortical space.

  19. Perceptual expertise enhances the resolution but not the number of representations in working memory.

    PubMed

    Scolari, Miranda; Vogel, Edward K; Awh, Edward

    2008-02-01

    Despite its central role in cognition, capacity in visual working memory is restricted to about three or four items. Curby and Gauthier (2007) examined whether perceptual expertise can help to overcome this limit by enabling more efficient coding of visual information. In line with this, they observed higher capacity estimates for upright than for inverted faces, suggesting that perceptual expertise enhances visual working memory. In the present work, we examined whether the improved capacity estimates for upright faces indicates an increased number of "slots" in working memory, or improved resolution within the existing slots. Our results suggest that perceptual expertise enhances the resolution but not the number of representations that can be held in working memory. These results clarify the effects of perceptual expertise in working memory and support recent suggestions that number and resolution represent distinct facets of working memory ability.

  20. [The state of forensic medical expertise of civil cases concerning medical disputes].

    PubMed

    Barinov, E Kh; Romodanovskiĭ, P O

    2013-01-01

    It is concluded that the current state of forensic medical expertise of civil cases concerning disputable issues, such as causing harm to health in medical practice, does not meet the requirements of the relevant legal procedures.

  1. What kind of computation is intelligence. A framework for integrating different kinds of expertise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandrasekaran, B.

    1989-01-01

    The view that the deliberative aspect of intelligent behavior is a distinct type of algorithm; in particular, a goal-seeking exploratory process using qualitative representations of knowledge and inference is elaborated. There are other kinds of algorithms that also embody expertise in domains. The different types of expertise and how they can and should be integrated to give full account of expert behavior are discussed.

  2. Teachers' Adaptive Instruction Supporting Students' Literacy Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Margaret; Parsons, Seth A.; Gallagher, Melissa A.; Branen, Jeneille

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive teaching is an instructional approach where differences among learners are clearly recognized. For the last decade, our research team has studied literacy teachers' instructional adaptations in numerous classrooms in different regions of the United States. In this article, we share conclusions and insights from this longitudinal research.…

  3. Bringing the Field into Focus: User-centered Design of a Patient Expertise Locator.

    PubMed

    Civan-Hartzler, Andrea; McDonald, David W; Powell, Chris; Skeels, Meredith M; Mukai, Marlee; Pratt, Wanda

    2010-04-01

    Managing personal aspects of health is challenging for many patients, particularly those facing a serious condition such as cancer. Finding experienced patients, who can share their knowledge from managing a similar health situation, is of tremendous value. Users of health-related social software form a large base of such knowledge, yet these tools often lack features needed to locate peers with expertise. Informed directly by our field work with breast cancer patients, we designed a patient expertise locator for users of online health communities. Using feedback from two focus groups with breast cancer survivors, we took our design through two iterations. Focus groups concluded that expertise locating features proved useful for extending social software. They guided design enhancements by suggesting granular user control through (1) multiple mechanisms to identify expertise, (2) detailed user profiles to select expertise, and (3) varied collaboration levels. Our user-centered approach links field work to design through close collaboration with patients. By illustrating trade-offs made when sharing sensitive health information, our findings inform the incorporation of expertise locating features into social software for patients.

  4. What Does "Being an Expert" Mean to the Brain? Functional Specificity and Connectivity in Expertise.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hyeon-Ae; Friederici, Angela D

    2016-10-25

    To what extent is varying cognitive expertise reflected in the brain's functional specificity and connectivity? We addressed this question by examining expertise in mathematics based on the fact that mathematical skills are one of the most critical cognitive abilities known to be a good predictor of academic achievement. We investigated processing of hierarchical structures, which is a fundamental process for building complex cognitive architecture. Experts and nonexperts in mathematics participated in processing hierarchical structures using algebraic expressions. Results showed that a modulating effect depending on expertise was observed specifically in nonexperts in the left inferior frontal gyrus around pars triangularis and frontal sulcus, the left intraparietal sulcus, and the right inferior parietal lobule. This expertise-dependent pattern of activation led to a crucial dissociation within the left prefrontal cortex. More interestingly, task-related functional networks were also modulated differently in the frontoparietal network for relatively good performance and in the frontostriatal network for poor performance. The present study indicates that a high level of expertise is evident in a small number of specific brain regions, whereas a low level of expertise is reflected by broadly distributed brain areas, along with divergent functional connectivity between experts and nonexperts.

  5. [How to take up an expertise for medical liability in anaesthesiology?].

