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Sample records for adaptive teaching expertise

  1. Opportunities to Develop Adaptive Expertise during Student Teaching Conferences: Identifying Barriers and Exploring Intersubjectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soslau, Elizabeth Gayle

    2010-01-01

    Pupils' classrooms are highly variable and teachers have a difficult time addressing the broad range of students' needs in diverse contexts. Additionally, teachers are often not taught how to learn from their own teaching and develop adaptive teaching expertise, a necessary ability for educators in a constantly changing social world. The…

  2. Teaching and Learning Physics Expertise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieman, Carl

    2015-05-01

    I will discuss what has been learned about the nature of expertise and how it is learned. Expertise is largely about asking the right questions and making the right decisions (both conscious and unconscious) at the right time. This includes knowing and using all the relevant information, and recognizing the limitations of those decisions. Expertise is acquired by the learner explicitly practicing, with guiding feedback, the necessary decisions and knowledge organization and application, and reflecting on decisions. Measures of expert decision making clearly reflect the degree to which different teaching methods provide the learner with the necessary explicit practice and feedback. I will start with describing the most general features of expertise, then specific elements of physics expertise, and finally the example of quite detailed components of expertise in DAMOP experimental physics. This will set the stage for the other talks in this session which will discuss examples of applying these concepts about the acquisition of expertise to a variety of specific physics courses and showing their effectiveness. This talk will make it clear why subject expertise is a necessary (though not sufficient) condition to be an effective teacher.

  3. The Development of Adaptive Expertise in Biotransport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Taylor; Petrosino, Anthony J.; Rivale, Stephanie; Diller, Kenneth R.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter describes a model for continuous development of adaptive expertise, including growth along the dimensions of innovation and knowledge, examined in the context of a biotransport course in biomedical engineering. Students improved on both knowledge and innovation, moving along a continuum toward adaptive expertise. (Contains 5 figures.)

  4. Expertise in Teaching: Expert Pedagogues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavely, Carolyn; And Others

    "The purpose of this article is to report a review of the developing empirical literature to explain "expert" teacher behavior, by analogy, from the cognitive psychology expertise literature. Emphasized is a review of the expert-novice cognitive psychology literature, encompassing the research on: chess, and other games; physics, medicine, and…

  5. Climate change: could it help develop 'adaptive expertise'?

    PubMed

    Bell, Erica; Horton, Graeme; Blashki, Grant; Seidel, Bastian M

    2012-05-01

    Preparing health practitioners to respond to the rising burden of disease from climate change is emerging as a priority in health workforce policy and planning. However, this issue is hardly represented in the medical education research. The rapidly evolving wide range of direct and indirect consequences of climate change will require health professionals to have not only broad content knowledge but also flexibility and responsiveness to diverse regional conditions as part of complex health problem-solving and adaptation. It is known that adaptive experts may not necessarily be quick at solving familiar problems, but they do creatively seek to better solve novel problems. This may be the result of an acquired approach to practice or a pathway that can be fostered by learning environments. It is also known that building adaptive expertise in medical education involves putting students on a learning pathway that requires them to have, first, the motivation to innovatively problem-solve and, second, exposure to diverse content material, meaningfully presented. Including curriculum content on the health effects of climate change could help meet these two conditions for some students at least. A working definition and illustrative competencies for adaptive expertise for climate change, as well as examples of teaching and assessment approaches extrapolated from rural curricula, are provided. PMID:21063771

  6. Situated Expertise in Integrating Use of Multimedia Simulation into Secondary Science Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennessy, Sara; Deaney, Rosemary; Ruthven, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    This study explored teachers' pedagogical strategies for using multimedia simulation to structure and support secondary science teaching. Expertise was investigated across a range of classroom settings to analyse how specialist knowledge is situated within and adapted to the teaching and learning context. Analysis of data arising from 10 lesson…

  7. Developing Teaching Expertise in Dental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Lucinda J.

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study was designed to develop a baseline model of expertise in dental education utilizing the Dreyfus and Dreyfus continuum of skill acquisition. The goal was the development of a baseline model of expertise, which will contribute to the body of knowledge about dental faculty skill acquisition and may enable dental schools to…

  8. Expertise.

    PubMed

    Anders Ericsson, K; Towne, Tyler J

    2010-05-01

    The study of expertise is based on the premise that experts in different domains follow a similar path of acquisition and development. This article distinguishes two research approaches to the study of expertise. The traditional approach assumes a steady progression from novice to expert as a function of training as well as years of experience often without measures of reproducible skill. A second and more recent one focuses on the identification of individuals with reproducibly superior performance for representative tasks that capture expertise in the domain. The focus of this review is on the latter, namely the expert-performance approach. The article describes how superior performance can be captured by standardized tasks, and how analyses of that superior performance can identify superior abilities, cognitive mechanisms, and physiological adaptations. The last part of the article reviews how deliberate practice and training can lead to the acquisition of complex mechanisms and physiological adaptations, which in turn can explain the experts' attained superior performance. The review is concluded with a discussion of future directions of studies of expert performance and the challenges in understanding the development of general abilities and the motivation to engage in sustained daily deliberate practice. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26271380

  9. Intercultural Adaptive Expertise: Explicit and Implicit Lessons from Dr. Hatano

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Xiaodong; Schwartz, Daniel L.; Bransford, John

    2007-01-01

    Giyoo Hatano was an international scholar--an adaptive expert himself. His creative methodologies and theoretical insights have enriched the work of researchers in many countries. How Hatano lived his life and treated others provides enriching insights as well. In this essay, we focus on "adaptive expertise", one of Giyoo Hatano's major…

  10. Collaborative Learning with Multi-Touch Technology: Developing Adaptive Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercier, Emma M.; Higgins, Steven E.

    2013-01-01

    Developing fluency and flexibility in mathematics is a key goal of upper primary schooling, however, while fluency can be developed with practice, designing activities that support the development of flexibility is more difficult. Drawing on concepts of adaptive expertise, we developed a task for a multi-touch classroom, NumberNet, that aimed to…

  11. Recognizing and Developing Adaptive Expertise within Outdoor and Expedition Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tozer, Mark; Fazey, Ioan; Fazey, John

    2007-01-01

    Adaptive expertise, an individual's ability to perform flexibly and innovatively in novel and unstructured situations, could have particular relevance for expedition and outdoor leaders. This element may be recognized in leadership practitioners who are able to act more effectively when problem-solving in complex, ambiguous and unpredictable…

  12. Expertise for Teaching Biology Situated in the Context of Genetic Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Zande, Paul; Akkerman, Sanne F.; Brekelmans, Mieke; Waarlo, Arend Jan; Vermunt, Jan D.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary genomics research will impact the daily practice of biology teachers who want to teach up-to-date genetics in secondary education. This article reports on a research project aimed at enhancing biology teachers' expertise for teaching genetics situated in the context of genetic testing. The increasing body of scientific knowledge…

  13. The Development of Children's Adaptive Expertise in the Number Domain 20 to 100

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torbeyns, Joke; Verschaffel, Lieven; Ghesquiere, Pol

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the development of children's adaptive expertise in computing sums and differences up to 100. We defined the adaptive nature of children's strategy choices on the basis of problem (addition, subtraction), achievement, and strategy performance (accuracy, speed). Sixty-nine 2nd graders of high, above-average, or…

  14. Transformative Professional Development: Relationship to Teachers' Beliefs, Expertise and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kose, Brad W.; Lim, Eun Young

    2010-01-01

    Although scholarship demonstrates the value and need for teaching grounded in equity, diversity and social justice, little research has explored the relationship between transformative professional development and transformative teaching. This survey research study conducted in 25 US diverse elementary schools investigated statistical…

  15. Using an adaptive expertise lens to understand the quality of teachers' classroom implementation of computer-supported complex systems curricula in high school science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Susan A.; Koehler-Yom, Jessica; Anderson, Emma; Lin, Joyce; Klopfer, Eric

    2015-05-01

    Background: This exploratory study is part of a larger-scale research project aimed at building theoretical and practical knowledge of complex systems in students and teachers with the goal of improving high school biology learning through professional development and a classroom intervention. Purpose: We propose a model of adaptive expertise to better understand teachers' classroom practices as they attempt to navigate myriad variables in the implementation of biology units that include working with computer simulations, and learning about and teaching through complex systems ideas. Sample: Research participants were three high school biology teachers, two females and one male, ranging in teaching experience from six to 16 years. Their teaching contexts also ranged in student achievement from 14-47% advanced science proficiency. Design and methods: We used a holistic multiple case study methodology and collected data during the 2011-2012 school year. Data sources include classroom observations, teacher and student surveys, and interviews. Data analyses and trustworthiness measures were conducted through qualitative mining of data sources and triangulation of findings. Results: We illustrate the characteristics of adaptive expertise of more or less successful teaching and learning when implementing complex systems curricula. We also demonstrate differences between case study teachers in terms of particular variables associated with adaptive expertise. Conclusions: This research contributes to scholarship on practices and professional development needed to better support teachers to teach through a complex systems pedagogical and curricular approach.

  16. Tracing Two Apprentices' Trajectories toward Adaptive Professional Expertise in Fingerprint Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mustonen, Virpi; Hakkarainen, Kai

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyse the development of two apprentices' adaptive expertise in fingerprint examination across a two-year training program. The apprentices were selected from a large number of candidates to be trained at the Forensic Laboratory of the Finnish National Bureau of Investigation. The problem addressed was how the…

  17. Developing Adaptive Teaching Competency through Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Franziska; Rogalla, Marion

    2009-01-01

    The research project Adaptive Teaching Competency seeks to conceptualise the processes of tuning teaching to individual students' learning needs and to empirically test, within the field of science teaching, to what extent Adaptive Teaching Competency can be fostered through teacher education. 32 primary and secondary teachers took part in an…

  18. An adaptive toolbox approach to the route to expertise in sport

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Rita F.; Lobinger, Babett H.; Raab, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Expertise is characterized by fast decision-making which is highly adaptive to new situations. Here we propose that athletes use a toolbox of heuristics which they develop on their route to expertise. The development of heuristics occurs within the context of the athletes’ natural abilities, past experiences, developed skills, and situational context, but does not pertain to any of these factors separately. This is a novel approach because it integrates separate factors into a comprehensive heuristic description. The novelty of this approach lies within the integration of separate factors determining expertise into a comprehensive heuristic description. It is our contention that talent identification methods and talent development models should therefore be geared toward the assessment and development of specific heuristics. Specifically, in addition to identifying and developing separate natural abilities and skills as per usual, heuristics should be identified and developed. The application of heuristics to talent and expertise models can bring the field one step away from dichotomized models of nature and nurture toward a comprehensive approach to the route to expertise. PMID:25071673

  19. Building Adaptive Expertise and Practice-Based Evidence: Applying the Implementation Stages Framework to Special Education Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason-Williams, Loretta; Frederick, Jacqueline R.; Mulcahy, Candace A.

    2015-01-01

    Preparing pre-service special educators to meet classroom demands requires teacher preparation programs to design experiences for students to demonstrate routine expertise, while also building adaptive expertise. In this article, the authors describe a capstone project that meets these needs and prepares pre-service special educators for their…

  20. Common Core State Standards and Adaptive Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamil, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the issues of how Common Core State Standards (CCSS) will impact adaptive teaching. It focuses on 2 of the major differences between conventional standards and CCSS: the increased complexity of text and the addition of disciplinary literacy standards to reading instruction. The article argues that adaptive teaching under CCSS…

  1. Adaptive Teaching in STEM: Characteristics for Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Melony; Webb, Angela W.; Matthews, Catherine E.

    2016-01-01

    This article defines the process of adaptive teaching in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). We assert that teachers who possess a well-developed STEM pedagogical content knowledge, a constructivist paradigm of teaching and learning, and an ability to draw on a vision while reflecting on and during teaching to help negotiate…

  2. Adaptation, expertise, and giftedness: towards an understanding of cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar network contributions.

    PubMed

    Koziol, Leonard F; Budding, Deborah Ely; Chidekel, Dana

    2010-12-01

    Current cortico-centric models of cognition lack a cohesive neuroanatomic framework that sufficiently considers overlapping levels of function, from "pathological" through "normal" to "gifted" or exceptional ability. While most cognitive theories presume an evolutionary context, few actively consider the process of adaptation, including concepts of neurodevelopment. Further, the frequent co-occurrence of "gifted" and "pathological" function is difficult to explain from a cortico-centric point of view. This comprehensive review paper proposes a framework that includes the brain's vertical organization and considers "giftedness" from an evolutionary and neurodevelopmental vantage point. We begin by discussing the current cortico-centric model of cognition and its relationship to intelligence. We then review an integrated, dual-tiered model of cognition that better explains the process of adaptation by simultaneously allowing for both stimulus-based processing and higher-order cognitive control. We consider the role of the basal ganglia within this model, particularly in relation to reward circuitry and instrumental learning. We review the important role of white matter tracts in relation to speed of adaptation and development of behavioral mastery. We examine the cerebellum's critical role in behavioral refinement and in cognitive and behavioral automation, particularly in relation to expertise and giftedness. We conclude this integrated model of brain function by considering the savant syndrome, which we believe is best understood within the context of a dual-tiered model of cognition that allows for automaticity in adaptation as well as higher-order executive control. PMID:20680539

  3. Teaching About Adaptation: Why Evolutionary History Matters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampourakis, Kostas

    2013-02-01

    Adaptation is one of the central concepts in evolutionary theory, which nonetheless has been given different definitions. Some scholars support a historical definition of adaptation, considering it as a trait that is the outcome of natural selection, whereas others support an ahistorical definition, considering it as a trait that contributes to the survival and reproduction of its possessors. Finally, adaptation has been defined as a process, as well. Consequently, two questions arise: the first is a philosophical one and focuses on what adaptation actually is; the second is a pedagogical one and focuses on what science teachers and educators should teach about it. In this article, the various definitions of adaptation are discussed and their uses in some textbooks are presented. It is suggested that, given elementary students' intuitions about purpose and design in nature and secondary students' teleological explanations for the origin of adaptations, any definition of adaptation as a trait should include some information about its evolutionary history.

  4. Teaching Social Work Practice Research to Enhance Research-Minded Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satka, Mirja; Kääriäinen, Aino; Yliruka, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The emphasis on student cognitive knowledge and expertise in social work education has been shifting more toward reflective learning that features learning networks and dialogical interaction. In the context of innovative knowledge communities for promoting social work expertise, educators have become facilitators of learning that is expanding…

  5. Adaptive Learning Systems: Beyond Teaching Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kara, Nuri; Sevim, Nese

    2013-01-01

    Since 1950s, teaching machines have changed a lot. Today, we have different ideas about how people learn, what instructor should do to help students during their learning process. We have adaptive learning technologies that can create much more student oriented learning environments. The purpose of this article is to present these changes and its…

  6. Hydrology and hydraulics expertise in participatory processes for climate change adaptation in the Dutch Meuse.

    PubMed

    Wesselink, Anna; de Vriend, Huib; Barneveld, Hermjan; Krol, Maarten; Bijker, Wiebe

    2009-01-01

    Many scientists feel that scientific outcomes are not sufficiently taken into account in policy-making. The research reported in this paper shows what happens with scientific information during such a process. In 2001 the Dutch Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management commissioned their regional office in Limburg to assess how flood management objectives could be achieved in future in the Dutch Meuse valley, assuming climate change will increase peak discharges. To ensure political support, regional discussion rounds were to help assess the measures previously identified. This paper discusses the ways in which hydrological and hydraulic expertise was input, understood and used in this assessment process. Project participants as a group had no trouble contesting assumptions and outcomes. Nevertheless, water expertise was generally accepted as providing facts, once basic choices such as starting situation had been discussed and agreed. The technical constraints determined that politically unacceptable measures would have to be selected to achieve the legally binding flood management objective. As a result, no additional space will be set aside for future flood management beyond the already reserved floodplain. In this case, political arguments clearly prevail over policy objectives, with hydraulic expertise providing decisive arbitration between the two. PMID:19657153

  7. Investigating the Learning to Teach Process: Pedagogy, Innovation Adoption, Expertise Development, and Technology Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation reported three studies whose overarching purpose is to enhance our understanding about how teachers learn to teach by revealing the learning to teach process. Each of three studies revealed the learning to teach process from different perspectives. Guided by the Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) framework, the first study…

  8. You can’t teach speed: sprinters falsify the deliberate practice model of expertise

    PubMed Central

    Deaner, Robert O.

    2014-01-01

    Many scientists agree that expertise requires both innate talent and proper training. Nevertheless, the highly influential deliberate practice model (DPM) of expertise holds that talent does not exist or makes a negligible contribution to performance. It predicts that initial performance will be unrelated to achieving expertise and that 10 years of deliberate practice is necessary. We tested these predictions in the domain of sprinting. In Studies 1 and 2 we reviewed biographies of 15 Olympic champions and the 20 fastest American men in U.S. history. In all documented cases, sprinters were exceptional prior to initiating training, and most reached world class status rapidly (Study 1 median = 3 years; Study 2 = 7.5). In Study 3 we surveyed U.S. national collegiate championships qualifiers in sprinters (n = 20) and throwers (n = 44). Sprinters recalled being faster as youths than did throwers, whereas throwers recalled greater strength and throwing ability. Sprinters’ best performances in their first season of high school, generally the onset of formal training, were consistently faster than 95–99% of their peers. Collectively, these results falsify the DPM for sprinting. Because speed is foundational for many sports, they challenge the DPM generally. PMID:25024914

  9. Changes in Teachers' Adaptive Expertise in an Engineering Professional Development Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Taylor; Peacock, Stephanie Baker; Ko, Pat; Rudolph, Jennifer J.

    2015-01-01

    Although the consensus seems to be that high-school-level introductory engineering courses should focus on design, this creates a problem for teacher training. Traditionally, math and science teachers are trained to teach and assess factual knowledge and closed-ended problem-solving techniques specific to a particular discipline, which is unsuited…

  10. Educational Expertise: The Concept of "Mind Frames" as an Integrative Model for Professionalisation in Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zierer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Professionalisation in teaching has been the topic of extensive research in recent years, following in general two different approaches: the "competence-based approach" and the "critical reflection approach". With large-scale comparative studies such as PISA, TIMMS and PIRLS at the beginning of the 21st century, the former…

  11. Making Sense of Experienced Teachers' Interactive Decisions: Implications for Expertise in Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gün, Bahar

    2014-01-01

    Teachers' decision making has always been an area of curiosity in many studies related to teachers and teaching. One approach to understanding teachers' decisions is through the analysis of their reflection-in-action behaviours. This study, based on the premise that one can gain understanding from examining experienced teachers' classroom…

  12. The Impact of a Postgraduate Certificate in Teaching in Higher Education on University Lecturers Appointed for Their Professional Expertise at a Teaching-Led University: "It's Made Me Braver"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, John; Stoncel, Di

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the impact of a Postgraduate Certificate in Teaching in Higher Education (PG Cert.) on new lecturers, appointed for their professional expertise. It focuses on staff perceptions of acculturation into the discourses of university learning and teaching. Drawing on a literature review which reveals (at best) ambivalent evidence…

  13. Using an Adaptive Expertise Lens to Understand the Quality of Teachers' Classroom Implementation of Computer-Supported Complex Systems Curricula in High School Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Susan A.; Koehler-Yom, Jessica; Anderson, Emma; Lin, Joyce; Klopfer, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Background: This exploratory study is part of a larger-scale research project aimed at building theoretical and practical knowledge of complex systems in students and teachers with the goal of improving high school biology learning through professional development and a classroom intervention. Purpose: We propose a model of adaptive expertise to…

  14. Flexibly Adaptive Professional Development in Support of Teaching Science with Geospatial Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trautmann, Nancy M.; Makinster, James G.

    2010-04-01

    The flexibly adaptive model of professional development, developed in the GIT Ahead project, enables secondary science teachers to incorporate a variety of geospatial technology applications into wide-ranging classroom contexts. Teacher impacts were evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively. Post-questionnaire responses showed significant growth in teachers’ perceived technological expertise, interest, and ability to integrate geospatial technology into their science teaching. Application of the Technical Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework to three case studies illustrates such growth. Crucial aspects of professional development in support of teaching science with geospatial technology include intensive training, ongoing support, a supportive learning community, and flexibility in terms of support provided and implementation expectations. Implications are presented for design of professional development and use of TPACK in evaluating impacts.

  15. Adaptive Teaching: An Invaluable Pedagogic Practice in Social Studies Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikwumelu, S. N.; Oyibe, Ogene A.; Oketa, E. C.

    2015-01-01

    The paper delved into the issue of learner/teacher centredness in Social Studies and held that the choice of around whom Social Studies teaching would be centred should be determined by the individual differences of the learners. Adaptive teaching was explained as an approach aimed at achieving a common instructional goal with learners considering…

  16. Adapting your teaching to accommodate the net generation of learners.

    PubMed

    Skiba, Diane J; Barton, Amy J

    2006-05-01

    Educators are faced with the challenge of adapting their teaching styles to accommodate a new generation of learners. The Net Generation or Millennials, who are now entering colleges and universities, have learning expectations, styles, and needs different from past students. This article assists educators in teaching the Net Generation by highlighting the characteristics of the Net Generation and providing examples of how to adapt teaching strategies to accommodate the Net Generation, in light of their preferences for digital literacy, experiential learning, interactivity, and immediacy. PMID:17201579

  17. How Language Supports Adaptive Teaching through a Responsive Learning Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Peter; Dozier, Cheryl; Smit, Julie

    2016-01-01

    For students to learn optimally, teachers must design classrooms that are responsive to the full range of student development. The teacher must be adaptive, but so must each student and the learning culture itself. In other words, adaptive teaching means constructing a responsive learning culture that accommodates and even capitalizes on diversity…

  18. Teaching for CAD Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chester, Ivan

    2007-01-01

    CAD (Computer Aided Design) has now become an integral part of Technology Education. The recent introduction of highly sophisticated, low-cost CAD software and CAM hardware capable of running on desktop computers has accelerated this trend. There is now quite widespread introduction of solid modeling CAD software into secondary schools but how…

  19. Teaching about Adaptation: Why Evolutionary History Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kampourakis, Kostas

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation is one of the central concepts in evolutionary theory, which nonetheless has been given different definitions. Some scholars support a historical definition of adaptation, considering it as a trait that is the outcome of natural selection, whereas others support an ahistorical definition, considering it as a trait that contributes to…

  20. Eyeballing expertise.

    PubMed

    Coopmans, Catelijne; Button, Graham

    2014-10-01

    'Tacit' and 'explicit' knowledge, and their relation to expertise, have a long-standing importance within social studies of science and technology. At the centre of the development of thinking about these topics has been the work of Harry Collins and Robert Evans. In this article, we bring to bear observations of the work of people involved in grading eye disease, and their seeming display of expertise, tacit and explicit knowledge, on three thrusts identified in the work of Collins, and Collins and Evans. These thrusts are the following: (1) a concern with the appearance of tacit knowledge in the activities of experts, (2) a commitment to studying expertise as 'real' and substantive rather than attributed, and (3) a commitment to promoting the recognition and fostering the management of expertise by providing analytical distinctions regarding expertise and its reliance on tacit knowledge. By considering what is involved in the work of grading eyes, we relocate the interest in tacit and explicit knowledge, and their bearing on expertise, in how expert knowledge is displayed and made recognizable in and through courses of action and interaction. PMID:25362833

  1. Curriculum Autonomy through Curriculum Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimley, Gareth

    2011-01-01

    The author argues that the decisions primary teachers make about the curriculum need to be informed by well-developed expertise in the subjects they are planning and teaching. This expertise is necessary when teachers are exercising professional autonomy in areas such as curriculum design, securing breadth and balance, and managing curriculum…

  2. On Scaffolding Adaptive Teaching Prompts within Virtual Labs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Najjar, Mehdi

    2008-01-01

    Despite a growing development of virtual laboratories which use the advantages of multimedia and Internet for distance education, learning by means of such tutorial tools would be more effective if they were specifically tailored to each student needs. The virtual teaching process would be well adapted if an artificial tutor can identify the…

  3. Teaching Beginning College Students with Adapted Published Research Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemm, William R.

    2013-01-01

    This study used peer-reviewed published research reports to teach a seminar on learning and memory to first-semester college students. Complete reports (not summaries, reviews, or news reports) were re-written by this author to be more "student friendly" to college freshmen. These adapted published research reports (APRRs) retained…

  4. Teaching Adaptability of Object-Oriented Programming Language Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Xiao-dong

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of object-oriented programming languages includes update of their own versions, update of development environments, and reform of new languages upon old languages. In this paper, the evolution analysis of object-oriented programming languages is presented in term of the characters and development. The notion of adaptive teaching upon…

  5. Teaching adaptive leadership to family medicine residents: what? why? how?

    PubMed

    Eubank, Daniel; Geffken, Dominic; Orzano, John; Ricci, Rocco

    2012-09-01

    Health care reform calls for patient-centered medical homes built around whole person care and healing relationships. Efforts to transform primary care practices and deliver these qualities have been challenging. This study describes one Family Medicine residency's efforts to develop an adaptive leadership curriculum and use coaching as a teaching method to address this challenge. We review literature that describes a parallel between the skills underlying such care and those required for adaptive leadership. We address two questions: What is leadership? Why focus on adaptive leadership? We then present a synthesis of leadership theories as a set of process skills that lead to organization learning through effective work relationships and adaptive leadership. Four models of the learning process needed to acquire such skills are explored. Coaching is proposed as a teaching method useful for going beyond information transfer to create the experiential learning necessary to acquire the process skills. Evaluations of our efforts to date are summarized. We discuss key challenges to implementing such a curriculum and propose that teaching adaptive leadership is feasible but difficult in the current medical education and practice contexts. PMID:22906156

  6. Emergent Expertise?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGivern, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The concept of emergence appears in various places within the literature on expertise and expert practice. Here, I examine some of these applications of emergence in the light of two prominent accounts of emergence from the philosophy of science and philosophy of mind. I evaluate these accounts with respect to several specific contexts in which…

  7. Rupture and Adaptation: British Technical Expertise to the Singapore Polytechnic and the Transition to a Nation-State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seng, Loh Kah

    2015-01-01

    The Singapore Polytechnic underwent a period of both rupture and adaptation as British advisers worked with the post-colonial government to facilitate technical education reform and Singapore's transition to a nation-state. Established in 1958 and based on the metropolitan model, the Singapore Polytechnic constituted an imperial project for…

  8. Eliciting Expertise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, William deB.

    1989-01-01

    Recommends using expert systems on personal computers in the classroom to teach international relations. Claims these systems can reach conclusions as reliable as those of a human expert. Explains that the system compels students to draw conclusions based on clarity of thought because they rely on a body of logically consistent rules. (NL)

  9. Chemistry Teachers' Emerging Expertise in Inquiry Teaching: The Effect of a Professional Development Model on Beliefs and Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushton, Gregory T.; Lotter, Christine; Singer, Jonathan

    2011-02-01

    This study investigates the beliefs and practices of seven high school chemistry teachers as a result of their participation in a year-long inquiry professional development (PD) project. An analysis of oral interviews, written reflections, and in-class observations were used to determine the extent to which the PD affected the teachers' beliefs and practice. The data indicated that the teachers developed more complete conceptions of classroom inquiry, valued a "phenomena first" approach to scientific investigations, and viewed inquiry approaches as helpful for facilitating improved student thinking. Analysis of classroom observations with the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol indicated that features of the PD were observed in the teachers' practice during the academic year follow-up. Implications for effective science teacher professional development models are discussed.

  10. Teaching Optics and Systems Engineering With Adaptive Optics Workbenches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, D. M.; Ammons, M.; Hunter, L.; Max, C.; Hoffmann, M.; Pitts, M.; Armstrong, J. D.

    2010-12-01

    Adaptive optics workbenches are fully functional optical systems that can be used to illustrate and teach a variety of concepts and cognitive processes. Four systems have been funded, designed and constructed by various institutions and people as part of education programs associated with the Center for Adaptive Optics, the Professional Development Program and the Institute for Scientist & Engineer Educators. Activities can range from first-year undergraduate explorations to professional level training. These workbenches have been used in many venues including the Center for Adaptive Optics AO Summer School, the Maui Community College-hosted Akamai Maui Short Course, classrooms, training of new staff in laboratories and other venues. The activity content has focused on various elements of systems thinking, characterization, feedback and system control, basic optics and optical alignment as well as advanced topics such as phase conjugation, wave-front sensing and correction concepts, and system design. The workbenches have slightly different designs and performance capabilities. We describe here outlines for several activities utilizing these different designs and some examples of common student learner outcomes and experiences.

  11. ITMS: Individualized Teaching Material System: Adaptive Integration of Web Pages Distributed in Some Servers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitsuhara, Hiroyuki; Kurose, Yoshinobu; Ochi, Youji; Yano, Yoneo

    The authors developed a Web-based Adaptive Educational System (Web-based AES) named ITMS (Individualized Teaching Material System). ITMS adaptively integrates knowledge on the distributed Web pages and generates individualized teaching material that has various contents. ITMS also presumes the learners' knowledge levels from the states of their…

  12. Does Thoughtfully Adaptive Teaching Actually Exist? A Challenge to Teacher Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, James V.; Duffy, Gerald G.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we explore the roots of thoughtfully adaptive teaching in reflection. Drawing on the conceptual work of Dewey and Schon, we examine reflective practice in teaching as a tool for resistance against institutional pressures to standardize teaching practices. We describe 2 programs of research related to this topic. One program of…

  13. An Expertise Recommender using Web Mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, Anupam; Chandrasekaran, Purnima; ShuYang, Michelle; Ramakrishnan, Ramya

    2001-01-01

    This report explored techniques to mine web pages of scientists to extract information regarding their expertise, build expertise chains and referral webs, and semi automatically combine this information with directory information services to create a recommender system that permits query by expertise. The approach included experimenting with existing techniques that have been reported in research literature in recent past , and adapted them as needed. In addition, software tools were developed to capture and use this information.

  14. Effects of Class Size and Adaptive Teaching Competency on Classroom Processes and Academic Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruhwiler, Christian; Blatchford, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In many studies of class size effects, teacher characteristics are missing, even though many argue it is not class size that is important but teacher quality. In the present study teachers' effectiveness on the learning progress was assessed while teaching a unit with predefined learning objectives. To measure adaptive teaching competency a…

  15. Teaching-Learning Patterns of Expert and Novice Adapted Physical Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everhart, Brett; Everhart, Kim; McHugh, Heather; Newman, Chelsea Dimon; Hershey, Kacie; Lorenzi, David

    2013-01-01

    This study was intended to provide a description of teaching and learning patterns seen in the lessons taught by experts and novices in Adapted Physical Education. Two experts who had won previous state teaching awards and served in leadership positions in state associations were filmed and their lessons were analyzed first to develop a systematic…

  16. Adaptive Teaching for English Language Arts: Following the Pathway of Classroom Data in Preservice Teacher Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athanases, Steven Z.; Bennett, Lisa H.; Wahleithner, Juliet Michelsen

    2015-01-01

    Consensus exists that effective teaching includes capacity to adapt instruction to respond to student learning challenges as they arise. Adaptive teachers may keep pace with rapidly evolving youth literacies and students' increasing cultural and linguistic diversity. Teachers are challenged to critically examine pedagogy when some contexts expect…

  17. Perceptions and Practices of Adapted Physical Educators on the Teaching of Social Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samalot-Rivera, Amaury; Porretta, David L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine adapted physical educators' perceptions and practices about teaching social skills to students with disabilities. A questionnaire based on Bandura's social learning theory concept of modeling was developed and mailed to an entire frame of 426 adapted physical education teachers in the state of Ohio. Face…

  18. A Web-Based Adaptive Tutor to Teach PCR Primer Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Seters, Janneke R.; Wellink, Joan; Tramper, Johannes; Goedhart, Martin J.; Ossevoort, Miriam A.

    2012-01-01

    When students have varying prior knowledge, personalized instruction is desirable. One way to personalize instruction is by using adaptive e-learning to offer training of varying complexity. In this study, we developed a web-based adaptive tutor to teach PCR primer design: the PCR Tutor. We used part of the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (the…

  19. Preparing Adapted Physical Educators to Teach Students with Autism: Current Practices and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Sean; Judge, Joann P.; Block, Martin E.; Kwon, Eun Hye

    2016-01-01

    For many students with autism spectrum disorder, physical education is the responsibility of an adapted physical education specialist. In this study, we examined the training focused on teaching students with autism spectrum disorder received by a sample of 106 adapted physical education specialists. Competencies necessary on a course to train…

  20. Teaching Mathematical Biology in High School Using Adapted Primary Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Stephen P.; Stelnicki, Nathan; de Vries, Gerda

    2012-01-01

    The study compared the effect of two adaptations of a scientific article on students' comprehension and use of scientific inquiry skills. One adaptation preserved as much as possible the canonical form of the original article (APL, Adapted Primary Literature) and the other was written in a more narrative mode typical of secondary literature (SL).…

  1. Teaching "Yes, And" … Improv in Sales Classes: Enhancing Student Adaptive Selling Skills, Sales Performance, and Teaching Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocco, Richard A.; Whalen, D. Joel

    2014-01-01

    In an application of experiential learning, assessment, and career development, this article reports a field experiment of teaching sales students adaptive selling skills via an "Improvisational (Improv) Comedy" technique: "Yes, And." Students learn this well-established theatrical improv method via classroom lecture,…

  2. Effects of an Adapted Physical Education Teaching Model on Special Educator Teaching Approaches for Students with Low Incidence Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laughlin, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a training package, which consisted of the Flex Grid Teaching Model along with adapted physical education consultation, on special education teacher instruction of functional motor skill acquisition instruction to secondary students with low incidence disabilities. Special education teachers…

  3. In pursuit of expertise. Toward an educational model for expertise development.

    PubMed

    Dunphy, Bruce C; Williamson, Stacey L

    2004-01-01

    Firstly, the many characteristics of expertise are examined: they include aspects of pattern recognition, knowledge, skill, flexibility, metacognitive monitoring, available cognitive space and teaching abilities. Secondly, three educational models from different domains (Nursing, Surgical Education, Education) are analysed, compared and contrasted, in relation to both educational approach and the development of expertise. Thirdly, a new model for the development of expertise is proposed, incorporating aspects of each of the three previously discussed models. Within this new model, four phases of development are proposed, culminating in the achievement of expertise. Furthermore, it is noted that under certain circumstances performance can deteriorate, and that with appropriate support, there can be recursion back through earlier phases of development. Significant implications for both healthcare education and practice are discussed, in relation to concepts of expertise, potential educational approaches and the proposed model for the development of expertise. PMID:15141129

  4. Rethinking Moral Expertise.

    PubMed

    Priaulx, Nicky; Weinel, Martin; Wrigley, Anthony

    2014-08-01

    We argue that the way in which the concept of expertise is understood and invoked has prevented progress in the debate as to whether moral philosophers can be said to be 'moral experts'. We offer an account of expertise that draws on the role of tacit knowledge in order to provide a basis upon which the debate can progress. Our analysis consists of three parts. In the first part we highlight two specific problems in the way that the concept of expertise has been invoked in the moral expertise debate, namely the understanding of expertise as an exclusive concept and the conflation of expertise with the idea of 'authority'. In the second part we suggest an alternative way of approaching the concept of expertise. This is based on Collins and Evans' sociological theory of expertises. This theory provides a valuable analytical framework for thinking about claims to expertise and for drawing the kinds of distinctions which allow for different kinds of moral expertises and competencies. In the final part, we show how the application of this theory helps to avoid some of the problematic conclusions which theorists have arrived at to date and provides a common platform for debate. Ultimately, it permits the argument to be made that moral philosophers could be considered specialist members of an expert community of moral decision-makers. PMID:25103422

  5. The Development of Disciplinary Expertise: An EAP and RGS-Informed Approach to the Teaching and Learning of Genre at George Mason University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habib, Anna S.; Haan, Jennifer; Mallett, Karyn

    2015-01-01

    In the U.S., international enrollment trends have increased the pedagogical imperative to address multilingual graduate student writers' linguistic needs/growth in the process of their developing disciplinary expertise. In the context of this internationalization effort, what can two disciplines--Applied Linguistics and Composition--constructively…

  6. Intelligence as Developing Expertise.

    PubMed

    Sternberg

    1999-10-01

    This essay describes how intelligence can be viewed as developing expertise. The general conception of intelligence as developing expertise is described. Then research examples are given that, in conjunction, seem odd under traditional interpretations of abilities but that make sense as a whole in the context of the developing-expertise model. It is concluded that this new model offers potential for better understanding intelligence-related phenomena. Copyright 1999 Academic Press. PMID:10508532

  7. Teaching Students How to Analyze and Adapt to Audiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiter, John S.; Gass, Robert H.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes an exercise that involves providing students with a basic understanding and demonstration of audience adaptation and then asking them to practice and evaluate the skill. In this exercise the instructor begins by providing students with background on analyzing and adapting to audiences. Then the instructor collects several…

  8. Teaching the 'nature of science': modest adaptations or radical reconceptions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hipkins, Rosemary; Barker, Miles; Bolstad, Rachel

    2005-02-01

    This article explores the nature of a continuing mismatch between curriculum reform rhetoric in science education and actual classroom practice. Lack of philosophical consensus about the nature of science (NOS); lack of appropriate curriculum guidance, classroom materials and pedagogical content knowledge for NOS teaching; teachers' personal theories of learning; and the realities of classroom constraints are all implicated as interacting factors that contribute to the mismatch. Because curriculum policy is political, with pressure brought to bear by many interest groups, it is suggested that the science teaching community cannot adequately address the issues raised in the absence of wider community debate and support.

  9. What Makes Primary Classteachers Special? Exploring the Features of Expertise in the Primary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaude, Tony

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the nature of teacher expertise in the primary school classroom, drawing on theoretical models of expertise and of teaching expertise. It challenges simplistic models of an "outstanding" or "master" teacher to argue that since teacher expertise is both situated and prototypical, it is manifested in…

  10. Fantastic animals as an experimental model to teach animal adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Guidetti, Roberto; Baraldi, Laura; Calzolai, Caterina; Pini, Lorenza; Veronesi, Paola; Pederzoli, Aurora

    2007-01-01

    Background Science curricula and teachers should emphasize evolution in a manner commensurate with its importance as a unifying concept in science. The concept of adaptation represents a first step to understand the results of natural selection. We settled an experimental project of alternative didactic to improve knowledge of organism adaptation. Students were involved and stimulated in learning processes by creative activities. To set adaptation in a historic frame, fossil records as evidence of past life and evolution were considered. Results The experimental project is schematized in nine phases: review of previous knowledge; lesson on fossils; lesson on fantastic animals; planning an imaginary world; creation of an imaginary animal; revision of the imaginary animals; adaptations of real animals; adaptations of fossil animals; and public exposition. A rubric to evaluate the student's performances is reported. The project involved professors and students of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia and of the "G. Marconi" Secondary School of First Degree (Modena, Italy). Conclusion The educational objectives of the project are in line with the National Indications of the Italian Ministry of Public Instruction: knowledge of the characteristics of living beings, the meanings of the term "adaptation", the meaning of fossils, the definition of ecosystem, and the particularity of the different biomes. At the end of the project, students will be able to grasp particular adaptations of real organisms and to deduce information about the environment in which the organism evolved. This project allows students to review previous knowledge and to form their personalities. PMID:17767729

  11. The National "Expertise Gap"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Kendra

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation's report, "Diversity and the Ph.D.," released in May, which documents in troubling detail the exact dimensions of what the foundation's president, Dr. Robert Weisbuch, is calling the national "expertise gap." Weisbuch states that the expertise gap extends beyond the…

  12. Work Analysis and Expertise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on work analysis and expertise. "A Taxonomy of Employee Development: Toward an Organizational Culture of Expertise" (Ronald L. Jacobs) includes five categories of employee competence: novice, specialist, experienced specialist, expert, and master. "An Integrated Needs Assessment-Evaluation…

  13. Data-Driven Implementation and Adaptation of New Teaching Methodologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Kristen L.; Picione, John; Holme, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an action research approach toward an implementation of a new teaching methodology (specifically active learning) in a preparatory college chemistry classroom. The initial implementation involved the use of process-orientated guided inquiry (POGIL) activities. The treatment classes with either all POGIL activities during…

  14. Yoga-teaching protocol adapted for children with visual impairment

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Soubhagyalaxmi; Hankey, Alex; Pradhan, Balaram; Ranjita, Rajashree

    2016-01-01

    Context: Childhood visual deficiency impairs children's neuro-psychomotor development, considerably affecting physical, mental, social, and emotional health. Yoga's multifaceted approach may help children with visual impairment (VI) to cope with their challenges. Aim: This study aimed to develop a special protocol for teaching yoga to children with VI, and to evaluate their preferred method of learning. Methods: The study was carried out at Ramana Maharishi Academy for the Blind, Bengaluru, South India. Forty-one students volunteered to learn yoga practices, and classes were held weekly 5 days, 1 hr per session for 16 weeks. The study introduced a new method using a sequence of five teaching steps: verbal instructions, tactile modeling, step-by-step teaching, learning in a group, and physical guidance. A questionnaire concerning the preferred steps of learning was then given to each student, and verbal answers were obtained. Results: A total of 33 (out of 41), aged 11.97 ± 1.94, 15 girls and 18 boys responded. Twenty-six (78.79%) chose physical guidance as their most favored learning mode. Conclusions: Specially designed protocol may pave the way to impart yoga in an exciting and comfortable way to children with VI. More studies are needed to further investigate the effectiveness of this new yoga protocol in similar settings. PMID:27512318

  15. Waterless Condensers for the Teaching Laboratory: An Adaptation of Traditional Glassware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Erich W.; Esteb, John J.; Wilson, Anne M.

