Science.gov

Sample records for adaptive water management

  1. Adaptive Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, adaptive managem...

  2. Adaptive forest management for drinking water protection under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koeck, R.; Hochbichler, E.

    2012-04-01

    Drinking water resources drawn from forested catchment areas are prominent for providing water supply on our planet. Despite the fact that source waters stemming from forested watersheds have generally lower water quality problems than those stemming from agriculturally used watersheds, it has to be guaranteed that the forest stands meet high standards regarding their water protection functionality. For fulfilling these, forest management concepts have to be applied, which are adaptive regarding the specific forest site conditions and also regarding climate change scenarios. In the past century forest management in the alpine area of Austria was mainly based on the cultivation of Norway spruce, by the way neglecting specific forest site conditions, what caused in many cases highly vulnerable mono-species forest stands. The GIS based forest hydrotope model (FoHyM) provides a framework for forest management, which defines the most crucial parameters in a spatial explicit form. FoHyM stratifies the spacious drinking water protection catchments into forest hydrotopes, being operational units for forest management. The primary information layer of FoHyM is the potential natural forest community, which reflects the specific forest site conditions regarding geology, soil types, elevation above sea level, exposition and inclination adequately and hence defines the specific forest hydrotopes. For each forest hydrotope, the adequate tree species composition and forest stand structure for drinking water protection functionality was deduced, based on the plant-sociological information base provided by FoHyM. The most important overall purpose for the related elaboration of adaptive forest management concepts and measures was the improvement of forest stand stability, which can be seen as the crucial parameter for drinking water protection. Only stable forest stands can protect the fragile soil and humus layers and hence prevent erosion process which could endanger the water

  3. Adapting California Water Management to Climate Change (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanak, E.; Lund, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    California faces the prospect of significant water management challenges from climate change. The most certain changes are accelerated sea level rise and increased temperatures, which will reduce the Sierra Nevada snowpack and shift more runoff to winter months. These changes will likely cause major problems for flood control, for water supply reservoir operations, and for the maintenance of the present system of water exports through the fragile levee system of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Rising water temperatures also are likely to compromise habitat for some native aquatic species and pose challenges for reservoir operations, which must release cool water to support fish downstream. Although there is as yet little scientific consensus on the effects of climate change on overall precipitation levels, many expect precipitation variability to increase, with more extreme drought and flood events posing additional challenges to water managers. Fortunately, California also possesses numerous assets - including adaptation tools and institutional capabilities - which can limit vulnerability of the state’s residents to changing conditions. Water supply managers have already begun using underground storage, water transfers, conservation, recycling, and desalination to expand their capacity to meet changing demands, and these same tools present cost-effective options for responding to a wide range of climate change scenarios. Many staples of flood management - including reservoir operations, levees, bypasses, insurance, and land-use regulation - are appropriate for the challenges posed by increasing flood flows. Yet actions are also needed to improve response capacity in some areas. For water supply, a central issue is the management of the Delta, where new conveyance and habitat investments and regulations are needed to sustain water supply reliability and ecosystem conditions. For flood management, studies to anticipate required changes have only begun, and

  4. Adapting to a changing world: Implications for water management.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loucks, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    Everyone is aware that the world is changing, and that many of these changes will impact our water resource supplies and how they are used and managed. It's always a challenge to try to predict the future, especially the very uncertain distant future. But one thing is certain, the future environment our descendants will experience will differ from the economic, social, technological and natural conditions we experience today. Some aspects of the changes that are happening may not be under human control, but many are. And to the extent they are, we can influence that future. In this paper I attempt to speculate about a future some 40 to 50 years from now, and how water will need to be managed then. My goal is to motivate some thinking and discussion about how we as water managers can influence and prepare ourselves (or our successors) for that future. It will require collaboration among multiple disciplines to determine how best we as a profession can help society adapt to these changes, and this in turn will require all of us to learn how to work together more effectively than we do now. This theme fits in with the current interest in sustainability, for no matter how it is defined, sustainability makes us think about the long-term future. How do we develop and manage our natural and cultural resources in ways that benefit both us and future generations of people living on this earth? What will their needs and goals be? We don't know and that is the major challenge in deciding what decisions we might make today on their behalf. Here I attempt to identify the challenges and issues water managers could be addressing some 40 to 50 years from now, and what we in each of our disciplines, and together, can begin to do now to address them.

  5. Adaptive management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Craig R.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, adaptive management has explicit structure, including a careful elucidation of goals, identification of alternative management objectives and hypotheses of causation, and procedures for the collection of data followed by evaluation and reiteration. The process is iterative, and serves to reduce uncertainty, build knowledge and improve management over time in a goal-oriented and structured process.

  6. Agricultural Adaptation and Water Management in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, E.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    Efficient management of freshwater resources is critical as concerns with water security increase due to changes in climate, population, and land use. Effective water management in agricultural systems is especially important for irrigation and water quality. This research explores the implications of tradeoffs between maximization of crop yield and minimization of nitrogen loss to the environment, primarily to surface water and groundwater, in rice production in Sri Lanka. We run the DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) model under Sri Lankan climate and soil conditions. The model serves as a tool to simulate crop management scenarios with different irrigation and fertilizer practices in two climate regions of the country. Our investigation uses DNDC to compare rice yields, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and nitrogen leaching under different cultivation scenarios. The results will inform best practices for farmers and decision makers in Sri Lanka on the management of water resources and crops.

  7. Global Change adaptation in water resources management: the Water Change project.

    PubMed

    Pouget, Laurent; Escaler, Isabel; Guiu, Roger; Mc Ennis, Suzy; Versini, Pierre-Antoine

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, water resources management has been facing new challenges due to increasing changes and their associated uncertainties, such as changes in climate, water demand or land use, which can be grouped under the term Global Change. The Water Change project (LIFE+ funding) developed a methodology and a tool to assess the Global Change impacts on water resources, thus helping river basin agencies and water companies in their long term planning and in the definition of adaptation measures. The main result of the project was the creation of a step by step methodology to assess Global Change impacts and define strategies of adaptation. This methodology was tested in the Llobregat river basin (Spain) with the objective of being applicable to any water system. It includes several steps such as setting-up the problem with a DPSIR framework, developing Global Change scenarios, running river basin models and performing a cost-benefit analysis to define optimal strategies of adaptation. This methodology was supported by the creation of a flexible modelling system, which can link a wide range of models, such as hydrological, water quality, and water management models. The tool allows users to integrate their own models to the system, which can then exchange information among them automatically. This enables to simulate the interactions among multiple components of the water cycle, and run quickly a large number of Global Change scenarios. The outcomes of this project make possible to define and test different sets of adaptation measures for the basin that can be further evaluated through cost-benefit analysis. The integration of the results contributes to an efficient decision-making on how to adapt to Global Change impacts.

  8. Adaptive management and its role in managing Great Barrier Reef water quality.

    PubMed

    Bennett, J; Lawrence, P; Johnstone, R; Shaw, R

    2005-01-01

    Adaptive management is the pathway to effective conservation, use and management of Australia's coastal catchments and waterways. While the concepts of adaptive management are not new, applications involving both assessment and management responses are indeed limited at the national and regional scales. This paper outlines the components of a systematic framework for linking scientific knowledge, existing tools, planning approaches and participatory processes to achieve healthy regional partnerships between community, industry, government agencies and science providers to overcome institutional barriers and uncoordinated monitoring. The framework developed by the Coastal CRC (www.coastal.crc.org.au/amf/amf/_index.htm) is hierarchical in the way it displays information to allow associated frameworks to be integrated, and represents a construct in which processes, information, decision tools and outcomes are brought together in a structured and transparent way for adaptive catchment and coastal management. This paper proposes how an adaptive management approach could be used to benefit the implementation of the Reef Water Quality Protection Plan (RWQPP).