    PubMed

    Manaouil, C; Gignon, M; Montpellier, D; Kuhn, Ph; Jardé, O

    2008-04-01

    Search for responsibility in medicine became everyday. Anaesthetists are particularly exposed and will be, several times, confronted to it during their career. They have to have knowledge of some necessary elements to get to grips with expertise. Expertise can be asked by a penal jurisdiction. In that case, the anaesthetist can be directly and personally implicationed. When expertise is asked by a civil jurisdiction, it concerns anaesthetists, whichever the (liberal or employee of private). Expertise during administrative procedures concern hospital's anaesthetists. It is important to organize a preparatory meeting in any expertise. Praticians must collect together the complete medical file to establish the most exactly possible, chronology of facts. The anaesthetist can be accompanied by medical consultant appointed by the insurance companies and a lawyer. But he does not have to content with be represented by them. Presence in expertise is essential; praticians can so give evidence of their good faith and answer the expert's questions. Vagueness or doubt are never favorable to pratician. It is also, a responsible and respectful behavior toward the patient.

  6. Defining and developing expertise in tracheal intubation using a GlideScope(®) for anaesthetists with expertise in Macintosh direct laryngoscopy: an in-vivo longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Cortellazzi, P; Caldiroli, D; Byrne, A; Sommariva, A; Orena, E F; Tramacere, I

    2015-03-01

    Although videolaryngoscopy can provide excellent views of the laryngeal structures as both the primary method of tracheal intubation and as a rescue technique for difficult direct laryngoscopy, the existing literature is inadequate to define expertise or even competence. We observed the performance of nine trainees during 890 intubations, with an additional 72 intubations performed by expert anaesthetists used as a control group. Univariate and multivariate mixed-effects logistic regression models were applied to detect potential predictors of successful intubation and define the number of intubations necessary for a trainee to achieve expertise (> 90% probability of optimal performance). Optimal performance was predicted by single laryngoscope insertion (p < 0.001) and a Cormack and Lehane grade-1 view (p < 0.001), and not by normal lifting force applied to the device (p = 0.15), with expertise reached after 76 attempts. These results indicate that expertise in videolaryngoscopy requires prolonged training and practice.

  7. Field Studies—Essential Cognitive Foundations for Geoscience Expertise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, C.; Mogk, D. W.

    2010-12-01

    Learning in the field has traditionally been one of the fundamental components of the geoscience curriculum. Field experiences have been attributed to having positive impacts on cognitive, affective, metacognitive, mastery of skills and social components of learning geoscience. The development of geoscience thinking, and of geoscience expertise, encompasses a number of learned behaviors that contribute to the progress of Science and the development of scientists. By getting out into Nature, students necessarily engage active and experiential learning. The open, dynamic, heterogeneous and complex Earth system provides ample opportunities to learn by inquiry and discovery. Learning in this environment requires that students make informed decisions and to think critically about what is important to observe, and what should be excluded in the complex overload of information provided by Nature. Students must learn to employ the full range of cognitive skills that include observation, description, interpretation, analysis and synthesis that lead to “deep learning”. They must be able to integrate and rationalize observations of Nature with modern experimental, analytical, theoretical, and modeling approaches to studying the Earth system, and they must be able to iterate between what is known and what is yet to be discovered. Immersion in the field setting provides students with a sense of spatial and temporal scales of natural phenomena that can not be derived in other learning environments. The field setting provides strong sensory inputs that stimulate cognition and memories that will be available for future application. The field environment also stimulates strong affective responses related to motivation, curiosity, a sense of “ownership” of field projects, and inclusion in shared experiences that carry on throughout professional careers. The nature of field work also contains a strong metacognitive component, as students learn to be aware of what and how they

  8. Eye Movements of Radiologists Reflect Expertise in CT Study Interpretation: A Potential Tool to Measure Resident Development.

    PubMed

    Bertram, Raymond; Kaakinen, Johanna; Bensch, Frank; Helle, Laura; Lantto, Eila; Niemi, Pekka; Lundbom, Nina