    2014-01-01

    A simple adaptation of traditional "chemistry kit" condensers for the organic chemistry teaching laboratory is described. These waterless condensers have been employed safely with most solvents. They can be easily fabricated, stored, and used in the same manner as water-cooled condensers. These condensers were utilized in several…

  16. The Adaptation of the Teaching-Learning Conceptions Questionnaire and Its Relationships with Epistemological Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aypay, Ayse

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to adapt the Teaching-learning Approaches Questionnaire. The working group of the study consisted of 341 student-teachers. The results indicated that the factor structure is partially consistent with the model. Cronbach reliability coefficient for the whole instrument was 0.71, while sub-scale reliabilities…

  17. The Princess Storyteller, Clara Clarifier, Quincy Questioner, and the Wizard: Reciprocal Teaching Adapted for Kindergarten Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Pamela Ann

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the author adapted reciprocal teaching strategies for use with her kindergarten students. Using puppets to help model strategies, she implemented a series of lessons that showed students how to retell, ask questions, and predict what would happen in a story that was read aloud. The purpose was to provide students with comprehension…

  18. Adapted Physical Education Teachers' Concerns in Teaching Students with Disabilities in an Urban Public School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Samuel R.; Akuffo, Patrick B.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not adapted physical education (APE) teachers had job-related concerns associated with teaching students with disabilities in an urban public school district. The participants were six experienced, itinerant APE teachers, who taught in urban public schools in a midwestern state in the United…

  19. Teaching Mathematical Biology in High School Using Adapted Primary Literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Stephen P.; Stelnicki, Nathan; de Vries, Gerda

    2012-08-01

    The study compared the effect of two adaptations of a scientific article on students' comprehension and use of scientific inquiry skills. One adaptation preserved as much as possible the canonical form of the original article (APL, Adapted Primary Literature) and the other was written in a more narrative mode typical of secondary literature (SL). Both adaptations contained the same content. Two hundred and eleven senior high school students in a Western Canadian school district participated. The numbers of males and females were approximately equal, and all students were registered in an introductory calculus course. All students were given a 90 min class by their teachers that introduced them to the basic mathematical concepts needed to read the articles. Students were randomly assigned to read either the APL or the SL and afterwards to complete a questionnaire, which was common to both groups. Major findings showed that the SL students better understood the article, that the APL students thought more critically about the article, that females understood the article better than males, and that students' attitudes towards reading the articles, regardless of group, were positively associated with their comprehension and use of inquiry skills. The results coincide in important ways with those of similar studies in Israel, and show that asking students to read text that resembles scientific writing increases their use of critical thinking skills when reading.

  20. Teaching a Biotechnology Curriculum Based on Adapted Primary Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Hedda; Brill, Gilat; Yarden, Anat

    2008-01-01

    Adapted primary literature (APL) refers to an educational genre specifically designed to enable the use of research articles for learning biology in high school. The present investigation focuses on the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of four high-school biology teachers who enacted an APL-based curriculum in biotechnology. Using a…

  1. The CBT Decade: Teaching for Flexibility and Adaptability. An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billett, Stephen; McKavanagh, Charlie; Beven, Fred; Angus, Lawrence; Seddon, Terri; Gough, John; Hayes, Sharon; Robertson, Ian

    The contribution of competency-based training (CBT) to the development of an adaptable and flexible workforce was examined by analyzing documents and gathering data from teachers, industry representatives, enterprises, and students in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan sites in two Australian states: Victoria and Queensland. The study focused on…

  2. Teaching the Self-Contained Adapted Physical Education Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Martin E.; Taliaferro, Andrea; Campbell, Amanda Love; Harris, Natasha; Tipton, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide information to general physical education teachers on how to conduct a self-contained adapted physical education (APE) class. The article begins with an example of a traditional model for a self-contained APE class, where all students work on the same goals using basically the same equipment and…

  3. An Adaptable Investigative Graduate Laboratory Course for Teaching Protein Purification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Christopher W.; Keller, Lani C.

    2014-01-01

    This adaptable graduate laboratory course on protein purification offers students the opportunity to explore a wide range of techniques while allowing the instructor the freedom to incorporate their own personal research interests. The course design involves two sequential purification schemes performed in a single semester. The first part…

  4. Identifying Teacher Expertise: An Examination of Researchers' Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Douglas J.; Stough, Laura M.; Burdenski, Thomas K., Jr.; Gonzales, Maricela

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews indicators used by researchers to select samples of expert teachers. Reflecting initially on the broader expertise literature and then focusing on studies of teaching expertise, the authors identify criteria used to select expert teachers that fall under one or more of the following marker categories: (a) years of experience,…

  5. Acquisition of Human Expertise in Robotic Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Sawaragi, Tetsuo; Tian, Yajie; Horiguchi, Yukio

    Robots must be presently taught by human workers to execute given manufacturing tasks. The current problem is that the task of teaching robots is rather time-consuming, especially within the robotic assembly domain. This problem is caused by insufficient accumulation of human expertise that should be reused in this domain. Therefore, a knowledge-intensive method for acquiring human expertise is proposed in this paper. Our method is able to acquire human expertise in the robotic assembly domain by observing robot-teaching demonstrations of human experts. What distinguishes our method from others is that there are two modes of learning: 1. learning from an example directly given by human workers, and 2. learning expertise on error recovery by observing revisions made by human workers in handling execution errors that occur in reusing previously acquired knowledge. The acquired human expertise is required to be represented in a way that satisfies two requirements. The first one is operability so that the representation is easy to transform into robot programs (commands & parameters). The second one is understandability so that the representation is easy for human workers to understand the robot program. A specific robot assembly example is given to illustrate the proposed method.

  6. Adaptations: Using Darwin's Origin to teach biology and writing.

    PubMed

    Morris, James R; Costa, James T; Berry, Andrew

    2015-10-01

    Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species is at once familiar and unfamiliar. Everyone knows that the Origin introduced the world to the idea of evolution by natural selection, but few of us have actually read it. We suggest that it is worth taking the time not only to read what Darwin had to say, but also to use the Origin to teach both biology and writing. It provides scientific lessons in areas beyond evolutionary biology, such as ecology and biogeography. In addition, it provides valuable rhetorical lessons-how to construct an argument, write persuasively, make use of evidence, know your audience, and anticipate counterarguments. We have been using the Origin in various classes for several years, introducing new generations to Darwin, in his own words. PMID:26315858

  7. Reflective Teaching via a Problem Exploration--Teaching Adaptations--Resolution Cycle: A Mixed Methods Study of Preservice Teachers' Reflective Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, H. Emily; Chiu, Ming Ming

    2015-01-01

    We explore development of elementary preservice teachers' reflective practices as they solved problems encountered while teaching in a reading clinic. Written reflections (N = 175) were collected across 8 weeks from 23 preservice teachers and analyzed to investigate relationships among problem exploration, teaching adaptations, and problem…

  8. Teaching as Designing: Preparing Pre-Service Teachers for Adaptive Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Michelle E.

    2016-01-01

    This conceptual article explores teaching as design work, arguing that a critical thing teachers do is design systems that enable their students to learn. Designing occurs when teachers generate new learning activities or modify curricular programs to create coherence for themselves and their students. Nonetheless, few teacher education programs…

  9. The geometry of expertise

    PubMed Central

    Leone, María J.; Fernandez Slezak, Diego; Cecchi, Guillermo A.; Sigman, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Theories of expertise based on the acquisition of chunk and templates suggest a differential geometric organization of perception between experts and novices. It is implied that expert representation is less anchored by spatial (Euclidean) proximity and may instead be dictated by the intrinsic relation in the structure and grammar of the specific domain of expertise. Here we set out to examine this hypothesis. We used the domain of chess which has been widely used as a tool to study human expertise. We reasoned that the movement of an opponent piece to a specific square constitutes an external cue and the reaction of the player to this “perturbation” should reveal his internal representation of proximity. We hypothesized that novice players will tend to respond by moving a piece in closer squares than experts. Similarly, but now in terms of object representations, we hypothesized weak players will more likely focus on a specific piece and hence produce sequence of actions repeating movements of the same piece. We capitalized on a large corpus of data obtained from internet chess servers. Results showed that, relative to experts, weaker players tend to (1) produce consecutive moves in proximal board locations, (2) move more often the same piece and (3) reduce the number of remaining pieces more rapidly, most likely to decrease cognitive load and mental effort. These three principles might reflect the effect of expertise on human actions in complex setups. PMID:24550869

  10. Beyond Faces and Expertise

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Mintao; Bülthoff, Heinrich H.; Bülthoff, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Holistic processing—the tendency to perceive objects as indecomposable wholes—has long been viewed as a process specific to faces or objects of expertise. Although current theories differ in what causes holistic processing, they share a fundamental constraint for its generalization: Nonface objects cannot elicit facelike holistic processing in the absence of expertise. Contrary to this prevailing view, here we show that line patterns with salient Gestalt information (i.e., connectedness, closure, and continuity between parts) can be processed as holistically as faces without any training. Moreover, weakening the saliency of Gestalt information in these patterns reduced holistic processing of them, which indicates that Gestalt information plays a crucial role in holistic processing. Therefore, holistic processing can be achieved not only via a top-down route based on expertise, but also via a bottom-up route relying merely on object-based information. The finding that facelike holistic processing can extend beyond the domains of faces and objects of expertise poses a challenge to current dominant theories. PMID:26674129

  11. Development of Legal Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glöckner, Andreas; Towfigh, Emanuel; Traxler, Christian

    2013-01-01

    In a comprehensive empirical investigation (N = 71,405) we analyzed the development of legal expertise in a critical 1-year period of academic legal training in which advanced law students start practicing to solve complex cases. We were particularly interested in the functional form of the learning curve and inter-individual differences in…

  12. The geometry of expertise.

    PubMed

    Leone, María J; Fernandez Slezak, Diego; Cecchi, Guillermo A; Sigman, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Theories of expertise based on the acquisition of chunk and templates suggest a differential geometric organization of perception between experts and novices. It is implied that expert representation is less anchored by spatial (Euclidean) proximity and may instead be dictated by the intrinsic relation in the structure and grammar of the specific domain of expertise. Here we set out to examine this hypothesis. We used the domain of chess which has been widely used as a tool to study human expertise. We reasoned that the movement of an opponent piece to a specific square constitutes an external cue and the reaction of the player to this "perturbation" should reveal his internal representation of proximity. We hypothesized that novice players will tend to respond by moving a piece in closer squares than experts. Similarly, but now in terms of object representations, we hypothesized weak players will more likely focus on a specific piece and hence produce sequence of actions repeating movements of the same piece. We capitalized on a large corpus of data obtained from internet chess servers. Results showed that, relative to experts, weaker players tend to (1) produce consecutive moves in proximal board locations, (2) move more often the same piece and (3) reduce the number of remaining pieces more rapidly, most likely to decrease cognitive load and mental effort. These three principles might reflect the effect of expertise on human actions in complex setups. PMID:24550869

  13. Modelling district nurse expertise.

    PubMed

    Burke, Michelle

    2014-12-01

    As changes in society and health provision mean that one in four people over the age of 75 will require nursing care at home, pre-registration adult nurse education increasingly prepares student nurses for a future career within the community. District nurses undertake complex, multidimensional health and social assessments and care in a non-clinical setting and work in partnership with patients and their significant others to promote practical and psychological coping mechanisms and self-care. The district nurse's first assessment visit is key to developing a therapeutic partnership and it is often during this visit that expertise in district nursing practice emerges. The holistic, contextual and dynamic aspects of nursing in the home setting can make district nursing expertise difficult to illustrate and demonstrate within the classroom setting. This article explores the ways in which an understanding of expertise development theory can enable the tacit expertise that occurs within the first assessment visit to be made visible to student nurses, using simulation and expert narrative as a pedagogical strategy. PMID:25475676

  14. In Pursuit of Expertise. Toward an Educational Model for Expertise Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunphy, Bruce C.; Williamson, Stacey L.

    2004-01-01

    Firstly, the many characteristics of expertise are examined: they include aspects of pattern recognition, knowledge, skill, flexibility, metacognitive monitoring, available cognitive space and teaching abilities. Secondly, three educational models from different domains(Nursing, Surgical Education, Education) are analysed, compared and contrasted,…

  15. Conceptualizing and Exemplifying Science Teachers' Assessment Expertise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geaney Lyon, Edward

    2013-05-01

    Although research in science education has led to new assessment forms and functions, the reality is that little work has been done to unpack and capture what it means for a teacher to develop expertise at assessing science. The purpose of this paper is two-fold. First, I suggest a conceptualization of assessment expertise that is organized around three dimensions: (a) designing aligned and theoretically cohesive assessment (Design), (b) using assessment to support students' science learning (Use), and (c) equitably assessing language minorities (Equity). The second purpose is to suggest and exemplify various levels of teaching expertise across the three conceptual dimensions using written assessment plans gathered from a study on secondary science pre-service teachers' assessment growth. The contribution of this paper lies in its further conceptual development of assessment expertise, instantiated in a rubric, which can spark discussion about how to capture the range of assessment practices that might be found in science classrooms as well as move toward a potential learning progression of assessment expertise.

  16. An Evaluation of Levels of Adaptation Used in the Teaching of Foreign University Degree Programs in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Mike

    2004-01-01

    Many universities now deliver courses and programs in overseas markets such as China. Often these programs are delivered by foreign academics who teach in these overseas locations. This style and format of educational delivery raises the issue of the degree to which subject material and teaching styles need to be adapted to meet the needs of…

  17. Nature, Nurture, and Expertise.

    PubMed

    Plomin, Robert; Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; McMillan, Andrew; Trzaskowski, Maciej

    2014-07-01

    Rather than investigating the extent to which training can improve performance under experimental conditions ('what could be'), we ask about the origins of expertise as it exists in the world ('what is'). We used the twin method to investigate the genetic and environmental origins of exceptional performance in reading, a skill that is a major focus of educational training in the early school years. Selecting reading experts as the top 5% from a sample of 10,000 12-year-olds twins assessed on a battery of reading tests, three findings stand out. First, we found that genetic factors account for more than half of the difference in performance between expert and normal readers. Second, our results suggest that reading expertise is the quantitative extreme of the same genetic and environmental factors that affect reading performance for normal readers. Third, growing up in the same family and attending the same schools account for less than a fifth of the difference between expert and normal readers. We discuss implications and interpretations ('what is inherited is DNA sequence variation'; 'the abnormal is normal'). Finally, although there is no necessary relationship between 'what is' and 'what could be', the most far-reaching issues about the acquisition of expertise lie at the interface between them ('the nature of nurture: from a passive model of imposed environments to an active model of shaped experience'). PMID:24948844

  18. Nature, nurture, and expertise

    PubMed Central

    Plomin, Robert; Shakeshaft, Nicholas G.; McMillan, Andrew; Trzaskowski, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Rather than investigating the extent to which training can improve performance under experimental conditions (‘what could be’), we ask about the origins of expertise as it exists in the world (‘what is’). We used the twin method to investigate the genetic and environmental origins of exceptional performance in reading, a skill that is a major focus of educational training in the early school years. Selecting reading experts as the top 5% from a sample of 10,000 12-year-old twins assessed on a battery of reading tests, three findings stand out. First, we found that genetic factors account for more than half of the difference in performance between expert and normal readers. Second, our results suggest that reading expertise is the quantitative extreme of the same genetic and environmental factors that affect reading performance for normal readers. Third, growing up in the same family and attending the same schools account for less than a fifth of the difference between expert and normal readers. We discuss implications and interpretations (‘what is inherited is DNA sequence variation’; ‘the abnormal is normal’). Finally, although there is no necessary relationship between ‘what is’ and ‘what could be’, the most far-reaching issues about the acquisition of expertise lie at the interface between them (‘the nature of nurture: from a passive model of imposed environments to an active model of shaped experience’). PMID:24948844

  19. Cognitive Transformations and Extended Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menary, Richard; Kirchhoff, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Expertise is extended by becoming immersed in cultural practices. We look at an example of mathematical expertise in which immersion in cognitive practices results in the transformation of expert performance.

  20. Expertise of Early Childhood Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Happo, Iiris; Määttä, Kaarina

    2011-01-01

    Every preschool age child in Finland has the right to day care and the expertise of educators is multidimensional. The aim of this article is to clarify the expertise of those early childhood educators, who have the competence of kindergarten teachers (n = 80). The data consisted of the early educators' stories of their growth towards expertise.…

  1. Architecture-Adaptive Computing Environment: A Tool for Teaching Parallel Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorband, John E.; Aburdene, Maurice F.

    2002-01-01

    Recently, networked and cluster computation have become very popular. This paper is an introduction to a new C based parallel language for architecture-adaptive programming, aCe C. The primary purpose of aCe (Architecture-adaptive Computing Environment) is to encourage programmers to implement applications on parallel architectures by providing them the assurance that future architectures will be able to run their applications with a minimum of modification. A secondary purpose is to encourage computer architects to develop new types of architectures by providing an easily implemented software development environment and a library of test applications. This new language should be an ideal tool to teach parallel programming. In this paper, we will focus on some fundamental features of aCe C.

  2. Expertise, Ethics Expertise, and Clinical Ethics Consultation: Achieving Terminological Clarity.

    PubMed

    Iltis, Ana S; Sheehan, Mark

    2016-08-01

    The language of ethics expertise has become particularly important in bioethics in light of efforts to establish the value of the clinical ethics consultation (CEC), to specify who is qualified to function as a clinical ethics consultant, and to characterize how one should evaluate whether or not a person is so qualified. Supporters and skeptics about the possibility of ethics expertise use the language of ethics expertise in ways that reflect competing views about what ethics expertise entails. We argue for clarity in understanding the nature of expertise and ethics expertise. To be an ethics expert, we argue, is to be an expert in knowing what ought to be done. Any attempt to articulate expertise with respect to knowing what ought to be done must include an account of ethics that specifies the nature of moral truth and the means by which we access this truth or a theoretical account of ethics such that expertise in another domain is linked to knowing or being better at judging what ought to be done and the standards by which this "knowing" or "being better at judging" is determined. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of our analysis for the literature on ethics expertise in CEC. We do think that there are clear domains in which a clinical ethics consultant might be expert but we are skeptical about the possibility that this includes ethics expertise. Clinical ethics consultants should not be referred to as ethics experts. PMID:27256848

  3. Transfer of adapted water supply technologies through a demonstration and teaching facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nestmann, F.; Oberle, P.; Ikhwan, M.; Stoffel, D.; Blaß, H. J.; Töws, D.; Schmidt, S.

    2016-05-01

    Water scarcity can be defined as a lack of sufficient water resources or as the limited or even missing access to a safe water supply. Latter can be classified as `economic water scarcity' which among others can commonly be met in tropical and subtropical karst regions of emerging and developing countries. Karst aquifers, mostly consisting of limestone and carbonate rock, show high infiltration rates which leads to a lack of above ground storage possibilities. Thus, the water will drain rapidly into the underground and evolve vast river networks. Considering the lack of appropriate infrastructure and limited human capacities in the affected areas, these underground water resources cannot be exploited adequately. Against this, background innovative and adapted technologies are required to utilize hard-to-access water resources in a sustainable way. In this context, the German-Indonesian joint R&D project "Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) Indonesia" dealt with the development of highly adaptable water technologies and management strategies. Under the aegis of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), these innovative technical concepts were exemplarily implemented to remedy this deficiency in the model region Gunung Sewu, a karst area situated on the southern coast of Java Island, Indonesia. The experiences gained through the interdisciplinary joint R&D activities clearly showed that even in the case of availability of appropriate technologies, a comprising transfer of knowhow and the buildup of capabilities (Capacity Development) is inevitable to sustainably implement and disseminate new methods. In this context, an adapted water supply facility was developed by KIT which hereafter shall serve for demonstration, teaching, and research purposes. The plant's functionality, its teaching and research concept, as well as the design process, which was accomplished in collaboration with the

  4. The Development of Intentions for Adapted Teaching and Inclusive Education Seen in Light of Curriculum Potential. A Content Analysis of Norwegian National Curricula Post 1980

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjornsrud, Halvor; Nilsen, Sven

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses and discusses the development of the principles of adapted teaching and inclusive education in the three most recent Norwegian national curricula, seen in light of curriculum potential as an overarching perspective. This potential highlights teachers' opportunities for choosing and adapting their teaching content. The area of…

  5. Teaching the Fluctuation Test "In Silico" by Using Mutate: A Program to Distinguish between the Adaptive and Spontaneous Mutation Hypotheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvajal-Rodriguez, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Mutate is a program developed for teaching purposes to impart a virtual laboratory class for undergraduate students of Genetics in Biology. The program emulates the so-called fluctuation test whose aim is to distinguish between spontaneous and adaptive mutation hypotheses in bacteria. The plan is to train students in certain key multidisciplinary…

  6. Teaching College Level Content and Reading Comprehension Skills Simultaneously via an Artificially Intelligent Adaptive Computerized Instructional System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Roger D.; Belden, Noelle

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a behavioral model for conceptualizing advanced reading comprehension as a "higher order" behavior class. Also discussed are strategies and tactics utilized by an artificially intelligent adaptive tutoring and testing software system designed to shape such comprehension skills while also teaching subject-specific "content" to…

  7. A Step Forward: Investigating Expertise in Materials Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Keith; Kim, Mija; Ya-Fang, Liu; Nava, Andrea; Perkins, Dawn; Smith, Anne Margaret; Soler-Canela, Oscar; Lu, Wang

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on a study investigating the textbook evaluation techniques of novice and experienced teachers, which was conducted by the Language Teaching Expertise Research Group (or LATEX) within Lancaster University's Department of Linguistics and English Language. Three ELT teachers were chosen to evaluate the student and teacher…

  8. Sibling dynamics and sport expertise.

    PubMed

    Hopwood, M J; Farrow, D; MacMahon, C; Baker, J

    2015-10-01

    Family members are known to be highly influential in the development of sport expertise. To date, much of the research in this area has focused on parents, with less known about sibling influences on expertise. This investigation explored associations between sport expertise, sibling characteristics, and sibling participation in sport and physical activity. Athletes representing three skill levels provided details of sibling characteristics and participation in sport and physical activity via the Developmental History of Athletes Questionnaire. Elite athletes were more likely to be later-born children, while pre-elite and non-elite athletes were more likely to be first-born. Compared with siblings of non-elite athletes, siblings of elite athletes were more likely to have participated in regular physical activity and were more likely to have participated in sport at the pre-elite and elite levels. These results suggest siblings may play a key role in sport expertise development. PMID:25640295

  9. A model of corrosion expertise

    SciTech Connect

    Trethewey, K.R.; Roberge, P.R.

    1996-10-01

    This paper describes an approach to reduce the complexity of knowledge engineering projects in corrosion by developing an object-oriented framework to guide the elicitation and organization of corrosion and materials engineering expertise. A model is presented into which corrosion expertise can be structured in a qualitative and quantitative way. This model could be used as the framework for a corrosion management expert system.

  10. Non-Certified Environment and Geography Subject Expertise in Chilean Rural Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salinas-Silva, Victor; Arenas-Martija, Andoni; Margalef-García, Leonor

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, environmental and geographical subject expertise is explored, based on the notion of expertise as rooted both in subject knowledge and knowledge of teaching and as acquired through experience. The research questions that guided this study focused on the importance of understanding how teachers negotiate their assumptions and what…

  11. Expertise in community health nursing.

    PubMed

    McMurray, A

    1992-01-01

    This article reports on a study of expertise in community health nursing. The objective of the study was to develop a model of expertise derived from identification of the characteristics and factors influencing clinical expertise in community health nurses (CHNs) practicing in district nursing, school health, and child health. Participant observations, individual interviews, and written retrospective accounts of clinical episodes were analyzed from 37 nurses (10 novices within the first year of community practice and 27 experts identified by peers and colleagues). The data identified the expert as someone in whom the following characteristics operate synchronously: knowledge; empathy; appropriate communication; holistic understanding; an ability to get right to the problem at hand; and self-confidence in her or his perceptions, judgments, and intervention strategies. The findings suggest that there is a combination of factors which influences the development of expertise. These include educational factors, personal factors, and experience. These factors are incorporated into the model of expertise. The data also suggest that, in order to educate for expert levels of practice, the educational process must be designed to stimulate the learner's perceptual as well as analytic abilities. This can best be achieved through clinical practice opportunities and through demonstrations and case studies which stimulate inferential and intuitive thinking in students. PMID:1624980

  12. College Students Solving Chemistry Problems: A Theoretical Model of Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Glynn, Shawn M.

    2009-01-01

    A model of expertise in chemistry problem solving was tested on undergraduate science majors enrolled in a chemistry course. The model was based on Anderson's "Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational" (ACT-R) theory. The model shows how conceptualization, self-efficacy, and strategy interact and contribute to the successful solution of quantitative,…

  13. Peer-reviewed forensic consultation in practice: multidisciplinary oversight in common expertise.

    PubMed

    Welner, Michael; Davey, Emily E; Bernstein, Adam

    2014-09-01

    The fallibility of forensic science consultation is an ongoing and major justice concern. Prospective peer-reviewed forensic consultation has over 10 years of application in American criminal and civil courts, adapting from the traditional oversight of teaching hospitals, rules of evidence and discovery, conventions of testimony of expert witnesses, and attorneys' overall trial strategy. In systematizing heightened oversight, this process ensures greater accountability in forensic science consultation. The integration of peer reviewers' complementary expertise and experience enhances the sophistication and overall quality of assessment. Forensic examination frequently involves the interface of different specialties. Multidisciplinary peer review augments expert proficiency with that of professional peers having different vantage points from relevant scientific disciplines. This approach ensures greater sophistication of a case inquiry, built-in accountability, and streamlined processes when multiple experts are necessitated. Here, the authors present examples of several cases and the primary and secondary benefits of this collaborative, rigorous, cross-disciplinary exercise. PMID:24593117

  14. Understanding Expertise from Elite Badminton Coaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheu, Feng-Ru

    2011-01-01

    Badminton is a growing sport with a limited amount of expertise both in players and coaches so attempts are being made to extend the expertise internationally. The purpose of this study is to gain an understanding of coaching expertise in badminton because such an understanding might have implications for a more general understanding of expertise,…

  15. Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Broom, Donald M

    2006-01-01

    The term adaptation is used in biology in three different ways. It may refer to changes which occur at the cell and organ level, or at the individual level, or at the level of gene action and evolutionary processes. Adaptation by cells, especially nerve cells helps in: communication within the body, the distinguishing of stimuli, the avoidance of overload and the conservation of energy. The time course and complexity of these mechanisms varies. Adaptive characters of organisms, including adaptive behaviours, increase fitness so this adaptation is evolutionary. The major part of this paper concerns adaptation by individuals and its relationships to welfare. In complex animals, feed forward control is widely used. Individuals predict problems and adapt by acting before the environmental effect is substantial. Much of adaptation involves brain control and animals have a set of needs, located in the brain and acting largely via motivational mechanisms, to regulate life. Needs may be for resources but are also for actions and stimuli which are part of the mechanism which has evolved to obtain the resources. Hence pigs do not just need food but need to be able to carry out actions like rooting in earth or manipulating materials which are part of foraging behaviour. The welfare of an individual is its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment. This state includes various adaptive mechanisms including feelings and those which cope with disease. The part of welfare which is concerned with coping with pathology is health. Disease, which implies some significant effect of pathology, always results in poor welfare. Welfare varies over a range from very good, when adaptation is effective and there are feelings of pleasure or contentment, to very poor. A key point concerning the concept of individual adaptation in relation to welfare is that welfare may be good or poor while adaptation is occurring. Some adaptation is very easy and energetically cheap and

  16. Teaching Case: Adapting the Access Northwind Database to Support a Database Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, John N.; Rogers, Camille

    2015-01-01

    A common problem encountered when teaching database courses is that few large illustrative databases exist to support teaching and learning. Most database textbooks have small "toy" databases that are chapter objective specific, and thus do not support application over the complete domain of design, implementation and management concepts…

  17. Adapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  18. What is an expert? A systems perspective on expertise

    PubMed Central

    Caley, Michael Julian; O'Leary, Rebecca A; Fisher, Rebecca; Low-Choy, Samantha; Johnson, Sandra; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2014-01-01

    Expert knowledge is a valuable source of information with a wide range of research applications. Despite the recent advances in defining expert knowledge, little attention has been given to how to view expertise as a system of interacting contributory factors for quantifying an individual's expertise. We present a systems approach to expertise that accounts for many contributing factors and their inter-relationships and allows quantification of an individual's expertise. A Bayesian network (BN) was chosen for this purpose. For illustration, we focused on taxonomic expertise. The model structure was developed in consultation with taxonomists. The relative importance of the factors within the network was determined by a second set of taxonomists (supra-experts) who also provided validation of the model structure. Model performance was assessed by applying the model to hypothetical career states of taxonomists designed to incorporate known differences in career states for model testing. The resulting BN model consisted of 18 primary nodes feeding through one to three higher-order nodes before converging on the target node (Taxonomic Expert). There was strong consistency among node weights provided by the supra-experts for some nodes, but not others. The higher-order nodes, “Quality of work” and “Total productivity”, had the greatest weights. Sensitivity analysis indicated that although some factors had stronger influence in the outer nodes of the network, there was relatively equal influence of the factors leading directly into the target node. Despite the differences in the node weights provided by our supra-experts, there was good agreement among assessments of our hypothetical experts that accurately reflected differences we had specified. This systems approach provides a way of assessing the overall level of expertise of individuals, accounting for multiple contributory factors, and their interactions. Our approach is adaptable to other situations where it

  19. The Expertise Reversal Effect Concerning Instructional Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rey, Gunter Daniel; Fischer, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The expertise reversal effect occurs when learner's expertise moderates design principles derived from cognitive load theory. Although this effect is supported by numerous empirical studies, indicating an overall large effect size, the effect was never tested by inducing expertise experimentally and using instructional explanations in a…

  20. Locating Patient Expertise in Everyday Life

    PubMed Central

    Civan, Andrea; McDonald, David W.; Unruh, Kenton T.; Pratt, Wanda

    2010-01-01

    Coping with a new health issue often requires individuals to acquire knowledge and skills to manage personal health. Many patients turn to one another for experiential expertise outside the formal bounds of the health-care system. Internet-based social software can facilitate expertise sharing among patients, but provides only limited ways for users to locate sources of patient expertise. Although much prior research has investigated expertise location and systems to augment expertise sharing in workplace organizations, the transferability of this knowledge to other contexts, such as personal health, is unclear. Guided by expertise locating frameworks drawn from prior work, we conducted a field study to investigate expertise locating in the informal and everyday context of women diagnosed with breast cancer. Similarities between patients’ expertise locating practices and practices of professionals in workplace organizations suggest similar support strategies could apply in both contexts. However, unlike professionals, unsolicited advice often triggered patients to locate expertise. They identified expertise through various forms of gatekeeping. The high-stakes nature of problems patients faced also led them to use triangulation strategies in anticipation of breakdowns in expertise location. Based on these key differences, we explored five design additions to social software that could support patients in their critical need to locate patient expertise. PMID:20953244

  1. Approaches to Teaching: Adapting Cases in Operations Management for Use in the Technical Writing Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, John

    1988-01-01

    Describes how technical writing teachers can adapt existing operations management cases for the writing classroom by recognizing communication gaps and filling them with appropriate writing scenarios. (ARH)

  2. Wine Expertise Predicts Taste Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, John E; Pickering, Gary J

    2011-01-01

    Taste phenotypes have long been studied in relation to alcohol intake, dependence, and family history, with contradictory findings. However, on balance – with appropriate caveats about populations tested, outcomes measured and psychophysical methods used – an association between variation in taste responsiveness and some alcohol behaviors is supported. Recent work suggests super-tasting (operationalized via propylthiouracil (PROP) bitterness) not only associates with heightened response but also with more acute discrimination between stimuli. Here, we explore relationships between food and beverage adventurousness and taste phenotype. A convenience sample of wine drinkers (n=330) were recruited in Ontario and phenotyped for PROP bitterness via filter paper disk. They also filled out a short questionnaire regarding willingness to try new foods, alcoholic beverages and wines as well as level of wine involvement, which was used to classify them as a wine expert (n=110) or wine consumer (n=220). In univariate logisitic models, food adventurousness predicted trying new wines and beverages but not expertise. Likewise, wine expertise predicted willingness to try new wines and beverages but not foods. In separate multivariate logistic models, willingness to try new wines and beverages was predicted by expertise and food adventurousness but not PROP. However, mean PROP bitterness was higher among wine experts than wine consumers, and the conditional distribution functions differed between experts and consumers. In contrast, PROP means and distributions did not differ with food adventurousness. These data suggest individuals may self-select for specific professions based on sensory ability (i.e., an active gene-environment correlation) but phenotype does not explain willingness to try new stimuli. PMID:22888174

  3. Peer Mentoring Intervention Teaching Adaptive Skills to Individuals with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarville, Edel

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with High Functioning ASD's (HFA) often have difficulties with adaptive functioning. Due to these deficits in independent functioning, many individuals with High-Functioning ASD's have limitations in adulthood. This study investigated if individuals with HFA would have a greater likelihood of learning independent adaptive daily living…

  4. Adaptive Instructional Aids for Teaching a Blind Student in a Nonmajors College Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd-Kimball, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive tools and techniques for lecture instruction were developed for a blind student in a nonmajors college chemistry course. These adaptive instructional aids assisted the student in writing and balancing chemical reactions, calculating unit conversions and concentrations, drawing Lewis dot structures, understanding structural representations…

  5. Deliberate practice for achieving and maintaining expertise in anesthesiology.

    PubMed

    Hastings, Randolph H; Rickard, Timothy C

    2015-02-01

    For the dedicated anesthesiologist, a high level of expertise is needed to deliver good care to patients and to provide excellent service to surgeons, anesthesia colleagues, and others. Expertise helps the anesthesiologist recover from difficult situations and generally makes the practice run more effectively. Expertise also contributes to quality of life through higher self-esteem and long-term career satisfaction. We begin by reviewing the attributes that characterize expert performance and discussing how a specific training format, known as deliberate practice, contributes to acquisition and maintenance of expertise. Deliberate practice involves rehearsal of specific tasks to mastery, ideally under the eye of a mentor to provide feedback. This amounts to an orchestrated effort to improve that enables trainees to progress to expert levels of performance. With few exceptions, people who become recognized experts have pursued deliberate practice on the order of 4 hours per day for 10 to 15 years. In contrast, those who practice their profession in a rote manner see their skills plateau well below the level of top performers. Anesthesiology instruction with attending supervision provides all of the necessary components for deliberate practice, and it can be effective in anesthesia. Using deliberate practice in teaching requires organization in selecting training topics, effort in challenging students to excel, and skill in providing feedback. In this article, we discuss how educational programs can implement deliberate practice in anesthesiology training, review resources for instructors, and suggest how anesthesiologists can continue the practice after residency. PMID:25602455

  6. Student Learning Styles Adaptation Method Based on Teaching Strategies and Electronic Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzoni, Ana Lidia; Assar, Said

    2009-01-01

    Recent research on the learning process has shown that students tend to learn in different ways and that they prefer to use different teaching resources as well. Many researchers agree on the fact that learning materials shouldn't just reflect of the teacher's style, but should be designed for all kinds of students and all kind of learning styles.…

  7. "These Words Are Not Mine": Are We Still Teaching Literature when We Use Adaptations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoMonico, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Why do educators teach literature? The author thinks they can hear the answer in the voice of Huckleberry Finn and David Copperfield and Holden Caulfield and the omniscient narrator in "Beloved." It's the wonderful sound of those words, the gorgeous flow of those well-crafted sentences, and the marvelous way Twain and Dickens and Morrison and…

  8. Juegos y Diversiones. (Games Collected and Adapted to Teach Spanish to Children.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquez, Nancy, Ed.; And Others

    Games, both from the folklore heritage of children in Spanish-speaking countries and those created in the classroom, are excellent ways to teach language to children because they accomplish their language goals while entertaining and involving the children, often physically. Most games, because they are rigidly patterned and repetitious, are…

  9. Adapting the Six Category Intervention Analysis To Promote Facilitative Type Supervisory Feedback in Teaching Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamid, Bahiyah Abdul; Azman, Hazita

    A discussion of the supervision preservice language teacher trainees focuses on supervisory methods designed to facilitate clear, useful, enabling feedback to the trainee. Specifically, it looks at use of the Six Category Intervention Analysis, a model for interpersonal skills training, for supervision of teaching practice. The model is seen here…

  10. Blogs and Wikis as Instructional Tools: A Social Software Adaptation of Just-in-Time Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higdon, Jude; Topaz, Chad

    2009-01-01

    Just-in-Time Teaching (JiTT) methodology uses Web-based tools to gather student responses to questions on preclass reading assignments. However, the technological requirements of JiTT and the content-specific nature of the questions may prevent some instructors from implementing it. Our own JiTT implementation uses publicly and freely available…

  11. [Impact of high-technology teaching systems on the formation of gymnasia pupils' adaptive capacities].

    PubMed

    Sosnina, E V; Setko, A G

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the results of studying the adaptive capacities in first-, fourth-, and fifth-form gymnasia pupils taught by the system developed by L. V. Zankov (Group 1) and M. Montessori (Group 2), by evaluating the functional status of the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and determining the level of biological adaptation. The findings are suggestive of the better adaptation and functional status of the central nervous and cardiovascular systems in the gymnasia pupils taught by the educational-and-developing program worked out by L. V. Zankov, which is likely to be explained by the training effect of functional capacities and by the formation of a long-acting effect that is shown in the better adaptation values on transition to the middle link of education. PMID:19802950

  12. The "Ethics" Expertise in Clinical Ethics Consultation.

    PubMed

    Iltis, Ana S; Rasmussen, Lisa M

    2016-08-01

    The nature, possibility, and implications of ethics expertise (or moral expertise) in general and of bioethics expertise in particular has been the focus of extensive debate for over thirty years. What is ethics expertise and what does it enable experts to do? Knowing what ethics expertise is can help answer another important question: What, if anything, makes a claim of expertise legitimate? In other words, how does someone earn the appellation "ethics expert?" There remains deep disagreement on whether ethics expertise is possible, and if so, what constitutes such expertise and what it entails and legitimates. Discussion of bioethics expertise has become particularly important given the growing presence of bioethicists in the clinical setting as well as efforts to professionalize bioethics through codes of ethics and certification (or quasi-certification) efforts. Unlike in the law or in engineering, where there may be a body of knowledge that professional organizations or others have articulated as important for education and training of experts, ethics expertise admits of no such body of knowledge or required experience. Nor is there an entity seen as having the authority to articulate the necessary scope of knowledge. Questions about whether there is such a body of knowledge for particular areas within bioethics have emerged and played a central role in professionalization efforts in recent years, especially in the area of clinical ethics. PMID:27261069

  13. Perceptual learning and human expertise.

    PubMed

    Kellman, Philip J; Garrigan, Patrick

    2009-06-01

    We consider perceptual learning: experience-induced changes in the way perceivers extract information. Often neglected in scientific accounts of learning and in instruction, perceptual learning is a fundamental contributor to human expertise and is crucial in domains where humans show remarkable levels of attainment, such as language, chess, music, and mathematics. In Section 2, we give a brief history and discuss the relation of perceptual learning to other forms of learning. We consider in Section 3 several specific phenomena, illustrating the scope and characteristics of perceptual learning, including both discovery and fluency effects. We describe abstract perceptual learning, in which structural relationships are discovered and recognized in novel instances that do not share constituent elements or basic features. In Section 4, we consider primary concepts that have been used to explain and model perceptual learning, including receptive field change, selection, and relational recoding. In Section 5, we consider the scope of perceptual learning, contrasting recent research, focused on simple sensory discriminations, with earlier work that emphasized extraction of invariance from varied instances in more complex tasks. Contrary to some recent views, we argue that perceptual learning should not be confined to changes in early sensory analyzers. Phenomena at various levels, we suggest, can be unified by models that emphasize discovery and selection of relevant information. In a final section, we consider the potential role of perceptual learning in educational settings. Most instruction emphasizes facts and procedures that can be verbalized, whereas expertise depends heavily on implicit pattern recognition and selective extraction skills acquired through perceptual learning. We consider reasons why perceptual learning has not been systematically addressed in traditional instruction, and we describe recent successful efforts to create a technology of perceptual

  14. Perceptual learning and human expertise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellman, Philip J.; Garrigan, Patrick

    2009-06-01

    We consider perceptual learning: experience-induced changes in the way perceivers extract information. Often neglected in scientific accounts of learning and in instruction, perceptual learning is a fundamental contributor to human expertise and is crucial in domains where humans show remarkable levels of attainment, such as language, chess, music, and mathematics. In Section 2, we give a brief history and discuss the relation of perceptual learning to other forms of learning. We consider in Section 3 several specific phenomena, illustrating the scope and characteristics of perceptual learning, including both discovery and fluency effects. We describe abstract perceptual learning, in which structural relationships are discovered and recognized in novel instances that do not share constituent elements or basic features. In Section 4, we consider primary concepts that have been used to explain and model perceptual learning, including receptive field change, selection, and relational recoding. In Section 5, we consider the scope of perceptual learning, contrasting recent research, focused on simple sensory discriminations, with earlier work that emphasized extraction of invariance from varied instances in more complex tasks. Contrary to some recent views, we argue that perceptual learning should not be confined to changes in early sensory analyzers. Phenomena at various levels, we suggest, can be unified by models that emphasize discovery and selection of relevant information. In a final section, we consider the potential role of perceptual learning in educational settings. Most instruction emphasizes facts and procedures that can be verbalized, whereas expertise depends heavily on implicit pattern recognition and selective extraction skills acquired through perceptual learning. We consider reasons why perceptual learning has not been systematically addressed in traditional instruction, and we describe recent successful efforts to create a technology of perceptual

  15. VET Teachers' Knowledge and Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Ian

    2008-01-01

    In an environment characterised by increasing complexity where teachers need to make sophisticated pedagogical decisions the minimum requirement for teaching in Australian Vocational Education and Training (VET) is a Certificate IV in Training and Assessment (CIV TAA). This paper asks: Does the CIV TAA provide opportunities for participants to…

  16. Studying real-world perceptual expertise

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jianhong; Mack, Michael L.; Palmeri, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Significant insights into visual cognition have come from studying real-world perceptual expertise. Many have previously reviewed empirical findings and theoretical developments from this work. Here we instead provide a brief perspective on approaches, considerations, and challenges to studying real-world perceptual expertise. We discuss factors like choosing to use real-world versus artificial object domains of expertise, selecting a target domain of real-world perceptual expertise, recruiting experts, evaluating their level of expertise, and experimentally testing experts in the lab and online. Throughout our perspective, we highlight expert birding (also called birdwatching) as an example, as it has been used as a target domain for over two decades in the perceptual expertise literature. PMID:25147533

  17. Eyeglasses elicit effects similar to face-like perceptual expertise: evidence from the N170 response.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaohua; Yang, Qi; Hu, Fengpei

    2016-03-01

    Studies of event-related potentials show that the specific N170 response has become a stable electrophysiological hallmark of objects related to expertise in early perceptual processing. In the present study, we investigated whether eyeglasses can elicit N170 effects similar to those elicited by objects of expertise. Our results showed that the N170 response elicited by eyeglasses was larger than the response elicited by objects that do not generate perceptual expertise (e.g., houses). Importantly, we found that eyeglasses could produce a within-category N170 adaptation effect, similar to that produced in response to objects of expertise (e.g., faces). Our results have revealed for the first time that with a large amount of experience, eyeglasses could evoke the face-like N170 response, which suggested that eyeglasses may become an object of perceptual expertise to some human observers. PMID:26670904

  18. Musical Expertise and Second Language Learning

    PubMed Central

    Chobert, Julie; Besson, Mireille

    2013-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that musical expertise influences brain organization and brain functions. Moreover, results at the behavioral and neurophysiological levels reveal that musical expertise positively influences several aspects of speech processing, from auditory perception to speech production. In this review, we focus on the main results of the literature that led to the idea that musical expertise may benefit second language acquisition. We discuss several interpretations that may account for the influence of musical expertise on speech processing in native and foreign languages, and we propose new directions for future research. PMID:24961431

  19. How Should the Higher Education Workforce Adapt to Advancements in Technology for Teaching and Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes

    2012-01-01

    In a time of change, higher education is in the position of having to adapt to external conditions created by widespread adoption of popular technologies such as social media, social networking services and mobile devices. For faculty members, there must be opportunities for concrete experiences capable of generating a personal conviction that a…

  20. Seeing Coloured Fruits: Utilisation of the Theory of Adaptive Memory in Teaching Botany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokop, Pavol; Fancovicová, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Plants are characterised by a great diversity of easily observed features such as colours or shape, but children show low interest in learning about them. Here, we integrated modern theory of adaptive memory and evolutionary views of the function of fruit colouration on children's retention of information. Survival-relevant (fruit toxicity)…

  1. Activity Structures for Project-Based Teaching and Learning: Design and Adaptation of Cultural Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polman, Joseph L.