  9. Water demand and supply co-adaptation to mitigate climate change impacts in agricultural water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, Matteo; Mainardi, Matteo; Castelletti, Andrea; Gandolfi, Claudio

    2013-04-01

    Agriculture is the main land use in the world and represents also the sector characterised by the highest water demand. To meet projected growth in human population and per-capita food demand, agricultural production will have to significantly increase in the next decades. Moreover, water availability is nowadays a limiting factor for agricultural production, and is expected to decrease over the next century due to climate change impacts. To effectively face a changing climate, agricultural systems have therefore to adapt their strategies (e.g., changing crops, shifting sowing and harvesting dates, adopting high efficiency irrigation techniques). Yet, farmer adaptation is only one part of the equation because changes in water supply management strategies, as a response to climate change, might impact on farmers' decisions as well. Despite the strong connections between water demand and supply, being the former dependent on agricultural practices, which are affected by the water available that depends on the water supply strategies designed according to a forecasted demand, an analysis of their reciprocal feedbacks is still missing. Most of the recent studies has indeed considered the two problems separately, either analysing the impact of climate change on farmers' decisions for a given water supply scenario or optimising water supply for different water demand scenarios. In this work, we explicitly connect the two systems (demand and supply) by activating an information loop between farmers and water managers, to integrate the two problems and study the co-evolution and co-adaptation of water demand and water supply systems under climate change. The proposed approach is tested on a real-world case study, namely the Lake Como serving the Muzza-Bassa Lodigiana irrigation district (Italy). In particular, given an expectation of water availability, the farmers are able to solve a yearly planning problem to decide the most profitable crop to plant. Knowing the farmers

  10. Integrated optimal allocation model for complex adaptive system of water resources management (I): Methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yanlai; Guo, Shenglian; Xu, Chong-Yu; Liu, Dedi; Chen, Lu; Ye, Yushi

    2015-12-01

    Due to the adaption, dynamic and multi-objective characteristics of complex water resources system, it is a considerable challenge to manage water resources in an efficient, equitable and sustainable way. An integrated optimal allocation model is proposed for complex adaptive system of water resources management. The model consists of three modules: (1) an agent-based module for revealing evolution mechanism of complex adaptive system using agent-based, system dynamic and non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II methods, (2) an optimal module for deriving decision set of water resources allocation using multi-objective genetic algorithm, and (3) a multi-objective evaluation module for evaluating the efficiency of the optimal module and selecting the optimal water resources allocation scheme using project pursuit method. This study has provided a theoretical framework for adaptive allocation, dynamic allocation and multi-objective optimization for a complex adaptive system of water resources management.

  11. Integrated and adaptive management of water resources: Tensions, legacies, and the next best thing

    SciTech Connect

    Engle, Nathan L.; Johns, Owen R.; Lemos, Maria Carmen; Nelson, Donald

    2011-02-01

    Integrated water resources management (IWRM) and adaptive management (AM) are two institutional and management paradigms designed to address shortcomings within water systems governance – the limits of hierarchical water institutional arrangements in the case of IWRM and the challenge of making water management decisions under uncertainty in the case of AM. Recently, there has been a trend to merge these paradigms to address the growing complexity of stressors shaping water management, such as globalization and climate change. However, because many of these joint approaches have received little empirical attention, questions remain about how they might work (or not) in practice. Here, we explore a few of these issues using empirical research carried out in Brazil. We focus on highlighting the potentially negative interactions, tensions, and tradeoffs between different institutions/mechanisms perceived as desirable as research and practice attempt to make water systems management simultaneously integrated and adaptive. Our examples pertain mainly on the use of techno-scientific knowledge in water management and governance in Brazil’s IWRM model and how it relates to participation, democracy, deliberation, diversity, and adaptability. We show that a legacy of technical and hierarchical management has shaped the integration of management, and subsequently, the degree to which management might also be adaptive. While integrated systems may be more legitimate and accountable than top-down command and control ones, the mechanisms of IWRM may be at odds with the flexible, experimental, and self-organizing nature of AM.

  12. Water Resource Adaptation Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Resource Adaptation Program (WRAP) contributes to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (U.S. EPA) efforts to provide water resource managers and decision makers with the tools needed to adapt water resources to demographic and economic development, and future clim...

  13. Non-adaptive and adaptive hybrid approaches for enhancing water quality management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalwij, Ineke M.; Peralta, Richard C.

    2008-09-01

    SummaryUsing optimization to help solve groundwater management problems cost-effectively is becoming increasingly important. Hybrid optimization approaches, that combine two or more optimization algorithms, will become valuable and common tools for addressing complex nonlinear hydrologic problems. Hybrid heuristic optimizers have capabilities far beyond those of a simple genetic algorithm (SGA), and are continuously improving. SGAs having only parent selection, crossover, and mutation are inefficient and rarely used for optimizing contaminant transport management. Even an advanced genetic algorithm (AGA) that includes elitism (to emphasize using the best strategies as parents) and healing (to help assure optimal strategy feasibility) is undesirably inefficient. Much more efficient than an AGA is the presented hybrid (AGCT), which adds comprehensive tabu search (TS) features to an AGA. TS mechanisms (TS probability, tabu list size, search coarseness and solution space size, and a TS threshold value) force the optimizer to search portions of the solution space that yield superior pumping strategies, and to avoid reproducing similar or inferior strategies. An AGCT characteristic is that TS control parameters are unchanging during optimization. However, TS parameter values that are ideal for optimization commencement can be undesirable when nearing assumed global optimality. The second presented hybrid, termed global converger (GC), is significantly better than the AGCT. GC includes AGCT plus feedback-driven auto-adaptive control that dynamically changes TS parameters during run-time. Before comparing AGCT and GC, we empirically derived scaled dimensionless TS control parameter guidelines by evaluating 50 sets of parameter values for a hypothetical optimization problem. For the hypothetical area, AGCT optimized both well locations and pumping rates. The parameters are useful starting values because using trial-and-error to identify an ideal combination of control

  14. Moving towards adaptive management of cyanotoxin-impaired water bodies.

    PubMed

    Paerl, Hans W; Otten, Timothy G; Joyner, Alan R

    2016-09-01

    The cyanobacteria are a phylum of bacteria that have played a key role in shaping the Earth's biosphere due to their pioneering ability to perform oxygenic photosynthesis. Throughout their history, cyanobacteria have experienced major biogeochemical changes accompanying Earth's geochemical evolution over the past 2.5+ billion years, including periods of extreme climatic change, hydrologic, nutrient and radiation stress. Today, they remain remarkably successful, exploiting human nutrient over-enrichment as nuisance "blooms." Cyanobacteria produce an array of unique metabolites, the functions and biotic ramifications of which are the subject of diverse ecophysiological studies. These metabolites are relevant from organismal and ecosystem function perspectives because some can be toxic and fatal to diverse biota, including zooplankton and fish consumers of algal biomass, and high-level consumers of aquatic food sources and drinking water, including humans. Given the long history of environmental extremes and selection pressures that cyanobacteria have experienced, it is likely that that these toxins serve ecophysiological functions aimed at optimizing growth and fitness during periods of environmental stress. Here, we explore the molecular and ecophysiological mechanisms underlying cyanotoxin production, with emphasis on key environmental conditions potentially controlling toxin production. Based on this information, we offer potential management strategies for reducing cyanotoxin potentials in natural waters; for cyanotoxins with no clear drivers yet elucidated, we highlight the data gaps and research questions that are still lacking. We focus on the four major classes of toxins (anatoxins, cylindrospermopsins, microcystins and saxitoxins) that have thus far been identified as relevant from environmental health perspectives, but caution there may be other harmful metabolites waiting to be elucidated. PMID:27418325

  15. Integrated optimal allocation model for complex adaptive system of water resources management (II): Case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yanlai; Guo, Shenglian; Xu, Chong-Yu; Liu, Dedi; Chen, Lu; Wang, Dong

    2015-12-01

    Climate change, rapid economic development and increase of the human population are considered as the major triggers of increasing challenges for water resources management. This proposed integrated optimal allocation model (IOAM) for complex adaptive system of water resources management is applied in Dongjiang River basin located in the Guangdong Province of China. The IOAM is calibrated and validated under baseline period 2010 year and future period 2011-2030 year, respectively. The simulation results indicate that the proposed model can make a trade-off between demand and supply for sustainable development of society, economy, ecology and environment and achieve adaptive management of water resources allocation. The optimal scheme derived by multi-objective evaluation is recommended for decision-makers in order to maximize the comprehensive benefits of water resources management.