    2016-12-01

    Purpose To establish potential markers of visual expertise in eye movement (EM) patterns of early residents, advanced residents, and specialists who interpret abdominal computed tomography (CT) studies. Materials and Methods The institutional review board approved use of anonymized CT studies as research materials and to obtain anonymized eye-tracking data from volunteers. Participants gave written informed consent. Early residents (n = 15), advanced residents (n = 14), and specialists (n = 12) viewed 26 abdominal CT studies as a sequence of images at either 3 or 5 frames per second while EMs were recorded. Data were analyzed by using linear mixed-effects models. Results Early residents' detection rate decreased with working hours (odds ratio, 0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.73, 0.91; P = .001). They detected less of the low visual contrast (but not of the high visual contrast) lesions (45% [13 of 29]) than did specialists (62% [18 of 29]) (odds ratio, 0.39; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.61; P < .001) or advanced residents (56% [16 of 29]) (odds ratio, 0.55; 95% CI: 0.33, 0.93; P = .024). Specialists and advanced residents had longer fixation durations at 5 than at 3 frames per second (specialists: β = .01; 95% CI: .004, .026; P = .008; advanced residents: β = .04; 95% CI: .03, .05; P < .001). In the presence of lesions, saccade lengths of specialists shortened more than those of advanced (β = .02; 95% CI: .007, .04; P = .003) and of early residents (β = .02; 95% CI: .008, 0.04; P = .003). Irrespective of expertise, high detection rate correlated with greater reduction of saccade length in the presence of lesions (β = -.10; 95% CI: -.16, -.04; P = .002) and greater increase at higher presentation speed (β = .11; 95% CI: .04, .17; P = .001). Conclusion Expertise in CT reading is characterized by greater adaptivity in EM patterns in response to the demands of the task and environment. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  9. [The informational analytical support of management of regional health care on the basis of expertise].

    PubMed

    Finchenko, E A; Tsytsorina, I A; Shalygina, L S; Ivaninskii, O I; Sharapov, I V

    2014-01-01

    The development of the system of informational analytical support based on expertise data is one of most important stage of increasing of effectiveness of management of regional health care. The study was organized to substantiate formation of the system of informational analytical support of management of regional health care on the basis of expertise data. The study was carried out on the basis of expertise data from subjects involved in informational analytical support of management of regional health care (health care management executives, chief specialists and directors of medical organizations in the subjects of the Russian Federation situated in the Siberian federal okrug). The study established that alongside with statistical information the expertise is enough important, objective and informative information to be applied in developing of managerial decisions. The highest integral estimated value of importance, objectiveness and informativeness has the information concerning competence of medical personnel, proportions of medical care of population and conditions of material technical base of health institutions. The most foreground issues concerning expertise are population health condition, pharmaceutical and medical equipment support of medical institutions, level and quality of population medical care. The degree of impact of expertise information on managerial decision making is highest in such directions as support of population with medical care, increasing of availability of medical care and degree of organization of medical care rendering. The probability of increasing of degree of impact of expertise information on managerial decision making is the highest in such directions as population provision with medical care, competence of medical personnel, level and quality of medical care, level of organization of medical care support, that is to be considered during implementation of expertise. The study data was used in developing the major

  10. Teaching thanatology in a foreign country: implications for death educators.

    PubMed

    Shatz, Mark A

    2002-06-01

    Although an increasing number of death educators will have the opportunity to teach abroad, many may not be fully aware of the issues that arise in intercultural instruction and are not prepared to handle the pedagogical challenges associated with teaching thanatology in a foreign country. On the basis of experience of teaching in China, the author describes the challenges of intercultural teaching, strategies for adapting instruction to address the pedagogical obstacles, and the ways an international teaching experience can enrich instruction.

  11. Developing Preservice Teachers' Expertise in Equitable Assessment for English Learners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Marcelle A.

    2014-04-01

    This study illustrated a pathway of growth that a preservice teacher might traverse when learning to use and develop equitable assessments (EA). The study is rare in that it looks at the development of preservice teachers' understanding and ability to design EA. I examined the understanding and implementation of EA of 23 secondary preservice teachers within two classes. The methods classes focused on the academic content area of science. Participants' journals, teaching philosophies, and inquiry-based science units served as data sources. Participants progressed from a simple view of EA as "fairness" to a more sophisticated view of EA, including: ways to increase fairness, the importance of challenging students, and using assessments for learning. Results also showed changes in preservice teachers' views of learners and the purpose of assessment. While understanding developed robustly, teachers' assessment plans in their units were not as strong. Teacher education programs need to place more emphasis on developing critical understanding of EA practices to meet the needs of diverse learners.

  12. Adaptive SPECT

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Harrison H.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Freed, Melanie; Hesterman, Jacob Y.; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Clarkson, Eric; Whitaker, Meredith K.