    This paper discusses research on activity structure design in a project-based science classroom and efforts to adapt designs from this setting to an after-school program involving historical inquiry. Common activity structures such as classroom lessons and Initiation-Reply-Evaluation (I-R-E) sequences are important cultural tools that help…

  2. Flexibly Adaptive Professional Development in Support of Teaching Science with Geospatial Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trautmann, Nancy M.; MaKinster, James G.

    2010-01-01

    The "flexibly adaptive" model of professional development, developed in the GIT Ahead project, enables secondary science teachers to incorporate a variety of geospatial technology applications into wide-ranging classroom contexts. Teacher impacts were evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively. Post-questionnaire responses showed significant…

  3. An Adaptive Approach to Teaching the Use of the Sonicguide with Modifications for Orthopedic Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitzhoffer, Gerald J.

    1983-01-01

    Use of the Sonicguide, a binaural sensory aid, by a quadraplegic, totally blind 18-year-old student is described. The rationale for training, device adaptations, and the eventual use of the device as a primary mobility aid in areas familiar to the student are explained. (Author/MC)

  4. Using Cognitive Load Theory to Tailor Instruction to Levels of Accounting Students' Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blayney, Paul; Kalyuga, Slava; Sweller, John

    2015-01-01

    Tailoring of instructional methods to learner levels of expertise may reduce extraneous cognitive load and improve learning. Contemporary technology-based learning environments have the potential to substantially enable learner-adapted instruction. This paper investigates the effects of adaptive instruction based on using the isolated-interactive…

  5. Teaching matters-academic professional development in the early 21st century.

    PubMed

    Fahnert, Beatrix

    2015-10-01

    Academic work at different career stages has changed and a broadened portfolio of expertise enables academics to adapt, maintain and advance their career. Development related to research activity is naturally driven by methodology and technology. Institutions and peers largely support development in the contexts of dissemination, measuring impact and obtaining funding. A European Commission High Level Group recommended pedagogic training for everyone teaching in Higher Education by 2020 with mandatory continuing professional development and with academic staff recruitment and promotion being linked to teaching performance. Early career teaching experience is already an expectation, and advantage is gained by developing recognized teaching expertise. More senior academics gain an advantage through recognition of higher levels of expertise, also covering elements of leadership and innovation in teaching. This review aims to raise awareness particularly of teaching-related skills within the dimensions of academic professional development in Higher Education, outlining some general directions for development and recognition in context of current challenges to support planning and identifying training needs and opportunities at different career stages. PMID:26347300

  6. Adapting teaching styles to accommodate learning preferences for effective hospital development.

    PubMed

    Eshleman, Kelly Y

    2008-12-01

    Hospital development professionals in organ procurement organizations engage in many roles in the hospital. The important role of educator requires making the most of each teaching opportunity by understanding the characteristics of the learning audience and applying proven principles of adult educational design, with a focus on collaborative learning and variety in presentation techniques. The goal is to provide effective education, enabling hospital staff to transfer this learning to the job setting, with the outcome of facilitating a supportive process that saves lives through organ donation. PMID:19186583

  7. Preliminary Efficacy of Adapted Responsive Teaching for Infants at Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder in a Community Sample

    PubMed Central

    Baranek, Grace T.; Turner-Brown, Lauren; Field, Samuel H.; Crais, Elizabeth R.; Wakeford, Linn; Little, Lauren M.; Reznick, J. Steven

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the (a) feasibility of enrolling 12-month-olds at risk of ASD from a community sample into a randomized controlled trial, (b) subsequent utilization of community services, and (c) potential of a novel parent-mediated intervention to improve outcomes. The First Year Inventory was used to screen and recruit 12-month-old infants at risk of ASD to compare the effects of 6–9 months of Adapted Responsive Teaching (ART) versus referral to early intervention and monitoring (REIM). Eighteen families were followed for ~20 months. Assessments were conducted before randomization, after treatment, and at 6-month follow-up. Utilization of community services was highest for the REIM group. ART significantly outperformed REIM on parent-reported and observed measures of child receptive language with good linear model fit. Multiphase growth models had better fit for more variables, showing the greatest effects in the active treatment phase, where ART outperformed REIM on parental interactive style (less directive), child sensory responsiveness (less hyporesponsive), and adaptive behavior (increased communication and socialization). This study demonstrates the promise of a parent-mediated intervention for improving developmental outcomes for infants at risk of ASD in a community sample and highlights the utility of earlier identification for access to community services earlier than standard practice. PMID:25648749

  8. Robust expertise effects in right FFA

    PubMed Central

    McGugin, Rankin Williams; Newton, Allen T; Gore, John C; Gauthier, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    The fusiform face area (FFA) is one of several areas in occipito-temporal cortex whose activity is correlated with perceptual expertise for objects. Here, we investigate the robustness of expertise effects in FFA and other areas to a strong task manipulation that increases both perceptual and attentional demands. With high-resolution fMRI at 7Telsa, we measured responses to images of cars, faces and a category globally visually similar to cars (sofas) in 26 subjects who varied in expertise with cars, in (a) a low load 1-back task with a single object category and (b) a high load task in which objects from two categories rapidly alternated and attention was required to both categories. The low load condition revealed several areas more active as a function of expertise, including both posterior and anterior portions of FFA bilaterally (FFA1/FFA2 respectively). Under high load, fewer areas were positively correlated with expertise and several areas were even negatively correlated, but the expertise effect in face-selective voxels in the anterior portion of FFA (FFA2) remained robust. Finally, we found that behavioral car expertise also predicted increased responses to sofa images but no behavioral advantages in sofa discrimination, suggesting that global shape similarity to a category of expertise is enough to elicit a response in FFA and other areas sensitive to experience, even when the category itself is not of special interest. The robustness of expertise effects in right FFA2 and the expertise effects driven by visual similarity both argue against attention being the sole determinant of expertise effects in extrastriate areas. PMID:25192631

  9. Should We Reject the Expertise Hypothesis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, Isabel; Bukach, Cindy

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of a review of the literature and the results of three experiments with dog experts, Robbins and McKone [Robbins, R. A., & McKone, E. (2006). No face-like processing for objects-of-expertise in three behavioural tasks, "Cognition"] argue that there is little or no evidence supporting an expertise account of the differences in…

  10. Intuitive Expertise: Theories and Empirical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harteis, Christian; Billett, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Intuition has been long seen as an element of effective human performance in demanding tasks (i.e. expertise). But its form, constitutive elements and development remain subject to diverse explanations. This paper discusses these elements and explores theories and empirical evidence about what constitutes intuitive expertise, and offers an account…

  11. Weaving Clinical Expertise in Online Health Communities

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Jina; Pratt, Wanda

    2015-01-01

    Many patients visit online health communities to receive support. In face-to-face support groups, health professionals facilitate peer-patients exchanging experience while adding their clinical expertise when necessary. However, the large scale of online health communities makes it challenging for such health professional moderators’ involvement to happen. To address this challenge of delivering clinical expertise to where patients need them, we explore the idea of semi-automatically providing clinical expertise in online health communities. We interviewed 14 clinicians showing them example peer-patient conversation threads. From the interviews, we examined the ideal practice of clinicians providing expertise to patients. The clinicians continuously assessed when peer-patients were providing appropriate support, what kinds of clinical help they could give online, and when to defer to patients’ healthcare providers. The findings inform requirements for building a semi-automated system delivering clinical expertise in online health communities. PMID:26413582

  12. Teacher knowledge, instructional expertise, and the development of reading proficiency.

    PubMed

    Reid Lyon, G; Weiser, Beverly

    2009-01-01

    Teacher knowledge and instructional expertise have been found in correlational and pre- and posttest studies to be related to student reading achievement. This article summarizes data presented in this special issue and additional research to address four questions: (a) What do expert reading teachers know? (b) Why do teachers need to acquire this knowledge? (c) Do teachers believe they have this knowledge? and (d) Are teachers being adequately prepared to teach reading? Well-designed studies relevant to this topic have been sparse with a noticeable lack of attention given to identifying specific causal links between teacher knowledge, teaching expertise, and student reading achievement. Until the appropriate research designs and methodologies are applied to address the question of causal effects, conclusions about the specific content that teachers must know and the instructional practices that are most beneficial in presenting this content are preliminary at best. Future studies of the effect of essential reading content knowledge must be extended beyond word-level skills to vocabulary, reading comprehension, and writing. PMID:19675317

  13. Skills-Based Learning for Reproducible Expertise: Looking Elsewhere for Guidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessger, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of adult skills-based learning, adult education researchers continue to ignore effective interdisciplinary skills-based methods. Prominent researchers dismiss empirically supported teaching guidelines, preferring situational, emancipatory methods with no demonstrable effect on skilled performance or reproducible expertise.…

  14. "Who Are You Callin' Expert?": Using Student Narratives to Redefine Expertise and Advocacy Lower Track Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerrick, Randy; Schiller, Jennifer; Reisfeld, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to construct an interpretation of lower track science students' notions of expertise in science teaching. Data were collected and transcribed from focus groups, teacher journals, classrooms events, and student artifacts. Students responded to focus group prompts over the course of a years regarding how and why they…

  15. The Use of Cognitive Task Analysis to Capture Expertise for Tracheal Extubation Training in Anesthesiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embrey, Karen K.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive task analysis (CTA) is a knowledge elicitation technique employed for acquiring expertise from domain specialists to support the effective instruction of novices. CTA guided instruction has proven effective in improving surgical skills training for medical students and surgical residents. The standard, current method of teaching clinical…

  16. The Importance of Domain-Specific Expertise in Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, John

    2015-01-01

    Although creativity and expertise are related, they are nonetheless very different things. Expertise does not usually require creativity, but creativity generally does require a certain level of expertise. There are similarities in the relationships of both expertise and creativity to domains, however. Research has shown that just as expertise in…

  17. Development of the Biology Card Sorting Task to Measure Conceptual Expertise in Biology

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Julia I.; Combs, Elijah D.; Nagami, Paul H.; Alto, Valerie M.; Goh, Henry G.; Gourdet, Muryam A. A.; Hough, Christina M.; Nickell, Ashley E.; Peer, Adrian G.; Coley, John D.; Tanner, Kimberly D.

    2013-01-01

    There are widespread aspirations to focus undergraduate biology education on teaching students to think conceptually like biologists; however, there is a dearth of assessment tools designed to measure progress from novice to expert biological conceptual thinking. We present the development of a novel assessment tool, the Biology Card Sorting Task, designed to probe how individuals organize their conceptual knowledge of biology. While modeled on tasks from cognitive psychology, this task is unique in its design to test two hypothesized conceptual frameworks for the organization of biological knowledge: 1) a surface feature organization focused on organism type and 2) a deep feature organization focused on fundamental biological concepts. In this initial investigation of the Biology Card Sorting Task, each of six analytical measures showed statistically significant differences when used to compare the card sorting results of putative biological experts (biology faculty) and novices (non–biology major undergraduates). Consistently, biology faculty appeared to sort based on hypothesized deep features, while non–biology majors appeared to sort based on either surface features or nonhypothesized organizational frameworks. Results suggest that this novel task is robust in distinguishing populations of biology experts and biology novices and may be an adaptable tool for tracking emerging biology conceptual expertise. PMID:24297290

  18. Managing the Personal Side of Health: How Patient Expertise Differs from the Expertise of Clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Wanda

    2011-01-01

    Background When patients need health information to manage their personal health, they turn to both health professionals and other patients. Yet, we know little about how the information exchanged among patients (ie, patient expertise) contrasts with the information offered by health professionals (ie, clinician expertise). Understanding how patients’ experiential expertise contrasts with the medical expertise of health professionals is necessary to inform the design of peer-support tools that meet patients’ needs, particularly with the growing prevalence of largely unguided advice sharing through Internet-based social software. Objective The objective of our study was to enhance our understanding of patient expertise and to inform the design of peer-support tools. We compared the characteristics of patient expertise with that of clinician expertise for breast cancer. Methods Through a comparative content analysis of topics discussed and recommendations offered in Internet message boards and books, we contrasted the topic, form, and style of expertise shared in sources of patient expertise with sources of clinician expertise. Results Patient expertise focused on strategies for coping with day-to-day personal health issues gained through trial and error of the lived experience; thus, it was predominately personal in topic. It offered a wealth of actionable advice that was frequently expressed through the narrative style of personal stories about managing responsibilities and activities associated with family, friends, work, and the home during illness. In contrast, clinician expertise was carried through a prescriptive style and focused on explicit facts and opinions that tied closely to the health care delivery system, biomedical research, and health professionals’ work. These differences were significant between sources of patient expertise and sources of clinician expertise in topic (P < .001), form (P < .001), and style (P < .001). Conclusion Patients

  19. Climate Change: Could It Help Develop "Adaptive Expertise"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Erica; Horton, Graeme; Blashki, Grant; Seidel, Bastian M.

    2012-01-01

    Preparing health practitioners to respond to the rising burden of disease from climate change is emerging as a priority in health workforce policy and planning. However, this issue is hardly represented in the medical education research. The rapidly evolving wide range of direct and indirect consequences of climate change will require health…

  20. Domain-Specific Expertise of Chemistry Teachers on Context-Based Education about Macro-Micro Thinking in Structure-Property Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolfing, Ria; Bulte, Astrid M. W.; Pilot, Albert; Vermunt, Jan D.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to determine and describe the new domain-specific expertise of experienced chemistry teachers in teaching an innovative context-based unit about macro-micro thinking in structure-property relations. The construct of "teachers' domain-specific expertise" was used to analyse the new repertoire chemistry teachers need to acquire to…

  1. Clustering Teachers' Motivations for Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visser-Wijnveen, Gerda J.; Stes, Ann; Van Petegem, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The motivation to teach is a powerful, yet neglected, force in teaching at institutes of higher education. A better understanding of academics' motivations for teaching is necessary. The aim of this mixed-method study was to identify groups with distinctively different motivations for teaching. Six clusters were identified: expertise, duty,…

  2. Teaching about Teaching Science: Aims, Strategies, and Backgrounds of Science Teacher Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Amanda; Van Driel, Jan H.

    2013-01-01

    Despite pressing concerns about the need to prepare high-quality teachers and the central role of teacher educators (TEs) in this process, little is known about how TEs teach about teaching specific subject matter, and how they develop their expertise. This empirical study focuses on the specific expertise that science TEs bring into teacher…

  3. Using Highlighting to Train Attentional Expertise.

    PubMed

    Roads, Brett; Mozer, Michael C; Busey, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    Acquiring expertise in complex visual tasks is time consuming. To facilitate the efficient training of novices on where to look in these tasks, we propose an attentional highlighting paradigm. Highlighting involves dynamically modulating the saliency of a visual image to guide attention along the fixation path of a domain expert who had previously viewed the same image. In Experiment 1, we trained naive subjects via attentional highlighting on a fingerprint-matching task. Before and after training, we asked subjects to freely inspect images containing pairs of prints and determine whether the prints matched. Fixation sequences were automatically scored for the degree of expertise exhibited using a Bayesian discriminative model of novice and expert gaze behavior. Highlighted training causes gaze behavior to become more expert-like not only on the trained images but also on transfer images, indicating generalization of learning. In Experiment 2, to control for the possibility that the increase in expertise is due to mere exposure, we trained subjects via highlighting of fixation sequences from novices, not experts, and observed no transition toward expertise. In Experiment 3, to determine the specificity of the training effect, we trained subjects with expert fixation sequences from images other than the one being viewed, which preserves coarse-scale statistics of expert gaze but provides no information about fine-grain features. Observing at least a partial transition toward expertise, we obtain only weak evidence that the highlighting procedure facilitates the learning of critical local features. We discuss possible improvements to the highlighting procedure. PMID:26744839

  4. Using Highlighting to Train Attentional Expertise

    PubMed Central

    Roads, Brett; Mozer, Michael C.; Busey, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Acquiring expertise in complex visual tasks is time consuming. To facilitate the efficient training of novices on where to look in these tasks, we propose an attentional highlighting paradigm. Highlighting involves dynamically modulating the saliency of a visual image to guide attention along the fixation path of a domain expert who had previously viewed the same image. In Experiment 1, we trained naive subjects via attentional highlighting on a fingerprint-matching task. Before and after training, we asked subjects to freely inspect images containing pairs of prints and determine whether the prints matched. Fixation sequences were automatically scored for the degree of expertise exhibited using a Bayesian discriminative model of novice and expert gaze behavior. Highlighted training causes gaze behavior to become more expert-like not only on the trained images but also on transfer images, indicating generalization of learning. In Experiment 2, to control for the possibility that the increase in expertise is due to mere exposure, we trained subjects via highlighting of fixation sequences from novices, not experts, and observed no transition toward expertise. In Experiment 3, to determine the specificity of the training effect, we trained subjects with expert fixation sequences from images other than the one being viewed, which preserves coarse-scale statistics of expert gaze but provides no information about fine-grain features. Observing at least a partial transition toward expertise, we obtain only weak evidence that the highlighting procedure facilitates the learning of critical local features. We discuss possible improvements to the highlighting procedure. PMID:26744839

  5. A new rejection of moral expertise.

    PubMed

    Cowley, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    There seem to be two clearly-defined camps in the debate over the problem of moral expertise. On the one hand are the "Professionals", who reject the possibility entirely, usually because of the intractable diversity of ethical beliefs. On the other hand are the "Ethicists", who criticise the Professionals for merely stipulating science as the most appropriate paradigm for discussions of expertise. While the subject matter and methodology of good ethical thinking is certainly different from that of good clinical thinking, they argue, this is no reason for rejecting the possibility of a distinctive kind of expertise in ethics, usually based on the idea of good justification. I want to argue that both are incorrect, partly because of the reasons given by one group against the other, but more importantly because both neglect what is most distinctive about ethics: that it is personal in a very specific way, without collapsing into relativism. PMID:16283489

  6. On the development of expertise in interpreting medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupinsky, Elizabeth A.

    2012-03-01

    Medical images represent a core portion of the information clinicians utilize to render diagnostic and treatment decisions. Fundamentally, viewing a medical image involves two basic processes - visually inspecting the image (visual perception) and rendering an interpretation (cognition). The interpretation is often followed by a recommendation. The likelihood of error in the interpretation of medical images is unfortunately not negligible. Errors occur and patients' lives are impacted. Thus we need to understand how clinicians interact with the information in an image during the interpretation process. We also need to understand how clinicians develop expertise throughout their careers and why some people are better at interpreting medical images than others. If we can better understand how expertise develops, perhaps we can develop better training programs, incorporate more effective ways of teaching image interpretation into the medical school and residency curriculums, and create new tools that would enhance and perhaps speed up the learning process. With improved understanding we can also develop ways to further improve decision-making in general and at every level of the medical imaging profession, thus improving patient care. The science of medical image perception is dedicated to understanding and improving the clinical interpretation process.

  7. Expertise Increases the Functional Overlap between Face and Object Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeeff, Thomas J.; McGugin, Rankin W.; Tong, Frank; Gauthier, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that expertise with objects can interfere with face processing. Although competition occurs between faces and objects of expertise, it remains unclear whether this reflects an expertise-specific bottleneck or the fact that objects of expertise grab attention and thereby consume more central resources. We investigated the…

  8. West Nile Virus: Using Adapted Primary Literature in Mathematical Biology to Teach Scientific and Mathematical Reasoning in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Stephen P.; Macnab, John S.; Wonham, Marjorie; de Vries, Gerda

    2009-01-01

    This paper promotes the use of adapted primary literature as a curriculum and instruction innovation for use in high school. Adapted primary literature is useful for promoting an understanding of scientific and mathematical reasoning and argument and for introducing modern science into the schools. We describe a prototype adapted from a published…

  9. Universities and the Public Recognition of Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnoldi, Jakob

    2007-01-01

    This article argues that new sites of knowledge production, increasingly cultivated by the mass media, are threatening the role of academics and universities as traditional sources of expertise. Drawing upon the conceptual categories of Pierre Bourdieu, the article suggests an alternative way of understanding this "crisis of legitimacy."

  10. It's Not Magic! Research on Developing Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peskin, Joan

    2011-01-01

    In the past two decades, a large body of research has examined the differences between novices and experts in subject areas ranging from physics to poetry. Yet research on developing expertise has found no "magic bullet" in becoming an expert and has concluded that innate talent plays a less prominent role than previously imagined. Various studies…

  11. Building Expertise through Sequenced Writing Assignments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leki, Ilona

    1992-01-01

    Describes a method for developing writing expertise in English-as-a-Second-Language students that involves a sequence of five writing assignments. The method addresses the concerns of writing teachers and researchers and provides students with experience in academic writing. (12 references) (VWL)

  12. Distributed and Relative Nature of Professional Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillay, Hitendra; McCrindle, Andrea R.

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory study investigates the distributed nature and complexity of professional expertise by examining the patterns of cognitive processes in novices and experts who are using ultrasound technology to make diagnoses. The study aims to identify and provide an explanation for such patterns in light of the recent debate on the locus of…

  13. Measuring the Expertise of Paediatric Rehabilitation Therapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Gillian; Bartlett, Doreen J.; Currie, Melissa; Gilpin, Michelle; Baxter, Donna; Willoughby, Colleen; Tucker, Mary Ann; Strachan, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the development of a classification system to measure the expertise levels of practicing paediatric rehabilitation therapists. Seventy-five therapists from five disciplines (physical, occupational, speech-language, behaviour, and recreational therapy) were involved, along with 170 peers, and 188 parents of children with…

  14. Psychological Factors Associated with Paranursing Expertise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brammer, Robert; Haller, Katherine

    The psychological factors associated with paranursing expertise were examined in a study of 135 certified nursing assistants (CNAs) at a geriatric nursing facility in Amarillo, Texas. Data were collected through a project-developed screening tool called the Geriatric Employee Screening Tool (GEST), which is a true-false instrument patterned after…

  15. The impact of expertise in olfaction.

    PubMed

    Royet, Jean-Pierre; Plailly, Jane; Saive, Anne-Lise; Veyrac, Alexandra; Delon-Martin, Chantal

    2013-01-01

    Olfactory expertise remains poorly understood, most likely because experts in odor, such as perfumers, sommeliers, and oenologists, are much rarer than experts in other modalities, such as musicians or sportsmen. In this review, we address the specificities of odor expertise in both odor experts and in a priori untrained individuals who have undergone specific olfactory training in the frame of an experiment, such as repeated exposure to odors or associative learning. Until the 21st century, only the behavioral effects of olfactory training of untrained control individuals had been reported, revealing an improvement of olfactory performance in terms of sensitivity, discrimination, memory, and identification. Behavioral studies of odor experts have been scarce, with inconsistent or inconclusive results. Recently, the development of cerebral imaging techniques has enabled the identification of brain areas and neural networks involved in odor processing, revealing functional and structural modifications as a function of experience. The behavioral approach to odor expertise has also evolved. Researchers have particularly focused on odor mental imagery, which is characteristic of odor experts, because this ability is absent in the average person but is part of a perfumer's professional practice. This review summarizes behavioral, functional, and structural findings on odor expertise. These data are compared with those obtained using animals subjected to prolonged olfactory exposure or to olfactory-enriched environments and are discussed in the context of functional and structural plasticity. PMID:24379793

  16. The impact of expertise in olfaction

    PubMed Central

    Royet, Jean-Pierre; Plailly, Jane; Saive, Anne-Lise; Veyrac, Alexandra; Delon-Martin, Chantal

    2013-01-01

    Olfactory expertise remains poorly understood, most likely because experts in odor, such as perfumers, sommeliers, and oenologists, are much rarer than experts in other modalities, such as musicians or sportsmen. In this review, we address the specificities of odor expertise in both odor experts and in a priori untrained individuals who have undergone specific olfactory training in the frame of an experiment, such as repeated exposure to odors or associative learning. Until the 21st century, only the behavioral effects of olfactory training of untrained control individuals had been reported, revealing an improvement of olfactory performance in terms of sensitivity, discrimination, memory, and identification. Behavioral studies of odor experts have been scarce, with inconsistent or inconclusive results. Recently, the development of cerebral imaging techniques has enabled the identification of brain areas and neural networks involved in odor processing, revealing functional and structural modifications as a function of experience. The behavioral approach to odor expertise has also evolved. Researchers have particularly focused on odor mental imagery, which is characteristic of odor experts, because this ability is absent in the average person but is part of a perfumer’s professional practice. This review summarizes behavioral, functional, and structural findings on odor expertise. These data are compared with those obtained using animals subjected to prolonged olfactory exposure or to olfactory-enriched environments and are discussed in the context of functional and structural plasticity. PMID:24379793

  17. Deliberate Performance: Accelerating Expertise in Natural Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fadde, Peter J.; Klein, Gary A.

    2010-01-01

    Deliberate practice--meaning drill-like practice under the direction of a coach--is key to developing expertise in sports and music. But working professionals and businesspeople typically have no time for practice. We propose deliberate performance as a type of practice that professionals and businesspeople can pursue while they work as a way to…

  18. Critical Dispositions: Evidence and Expertise in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitriadis, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Set against the current proliferation of global "difference" and economic realignment, "Critical Dispositions" explores the notions of "evidence" and "expertise" in times of material scarcity. Both have come to the forefront of national and international debate in education as "evidence" and "evidence-based" research and pedagogical practices…

  19. Educational Expertise, Advocacy, and Media Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malin, Joel R.; Lubienski, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The efforts of many advocacy organizations to advance their preferred policies despite conflicting evidence of the effectiveness of these policies raise questions about factors that shape successful policy promotion. While many may like to think that expertise on an issue in question is an essential prerequisite for influence in public policy…

  20. Learning and Development Expertise: An Australian Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Steven; Harvey, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Learning and development (L&D) practitioners draw on a distinctive range of knowledge, skills and techniques in their work. Over the years, there have been attempts to capture this range and identify typical L&D roles. The research presented here was undertaken to identify characteristic areas of expertise (AOEs) of L&D practice in…

  1. Developing expectations regarding the boundaries of expertise.

    PubMed

    Landrum, Asheley R; Mills, Candice M

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments examined elementary school-aged children's and adults' expectations regarding what specialists (i.e., those with narrow domains of expertise) and generalists (i.e., those with broad domains of expertise) are likely to know. Experiment 1 demonstrated developmental differences in the ability to differentiate between generalists and specialists, with younger children believing generalists have more specific trivia knowledge than older children and adults believed. Experiment 2 demonstrated that children and adults expected generalists to have more underlying principles knowledge than specific trivia knowledge about unfamiliar animals. However, they believed that generalists would have more of both types of knowledge than themselves. Finally, Experiment 3 demonstrated that children and adults recognized that underlying principles knowledge can be generalized between topics closely related to the specialists' domains of expertise. However, they did not recognize when this knowledge was generalizable to topics slightly less related, expecting generalists to know only as much as they would. Importantly, this work contributes to the literature by showing how much of and what kinds of knowledge different types of experts are expected to have. In sum, this work provides insight into some of the ways children's notions of expertise change over development. The current research demonstrates that between the ages of 5 and 10, children are developing the ability to recognize how experts' knowledge is likely to be limited. That said, even older children at times struggle to determine the breadth of an experts' knowledge. PMID:25460394

  2. Orchestrating Expertise in Reading and Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hibbert, Kathryn M.; Scheffel, Tara-Lynn; Rich, Sharon; Heydon, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    With increased attention focused on the economic cache afforded through literacy and numeracy skills, governments around the world have turned their attention to developing the expertise of their teachers. Improving teachers' levels of competency leads to improvement in student achievement. In this qualitative case study, we focus on the…

  3. Gender Differences in Science: An Expertise Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Carr, Martha

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a new approach to research on gender differences in science that uses the work on expertise in science as a framework for understanding gender differences. Because gender differences in achievement and participation in the sciences are largest in physics, the focus of this review is on physics. The nature of…

  4. Rethinking global health research: towards integrative expertise

    PubMed Central

    MacLachlan, Malcolm

    2009-01-01

    The Bamako Call for Action on Research for Health stresses the importance of inter-disciplinary, inter-ministerial and inter-sectoral working. This challenges much of our current research and postgraduate research training in health, which mostly seeks to produce narrowly focused content specialists. We now need to compliment this type of research and research training, by offering alternative pathways that seek to create expertise, not only in specific narrow content areas, but also in the process and context of research, as well as in the interaction of these different facets of knowledge. Such an approach, developing 'integrative expertise', could greatly facilitate better research utilisation, helping policy makers and practitioners work through more evidence-based practice and across traditional research boundaries. PMID:19643021

  5. Human Expertise Helps Computer Classify Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rorvig, Mark E.

    1991-01-01

    Two-domain method of computational classification of images requires less computation than other methods for computational recognition, matching, or classification of images or patterns. Does not require explicit computational matching of features, and incorporates human expertise without requiring translation of mental processes of classification into language comprehensible to computer. Conceived to "train" computer to analyze photomicrographs of microscope-slide specimens of leucocytes from human peripheral blood to distinguish between specimens from healthy and specimens from traumatized patients.

  6. Measuring Visual Expertise in Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertzberg, Jean; Curran, Tim; Goodman, Katherine

    2014-11-01

    What role does visual expertise play in the learning of abstract physics? In surveys for the Flow Visualization course at the University of Colorado, Boulder, students often commented positively about a new awareness of fluid dynamics in everyday life. Could this new awareness, termed visual expertise, be measured in some way? Working with research psychologists at CU Boulder, who had already been working in this area on projects such as face recognition, a study was developed. This study had subjects with no prior fluid dynamics expertise classify flow images as either turbulent or laminar. The first group was given error-driven learning; that is, they had to guess the correct category for each image, were given feedback as to whether they had guessed correctly, and after a period of training, were tested on both the training images and a set of similar but new images. A second group was given simple instruction for the training images; that is, they were shown the image along with the name of the correct category, before being tested on both training images and new images. Preliminary results of the pilot study are presented, along with next steps. This work is supported by NSF Grant Number 1240294.

  7. Claims and disclaimers: whose expertise counts?

    PubMed

    Hogle, Linda F

    2002-01-01

    Medical anthropologists have long recognized that interactions between state, clinical, scientific and lay participants transform understandings of illness. There are competing claims to knowledge in such interactions, which may be in tension with concepts of jurisdictional authority and assumptions about what constitutes different types of expertise. This paper focuses on the regulatory processes of the Food and Drug Administration in order to examine the social processes involved in negotiating and sustaining domains of knowledge across various boundaries of authority. I use the example of the way roles of commercial interests, patient interest groups and federal oversight agencies in defining and caring for health "problems" appear to be shifting with new modes of circulating information about prescription drugs. What counts as "medical expertise" when decisions about taking pharmaceuticals are moved away from former gatekeepers (physicians and insurance plans) to patients who are reframed as consumers? In this reordering new questions are raised about the location of risk and responsibility, and relations of credibility, authority and expertise. PMID:12458836

  8. Adaptation and Evaluation of Online Self-learning Modules to Teach Critical Appraisal and Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing: An International Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Johanne; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Buteau, Rose-Anne; Azizah, Ginette Mbourou; Jetté, Sylvie; Lampron, Amélie; Simonyan, David; Asua, José; Reviriego, Eva

    2015-07-01

    Healthcare professionals need to update their knowledge and acquire skills to continually inform their practice based on scientific evidence. This study was designed to evaluate online self-learning modules on critical appraisal skills to promote the use of research in clinical practice among nurses from Quebec (Canada) and the Basque Country (Spain). The teaching material was developed in Quebec and adapted to the Basque Country as part of an international collaboration project. A prospective pre-post study was conducted with 36 nurses from Quebec and 47 from the Basque Country. Assessment comprised the administration of questionnaires before and after the course in order to explore the main intervention outcomes: knowledge acquisition and self-learning readiness. Satisfaction was also measured at the end of the course. Two of the three research hypotheses were confirmed: (1) participants significantly improved their overall knowledge score after the educational intervention; and (2) they were, in general, satisfied with the course, giving it a rating of seven out of 10. Participants also reported a greater readiness for self-directed learning after the course, but this result was not significant in Quebec. The study provides unique knowledge on the cultural adaptation of online self-learning modules for teaching nurses about critical appraisal skills and evidence-based practice. PMID:25978538

  9. Developing an Instructional Material Using a Concept Cartoon Adapted to the 5E Model: A Sample of Teaching Erosion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birisci, Salih; Metin, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Using different instructional materials adapted within the constructivist learning theory will enhance students' conceptual understanding. From this point of view, an instructional instrument using a concept cartoon adapted with 5E model has developed and introduced in this study. The study has some deficiencies in investigating students'…

  10. Teaching Expatriate Adaptation While Dealing with Reality: The Impact of a Tragedy on the Study-Abroad Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Kenneth J.; Levine, Sally L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the relevance of the accepted U-shaped models of expatriate adaptation to students engaged in an international educational experience when they are faced with a tragedy. In this study-abroad course, an examination of the existing adaptation models and how they provide a set of expectations for the process of cultural adjustment…

  11. Teaching Strategies To Facilitate Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Cathleen; And Others

    Teaching is a complex act requiring expertise relative to content, students, and the myriad of alternatives available to bring the two together in meaningful ways. This monograph is designed to assist teachers in examining and altering their own teaching practices and in transforming the classroom from a place of "dull sameness" to an environment…

  12. Guiding the Design of Lessons by Using the MAPLET Framework: Matching Aims, Processes, Learner Expertise and Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ifenthaler, Dirk; Gosper, Maree

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the MAPLET framework that was developed to map and link teaching aims, learning processes, learner expertise and technologies. An experimental study with 65 participants is reported to test the effectiveness of the framework as a guide to the design of lessons embedded within larger units of study. The findings indicate the…

  13. West Nile Virus: Using Adapted Primary Literature in Mathematical Biology to Teach Scientific and Mathematical Reasoning in High School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Stephen P.; Macnab, John S.; Wonham, Marjorie; de Vries, Gerda

    2009-05-01

    This paper promotes the use of adapted primary literature as a curriculum and instruction innovation for use in high school. Adapted primary literature is useful for promoting an understanding of scientific and mathematical reasoning and argument and for introducing modern science into the schools. We describe a prototype adapted from a published article on a mathematical model of the spread of the West Nile virus in North America. The prototype is available as a web-based resource that includes supplemental pedagogical units. Preliminary feedback from use of the prototype in two classrooms is described and a sketch of an ongoing formal evaluation is provided.

  14. Expertise in Clinical Pathology: Combining the Visual and Cognitive Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaarsma, Thomas; Jarodzka, Halszka; Nap, Marius; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J. G.; Boshuizen, Henny P. A.

    2015-01-01

    Expertise studies in the medical domain often focus on either visual or cognitive aspects of expertise. As a result, characteristics of expert behaviour are often described as either cognitive or visual abilities. This study focuses on both aspects of expertise and analyses them along three overarching constructs: (1) encapsulations, (2)…

  15. Measuring the Learning-Centered Leadership Expertise of School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldring, Ellen; Huff, Jason; Spillane, James P.; Barnes, Carol

    2009-01-01

    We as a field believe that school principals can acquire new expertise by participating in principal preparation and professional development programs; however, we have few methodologies to measure leadership expertise, especially expertise that links leadership to improved student learning. In this article, we present the results of a study that…

  16. Evaluation of the Teaching Guide as an Instrument for Adaptation to the New European Credit System: Case Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Mercedes; Tirado, Pilar; Menor, Esther

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the evaluation of the teaching guide application for the subject of management control in the Business Management and Administration Degree. The evaluation began with the analysis of a questionnaire which aimed to collect the perceptions of learners who have studied this subject in two groups (morning and afternoon) during the…

  17. EXPERIMENTATION IN THE ADAPTATION OF THE OVERHEAD PROJECTOR UTILIZING 200 TRANSPARENCIES AND 800 OVERLAYS IN TEACHING ENGINEERING DESCRIPTIVE GEOMETRY CURRICULA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHANCE, CLAYTON W.

    AN INVESTIGATION WAS MADE TO DETERMINE WHETHER AN OVERHEAD PROJECTOR AND TRANSPARENCY SET WOULD BE MORE EFFECTIVE AND ACCEPTABLE TO TEACHERS AND STUDENTS THAN TIME-PROVEN CHALKBOARD DRAWINGS IN THE TEACHING OF A DESCRIPTIVE GEOMETRY COURSE. IT WAS FOUND THAT (1) THE LECTURE-DEMONSTRATION PERIOD CAN BE REDUCED TO ALLOW A LONGER SUPERVISED…

  18. Quality Assurance: Adapting SERVQUAL to Measure the Perceived Quality of Pre-Service Teachers' Teaching Practice Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Henry; Koeberg, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a work in progress study which extends traditional quality assurance mechanisms through the application of the SERVQUAL instrument. It assesses the difference between pre-service teacher expectations and actual experience during a Teaching Practice period. Anecdotal evidence points to students being the recipients of poor…

  19. National Nuclear Forensics Expertise Development Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kentis, Samantha E.; Ulicny, William D.

    2009-08-01

    Over the course of the 2009 Federal Fiscal Year the United States (U.S.) Department of Homeland Security (DHS), in partnership with the Departments of Defense (DoD) and Energy (DOE), is continuing existing programs and introducing new programs designed to maintain a highly qualified, enduring workforce capable of performing the technical nuclear forensics mission. These student and university programs are designed to recruit the best and brightest students, develop university faculty and research capabilities, and engage the national laboratories in fields of study with application in nuclear forensics. This comprehensive effort constitutes the National Nuclear Forensics Expertise Development Program.

  20. Benner and expertise in nursing: a critique.

    PubMed

    Cash, K

    1995-12-01

    This paper examines the work of Benner (From Novice to Expert: Excellence and Power in Clinical Nursing Practice. Addison-Wesley, Menlo Park, CA, 1984) on expertise in clinical nursing. The philosophical foundations of her work are explained as well as the work located within the wider context of the use of Heideggerian philosophy. Various criticisms of her study are developed in relationship to her methodology and her interpretation of nursing. It is argued that she represents a retreat into tradition and authority in nursing. PMID:8926154

  1. Teaching the Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckerman, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    New tenure-track faculty members come into academia expecting to be able to devote substantial energy and expertise to teaching. They often find, however, that they must learn to navigate a multitude of other, competing demands. Numerous interdisciplinary studies published in the last decade have demonstrated that the normative expectations of…

  2. Musical expertise and foreign speech perception

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Montes, Eduardo; Hernández-Pérez, Heivet; Chobert, Julie; Morgado-Rodríguez, Lisbet; Suárez-Murias, Carlos; Valdés-Sosa, Pedro A.; Besson, Mireille

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to investigate the influence of musical expertise on the automatic perception of foreign syllables and harmonic sounds. Participants were Cuban students with high level of expertise in music or in visual arts and with the same level of general education and socio-economic background. We used a multi-feature Mismatch Negativity (MMN) design with sequences of either syllables in Mandarin Chinese or harmonic sounds, both comprising deviants in pitch contour, duration and Voice Onset Time (VOT) or equivalent that were either far from (Large deviants) or close to (Small deviants) the standard. For both Mandarin syllables and harmonic sounds, results were clear-cut in showing larger MMNs to pitch contour deviants in musicians than in visual artists. Results were less clear for duration and VOT deviants, possibly because of the specific characteristics of the stimuli. Results are interpreted as reflecting similar processing of pitch contour in speech and non-speech sounds. The implications of these results for understanding the influence of intense musical training from childhood to adulthood and of genetic predispositions for music on foreign language perception are discussed. PMID:24294193

  3. Teaching the Repeated Prisoner's Dilemma with a Non-Computerised Adaptation of Axelrod's Tournament

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Darwin's theory of evolution is explicitly competitive, yet co-operation between individuals is a common phenomenon. The Prisoner's Dilemma model is central to the teaching of the evolution of co-operation. The best-known explorations of the Prisoner's Dilemma are the tournaments run by Robert Axelrod in the 1980s. Aimed at students…

  4. Competence, Expertise, and Accountability: Classical Foundations of the Cult of Expertise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartzman, Roy

    Rhetoricians since Plato's day have been concerned with how much knowledge speakers should possess in order to speak effectively as well as ethically. The expert, like anyone, can err, but the chance of factual error decreases when speakers have a thorough grasp of their subject matter. However, the expertise position can potentially become a…

  5. Beyond Faces and Expertise: Facelike Holistic Processing of Nonface Objects in the Absence of Expertise.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mintao; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Bülthoff, Isabelle

    2016-02-01

    Holistic processing-the tendency to perceive objects as indecomposable wholes-has long been viewed as a process specific to faces or objects of expertise. Although current theories differ in what causes holistic processing, they share a fundamental constraint for its generalization: Nonface objects cannot elicit facelike holistic processing in the absence of expertise. Contrary to this prevailing view, here we show that line patterns with salient Gestalt information (i.e., connectedness, closure, and continuity between parts) can be processed as holistically as faces without any training. Moreover, weakening the saliency of Gestalt information in these patterns reduced holistic processing of them, which indicates that Gestalt information plays a crucial role in holistic processing. Therefore, holistic processing can be achieved not only via a top-down route based on expertise, but also via a bottom-up route relying merely on object-based information. The finding that facelike holistic processing can extend beyond the domains of faces and objects of expertise poses a challenge to current dominant theories. PMID:26674129

  6. Effectiveness of a Video-Feedback and Questioning Programme to Develop Cognitive Expertise in Sport

    PubMed Central

    García-González, Luis; Moreno, M. Perla; Moreno, Alberto; Gil, Alexander; del Villar, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    The importance within sport expertise of cognitive factors has been emphasised in many research studies. Adaptations that take place in athletes’ long-term memories are going to condition their decision-making and performance, and training programmes must be developed that improve these adaptations. In our study, we provide a tactical-cognitive training programme based on video-feedback and questioning in order to improve tactical knowledge in tennis players and verify its effect when transferred to athletes’ decision-making. 11 intermediate tennis players participated in this study (12.9±0.7 years old), distributed into two groups (experimental, n = 5; control, n = 6). Tactical knowledge was measured by problem representation and strategy planning with a verbal protocol. Decision-making was measured by a systematic observation instrument. Results confirm the effectiveness of a combination of video-feedback and questioning on cognitive expertise, developing adaptations in long-term memory that produce an improvement in the quality of tactical knowledge (content, sophistication and structure). This, in turn, is transferred to the athletes’ decision-making capacity, leading to a higher percentage of successful decisions made during game play. Finally, we emphasise the need to develop effective programmes to develop cognitive expertise and improve athletes' performance, and include it in athletes’ formative stages. PMID:24340012

  7. Translation, Adaptation and Invariance Testing of the Teaching Perspectives Inventory: Comparing Faculty of Malaysia and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misieng, Jecky

    2013-01-01

    As a result of growing attention in cross-cultural research, existing measurement instruments developed in one language are being translated and adapted for use in other languages and cultural contexts. Producing invariant measurement instruments that assess educational and psychological constructs provide a way of testing the cross-cultural…

  8. Evaluating teaching effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Kirschling, J M; Fields, J; Imle, M; Mowery, M; Tanner, C A; Perrin, N; Stewart, B J

    1995-12-01

    Major reform in nursing education is underway, with increased emphasis being placed on the importance of the teacher-student relationship. An instrument for evaluation of teaching effectiveness, developed at the Oregon Health Sciences University School of Nursing, attempts to capture the student's perception of the quality of the teacher-student relationship as well as other salient aspects of teaching practices. The evaluation tool contains 26 items evaluating teaching effectiveness and 14 items that evaluate the course. The teaching effectiveness items yield five scales including: knowledge and expertise, facilitative teaching methods, communication style, use of own experiences, and feedback. Psychometric testing has been completed and there is evidence of construct validity in relation to teaching effectiveness and internal consistency reliability for the five scales. PMID:8583255

  9. Facilitating physician referrals on the World Wide Web: representation and appropriate utilization of clinical expertise.