  16. Uncertainty Management in Urban Water Engineering Adaptation to Climate Change

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current water resource planning and engineering assume a stationary climate, in which the observed historical water flow rate and water quality variations are often used to define the technical basis. When the non-stationarity is considered, however, climate change projection co...

  17. Understanding Indian Institutional Networks and Participation in Water Management Adaptation to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhoni, A.; Holman, I.; Jude, S.

    2014-12-01

    Adaptation to climate change for water management involves complex interactions between different actors and sectors. The need to understand the relationships between key stakeholder institutions (KSIs) is increasingly recognized. The complexity of water management in India has meant that enhancing adaptive capacity through improved inter-institutional networks remains a challenge for both government and non-governmental institutions. To analyse such complex inter-actions this study has used Social Network and Stakeholder Analysis tools to quantify the participation of, and interactions between, each KSI in the climate change adaptation and water discourse based on keyword analysis of their online presence. Using NodeXL, a Social Network Analysis tool, network diagrams have been used to evaluate the inter-relationships between these KSIs. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twenty-five KSIs to identify the main barriers to adaptation and to triangulate the findings of the e-documents analysis. The analysis found that there is an inverse relationship between institutions' reference to water and climate change in their web-documents. Most institutions emphasize mitigation rather than adaptation. Bureaucratic delays, poor coordination between the KSIs, unclear policies and systemic deficiencies are identified as key barriers to improving adaptive capacity within water management to climate change. However, the increasing attention being given to the perceived climate change impacts on the water sector and improving the inter-institutional networks are some of the opportunities for Indian water institutions. Although websites of Union Government Institutions seldom directly hyperlink to one another, they are linked through "bridging" websites which have the potential to act as brokers for enhancing adaptive capacity. The research has wider implications for analysis of complex inter-disciplinary and inter-institutional issues involving multi stakeholders.

  18. Towards adaptive and integrated management paradigms to meet the challenges of water governance.

    PubMed

    Halbe, J; Pahl-Wostl, C; Sendzimir, J; Adamowski, J

    2013-01-01

    Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) aims at finding practical and sustainable solutions to water resource issues. Research and practice have shown that innovative methods and tools are not sufficient to implement IWRM - the concept needs to also be integrated in prevailing management paradigms and institutions. Water governance science addresses this human dimension by focusing on the analysis of regulatory processes that influence the behavior of actors in water management systems. This paper proposes a new methodology for the integrated analysis of water resources management and governance systems in order to elicit and analyze case-specific management paradigms. It builds on the Management and Transition Framework (MTF) that allows for the examination of structures and processes underlying water management and governance. The new methodology presented in this paper combines participatory modeling and analysis of the governance system by using the MTF to investigate case-specific management paradigms. The linking of participatory modeling and research on complex management and governance systems allows for the transfer of knowledge between scientific, policy, engineering and local communities. In this way, the proposed methodology facilitates assessment and implementation of transformation processes towards IWRM that require also the adoption of adaptive management principles. A case study on flood management in the Tisza River Basin in Hungary is provided to illustrate the application of the proposed methodology.

  19. Evaluating adaptive governance approaches to sustainable water management in north-west Thailand.

    PubMed

    Clark, Julian R A; Semmahasak, Chutiwalanch

    2013-04-01

    Adaptive governance is advanced as a potent means of addressing institutional fit of natural resource systems with prevailing modes of political-administrative management. Its advocates also argue that it enhances participatory and learning opportunities for stakeholders over time. Yet an increasing number of studies demonstrate real difficulties in implementing adaptive governance 'solutions'. This paper builds on these debates by examining the introduction of adaptive governance to water management in Chiang Mai province, north-west Thailand. The paper considers, first, the limitations of current water governance modes at the provincial scale, and the rationale for implementation of an adaptive approach. The new approach is then critically examined, with its initial performance and likely future success evaluated by (i) analysis of water stakeholders' opinions of its first year of operation; and (ii) comparison of its governance attributes against recent empirical accounts of implementation difficulty and failure of adaptive governance of natural resource management more generally. The analysis confirms the potentially significant role that the new approach can play in brokering and resolving the underlying differences in stakeholder representation and knowledge construction at the heart of the prevailing water governance modes in north-west Thailand.

  20. Climate Proof Areas: Adaptation of water management in coastal areas to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bormann, H.; Ahlhorn, F.; Giani, L.; Klenke, T.

    2009-04-01

    Due to future climate change coastal areas within the North Sea region will be faced with severe water management problems. On the one hand, mean sea level as well as storm tides will remarkably rise within the 21st century, and on the other hand it can be expected that the mean runoff from coastal river catchments will increase as well. The increase in runoff in Northwest Germany mainly will be caused by a changed seasonality of the water cycle (increase in runoff generation during winter, decrease in runoff generation during summer) and an increase in flooding intensity. Large parts of the German North Sea coast consist of low lying marsh and fen areas which are already intensively drained to be cultivable as agricultural land and to be usable to build settlements. Water management will have to adapt in order to be able to still use those areas in the presence of climate change. Innovative strategies for coastal protection and drainage will be required, considering the increased probability in summer drought periods as well which might accelerate salt water intrusion into surface and groundwater in summer time in particular inducing the need of irrigation. This contribution firstly introduces the hydrological effects of expected future climate change on the water cycle at the Lower Saxon North Sea coast (Germany). Then, the EC funded Interreg IVb project ‘Climate Proof Areas' is introduced, focusing on the development of adaptation strategies for water management in the North Sea region. Based on a participatory approach, future water management problems are defined, priorities and necessities are assessed, and possible approaches for a sustainable, future water management within the Wesermarsch region are developed. The scenario technique is used in order to elaborate and evaluate different, partly contrasting development paths and adaptations strategies. First water management adaptation scenarios point out potential conflicts between the diverse interests of

  1. Adaptive Management for Climate Change Impact for Water Sector in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jun

    2013-04-01

    China, as a larger developing country in the world, in facing to bigger challenges than before on wisely managing water resources to support rapidly socio-economic development in 2020 and beyond. China has a vast area of 9.6 million sq. km and relatively abundant water resources with ranked sixth in the world after Brazil, the Russian Federation, Canada, the United States and Indonesia in terms of absolute amount of annual runoff. However, given its large population of over 1.3 billion, China has a very low per capita amount (about one quarter of the world average) of water resources and, is therefore one of the countries with the most severe shortage of water in the world, particular North China. North China is one of very important regions in China. For this region, population has 0.437 billion in 2000 that occupies 35% of total in China, GDP reaches 386 billion US that is also 32% of total in China. Irrigation area of North China is 42% of total in China, and agricultural product has 40% of total in China. However, it is the most water shortage area in China. For instance, water resources per capita in Hai River Basin have only 270 cubic meters, which is only 1/7 of the national average and 1/24 of the world average. Water Resource Vulnerability under impact of both climate change and human activities are rather significantly. This presentation will focus on two issues: (1) how to screening climate changes impact to water sector, and how to quantify water resource vulnerability related to impact of climate change and human activity? (2) how to take adaptation & wisely manage water to changing environment on existing water projects and new water programme & water policy in China? A screening process for climate impact to water sector in North China was proposed. A new study on quantifying water resource vulnerability, based on three practical and workable, i.e., the use to availability ratio, water crowding and per capita water use, were developed. Four case