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive imaging systems alter their data-acquisition configuration or protocol in response to the image information received. An adaptive pinhole single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system might acquire an initial scout image to obtain preliminary information about the radiotracer distribution and then adjust the configuration or sizes of the pinholes, the magnifications, or the projection angles in order to improve performance. This paper briefly describes two small-animal SPECT systems that allow this flexibility and then presents a framework for evaluating adaptive systems in general, and adaptive SPECT systems in particular. The evaluation is in terms of the performance of linear observers on detection or estimation tasks. Expressions are derived for the ideal linear (Hotelling) observer and the ideal linear (Wiener) estimator with adaptive imaging. Detailed expressions for the performance figures of merit are given, and possible adaptation rules are discussed. PMID:18541485

  13. Teaching Pronunciation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Michael

    1975-01-01

    Gives practical hints for teaching pronunciation with special attention to accent: 1. Teaching of pronunciation should take place in a "meaningful context." 2. Mimicry drills form the basis for teaching pronunciation. 3. Discrimination drills are a prerequisite for successful teaching of pronunciation. 4. Speaking in chorus is a useful method for…

  14. Teaching Shakespeare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, James E., Ed.

    1976-01-01

    This issue of "Focus: Teaching English in Southeastern Ohio" contains articles about teaching Shakespeare, student summaries of a Shakespeare conference held at Ohio University-Zanesville in April 1976, and suggested projects for teaching poetry writing. It also contains lists of materials and articles related to the teaching of…

  15. Beyond perceptual expertise: revisiting the neural substrates of expert object recognition.

    PubMed

    Harel, Assaf; Kravitz, Dwight; Baker, Chris I

    2013-12-27

    Real-world expertise provides a valuable opportunity to understand how experience shapes human behavior and neural function. In the visual domain, the study of expert object recognition, such as in car enthusiasts or bird watchers, has produced a large, growing, and often-controversial literature. Here, we synthesize this literature, focusing primarily on results from functional brain imaging, and propose an interactive framework that incorporates the impact of high-level factors, such as attention and conceptual knowledge, in supporting expertise. This framework contrasts with the perceptual view of object expertise that has concentrated largely on stimulus-driven processing in visual cortex. One prominent version of this perceptual account has almost exclusively focused on the relation of expertise to face processing and, in terms of the neural substrates, has centered on face-selective cortical regions such as the Fusiform Face Area (FFA). We discuss the limitations of this face-centric approach as well as the more general perceptual view, and highlight that expert related activity is: (i) found throughout visual cortex, not just FFA, with a strong relationship between neural response and behavioral expertise even in the earliest stages of visual processing, (ii) found outside visual cortex in areas such as parietal and prefrontal cortices, and (iii) modulated by the attentional engagement of the observer suggesting that it is neither automatic nor driven solely by stimulus properties. These findings strongly support a framework in which object expertise emerges from extensive interactions within and between the visual system and other cognitive systems, resulting in widespread, distributed patterns of expertise-related activity across the entire cortex.

  16. Beyond perceptual expertise: revisiting the neural substrates of expert object recognition

    PubMed Central

    Harel, Assaf; Kravitz, Dwight; Baker, Chris I.

    2013-01-01

    Real-world expertise provides a valuable opportunity to understand how experience shapes human behavior and neural function. In the visual domain, the study of expert object recognition, such as in car enthusiasts or bird watchers, has produced a large, growing, and often-controversial literature. Here, we synthesize this literature, focusing primarily on results from functional brain imaging, and propose an interactive framework that incorporates the impact of high-level factors, such as attention and conceptual knowledge, in supporting expertise. This framework contrasts with the perceptual view of object expertise that has concentrated largely on stimulus-driven processing in visual cortex. One prominent version of this perceptual account has almost exclusively focused on the relation of expertise to face processing and, in terms of the neural substrates, has centered on face-selective cortical regions such as the Fusiform Face Area (FFA). We discuss the limitations of this face-centric approach as well as the more general perceptual view, and highlight that expert related activity is: (i) found throughout visual cortex, not just FFA, with a strong relationship between neural response and behavioral expertise even in the earliest stages of visual processing, (ii) found outside visual cortex in areas such as parietal and prefrontal cortices, and (iii) modulated by the attentional engagement of the observer suggesting that it is neither automatic nor driven solely by stimulus properties. These findings strongly support a framework in which object expertise emerges from extensive interactions within and between the visual system and other cognitive systems, resulting in widespread, distributed patterns of expertise-related activity across the entire cortex. PMID:24409134