    PubMed

    McHolm, G; Obeid, J; Karson, T H; Sato, L; Schaffer, J L; Greenes, R A

    1996-01-01

    In highly integrated and increasingly complex health care systems, the identification and proper utilization of clinical staff expertise are key factors for efficiently delivering high quality patient care. To achieve these capabilities on an enterprise-wide scale, we have embarked on a multi-phased project to develop World Wide Web (WWW)-based physician referral capabilities for two large teaching hospitals. Currently, users may search for information concerning the education, training, board certifications, and self-designated clinical interests of staff members. Address, phone number, email address, and a photo are also presented. Our experience indicates that institutional changes are required to successfully deploy and maintain online physician referral services and that accurate and equitable representation of clinical expertise and the incorporation of referral guidelines require an incremental introduction of a carefully planned program that addresses the needs of clinicians, administrators, and health care policy-makers. PMID:8947760

  10. Color, reference, and expertise in language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Clark, Eve V

    2006-08-01

    In learning the meaning of a new term, children need to fix its reference, learn its conventional meaning, and discover the meanings with which it contrasts. To do this, children must attend to adult speakers--the experts--and to their patterns of use. In the domain of color, children need to identify color terms as such, fix the reference of each one, and learn how each is used in the language. But color is a property, and terms for properties appear to be more difficult to grasp than do those for objects, actions, and relations. Although children find some domains easier to learn than others, they depend in each case on the expertise of adult speakers. PMID:16600283

  11. The nature and value of bioethics expertise.

    PubMed

    Vogelstein, Eric

    2015-06-01

    In this article, I address the extent to which experts in bioethics can contribute to healthcare delivery by way of aid in clinical decision-making and policy-formation. I argue that experts in bioethics are moral experts, in that their substantive moral views are more likely to be correct than those of non-bioethicists, all else being equal, but that such expertise is of use in a relatively limited class of cases. In so doing, I respond to two recent arguments against the view that bioethicists are moral experts, one by Christopher Cowley and another by David Archard. I further argue that bioethics experts have significant additional contributions to make to healthcare delivery, and highlight a hitherto neglected aspect of that contribution: amelioration of moral misconception among clinicians. I describe in detail several aspects of moral misconception, and show how the bioethicist is in a prime position to resolve that sort of error. PMID:25256867

  12. On conveying and not conveying expertise.

    PubMed

    Rappert, Brian; Coopmans, Catelijne

    2015-08-01

    This article attends to the movement between disclosing and non-disclosing in accounts of expertise. While referencing discussions about tacit knowledge ('experts know more than they can say') and the politics of non-disclosure ('withholding can help as well as harm the credibility of experts'), in the main it considers how experts move between conveying and not conveying in order to make their proficiencies recognized and accessible to others. The article examines this movement through a form that partakes in it, thus drawing attention to conventions and tensions in how authors make themselves accountable, and their subject matter available, to audiences. It thereby proposes to explore the possibilities of careful, and generative, non-disclosure as part of expert writing practices. PMID:26502661

  13. Cognitive Expertise: An ALE Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Nicola; Lotze, Martin; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2016-01-01

    Expert performance constitutes the endpoint of skill acquisition and is accompanied by widespread neuroplastic changes. To reveal common mechanisms of reorganization associated with long-term expertise in a cognitive domain (mental calculation, chess, language, memory, music without motor involvement), we used activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis and compared brain activation of experts to nonexperts. Twenty-six studies matched inclusion criteria, most of which reported an increase and not a decrease of activation foci in experts. Increased activation occurred in the left rolandic operculum (OP 4) and left primary auditory cortex and in bilateral premotor cortex in studies that used auditory stimulation. In studies with visual stimulation, experts showed enhanced activation in the right inferior parietal cortex (area PGp) and the right lingual gyrus. Experts' brain activation patterns seem to be characterized by enhanced or additional activity in domain-specific primary, association, and motor structures, confirming that learning is localized and very specialized. PMID:26467981

  14. Expertise among professional magicians: an interview study

    PubMed Central

    Rissanen, Olli; Pitkänen, Petteri; Juvonen, Antti; Kuhn, Gustav; Hakkarainen, Kai

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to analyse interviews of highly regarded Finnish magicians. Social network analysis (N = 120) was used to identify Finland's most highly regarded magicians (N = 16). The selected participants' careers in professional magic and various aspects of their professional conduct were examined by relying on semi-structured interviews. The results revealed that cultivation of professional level competence in magic usually requires an extensive period of time compared with other domains of expertise. Magic is a unique performing art and it differs from other professions focusing on deceiving the audience. A distinctive feature of magical expertise is that the process takes place entirely through informal training supported by communities of magical practitioners. Three interrelated aspects of magical activity were distinguished: magic tricks, performance, and audience. Although magic tricks constitute a central aspect of magic activity, the participants did not talk about their tricks extensively; this is in accordance with the secretive nature of magic culture. The interviews revealed that a core aspect of the magicians' activity is performance in front of an audience that repeatedly validates competence cultivated through years of practice. The interviewees reported investing a great deal of effort in planning, orchestrating, and reflecting on their performances. Close interaction with the audience plays an important role in most interviewees' activity. Many participants put a great deal of effort in developing novel magic tricks. It is common to borrow magic effects from fellow magicians and develop novel methods of implementation. Because magic tricks or programs are not copyrighted, many interviewees considered “stealing” an unacceptable and unethical aspect of magical activity. The interviewees highlighted the importance of personality and charisma in the successful pursuit of magic activity. PMID:25566156

  15. Harnessing Distributed Musical Expertise through Edublogging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chong, Eddy K. M.

    2008-01-01

    The pedagogical potential of edublogging--blogging used as an educational tool and strategy--in music teaching has been explored in two previous studies; a third exploration has now been conducted. Recognising the social and contextual dimensions of knowledge and of the learning process, I reflect on all three experiences from a distributed…

  16. Toward Adaptability: Where to from Here?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Seth A.; Vaughn, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the collection of articles in this issue are synthesized to discuss conceptualizations of adaptive teaching as a means to foster spaces for adaptive teaching in today's complex educational system. Themes that exist across this collection of articles include adaptive teachers as constructivists, adaptive teachers as knowledgeable…

  17. The temporal advantage for individuating objects of expertise: perceptual expertise is an early riser.

    PubMed

    Curby, Kim M; Gauthier, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    The identification of faces has a temporal advantage over that of other object categories. The orientation-specific nature of this advantage suggests that it stems from our extensive experience and resulting expertise with upright faces. While experts can identify objects faster than novices, it is unclear exactly how the temporal dynamics of identification are changed by expertise and whether the nature of this temporal advantage is similar for face and non-face objects of expertise. Here, we titrated encoding time using a backward-masking paradigm with variable stimulus-mask onset-asynchronies and mapped the resulting effect on recognition for upright and inverted faces (Experiment 1) and for cars among car experts and car novices (Experiment 2). Performance for upright faces and cars among car experts rose above chance between 33 and 70 ms before that for inverted faces or cars among car novices. A shifted exponential function fitted to these data suggested that performance started to rise earlier for experts than for novices, but that additional encoding time increased performance at a similar rate. Experience influences the availability of information early in processing, possibly through the recruitment of more category-selective neurons, while the rate of perceptual processing may be less flexible and limited by inherent physiological constraints. PMID:19761298

  18. Teaching Symbiosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, G. H.

    1985-01-01

    Argues that the meaning of the word "symbiosis" be standardized and that it should be used in a broad sense. Also criticizes the orthodox teaching of general principles in this subject and recommends that priority be given to continuity, intimacy, and associated adaptations, rather than to the harm/benefit relationship. (Author/JN)

  19. ITER Creation Safety File Expertise Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrault, D.

    2013-06-01

    In March 2010, the ITER operator delivered the facility safety file to the French "Autorité de Sûreté Nucléaire" (ASN) as part of its request for the creation decree, legally necessary before building works can begin on the site. The French "Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire" (IRSN), in support to the ASN, recently completed its expertise of the safety measures proposed for ITER, on the basis of this file and of additional technical documents from the operator. This paper presents the IRSN's main conclusions. In particular, they focus on the radioactive materials involved, the safety and radiation protection demonstration (suitability of risk management measures…), foreseeable accidents, building and safety important component design and, finally, wastes and effluents to be produced. This assessment was just the first legally-required step in on-going safety monitoring of the ITER project, which will include other complete regulatory re-evaluations.

  20. Perceptual expertise in forensic facial image comparison

    PubMed Central

    White, David; Phillips, P. Jonathon; Hahn, Carina A.; Hill, Matthew; O'Toole, Alice J.

    2015-01-01

    Forensic facial identification examiners are required to match the identity of faces in images that vary substantially, owing to changes in viewing conditions and in a person's appearance. These identifications affect the course and outcome of criminal investigations and convictions. Despite calls for research on sources of human error in forensic examination, existing scientific knowledge of face matching accuracy is based, almost exclusively, on people without formal training. Here, we administered three challenging face matching tests to a group of forensic examiners with many years' experience of comparing face images for law enforcement and government agencies. Examiners outperformed untrained participants and computer algorithms, thereby providing the first evidence that these examiners are experts at this task. Notably, computationally fusing responses of multiple experts produced near-perfect performance. Results also revealed qualitative differences between expert and non-expert performance. First, examiners' superiority was greatest at longer exposure durations, suggestive of more entailed comparison in forensic examiners. Second, experts were less impaired by image inversion than non-expert students, contrasting with face memory studies that show larger face inversion effects in high performers. We conclude that expertise in matching identity across unfamiliar face images is supported by processes that differ qualitatively from those supporting memory for individual faces. PMID:26336174

  1. Sherlock Holmes: an expert's view of expertise.

    PubMed

    André, Didierjean; Fernand, Gobet

    2008-02-01

    In recent years, there has been an intense research effort to understand the cognitive processes and structures underlying expert behaviour. Work in different fields, including scientific domains, sports, games and mnemonics, has shown that there are vast differences in perceptual abilities between experts and novices, and that these differences may underpin other cognitive differences in learning, memory and problem solving. In this article, we evaluate the progress made in the last years through the eyes of an outstanding, albeit fictional, expert: Sherlock Holmes. We first use the Sherlock Holmes character to illustrate expert processes as described by current research and theories. In particular, the role of perception, as well as the nature and influence of expert knowledge, are all present in the description of Conan Doyle's hero. In the second part of the article, we discuss a number of issues that current research on expertise has barely addressed. These gaps include, for example, several forms of reasoning, the influence of emotions on cognition, and the effect of age on experts' knowledge and cognitive processes. Thus, although nearly 120-year-old, Conan Doyle's books show remarkable illustrations of expert behaviour, including the coverage of themes that have mostly been overlooked by current research. PMID:17621416

  2. Balanced Expertise Distribution in Remote Ultrasound Imaging Aboard The International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargsyan, Ashot; Dulchavsky, Scott; Hamilton, Douglas; Melton, Shannon; Martin, David

    2004-01-01

    Astronaut training for ISS operations usually ensures independent performance. With small crew size same crews also conduct all science work onboard. With diverse backgrounds, a good "match" between the existing and required skills can only be anecdotal. Furthermore, full proficiency in most of the complex tasks can be attained only through long training and practice, which may not be justified and may be impossible given the scarcity of training time. To enable a number of operational and science advancements, authors have developed a new approach to expertise distribution in time and among the space and ground personnel. Methods: As part of NASA Operational Ultrasound Project (1998-2003) and the NASA-solicited experiment "Advanced Diagnostic Ultrasound in Microgravity-ADUM" (P.I. -S.D., ongoing), the authors have created a "Balanced Expertise Distribution" approach to perform complex ultrasound imaging tasks on ISS for both operational and science use. The four components of expertise are a) any pre-existing pertinent expertise; b) limited preflight training c) adaptive onboard proficiency enhancement tools; d) real-time ' guidance from the ground. Throughout the pre-flight training and flight time preceding the experiments, the four components are shaped in a dynamic fashion to meet in an optimum combination during the experiment sessions. Results: Procedure validation sessions and feasibility studies have given encouraging results. While several successful real-time remote guidance sessions have been conducted on ISS, Expedition 8 is the first to use an "on-orbit proficiency enhancement" tool. Conclusions: In spite of severely limited training time, daring peer-reviewed research and operational enhancements are feasible through a balanced distribution of expertise in time, as well as among the crewmembers and ground personnel. This approach shows great promise for biomedical research, but may be applicable for other areas of micro gravity-based science

  3. The Racer's Brain - How Domain Expertise is Reflected in the Neural Substrates of Driving.

    PubMed

    Lappi, Otto

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental question in human brain plasticity is how sensory, motor, and cognitive functions adapt in the process of skill acquisition extended over a period of many years. Recently, there has emerged a growing interest in cognitive neuroscience on studying the functional and structural differences in the brains of elite athletes. Elite performance in sports, music, or the arts, allows us to observe sensorimotor and cognitive performance at the limits of human capability. In this mini-review, we look at driving expertise. The emerging brain imaging literature on the neural substrates of real and simulated driving is reviewed (for the first time), and used as the context for interpreting recent findings on the differences between racing drivers and non-athlete controls. Also the cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience of expertise are discussed. PMID:26635586

  4. Changing teaching techniques and adapting new technologies to improve student learning in an introductory meteorology and climate course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutrim, E. M.; Rudge, D.; Kits, K.; Mitchell, J.; Nogueira, R.

    2006-06-01

    Responding to the call for reform in science education, changes were made in an introductory meteorology and climate course offered at a large public university. These changes were a part of a larger project aimed at deepening and extending a program of science content courses that model effective teaching strategies for prospective middle school science teachers. Therefore, revisions were made to address misconceptions about meteorological phenomena, foster deeper understanding of key concepts, encourage engagement with the text, and promote inquiry-based learning. Techniques introduced include: use of a flash cards, student reflection questionnaires, writing assignments, and interactive discussions on weather and forecast data using computer technology such as Integrated Data Viewer (IDV). The revision process is described in a case study format. Preliminary results (self-reflection by the instructor, surveys of student opinion, and measurements of student achievement), suggest student learning has been positively influenced. This study is supported by three grants: NSF grant No. 0202923, the Unidata Equipment Award, and the Lucia Harrison Endowment Fund.

  5. The Expertise Reversal Effect: Cognitive Load and Motivational Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rey, Gunter Daniel; Buchwald, Florian

    2011-01-01

    The expertise reversal effect occurs when a learner's expertise moderates design principles such as the redundancy principle (i.e., redundant information should be excluded rather than included) derived from the cognitive load theory. Although this effect is supported by numerous experiments, indicating an overall large effect size, a variety of…

  6. Leadership Development Expertise: A Mixed-Method Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okpala, Comfort O.; Hopson, Linda B.; Chapman, Bernadine; Fort, Edward

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the impact of graduate curriculum, experience, and standards in the development of leadership expertise were examined. The major goals of the study were to (1) examine the impact of college content curriculum in the development of leadership expertise, (2) examine the impact of on the job experience in the development of leadership…

  7. The Development of Sport Expertise: Mapping the Tactical Domain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Sue L.

    1994-01-01

    Explores issues and research relevant to sport tactical knowledge development and expertise. The paper discusses controversies concerning methodological tools, possible levels of analysis in sport research, sport tactical knowledge and expertise, a protocol structure model for sport, and expert-novice sport research. (SM)

  8. The Evidence Rejects the Expertise Hypothesis: Reply to Gauthier & Bukach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKone, Elinor; Robbins, Rachel

    2007-01-01

    In Robbins, R. & McKone, E. (2006). No face-like processing for object-of-expertise in three behavioural tasks. "Cognition" this issue, we showed face-like holistic/configural processing does not occur for objects-of-expertise on standard paradigms including inversion, part-whole, part-in-configurally-transformed-whole, and the standard composite…

  9. Assessing Expertise in Introductory Physics Using Categorization Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Andrew; Singh, Chandralekha

    2011-01-01

    The ability to categorize problems based upon underlying principles, rather than surface features or contexts, is considered one of several proxy predictors of expertise in problem solving. With inspiration from the classic study by Chi, Feltovich, and Glaser, we assess the distribution of expertise among introductory physics students by asking…

  10. Change Blindness as a Means of Studying Expertise in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feil, Adam; Mestre, Jose P.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies examining expertise have used a wide range of methods. Beyond characterizing expert and novice behavior in different contexts and circumstances, many studies have examined the processes that comprise the behavior itself and, more recently, processes that comprise training and practice that develop expertise. Other studies, dating…

  11. Faculty Computer Expertise and Use of Instructional Technology. Technology Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriner, Robert; Mery, Pamela

    This report shows the findings of a 1997 technology survey used to assess degrees of faculty computer expertise and the use of instructional technology. Part 1 reviews general findings of the fall 1997 technology survey: (1) the level of computer expertise among faculty, staff and administrators appears to be increasing; (2) in comparison with the…

  12. Cognition at Work: The Development of Vocational Expertise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, J., Ed.

    This book contains eight papers examining vocational expertise and how best to develop it. The first paper, "Vocational Expertise" (John Stevenson), presents five approaches to developing it. The role of context in patterning cognition is considered in "Authenticity in Workplace Learning Settings" (Stephen Billett). In "Learning in Apprenticeship…

  13. Expertise of Team Leaders in Analysing Team Conflicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rupprecht, Maria; Strasser, Josef; Gruber, Hans; Harteis, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Team leaders are expected to adequately analyse team conflicts. Both content and analytical depth of cognitive processes determine team leaders' performance and are assumed to differ with level of expertise. A study is reported in which team leaders at four different levels of expertise (novices, semi-experts, experts, mediators) were compared in…

  14. Visualising Expertise: Towards an Authentic Pedagogy for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinchin, I. M.; Cabot, L. B.; Hay, D. B.

    2008-01-01

    The development of expertise is seen as a crucial element in higher education, but the nature of expertise has been clouded by assumptions of the centrality of intuition and tacit knowledge. In this paper the authors contend that much knowledge that has been described as tacit can be surfaced for examination through the application of concept…

  15. Knowledge Building Expertise: Nanomodellers' Education as an Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tala, Suvi

    2013-01-01

    The content of the expertise which young natural scientists try to gain by doing science in research groups is a relatively little-explored subject. What makes learning in such settings challenging is that a central part of the expertise is tacit. This study employs empirical methods together with a contextualized approach and interdisciplinary…

  16. Quality of Feedback Following Performance Assessments: Does Assessor Expertise Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Govaerts, Marjan J. B.; van de Wiel, Margje W. J.; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to investigate quality of feedback as offered by supervisor-assessors with varying levels of assessor expertise following assessment of performance in residency training in a health care setting. It furthermore investigates if and how different levels of assessor expertise influence feedback characteristics.…

  17. Context and Expertise: The Case of Electronic Troubleshooting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flesher, Jeffrey W.

    Electronic troubleshooting expertise was explored in the three contexts (design, production, and repair) that reflect distinct problem solving task environments. The purpose of the effort was to provide a more precise definition of the boundaries of expertise in electronics troubleshooting and the relationship of context to the development of…

  18. Contrasting Approaches to the Study of Motor Expertise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abernethy, Bruce; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Future investigations of motor expertise should be closely tied to conceptual developments in the motor control and learning field. Selection of methods for studying motor expertise can be guided by thorough consideration of the philosophical underpinnings of prevailing and emerging approaches. The paper discusses cognitive and ecological…

  19. The Teenage Expertise Network (TEN): An Online Ethnographic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Nicola F.; Humphry, Nicoli

    2012-01-01

    The take-up of digital technology by young people is a well-known phenomenon and has been subject to socio-cultural analysis in areas such as youth studies and cultural studies. The Teenage Expertise Network (TEN) research project investigates how teenagers develop technological expertise in techno-cultural contexts via the use of a purposefully…

  20. An Investigation of Expertise: Implications for Adult Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandernach, Janice B.

    To examine the characteristics of expertise, a study at the University of Minnesota cardiac clinic compared differences in diagnostic ability and strategies between novices (fourth year medical students) and experts (specialists in pediatric cardiology). The investigator presented a model for expertise based on knowledge of subject matter content…

  1. The Development of Expertise: The Journey from Acclimation to Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Patricia A.

    2003-01-01

    The Model of Domain Learning (MDL) is an alternative perspective on expertise that arose from studies of student learning in academic domains, such as reading, history, physics, and biology. A comparison of the MDL and traditional models of expertise is made. The key components and stages of the MDL are then overviewed. Discussion concludes with a…

  2. A Review of Primary and Secondary Influences on Sport Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Joseph; Horton, Sean

    2004-01-01

    Sport scientists have examined numerous factors influencing the acquisition and manifestation of high levels of performance. These factors can be divided into variables having a primary influence on expertise and variables that have a secondary influence through their interaction with other variables. Primary influences on expertise include…

  3. Learning Stories from IT Workers--Development of Professional Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Tak S.

    2015-01-01

    In the knowledge economy, many companies are well aware of the vital need to maintain the professional expertise of their workers at a high level. Though there have been a lot of research studies in the areas of professional expertise and workplace learning, few examined the learning pathways novice workers went through to become experts in their…

  4. Becoming an Expert: Developing Expertise in an Applied Discipline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhlmann, Diane Orlich; Ardichvili, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the development of expertise in an applied discipline by addressing the research question: How is professional expertise developed in an applied profession? Design/methodology/approach: Using a grounded theory methodology (GTM), nine technical-tax experts, and three experienced, non-expert tax professionals were…

  5. Knowing in Practice: Re-Conceptualising Vocational Expertise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billett, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Reconceptualizes vocational expertise to present a dynamic, negotiated, and situated view of expertise that builds on the contributions of cognitive psychology, anthropology, cultural psychology, and sociocultural theory. Proposes that relations between the individuals' acting and the social practice in which they act are the bases for knowing and…

  6. A Multimodal Neural Network Recruited by Expertise with Musical Notation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Yetta Kwailing; Gauthier, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Prior neuroimaging work on visual perceptual expertise has focused on changes in the visual system, ignoring possible effects of acquiring expert visual skills in nonvisual areas. We investigated expertise for reading musical notation, a skill likely to be associated with multimodal abilities. We compared brain activity in music-reading experts…

  7. Peer mentoring for reflective teaching: a model for nurses who teach.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, K T; Scherr, M W

    1994-01-01

    Given the variety of forums and audiences that post-baccalaureate and masters-prepared nurses address, nurse educators need to introduce students to models for developing teaching expertise over the course of their professional lives. The authors introduce such a framework, called Peer Mentoring for Reflective Teaching. The framework enhances teaching skills through consultation with peer mentors to help nurses design relevant learning experiences and reflect on the planning and presentation of teaching episodes. PMID:7862294

  8. Understanding Clinical Expertise: Nurse Education, Experience, and the Hospital Context

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, Matthew D.; Lake, Eileen T.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical nursing expertise is central to quality patient care. Research on factors that contribute to expertise has focused largely on individual nurse characteristics to the exclusion of contextual factors. To address this, we examined effects of hospital contextual factors and individual nurse education and experience on clinical nursing expertise in a cross-sectional analysis of data from 8,611 registered nurses. In a generalized ordered logistic regression analysis, the composition of the hospital staff, particularly the proportion of nurses with at least a bachelor of science in nursing degree, was associated with significantly greater odds of a nurse reporting a more advanced expertise level. Our findings suggest that, controlling for individual characteristics, the hospital context significantly influences clinical nursing expertise. PMID:20645420

  9. Knowledge Building Expertise: Nanomodellers' Education as an Example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tala, Suvi

    2013-06-01

    The content of the expertise which young natural scientists try to gain by doing science in research groups is a relatively little-explored subject. What makes learning in such settings challenging is that a central part of the expertise is tacit. This study employs empirical methods together with a contextualized approach and interdisciplinary cooperation in order to reveal practicing nanomodellers' (N = 10) perspectives on their knowledge-building expertise, and on young scientists' expertise education. Modelling in the virtual world plays a major role in the science of these nanomodellers, as it increasingly does in many fields of science. This study therefore adds to our understanding of the nature of recent scientific knowledge building and expertise development, which can be used in the education of the scientists of the future.

  10. Promoting Science Teacher Ownership through STL Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rannikmäe, Miia

    2005-01-01

    A sad fact of teaching is that once the classroom door is closed, teachers are on their own under "normal" conditions. They are in charge of the teaching direction, the choice of materials, the pace of learning, the atmosphere created and the learning emphasis. Developing these skills requires expertise and experience and is aided by…

  11. National Standards for Quality Online Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North American Council for Online Learning, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The mission of the North American Council for Online Learning (NACOL) is to increase educational opportunities and enhance learning by providing collegial expertise and leadership in K-12 online teaching and learning. "National Standards for Quality Online Teaching" is designed to provide states, districts, online programs, and other organizations…

  12. Professional Development to Support Online Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvitz, Brian S.; Beach, Andrea L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the details and examines the outcomes of a professional development program created for instructors who are beyond the novice stage as online instructors, but desire and require further support to develop their online teaching expertise to meet their students' learning needs and their own teaching goals. This program…

  13. Prospective Adaptation in the Use of External Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Lee; Schwartz, Daniel L.

    2009-01-01

    An important element of adaptive expertise involves stepping away from a routine to retool one's knowledge or environment. The current study investigated two forms of this adaptive pattern: fault-driven adaptations, which are reactions to a difficulty, and prospective adaptations, which are proactive reformulations. Graduate and undergraduate…

  14. Practising What They Preach? An Investigation into the Pedagogical Beliefs and Online Teaching Practices of National Teaching Fellows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Tessa

    2015-01-01

    National Teaching Fellows (NTFs) in the UK are celebrated individuals who have made a successful claim for teaching excellence to the Higher Education Academy. This paper reports the results of an empirical study of NTFs with expertise in online learning, which measured their pedagogical beliefs and online teaching practices, using a…

  15. Nurturing Sport Expertise: Factors Influencing the Development of Elite Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Joseph; Horton, Sean; Robertson-Wilson, Jennifer; Wall, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The development of expertise in sport is the result of successful interaction of biological, psychological, and sociological constraints. This review examines the training and environmental factors that influence the acquisition of sport expertise. Research examining the quality and quantity of training indicate that these two elements are crucial predictors of attainment. In addition, the possession of resources such as parental support and adequate coaching are essential. Social factors such as cultural influences and the relative age effect are also considered as determinants of sport expertise. Although it is evident that environmental factors are essential to the acquisition of high levels of sport development, further research is clearly required. PMID:24616603

  16. Irrelevant objects of expertise compete with faces during visual search

    PubMed Central

    McGugin, Rankin W.; McKeeff, Thomas J.; Tong, Frank; Gauthier, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Prior work suggests that non-face objects of expertise can interfere with the perception of faces when the two categories are alternately presented, suggesting competition for shared perceptual resources. Here we ask whether task-irrelevant distractors from a category of expertise compete when faces are presented in a standard visual search task. Participants searched for a target (face or sofa) in an array containing both relevant and irrelevant distractors. The number of distractors from the target category (face or sofa) remained constant, while the number of distractors from the irrelevant category (cars) varied. Search slopes, calculated as a function of the number of irrelevant cars, were correlated with car expertise. The effect was not due to car distractors grabbing attention because they did not compete with sofa targets. Objects of expertise interfere with face perception even when they are task irrelevant, visually distinct and separated in space from faces. PMID:21264705

  17. 7 CFR 205.504 - Evidence of expertise and ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Accreditation of Certifying Agents § 205.504 Evidence of... submit the following documents and information to demonstrate its expertise in organic production...

  18. 7 CFR 205.504 - Evidence of expertise and ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Accreditation of Certifying Agents § 205.504 Evidence of... submit the following documents and information to demonstrate its expertise in organic production...

  19. 7 CFR 205.504 - Evidence of expertise and ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Accreditation of Certifying Agents § 205.504 Evidence of... submit the following documents and information to demonstrate its expertise in organic production...

  20. 7 CFR 205.504 - Evidence of expertise and ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Accreditation of Certifying Agents § 205.504 Evidence of... submit the following documents and information to demonstrate its expertise in organic production...

  1. [The expertise situation as pathoplastic factor].

    PubMed

    Barolin, G S; Schmid, H; Cziudaj, E

    1991-01-01

    Underlying attitudes of apprehension or desire have an essential pathoplastic function, especially in the situation of medical assessment. The functionality of symptoms and complaints requires a diagnostic approach which is not oriented simply towards the "exclusion of organic causes". Interaction between somatogenic and psychogenic factors is by far more common than sheer functionality. Although widely neglected in our medical teaching and literature, these problems are not confined to the mere assessment of temporary or permanent invalidity, but are of great importance for the entire medical sphere, including manifestations and course of a disease, therapeutic success etc. In Austria, the population of foreign workers is in a special position due to socio-economic preconditions, partly due to short-sighted policy devoid of psycho-hygienic considerations. This situation requires thorough analysis free of emotions, which should lead to the development of sensible, although in some respects belated, measures. The latest economical recession has revealed several faulty courses of development in our system of social and health insurance, which needs revision urgently lest it should collapse. In this respect, the medical profession is called upon to contribute to a necessary curtailment of excessive misuse within a system that has become inflexible during the past decades, thereby endangering the valuable achievements of social medicine. PMID:1926881

  2. Trading Places: When Teachers Utilize Student Expertise in Technology-Intensive Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringstaff, Cathy; And Others

    Utilizing self-report data from 32 elementary and secondary teachers, this longitudinal, qualitative study examines the role shifts of both teachers and students as they adapted to teaching and learning in educational, technology-rich, Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow environments. At first, teachers in these instructionally innovative classrooms…

  3. Structured hints : extracting and abstracting domain expertise.

    SciTech Connect

    Hereld, M.; Stevens, R.; Sterling, T.; Gao, G. R.; Mathematics and Computer Science; California Inst. of Tech.; Louisiana State Univ.; Univ. of Delaware

    2009-03-16

    We propose a new framework for providing information to help optimize domain-specific application codes. Its design addresses problems that derive from the widening gap between the domain problem statement by domain experts and the architectural details of new and future high-end computing systems. The design is particularly well suited to program execution models that incorporate dynamic adaptive methodologies for live tuning of program performance and resource utilization. This new framework, which we call 'structured hints', couples a vocabulary of annotations to a suite of performance metrics. The immediate target is development of a process by which a domain expert describes characteristics of objects and methods in the application code that would not be readily apparent to the compiler; the domain expert provides further information about what quantities might provide the best indications of desirable effect; and the interactive preprocessor identifies potential opportunities for the domain expert to evaluate. Our development of these ideas is progressing in stages from case study, through manual implementation, to automatic or semi-automatic implementation. In this paper we discuss results from our case study, an examination of a large simulation of a neural network modeled after the neocortex.

  4. Talent in the taxi: a model system for exploring expertise

    PubMed Central

    Woollett, Katherine; Spiers, Hugo J.; Maguire, Eleanor A.

    2009-01-01

    While there is widespread interest in and admiration of individuals with exceptional talents, surprisingly little is known about the cognitive and neural mechanisms underpinning talent, and indeed how talent relates to expertise. Because many talents are first identified and nurtured in childhood, it can be difficult to determine whether talent is innate, can be acquired through extensive practice or can only be acquired in the presence of the developing brain. We sought to address some of these issues by studying healthy adults who acquired expertise in adulthood. We focused on the domain of memory and used licensed London taxi drivers as a model system. Taxi drivers have to learn the layout of 25 000 streets in London and the locations of thousands of places of interest, and pass stringent examinations in order to obtain an operating licence. Using neuropsychological assessment and structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, we addressed a range of key questions: in the context of a fully developed brain and an average IQ, can people acquire expertise to an exceptional level; what are the neural signatures, both structural and functional, associated with the use of expertise; does expertise change the brain compared with unskilled control participants; does it confer any cognitive advantages, and similarly, does it come at a cost to other functions? By studying retired taxi drivers, we also consider what happens to their brains and behaviour when experts stop using their skill. Finally, we discuss how the expertise of taxi drivers might relate to the issue of talent and innate abilities. We suggest that exploring talent and expertise in this manner could have implications for education, rehabilitation of patients with cognitive impairments, understanding individual differences and possibly conditions such as autism where exceptional abilities can be a feature. PMID:19528024

  5. The value of practice: A critique of interactional expertise.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Rodrigo; Lima, Francisco P A

    2016-04-01

    Collins and Evans have proposed a 'normative theory of expertise' as a way to solve the 'problem of demarcation' in public debates involving technical matters. Their argument is that all citizens have the right to participate in the 'political' phases of such debates, while only three types of experts should have a voice in the 'technical' phases. In this article, Collins and Evans' typology of expertise--in particular, the idea of 'interactional expertise'--is the focus of a detailed empirical, methodological and philosophical analysis. As a result, we reaffirm the difference between practitioners and non-practitioners, contesting the four central claims about interactional expertise--namely, that (1) the idea of interactional expertise has been proven empirically, (2) it is possible to develop interactional expertise through 'linguistic socialization alone', (3) the idea of interactional expertise supports the 'the minimal embodiment thesis' that the individual human body or, more broadly, 'embodiment' is not as relevant as linguistic socialization for acquiring a language and (4) interactional experts have the same linguistic fluency, understanding and judgemental abilities of practitioners within discursive settings. Instead, we argue, individuals' abilities and understandings vary according to the 'type of immersion' they have experienced within a given practice and whether they bring with them another 'perspective'. Acknowledging these differences helps with demarcation but does not solve the 'problem of demarcation'. Every experience is perspectival and cannot handle, alone, the intertwined and complex issues found in public debates involving technical matters. The challenge, then, concerns the ways to mediate interactions between actors with distinct perspectives, experiences and abilities. PMID:27263240

  6. Individual differences in chess expertise: a psychometric investigation.

    PubMed

    Grabner, Roland H; Stern, Elsbeth; Neubauer, Aljoscha C

    2007-03-01

    Starting from controversies over the role of general individual characteristics (especially intelligence) for the attainment of expert performance levels, a comprehensive psychometric investigation of individual differences in chess expertise is presented. A sample of 90 adult tournament chess players of varying playing strengths (1311-2387 ELO) was screened with tests on intelligence and personality variables; in addition, experience in chess play, tournament participation, and practice activities were assessed. Correlation and regression analyses revealed a clear-cut moderate relationship between general (and in particular numerical) intelligence and the participants' playing strengths, suggesting that expert chess play does not stand in isolation from superior mental abilities. The strongest predictor of the attained expertise level, however, was the participants' chess experience which highlights the relevance of long-term engagement for the development of expertise. Among all analysed personality dimensions, only domain-specific performance motivation and emotion expression control incrementally contributed to the prediction of playing strength. In total, measures of chess experience, current tournament activity, intelligence, and personality accounted for about 55% of variance in chess expertise. The present results suggest that individual differences in chess expertise are multifaceted and cannot be reduced to differences in domain experience. PMID:16942740

  7. Pharmacists' Perceived Knowledge and Expertise in Selected Pediatric Topics

    PubMed Central

    Munzenberger, Paul J; Thomas, Ron L; Edwin, Stephanie B; Tutag-Lehr, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study is to determine pharmacists' perceived knowledge and expertise required to make recommendations regarding selected pediatric topics. METHODS A questionnaire was distributed to 400 pharmacists practicing in community, hospital, and home care settings. This instrument explored their perceived knowledge, expertise, and comfort in providing recommendations related to 38 pediatric topics. The impact of responder demographics on differences in perceived knowledge and expertise for each topic were evaluated. RESULTS Ninety-five of 400 (24%) questionnaires were returned completed or partially completed. Forty-seven and 36 of responders practiced in the community or inpatient hospital setting, respectively. Seventy percent of responders reported that ≤ 40% of their patients were children. In general, responders believed they had the knowledge and expertise to make recommendations for the frequently occurring conditions or topics but not for the less familiar. Formal pediatric training was the most influential responder characteristic with a larger proportion having training that they believed enables them to have knowledge and expertise to make recommendations. Although less impressive, experience of more than 5 years and a community-based practice were also important factors. CONCLUSION Additional training is beneficial in increasing the perceived knowledge and comfort of pharmacists making recommendations regarding pediatric patients. PMID:22477824

  8. Time to Tango: expertise and contextual anticipation during action observation.

    PubMed

    Amoruso, Lucía; Sedeño, Lucas; Huepe, David; Tomio, Ailin; Kamienkowski, Juan; Hurtado, Esteban; Cardona, Juan Felipe; Álvarez González, Miguel Ángel; Rieznik, Andrés; Sigman, Mariano; Manes, Facundo; Ibáñez, Agustín

    2014-09-01

    Predictive theories of action observation propose that we use our own motor system as a guide for anticipating and understanding other people's actions through the generation of context-based expectations. According to this view, people should be better in predicting and interpreting those actions that are present in their own motor repertoire compared to those that are not. We recorded high-density event-related potentials (ERPs: P300, N400 and Slow Wave, SW) and source estimation in 80 subjects separated by their level of expertise (experts, beginners and naïves) as they observed realistic videos of Tango steps with different degrees of execution correctness. We also performed path analysis to infer causal relationships between ongoing anticipatory brain activity, evoked semantic responses, expertise measures and behavioral performance. We found that anticipatory activity, with sources in a fronto-parieto-occipital network, early discriminated between groups according to their level of expertise. Furthermore, this early activity significantly predicted subsequent semantic integration indexed by semantic responses (N400 and SW, sourced in temporal and motor regions) which also predicted motor expertise. In addition, motor expertise was a good predictor of behavioral performance. Our results show that neural and temporal dynamics underlying contextual action anticipation and comprehension can be interpreted in terms of successive levels of contextual prediction that are significantly modulated by subject's prior experience. PMID:24830835

  9. Privileged access to awareness for faces and objects of expertise.

    PubMed

    Stein, Timo; Reeder, Reshanne R; Peelen, Marius V

    2016-06-01

    Access to visual awareness for human faces is strongly influenced by spatial orientation: Under continuous flash suppression (CFS), upright faces break into awareness more quickly than inverted faces. This effect of inversion for faces is larger than for a wide range of other animate and inanimate objects. Here we asked whether this apparently specific sensitivity to upright faces reflects face-specific detection mechanisms or whether it reflects perceptual expertise more generally. We tested car experts who varied in their degree of car and face expertise and measured the time upright and inverted faces, cars, and chairs needed to overcome CFS and break into awareness. Results showed that greater car expertise was correlated with larger car inversion effects under CFS. A similar relation between better discrimination performance and larger CFS inversion effects was found for faces. CFS inversion effects are thus modulated by perceptual expertise for both faces and cars. These results demonstrate that inversion effects in conscious access are not unique to faces but similarly exist for other objects of expertise. More generally, we interpret these findings as suggesting that access to awareness and exemplar-level discrimination rely on partially shared perceptual mechanisms. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26689308

  10. Perceptual-Cognitive Expertise in Elite Volleyball Players

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Heloisa; Voss, Michelle W.; Boot, Walter R.; Deslandes, Andrea; Cossich, Victor; Salles, Jose Inacio; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to investigate the relationship between sport expertise and perceptual and cognitive skills, as measured by the component skills approach. We hypothesized that athletes would outperform non-athlete controls in a number of perceptual and cognitive domains and that sport expertise would minimize gender differences. A total of 154 individuals (87 professional volleyball players and 67 non-athlete controls) participated in the study. Participants performed a cognitive battery, which included tests of executive control, memory, and visuo-spatial attention. Athletes showed superior performance speed on three tasks (two executive control tasks and one visuo-spatial attentional processing task). In a subset of tasks, gender effects were observed mainly in the control group, supporting the notion that athletic experience can reduce traditional gender effects. The expertise effects obtained substantiate the view that laboratory tests of cognition may indeed enlighten the sport-cognition relationship. PMID:23471100