  2. Does external funding help adaptation? Evidence from community-based water management in the Colombian Andes.

    PubMed

    Murtinho, Felipe; Eakin, Hallie; López-Carr, David; Hayes, Tanya M

    2013-11-01

    Despite debate regarding whether, and in what form, communities need external support for adaptation to environmental change, few studies have examined how external funding impacts adaptation decisions in rural resource-dependent communities. In this article, we use quantitative and qualitative methods to assess how different funding sources influence the initiative to adapt to water scarcity in the Colombian Andes. We compare efforts to adapt to water scarcity in 111 rural Andean communities with varied dependence on external funding for water management activities. Findings suggest that despite efforts to use their own internal resources, communities often need external support to finance adaptation strategies. However, not all external financial support positively impacts a community's abilities to adapt. Results show the importance of community-driven requests for external support. In cases where external support was unsolicited, the results show a decline, or "crowding-out," in community efforts to adapt. In contrast, in cases where communities initiated the request for external support to fund their own projects, findings show that external intervention is more likely to enhance or "crowds-in" community-driven adaptation.

  3. The Dynamics of Vulnerability and Implications for Climate Change Adaptation: Lessons from Urban Water Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilling, L.; Daly, M.; Travis, W.; Wilhelmi, O.; Klein, R.; Kenney, D.; Ray, A. J.; Miller, K.

    2013-12-01

    Recent reports and scholarship have suggested that adapting to current climate variability may represent a "no regrets" strategy for adapting to climate change. Filling "adaptation deficits" and other approaches that rely on addressing current vulnerabilities are of course helpful for responding to current climate variability, but we find here that they are not sufficient for adapting to climate change. First, following a comprehensive review and unique synthesis of the natural hazards and climate adaptation literatures, we advance six reasons why adapting to climate variability is not sufficient for adapting to climate change: 1) Vulnerability is different at different levels of exposure; 2) Coping with climate variability is not equivalent to adaptation to longer term change; 3) The socioeconomic context for vulnerability is constantly changing; 4) The perception of risk associated with climate variability does not necessarily promote adaptive behavior in the face of climate change; 5) Adaptations made to short term climate variability may reduce the flexibility of the system in the long term; and 6) Adaptive actions may shift vulnerabilities to other parts of the system or to other people. Instead we suggest that decision makers faced with choices to adapt to climate change must consider the dynamics of vulnerability in a connected system-- how choices made in one part of the system might impact other valued outcomes or even create new vulnerabilities. Furthermore we suggest that rather than expressing climate change adaptation as an extension of adaptation to climate variability, the research and practice communities would do well to articulate adaptation as an imperfect policy, with tradeoffs and consequences and that decisions be prioritized to preserve flexibility be revisited often as climate change unfolds. We then present the results of a number of empirical studies of decision making for drought in urban water systems in the United States to understand

  4. Adaptive Regulation of the Northern California Reservoir System for Water, Energy, and Environmental Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgakakos, A. P.; Kistenmacher, M.; Yao, H.; Georgakakos, K. P.

    2014-12-01

    The 2014 National Climate Assessment of the US Global Change Research Program emphasizes that water resources managers and planners in most US regions will have to cope with new risks, vulnerabilities, and opportunities, and recommends the development of adaptive capacity to effectively respond to the new water resources planning and management challenges. In the face of these challenges, adaptive reservoir regulation is becoming all the more ncessary. Water resources management in Northern California relies on the coordinated operation of several multi-objective reservoirs on the Trinity, Sacramento, American, Feather, and San Joaquin Rivers. To be effective, reservoir regulation must be able to (a) account for forecast uncertainty; (b) assess changing tradeoffs among water uses and regions; and (c) adjust management policies as conditions change; and (d) evaluate the socio-economic and environmental benefits and risks of forecasts and policies for each region and for the system as a whole. The Integrated Forecast and Reservoir Management (INFORM) prototype demonstration project operated in Northern California through the collaboration of several forecast and management agencies has shown that decision support systems (DSS) with these attributes add value to stakeholder decision processes compared to current, less flexible management practices. Key features of the INFORM DSS include: (a) dynamically downscaled operational forecasts and climate projections that maintain the spatio-temporal coherence of the downscaled land surface forcing fields within synoptic scales; (b) use of ensemble forecast methodologies for reservoir inflows; (c) assessment of relevant tradeoffs among water uses on regional and local scales; (d) development and evaluation of dynamic reservoir policies with explicit consideration of hydro-climatic forecast uncertainties; and (e) focus on stakeholder information needs.This article discusses the INFORM integrated design concept, underlying

  5. Impacts on Water Management and Crop Production of Regional Cropping System Adaptation to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, H.; Sun, L.; Tian, Z.; Liang, Z.; Fischer, G.

    2014-12-01

    China is one of the most populous and fast developing countries, also faces a great pressure on grain production and food security. Multi-cropping system is widely applied in China to fully utilize agro-climatic resources and increase land productivity. As the heat resource keep improving under climate warming, multi-cropping system will also shifting northward, and benefit crop production. But water shortage in North China Plain will constrain the adoption of new multi-cropping system. Effectiveness of multi-cropping system adaptation to climate change will greatly depend on future hydrological change and agriculture water management. So it is necessary to quantitatively express the water demand of different multi-cropping systems under climate change. In this paper, we proposed an integrated climate-cropping system-crops adaptation framework, and specifically focused on: 1) precipitation and hydrological change under future climate change in China; 2) the best multi-cropping system and correspondent crop rotation sequence, and water demand under future agro-climatic resources; 3) attainable crop production with water constraint; and 4) future water management. In order to obtain climate projection and precipitation distribution, global climate change scenario from HADCAM3 is downscaled with regional climate model (PRECIS), historical climate data (1960-1990) was interpolated from more than 700 meteorological observation stations. The regional Agro-ecological Zone (AEZ) model is applied to simulate the best multi-cropping system and crop rotation sequence under projected climate change scenario. Finally, we use the site process-based DSSAT model to estimate attainable crop production and the water deficiency. Our findings indicate that annual land productivity may increase and China can gain benefit from climate change if multi-cropping system would be adopted. This study provides a macro-scale view of agriculture adaptation, and gives suggestions to national

  6. Development of adaptation strategies of marshland water management to regional climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bormann, Helge; Frank, Ahlhorn; Luise, Giani; Kirsten, Klaassen; Thomas, Klenke

    2010-05-01

    Since many centuries, low lying areas at the German North Sea coast are intensively managed by water boards and dike boards. Sophisticated water management systems have been developed in order to keep the water out of the low lying areas in wet periods, while in some regions additional water is needed in dry periods for agricultural and ecological purposes. For example in the Wesermarsch region, a water management system has been developed in historical times, draining the landscape in winter time by means of channels, ditches, gates, sluices and pumping stations. In contrast, in summer time water is conducted from Weser River into the Wesermarsch region to serve watering of animals, fencing grazing areas and ensuring a continuous flow in the marsh watercourses. Doing so, maintaining soil fertility is guaranteed for agriculture as well as protection against floods, sustaining river ecology and traditional livestock farming. Due to climate variability and river engineering, the water management of the Wesermarsch already runs into problems because watering in summer cannot be assured any longer in sufficient water quality. During high tides, salt water from the North Sea is flowing upstream into the Weser estuary, generating brackish conditions in the lower Weser River. In addition, soil subsidence and soil mineralization of marsh and peat soils as well as the sea level rise increase the necessary pumping frequency and the emerging energy costs. The expected future climate change will further aggravate those problems and require an adaptation of the current management system. This presentation introduces the concept behind and preliminary results of an integrative and participatory project, aiming at the development of a new water management strategy adapted to the regional climate change likely to occur until year 2050. In close cooperation with a number of regional stakeholders and based on the priorities with respect to the future development of the region

  7. Future water supply management adaptation measures - case study of Ljubljana field aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čenčur Curk, B.; Zajc Benda, T.; Souvent, P.; Bračič Železnik, B.; Bogardi, I.