  17. "No level up!": no effects of video game specialization and expertise on cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Gobet, Fernand; Johnston, Stephen J; Ferrufino, Gabriella; Johnston, Matthew; Jones, Michael B; Molyneux, Antonia; Terzis, Argyrios; Weeden, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Previous research into the effects of action video gaming on cognition has suggested that long term exposure to this type of game might lead to an enhancement of cognitive skills that transfer to non-gaming cognitive tasks. However, these results have been controversial. The aim of the current study was to test the presence of positive cognitive transfer from action video games to two cognitive tasks. More specifically, this study investigated the effects that participants' expertise and genre specialization have on cognitive improvements in one task unrelated to video gaming (a flanker task) and one related task (change detection task with both control and genre-specific images). This study was unique in three ways. Firstly, it analyzed a continuum of expertise levels, which has yet to be investigated in research into the cognitive benefits of video gaming. Secondly, it explored genre-specific skill developments on these tasks by comparing Action and Strategy video game players (VGPs). Thirdly, it used a very tight experiment design, including the experimenter being blind to expertise level and genre specialization of the participant. Ninety-two university students aged between 18 and 30 (M = 21.25) were recruited through opportunistic sampling and were grouped by video game specialization and expertise level. While the results of the flanker task were consistent with previous research (i.e., effect of congruence), there was no effect of expertise, and the action gamers failed to outperform the strategy gamers. Additionally, contrary to expectation, there was no interaction between genre specialization and image type in the change detection task, again demonstrating no expertise effect. The lack of effects for game specialization and expertise goes against previous research on the positive effects of action video gaming on other cognitive tasks.

  18. Delusions of expertise: the high standard of proof needed to demonstrate skills at horserace handicapping.

    PubMed

    Browne, Matthew; Rockloff, Matthew J; Blaszcynski, Alex; Allcock, Clive; Windross, Allen

    2015-03-01

    Gamblers who participate in skill-oriented games (such as poker and sports-betting) are motivated to win over the long-term, and some monitor their betting outcomes to evaluate their performance and proficiency. In this study of Australian off-track horserace betting, we investigated which levels of sustained returns would be required to establish evidence of skill/expertise. We modelled a random strategy to simulate 'naïve' play, in which equal bets were placed on randomly selected horses using a representative sample of 211 weekend races. Results from a Monte Carlo simulation yielded a distribution of return-on-investments for varying number of bets (N), showing surprising volatility, even after a large number of repeated bets. After adjusting for the house advantage, a gambler would have to place over 10,000 bets in individual races with net returns exceeding 9 % to be reasonably considered an expert punter (α = .05). Moreover, a record of fewer bets would require even greater returns for demonstrating expertise. As such, validated expertise is likely to be rare among race bettors. We argue that the counter-intuitively high threshold for demonstrating expertise by tracking historical performance is likely to exacerbate known cognitive biases in self-evaluation of expertise.

  19. Rethinking expertise: A multifactorial gene-environment interaction model of expert performance.

    PubMed

    Ullén, Fredrik; Hambrick, David Zachary; Mosing, Miriam Anna

    2016-04-01

    Scientific interest in expertise-superior performance within a specific domain-has a long history in psychology. Although there is a broad consensus that a long period of practice is essential for expertise, a long-standing controversy in the field concerns the importance of other variables such as cognitive abilities and genetic factors. According to the influential deliberate practice theory, expert performance is essentially limited by a single variable: the amount of deliberate practice an individual has accumulated. Here, we provide a review of the literature on deliberate practice, expert performance, and its neural correlates. A particular emphasis is on recent studies indicating that expertise is related to numerous traits other than practice as well as genetic factors. We argue that deliberate practice theory is unable to account for major recent findings relating to expertise and expert performance, and propose an alternative multifactorial gene-environment interaction model of expertise, which provides an adequate explanation for the available empirical data and may serve as a useful framework for future empirical and theoretical work on expert performance.

  20. Expertise in ill-defined problem-solving domains as effective strategy use.

    PubMed

    Schunn, Christian D; McGregor, Mark U; Saner, Lelyn D

    2005-12-01

    Expertise consists of many different cognitive structures. Lemaire and Siegler (1995) have proposed a four-layered account of expertise from a strategies perspective: Experts have better strategies, tend to use strategies that are better overall more often, are better able to select the circumstances to which a strategy best applies, and are better able to execute a given strategy. Originally, this account came from work in simple, well-defined domains. We explored this account in the complex, ill-defined domain of platoon leadership. In Experiment 1A, we elicited free-text responses to leadership scenarios from novices, intermediates, and experts, finding expertise effects for strategy base rates and choice, but not for strategy existence or the number of strategies used. In Experiment 1B, we used a new group of experts to gather ratings of the execution accuracy of the responses in Experiment 1A and found expertise differences in the ability to execute the same strategies. We propose several elaborations to the original four-layered strategies account of expertise on the basis of these results.