  11. Expertise, wisdom and moral philosophers: a response to Gesang.

    PubMed

    Cowley, Christopher

    2012-07-01

    In a recent issue of Bioethics, Bernard Gesang asks whether a moral philosopher possesses greater moral expertise than a non-philosopher, and his answer is a qualified yes, based not so much on his infallible access to the truth, but on the quality of his theoretically-informed moral justifications. I reject Gesang's claim that there is such a thing as moral expertise, although the moral philosopher may well make a valid contribution to the ethics committee as a concerned and educated citizen. I suggest that wisdom is a lot more interesting to examine than moral expertise. Again, however, moral philosophers have no monopoly on wisdom, and the study of philosophy may even impede its cultivation. PMID:21241345

  12. The role of lexical expertise in reading homophones.

    PubMed

    Burt, Jennifer S; Jared, Debra

    2016-07-01

    In Experiment 1, university students classified on lexical expertise on the basis of spelling plus nonword pronunciation accuracy made lexical decisions to homophones and control words. Homophones were accepted as words more slowly than control words, but lexical experts showed a smaller homophone cost than the less skilled group. In Experiment 2, similarly classified groups showed a large difference in their ability to detect homophones, with the low-expertise group showing a yes bias to high-frequency words, and having difficulty detecting homophones when mate-frequency was low. The results suggest superior use of orthography in the lexical experts and more reliance on semantic information in nonexperts, and support the importance of facility with orthography-phonology mappings in lexical expertise. PMID:26158491

  13. Electrical innovations, authority and consulting expertise in late Victorian Britain

    PubMed Central

    Arapostathis, Stathis

    2013-01-01

    In this article I examine the practices of electrical engineering experts, with special reference to their role in the implementation of innovations in late Victorian electrical networks. I focus on the consulting work of two leading figures in the scientific and engineering world of the period, Alexander Kennedy and William Preece. Both were Fellows of the Royal Society and both developed large-scale consulting activities in the emerging electrical industry of light and power. At the core of the study I place the issues of trust and authority, and the bearing of these on the engineering expertise of consultants in late Victorian Britain. I argue that the ascription of expertise to these engineers and the trust placed in their advice were products of power relations on the local scale. The study seeks to unravel both the technical and the social reasons for authoritative patterns of consulting expertise. PMID:24686584

  14. Perceptual-cognitive expertise in elite volleyball players.

    PubMed

    Alves, Heloisa; Voss, Michelle W; Boot, Walter R; Deslandes, Andrea; Cossich, Victor; Salles, Jose Inacio; Kramer, Arthur F

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to investigate the relationship between sport expertise and perceptual and cognitive skills, as measured by the component skills approach. We hypothesized that athletes would outperform non-athlete controls in a number of perceptual and cognitive domains and that sport expertise would minimize gender differences. A total of 154 individuals (87 professional volleyball players and 67 non-athlete controls) participated in the study. Participants performed a cognitive battery, which included tests of executive control, memory, and visuo-spatial attention. Athletes showed superior performance speed on three tasks (two executive control tasks and one visuo-spatial attentional processing task). In a subset of tasks, gender effects were observed mainly in the control group, supporting the notion that athletic experience can reduce traditional gender effects. The expertise effects obtained substantiate the view that laboratory tests of cognition may indeed enlighten the sport-cognition relationship. PMID:23471100

  15. Cultivating Data Expertise and Roles at a National Research Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    As research becomes more computation and data-intensive, it brings new demands for staff that can manage complex data, design user services, and facilitate open access. Responding to these new demands, universities and research institutions are developing data services to support their scientists and scholarly communities. As more organizations extend their operations to research data, a better understanding of the staff roles and expertise required to support data-intensive research services is needed. What is data expertise - knowledge, skills, and roles? This study addresses this question through a case study of an exemplar research center, the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in Boulder, CO. The NCAR case study results were supplemented and validated with a set of interviews of managers at additional geoscience data centers. To date, 11 interviews with NCAR staff and 19 interviews with managers at supplementary data centers have been completed. Selected preliminary results from the qualitative analysis will be reported in the poster: Data professionals have cultivated expertise in areas such as managing scientific data and products, understanding use and users, harnessing technology for data solutions, and standardizing metadata and data sets. Staff roles and responsibilities have evolved over the years to create new roles for data scientists, data managers/curators, data engineers, and senior managers of data teams, embedding data expertise into each NCAR lab. Explicit career paths and ladders for data professionals are limited but starting to emerge. NCAR has supported organization-wide efforts for data management, leveraging knowledge and best practices across all the labs and their staff. Based on preliminary results, NCAR provides a model for how organizations can build expertise and roles into their data service models. Data collection for this study is ongoing. The author anticipates that the results will help answer questions on what are

  16. Medical expertise as a historical phenomenon and academic discipline.

    PubMed

    Gnjidić, Zivko; Fatović-Ferencić, Stella

    2010-03-01

    Based on secondary literature, a survey of particular forms of medical expertise over history is presented. The state-to-individual interaction in terms of personality and physical integrity protection, health care, etc., was observed. It was only after the 16th century that the development of anatomy was found to have become a decisive argument for convincing expertise in various trials. In Croatia, the course of medical expertise development was comparable to the close settings in the neighboring European countries. Major advances at the legislative, educational and professional levels took place in the second half of the 19th century. The subject of Forensic Medicine was introduced at Royal Academy of Jurisprudence as early as 1861; the book entitled Lecnicka izvesća (visa reperta) za prakticnu porabu lecnikov by Ivan Dezman (1841-1873) from 1868 offered the first systematic form of autopsy reports, whereas Kratka sudska medicina, a handbook in forensic medicine by Niko Selak (1861-1891) from 1889 denoted the beginnings of forensic medicine literature in Croatian language. It has been noted that medical expertise approach perceives man as a social being at the crossing of manifold impacts and influences, thus being always observed by physicians of various specialties. During centuries, medical expertise has been formed in conjunction with advances in medicine and science, and with the development of civil society. Medical expertise had gradually grown into a multidisciplinary field requiring high professionalism, ethical approach, continuous training and collaboration with various professions. This resulted in a compact and polyvalent discipline, in Croatia gradually formed as a special course in medical curriculum. PMID:20635591

  17. A Review of Expertise and Judgment Processes for Risk Estimation

    SciTech Connect

    R. L. Boring

    2007-06-01

    A major challenge of risk and reliability analysis for human errors or hardware failures is the need to enlist expert opinion in areas for which adequate operational data are not available. Experts enlisted in this capacity provide probabilistic estimates of reliability, typically comprised of a measure of central tendency and uncertainty bounds. While formal guidelines for expert elicitation are readily available, they largely fail to provide a theoretical basis for expertise and judgment. This paper reviews expertise and judgment in the context of risk analysis; overviews judgment biases, the role of training, and multivariate judgments; and provides guidance on the appropriate use of atomistic and holistic judgment processes.

  18. From Meaning Well to Doing Well: Ethical Expertise in the GIS Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huff, Chuck

    2014-01-01

    There is evidence to support the idea that moral action can be thought of in terms of expertise in a domain. This paper reviews work on the development of moral expertise across five levels, from novice to expertise. It addresses the role of habit in expertise and self-regulation strategies that signal when habitual action is not working and that…

  19. Toward reflexive climate adaptation research

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Preston, Benjamin L.; Rickards, Lauren; Fünfgeld, Hartmut; Keenan, Rodney J.

    2015-06-22

    Climate adaptation research is expanding very quickly within an increasingly reflexive society where the relationship between academia and other social institutions is in a state of flux. Tensions exist between the two dominant research orientations of research about and research for adaptation. In particular, the research community is challenged to develop processes for successfully executing transdisciplinary research for adaptation when academic institutions and researchers are largely structured around traditional, disciplinary expertise and funding models. One tool for helping to manage this tension is a third, more reflexive, orientation toward adaptation research that is emerging in the literature. Finally, this newmore » ‘research on adaptation research’ promises to help enhance understanding of the research enterprise itself and how it can become more adaptive.« less

  20. Toward reflexive climate adaptation research

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, Benjamin L.; Rickards, Lauren; Fünfgeld, Hartmut; Keenan, Rodney J.

    2015-06-22

    Climate adaptation research is expanding very quickly within an increasingly reflexive society where the relationship between academia and other social institutions is in a state of flux. Tensions exist between the two dominant research orientations of research about and research for adaptation. In particular, the research community is challenged to develop processes for successfully executing transdisciplinary research for adaptation when academic institutions and researchers are largely structured around traditional, disciplinary expertise and funding models. One tool for helping to manage this tension is a third, more reflexive, orientation toward adaptation research that is emerging in the literature. Finally, this new ‘research on adaptation research’ promises to help enhance understanding of the research enterprise itself and how it can become more adaptive.

  1. Distributed expertise: qualitative study of a British network of multidisciplinary teams supporting parents of children with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Swallow, V; Smith, T; Webb, N J A; Wirz, L; Qizalbash, L; Brennan, E; Birch, A; Sinha, M D; Krischock, L; van der Voort, J; King, D; Lambert, H; Milford, D V; Crowther, L; Saleem, M; Lunn, A; Williams, J

    2015-01-01

    Background Long-term childhood conditions are often managed by hospital-based multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) of professionals with discipline specific expertise of a condition, in partnership with parents. However, little evidence exists on professional–parent interactions in this context. An exploration of professionals' accounts of the way they individually and collectively teach parents to manage their child's clinical care at home is, therefore, important for meeting parents' needs, informing policy and educating novice professionals. Using chronic kidney disease as an exemplar this paper reports on one aspect of a study of interactions between professionals and parents in a network of 12 children's kidney units in Britain. Methods We conducted semi-structured, qualitative interviews with a convenience sample of 112 professionals (clinical-psychologists, dietitians, doctors, nurses, pharmacists, play-workers, therapists and social workers), exploring accounts of their parent-educative activity. We analysed data using framework and the concept of distributed expertise. Results Four themes emerged that related to the way expertise was distributed within and across teams: (i) recognizing each other's' expertise, (ii) sharing expertise within the MDT, (iii) language interpretation, and (iv) acting as brokers. Two different professional identifications were also seen to co-exist within MDTs, with participants using the term ‘we’ both as the intra-professional ‘we’ (relating to the professional identity) when describing expertise within a disciplinary group (for example: ‘As dietitians we aim to give tailored advice to optimize children's growth’), and the inter-professional ‘we’ (a ‘team-identification’), when discussing expertise within the team (for example: ‘We work as a team and make sure we're all happy with every aspect of their training before they go home’). Conclusions This study highlights the dual identifications implicit in

  2. An embodied perspective on expertise in solving the problem of making a geologic map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callahan, Caitlin Norah

    The task of constructing a geologic map is a cognitively and physically demanding field-based problem. The map produced is understood to be an individual's two-dimensional interpretation or mental model of the three-dimensional underlying geology. A popular view within the geoscience community is that teaching students how to make a geologic map is valuable for preparing them to deal with disparate and incomplete data sets, for helping them develop problem-solving skills, and for acquiring expertise in geology. Few previous studies have focused specifically on expertise in geologic mapping. Drawing from literature related to expertise, to problem solving, and to mental models, two overarching research questions were identified: How do geologists of different levels of expertise constrain and solve an ill-structured problem such as making a geologic map? How do geologists address the uncertainties inherent to the processes and interpretations involved in solving a geologic mapping problem? These questions were answered using a methodology that captured the physical actions, expressed thoughts, and navigation paths of geologists as they made a geologic map. Eight geologists, from novice to expert, wore a head-mounted video camera with an attached microphone to record those actions and thoughts, creating "video logs" while in the field. The video logs were also time-stamped, which allowed the visual and audio data to be synchronized with the GPS data that tracked participants' movements in the field. Analysis of the video logs yielded evidence that all eight participants expressed thoughts that reflected the process of becoming mentally situated in the mapping task (e.g. relating between distance on a map and distance in three-dimensional space); the prominence of several of these early thoughts waned in the expressed thoughts later in the day. All participants collected several types of data while in the field; novices, however, did so more continuously throughout

  3. Authority, Expertise, and Impression Management: Gendered Professionalization of Chemists in the Academy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirshfield, Laura Ellen

    Women face more barriers to their success than their men counterparts in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) disciplines. While much of the research on women's experience in science has focused on their entry into or exit out of STEM fields (the "leaky pipeline"), less is known about the obstacles that women scientists face at work, due to the dearth of ethnographic work exploring gender and day-to-day experiences in the academic workplace. Using data from a qualitative study of graduate students and postdoctoral fellows in chemistry involving over 120 hours of ethnographic observation and 40 semi-structured interviews, I focus specifically on the gendered nature of authority, expertise, and impression management to investigate several of the obstacles women scientists face at work. In the first chapter, I investigate men and women graduate students' and postdocs' expectations of expertise. I argue that overall, men are more likely than their women peers to be seen as experts in chemistry. As a result, men graduate students benefit from more practice with skills that are applicable to their future careers: applying scientific knowledge to relevant questions and communicating this information to others. In the second chapter, I focus on gender and graduate student socialization. I find that the link between men, science, and academia creates a context in which men do not need to work as hard to establish their claim to scientific authority. Therefore, men are able to perform masculinity in varied and complex ways, while women, who do not embody masculinity, feel more pressure to conform to strict norms of competition that are associated with traditional masculinity. In the last chapter, I discuss the impression management strategies that men and women chemists-in-training use to navigate authority and expertise. I find that men are more likely than women to employ interactional styles that feature their expertise when in group situations, while women

  4. BOOK REVIEW: The Expertise and Deployment of Science Teachers at Key Stage 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, Ken

    2000-03-01

    experienced head of department (biologist) considered himself to be: ... probably a better physics teacher than most physicists for many GCSE candidates. I know their difficulties from personal experience. Another biologist: We operate a detailed scheme of work and have subject advisers within the Faculty to help those less confident in particular disciplines. Most enjoy the variety. In contrast: A chemist: I have no expertise in physics or biology and no training to teach these disciplines at any level. ... I consider [my teaching programme] to be a terrible waste of the school's resources and my expertise. An environmental scientist: I feel that [the pupils] have a raw deal from my lack of physics expertise. However, a common feeling is that there is a good case for teaching science so that pupils benefit from cross-disciplinary links, but that there is a tension between this and what teachers feel professionally confident about being able to do. The authors conclude that: ` ... the shift towards teaching of the sciences by non-specialists has gone too far to be halted.' They discuss what this implies in practice. A major recommendation is that ` ... the recruitment and motivation of young science teachers would be promoted ... by a greater emphasis on their disciplinary specialisms.' The final message is that the kids can tell: `Biology with you is OK. Chemistry is fun. But you like physics don't you?' (my emphasis)

  5. A Structural Equation Model of Expertise in College Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Carr, Martha

    2009-01-01

    A model of expertise in physics was tested on a sample of 374 college students in 2 different level physics courses. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypothesized relationships among variables linked to expert performance in physics including strategy use, pictorial representation, categorization skills, and motivation, and these…

  6. Managing & Re-Using Didactical Expertise: The Didactical Object Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawlowski, Jan M.; Bick, Markus

    2006-01-01

    The DIN Didactical Object Model extends the approaches of existing Educational Modeling Languages introducing specifications for contexts and experiences. In this paper, we show how the Didactical Object Model can be used for sharing didactical expertise. Educational Modeling Languages change the design paradigm from content orientation towards…

  7. The Makana Regional Centre of Expertise: Experiments in Social Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotz-Sisitka, Heila; O'Donoghue, Rob; Wilmot, Di

    2010-01-01

    This article deliberates the possibilities for Regional Centres of Expertise (RCEs) to become "experiments" in social learning. The purpose of the article is to advance the broader research agenda of RCEs through reflection on the empirical research agenda of one RCE, Makana RCE in South Africa. As such it opens questions on how we might see RCE's…

  8. Building Expertise to Support Digital Scholarship: A Global Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Vivian; Spiro, Lisa; Wang, Xuemao; Cawthorne, Jon E.

    2015-01-01

    This report sheds light on the expertise required to support a robust and sustainable digital scholarship (DS) program. It focuses first on defining and describing the key domain knowledge, skills, competencies, and mindsets at some of the world's most prominent digital scholarship programs. It then identifies the main strategies used to build…

  9. Being an Expert Mathematics Online Tutor: What Does Expertise Entail?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinovic, Dragana

    2009-01-01

    This article is derived from the qualitative portion of a larger study conducted on mathematics websites that provide expert volunteer help. Data consist of tutoring logs of five expert tutors from two help sites, plus interviews with these tutors. The researcher has employed theories about expertise in the educational domain to elicit details of…

  10. The Development of Information Search Expertise of Research Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kai-Wah Chu, Samuel; Law, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    This study identifies the development of information search expertise of 12 beginning research students (six in education and six in engineering) who were provided with a set of systematic search training sessions over a period of one year. The study adopts a longitudinal approach in investigating whether there were different stages in the…

  11. Metaphorical Reasoning and Design Expertise: A Perspective for Design Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casakin, Hernan

    2011-01-01

    The use of metaphors in design can help students reflect over a problem situation under an innovative point of view. During their design studies, students are supposed to acquire design skills, gain knowledge and enhance their level of expertise. This research explores the aid provided by metaphors in design problem solving, and its relationship…

  12. Using Information Expertise to Enhance Massive Open Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahraj, Katy

    2012-01-01

    It is a truth not yet universally acknowledged that a venture based on information must be in want of a librarian. Librarians offer expertise in organizing and managing information, clarifying and supporting people's information needs, and enhancing people's information literacy skills. There are innumerable endeavors today in education, health,…

  13. [The transfer of nursing expertise in patient education].

    PubMed

    Duquenne, Irène; Le Moguen, Catherine

    2012-11-01

    Patient therapeutic education reinforces the quality of the management of heart diseases. Its complexity is a reality in many situations and specific skills need to be developed. The nurses coordinating the therapeutic education programme of a cardiac rehabilitation department have formalised a system to transfer expertise based on the development of clinical and pedagogical tools and the analysis of professional practices. PMID:23301337

  14. Music Educators' Expertise and Mandate: Who Decides, Based on What?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelo, Elin

    2016-01-01

    Who should define music educators' expertise and mandate, and on what basis? Is this for example individual music educators, diverse collectives, employment institutions or political frameworks? How can one discuss professional quality and codes of ethic in this field, where these questions inseparably adhere to personal qualities and quality of a…

  15. Negative Expertise: Comparing Differently Tenured Elder Care Nurses' Negative Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartmeier, Martin; Lehtinen, Erno; Gruber, Hans; Heid, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Negative expertise is conceptualised as the professional's ability to avoid errors during practice due to certain cognitive agencies. In this study, negative knowledge (i.e. knowledge about what is wrong in a certain context and situation) is conceptualised as one such agency. This study compares and investigates the negative knowledge of elder…

  16. Over-the-counter medicines: professional expertise and consumer discourses.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Fiona A; Leontowitsch, Miranda; Duggan, Catherine

    2008-09-01

    Ideas of participation and partnership in health care consultations have attracted increasing attention in recent years; however the consequences in terms of the necessary shifts in existing relationships are often overlooked. We examine how pharmacists work to maintain their professional expertise against the rise of health-care consumerism. We draw on the following data from a UK study of consultations for over-the-counter (OTC) medicines in two pharmacies: (i) an outline of the pharmacy owners' views of their practice model, (ii) data from observations and tape recorded consultations (iii) interviews with customers and pharmacists and (iv) views expressed in two feedback sessions discussing vignettes developed from observational and interview-based fieldwork. There was no suggestion that attempts to engage customers in discussions about their treatment necessitated a diminution of the importance of pharmaceutical expertise. Indeed, both pharmacists and customers acknowledged the importance of the asymmetry of knowledge between pharmacists and customers. Pharmaceutical expertise was however not always perceived to be necessary and transactions in pharmacies may be treated like those in any other retail environment. Further research using a larger dataset to investigate problems in interactions resulting from tensions between pharmaceutical expertise and consumerism is indicated. PMID:18761511

  17. Public University Trustees: New Expertise Needed as Funding Diversifies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, John; Tuby, Kimberly

    2008-01-01

    A long-term decline in state-government funding and an increase in funds from other sources are creating the need for broader types of expertise on boards of public universities. Public universities are becoming increasingly market-driven and consequently must deal with a broader base of stakeholders. As a result of these changes, public boards…

  18. Expertise in Performance Assessment: Assessors' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berendonk, Christoph; Stalmeijer, Renée E.; Schuwirth, Lambert W. T.

    2013-01-01

    The recent rise of interest among the medical education community in individual faculty making subjective judgments about medical trainee performance appears to be directly related to the introduction of notions of integrated competency-based education and assessment for learning. Although it is known that assessor expertise plays an important…

  19. Revisiting the Role of the Fusiform Face Area in Expertise.

    PubMed

    Bilalić, Merim

    2016-09-01

    The fusiform face area (FFA) is considered to be a highly specialized brain module because of its central importance for face perception. However, many researchers claim that the FFA is a general visual expertise module that distinguishes between individual examples within a single category. Here, I circumvent the shortcomings of some previous studies on the FFA controversy by using chess stimuli, which do not visually resemble faces, together with more sensitive methods of analysis such as multivariate pattern analysis. I also extend the previous research by presenting chess positions, complex scenes with multiple objects, and their interrelations to chess experts and novices as well as isolated chess objects. The first experiment demonstrates that chess expertise modulated the FFA activation when chess positions were presented. In contrast, single chess objects did not produce different activation patterns among experts and novices even when the multivariate pattern analysis was used. The second experiment focused on the single chess objects and featured an explicit task of identifying the chess objects but failed to demonstrate expertise effects in the FFA. The experiments provide support for the general expertise view of the FFA function but also extend the scope of our understanding about the function of the FFA. The FFA does not merely distinguish between different exemplars within the same category of stimuli. More likely, it parses complex multiobject stimuli that contain numerous functional and spatial relations. PMID:27082047

  20. Conceptions of Giftedness and Expertise Put to the Empirical Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harder, Bettina; Vialle, Wilma; Ziegler, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Recent handbooks of giftedness or expertise propose a plethora of conceptions on the development of excellent performance but, to our knowledge, there are no comparative studies that provide empirical evidence of their validity to guide researchers and practitioners in their adoption of a particular conception. This study sought to close that gap…

  1. Ritualizing Expertise: Non-Montessorian View of the Montessori Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cossentino, Jacqueline

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the practice of Montessori education through the lens of ritual. Anchored by description and analysis of a lesson in an elementary classroom, the lesson is viewed as a series of ritualized interactions in which both teacher and student act out multiple layers of expertise within the cultural frame of the Montessori method.…

  2. Early Specialization in Youth Sport: A Requirement for Adult Expertise?.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    This article examines evidence both for and against early specialization in the development of sports expertise and presents the early diversification approach as another path leading to elite levels of performance. It discusses sports dropout and questions the link between early sports specialization and exceptional sports performance. (Contains…

  3. The Role of Human Expertise in Enhancing Data Mining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaddouri, Abdelaaziz

    2011-01-01

    Current data mining (DM) technology is not domain-specific and therefore rarely generates reliable, business actionable knowledge that can be used to improve the effectiveness of the decision-making process in the banking industry. DM is mainly an autonomous, data-driven process with little focus on domain expertise, constraints, or requirements…

  4. Expertise in clinical pathology: combining the visual and cognitive perspective.

    PubMed

    Jaarsma, Thomas; Jarodzka, Halszka; Nap, Marius; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J G; Boshuizen, Henny P A

    2015-10-01

    Expertise studies in the medical domain often focus on either visual or cognitive aspects of expertise. As a result, characteristics of expert behaviour are often described as either cognitive or visual abilities. This study focuses on both aspects of expertise and analyses them along three overarching constructs: (1) encapsulations, (2) efficiency, and (3) hypothesis testing. This study was carried out among clinical pathologists performing an authentic task: diagnosing microscopic slides. Participants were 13 clinical pathologists (experts), 12 residents in pathology (intermediates), and 13 medical students (novices). They all diagnosed seven cases in a virtual microscope and gave post hoc explanations for their diagnoses. The collected data included eye movements, microscope navigation, and verbal protocols. Results showed that experts used lower magnifications and verbalized their findings as diagnoses. Also, their diagnostic paths were more efficient, including fewer microscope movements and shorter reasoning chains. Experts entered relevant areas later in their diagnostic process, and visited fewer of them. Intermediates used relatively high magnifications and based their diagnoses on specific abnormalities. Also, they took longer to reach their diagnosis and checked more relevant areas. Novices searched in detail, described findings by their appearances, and uttered long reasoning chains. These results indicate that overarching constructs can justly be identified: encapsulations and efficiency are apparent in both visual and cognitive aspects of expertise. PMID:25677013

  5. Expertise Reversal Effects in Writing-to-Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuckles, Matthias; Hubner, Sandra; Dumer, Sandra; Renkl, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    This article presents two longitudinal studies that investigated expertise reversal effects in journal writing. In Experiment 1, students wrote regular journal entries over a whole term. The experimental group received a combination of cognitive and metacognitive prompts. The control group received no prompts. In the first half of the term, the…

  6. Talent "and" Expertise: The Empirical Evidence for Genetic Endowment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonton, Dean Keith

    2007-01-01

    In this commentary, the author focuses on the claim summarized in the last sentence of the target article's abstract. To begin, the concept of talent does not require the existence of "innate constraints to the attainment of elite achievement". On the contrary, genetic endowment may merely influence the rate at which domain-specific expertise is…

  7. 7 CFR 205.504 - Evidence of expertise and ability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evidence of expertise and ability. 205.504 Section 205.504 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL...

  8. Capturing flight system test engineering expertise: Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woerner, Irene Wong

    1991-01-01

    Within a few years, JPL will be challenged by the most active mission set in history. Concurrently, flight systems are increasingly more complex. Presently, the knowledge to conduct integration and test of spacecraft and large instruments is held by a few key people, each with many years of experience. JPL is in danger of losing a significant amount of this critical expertise, through retirement, during a period when demand for this expertise is rapidly increasing. The most critical issue at hand is to collect and retain this expertise and develop tools that would ensure the ability to successfully perform the integration and test of future spacecraft and large instruments. The proposed solution was to capture and codity a subset of existing knowledge, and to utilize this captured expertise in knowledge-based systems. First year results and activities planned for the second year of this on-going effort are described. Topics discussed include lessons learned in knowledge acquisition and elicitation techniques, life-cycle paradigms, and rapid prototyping of a knowledge-based advisor (Spacecraft Test Assistant) and a hypermedia browser (Test Engineering Browser). The prototype Spacecraft Test Assistant supports a subset of integration and test activities for flight systems. Browser is a hypermedia tool that allows users easy perusal of spacecraft test topics. A knowledge acquisition tool called ConceptFinder which was developed to search through large volumes of data for related concepts is also described and is modified to semi-automate the process of creating hypertext links.

  9. Climate Science Centers: Growing Federal and Academic Expertise in the Nation's Interests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryker, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Department of the Interior's (Interior) natural and cultural resource managers face increasingly complex challenges exacerbated by climate change. In 2009, under Secretarial Order 3289, Interior created eight regional Climate Science Centers managed by the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center and in partnership with universities. Secretarial Order 3289 provides a framework to coordinate climate change science and adaptation efforts across Interior and to integrate science and resource management expertise from Federal, State, Tribal, private, non-profit, and academic partners. In addition to broad research expertise, these Federal/university partnerships provide opportunities to develop a next generation of climate science professionals. These include opportunities to increase the climate science knowledge base of students and practicing professionals; build students' skills in working across the boundary between research and implementation; facilitate networking among researchers, students, and professionals for the application of research to on-the-ground issues; and support the science pipeline in climate-related fields through structured, intensive professional development. In 2013, Climate Science Centers supported approximately 10 undergraduates, 60 graduate students, and 26 postdoctoral researchers. Additional students trained by Climate Science Center-affiliated faculty also contribute valuable time and expertise, and are effectively part of the Climate Science Center network. The Climate Science Centers' education and training efforts have also reached a number of high school students interested in STEM careers, and professionals in natural and cultural resource management. The Climate Science Centers are coordinating to build on each other's successful education and training efforts. Early successes include several intensive education experiences, such as the Alaska Climate Science Center's Girls on

  10. Teaching Online: A Theory-Based Approach to Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Maureen Snow

    2015-01-01

    Concerns about a lack of face-to-face contact with students, a focus on grading rather than teaching, and limited expertise with technology or needed pedagogical strategies, may contribute to instructor reluctance to teach online. The interaction between the instructor and learner and among learners affects the quality and success of online…

  11. The Gender-Related Role of Teaching Profession in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uygun, Selcuk

    2014-01-01

    Teaching is a professional job that requires expertise. The characteristics of the professionals can affect the quality of the profession. One of these characteristics is gender. In this study, the gender-related role of teaching profession in Turkey is examined. The analysis in a historical perspective of gender distributions of students who have…

  12. Nurturing Undergraduate Tutors' Role in the University Teaching Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Kathryn A.

    2009-01-01

    University students often serve as tutors who supplement the lecture-based teaching of permanent academic staff. However, potential issues arise when student tutors are employed with similar expectations of expertise and experience as the industry professionals and permanent staff they teach alongside. Arguably, successful and sustainable…

  13. Influence of expertise on rockfall hazard assessment using empirical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delonca, Adeline; Verdel, Thierry; Gunzburger, Yann

    2016-07-01

    To date, many rockfall hazard assessment methods still consider qualitative observations within their analysis. Based on this statement, knowledge and expertise are supposed to be major parameters of rockfall assessment. To test this hypothesis, an experiment was carried out in order to evaluate the influence of knowledge and expertise on rockfall hazard assessment. Three populations were selected, having different levels of expertise: (1) students in geosciences, (2) researchers in geosciences and (3) confirmed experts. These three populations evaluated the rockfall hazard level on the same site, considering two different methods: the Laboratoire des Ponts et Chaussées (LPC) method and a method partly based on the "slope mass rating" (SMR) method. To complement the analysis, the completion of an "a priori" assessment of the rockfall hazard was requested of each population, without using any method. The LPC method is the most widely used method in France for official hazard mapping. It combines two main indicators: the predisposition to instability and the expected magnitude. Reversely, the SMR method was used as an ad hoc quantitative method to investigate the effect of quantification within a method. These procedures were applied on a test site divided into three different sectors. A statistical treatment of the results (descriptive statistical analysis, chi-square independent test and ANOVA) shows that there is a significant influence of the method used on the rockfall hazard assessment, whatever the sector. However, there is a non-significant influence of the level of expertise of the population the sectors 2 and 3. On sector 1, there is a significant influence of the level of expertise, explained by the importance of the temporal probability assessment in the rockfall hazard assessment process. The SMR-based method seems highly sensitive to the "site activity" indicator and exhibits an important dispersion in its results. However, the results are more similar

  14. No Respect, No Respect at All: Some Thoughts on Teaching History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Gregory Kent; Baines, Lawrence A.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the teaching of history in schools. Addresses the prevalent view that history is one of the easiest subjects to teach; the lack of subject expertise among history teachers, examining Georgia (United States) in particular; and the link between teaching history and coaching sports. (CMK)

  15. The Racer’s Brain – How Domain Expertise is Reflected in the Neural Substrates of Driving

    PubMed Central

    Lappi, Otto

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental question in human brain plasticity is how sensory, motor, and cognitive functions adapt in the process of skill acquisition extended over a period of many years. Recently, there has emerged a growing interest in cognitive neuroscience on studying the functional and structural differences in the brains of elite athletes. Elite performance in sports, music, or the arts, allows us to observe sensorimotor and cognitive performance at the limits of human capability. In this mini-review, we look at driving expertise. The emerging brain imaging literature on the neural substrates of real and simulated driving is reviewed (for the first time), and used as the context for interpreting recent findings on the differences between racing drivers and non-athlete controls. Also the cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience of expertise are discussed. PMID:26635586

  16. Spontaneously spotting and applying shortcuts in arithmetic—a primary school perspective on expertise

    PubMed Central

    Godau, Claudia; Haider, Hilde; Hansen, Sonja; Schubert, Torsten; Frensch, Peter A.; Gaschler, Robert

    2014-01-01

    One crucial feature of expertise is the ability to spontaneously recognize where and when knowledge can be applied to simplify task processing. Mental arithmetic is one domain in which people should start to develop such expert knowledge in primary school by integrating conceptual knowledge about mathematical principles and procedural knowledge about shortcuts. If successful, knowledge integration should lead to transfer between procedurally different shortcuts that are based on the same mathematical principle and therefore likely are both associated to the respective conceptual knowledge. Taking commutativity principle as a model case, we tested this conjecture in two experiments with primary school children. In Experiment 1, we obtained eye tracking data suggesting that students indeed engaged in search processes when confronted with mental arithmetic problems to which a formerly feasible shortcut no longer applied. In Experiment 2, children who were first provided material allowing for one commutativity-based shortcut later profited from material allowing for a different shortcut based on the same principle. This was not the case for a control group, who had first worked on material that allowed for a shortcut not based on commutativity. The results suggest that spontaneous shortcut usage triggers knowledge about different shortcuts based on the same principle. This is in line with the notion of adaptive expertise linking conceptual and procedural knowledge. PMID:24959156

  17. Professional Development to Promote Teacher Adaptability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Allison Ward; Ankrum, Julie Winneur; Morewood, Aimee

    2016-01-01

    Effective professional development (PD) follows adaptive teaching principles; it increases teacher understanding and instructional purpose, which ultimately supports and extends adaptive teaching. Through this article, we compare and contrast training models with educative models of PD (Duffy, 2004). We discuss characteristics of effective PD that…

  18. Competence and Performance in Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Jack C.

    2010-01-01

    In order to plan for the professional development of English language teachers, we need to have a comprehensive understanding of what competence and expertise in language teaching consists of. What essential skills, knowledge, values, attitudes and goals do language teachers need, and how can these be acquired? This paper seeks to explore these…

  19. Virtue, Practical Wisdom and Character in Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Sandra; Carr, David

    2014-01-01

    Recent reflection on the professional knowledge of teachers has been marked by a shift away from more reductive competence and skill-focused models of teaching towards a view of teacher expertise as involving complex context-sensitive deliberation and judgement. Much of this shift has been inspired by an Aristotelian conception of practical wisdom…

  20. Teaching, Teacher Formation, and Specialised Professional Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hordern, Jim

    2015-01-01

    This paper starts by exploring the relevance of Bernstein's work on vertical and horizontal discourses and the constitution of professional knowledge for conceptualisation of the knowledge needed for teaching practice. Building on arguments for the differentiated nature of knowledge, and drawing on the work of Winch, Young and Muller on expertise,…

  1. Thinking and Creativity in Learning Mathematics Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosu, Luisa Maria

    2010-01-01

    Preparation to teach school mathematics should include developing an understanding of classroom mathematical interactions. The research literature and professional expertise agree that a teacher's ability to respond to classroom mathematical interactions depends on her understanding of the subject matter within pedagogical situations. As a…

  2. Tactical expertise assessment in youth football using representative tasks.

    PubMed

    Serra-Olivares, Jaime; Clemente, Filipe Manuel; González-Víllora, Sixto

    2016-01-01

    Specific football drills improve the development of technical/tactical and physical variables in players. Based on this principle, in recent years it has been possible to observe in daily training a growing volume of small-sided and conditioned games. These games are smaller and modified forms of formal games that augment players' perception of specific tactics. Despite this approach, the assessment of players' knowledge and tactical execution has not been well documented, due mainly to the difficulty in measuring tactical behavior. For that reason, this study aims to provide a narrative review about the tactical assessment of football training by using representative tasks to measure the tactical expertise of youth football players during small-sided and conditioned games. This study gives an overview of the ecological approach to training and the principles used for representative task design, providing relevant contribution and direction for future research into the assessment of tactical expertise in youth football. PMID:27547675

  3. Institutionalized ignorance as a precondition for rational risk expertise.

    PubMed

    Merkelsen, Henrik

    2011-07-01

    The present case study seeks to explain the conditions for experts' rational risk perception by analyzing the institutional contexts that constitute a field of food safety expertise in Denmark. The study highlights the role of risk reporting and how contextual factors affect risk reporting from the lowest organizational level, where concrete risks occur, to the highest organizational level, where the body of professional risk expertise is situated. The article emphasizes the role of knowledge, responsibility, loyalty, and trust as risk-attenuation factors and concludes by suggesting that the preconditions for the expert's rationality may rather be a lack of risk-specific knowledge due to poor risk reporting than a superior level of risk knowledge. PMID:21284683

  4. The behavioral and neural mechanisms underlying the tracking of expertise.

    PubMed

    Boorman, Erie D; O'Doherty, John P; Adolphs, Ralph; Rangel, Antonio

    2013-12-18

    Evaluating the abilities of others is fundamental for successful economic and social behavior. We investigated the computational and neurobiological basis of ability tracking by designing an fMRI task that required participants to use and update estimates of both people and algorithms' expertise through observation of their predictions. Behaviorally, we find a model-based algorithm characterized subject predictions better than several alternative models. Notably, when the agent's prediction was concordant rather than discordant with the subject's own likely prediction, participants credited people more than algorithms for correct predictions and penalized them less for incorrect predictions. Neurally, many components of the mentalizing network-medial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate gyrus, temporoparietal junction, and precuneus-represented or updated expertise beliefs about both people and algorithms. Moreover, activity in lateral orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal cortex reflected behavioral differences in learning about people and algorithms. These findings provide basic insights into the neural basis of social learning. PMID:24360551

  5. Domain-Specific Expertise of Chemistry Teachers on Context-Based Education About Macro-Micro Thinking in Structure-Property Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolfing, Ria; Bulte, Astrid M. W.; Pilot, Albert; Vermunt, Jan D.

    2012-06-01

    This study aims to determine and describe the new domain-specific expertise of experienced chemistry teachers in teaching an innovative context-based unit about macro-micro thinking in structure-property relations. The construct of `teachers' domain-specific expertise' was used to analyse the new repertoire chemistry teachers need to acquire to teach a context-based unit and achieve the intended effects of the curriculum innovation. A phenomenological approach of exploration and verification of teachers' new repertoire resulted in the description of seven themes. These themes were related to the new aspects of the unit: the context-setting, the teacher's role and the new content. In addition, the results show that the theoretical framework of teachers' domain-specific expertise is feasible for the analysis and description of their new repertoire in the domain of teaching a context-based unit. Further research is necessary to explore the use of the framework from the perspective of teachers' professional development, where affective components in teachers' learning processes play an important role.

  6. Context-specific effects of musical expertise on audiovisual integration.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Laura; Goebl, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Ensemble musicians exchange auditory and visual signals that can facilitate interpersonal synchronization. Musical expertise improves how precisely auditory and visual signals are perceptually integrated and increases sensitivity to asynchrony between them. Whether expertise improves sensitivity to audiovisual asynchrony in all instrumental contexts or only in those using sound-producing gestures that are within an observer's own motor repertoire is unclear. This study tested the hypothesis that musicians are more sensitive to audiovisual asynchrony in performances featuring their own instrument than in performances featuring other instruments. Short clips were extracted from audio-video recordings of clarinet, piano, and violin performances and presented to highly-skilled clarinetists, pianists, and violinists. Clips either maintained the audiovisual synchrony present in the original recording or were modified so that the video led or lagged behind the audio. Participants indicated whether the audio and video channels in each clip were synchronized. The range of asynchronies most often endorsed as synchronized was assessed as a measure of participants' sensitivities to audiovisual asynchrony. A positive relationship was observed between musical training and sensitivity, with data pooled across stimuli. While participants across expertise groups detected asynchronies most readily in piano stimuli and least readily in violin stimuli, pianists showed significantly better performance for piano stimuli than for either clarinet or violin. These findings suggest that, to an extent, the effects of expertise on audiovisual integration can be instrument-specific; however, the nature of the sound-producing gestures that are observed has a substantial effect on how readily asynchrony is detected as well. PMID:25324819

  7. Context-specific effects of musical expertise on audiovisual integration

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Laura; Goebl, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Ensemble musicians exchange auditory and visual signals that can facilitate interpersonal synchronization. Musical expertise improves how precisely auditory and visual signals are perceptually integrated and increases sensitivity to asynchrony between them. Whether expertise improves sensitivity to audiovisual asynchrony in all instrumental contexts or only in those using sound-producing gestures that are within an observer's own motor repertoire is unclear. This study tested the hypothesis that musicians are more sensitive to audiovisual asynchrony in performances featuring their own instrument than in performances featuring other instruments. Short clips were extracted from audio-video recordings of clarinet, piano, and violin performances and presented to highly-skilled clarinetists, pianists, and violinists. Clips either maintained the audiovisual synchrony present in the original recording or were modified so that the video led or lagged behind the audio. Participants indicated whether the audio and video channels in each clip were synchronized. The range of asynchronies most often endorsed as synchronized was assessed as a measure of participants' sensitivities to audiovisual asynchrony. A positive relationship was observed between musical training and sensitivity, with data pooled across stimuli. While participants across expertise groups detected asynchronies most readily in piano stimuli and least readily in violin stimuli, pianists showed significantly better performance for piano stimuli than for either clarinet or violin. These findings suggest that, to an extent, the effects of expertise on audiovisual integration can be instrument-specific; however, the nature of the sound-producing gestures that are observed has a substantial effect on how readily asynchrony is detected as well. PMID:25324819

  8. The neural circuitry of expertise: perceptual learning and social cognition.

    PubMed

    Harré, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Amongst the most significant questions we are confronted with today include the integration of the brain's micro-circuitry, our ability to build the complex social networks that underpin society and how our society impacts on our ecological environment. In trying to unravel these issues one place to begin is at the level of the individual: to consider how we accumulate information about our environment, how this information leads to decisions and how our individual decisions in turn create our social environment. While this is an enormous task, we may already have at hand many of the tools we need. This article is intended to review some of the recent results in neuro-cognitive research and show how they can be extended to two very specific and interrelated types of expertise: perceptual expertise and social cognition. These two cognitive skills span a vast range of our genetic heritage. Perceptual expertise developed very early in our evolutionary history and is a highly developed part of all mammals' cognitive ability. On the other hand social cognition is most highly developed in humans in that we are able to maintain larger and more stable long term social connections with more behaviorally diverse individuals than any other species. To illustrate these ideas I will discuss board games as a toy model of social interactions as they include many of the relevant concepts: perceptual learning, decision-making, long term planning and understanding the mental states of other people. Using techniques that have been developed in mathematical psychology, I show that we can represent some of the key features of expertise using stochastic differential equations (SDEs). Such models demonstrate how an expert's long exposure to a particular context influences the information they accumulate in order to make a decision.These processes are not confined to board games, we are all experts in our daily lives through long exposure to the many regularities of daily tasks and social

  9. Musical expertise and the ability to imagine loudness.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Laura; Bailes, Freya; Dean, Roger T

    2013-01-01

    Most perceived parameters of sound (e.g. pitch, duration, timbre) can also be imagined in the absence of sound. These parameters are imagined more veridically by expert musicians than non-experts. Evidence for whether loudness is imagined, however, is conflicting. In music, the question of whether loudness is imagined is particularly relevant due to its role as a principal parameter of performance expression. This study addressed the hypothesis that the veridicality of imagined loudness improves with increasing musical expertise. Experts, novices and non-musicians imagined short passages of well-known classical music under two counterbalanced conditions: 1) while adjusting a slider to indicate imagined loudness of the music and 2) while tapping out the rhythm to indicate imagined timing. Subtests assessed music listening abilities and working memory span to determine whether these factors, also hypothesised to improve with increasing musical expertise, could account for imagery task performance. Similarity between each participant's imagined and listening loudness profiles and reference recording intensity profiles was assessed using time series analysis and dynamic time warping. The results suggest a widespread ability to imagine the loudness of familiar music. The veridicality of imagined loudness tended to be greatest for the expert musicians, supporting the predicted relationship between musical expertise and musical imagery ability. PMID:23460791

  10. The changing role of veterinary expertise in the food chain.

    PubMed

    Enticott, Gareth; Donaldson, Andrew; Lowe, Philip; Power, Megan; Proctor, Amy; Wilkinson, Katy

    2011-07-12

    This paper analyses how the changing governance of animal health has impacted upon veterinary expertise and its role in providing public health benefits. It argues that the social sciences can play an important role in understanding the nature of these changes, but also that their ideas and methods are, in part, responsible for them. The paper begins by examining how veterinary expertise came to be crucial to the regulation of the food chain in the twentieth century. The relationship between the veterinary profession and the state proved mutually beneficial, allowing the state to address the problems of animal health, and the veterinary profession to become identified as central to public health and food supply. However, this relationship has been gradually eroded by the application of neoliberal management techniques to the governance of animal health. This paper traces the impact of these techniques that have caused widespread unease within and beyond the veterinary profession about the consequences for its role in maintaining the public good of animal health. In conclusion, this paper suggests that the development of the social sciences in relation to animal health could contribute more helpfully to further changes in veterinary expertise. PMID:21624916

  11. Anticipatory Governance: Bioethical Expertise for Human/Animal Chimeras.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Alison; Salter, Brian

    2012-09-01

    The governance demands generated by the use of human/animal chimeras in scientific research offer both a challenge and an opportunity for the development of new forms of anticipatory governance through the novel application of bioethical expertise. Anticipatory governance can be seen to have three stages of development whereby bioethical experts move from a reactive to a proactive stance at the edge of what is scientifically possible. In the process, the ethicists move upstream in their engagement with the science of human-to-animal chimeras. To what extent is the anticipatory coestablishment of the principles and operational rules of governance at this early stage in the development of the human-to-animal research field likely to result in a framework for bioethical decision making that is in support of science? The process of anticipatory governance is characterised by the entwining of the scientific and the philosophical so that judgements against science are also found to be philosophically unfounded, and conversely, those activities that are permissible are deemed so on both scientific and ethical grounds. Through what is presented as an organic process, the emerging bioethical framework for human-to-animal chimera research becomes a legitimating framework within which 'good' science can safely progress. Science gives bioethical expertise access to new governance territory; bioethical expertise gives science access to political acceptability. PMID:23576848

  12. The changing role of veterinary expertise in the food chain

    PubMed Central

    Enticott, Gareth; Donaldson, Andrew; Lowe, Philip; Power, Megan; Proctor, Amy; Wilkinson, Katy

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses how the changing governance of animal health has impacted upon veterinary expertise and its role in providing public health benefits. It argues that the social sciences can play an important role in understanding the nature of these changes, but also that their ideas and methods are, in part, responsible for them. The paper begins by examining how veterinary expertise came to be crucial to the regulation of the food chain in the twentieth century. The relationship between the veterinary profession and the state proved mutually beneficial, allowing the state to address the problems of animal health, and the veterinary profession to become identified as central to public health and food supply. However, this relationship has been gradually eroded by the application of neoliberal management techniques to the governance of animal health. This paper traces the impact of these techniques that have caused widespread unease within and beyond the veterinary profession about the consequences for its role in maintaining the public good of animal health. In conclusion, this paper suggests that the development of the social sciences in relation to animal health could contribute more helpfully to further changes in veterinary expertise. PMID:21624916

  13. Musical Expertise and the Ability to Imagine Loudness

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Laura; Bailes, Freya; Dean, Roger T.