    2012-04-01

    The main drinking water supply problems are related to the significant change of groundwater quantity and quality observed in the last decades as an effect of land use practices and very likely also climate change. The latter may affect the ability of drinking water suppliers to provide enough water of sufficient quality to the consumers. These topics were studied in the frame of SEE project CC-WaterS (Climate Change and Impact on Water Supply) with the main goal to develop a water supply management system regarding optimisation of water extraction and land use restrictions under climate change scenarios for water suppliers, since existing management practices are mostly inadequate to reduce impacts of CC on water supply reliability. The main goal was a designation of appropriate measures and risk assessment to adapt water supply to changing climate and land use activities considering socio-economic aspects. This was accomplished by using 'Fuzzy Decimaker', which is a tool for selecting and ranking risk reduction measures or management actions for local waterworks or water authorities under the pressure of climate change. Firstly, management options were selected and ranked. For public water supply of Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia, several management options were selected. For improvement of water supply and preservation of water resource quantities there is a need for engineering interventions, such as reducing water losses on pipelines. For improving drinking water safety and preserving water resource quality farmers are not allowed to use fertilisers in the first safeguarding zone and they get compensations for income reduction because of lower farming production. Compensations for farming restrictions in the second safeguarding zone were applied as additional management option. On the other hand, drinking water treatment is another management option to be considered. Trends in groundwater level are decreasing, above all recharge areas of waterworks

  8. Adaptive Management Methods to Protect the California Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Water Resource

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, David

    2016-01-01

    The California Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta is the hub for California's water supply, conveying water from Northern to Southern California agriculture and communities while supporting important ecosystem services, agriculture, and communities in the Delta. Changes in climate, long-term drought, water quality changes, and expansion of invasive aquatic plants threatens ecosystems, impedes ecosystem restoration, and is economically, environmentally, and sociologically detrimental to the San Francisco Bay/California Delta complex. NASA Ames Research Center and the USDA-ARS partnered with the State of California and local governments to develop science-based, adaptive-management strategies for the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. The project combines science, operations, and economics related to integrated management scenarios for aquatic weeds to help land and waterway managers make science-informed decisions regarding management and outcomes. The team provides a comprehensive understanding of agricultural and urban land use in the Delta and the major water sheds (San Joaquin/Sacramento) supplying the Delta and interaction with drought and climate impacts on the environment, water quality, and weed growth. The team recommends conservation and modified land-use practices and aids local Delta stakeholders in developing management strategies. New remote sensing tools have been developed to enhance ability to assess conditions, inform decision support tools, and monitor management practices. Science gaps in understanding how native and invasive plants respond to altered environmental conditions are being filled and provide critical biological response parameters for Delta-SWAT simulation modeling. Operational agencies such as the California Department of Boating and Waterways provide testing and act as initial adopter of decision support tools. Methods developed by the project can become routine land and water management tools in complex river delta systems.

  9. Adaptive Management of Ecosystems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management. As such, management may be treated as experiment, with replication, or management may be conducted in an iterative manner. Although the concept has resonated with many...

  10. Serious-game for water resources management adaptation training to climatic changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, Eve; Saulnier, Georges-Marie

    2013-04-01

    Water resources access is a main issue for territorial development to ensure environmental and human well-being. Indeed, sustainable development is vulnerable to water availability and climate change may affect the quantity and temporality of available water resources for anthropogenic water uses. How then to adapt, how to change water management rules and practices and how to involve stakeholders is such process? To prevent water scarcity situations, which may generate conflicts and impacts on ecosystems, it is important to think about a sustainable development where anthropogenic water uses are in good balance with forecasted water resources availability. This implies to raise awareness and involve stakeholders for a sustainable water management. Stakeholders have to think about future territorial development taking into account climate change impacts on water resources. Collaboration between scientists and stakeholders is essential to insure consistent climate change knowledge, well identification of anthropogenic uses, tensions and stakes of the territory. However sharing information on complex questions such as climate change, hydro-meteorological modeling and practical constraints may be a difficult task. Therefore to contribute to an easier debate and to the global training of all the interested actors, a serious game about water management was built. The serious game uses scientist complex models with real data but via a simple and playful web-game interface. The advantage of this interface is that it may help stakeholders, citizen or the target group to raise their understandings of impacts of climate change on water resources and to raise their awareness to the need for a sustainable water management while using state-of-the-art knowledge. The principle of the game is simple. The gamer is a mayor of a city and has to manage the water withdrawals from hydro systems, water distribution and consumption, water retreatment etc. In the same time, a clock is

  11. Water management to cope with and adapt to climate variability and change.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdy, A.; Trisorio-Liuzzi, G.

    2009-04-01

    In many parts of the world, variability in climatic conditions is already resulting in major impacts. These impacts are wide ranging and the link to water management problems is obvious and profound. The know-how and the available information undoubtedly indicate that climate change will lead to an intensification of the global hydrological cycle and can have major impacts on regional water resources, affecting both ground and surface water supply for sectorial water uses and, in particular, the irrigation field imposing notable negative effects on food security and poverty alleviation programs in most arid and semi-arid developing countries. At the United Nations Millennium Summit, in September 2000, world leaders adopted the Millennium Development Declaration. From this declaration, the IWRM was recognised as the key concept the water sector should be using for water related development and measures and, hence, for achieving the water related MDG's. However, the potential impacts of climate change and increasing climate variability are not sufficiently addressed in the IWRM plans. Indeed, only a very limited IWRM national plans have been prepared, coping with climate variability and changes. This is mainly due to the lack of operational instruments to deal with climate change and climate variability issues. This is particularly true in developing countries where the financial, human and ecological impacts are potentially greatest and where water resources may be already highly stressed, but the capacity to cope and adapt is weakest. Climate change has now brought realities including mainly rising temperatures and increasing frequency of floods and droughts that present new challenges to be addressed by the IWRM practice. There are already several regional and international initiatives underway that focus on various aspects of water resources management those to be linked with climate changes and vulnerability issues. This is the way where the water resources

  12. Challenges in Incorporating Climate Change Adaptation into Integrated Water Resources Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirshen, P. H.; Cardwell, H.; Kartez, J.; Merrill, S.

    2011-12-01

    Over the last few decades, integrated water resources management (IWRM), under various names, has become the accepted philosophy for water management in the USA. While much is still to be learned about how to actually carry it out, implementation is slowly moving forward - spurred by both legislation and the demands of stakeholders. New challenges to IWRM have arisen because of climate change. Climate change has placed increased demands on the creativities of planners and engineers because they now must design systems that will function over decades of hydrologic uncertainties that dwarf any previous hydrologic or other uncertainties. Climate and socio-economic monitoring systems must also now be established to determine when the future climate has changed sufficiently to warrant undertaking adaptation. The requirements for taking some actions now and preserving options for future actions as well as the increased risk of social inequities in climate change impacts and adaptation are challenging experts in stakeholder participation. To meet these challenges, an integrated methodology is essential that builds upon scenario analysis, risk assessment, statistical decision theory, participatory planning, and consensus building. This integration will create cross-disciplinary boundaries for these disciplines to overcome.