    2013-01-01

    Most perceived parameters of sound (e.g. pitch, duration, timbre) can also be imagined in the absence of sound. These parameters are imagined more veridically by expert musicians than non-experts. Evidence for whether loudness is imagined, however, is conflicting. In music, the question of whether loudness is imagined is particularly relevant due to its role as a principal parameter of performance expression. This study addressed the hypothesis that the veridicality of imagined loudness improves with increasing musical expertise. Experts, novices and non-musicians imagined short passages of well-known classical music under two counterbalanced conditions: 1) while adjusting a slider to indicate imagined loudness of the music and 2) while tapping out the rhythm to indicate imagined timing. Subtests assessed music listening abilities and working memory span to determine whether these factors, also hypothesised to improve with increasing musical expertise, could account for imagery task performance. Similarity between each participant’s imagined and listening loudness profiles and reference recording intensity profiles was assessed using time series analysis and dynamic time warping. The results suggest a widespread ability to imagine the loudness of familiar music. The veridicality of imagined loudness tended to be greatest for the expert musicians, supporting the predicted relationship between musical expertise and musical imagery ability. PMID:23460791

  14. Anticipatory Governance: Bioethical Expertise for Human/Animal Chimeras

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Alison; Salter, Brian

    2012-01-01

    The governance demands generated by the use of human/animal chimeras in scientific research offer both a challenge and an opportunity for the development of new forms of anticipatory governance through the novel application of bioethical expertise. Anticipatory governance can be seen to have three stages of development whereby bioethical experts move from a reactive to a proactive stance at the edge of what is scientifically possible. In the process, the ethicists move upstream in their engagement with the science of human-to-animal chimeras. To what extent is the anticipatory coestablishment of the principles and operational rules of governance at this early stage in the development of the human-to-animal research field likely to result in a framework for bioethical decision making that is in support of science? The process of anticipatory governance is characterised by the entwining of the scientific and the philosophical so that judgements against science are also found to be philosophically unfounded, and conversely, those activities that are permissible are deemed so on both scientific and ethical grounds. Through what is presented as an organic process, the emerging bioethical framework for human-to-animal chimera research becomes a legitimating framework within which ‘good’ science can safely progress. Science gives bioethical expertise access to new governance territory; bioethical expertise gives science access to political acceptability. PMID:23576848

  15. Disciplinary Literacy: "Adapt" Not Adopt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that every teacher is not a teacher of literacy, but instead posits that teachers in content areas must adapt literacy strategies to the content being taught and to the context in which that teaching occurs. Examples of adaptations of a literacy strategy for use in English/language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies…

  16. Teaching Languages, Teaching Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddicoat, Anthony J., Ed.; Crozet, Chantal, Ed.

    This collection of papers examines what it means to teach culture as an integrated part of language from both the language learner's and the language teacher's perspectives. The 11 papers include the following: "Teaching Cultures as an Integrated Part of Language: Implications for the Aims, Approaches and Pedagogies of Language Teaching" (Chantal…

  17. Instructional Design for Accelerated Macrocognitive Expertise in the Baseball Workplace.

    PubMed

    Fadde, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    The goal of accelerating expertise can leave researchers and trainers in human factors, naturalistic decision making, sport science, and expertise studies concerned about seemingly insufficient application of expert performance theories, findings and methods for training macrocognitive aspects of human performance. Video-occlusion methods perfected by sports expertise researchers have great instructional utility, in some cases offering an effective and inexpensive alternative to high-fidelity simulation. A key problem for instructional designers seems to be that expertise research done in laboratory and field settings doesn't get adequately translated into workplace training. Therefore, this article presents a framework for better linkage of expertise research/training across laboratory, field, and workplace settings. It also uses a case study to trace the development and implementation of a macrocognitive training program in the very challenging workplace of the baseball batters' box. This training, which was embedded for a full season in a college baseball team, targeted the perceptual-cognitive skill of pitch recognition that allows expert batters to circumvent limitations of human reaction time in order to hit a 90 mile-per-hour slider. While baseball batting has few analogous skills outside of sports, the instructional design principles of the training program developed to improve batting have wider applicability and implications. Its core operational principle, supported by information processing models but challenged by ecological models, decouples the perception-action link for targeted part-task training of the perception component, in much the same way that motor components routinely are isolated to leverage instructional efficiencies. After targeted perceptual training, perception and action were recoupled via transfer-appropriate tasks inspired by in situ research tasks. Using NCAA published statistics as performance measures, the cooperating team

  18. Instructional Design for Accelerated Macrocognitive Expertise in the Baseball Workplace

    PubMed Central

    Fadde, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of accelerating expertise can leave researchers and trainers in human factors, naturalistic decision making, sport science, and expertise studies concerned about seemingly insufficient application of expert performance theories, findings and methods for training macrocognitive aspects of human performance. Video-occlusion methods perfected by sports expertise researchers have great instructional utility, in some cases offering an effective and inexpensive alternative to high-fidelity simulation. A key problem for instructional designers seems to be that expertise research done in laboratory and field settings doesn't get adequately translated into workplace training. Therefore, this article presents a framework for better linkage of expertise research/training across laboratory, field, and workplace settings. It also uses a case study to trace the development and implementation of a macrocognitive training program in the very challenging workplace of the baseball batters' box. This training, which was embedded for a full season in a college baseball team, targeted the perceptual-cognitive skill of pitch recognition that allows expert batters to circumvent limitations of human reaction time in order to hit a 90 mile-per-hour slider. While baseball batting has few analogous skills outside of sports, the instructional design principles of the training program developed to improve batting have wider applicability and implications. Its core operational principle, supported by information processing models but challenged by ecological models, decouples the perception-action link for targeted part-task training of the perception component, in much the same way that motor components routinely are isolated to leverage instructional efficiencies. After targeted perceptual training, perception and action were recoupled via transfer-appropriate tasks inspired by in situ research tasks. Using NCAA published statistics as performance measures, the cooperating team

  19. Measuring renewed expertise for integrated care among health- and social-care professionals: Development and preliminary validation of the ICE-Q questionnaire.

    PubMed

    van der Aa, Maartje J; van den Broeke, Jennifer R; Stronks, Karien; Busschers, Wim B; Plochg, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Accumulations of health and social problems challenge current health systems. It is hypothesized that professionals should renew their expertise by adapting generalist, coaching, and population health orientation capacities to address these challenges. This study aimed to develop and validate an instrument for evaluating this renewal of professional expertise. The (Dutch) Integrated Care Expertise Questionnaire (ICE-Q) was developed and piloted. Psychometric analysis evaluated item, criterion, construct, and content validity. Theory and an iterative process of expert consultation constructed the ICE-Q, which was sent to 616 professionals, of whom 294 participated in the pilot (47.7%). Factor analysis (FA) identified six areas of expertise: holistic attitude towards patients (Cronbach's alpha [CA] = 0.61) and considering their social context (CA = 0.77), both related to generalism; coaching to support patient empowerment (CA = 0.66); preventive action (CA = 0.48); valuing local health knowledge (CA = 0.81); and valuing local facility knowledge (CA = 0.67) point at population health orientation. Inter-scale correlations ranged between 0.01 and 0.34. Item-response theory (IRT) indicated some items were less informative. The resulting 26-item questionnaire is a first tool for measuring integrated care expertise. The study process led to a developed understanding of the concept. Further research is warranted to improve the questionnaire. PMID:26789936

  20. SPATIAL Short Courses Build Expertise and Community in Isotope Geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riggs, E. M.; Bowen, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    The SPATIAL short course at the University of Utah is designed for graduate students and professionals in the earth and environmental sciences from around the globe. An integral part of the broader, NSF-funded Inter-university Training for Continental-scale Ecology (ITCE) project, the course is an intensive two-week field, classroom and laboratory experience with internationally-known researchers as instructors. The course focuses on stable isotope geochemistry coupled with spatial analysis techniques. Participants do not typically know each other or this research community well upon entering. One of the stated goals of the overall project is to build a community of practice around these techniques. This design is common in many professional fields, but is not often applied at the graduate level nor formally assessed in the earth sciences. Paired pre- and post-tests were administered before the start and after the close of the short courses over 3 years. The survey is a set of instruments adapted from social-cognitive psychology measuring changes in identity and community with other items to measure content knowledge outcomes. We see a subtle, consistent convergence of identities between large-scale isotope geochemistry and participants' research areas. Results also show that the course generates an increase in understanding about stable isotopes' use and application. The data show the SPATIAL course is very effective at bringing students together socially with each other and with faculty to create an environment that fosters community and scientific cooperation. Semi-structured pre-and post- interviews were conducted to understand the program elements that generated gains in learning and community. Participants were selected based on initial responses on the pre-survey to capture the range of initial conditions for the group. Qualitative analysis shows that the major factors for participants were 1) ready access to researchers in an informal setting during the

  1. Learning to teach effectively: Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics graduate teaching assistants' teaching self-efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dechenne, Sue Ellen

    Graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) from science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) are important in the teaching of undergraduate students (Golde & Dore, 2001). However, they are often poorly prepared for teaching (Luft, Kurdziel, Roehrig, & Turner, 2004). This dissertation addresses teaching effectiveness in three related manuscripts: (1) A position paper that summarizes the current research on and develops a model of GTA teaching effectiveness. (2) An adaptation and validation of two instruments; GTA perception of teaching training and STEM GTA teaching self-efficacy. (3) A model test of factors that predict STEM GTA teaching self-efficacy. Together these three papers address key questions in the understanding of teaching effectiveness in STEM GTAs including: (a) What is our current knowledge of factors that affect the teaching effectiveness of GTAs? (b) Given that teaching self-efficacy is strongly linked to teaching performance, how can we measure STEM GTAs teaching self-efficacy? (c) Is there a better way to measure GTA teaching training than currently exists? (d) What factors predict STEM GTA teaching self-efficacy? An original model for GTA teaching effectiveness was developed from a thorough search of the GTA teaching literature. The two instruments---perception of training and teaching self-efficacy---were tested through self-report surveys using STEM GTAs from six different universities including Oregon State University (OSU). The data was analyzed using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Using GTAs from the OSU colleges of science and engineering, the model of sources of STEM GTA teaching self-efficacy was tested by administering self-report surveys and analyzed by using OLS regression analysis. Language and cultural proficiency, departmental teaching climate, teaching self-efficacy, GTA training, and teaching experience affect GTA teaching effectiveness. GTA teaching self-efficacy is a second-order factor combined from self

  2. Hemodynamic Response Alteration As a Function of Task Complexity and Expertise-An fNIRS Study in Jugglers.

    PubMed

    Carius, Daniel; Andrä, Christian; Clauß, Martina; Ragert, Patrick; Bunk, Michael; Mehnert, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Detailed knowledge about online brain processing during the execution of complex motor tasks with a high motion range still remains elusive. The aim of the present study was to investigate the hemodynamic responses within sensorimotor networks as well as in visual motion area during the execution of a complex visuomotor task such as juggling. More specifically, we were interested in how far the hemodynamic response as measured with functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) adapts as a function of task complexity and the level of the juggling expertise. We asked expert jugglers to perform different juggling tasks with different levels of complexity such as a 2-ball juggling, 3- and 5-ball juggling cascades. We here demonstrate that expert jugglers show an altered neurovascular response with increasing task complexity, since a 5-ball juggling cascade showed enhanced hemodynamic responses for oxygenated hemoglobin as compared to less complex tasks such as a 3- or 2-ball juggling pattern. Moreover, correlations between the hemodynamic response and the level of the juggling expertise during the 5-ball juggling cascade, acquired by cinematographic video analysis, revealed only a non-significant trend in primary motor cortex, indicating that a higher level of expertise might be associated with lower hemodynamic responses. PMID:27064925

  3. A Preliminary Exploration on the Measurement of Expertise: An Initial Development of a Psychometric Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germain, Marie-Line; Tejeda, Manuel J.

    2012-01-01

    The development of employee expertise is described as a strategic imperative for ever-changing organizations in a hyper-competitive economic environment. However, the lack of an adequate assessment tool for expertise has hindered empirical research. This paper conceptually and empirically develops the generalized expertise measure (GEM) and…

  4. Curricular Design and Implementation as a Site of Teacher Expertise and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peercy, Megan Madigan; Martin-Beltrán, Melinda; Silverman, Rebecca D.; Daniel, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    Previously, research about teacher expertise has adhered to relatively fixed notions of teacher expertise. However, in this study, we share data from teacher study group (TSG) meetings, which demonstrate a dynamic understanding of teacher expertise. In these meetings, teachers discursively positioned themselves, their colleagues, and the research…

  5. Toward an Integrated Model of Expertise Redevelopment and Its Implications for HRD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenier, Robin S.; Kehrhahn, Marijke

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, expertise theories have focused on skills acquisition with little regard for the domain or contextual factors affecting expertise development and retention. Because the development, retention, and recruiting of individuals with expertise is critical to organizational success, it is essential that HRD professionals understand the…

  6. The Psychological Costs of Knowledge Specialization in Groups: Unique Expertise Leaves You out of the Loop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Eric E.; Kelly, Janice R.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge specialization, such as that present in cross-functional teams, produces both positive and negative outcomes. Our research investigated how unique expertise can lead to feelings of ostracism in the form of being out of the loop. Compared to group members with shared expertise, members with unique expertise felt out of the loop and…

  7. Assessing the Quality of Expertise Differences in the Comprehension of Medical Visualizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gegenfurtner, Andreas; Siewiorek, Anna; Lehtinen, Erno; Saljo, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how best to assess expertise, the situational variations of expertise, and distinctive qualities of expertise that arises from particular workplace experiences, presents an important challenge. Certainly, at this time, there is much interest in identifying standard occupational measures and competences, which are not well aligned…

  8. Education for Sustainable Development: Enhancing Climate Change Adaptation Expertise in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahey, Shireen; Verstraten, Luke; Berry, Ashton J.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results of an innovative education capacity assessment and delivery project to promote sustainable development in large ocean states in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) region. Science education can help prepare the present and coming generations for stability in an uncertain future. Limited financial, geographical and…

  9. The Role of Expertise in Tool Use: Skill Differences in Functional Action Adaptations to Task Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bril, Blandine; Rein, Robert; Nonaka, Tetsushi; Wenban-Smith, Francis; Dietrich, Gilles

    2010-01-01

    Tool use can be considered a particularly useful model to understand the nature of functional actions. In 3 experiments, tool-use actions typified by stone knapping were investigated. Participants had to detach stone flakes from a flint core through a conchoidal fracture. Successful flake detachment requires controlling various functional…

  10. Inquiry Teaching in Clinical Periodontics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heins, Paul J.; Mackenzie, Richard S.

    1987-01-01

    An adaptation of the inquiry method of teaching, which develops skills of information retrieval and reasoning through systematic questioning by the teacher, is proposed for instruction in clinical periodontics. (MSE)

  11. Is It the Teaching or the Discipline? Influences of Disciplinary Epistemology and Pedagogy on Students Adapting Study Behaviour and Epistemological Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kember, David; Hong, Celina; Yau, Vickie; Ho, Amaly

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the pace and degree of adaptation of study behaviour and personal epistemological beliefs between school and university through interviews with 110 final-year university students. The study took place in Hong Kong, where the highly competitive school system encourages remembering modelling answers for the public examinations;…

  12. Teaching Students with Special Needs in Secondary and Vocational Programs: Classroom, Building, Equipment and Instructional Modifications and Adaptations. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Janice; Parks, A. Lee

    This manuscript, provided in a format that lends itself to workshop presentation, contains materials for vocational and secondary educators on curriculum and classroom modifications for handicapped learners. Content is divided into seven areas. The first section discusses overall curricular modification and adaptation for handicapped students. In…

  13. Sharing Tacit Knowledge among Expert Teaching Professors and Mentees: Considerations for Career and Technical Education Teacher Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shim, Han Sik; Roth, Gene L.

    2007-01-01

    This case study provides viewpoints of knowledge sharing by expert teaching professors and their mentees. Professors who were recognized as expert teachers with an annual award at a mid-western USA university were the units of analysis of this study. Expert teaching professors had difficulty articulating much of their teaching expertise. The…

  14. How Well Do Computer-Generated Faces Tap Face Expertise?

    PubMed Central

    Crookes, Kate; Ewing, Louise; Gildenhuys, Ju-dith; Kloth, Nadine; Hayward, William G.; Oxner, Matt; Pond, Stephen; Rhodes, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    The use of computer-generated (CG) stimuli in face processing research is proliferating due to the ease with which faces can be generated, standardised and manipulated. However there has been surprisingly little research into whether CG faces are processed in the same way as photographs of real faces. The present study assessed how well CG faces tap face identity expertise by investigating whether two indicators of face expertise are reduced for CG faces when compared to face photographs. These indicators were accuracy for identification of own-race faces and the other-race effect (ORE)–the well-established finding that own-race faces are recognised more accurately than other-race faces. In Experiment 1 Caucasian and Asian participants completed a recognition memory task for own- and other-race real and CG faces. Overall accuracy for own-race faces was dramatically reduced for CG compared to real faces and the ORE was significantly and substantially attenuated for CG faces. Experiment 2 investigated perceptual discrimination for own- and other-race real and CG faces with Caucasian and Asian participants. Here again, accuracy for own-race faces was significantly reduced for CG compared to real faces. However the ORE was not affected by format. Together these results signal that CG faces of the type tested here do not fully tap face expertise. Technological advancement may, in the future, produce CG faces that are equivalent to real photographs. Until then caution is advised when interpreting results obtained using CG faces. PMID:26535910

  15. Effects of age and expertise on tactile learning in humans.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Eva-Maria; Voelcker-Rehage, Claudia; Vieluf, Solveig; Godde, Ben

    2014-08-01

    Repetitive tactile stimulation is a well-established tool for inducing somatosensory cortical plasticity and changes in tactile perception. Previous studies have suggested that baseline performance determines the amount of stimulation-induced learning differently in specific populations. Older adults with lower baseline performance than young adults, but also experts, with higher baseline performance than non-experts of the same age, have been found to profit most from such interventions. This begs the question of how age-related and expertise-related differences in tactile learning are reflected in neurophysiological correlates. In two experiments, we investigated how tactile learning depends on age (experiment 1) and expertise (experiment 2). We assessed tactile spatial and temporal discrimination accuracy and event-related potentials (ERPs) in 57 persons of different age and expertise groups before and after a 30-min tactile stimulation intervention. The intervention increased accuracy in temporal (found in experiment 1) and spatial (found in experiment 2) discrimination. Experts improved more than non-experts in spatial discrimination. Lower baseline performance was associated with higher learning gain in experts and non-experts. After the intervention, P300 latencies were reduced in young adults and amplitudes were increased in late middle-aged adults in the temporal discrimination task. Experts showed a steeper P300 parietal-to-frontal gradient after the stimulation. We demonstrated that tactile stimulation partially reverses the age-related decline in late middle-aged adults and increases processing speed in young adults. We further showed that learning gain depends on baseline performance in both non-experts and experts. In experts, however, the upper limit for learning seems to be shifted to a higher level. PMID:24863287

  16. A phenomenological investigation of science center exhibition developers' expertise development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Denise L.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the exhibition developer role in the context of United States (U.S.) science centers, and more specifically, to investigate the way science center exhibition developers build their professional expertise. This research investigated how successfully practicing exhibition developers described their current practices, how they learned to be exhibition developers, and what factors were the most important to the developers in building their professional expertise. Qualitative data was gathered from 10 currently practicing exhibition developers from three science centers: the Exploratorium, San Francisco, California; the Field Museum, Chicago, Illinois; and the Science Museum of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota. In-depth, semistructured interviews were used to collect the data. The study embraced aspects of the phenomenological tradition and sought to derive a holistic understanding of the position and how expertise was built for it. The data were methodically coded and organized into themes prior to analysis. The data analysis found that the position consisted of numerous and varied activities, but the developers' primary roles were advocating for the visitor, storytelling, and mediating information and ideas. They conducted these activities in the context of a team and relied on an established exhibition planning process to guide their work. Developers described a process of learning exhibition development that was experiential in nature. Learning through daily practice was key, though they also consulted with mentors and relied on visitor studies to gauge the effectiveness of their work. They were adept at integrating prior knowledge gained from many aspects of their lives into their practice. The developers described several internal factors that contributed to their expertise development including the desire to help others, a natural curiosity about the world, a commitment to learning, and the ability to accept critique. They

  17. The art of assessment in psychology: ethics, expertise, and validity.

    PubMed

    Cates, J A

    1999-05-01

    Psychological assessment is a hybrid, both art and science. The empirical foundations of testing are indispensable in providing reliable and valid data. At the level of the integrated assessment, however, science gives way to art. Standards of reliability and validity account for the individual instrument; they do not account for the integration of data into a comprehensive assessment. This article examines the current climate of psychological assessment, selectively reviewing the literature of the past decade. Ethics, expertise, and validity are the components under discussion. Psychologists can and do take precautions to ensure that the "art" of their work holds as much merit as the science. PMID:10392793

  18. Models of clinical expertise in American nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Gordon, D R

    1986-01-01

    This paper analyzes nursing job descriptions that compose a career ladder. These job descriptions, an ethnomodel of expertise, are compared to the Dreyfus model that describes five stages of skill acquisition. While the Dreyfus model posits the replacement of analytic reasoning with intuitive response as the characteristic of expert practice, the ideal posited in the nursing model places theoretical knowledge at the apex. Nursing job descriptions can best be understood in the context of this profession's search for greater power and legitimacy. PMID:3738566

  19. A multilevel approach to the path to expertise in three different competitive settings.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Carlos Eduardo; Carvalho, Humberto Moreira; Diogo, Frederico Lemos

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to analyze the deliberate practice variables in three different youth competitive sport settings; to analyze the effects of a season-long exposure on deliberate practice variables. The study explores three contexts in two different sports, soccer and volleyball, and at two competitive levels. The athletes fulfilled the questionnaire at the beginning and at the end of the season. A multilevel analysis was performed. Forty eight boys aged 15-17 years (14 from a volleyball club; 14 from an elite volleyball centre; 20 from a professional soccer club) participated in the study. The measure was an adapted version for soccer and volleyball of the Deliberate Practice Motivation Questionnaire, which assesses two dimensions: the will to compete and the will to excel. Fewer people in the volleyball group showed a will to excel, the soccer group showed an increase in the scores. In will to compete, the three teams showed a decrease in their means. The decrease is more pronounced in the will to excel but the context effect is not significant. The biggest decrease is shown by the elite volleyball team, followed by the club teams. The findings raise questions for managers and coaches who look for physical and technical gifted young athletes and aim to develop their qualities through a careful planned training programme. The insertion in programmes that are believed to foster expertise seems to have unexpected consequences. Sport participation cannot rely exclusively on an orientation toward expertise, forgetting the autonomy of young people to set their goals. Key PointsThe need for the adolescents to focus on game performance can be a deterrent for their own perspectives of a career or just to have fun.The crucial factor to influence the players' answers seems to be the perspective of a rewarding professional career in sport.It is possible that young athletes, after a hard season, re-evaluate their priorities and think that their dedication to

  20. Moral Expertise in the Clinic: Lessons Learned from Medicine and Science.

    PubMed

    McClimans, Leah; Slowther, Anne

    2016-08-01

    Philosophers and others have questioned whether or not expertise in morality is possible. This debate is not only theoretical, but also affects the perceived legitimacy of clinical ethicists. One argument against moral expertise is that in a pluralistic society with competing moral theories no one can claim expertise regarding what another ought morally to do. There are simply too many reasonable moral values and intuitions that affect theory choice and its application; expertise is epistemically uniform. In this article, we discuss how similar concerns have recently threatened to undermine expertise in medicine and science. In contrast, we argue that the application of values is needed to exercise medical, scientific, and moral expertise. As long as these values are made explicit, worries about a pretense to authority in the context of a liberal democracy are ill-conceived. In conclusion, we argue for an expertise that is epistemically diverse. PMID:27302969

  1. EPRI research publications, products, and expertise in maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-01

    The intent of this revision to the original NP-7014D cross-referencing index is to identify EPRI expertise and the associated EPRI products with respect to the Maintenance Issues. Whether prepared by the Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center (NMAC), or other organizations within EPRI, they are being included for information. This document was compiled from the EPRI resource catalogs database. The EPRI/NMAC Project Manager Expertise List provides contact phone numbers for selected maintenance subjects. The EPRI Research, Technical Reports, and Products information provides a listing and brief description of EPRI projects and products by selected maintenance subjects. Additionally, listings of EPRI maintenance-related documents are sorted by document number and title. Certain research reports which contain software have been intentionally omitted due to the lack of (at most utility maintenance departments) computer hardware. The Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center (NMAC) has not reviewed or endorsed the EPRI products listed in this document, except for those produced by NMAC. The planned updating of this cross-reference index is semiannually. Should any further assistance be required for plant-related maintenance problems, contact NMAC at (800) 356-7448.

  2. Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) Lack Expertise in Face Processing

    PubMed Central

    Parr, Lisa A.; Heintz, Matthew; Pradhan, Gauri

    2010-01-01

    Faces are salient stimuli for primates that rely predominantly on visual cues for recognizing conspecifics and maintaining social relationships. While previous studies have shown similar face discrimination processes in chimpanzees and humans, data from monkeys are unclear. Therefore, three studies examined face processing in rhesus monkeys using the face inversion effect, a fractured face task, and an individual recognition task. Unlike chimpanzees and humans, the monkeys showed a general face inversion effect reflected by significantly better performance on upright compared to inverted faces (conspecifics, human and chimpanzees faces) regardless of the subjects’ expertise with those categories. Fracturing faces alters first- and second-order configural manipulations whereas previous studies in chimpanzees showed selective deficits for second-order configural manipulations. Finally, when required to individuate conspecific’s faces, i.e., matching two different photographs of the same conspecific, monkeys showed poor discrimination and repeated training. These results support evolutionary differences between rhesus monkeys and Hominoids in the importance of configural cues and their ability to individuate conspecifics’ faces, suggesting a lack of face expertise in rhesus monkeys. PMID:19014263

  3. Forensic entomology: implementing quality assurance for expertise work.

    PubMed

    Gaudry, Emmanuel; Dourel, Laurent

    2013-09-01

    The Department of Forensic Entomology (Institut de Recherche Criminelle de la Gendarmerie Nationale, France) was accredited by the French Committee of Accreditation (Cofrac's Healthcare section) in October 2007 on the basis of NF EN ISO/CEI 17025 standard. It was the first accreditation in this specific field of forensic sciences in France and in Europe. The present paper introduces the accreditation process in forensic entomology (FE) through the experience of the Department of Forensic Entomology. Based upon the identification of necrophagous insects and the study of their biology, FE must, as any other expertise work in forensic sciences, demonstrate integrity and good working practice to satisfy both the courts and the scientific community. FE does not, strictly speaking, follow an analytical method. This could explain why, to make up for a lack of appropriate quality reference, a specific documentation was drafted and written by the staff of the Department of Forensic Entomology in order to define working methods complying with quality standards (testing methods). A quality assurance system is laborious to set up and maintain and can be perceived as complex, time-consuming and never-ending. However, a survey performed in 2011 revealed that the accreditation process in the frame of expertise work has led to new well-defined working habits, based on an effort at transparency. It also requires constant questioning and a proactive approach, both profitable for customers (magistrates, investigators) and analysts (forensic entomologists). PMID:23842668

  4. Motor expertise modulates the unconscious processing of human body postures.

    PubMed

    Güldenpenning, Iris; Koester, Dirk; Kunde, Wilfried; Weigelt, Matthias; Schack, Thomas

    2011-09-01

    Little is known about the cognitive background of unconscious visuomotor control of complex sports movements. Therefore, we investigated the extent to which novices and skilled high-jump athletes are able to identify visually presented body postures of the high jump unconsciously. We also asked whether or not the manner of processing differs (qualitatively or quantitatively) between these groups as a function of their motor expertise. A priming experiment with not consciously perceivable stimuli was designed to determine whether subliminal priming of movement phases (same vs. different movement phases) or temporal order (i.e. natural vs. reversed movement order) affects target processing. Participants had to decide which phase of the high jump (approach vs. flight phase) a target photograph was taken from. We found a main effect of temporal order for skilled athletes, that is, faster reaction times for prime-target pairs that reflected the natural movement order as opposed to the reversed movement order. This result indicates that temporal-order information pertaining to the domain of expertise plays a critical role in athletes' perceptual capacities. For novices, data analyses revealed an interaction between temporal order and movement phases. That is, only the reversed movement order of flight-approach pictures increased processing time. Taken together, the results suggest that the structure of cognitive movement representation modulates unconscious processing of movement pictures and points to a functional role of motor representations in visual perception. PMID:21769547

  5. Qualitative Understanding of Magnetism at Three Levels of Expertise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefani, Francesco; Marshall, Jill

    2010-03-01

    This work set out to investigate the state of qualitative understanding of magnetism at various stages of expertise, and what approaches to problem-solving are used across the spectrum of expertise. We studied three groups: 10 novices, 10 experts-in-training, and 11 experts. Data collection involved structured interviews during which participants solved a series of non-standard problems designed to test for conceptual understanding of magnetism. The interviews were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. None of the novices and only a few of the experts in training showed a strong understanding of inductance, magnetic energy, and magnetic pressure; and for the most part they tended not to approach problems visually. Novices frequently described gist memories of demonstrations, text book problems, and rules (heuristics). However, these fragmentary mental models were not complete enough to allow them to reason productively. Experts-in-training were able to solve problems that the novices were not able to solve, many times simply because they had greater recall of the material, and therefore more confidence in their facts. Much of their thinking was concrete, based on mentally manipulating objects. The experts solved most of the problems in ways that were both effective and efficient. Part of the efficiency derived from their ability to visualize and thus reason in terms of field lines.

  6. Qualitative Understanding of Magnetism at Three Levels of Expertise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefani, Francesco; Marshall, Jill

    2009-04-01

    This work set out to investigate the state of qualitative understanding of magnetism at various stages of expertise, and what approaches to problem-solving are used across the spectrum of expertise. We studied three groups: 10 novices, 10 experts-in-training, and 11 experts. Data collection involved structured interviews during which participants solved a series of non-standard problems designed to test for conceptual understanding of magnetism. The interviews were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. None of the novices and only a few of the experts in training showed a strong understanding of inductance, magnetic energy, and magnetic pressure; and for the most part they tended not to approach problems visually. Novices frequently described gist memories of demonstrations, text book problems, and rules (heuristics). However, these fragmentary mental models were not complete enough to allow them to reason productively. Experts-in-training were able to solve problems that the novices were not able to solve, many times simply because they had greater recall of the material, and therefore more confidence in their facts. Much of their thinking was concrete, based on mentally manipulating objects. The experts solved most of the problems in ways that were both effective and efficient. Part of the efficiency derived from their ability to visualize and thus reason in terms of field lines.

  7. Paths to expertise in portuguese national team athletes.

    PubMed

    Leite, Nuno; Baker, Joseph; Sampaio, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the quantity and type of sporting activities undertaken by expert team sport athletes in the earlier stages of the long- term athlete development. Experts in roller-hockey (n = 19), volleyball (n = 14), soccer (n = 42) and basketball (n = 37) provided detailed information about the sporting activities they undertook throughout their careers. Results showed considerable variation between and within sports; however, generally, athletes began participating in sports between 6 and 10 years of age. The pattern of participation in specific and non-specific (team, individual and combat) sports for each stage of involvement demonstrated an increase in the number of activities participated in until early adolescence. Our results suggest that involvement in multiple sports during early stages of development is an alternative to early specialization and add further evidence of the complexity of skill acquisition in sport. Key pointsAlthough most athletes began sport participation between 6 and 10 years of age, there was significant variation across groups suggesting considerable flexibility in the pathways to expertise.The path to expertise in volleyball was clearly distinct from the paths of basketball, soccer and roller-hockey.There is a considerable involvement in sports other than the athlete's primary sport, suggesting early specialization is not required for these sports.The pattern of participation in specific and non-specific sports for each stage of involvement demonstrated an increase in the number of activities participated in until early adolescence. PMID:24149598

  8. Dynamic Patterns of Expertise: The Case of Orthopedic Medical Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Marwan, Norbert; Neuman, Yair; Salai, Moshe; Rath, Ehud

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze dynamic patterns for scanning femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) radiographs in orthopedics, in order to better understand the nature of expertise in radiography. Seven orthopedics residents with at least two years of expertise and seven board-certified orthopedists participated in the study. The participants were asked to diagnose 15 anteroposterior (AP) pelvis radiographs of 15 surgical patients, diagnosed with FAI syndrome. Eye tracking data were recorded using the SMI desk-mounted tracker and were analyzed using advanced measures and methodologies, mainly recurrence quantification analysis. The expert orthopedists presented a less predictable pattern of scanning the radiographs although there was no difference between experts and non-experts in the deterministic nature of their scan path. In addition, the experts presented a higher percentage of correct areas of focus and more quickly made their first comparison between symmetric regions of the pelvis. We contribute to the understanding of experts’ process of diagnosis by showing that experts are qualitatively different from residents in their scanning patterns. The dynamic pattern of scanning that characterizes the experts was found to have a more complex and less predictable signature, meaning that experts’ scanning is simultaneously both structured (i.e. deterministic) and unpredictable. PMID:27414794

  9. Dynamic Patterns of Expertise: The Case of Orthopedic Medical Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Assaf, Dan; Amar, Eyal; Marwan, Norbert; Neuman, Yair; Salai, Moshe; Rath, Ehud

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze dynamic patterns for scanning femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) radiographs in orthopedics, in order to better understand the nature of expertise in radiography. Seven orthopedics residents with at least two years of expertise and seven board-certified orthopedists participated in the study. The participants were asked to diagnose 15 anteroposterior (AP) pelvis radiographs of 15 surgical patients, diagnosed with FAI syndrome. Eye tracking data were recorded using the SMI desk-mounted tracker and were analyzed using advanced measures and methodologies, mainly recurrence quantification analysis. The expert orthopedists presented a less predictable pattern of scanning the radiographs although there was no difference between experts and non-experts in the deterministic nature of their scan path. In addition, the experts presented a higher percentage of correct areas of focus and more quickly made their first comparison between symmetric regions of the pelvis. We contribute to the understanding of experts' process of diagnosis by showing that experts are qualitatively different from residents in their scanning patterns. The dynamic pattern of scanning that characterizes the experts was found to have a more complex and less predictable signature, meaning that experts' scanning is simultaneously both structured (i.e. deterministic) and unpredictable. PMID:27414794

  10. Paths to Expertise in Portuguese National Team Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Nuno; Baker, Joseph; Sampaio, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the quantity and type of sporting activities undertaken by expert team sport athletes in the earlier stages of the long- term athlete development. Experts in roller-hockey (n = 19), volleyball (n = 14), soccer (n = 42) and basketball (n = 37) provided detailed information about the sporting activities they undertook throughout their careers. Results showed considerable variation between and within sports; however, generally, athletes began participating in sports between 6 and 10 years of age. The pattern of participation in specific and non-specific (team, individual and combat) sports for each stage of involvement demonstrated an increase in the number of activities participated in until early adolescence. Our results suggest that involvement in multiple sports during early stages of development is an alternative to early specialization and add further evidence of the complexity of skill acquisition in sport. Key points Although most athletes began sport participation between 6 and 10 years of age, there was significant variation across groups suggesting considerable flexibility in the pathways to expertise. The path to expertise in volleyball was clearly distinct from the paths of basketball, soccer and roller-hockey. There is a considerable involvement in sports other than the athlete’s primary sport, suggesting early specialization is not required for these sports. The pattern of participation in specific and non-specific sports for each stage of involvement demonstrated an increase in the number of activities participated in until early adolescence. PMID:24149598

  11. Multi-team dynamics and distributed expertise in imission operations.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Barrett S

    2005-06-01

    The evolution of space exploration has brought an increased awareness of the social and socio-technical issues associated with team performance and task coordination, both for the onboard astronauts and in mission control. Spaceflight operations create a unique environment in which to address classic group dynamics topics including communication, group process, knowledge development and sharing, and time-critical task performance. Mission operations in the early years of the 21st century have developed into a set of complex, multi-team task settings incorporating multiple mission control teams and flight crews interacting in novel ways. These more complex operational settings help highlight the emergence of a new paradigm of distributed supervisory coordination, and the need to consider multiple dimensions of expertise being supported and exchanged among team members. The creation of new mission profiles with very long-duration time scales (months, rather than days) for the International Space Station, as well as planned exploration missions to the Moon and Mars, emphasize fundamental distinctions from the 40 yr from Mercury to the Space Shuttle. Issues in distributed expertise and information flow in mission control settings from two related perspectives are described. A general conceptual view of knowledge sharing and task synchronization is presented within the context of the mission control environment. This conceptual presentation is supplemented by analysis of quasi-experimental data collected from actual flight controllers at NASA-Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX. PMID:15943207

  12. Enhancing Undergraduate Teaching and Research with a Drosophila Virginizing System

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory exercises using Drosophila crosses are an effective pedagogical method to complement traditional lecture and textbook presentations of genetics. Undergraduate thesis research is another common setting for using Drosophila. A significant barrier to using Drosophila for undergraduate teaching or research is the time and skill required to accurately collect virgins for use in controlled crosses. Erroneously collecting males or nonvirgin females contaminates crosses with unintended genotypes and confounds the results. Collecting adequate numbers of virgins requires large amounts of time, even for those skilled in virgin collection. I have adapted an effective method for virgin collection that eliminates these concerns and is straightforward to use in undergraduate settings. Using a heat-shock–induced, conditional lethal transgene specifically in males, male larvae can be eliminated from a culture before adults eclose. Females thus eclose in the absence of males and remain virgin, eliminating the need to laboriously score and segregate freshly eclosed females. This method is reliable, easily adaptable to any desired phenotypic marker, and readily scaleable to provide sufficient virgins for large laboratory classes or undergraduate research projects. In addition, it allows instructors lacking Drosophila expertise to use this organism as a pedagogical tool. PMID:17146043

  13. Learning to teach science in urban schools by becoming a researcher of one's own beginning practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furman, Melina; Calabrese Barton, Angela; Muir, Ben

    2012-03-01

    An urgent goal for science teacher educators is to prepare teachers to teach science in meaningful ways to youth from nondominant backgrounds. This preparation is challenging, for it asks teachers to critically examine how their pedagogical practices might adaptively respond to students and to science. It asks, essentially, for new teachers to become researchers of their own beginning practice. This study explores the story of Ben as he coauthored a transformative action research project in an urban middle school as part of a teacher education program and, later, over his first year of teaching at that same school. We describe how Ben and his partner teacher created innovative spaces for science learning. This offered Ben an opportunity to make some of his deeply engrained pedagogical beliefs come alive within a context of distributed expertise, which provided for him a space of moderate risk where he could afford the chances of failure without undermining how he felt about his own capacity as a teacher. Our study highlights the importance of creating reform opportunities within the context of teacher education programs that may help beginner teachers construct positive images of teaching that they can hold on to in their future practice.

  14. Developing Teaching Expertise Where It Matters: Radio-Assisted Practice as an Application of Skills Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Peter D.

    This paper introduces the concept of radio-assisted practice (RAP) and outlines the nature and initial findings of a British research project which is investigating the potential of RAP in preservice teacher education. The paper falls into three main parts. The first situates matters in terms of information-processing skill (IPS) psychology and…

  15. Teaching towards Historical Expertise. Developing a Pedagogy for Fostering Causal Reasoning in History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoel, G. L.; van Drie, J. P.; van Boxtel, C. A. M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study seeks to develop a pedagogy aimed at fostering a student's ability to reason causally about history. The Model of Domain Learning was used as a framework to align domain-specific content with pedagogical principles. Developing causal historical reasoning was conceptualized as a multidimensional process, in which knowledge of…

  16. Development of Teaching Expertise Viewed through the Dreyfus Model of Skill Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Lucinda J.

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to explore development of skill acquisition in dental education, utilizing the Dreyfus and Dreyfus continuum. By identifying what skill progression may be recognized in the expert dental educator and what experiences appear to influence this growth, the knowledge gained may inform more efficient, effective faculty support,…

  17. Association and dissociation between detection and discrimination of objects of expertise: Evidence from visual search.

    PubMed

    Golan, Tal; Bentin, Shlomo; DeGutis, Joseph M; Robertson, Lynn C; Harel, Assaf

    2014-02-01

    Expertise in face recognition is characterized by high proficiency in distinguishing between individual faces. However, faces also enjoy an advantage at the early stage of basic-level detection, as demonstrated by efficient visual search for faces among nonface objects. In the present study, we asked (1) whether the face advantage in detection is a unique signature of face expertise, or whether it generalizes to other objects of expertise, and (2) whether expertise in face detection is intrinsically linked to expertise in face individuation. We compared how groups with varying degrees of object and face expertise (typical adults, developmental prosopagnosics [DP], and car experts) search for objects within and outside their domains of expertise (faces, cars, airplanes, and butterflies) among a variable set of object distractors. Across all three groups, search efficiency (indexed by reaction time slopes) was higher for faces and airplanes than for cars and butterflies. Notably, the search slope for car targets was considerably shallower in the car experts than in nonexperts. Although the mean face slope was slightly steeper among the DPs than in the other two groups, most of the DPs' search slopes were well within the normative range. This pattern of results suggests that expertise in object detection is indeed associated with expertise at the subordinate level, that it is not specific to faces, and that the two types of expertise are distinct facilities. We discuss the potential role of experience in bridging between low-level discriminative features and high-level naturalistic categories. PMID:24338355

  18. The development of expertise on an intelligent tutoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Debra Steele

    1989-01-01

    An initial examination was conducted of an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) developed for use in industry. The ITS, developed by NASA, simulated a satellite deployment task. More specifically, the PD (Payload Assist Module Deployment)/ICAT (Intelligent Computer Aided Training) System simulated a nominal Payload Assist Module (PAM) deployment. The development of expertise on this task was examined using three Flight Dynamics Officer (FDO) candidates who had no previous experience with this task. The results indicated that performance improved rapidly until Trial 5, followed by more gradual improvements through Trial 12. The performance dimensions measured included performance speed, actions completed, errors, help required, and display fields checked. Suggestions for further refining the software and for deciding when to expose trainees to more difficult task scenarios are discussed. Further, the results provide an initial demonstration of the effectiveness of the PD/ICAT system in training the nominal PAM deployment task and indicate the potential benefits of using ITS's for training other FDO tasks.

  19. Unitizing worker expertise and maximizing the brain reward centers

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, Anthony Bert

    2010-01-01

    People are experts when it comes to the work they do; unfortunately their expertise is not utilized as frequently as it could be. More opportunities need to be provided that allow people to participate in the design of their work including: accident investigations, job planning, and process improvements. Many employers use some form of job hazard analysis process to identify and document hazards and controls, but the front line worker is rarely involved. This presentation will show the core principles supporting employee involvement, provide examples where workers had brilliant ideas but no one listened, and provide examples where workers were given the opportunity to use their expertise to improve occupational safety. According to Abraham Maslow's Hierarch of Needs model, one essential human need is to be innovative and solve problems. Advances in brain science have proven, through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, the brain reward pathway is activated when people are recognized for their intellectual contributions. As people contribute their expertise to improve occupational safety more frequently they will feel a sense of gratification. In addition, safety professionals will have more time to spend on strategic planning of emerging occupational safety issues. One effect of the current global recession is that SH&E professionals are asked to do more with less. Therefore, to be successful it is essential that SH&E professionals incorporate worker expertise in job planning. This will be illustrated in the presentation through an example where a worker had the answer to a difficult decision on appropriate personal protective equipment for a job but no one asked the worker for his idea during the job planning phase. Fortunately the worker was eventually consulted and his recommendation for the appropriate personal protective equipment for the job was implemented before work began. The goal of this presentation is to expand the awareness and

  20. An early electrophysiological response associated with expertise in letter perception.

    PubMed

    Wong, Alan C N; Gauthier, Isabel; Woroch, Brion; DeBuse, Casey; Curran, Tim

    2005-09-01

    Expertise with print is likely to optimize visual processes for recognizing characters of a familiar writing system. Although brain activations have been identified for words and letter strings in contrast with other stimuli, relatively little work has focused on the neural basis of single-letter perception. English readers and Chinese-English bilinguals participated in an ERP study and performed a 1-back identity judgment on Roman letters, Chinese characters, pseudofonts, and their string versions. The Chinese-English bilinguals showed an enhanced N170 for both Roman letters and Chinese characters relative to pseudofonts. For the non-Chinese readers, the N170 amplitude was larger for Roman letters relative to Chinese characters and pseudofonts. Our results suggest that changes in relatively early visual processes underlie expert letter perception. PMID:16396092

  1. Improving training for sensory augmentation using the science of expertise.

    PubMed

    Bertram, Craig; Stafford, Tom

    2016-09-01

    Sensory substitution and augmentation devices (SSADs) allow users to perceive information about their environment that is usually beyond their sensory capabilities. Despite an extensive history, SSADs are arguably not used to their fullest, both as assistive technology for people with sensory impairment or as research tools in the psychology and neuroscience of sensory perception. Studies of the non-use of other assistive technologies suggest one factor is the balance of benefits gained against the costs incurred. We argue that improving the learning experience would improve this balance, suggest three ways in which it can be improved by leveraging existing cognitive science findings on expertise and skill development, and acknowledge limitations and relevant concerns. We encourage the systematic evaluation of learning programs, and suggest that a more effective learning process for SSADs could reduce the barrier to uptake and allow users to reach higher levels of overall capacity. PMID:27264831

  2. A conceptual review of interprofessional expertise in child safeguarding.

    PubMed

    Hood, Rick; Gillespie, Judy; Davies, Jonathon

    2016-07-01

    It is increasingly accepted that practitioners across a range of professional fields must work together in order to promote children's welfare and protect them from harm. However, it has also become apparent that interprofessional working is a challenging area of practice that cannot simply be prescribed through protocols and procedures, nor acquired as a set of technical competences. This article develops the concept of interprofessional expertise in order to explain how practitioners become more proficient at working with others to manage complex child welfare issues. Key principles are outlined with reference to relevant theoretical frameworks, including models of skill acquisition. The article concludes by discussing some potential implications for future research and contemporary developments in child safeguarding practice. PMID:27294315

  3. Chemical Expertise: Chemistry in the Royal Prussian Porcelain Manufactory.

    PubMed

    Klein, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    Eighteenth-century chemists defined chemistry as both a "science and an art." By "chemical art" they meant not merely experimentation but also parts of certain arts and crafts. This raises the question of how to identify the "chemical parts" of the arts and crafts in eighteenth-century Europe. In this essay I tackle this question with respect to porcelain manufacture. My essay begins with a brief discussion of historiographical problems related to this question. It then analyzes practices involved in porcelain manufacture that can be reasonably identified as chemical practices or a chemical art. My analysis yields evidence for the argument that chemical experts and expertise fulfilled distinct technical functions in porcelain manufacture and, by extension, in eighteenth-century "big industry," along with its system of division of labor. PMID:26103759

  4. Neural basis of nonanalytical reasoning expertise during clinical evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Durning, Steven J; Costanzo, Michelle E; Artino, Anthony R; Graner, John; van der Vleuten, Cees; Beckman, Thomas J; Wittich, Christopher M; Roy, Michael J; Holmboe, Eric S; Schuwirth, Lambert

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Understanding clinical reasoning is essential for patient care and medical education. Dual-processing theory suggests that nonanalytic reasoning is an essential aspect of expertise; however, assessing nonanalytic reasoning is challenging because it is believed to occur on the subconscious level. This assumption makes concurrent verbal protocols less reliable assessment tools. Methods Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to explore the neural basis of nonanalytic reasoning in internal medicine interns (novices) and board-certified staff internists (experts) while completing United States Medical Licensing Examination and American Board of Internal Medicine multiple-choice questions. Results The results demonstrated that novices and experts share a common neural network in addition to nonoverlapping neural resources. However, experts manifested greater neural processing efficiency in regions such as the prefrontal cortex during nonanalytical reasoning. Conclusions These findings reveal a multinetwork system that supports the dual-process mode of expert clinical reasoning during medical evaluation. PMID:25798328

  5. Musical Expertise and Statistical Learning of Musical and Linguistic Structures

    PubMed Central

    Schön, Daniele; François, Clément

    2011-01-01

    Adults and infants can use the statistical properties of syllable sequences to extract words from continuous speech. Here we present a review of a series of electrophysiological studies investigating (1) Speech segmentation resulting from exposure to spoken and sung sequences (2) The extraction of linguistic versus musical information from a sung sequence (3) Differences between musicians and non-musicians in both linguistic and musical dimensions. The results show that segmentation is better after exposure to sung compared to spoken material and moreover, that linguistic structure is better learned than the musical structure when using sung material. In addition, musical expertise facilitates the learning of both linguistic and musical structures. Finally, an electrophysiological approach, which directly measures brain activity, appears to be more sensitive than a behavioral one. PMID:21811482

  6. Musical expertise affects neural bases of letter recognition.

    PubMed

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Manfredi, Mirella; Zani, Alberto; Adorni, Roberta

    2013-02-01

    It is known that early music learning (playing of an instrument) modifies functional brain structure (both white and gray matter) and connectivity, especially callosal transfer, motor control/coordination and auditory processing. We compared visual processing of notes and words in 15 professional musicians and 15 controls by recording their synchronized bioelectrical activity (ERPs) in response to words and notes. We found that musical training in childhood (from age ~8 years) modifies neural mechanisms of word reading, whatever the genetic predisposition, which was unknown. While letter processing was strongly left-lateralized in controls, the fusiform (BA37) and inferior occipital gyri (BA18) were activated in both hemispheres in musicians for both word and music processing. The evidence that the neural mechanism of letter processing differed in musicians and controls (being absolutely bilateral in musicians) suggests that musical expertise modifies the neural mechanisms of letter reading. PMID:23238370

  7. Expertise and sexual offending: a preliminary empirical model.

    PubMed

    Bourke, Patrice; Ward, Tony; Rose, Chelsea

    2012-08-01

    Rehabilitation and treatment perspectives and interventions have concentrated efforts on areas where perpetrators of sexual abuse are deficient, neglecting those where offenders actively seek and strategically plan sexual offence situations and scenarios. Whereas sexual offenders may display deficiencies in some aspects of their lives, there are domain-relevant competencies such as the selection and manipulation of victims, decision making and problem solving, and eluding detection, in which some individuals appear to excel. Semistructured interviews are conducted with 47 male child sexual offenders in New Zealand, and data are analyzed using grounded theory to generate a model of offence-specific decision making. The outcome of the research is a descriptive model of expertise-related competency (ERC) of child sexual offending. The model identifies and emphasizes the variability of knowledge and skill acquisition among offenders. PMID:22328661

  8. Expertise bewerben und finden im Social Semantic Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polleres, Axel; Mochol, Malgorzata

    Im vorliegenden Beitrag diskutieren wir Rahmenbedingungen zur Kombination, Wiederverwendung und Erweiterung bestehender RDFVokabulare im Social Semantic Web. Hierbei konzentrieren wir uns auf das Anwendungsszenario des Auffindens und Bewerbens von Experten im Web oder Intranet. Wir präsentieren, wie RDF-Vokabulare einerseits und de facto Standardformate andererseits, die von täglich verwendeten Applikationen benutzt werden (z. B. vCard, iCal oder Dublin Core), kombiniert werden können, um konkrete Anwendungsfälle der Expertensuche und zum Management von Expertise zu lösen. Unser Fokus liegt darauf aufzuzeigen, dass für praktische Anwendungsszenarien nicht notwendigerweise neue Ontologien entwickelt werden müssen, sondern der Schlüssel vielmehr in der Integration von bestehenden, weit verbreiteten und sich ergänzenden Formaten zu einem kohärenten Netzwerk von Ontologien liegt. Dieser Ansatz garantiert sowohl direkte Anwendbarkeit von als auch niedrige Einstiegsbarrieren in Semantic Web-Technologien sowie einfache Integrierbarkeit in bestehende Applikationen. Die im Web verfügbaren und verwendeten RDFFormate decken zwar einen großen Bereich der Aspekte zur Beschreibung von Personen und Expertisen ab, zeigen aber auch signifikante Überlappungen. Bisher gibt es wenig systematische Ansätze, um diese Vokabulare zu verbinden, sei es in Form von allgemeingültigen Praktiken, die definieren, wann welches Format zu benutzen ist, oder in Form von Regeln, die Überlappungen zwischen einzelnen Formaten formalisieren. Der vorliegende Artikel analysiert, wie bestehende Formate zur Beschreibung von Personen, Organisationen und deren Expertise kombiniert und, wo nötig, erweitert werden können. Darüber hinaus diskutieren wir Regelsprachen zur Beschreibung von Formatüberlappungen sowie deren praktische Verwendbarkeit zur Erstellung eines Ontologie-Netzwerks zur Beschreibung von Experten.

  9. Assessing Student Evaluations of Resources: Approximation of Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Ernie

    2010-01-01

    Teaching the evaluation of information resources can be daunting for both students and educators. In an information environment in which resource types are ever-changing, how does the school librarian assess the evaluative skills of students? The assessments ought to reflect the malleable nature of online resources. To engage students in a…

  10. Measuring the Teaching Self-Efficacy of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math Graduate Teaching Assistants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeChenne, Sue Ellen; Enochs, Larry

    2010-01-01

    An instrument to measure the teaching self-efficacy of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) GTAs is adapted from a general college teaching instrument (Prieto Navarro, 2005) for the specific teaching environment of the STEM GTAs. The construct and content validity and reliability of the final instrument are indicated. The final…

  11. Outcomes: Coaching, Teaching Standards, and Feedback Mark the Teacher's Road to Mastery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saphier, Jon

    2011-01-01

    What would happen if people found agreement around the world on what constitutes high-expertise teaching? For one thing, there would be a set of standards universally embraced that clearly defines core agreements about good teaching and learning. It would be obvious that proficiency in the knowledge, skills, and practices that comprise good…

  12. Problems in Teaching the Topic of Redox Reactions: Actions and Conceptions of Chemistry Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Jong, Onno; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents a case study of problems that can occur when teaching the topic of redox reactions to grade-11 students. Concludes that the teachers' scientific expertise is an important source of difficulties when teaching redox reactions. Discusses implications for improvement of current chemistry classroom practice and content-related teacher…

  13. Predictors of Involvement in Online Teaching among Faculty in Technical Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunay, Nihal

    2013-01-01

    The student demand for online learning is forcing college administrators to identify faculty who have expertise in their discipline, technological skills sufficient to navigate the demands of online teaching, and willingness to be involved in online teaching. Before this work had been started, the review of literature indicated that research had…

  14. Modelling Human Teaching Tactics and Strategies for Tutoring Systems: 14 Years On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    du Boulay, Benedict; Luckin, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    Our original paper tried to characterize the richness of the teaching repertoire of expert human teachers and to give a sense of how far there still was to go in the development of pedagogic expertise in AIED systems. It considered three ways in which more expert teaching strategies and tactics might be developed. These were via (i) the…

  15. Adapting Art Instruction for Students with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platt, Jennifer M.; Janeczko, Donna

    1991-01-01

    This article presents adaptations for teaching art to students with disabilities. Various techniques, methods, and materials are described by category of disability, including students with mental disabilities, visual impairments, hearing impairments, learning disabilities, emotional disabilities, and physical disabilities. (JDD)

  16. In Their Own Words: Teachers' Reflections on Adaptability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Margaret; Parsons, Seth A.; Burrowbridge, Sarah Cohen; Weesner, Janice; Taylor, Laurel

    2016-01-01

    Current research explores adaptability by gathering teachers' reflections on their adaptations. However, the field knows little of what the term "adaptability" means to teachers who currently teach in today's educational context. In this article, adaptability is discussed from the perspectives of 3 practicing classroom educators,…

  17. Adapting the forms of yesterday to the functions of today and the needs of tomorrow: a genealogical case study of clinical teaching units in Canada.

    PubMed

    Schrewe, Brett; Pratt, Daniel D; McKellin, William H

    2016-05-01

    Emergent discourses of social responsibility and accountability have in part fuelled the expansion of distributed medical education (DME). In addition to its potential for redressing physician maldistribution, DME has conferred multiple unexpected educational benefits. In several countries, its recent rise has occurred around the boundaries of traditional medical education practices. Canada has been no exception, with DME proliferating against a backdrop of its longstanding central node, the clinical teaching unit (CTU). The CTU first appeared just over 50 years ago with its position in Canadian health care largely taken-for-granted. Given the increasing prominence of DME, however, it is timely to reconsider what the place of tertiary centre-based practices such as the CTU might be in shifting medical education systems. From a genealogical perspective, it becomes clear that the CTU did not just "happen". Rather, its creation was made possible by multiple interrelated cultural, social, and political changes in Canadian society that, while subtle, are powerfully influential. Making them visible offers a better opportunity to harmonize the benefits of longstanding entities such as the CTU with novel practices such as DME. In so doing, the medical education field may sidestep the pitfalls of investing significant resources that may only produce superficial changes while unwittingly obstructing deeper transformations and improvements. Although this work is refracted through a Canadian prism, reconceptualizing the overall design of medical education systems to take advantage of both tradition and innovation is a persistent challenge across the international spectrum, resistant to tests of time and constraints of context. PMID:25925722

  18. Brain functional plasticity associated with the emergence of expertise in extreme language control.

    PubMed

    Hervais-Adelman, Alexis; Moser-Mercer, Barbara; Golestani, Narly

    2015-07-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to longitudinally examine brain plasticity arising from long-term, intensive simultaneous interpretation training. Simultaneous interpretation is a bilingual task with heavy executive control demands. We compared brain responses observed during simultaneous interpretation with those observed during simultaneous speech repetition (shadowing) in a group of trainee simultaneous interpreters, at the beginning and at the end of their professional training program. Age, sex and language-proficiency matched controls were scanned at similar intervals. Using multivariate pattern classification, we found distributed patterns of changes in functional responses from the first to second scan that distinguished the interpreters from the controls. We also found reduced recruitment of the right caudate nucleus during simultaneous interpretation as a result of training. Such practice-related change is consistent with decreased demands on multilingual language control as the task becomes more automatized with practice. These results demonstrate the impact of simultaneous interpretation training on the brain functional response in a cerebral structure that is not specifically linguistic, but that is known to be involved in learning, in motor control, and in a variety of domain-general executive functions. Along with results of recent studies showing functional and structural adaptations in the caudate nuclei of experts in a broad range of domains, our results underline the importance of this structure as a central node in expertise-related networks. PMID:25869858

  19. "Unwalling" the Classroom: Teacher Reaction and Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deed, Craig; Lesko, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Modern open school architecture abstractly expresses ideas about choice, flexibility and autonomy. While open spaces express and authorise different teaching practice, these versions of school and classrooms present challenges to teaching routines and practice. This paper examines how teachers adapt as they move into new school buildings designed…

  20. Adaptive Educational Software by Applying Reinforcement Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennane, Abdellah

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of the intelligence in teaching software is the object of this paper. In software elaboration process, one uses some learning techniques in order to adapt the teaching software to characteristics of student. Generally, one uses the artificial intelligence techniques like reinforcement learning, Bayesian network in order to adapt…

  1. Children and chess expertise: the role of calibration.

    PubMed

    Horgan, D D

    1992-01-01

    Three studies of calibration are reported. Calibration refers to the accuracy with which one can predict one's own performance. In the first study child chess players, non-chess playing parents, and statistics students were asked to predict chances of winning chess games against hypothetical opponents. These subjective probabilities were compared to the actual probabilities, based on the Elo rating system. Better players' predictions were better calibrated. Confidence and ratings are negatively correlated, indicating that with lower ratings, players re overconfident. Skilled child players' predictions were better calibrated than any of the adults'. In the second study subjects were asked to estimate chances of winning in conjunctive situations, e.g., winning all the rounds in a tournament. Again, better child players were more accurate in their predictions and more accurate than adults. In the third study, child players were asked to predict their chances of winning in a non-chess domain after hearing a hypothetical win/loss history. Higher-rated players' predictions were again better calibrated, even though the domain was outside their expertise. The motivational and cognitive implications of calibration are discussed. PMID:1603888

  2. [Stages of development of flight medical expertise in Russia].

    PubMed

    Chaplyuk, A L; Vovkodav, V S; Churilov, Yu K; Klepikov, A N

    2015-07-01

    Flight medical expertise (FME) in military aviation is one of the most important areas of medical support of flight crews manning, maintaining of aircrew health and flight safety. The authors analyse the main stages of development of this area of medical practice. The priority in creation of FME system belongs to our country. Domestic scientists, prominent organizers of military medicine and a large group of aviation physicians developed organizational and methodological basis for studying different impacts of flight factors on the health of flight personnel, development of criteria for admission to flight operations, principles of organization of the examination, implementation of effective methods of disease diagnosis. At the present stage FME development is determined by the needs of medical, technical and psycho-physiological support of supersonic aircraft, the need to adjust to the requirements of aircrew health, advanced diagnostics of the functional state and the search for means to improve the stability of his body to flight factors. The main principles of the FME remains the complexity of the study of the human body in terms of its professional and individual approach to a medical examination, a thorough clinical, clinical and physiological and psychological examinations, regular medical supervision of the health of flight crews. PMID:26821462

  3. Developing English Communication Expertise for Engineers in the Global Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Yoshimasa A.; Morimura, Kumiko

    This paper discusses contents and results of a new graduate course “English for Engineers and Scientists” given at School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo. This course is a new attempt to develop English communication expertise for engineering graduate students: how to write technical papers and how to make technical presentations in English. For these purposes, differences in the writing styles and in the sentence structures of English and Japanese are stressed: conclusions come first in English versus conclusions come last in Japanese; the three-step style of introduction, body, and conclusion in English versus the four-step style of ki-sho-ten-ketsu in Japanese. In addition, proper styles of technical papers (rhetoric) and related grammatical points are discussed. Technical presentation course consists of four-week lecture and seven-week practice session. In the lecture, essential points of technical presentations in English are discussed in detail, and in the practice session students‧ presentation skills are improved through guidance and instructions given by native-speaker moderators. The class evaluation results show that most students have obtained necessary skills of technical presentation, indicating that the combined course of lecture and practice session is essential for training students to make better technical presentations in English.

  4. Combining regional expertise to form a bereavement support alliance.

    PubMed

    Friedrichs, Judy B; Kobler, Kathie; Roose, Rosmarie E; Meyer, Charlotte; Schmitz, Nancy; Kavanaugh, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Providing compassionate bereavement care for families experiencing perinatal loss is a standard of care in most healthcare organizations. In this article, we describe the development of The Alliance of Perinatal Bereavement Support Facilitators, begun over 25 years ago in Chicago by staff who identified the need to reach out to colleagues at other area institutions for advice and support in this work. This collaboration created a regional support network that has resulted in a long-lasting, active, sustainable organization of excellence focused on enhancing practice, education, and perinatal bereavement care. Alliance activities center around four main areas: education, networking/support, policy, and recognizing outstanding service to families. By continuing to draw upon the collective talent, wisdom, and expertise of its members, The Alliance still serves grieving families and provides mentoring for future interdisciplinary team members engaged in this work. The path taken to build this organization can be used by professionals in other specialties who are looking to create their own alliance infrastructure based on mutual benefit and interest. PMID:24759313

  5. AGU Outreach: Earth and space science expertise for the public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifuentes, I. L.; Landau, E.; Weiss, P.

    2009-05-01

    AGU is an international Union of scientists, working together on a broad spectrum of scientific topics that span all of the Earth and space sciences. Our research encompasses everything from the exploration of the planets, to studies of the structure and chemical composition of the Earth's deep interior, to understanding the Earth's atmosphere and the causes of climate change. These are not only exciting scientific topics but many of the problems that we are working on are of great interest and relevance to people all over the world. The Outreach programs and activities at AGU inform and educate the public about the Earth and space sciences, foster a strong and diverse Earth and space science workforce, and provide expertise to serve as a basis for the development of public policy. AGU offers a variety of Outreach programs and activities associated with the meetings as well as in other venues. We will present examples of these; discuss what has worked and what presents difficulties; and propose concepts for future directions in education, public information and public affairs.

  6. Hello World! - Experiencing Usability Methods without Usability Expertise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, Elina; Cajander, Åsa; Gulliksen, Jan

    How do you do usability work when no usability expertise is available? What happens in an organization when system developers, with no previous HCI knowledge, after a 3-day course, start applying usability methods, and particularly field studies? In order to answer these questions qualitative data were gathered through participatory observations, a feed back survey, field study documentation and interviews from 47 system developers from a public authority. Our results suggest that field studies enhance the developer’s understanding of the user perspective, and provide a more holistic overview of the use situation, but that some developers were unable to interpret their observations and see solutions to the users’ problems. The field study method was very much appreciated and has now become standard operating procedure within the organization. However, although field studies may be useful, it does not replace the need for usability pro fes sion als, as their knowledge is essential for more complex observations, analysis and for keeping the focus on usability.

  7. [Politics: which contribution can ethical expertise give biopolitical decisions?].

    PubMed

    Weber-Hassemer, Kristiane

    2008-08-01

    Research in the life sciences is developing at a rapid pace, has profound implications in terms of its effects on human nature and touches upon the self-conceptions of both the individual and society. In order to determine how this research and its application in all phases of human life should be assessed on the moral level, and whether it should be subject to regulation, the involvement of all disciplines--in the natural sciences, medicine, philosophy, law and the social sciences--that can contribute knowledge for the purpose of guidance is indispensable. Political decisions should be preceded by a wide-ranging debate within society encompassing all relevant groups and the media. Alongside discourse confined to specialists and their forums, a particular part can be played by the institution of ethics committees with an interdisciplinary, pluralistic membership. Their work can contribute to the stimulation of social debate and to ensuring that it is conducted on a suitably high level. In our knowledge society, Government and Parliament lack the information necessary to guide their decisions, and therefore require external expertise to provide a solid foundation for them. In the field of bioethics, however, the relationship between advisory activity and parliamentary decision-making proves is not without problems, because, in addition to rational criteria and party-political considerations, personal moral judgements are not only unavoidable but also legitimate, though they are not always made transparent. PMID:18787868

  8. The effects of alphabet and expertise on letter perception.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Robert W; Wilson, Colin; Rapp, Brenda

    2016-08-01

    Long-standing questions in human perception concern the nature of the visual features that underlie letter recognition and the extent to which the visual processing of letters is affected by differences in alphabets and levels of viewer expertise. We examined these issues in a novel approach using a same-different judgment task on pairs of letters from the Arabic alphabet with 2 participant groups: 1 with no prior exposure to Arabic and 1 with reading proficiency. Hierarchical clustering and linear mixed-effects modeling of reaction times and accuracy provide evidence that both the specific characteristics of the alphabet and observers' previous experience with it affect how letters are perceived and visually processed. The findings of this research further our understanding of the multiple factors that affect letter perception and support the view of a visual system that dynamically adjusts its weighting of visual features as expert readers come to more efficiently and effectively discriminate the letters of the specific alphabet they are viewing. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26913778

  9. Teaching Shakespeare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, James E., Ed.

    1976-01-01

    This issue of "Focus: Teaching English in Southeastern Ohio" contains articles about teaching Shakespeare, student summaries of a Shakespeare conference held at Ohio University-Zanesville in April 1976, and suggested projects for teaching poetry writing. It also contains lists of materials and articles related to the teaching of Shakespeare, and…

  10. Teachers Teaching Teachers (T3)[TM]. Volume 5, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Frank, Valerie, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Teachers Teaching Teachers" ("T3") focuses on coaches' roles in the professional development of teachers. Each issue also explores the challenges and rewards that teacher leaders encounter. This issue includes: (1) Districts Harness the Expertise of Classroom Teachers (Valerie von Frank); (2) Tool: Measuring Collaborative Norms; (3) Lessons from…

  11. Teaching Posttraining : Influencing Diagnostic Strategy with Instructions at Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulatunga-Moruzi, Chan; Brooks, Lee R.; Norman, Geoffrey R.

    2011-01-01

    It is believed that medical diagnosis involves two complementary processes, analytic and similarity-based. There is considerable debate as to which of these processes defines diagnostic expertise and how best to teach clinical diagnosis and reduce diagnostic errors. The purpose of these studies is to document the use of these strategies in medical…

  12. 7 CFR 3406.14 - Proposal review-teaching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and merit evaluation by peer review panels comprised of scientists, educators, business.... Peer review panels will be selected and structured to provide optimum expertise and objective judgment... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Proposal review-teaching. 3406.14 Section...

  13. 7 CFR 3406.14 - Proposal review-teaching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and merit evaluation by peer review panels comprised of scientists, educators, business.... Peer review panels will be selected and structured to provide optimum expertise and objective judgment... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Proposal review-teaching. 3406.14 Section...

  14. 7 CFR 3406.14 - Proposal review-teaching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and merit evaluation by peer review panels comprised of scientists, educators, business.... Peer review panels will be selected and structured to provide optimum expertise and objective judgment... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Proposal review-teaching. 3406.14 Section...

  15. Breathing and the Oboe: Playing, Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaunt, Helena

    2004-01-01

    Breathing and breath control are central to playing the oboe, yet few detailed educational resources are available to support their teaching and learning. This paper presents a review of existing knowledge and expertise in the field. It highlights common ground and points of controversy, and indicates some key areas for consideration. It points to…

  16. The Teaching American History Program: An Introduction and Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Alex

    2003-01-01

    The Teaching American History (TAH) program began in 2001 as a bold new idea: that history content could be delivered directly to United States history teachers through ongoing partnerships with providers of history expertise. The program awards three-year federal education grants for up to $1 million to develop and carry out these professional…

  17. Teaching Interested Clinicians How to Develop Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtecki, Cindy A.; Wade, Michael J.; Pato, Michele T.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors discuss teaching clinicians about research by generating projects from clinical practice, expertise, and interest. Method: Classes were co-taught by the hospital biostatistician and clinical nurse specialist in consultation with one of the authors. Hospital clinicians were taught how to initiate and design their study as a…

  18. The Strategy Toolbox: A Ladder to Strategic Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehigan, Katherine Riley

    2005-01-01

    The Strategy Toolbox is a concrete model developed to increase the academic achievement of students through increased teacher knowledge and expertise in teaching strategies. It is intended for implementation by individual teachers who share their ideas, classroom applications, and reflections in a group setting as an overall strategy for school…

  19. Developing Trainee School Teachers' Expertise as Health Promoters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speller, Viv; Byrne, Jenny; Dewhirst, Sue; Almond, Palo; Mohebati, Lisa; Norman, Melanie; Polack, Sarah; Memon, Anjum; Grace, Marcus; Margetts, Barrie; Roderick, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report the outcome of an education and public health collaboration investigating the impact of adapted training to enhance teachers' potential role to promote child health and wellbeing. Design/methodology/approach: The study was conducted in three phases: a survey of the health education content in…

  20. POINT-OF-CONTACT/EXPERTISE LIST (WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL's Water Supply and Water Resources Division's (WSWRD's)Expertise/Point-of-Contact page lists research areas in the Division along with the names and telephone numbers for responsible individuals and their expertise.WSWRD conducts research to help prepare the primary and s...

  1. The Role of Initial Attack and Performer Expertise on Instrument Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Jane W.; Schlegel, Amanda L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role initial attack and expertise play in the identification of instrumental tones. A stimulus CD was made of 32 excerpts of instrumental tones. Sixteen possible combinations of the variables of initial attack (present or absent), expertise (beginner versus professional), and timbre (flute, clarinet,…

  2. No Face-Like Processing for Objects-of-Expertise in Three Behavioural Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Rachel; McKone, Elinor

    2007-01-01

    In the debate between expertise and domain-specific explanations of "special" processing for faces, a common belief is that behavioural studies support the expertise hypothesis. The present article refutes this view, via a combination of new data and review. We tested dog experts with confirmed good individuation of exemplars of their…

  3. Are Expert Users Always Better Searchers? Interaction of Expertise and Semantic Grouping in Hypertext Search Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmeron, L.; Canas, J. J.; Fajardo, I.

    2005-01-01

    The facilitative effect of expertise in hypertext information retrieval (IR) tasks has been widely reported in related literature. However, recent theories of human expertise question the robustness of this result, since previous works have not fully considered the interaction between user and system characteristics. In this study, the constraint…

  4. Rethinking a Writing Teacher's Expertise: Following Students under the Kitchen Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Maja

    2010-01-01

    In society, expertise bestows directive power--the authority to tell others what to do and how to do it, or simply to do it for them. In a school system that still operates on an authoritarian model, the author's expertise as a writer and teacher gives her directive prerogative when responding to student writing. Traditionally, teachers have used…

  5. Budgetary Expertise and Experience: A Significant Link to Effective Management and Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogges, Ralph

    The importance of expertise and experience in university budgetary management is discussed. A short survey of higher education institutions indicated that program administrations were not knowledgeable about budgetary processes and procedures and were not interested in developing such expertise. It is suggested that there is a need for…

  6. Intensive Use of ICT in School: Developing Differences in Students' ICT Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilomaki, Liisa; Rantanen, Pirkko

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the development of students' high-level computer skills and competence (student expertise) in information and communication technology (ICT), and to examine the characteristics of such expertise. Eighteen lower secondary school students, selected to represent both genders and all school achievement levels,…

  7. Transfer of Expertise: An Eye Tracking and Think Aloud Study Using Dynamic Medical Visualizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gegenfurtner, Andreas; Seppanen, Marko

    2013-01-01

    Expertise research has produced mixed results regarding the problem of transfer of expertise. Is expert performance context-bound or can the underlying processes be applied to more general situations? The present study tests whether expert performance and its underlying processes transfer to novel tasks within a domain. A mixed method study using…

  8. Top-down engagement modulates the neural expressions of visual expertise.

    PubMed

    Harel, Assaf; Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon; Malach, Rafael; Bentin, Shlomo

    2010-10-01

    Perceptual expertise is traditionally associated with enhanced brain activity in response to objects of expertise in category-selective visual cortex, primarily face-selective regions. We reevaluated this view by investigating whether the brain activity associated with expertise in object recognition is limited to category-selective cortex and specifically whether the extent of expertise-related activity manifests automatically or whether it can be top-down modulated. We conducted 2 functional magnetic resonance imaging studies comparing changes in hemodynamic activity associated with car expertise in a conventional 1-back task (Experiment 1) and when the task relevance of cars was explicitly manipulated (Experiment 2). Whole-brain analysis unveiled extensive expertise-related activity throughout the visual cortex, starting as early as V1 and extending into nonvisual areas. However, when the cars were task irrelevant, the expertise-related activity drastically diminished, indeed, becoming similar to the activity elicited by cars in novices. We suggest that expertise entails voluntary top-down engagement of multiple neural networks in addition to stimulus-driven activation associated with perceptual mechanisms. PMID:20133358

  9. Self-Processes and Learning Environment as Influences in the Development of Expertise in Instructional Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ge, Xun; Hardre, Patricia L.

    2010-01-01

    A major challenge for learning theories is to illuminate how particular kinds of learning experiences and environments promote the development of expertise. Research has been conducted into novice-expert differences in various domains, but few studies have examined the processes involved in learners' expertise development. In an attempt to…

  10. Fostering and Measuring General Scientific Reasoning Expertise at the Second Year Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, F. M.; Jellinek, M.; Bostock, M. G.

    2010-12-01

    Geoscience faculty members often debate about the definition and development of scientific expertise. Some will argue it emerges at the graduate level, others that novice students can develop relevant skills. The debate hinges on definitions of “expertise”, “scientific skills” and how these abilities are assessed. We present data from a second year geoscience course specifically designed to help research scientists foster generic skills associated with critical scientific thinking, presentation, and framing of scientific arguments and questions. To develop the course, key characteristics that professional scientists exhibit were identified from the literature and our experience. These are the abilities to: a) read critically; b) succinctly summarize and communicate; c) pose insightful questions; d) use and discuss models, data and their relationships; and e) work effectively as part of a team. To help with learning and assessment of these skills in students who do not yet have significant discipline-specific background, classroom practices were chosen so that students must think and act more like professional scientists. These include use of some team-based learning strategies, replacing exams with quizzes and projects, mixing team-teaching with solo-teaching, discursive rather than didactic instruction, and use of diverse topics representative of research in our Department. Specific strategies employed which enable “master geoscientists” to actively guide and assess novices as they practice desired skills are: homework involving reading, writing abstracts and posing questions for one or two articles each week, pre-post testing of model based reasoning abilities, interaction with guest scientists, and oral and poster presentations on topics chosen by students. Results of collecting data over two terms of using these general and specific strategies include: 1. Abstract writing skills improved during the first two thirds of the course, then leveled off in

  11. Adapting and Writing Language Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevick, Earl W.

    The dual purpose of this book is to set forth guidelines for appreciating the kinds of instructional materials available for the uncommonly taught languages and to suggest an approach to writing new materials which will be as adaptable as possible. Of principal concern are considerations relating to: (1) the nature of language teaching, (2) the…

  12. Adapting for Students with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darrow, Alice-Ann

    2009-01-01

    Autism is the most common condition in a group of developmental disorders known as the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Although autism is considered a low-incidence disorder, many music educators in schools today teach students with autism each week. Students with ASDs usually require similar educational interventions that are adapted to their…

  13. Educational Adaptations for Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, James J.; Simeonsson, Rune

    1982-01-01

    Representative adaptations currently being used to educate exceptional children are described and their effectiveness is weighed. Diagnostic-prescriptive teaching, behavioral modification techniques, lesson content modifications, and early intervention are considered, as are student placement options, such as special schools and classes and…

  14. Teaching Practice in the Making: Shaping and Reshaping the Field of Adult Language, Literacy and Numeracy Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widin, Jacquie; Yasukawa, Keiko; Chodkiewicz, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The field of adult language, literacy and numeracy in Australia is a site of struggle as policy changes, new learner groups and new economic imperatives challenge teachers' expertise and beliefs about good teaching practice. This article examines the ways in which experienced adult language, literacy and numeracy teachers shape and reshape their…

  15. Adaptive Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, adaptive managem...

  16. Musical Expertise Modulates Early Processing of Syntactic Violations in Language

    PubMed Central

    Fitzroy, Ahren B.; Sanders, Lisa D.

    2013-01-01

    Syntactic violations in speech and music have been shown to elicit an anterior negativity (AN) as early as 100 ms after violation onset and a posterior positivity that peaks at roughly 600 ms (P600/LPC). The language AN is typically reported as left-lateralized (LAN), whereas the music AN is typically reported as right-lateralized (RAN). However, several lines of evidence suggest syntactic processing of language and music rely on overlapping neural systems. The current study tested the hypothesis that syntactic processing of speech and music share neural resources by examining whether musical proficiency modulates ERP indices of linguistic syntactic processing. ERPs were measured in response to syntactic violations in sentences and chord progressions in musicians and non-musicians. Violations in speech were insertion errors in normal and semantically impoverished English sentences. Violations in music were out-of-key chord substitutions from distantly and closely related keys. Phrase-structure violations elicited an AN and P600 in both groups. Harmonic violations elicited an LPC in both groups, blatant harmonic violations also elicited a RAN in musicians only. Cross-domain effects of musical proficiency were similar to previously reported within-domain effects of linguistic proficiency on the distribution of the language AN; syntactic violations in normal English sentences elicited a LAN in musicians and a bilateral AN in non-musicians. The late positivities elicited by violations differed in latency and distribution between domains. These results suggest that initial processing of syntactic violations in language and music relies on shared neural resources in the general population, and that musical expertise results in more specialized cortical organization of syntactic processing in both domains. PMID:23335905

  17. CORDEX.be: COmbining Regional climate Downscaling EXpertise in Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Termonia, Piet; Van Schaeybroeck, Bert; De Ridder, Koen; Fettweis, Xavier; Gobin, Anne; Luyten, Patrick; Marbaix, Philippe; Pottiaux, Eric; Stavrakou, Trissevgeni; Van Lipzig, Nicole; van Ypersele, Jean-Pascal; Willems, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    The main objective of the ongoing project CORDEX.be, "COmbining Regional Downscaling EXpertise in Belgium: CORDEX and Beyond" is to gather existing and ongoing Belgian research activities in the domain of climate modelling to create a coherent scientific basis for future climate services in Belgium. The project regroups eight Belgian Institutes under a single research program of the Belgian Science Policy (BELSPO). The project involves three regional climate models: the ALARO model, the COSMO-CLM model and the MAR model running according to the guidelines of the CORDEX project and at convection permitting resolution on small domains over Belgium. The project creates a framework to address four objectives/challenges. First, this projects aims to contribute to the EURO-CORDEX project. Secondly, RCP simulations are executed at convection-permitting resolutions (3 to 5 km) on small domains. Thirdly, the output of the atmospheric models is used to drive land surface models (the SURFEX model and the Urbclim model) with urban modules, a crop model (REGCROP), a tides and storm model (COHERENS) and the MEGAN-MOHYCAN model that simulates the fluxes emitted by vegetation. Finally, one work package will translate the uncertainty present in the CORDEX database to the high-resolution output of the CORDEX.be project. The organization of the project will be presented and first results will be shown, demonstrating that convection-permitting models can add extra skill to the mesoscale version of the regional climate models, in particular regarding the extreme value statistics and the diurnal cycle.