  13. An Adaptive Management Approach for Summer Water Level Reductions on the Upper Mississippi River System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, B.L.; Barko, J.W.; Clevenstine, R.; Davis, M.; Galat, D.L.; Lubinski, S.J.; Nestler, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this report is to provide an adaptive management approach for learning more about summer water level reductions (drawdowns) as a management tool, including where and how drawdowns can be applied most effectively within the Upper Mississippi River System. The report reviews previous drawdowns conducted within the system and provides specific recommendations for learning more about the lesser known effects of drawdowns and how the outcomes can be influenced by different implementation strategies and local conditions. The knowledge gained can be used by managers to determine how best to implement drawdowns in different parts of the UMRS to help achieve management goals. The information and recommendations contained in the report are derived from results of previous drawdown projects, insights from regional disciplinary experts, and the experience of the authors in experimental design, modeling, and monitoring. Modeling is a critical part of adaptive management and can involve conceptual models, simulation models, and empirical models. In this report we present conceptual models that express current understanding regarding functioning of the UMRS as related to drawdowns and highlight interactions among key ecological components of the system. The models were developed within the constraints of drawdown timing, magnitude (depth), and spatial differences in effects (longitudinal and lateral) with attention to ecological processes affected by drawdowns. With input from regional experts we focused on the responses of vegetation, fish, mussels, other invertebrates, and birds. The conceptual models reflect current understanding about relations and interactions among system components, the expected strength of those interactions, potential responses of system components to drawdowns, likelihood of the response occurring, and key uncertainties that limit our ability to make accurate predictions of effects (Table 1, Fig. 4-10). Based on this current

  14. Adaptive management and water temperature variability within a South African river system: what are the management options?

    PubMed

    Rivers-Moore, N A; Jewitt, G P W

    2007-01-01

    Water temperatures, and in particular daily maximum water temperatures, are a critical water quality parameter. An understanding of associated resource management issues, including links between water temperature variability and aquatic diversity values, should be part of any management programme that considers river systems. Simple rule-based models have been shown to be appropriate tools within an adaptive management approach, both because of their heuristic value and in their application for scenario generation. Such a model was developed to simulate changes in the condition factor of Chiloglanis anoterus [Crass, R.S., 1960. Notes on the freshwater fishes of Natal with descriptions of 4 new species. Annals of the Natal Museum 14, 405-458] (Pisces: Mochokidae) in response to annual frequency of exceedance of a threshold temperature under three broad environmental scenarios for part of the Sabie River falling within South Africa's Kruger National Park. This model has potential for application within the adaptive management programme being implemented by the Kruger National Park. Results show that under broad scenarios of a 10% reduction in mean daily flow rates, or a 2 degrees C increase in mean daily air temperatures, system variability is likely to increase relative to reference conditions . It is suggested that so-called "thresholds of probable concern" (TPCs), which are based on current levels of "natural" system variability, are useful as management targets for achieving a "desired future state" for the river system. The model, recognised as a preliminary hypothesis, highlights a lack of knowledge regarding the nature of system variability, and the correspondingly wide confidence limits of the proposed TPC restricts its utility in a short-term management context. Thus, it is now recognised that its value lies more in its use as a long-term modelling tool to reflect water temperature responses to flow variability. This highlights the fact that research

  15. Adaptive management and water temperature variability within a South African river system: what are the management options?

    PubMed

    Rivers-Moore, N A; Jewitt, G P W

    2007-01-01

    Water temperatures, and in particular daily maximum water temperatures, are a critical water quality parameter. An understanding of associated resource management issues, including links between water temperature variability and aquatic diversity values, should be part of any management programme that considers river systems. Simple rule-based models have been shown to be appropriate tools within an adaptive management approach, both because of their heuristic value and in their application for scenario generation. Such a model was developed to simulate changes in the condition factor of Chiloglanis anoterus [Crass, R.S., 1960. Notes on the freshwater fishes of Natal with descriptions of 4 new species. Annals of the Natal Museum 14, 405-458] (Pisces: Mochokidae) in response to annual frequency of exceedance of a threshold temperature under three broad environmental scenarios for part of the Sabie River falling within South Africa's Kruger National Park. This model has potential for application within the adaptive management programme being implemented by the Kruger National Park. Results show that under broad scenarios of a 10% reduction in mean daily flow rates, or a 2 degrees C increase in mean daily air temperatures, system variability is likely to increase relative to reference conditions . It is suggested that so-called "thresholds of probable concern" (TPCs), which are based on current levels of "natural" system variability, are useful as management targets for achieving a "desired future state" for the river system. The model, recognised as a preliminary hypothesis, highlights a lack of knowledge regarding the nature of system variability, and the correspondingly wide confidence limits of the proposed TPC restricts its utility in a short-term management context. Thus, it is now recognised that its value lies more in its use as a long-term modelling tool to reflect water temperature responses to flow variability. This highlights the fact that research

  16. Avoiding the Water-Climate-Poverty Trap: Adaptive Risk Management for Bangladesh's Coastal Embankments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    Our recent research on water security (Sadoff et al., 2015, Dadson et al., 2015) has revealed the dynamic relationship between water security and human well-being. A version of this dynamic is materialising in the coastal polder areas of Khulna, Bangladesh. Repeated coastal floods increase salinity, wipe out agricultural yields for several years and increase out-migration. As a tool to help inform and target future cycles of investment in improvements to the coastal embankments, in this paper we propose a dynamical model of biophysical processes and human well-being, which downscales our previous research to the Khulna region. State variables in the model include agricultural production, population, life expectancy and child mortality. Possible infrastructure interventions include embankment improvements, groundwater wells and drainage infrastructure. Hazard factors include flooding, salinization and drinking water pollution. Our system model can be used to inform adaptation decision making by testing the dynamical response of the system to a range of possible policy interventions, under uncertain future conditions. The analysis is intended to target investment and enable adaptive resource reallocation based on learning about the system response to interventions over the seven years of our research programme. The methodology and paper will demonstrate the complex interplay of factors that determine system vulnerability to climate change. The role of climate change uncertainties (in terms of mean sea level rise and storm surge frequency) will be evaluated alongside multiple other uncertain factors that determine system response. Adaptive management in a 'learning system' will be promoted as a mechanism for coping with climate uncertainties. References:Dadson, S., Hall, J.W., Garrick, D., Sadoff, C. and Grey, D. Water security, risk and economic growth: lessons from a dynamical systems model, Global Environmental Change, in review.Sadoff, C.W., Hall, J.W., Grey, D

  17. Classification and assessment of water bodies as adaptive structural measures for flood risk management planning.

    PubMed

    McMinn, William R; Yang, Qinli; Scholz, Miklas

    2010-09-01

    Severe rainfall events have become increasingly common in Europe. Flood defence engineering works are highly capital intensive and can be limited by land availability, leaving land and communities exposed to repeated flooding. Any adaptive drainage structure must have engineered inlets and outlets that control the water level and the rate of release. In Scotland, there are a relatively high number of drinking water reservoirs (operated by Scottish Water), which fall within this defined category and could contribute to flood management control. Reducing the rate of runoff from the upper reaches of a catchment will reduce the volume and peak flows of flood events downstream, thus allowing flood defences to be reduced in size, decreasing the corresponding capital costs. A database of retention basins with flood control potential has been developed for Scotland. The research shows that the majority of small and former drinking water reservoirs are kept full and their spillways are continuously in operation. Utilising some of the available capacity to contribute to flood control could reduce the costs of complying with the EU Flood Directive. Furthermore, the application of a previously developed classification model for Baden in Germany for the Scottish data set showed a lower diversity for basins in Scotland due to less developed infrastructure. The principle value of this approach is a clear and unambiguous categorisation, based on standard variables, which can help to promote communication and understanding between stakeholders.

  18. Droughts in the US: Modeling and Forecasting for Agriculture-Water Management and Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perveen, S.; Devineni, N.; Lall, U.

    2012-12-01

    been accessed for the agricultural data at the county level. Preliminary analyses show that large parts of Midwest and Southern parts of Florida and California are prone to multiyear droughts. This can primarily be attributed to high agricultural and/or urban water demands coupled with high interannual variability in supply. We propose to develop season-ahead and monthly updated forecasts of the drought index for informing the drought management plans. Given the already customized (sector specific) nature of the proposed drought index and its ability to represent the variability in both supply and demand, the early warning or forecasting of the index would not only complement the drought early warning systems in place by the national integrated drought information system (NIDIS) but also help in prescribing the ameliorative measures for adaptation.

  19. Adaptive management: Chapter 1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Craig R.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Allen, Craig R.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, adaptive management has explicit structure, including a careful elucidation of goals, identification of alternative management objectives and hypotheses of causation, and procedures for the collection of data followed by evaluation and reiteration. The process is iterative, and serves to reduce uncertainty, build knowledge and improve management over time in a goal-oriented and structured process.

  20. Water Resources Adaptation to Global Changes: Risk Management through Sustainable Infrastructure Planning and Management - Paper

    EPA Science Inventory

    Global changes due to cyclic and long-term climatic variations, demographic changes and economic development, have impacts on the quality and quantity of potable and irrigation source waters. Internal and external climatic forcings, for example, redistribute precipitation season...

  1. Water Resources Adaptation to Global Changes: Risk Management through Sustainable Infrastructure Planning and Managements

    EPA Science Inventory

    Global changes due to cyclic and long-term climatic variations, demographic changes and economic development, have impacts on the quality and quantity of potable and irrigation source waters. Internal and external climatic forcings, for example, redistribute precipitation season...

  2. Extreme weather events: Should drinking water quality management systems adapt to changing risk profiles?

    PubMed

    Khan, Stuart J; Deere, Daniel; Leusch, Frederic D L; Humpage, Andrew; Jenkins, Madeleine; Cunliffe, David

    2015-11-15

    Among the most widely predicted and accepted consequences of global climate change are increases in both the frequency and severity of a variety of extreme weather events. Such weather events include heavy rainfall and floods, cyclones, droughts, heatwaves, extreme cold, and wildfires, each of which can potentially impact drinking water quality by affecting water catchments, storage reservoirs, the performance of water treatment processes or the integrity of distribution systems. Drinking water guidelines, such as the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines and the World Health Organization Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, provide guidance for the safe management of drinking water. These documents present principles and strategies for managing risks that may be posed to drinking water quality. While these principles and strategies are applicable to all types of water quality risks, very little specific attention has been paid to the management of extreme weather events. We present a review of recent literature on water quality impacts of extreme weather events and consider practical opportunities for improved guidance for water managers. We conclude that there is a case for an enhanced focus on the management of water quality impacts from extreme weather events in future revisions of water quality guidance documents. PMID:26311274

  3. Extreme weather events: Should drinking water quality management systems adapt to changing risk profiles?

    PubMed

    Khan, Stuart J; Deere, Daniel; Leusch, Frederic D L; Humpage, Andrew; Jenkins, Madeleine; Cunliffe, David

    2015-11-15

    Among the most widely predicted and accepted consequences of global climate change are increases in both the frequency and severity of a variety of extreme weather events. Such weather events include heavy rainfall and floods, cyclones, droughts, heatwaves, extreme cold, and wildfires, each of which can potentially impact drinking water quality by affecting water catchments, storage reservoirs, the performance of water treatment processes or the integrity of distribution systems. Drinking water guidelines, such as the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines and the World Health Organization Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, provide guidance for the safe management of drinking water. These documents present principles and strategies for managing risks that may be posed to drinking water quality. While these principles and strategies are applicable to all types of water quality risks, very little specific attention has been paid to the management of extreme weather events. We present a review of recent literature on water quality impacts of extreme weather events and consider practical opportunities for improved guidance for water managers. We conclude that there is a case for an enhanced focus on the management of water quality impacts from extreme weather events in future revisions of water quality guidance documents.

  4. Strategic Program for Biodiversity and Water Resource Management and Climate Change Adaptation in Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sher, Hassan; Aldosari, Ali

    2014-05-01

    and temporal distribution of water resources on annual and inter-annual basis in the country. To address the impact of climate change on ago-biodiversity and water resources, the present study was initiated with the aim to increase awareness to adapt to changing water resources situation due to climate change. Secondly to build climate change resilience into Pakistan agriculture system and also to enhance the understanding of climate change issues by farmers, and policy makers to enable them to make informed decision. Our assessment revealed a gap in our knowledge on the climate change vulnerability of mountain agro-biodiversity and institutional setups, as well as lack of policy imperatives to address the issues. Therefore, the 2014 generally assembly of EGU will provide a forum for our further understanding of the relevant scienti?c and geopolitical issues. This forum will not only establish a social network for future collaborative research but will also enable us to devise better strategies for both biodiversity and water-resource management and climate change adaptation.

  5. A resilience perspective to water risk management: case-study application of the adaptation tipping point method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gersonius, Berry; Ashley, Richard; Jeuken, Ad; Nasruddin, Fauzy; Pathirana, Assela; Zevenbergen, Chris

    2010-05-01

    In a context of high uncertainty about hydrological variables due to climate change and other factors, the development of updated risk management approaches is as important as—if not more important than—the provision of improved data and forecasts of the future. Traditional approaches to adaptation attempt to manage future water risks to cities with the use of the predict-then-adapt method. This method uses hydrological change projections as the starting point to identify adaptive strategies, which is followed by analysing the cause-effect chain based on some sort of Pressures-State-Impact-Response (PSIR) scheme. The predict-then-adapt method presumes that it is possible to define a singular (optimal) adaptive strategy according to a most likely or average projection of future change. A key shortcoming of the method is, however, that the planning of water management structures is typically decoupled from forecast uncertainties and is, as such, inherently inflexible. This means that there is an increased risk of under- or over-adaptation, resulting in either mal-functioning or unnecessary costs. Rather than taking a traditional approach, responsible water risk management requires an alternative approach to adaptation that recognises and cultivates resiliency for change. The concept of resiliency relates to the capability of complex socio-technical systems to make aspirational levels of functioning attainable despite the occurrence of possible changes. Focusing on resiliency does not attempt to reduce uncertainty associated with future change, but rather to develop better ways of managing it. This makes it a particularly relevant perspective for adaptation to long-term hydrological change. Although resiliency is becoming more refined as a theory, the application of the concept to water risk management is still in an initial phase. Different methods are used in practice to support the implementation of a resilience-focused approach. Typically these approaches

  6. Adaptation strategies for water supply management in a drought prone Mediterranean river basin: Application of outranking method.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vikas; Del Vasto-Terrientes, Luis; Valls, Aida; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The regional water allocation planning is one of those complex decision problems where holistic approach to water supply management considering different criteria would be valuable. However, multi-criteria decision making with diverse indicators measured on different scales and uncertainty levels is difficult to solve. Objective of this paper is to develop scenarios for the future imbalances in water supply and demand for a water stressed Mediterranean area of Northern Spain (Tarragona) and to test the applicability and suitability of an outranking method ELECTRE-III-H for evaluating sectoral water allocation policies. This study is focused on the use of alternative water supply scenarios to fulfil the demand of water from three major sectors: domestic, industrial and agricultural. A detail scenario planning for regional water demand and supply has been discussed. For each future scenario of climate change, the goal is to obtain a ranking of a set of possible actions with regards to different types of indicators (costs, water stress and environmental impact). The analytical method used is based on outranking models for decision aid with hierarchical structures of criteria and ranking alternatives using partial preorders based on pairwise preference relations. We compare several adaptation measures including alternative water sources (reclaimed water and desalination); inter basin water transfer and sectoral demand management coming from industry, agriculture and domestic sectors and tested the sustainability of management actions for different climate change scenarios. Results have shown use of alternative water resources as the most reliable alternative with medium reclaimed water reuse in industry and agriculture and low to medium use of desalination water in domestic and industrial sectors as the best alternative. The proposed method has several advantages such as the management of heterogeneous scales of measurement without requiring any artificial