  18. Both novelty and expertise increase action observation network activity

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Sook-Lei; Sheng, Tong; Margetis, John L.; Aziz-Zadeh, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Our experiences with others affect how we perceive their actions. In particular, activity in bilateral premotor and parietal cortices during action observation, collectively known as the action observation network (AON), is modulated by one's expertise with the observed actions or individuals. However, conflicting reports suggest that AON activity is greatest both for familiar and unfamiliar actions. The current study examines the effects of different types and amounts of experience (e.g., visual, interpersonal, personal) on AON activation. fMRI was used to scan 16 healthy participants without prior experience with individuals with amputations (novices), 11 experienced occupational therapists (OTs) who had varying amounts of experience with individuals with amputations, and one individual born with below-elbow residual limbs (participant CJ), as they viewed video clips of goal-matched actions performed by an individual with residual limbs and by an individual with hands. Participants were given increased visual exposure to actions performed by both effectors midway through the scanning procedure. Novices demonstrated a large AON response to the initial viewing of an individual with residual limbs compared to one with hands, but this signal was attenuated after they received visual exposure to both effectors. In contrast, OTs, who had moderate familiarity with residual limbs, demonstrated a lower AON response upon initial viewing—similar to novices after they received visual exposure. At the other extreme, CJ, who has extreme familiarity with residual limbs both visually and motorically, shows a largely increased left-lateralized AON response, exceeding that of novices and experienced OTs, when viewing the residual limb compared to hand actions. These results suggest that a nuanced model of AON engagement is needed to explain how cases of both extreme experience (CJ) and extreme novelty (novices) can result in the greatest AON activity. PMID:24062656

  19. Vocational thresholds: developing expertise without certainty in general practice medicine.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Karen

    2016-06-01

    INTRODUCTION This paper argues that particular experiences in the workplace are more important than others and can lead to transformational learning. This may enable practitioners to cross 'vocational thresholds' to new ways of being. AIM A notion of 'vocational thresholds' is developed, aiming to help build an understanding of the most powerful learning experiences of general practitioners (GPs). Vocational thresholds takes its cue from the idea of 'threshold concepts' - concepts that transform perspectives and integrate previously disconnected or hidden knowledge, sometimes in ways that are 'troublesome' to previously held beliefs. METHODS The paper is based on a thematic analysis of 57 GPs' brief written accounts of a particularly powerful learning experience during their development. Accounts were provided in a conference session about an ongoing study of workplace-based structured learning arrangements in the fields of general practice medicine, engineering, and building. FINDINGS Most GPs' accounts focused on development of dispositional attributes that moved them to a new understanding of themselves in relation to their work and patients. Just under two-thirds picked out informal and formal collegial relationships within purposeful learning arrangements as pivotal. A third picked out direct experiences with patients as shifting their perspective. CONCLUSION The emergent idea of vocational thresholds is offered as a way to frame the most important learning experiences identified by GPs. It supports a focus in early and ongoing development beyond accumulating clinical expertise and skills (knowing and doing), to dispositional capability (being) - vital for practitioners negotiating inherent and daily uncertainty. KEYWORDS General practitioners; Medical education; Vocational education; Identity; Learning experiences; Threshold concepts. PMID:27477551

  20. Faculty Burnout, Morale, and Vocational Adaptation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Douglas

    Teacher morale may be deteriorating because the intrinsic rewards for teaching are lower now than they used to be. High job morale, or "vocational adaptation," comes from an optimal relationship between job adjustment and personal fulfillment. Today's low teacher morale indicates low vocational adaptation. Teachers in the past had higher…

  1. Adapting Courses to Distance Delivery: Three Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landis, Melodee

    1999-01-01

    Describes three approaches to adapting courses to distance delivery: the most common "dive-in" technique (little preparation other than adapting print on transparencies, practicing with technology controls, and test-running); the "chunking" approach (considering how the major "chunks" of teaching can be transported to new technologies); and the…

  2. The challenge of adaptive structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitbach, E. J.; Wimmel, R.

    Future lightweight design in space structure technology has to pay more attention to vibration suppression, to position control, or, more generally, to structure-inherent adaptability. These properties are often called "intelligent" or "smart", ignoring the fact that only creatures can have mental abilities. Having adaptation mechanisms for every dynamic process, living nature indeed teaches us that it is inexpedient if technical structural systems dispense with adaptability. Vibration and stability phenomena are making performance restrictions in space systems more and more evident. The DLR project ARES (Actively Reacting Flexible Structures) intends to overcome these limitations by developing a new class of technical systems. The ARES concept essentially consists of two new technologies: new kinds of integrated sensors and actuators working as components lying in the structural load path, and adaptive controllers consisting of digital filters which are adaptive in that they react against changing environmental influences as well as changes within the structure itself.

  3. How Expert Secondary Special Education Teachers Conceptualize Teaching Literacy in Their Content Area to Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauterbach, Alexandra A.

    2013-01-01

    This study provides insight into the cognition of expert content area teachers with specialized knowledge in teaching literacy to students with learning disabilities (LD), with the purpose of developing an understanding of expertise in teaching literacy in the content areas to secondary students with LD. This study used hermeneutic phenomenology…

  4. The effect of expertise on memory conformity: a test of informational influence.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Paul; Weber, Nathan; Robertson, Marie-Therese

    2013-01-01

    Conforming to erroneous memory reports of co-witnesses can have serious impacts on subsequent forensic investigation and court reports. One theoretical explanation proposed is that memory conformity arises due to informational influence; the co-witness desires to give accurate information and reports the co-witness's version because they perceive the co-witness as being more credible. We tested the idea that perceptions of credibility drive memory conformity. We manipulated credibility through expertise; specifically, by telling participants that the (confederate) co-witness had previously worked as either a policeman (high expertise) or an electrician (low expertise). After a discussion with the co-witness, we assessed cued-recall memory and perceptions of credibility about the co-witness and the self. We found that higher expertise led to greater memory conformity. Although higher expertise also led to higher credibility assessments of the co-witness, this was only for perceptions of the credibility as an eye-witness and memory confidence, neither of which predicted memory conformity. By contrast, memory accuracy of the co-witness relative to self-memory accuracy predicted memory conformity, but this was not affected by expertise. These results show support for an informational influence explanation but suggest that expertise perceptions operate differently from our explanation. PMID:24108576

  5. The role of domain expertise and judgment in dealing with unexpected events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochan, Janeen Adrion

    Unexpected events, particularly those creating surprise, interrupt ongoing mental and behavioral processes, creating an increased potential for unwanted outcomes to the situation. Human reactions to unexpected events vary. One can hypothesize a number of reasons for this variation, including level of domain expertise, previous experience with similar events, emotional connotation, and the contextual surround of the event. Whereas interrupting ongoing activities and focusing attention temporarily on a surprising event may be a useful evolutionary response to a threatening situation, the same process may be maladaptive in today's highly dynamic world. The purpose of this study was to investigate how different aspects of expertise affected one's ability to detect and react to an unexpected event. It was hypothesized that there were two general types of expertise, domain expertise and judgment (Hammond, 2000), which influenced one's performance on dealing with an unexpected event. The goal of the research was to parse out the relative contribution of domain expertise, so the role of judgment could be revealed. The research questions for this study were: (a) Can we identify specific knowledges and skills which enhance one's ability to deal with unexpected events? (b) Are these skills "automatically" included in domain expertise? (c) How does domain expertise improve or deter one's reaction and response to unexpected events? (d) What role does judgment play in responding to surprise? The general hypothesis was that good judgment would influence the process of surprise at different stages and in different ways than would domain expertise. The conclusions from this research indicated that good judgment had a significant positive effect in helping pilots deal with unexpected events. This was most pronounced when domain expertise was low.

  6. Expertise acquisition as sustained learning in humans and other animals: commonalities across species.

    PubMed

    Helton, William S

    2008-01-01

    Expertise acquisition may be a universal attribute of animals. In this study data on foraging efficiency, or expertise, was compared for four species: honeybees (Apis mellifera), oystercatchers (Haematopus ostralegus), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and humans (Homo sapiens). Polynomial regression models were constructed to investigate the relationship between age and foraging efficiency. There was a similar expertise-acquisition function between age and foraging efficiency across species, best described by a quadratic equation. The peak of performance was reached, in all cases, before the average age of death but well after reaching physical maturity and the percentage of lifespan devoted to the skill was more than 10% of the species-typical lifespan. PMID:17534675

  7. Clinical Ethics Consultants are not "Ethics" Experts-But They do Have Expertise.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Lisa M

    2016-08-01

    The attempt to critique the profession of clinical ethics consultation by establishing the impossibility of ethics expertise has been a red herring. Decisions made in clinical ethics cases are almost never based purely on moral judgments. Instead, they are all-things-considered judgments that involve determining how to balance other values as well. A standard of justified decision-making in this context would enable us to identify experts who could achieve these standards more often than others, and thus provide a basis for expertise in clinical ethics consultation. This expertise relies in part on what Richard Zaner calls the "expert knowledge of ethical phenomena" (1988, 8). PMID:27302970

  8. Adaptive SPECT

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Harrison H.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Freed, Melanie; Hesterman, Jacob Y.; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Clarkson, Eric; Whitaker, Meredith K.

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive imaging systems alter their data-acquisition configuration or protocol in response to the image information received. An adaptive pinhole single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system might acquire an initial scout image to obtain preliminary information about the radiotracer distribution and then adjust the configuration or sizes of the pinholes, the magnifications, or the projection angles in order to improve performance. This paper briefly describes two small-animal SPECT systems that allow this flexibility and then presents a framework for evaluating adaptive systems in general, and adaptive SPECT systems in particular. The evaluation is in terms of the performance of linear observers on detection or estimation tasks. Expressions are derived for the ideal linear (Hotelling) observer and the ideal linear (Wiener) estimator with adaptive imaging. Detailed expressions for the performance figures of merit are given, and possible adaptation rules are discussed. PMID:18541485

  9. Teaching the Perpendicular Bisector: A Kinesthetic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touval, Ayana

    2011-01-01

    Kinesthetic intelligence is one of the seven kinds of intelligence identified by Gardner's multiple intelligence theory (1983). The kinesthetic approach to teaching has numerous pedagogical advantages and can be adapted to the teaching of mathematics. This article describes a series of kinesthetic activities designed to explore the properties of…

  10. Tasks for Integrating Language and Culture Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Peter; Rucynski, John, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the role of culture in language teaching and provides activities for introducing culture in the classroom, focusing on teaching context and methodology to integrate culture. The authors outline five activities that can be adapted to the language level and interests of students. Instructions for each activity include language…

  11. Teaching Physical Education in International Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, David LeRoy; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the opportunity of teaching physical education at international schools. Common challenges (e.g., communication differences, adapting to the host culture, teaching individuals from various cultural backgrounds) and positive aspects (e.g., smart and engaged students, a positive learning environment for teachers, great…

  12. Teaching Energy Awareness. Environmental Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Patrick D.; And Others

    The major objective of the 32 activities in this teaching guide is to make students aware of energy issues. Although the activities are designed for students in grades 4-12, they can be adapted for younger students and for adults. Departing from the standard expository approaches found in most curriculum materials, these teaching strategies…

  13. Teaching Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemtchinova, Ekaterina

    2013-01-01

    Ekaterina Nemtchinova's book "Teaching Listening" explores different approaches to teaching listening in second language classrooms. Presenting up-to-date research and theoretical issues associated with second language listening, Nemtchinova explains how these new findings inform everyday teaching and offers practical suggestions…

  14. Teaching Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanervo, Ellen; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Contains teaching ideas from six journalism teachers on the following topics: teaching electronic editing, using minicomputers in an advertising media course, five ways to make grading stories easier, the point and code system of grading, student coverage of state government, and the "guided design" teaching technique. (RL)

  15. Teaching English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemanich, Donald, Ed.

    1975-01-01

    Articles in this volume of the "Illinois English Bulletin" include "Competencies in Teaching English" by Alan C. Purves, which sets forth a tentative model for planning competency-based instruction and certification based on concepts, teaching acts, skills, and strategies; "Passing the Buck Versus the Teaching of English" by Dennis Q. McInerny,…

  16. Individualised Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Alan J.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses individualized teaching or focusing on each child's individual learning needs. Presents a brief history of individualized teaching from Socrates to Dewey. Suggests that, although individualized teaching is the most beneficial kind of instruction, time, resources, and experience show it to be nearly nonexistent in the classroom. Describes…

  17. Teaching Artistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeder, Laura

    2007-01-01

    The profession of teaching artist is an increasingly accepted career path. Teaching artists have generated plentiful testimonials to support what was once only backed up by anecdote and is now increasingly supported by objective data. They are finding that very definite and specific benefits await the artist who teaches. While the impacts are not…

  18. The Foreign TA: A Guide to Teaching Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gburek, Janice L., Ed.; Dunnett, Stephen C., Ed.

    Articles on teaching effectiveness for foreign teaching assistants (TAs) are presented. Topics include: adapting to the U.S. academic environment, understanding the role of the TA and gaining confidence, anticipating undergraduates' expectations, improving communication skills, and teaching laboratory classes and recitation classes. Titles and…

  19. Pre-Service Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs and Conceptions of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Harun; Sahin, Sami

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate pre-service teachers' views about teaching and the relation of those views to epistemological beliefs, gender, and subject areas. The data collection tool was adapted from "The Traditional Teaching (TT) and Constructivist Teaching (CT) Scale," developed by Chan and Elliot (2004). Participants consisted of 490…

  20. Sylvia Ashton-Warner: Reclaiming Personal Meaning in Literacy Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Nancy S.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the work of New Zealand educator and writer Sylvia Ashton-Warner. Describes her organic philosophy and how it is the basis for whole-language teaching; describes her Key Vocabulary method. Discusses adapting organic learning and whole language to upper-level literacy teaching. Discusses group inquiry learning and personalized teaching.…

  1. Teaching Language to Handicapped Children in Natural Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavallaro, Claire C.; Poulson, Claire L.

    1985-01-01

    An adaptation of incidental teaching procedures was used to teach individually defined language responses to four language-delayed children (4-8 years old). Data showed that frequency of each targeted response increased only during incidental teaching, with most targeted responses produced spontaneously; and the teachers correctly implemented the…

  2. Situational Teaching: Fostering Self-Direction in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scobie, Robert

    1983-01-01

    For effective teaching, the author asserts, student self-direction must be matched to an appropriate degree of teacher direction and both adjusted for group dynamics of the classroom. Accounting for these three levels of activity, a schematic analysis is drawn of the total teaching situation, and strategies are suggested that adapt teaching style…

  3. Field Studies—Essential Cognitive Foundations for Geoscience Expertise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, C.; Mogk, D. W.

    2010-12-01

    Learning in the field has traditionally been one of the fundamental components of the geoscience curriculum. Field experiences have been attributed to having positive impacts on cognitive, affective, metacognitive, mastery of skills and social components of learning geoscience. The development of geoscience thinking, and of geoscience expertise, encompasses a number of learned behaviors that contribute to the progress of Science and the development of scientists. By getting out into Nature, students necessarily engage active and experiential learning. The open, dynamic, heterogeneous and complex Earth system provides ample opportunities to learn by inquiry and discovery. Learning in this environment requires that students make informed decisions and to think critically about what is important to observe, and what should be excluded in the complex overload of information provided by Nature. Students must learn to employ the full range of cognitive skills that include observation, description, interpretation, analysis and synthesis that lead to “deep learning”. They must be able to integrate and rationalize observations of Nature with modern experimental, analytical, theoretical, and modeling approaches to studying the Earth system, and they must be able to iterate between what is known and what is yet to be discovered. Immersion in the field setting provides students with a sense of spatial and temporal scales of natural phenomena that can not be derived in other learning environments. The field setting provides strong sensory inputs that stimulate cognition and memories that will be available for future application. The field environment also stimulates strong affective responses related to motivation, curiosity, a sense of “ownership” of field projects, and inclusion in shared experiences that carry on throughout professional careers. The nature of field work also contains a strong metacognitive component, as students learn to be aware of what and how they

  4. The Roles of Intuition and Informants’ Expertise in Children’s Epistemic Trust

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Jonathan D.; Harris, Paul L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined how children’s intuitions and informants’ expertise influence children’s trust in informants’ claims. Three- to 8-year-olds (N=192) watched videos in which experts (animal/biology experts or artifact/physics experts) made either intuitively plausible or counterintuitive claims about obscure animals or artifacts. Claims fell either within or beyond experts’ domains of expertise. Children of all ages were more trusting of claims made by informants with relevant, as opposed to irrelevant, expertise. Children also showed greater acceptance of intuitive rather than counterintuitive claims, a differentiation that increased with age as they developed firmer intuitions about what can ordinarily happen. In summary, children’s trust in testimony depends on whether informants have the relevant expertise as well as on children’s own developing intuitions. PMID:25425347

  5. 78 FR 76289 - Request for Information To Gather Technical Expertise Pertaining to Data Elements, Metrics, Data...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... Request for Information To Gather Technical Expertise Pertaining to Data Elements, Metrics, Data... (NCES) invites the submission of information about data elements, metrics, methods of data collection... entities, or any other interested party, to provide information about potential data elements,...

  6. Training experts in family medicine teaching.

    PubMed

    Švab, Igor; Allen, Justin; Žebiene, Egle; Petek Šter, Marija; Windak, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Family medicine teachers require specific educational skills. A framework for their professional development is essential for future development of the discipline in Europe. EURACT developed a framework on educational expertise, and subsequently applied it in a curriculum of teaching-skills courses of various levels. The aim of this article is to describe the development of the teaching framework, and of an international three-level course programme for 'teaching-the-teachers'. Furthermore, we describe our experiences and lessons learned, in particular with regard to the level-three programme for proficient teachers, which was new. We conclude that it is possible to develop a theoretical framework of family medicine teaching expertise and to apply it in an international high-level educational programme for future experts in family medicine education. Research evidence of the usefulness of this approach is needed, and the threats for its further development into a sustainable activity are its high teacher/student ratio associated with relatively high costs and difficulties in recruiting suitable participants. PMID:26800044

  7. Developing Preservice Teachers' Expertise in Equitable Assessment for English Learners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Marcelle A.

    2014-04-01

    This study illustrated a pathway of growth that a preservice teacher might traverse when learning to use and develop equitable assessments (EA). The study is rare in that it looks at the development of preservice teachers' understanding and ability to design EA. I examined the understanding and implementation of EA of 23 secondary preservice teachers within two classes. The methods classes focused on the academic content area of science. Participants' journals, teaching philosophies, and inquiry-based science units served as data sources. Participants progressed from a simple view of EA as "fairness" to a more sophisticated view of EA, including: ways to increase fairness, the importance of challenging students, and using assessments for learning. Results also showed changes in preservice teachers' views of learners and the purpose of assessment. While understanding developed robustly, teachers' assessment plans in their units were not as strong. Teacher education programs need to place more emphasis on developing critical understanding of EA practices to meet the needs of diverse learners.

  8. Energy engineering students on their way to expertise in sustainable energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkki, Helena; Alanne, Kari; Hirsto, Laura

    2012-11-01

    Energy engineering is facing new challenges in educating experts in sustainable energy. The aim of this paper is to characterise expertise related to sustainability in higher education. Future challenges and required skills are explored through recent studies, which have listed key competencies that engineers need in their working life. Sustainability and expertise are discussed on the basis of literature and energy curricula are explored on universities' internet pages.

  9. What kind of computation is intelligence. A framework for integrating different kinds of expertise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandrasekaran, B.

    1989-01-01

    The view that the deliberative aspect of intelligent behavior is a distinct type of algorithm; in particular, a goal-seeking exploratory process using qualitative representations of knowledge and inference is elaborated. There are other kinds of algorithms that also embody expertise in domains. The different types of expertise and how they can and should be integrated to give full account of expert behavior are discussed.

  10. Teaching to Teach in Toronto

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dang, Kien; Waddell, Andrea E.; Lofchy, Jodi

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The training objectives for postgraduate education in the United States and Canada both state that teaching skills should be formally developed during training. This article reviews the development of the Teaching-to-Teach program at the University of Toronto Department of Psychiatry, the current curriculum, evaluation, and future…

  11. Teaching Chemical Engineers about Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Daniel E.; Hoy, Mary; Rathman, James F.; Rohdieck, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    The Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department at The Ohio State University in collaboration with the University Center for the Advancement of Teaching developed the Chemical Engineering Mentored Teaching Experience. The Mentored Teaching Experience is an elective for Ph.D. students interested in pursuing faculty careers. Participants are…

  12. Teaching Morally and Teaching Morality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenstermacher, Gary D.; Osguthorpe, Richard D.; Sanger, Matthew N.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors introduce what they believe is an important distinction between teaching morality and teaching morally. In P-12 schools, the moral education debate often focuses on character education programs or other moral curricula. Such programs and curricula are championed as a means of teaching morality and transmitting moral…

  13. An Adaption Tool Kit for Teaching Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Music-education majors often struggle when making classroom and curricular modifications for their lesson plans during their university coursework. This article offers behavioral, curricular, environmental, motivational, organizational, and presentational strategies for planning instruction for various disabilities in the music classroom.…

  14. Adapting Teaching Strategies To Encompass New Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oravec, Jo Ann

    2001-01-01

    The explosion of special-purpose computing devices--Internet appliances, handheld computers, wireless Internet, networked household appliances--challenges business educators attempting to provide computer literacy education. At a minimum, they should address connectivity, expanded applications, and social and public policy implications of these…

  15. Teaching Demands and Adaptive Curriculum Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flinders, David

    A qualitative case study was designed to explore the work experience of six high school English teachers. Teachers were observed over a five month period. No formal, systematic rating scale or observation instruments were used; the observer relied upon his experience as a high school teacher and on specialized training in curriculum theory and…

  16. Bringing the Field into Focus: User-centered Design of a Patient Expertise Locator

    PubMed Central

    Civan-Hartzler, Andrea; McDonald, David W.; Powell, Chris; Skeels, Meredith M; Mukai, Marlee; Pratt, Wanda

    2010-01-01

    Managing personal aspects of health is challenging for many patients, particularly those facing a serious condition such as cancer. Finding experienced patients, who can share their knowledge from managing a similar health situation, is of tremendous value. Users of health-related social software form a large base of such knowledge, yet these tools often lack features needed to locate peers with expertise. Informed directly by our field work with breast cancer patients, we designed a patient expertise locator for users of online health communities. Using feedback from two focus groups with breast cancer survivors, we took our design through two iterations. Focus groups concluded that expertise locating features proved useful for extending social software. They guided design enhancements by suggesting granular user control through (1) multiple mechanisms to identify expertise, (2) detailed user profiles to select expertise, and (3) varied collaboration levels. Our user-centered approach links field work to design through close collaboration with patients. By illustrating trade-offs made when sharing sensitive health information, our findings inform the incorporation of expertise locating features into social software for patients. PMID:21243114

  17. VisEL: Visualisation of Expertise Level in a Special Interest Group Knowledge Portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulhafizsyam Wan Ahmad, Wan Muhammad; Sulaiman, Shahida; Yusof, Umi Kalsom

    A variety of portals are available nowadays to support diverse purposes such as commercial, publishing, personal, affinity and corporate portals. Affinity portals promote electronic communities who share common interest such as a special interest group (SIG). Knowledge portal is an emerging trend that benefits the existing portal technology by designing such portals with proper representation of the members' shared knowledge. Besides textual representation for diverse expertise levels, graphical visualisation will be able to support the requirements in searching and representing expertise level among e-community. There is a number of existing SIG portals available. However, they do not visualise effectively and accurately the expertise level of members and make it difficult for users to search their targeted experts for instance searching the highest expertise level to have a discussion and to solve their problems related to a project. The goal of this paper is to propose a graphical visualisation of expertise level method (VisEL) using an interactive tag cloud technique that represents expertise level of each member based on their knowledge in a software engineering SIG portal.

  18. Teaching virtue: pedagogical implications of moral psychology.

    PubMed

    Frey, William J

    2010-09-01

    Moral exemplar studies of computer and engineering professionals have led ethics teachers to expand their pedagogical aims beyond moral reasoning to include the skills of moral expertise. This paper frames this expanded moral curriculum in a psychologically informed virtue ethics. Moral psychology provides a description of character distributed across personality traits, integration of moral value into the self system, and moral skill sets. All of these elements play out on the stage of a social surround called a moral ecology. Expanding the practical and professional curriculum to cover the skills and competencies of moral expertise converts the classroom into a laboratory where students practice moral expertise under the guidance of their teachers. The good news is that this expanded pedagogical approach can be realized without revolutionizing existing methods of teaching ethics. What is required, instead, is a redeployment of existing pedagogical tools such as cases, professional codes, decision-making frameworks, and ethics tests. This essay begins with a summary of virtue ethics and informs this with recent research in moral psychology. After identifying pedagogical means for teaching ethics, it shows how these can be redeployed to meet a broader, skills based agenda. Finally, short module profiles offer concrete examples of the shape this redeployed pedagogical agenda would take in the practical and professional ethics classroom. PMID:19728163

  19. Five Resources on Teaching Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Linda Wright

    2009-01-01

    This article offers five resources on teaching approaches that enhance learner participation and can be adapted inmost congregational learning contexts. These models emerge from diverse religious and secular perspectives; some are tailored for adult learners and some are ideal for learning in multicultural contexts. In alphabetical order, they are…

  20. Teaching to Different Learning Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickle, Julia E.

    1999-01-01

    Illustrates how to support and incorporate different student learning styles into teaching. Presents example materials pertaining to laboratory diagnosis of liver disease in a veterinary medical curriculum and demonstrates how a body of material can be adapted to multiple presentation formats. (EV)

  1. Constructivist teaching behaviors of recipients of Presidential Awards for Excellence in mathematics and science teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra, Hector

    , perceptions of classroom learning environments, and the teaching strategies they employed. The information can be used in planning professional development activities with the continued emphasis on changes in teaching recommended in the National Science Education Standards. This study provides definition for developing expertise and potential for mentoring programs.

  2. [The informational analytical support of management of regional health care on the basis of expertise].

    PubMed

    Finchenko, E A; Tsytsorina, I A; Shalygina, L S; Ivaninskii, O I; Sharapov, I V

    2014-01-01

    The development of the system of informational analytical support based on expertise data is one of most important stage of increasing of effectiveness of management of regional health care. The study was organized to substantiate formation of the system of informational analytical support of management of regional health care on the basis of expertise data. The study was carried out on the basis of expertise data from subjects involved in informational analytical support of management of regional health care (health care management executives, chief specialists and directors of medical organizations in the subjects of the Russian Federation situated in the Siberian federal okrug). The study established that alongside with statistical information the expertise is enough important, objective and informative information to be applied in developing of managerial decisions. The highest integral estimated value of importance, objectiveness and informativeness has the information concerning competence of medical personnel, proportions of medical care of population and conditions of material technical base of health institutions. The most foreground issues concerning expertise are population health condition, pharmaceutical and medical equipment support of medical institutions, level and quality of population medical care. The degree of impact of expertise information on managerial decision making is highest in such directions as support of population with medical care, increasing of availability of medical care and degree of organization of medical care rendering. The probability of increasing of degree of impact of expertise information on managerial decision making is the highest in such directions as population provision with medical care, competence of medical personnel, level and quality of medical care, level of organization of medical care support, that is to be considered during implementation of expertise. The study data was used in developing the major

  3. Teaching Applied Genetics and Molecular Biology to Agriculture Engineers. Application of the European Credit Transfer System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, J.; Egea-Cortines, M.

    2008-01-01

    We have been teaching applied molecular genetics to engineers and adapted the teaching methodology to the European Credit Transfer System. We teach core principles of genetics that are universal and form the conceptual basis of most molecular technologies. The course then teaches widely used techniques and finally shows how different techniques…

  4. Emphatic, interactive volume rendering to support variance in user expertise.

    PubMed

    Stredney, Don; Ebert, David S; Svakhine, Nikolai; Bryan, Jason; Sessanna, Dennis; Wiet, Gregory J

    2005-01-01

    Various levels of representation, from abstract to schematic to realistic, have been exploited for millennia to facilitate the transfer of information from one individual to another. Learning complex information, such as that found in biomedicine, proves specifically problematic to many, and requires incremental, step-wise depictions of the information to clarify structural, functional, and procedural relationships.Emerging volume-rendering technique, such as non-photorealistic representation, coupled with advances in computational speeds, especially new graphical processing units, provide unique capabilities to explore the use of various levels of representation in interactive sessions. We have developed a system that produces images that simulate pictorial representations for both scientific and biomedical visualization. The system combines traditional and novel volume illustration techniques. We present examples from our efforts to distill representational techniques for both creative exploration and emphatic presentation for clarity. More specifically, we present our efforts to adapt these techniques for interactive simulation sessions being developed in a concurrent project for resident training in temporal bone dissection simulation. The goal of this effort is to evaluate the use of emphatic rendering to guide the user in an interactive session and to facilitate the learning of complex biomedical information, including structural, functional, and procedural information. PMID:15718791

  5. Beyond perceptual expertise: revisiting the neural substrates of expert object recognition.

    PubMed

    Harel, Assaf; Kravitz, Dwight; Baker, Chris I

    2013-01-01

    Real-world expertise provides a valuable opportunity to understand how experience shapes human behavior and neural function. In the visual domain, the study of expert object recognition, such as in car enthusiasts or bird watchers, has produced a large, growing, and often-controversial literature. Here, we synthesize this literature, focusing primarily on results from functional brain imaging, and propose an interactive framework that incorporates the impact of high-level factors, such as attention and conceptual knowledge, in supporting expertise. This framework contrasts with the perceptual view of object expertise that has concentrated largely on stimulus-driven processing in visual cortex. One prominent version of this perceptual account has almost exclusively focused on the relation of expertise to face processing and, in terms of the neural substrates, has centered on face-selective cortical regions such as the Fusiform Face Area (FFA). We discuss the limitations of this face-centric approach as well as the more general perceptual view, and highlight that expert related activity is: (i) found throughout visual cortex, not just FFA, with a strong relationship between neural response and behavioral expertise even in the earliest stages of visual processing, (ii) found outside visual cortex in areas such as parietal and prefrontal cortices, and (iii) modulated by the attentional engagement of the observer suggesting that it is neither automatic nor driven solely by stimulus properties. These findings strongly support a framework in which object expertise emerges from extensive interactions within and between the visual system and other cognitive systems, resulting in widespread, distributed patterns of expertise-related activity across the entire cortex. PMID:24409134

  6. Beyond perceptual expertise: revisiting the neural substrates of expert object recognition

    PubMed Central

    Harel, Assaf; Kravitz, Dwight; Baker, Chris I.

    2013-01-01

    Real-world expertise provides a valuable opportunity to understand how experience shapes human behavior and neural function. In the visual domain, the study of expert object recognition, such as in car enthusiasts or bird watchers, has produced a large, growing, and often-controversial literature. Here, we synthesize this literature, focusing primarily on results from functional brain imaging, and propose an interactive framework that incorporates the impact of high-level factors, such as attention and conceptual knowledge, in supporting expertise. This framework contrasts with the perceptual view of object expertise that has concentrated largely on stimulus-driven processing in visual cortex. One prominent version of this perceptual account has almost exclusively focused on the relation of expertise to face processing and, in terms of the neural substrates, has centered on face-selective cortical regions such as the Fusiform Face Area (FFA). We discuss the limitations of this face-centric approach as well as the more general perceptual view, and highlight that expert related activity is: (i) found throughout visual cortex, not just FFA, with a strong relationship between neural response and behavioral expertise even in the earliest stages of visual processing, (ii) found outside visual cortex in areas such as parietal and prefrontal cortices, and (iii) modulated by the attentional engagement of the observer suggesting that it is neither automatic nor driven solely by stimulus properties. These findings strongly support a framework in which object expertise emerges from extensive interactions within and between the visual system and other cognitive systems, resulting in widespread, distributed patterns of expertise-related activity across the entire cortex. PMID:24409134

  7. "No level up!": no effects of video game specialization and expertise on cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Gobet, Fernand; Johnston, Stephen J; Ferrufino, Gabriella; Johnston, Matthew; Jones, Michael B; Molyneux, Antonia; Terzis, Argyrios; Weeden, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Previous research into the effects of action video gaming on cognition has suggested that long term exposure to this type of game might lead to an enhancement of cognitive skills that transfer to non-gaming cognitive tasks. However, these results have been controversial. The aim of the current study was to test the presence of positive cognitive transfer from action video games to two cognitive tasks. More specifically, this study investigated the effects that participants' expertise and genre specialization have on cognitive improvements in one task unrelated to video gaming (a flanker task) and one related task (change detection task with both control and genre-specific images). This study was unique in three ways. Firstly, it analyzed a continuum of expertise levels, which has yet to be investigated in research into the cognitive benefits of video gaming. Secondly, it explored genre-specific skill developments on these tasks by comparing Action and Strategy video game players (VGPs). Thirdly, it used a very tight experiment design, including the experimenter being blind to expertise level and genre specialization of the participant. Ninety-two university students aged between 18 and 30 (M = 21.25) were recruited through opportunistic sampling and were grouped by video game specialization and expertise level. While the results of the flanker task were consistent with previous research (i.e., effect of congruence), there was no effect of expertise, and the action gamers failed to outperform the strategy gamers. Additionally, contrary to expectation, there was no interaction between genre specialization and image type in the change detection task, again demonstrating no expertise effect. The lack of effects for game specialization and expertise goes against previous research on the positive effects of action video gaming on other cognitive tasks. PMID:25506330

  8. Beyond Language Barriers: Teaching Self-Efficacy among East Asian International Teaching Assistants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eunha

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined roles that perceived English fluency and sociocultural adaptation difficulty play in predicting self-efficacy beliefs for teaching in a sample of 119 international teaching assistants (ITAs) from East Asian countries of China, Japan, Korea and Taiwan. Results showed that a positive relationship between perceived English…

  9. Methods and Techniques. Student Involvement in the Production of Teaching Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernau, C.

    1984-01-01

    Indicates that teaching materials used in industrialized countries are not appropriate and often cannot be adapted for the use in developing countries. Having students help with production of teaching aids increases their motivation for using them. (JOW)

  10. [Dr. Sackett & "Mr. Sacketeer"... Enchantment and disenchantment in the land of expertise in evidence-based medicine].

    PubMed

    Castiel, L D; Póvoa, E C

    2001-01-01

    In May 2000, Prof. David L. Sackett, one of the founders of the evidence-based medicine movement (EBM), published an article in the British Medical Journal in which he renounced writing, teaching, or serving as a referee for topics related to EBM. He justified his stance based on his frustration over what he considered the harmful effects of an alleged excess of experts in this field. Sackett's position was the raw material whereby we approached aspects linked to the definition and scope of EBM as well as related critiques. We also stress the movement's various rhetorical strategies. In addition, we discuss both the notion of expertise and the role of "expert systems" and "specialized competence" in our societal milieu, developed respectively by Anthony Giddens and Zygmunt Bauman. The main focus of this commentary is to emphasize that while we are dealing with a progressive trend towards acquiring control and intelligibility vis-à-vis the objects of our research, we must consider the possibility of dimensions that cannot be reached by way of the rationalistic Western mode of thought. PMID:11241943

  11. A Soldier of Service: An Interview with Playwright and Teaching Artist Dominique Cieri. Teaching At-Risk, Juvenile Justice, and the Holocaust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Catlin

    2010-01-01

    Inner-city public school classrooms, group homes, juvenile detention centers and facilities will be with Americans forever. Their populations can deflate, challenge, or improve any artist's skills and expertise. The author thinks of teaching artists who work these strenuous communities as soldiers of service, dedicated individuals who fight with…

  12. Superior performance and neural efficiency: the impact of intelligence and expertise.

    PubMed

    Grabner, Roland H; Neubauer, Aljoscha C; Stern, Elsbeth

    2006-04-28

    Superior cognitive performance can be viewed from an intelligence perspective, emphasising general properties of the human information processing system (such as mental speed and working memory), and from an expertise perspective, highlighting the indispensable role of elaborated domain-specific knowledge and acquired skills. In exploring its neurophysiological basis, recent research has provided considerable evidence of the neural efficiency hypothesis of intelligence, indicating lower and more focussed brain activation in brighter individuals. The present EEG study investigates the impacts of intelligence and expertise on cognitive performance and the accompanying cortical activation patterns in the domain of tournament chess. Forty-seven tournament chess players of varying intelligence and expertise level worked on tasks drawing on mental speed, memory, and reasoning. Half of the tasks were representative for chess, while the other half was not. The cortical activation was quantified by means of event-related desynchronisation (ERD) in the upper alpha band. Independent effects of expertise and intelligence emerged at both, the performance and the neurophysiological level. Brighter participants performed better than less intelligent ones which was associated with more efficient brain functioning (lower ERD) across all tasks. Additionally, a high expertise level was beneficial for good task performance but exerted a topographically differentiated influence on the cortical activation patterns. The findings suggest that superior cognitive performance and the underlying cortical activation are not only a function of knowledge and domain-specific competences but also of the general efficiency of the information processing system. PMID:16624674

  13. Varying Use of Conceptual Metaphors across Levels of Expertise in Thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeppsson, Fredrik; Haglund, Jesper; Amin, Tamer G.

    2015-04-01

    Many studies have previously focused on how people with different levels of expertise solve physics problems. In early work, focus was on characterising differences between experts and novices and a key finding was the central role that propositionally expressed principles and laws play in expert, but not novice, problem-solving. A more recent line of research has focused on characterising continuity between experts and novices at the level of non-propositional knowledge structures and processes such as image-schemas, imagistic simulation and analogical reasoning. This study contributes to an emerging literature addressing the coordination of both propositional and non-propositional knowledge structures and processes in the development of expertise. Specifically, in this paper, we compare problem-solving across two levels of expertise-undergraduate students of chemistry and Ph.D. students in physical chemistry-identifying differences in how conceptual metaphors (CMs) are used (or not) to coordinate propositional and non-propositional knowledge structures in the context of solving problems on entropy. It is hypothesised that the acquisition of expertise involves learning to coordinate the use of CMs to interpret propositional (linguistic and mathematical) knowledge and apply it to specific problem situations. Moreover, we suggest that with increasing expertise, the use of CMs involves a greater degree of subjective engagement with physical entities and processes. Implications for research on learning and instructional practice are discussed. Third contribution to special issue entitled: Conceptual metaphor and embodied cognition in science learning

  14. Expertise dissimilarity and creativity: the contingent roles of tacit and explicit knowledge sharing.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xu; Hsieh, J J Po-An; He, Wei

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we investigated whether team-level knowledge sharing moderates the effects of individual-level expertise dissimilarity on individual employees' creativity in research and development (R&D) project teams. Expertise dissimilarity--defined as the difference in expertise and knowledge between a focal team member and her or his fellow team members--was operationalized in terms of the research department to which each member belonged. In Study 1, multilevel analyses of data collected from 200 members of 40 R&D project teams in a telecommunications company revealed that a team member with expertise dissimilar to that of her or his teammates was more likely to exhibit creativity when the project team as a whole engaged in higher levels of tacit, rather than explicit, knowledge sharing. In contrast, a member whose expertise was similar to that of her or his teammates was more likely to exhibit creative behavior when the team engaged in higher levels of explicit, rather than tacit, knowledge sharing. These findings were largely replicated in Study 2 using data collected from 82 members of 25 project teams from another telecommunications company. PMID:24820927

  15. Delusions of expertise: the high standard of proof needed to demonstrate skills at horserace handicapping.

    PubMed

    Browne, Matthew; Rockloff, Matthew J; Blaszcynski, Alex; Allcock, Clive; Windross, Allen

    2015-03-01

    Gamblers who participate in skill-oriented games (such as poker and sports-betting) are motivated to win over the long-term, and some monitor their betting outcomes to evaluate their performance and proficiency. In this study of Australian off-track horserace betting, we investigated which levels of sustained returns would be required to establish evidence of skill/expertise. We modelled a random strategy to simulate 'naïve' play, in which equal bets were placed on randomly selected horses using a representative sample of 211 weekend races. Results from a Monte Carlo simulation yielded a distribution of return-on-investments for varying number of bets (N), showing surprising volatility, even after a large number of repeated bets. After adjusting for the house advantage, a gambler would have to place over 10,000 bets in individual races with net returns exceeding 9 % to be reasonably considered an expert punter (α = .05). Moreover, a record of fewer bets would require even greater returns for demonstrating expertise. As such, validated expertise is likely to be rare among race bettors. We argue that the counter-intuitively high threshold for demonstrating expertise by tracking historical performance is likely to exacerbate known cognitive biases in self-evaluation of expertise. PMID:24292982

  16. Team Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, David C.

    1963-01-01

    A study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of principals in structuring teaching teams; to assess background and personality characteristics appearing essential to successful individual and team performance; and to select personality factor scores which would predict individual and team success. Subjects were 31 teaching teams (99…

  17. Teaching Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lessard-Clouston, M.

    2013-01-01

    Vocabulary is central to English language teaching. Without sufficient vocabulary, students cannot understand others or express their own ideas. Teachers who find the task of teaching English vocabulary a little daunting are not alone! This book presents important issues from recent vocabulary research and theory so that teachers may approach…

  18. Teaching Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Richard R.

    2013-01-01

    "Teaching Reading" uncovers the interactive processes that happen when people learn to read and translates them into a comprehensive easy-to-follow guide on how to teach reading. Richard Day's revelations on the nature of reading, reading strategies, reading fluency, reading comprehension, and reading objectives make fascinating…

  19. Teaching Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, Kathleen, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Ideas to aid the classroom teacher include integration of emphasis on reading into health education; definitions pertinent to contemporary health education; teaching students to read food labels; identification of implications of scientific advances such as test tube reproduction; and a card game to teach food groups to middle school children.…

  20. Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strevens, Peter

    European language-teaching theory and practice in retrospect covering the period from 1920 to 1970 are noted to be an amalgam of underlying disciplines, teaching methodologies, and technical aids. Chronologically presented, the "orthodoxy" of 1920-40 charts general similarities in the state of the art prior to a 10-year period of major upheaval…