  7. Adaptation strategies for water supply management in a drought prone Mediterranean river basin: Application of outranking method.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vikas; Del Vasto-Terrientes, Luis; Valls, Aida; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The regional water allocation planning is one of those complex decision problems where holistic approach to water supply management considering different criteria would be valuable. However, multi-criteria decision making with diverse indicators measured on different scales and uncertainty levels is difficult to solve. Objective of this paper is to develop scenarios for the future imbalances in water supply and demand for a water stressed Mediterranean area of Northern Spain (Tarragona) and to test the applicability and suitability of an outranking method ELECTRE-III-H for evaluating sectoral water allocation policies. This study is focused on the use of alternative water supply scenarios to fulfil the demand of water from three major sectors: domestic, industrial and agricultural. A detail scenario planning for regional water demand and supply has been discussed. For each future scenario of climate change, the goal is to obtain a ranking of a set of possible actions with regards to different types of indicators (costs, water stress and environmental impact). The analytical method used is based on outranking models for decision aid with hierarchical structures of criteria and ranking alternatives using partial preorders based on pairwise preference relations. We compare several adaptation measures including alternative water sources (reclaimed water and desalination); inter basin water transfer and sectoral demand management coming from industry, agriculture and domestic sectors and tested the sustainability of management actions for different climate change scenarios. Results have shown use of alternative water resources as the most reliable alternative with medium reclaimed water reuse in industry and agriculture and low to medium use of desalination water in domestic and industrial sectors as the best alternative. The proposed method has several advantages such as the management of heterogeneous scales of measurement without requiring any artificial

  8. Adapting irrigation management to water scarcity: constraints of plant growth, hydraulics and carbon assimilation.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water shortages are responsible for the greatest crop losses around the world and are expected to worsen. In arid areas where agriculture is dependent on irrigation, various forms of deficit irrigation management have been suggested to optimize crop yields for available soil water. The relationshi...

  9. Adaptive exchange of capitals in urban water resources management : an approach to sustainability?

    EPA Science Inventory

    With water availability increasingly restricted by deficiencies in quality and quantity, water resources management is a central issue in planning for sustainability in the Anthropocene. We first offer a definition of sustainability based on the ease with which capitals (e.g., na...

  10. A conceptual framework for addressing complexity and unfolding transition dynamics when developing sustainable adaptation strategies in urban water management.

    PubMed

    Fratini, C F; Elle, M; Jensen, M B; Mikkelsen, P S

    2012-01-01

    To achieve a successful and sustainable adaptation to climate change we need to transform the way we think about change. Much water management research has focused on technical innovation with a range of new solutions developed to achieve a 'more sustainable and integrated urban water management cycle'. But Danish municipalities and utility companies are struggling to bring such solutions into practice. 'Green infrastructure', for example, requires the consideration of a larger range of aspects related to the urban context than the traditional urban water system optimization. There is the need for standardized methods and guidelines to organize transdisciplinary processes where different types of knowledge and perspectives are taken into account. On the basis of the macro-meso-micro pattern inspired by complexity science and transition theory, we developed a conceptual framework to organize processes addressing the complexity characterizing urban water management in the context of climate change. In this paper the framework is used to organize a research process aiming at understanding and unfolding urban dynamics for sustainable transition. The final goal is to enable local authorities and utilities to create the basis for managing and catalysing the technical and organizational innovation necessary for a sustainable transition towards climate change adaptation in urban areas.

  11. Adaptation and risk management

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, Benjamin L

    2011-01-01

    Adaptation assessment methods are compatible with the international risk management standard ISO:31000. Risk management approaches are increasingly being recommended for adaptation assessments at both national and local levels. Two orientations to assessments can commonly be identified: top-down and bottom-up, and prescriptive and diagnostic. Combinations of these orientations favor different types of assessments. The choice of orientation can be related to uncertainties in prediction and taking action, in the type of adaptation and in the degree of system stress. Adopting multiple viewpoints is to be encouraged, especially in complex situations. The bulk of current guidance material is consistent with top-down and predictive approaches, thus is most suitable for risk scoping and identification. Abroad range ofmaterial fromwithin and beyond the climate change literature can be used to select methods to be used in assessing and implementing adaptation. The framing of risk, correct formulation of the questions being investigated and assessment methodology are critical aspects of the scoping phase. Only when these issues have been addressed should be issue of specific methods and tools be addressed. The reorientation of adaptation from an assessment focused solely on anthropogenic climate change to broader issues of vulnerability/resilience, sustainable development and disaster risk, especially through a risk management framework, can draw from existing policy and management understanding in communities, professions and agencies, incorporating existing agendas, knowledge, risks, and issues they already face.

  12. Climate change adaptation & mitigation strategies for Water-Energy-Land Nexus management in Mediterranean region: Case study of Catalunya (Spain).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Vikas; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2016-04-01

    Water-Energy-Land (WEL) Nexus management is one of those complex decision problems where holistic approach to supply-demand management considering different criteria would be valuable. However, multi-criteria decision making with diverse indicators measured on different scales and uncertainty levels is difficult to solve. On the other hand, climate adaptation and mitigation need to be integrated, and resource sensitive regions like Mediterranean provide ample opportunities towards that end. While the water sector plays a key role in climate adaptation, mitigation focuses on the energy and agriculture sector. Recent studies on the so-called WEL nexus confirm the potential synergies to be derived from mainstreaming climate adaptation in the water sector, while simultaneously addressing opportunities for co-management with energy (and also land use). Objective of this paper is to develop scenarios for the future imbalances in water & energy supply and demand for a water stressed Mediterranean area of Northern Spain (Catalonia) and to test the scenario based climate adaptation & mitigation strategy for WEL management policies. Resource sensitive area of Catalonia presents an interesting nexus problem to study highly stressed water demand scenario (representing all major demand sectors), very heterogeneous land use including intensive agriculture to diversified urban and industrial uses, and mixed energy supply including hydro, wind, gas turbine to nuclear energy. Different energy sectors have different water and land requirements. Inter-river basin water transfer is another factor which is considered for this area. The water-energy link is multifaceted. Energy production can affect water quality, while energy is used in water treatment and to reduce pollution. Similarly, hydropower - producing energy from water - and desalination - producing freshwater using energy - both play important role in economic growth by supplying large and secure amounts of 'green' energy or

  13. Modification of stool's water content in constipated infants: management with an adapted infant formula

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Constipation is a common occurrence in formula-fed infants. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate the impact of a formula with high levels of lactose and magnesium, in compliance with the official regulations, on stool water content, as well as a parental assessment of constipation. Materials and methods Thirty healthy term-born, formula-fed infants, aged 4-10 weeks, with functional constipation were included. All infants were full-term and fed standard formula. Exclusion criteria were preterm and/or low birth weight, organic constipation, being breast fed or fed a formula specially designed to treat constipation. Stool composition was measured by near-infrared reflectance analysis (NIRA) and parents answered questions about crying associated with defecation and stool consistency at baseline and after two weeks of the adapted formula. Results After 2 weeks of the adapted formula, stool water content increased from 71 +/- 8.1% to 84 +/- 5.9%, (p < 0.02). There was no significant change in the stool's fat, protein or carbohydrate content. Parental impressions of constipation were improved with the decrease in stool hardness (100% with hard stools at baseline, 10% after 2 weeks), pain with defecation (90% at baseline, 10% after 2 weeks), and the requirement for rectal stimulation to achieve defecation (70% at baseline, 30% after 2 weeks, p < 0.001 for all three indicators). Conclusions This preliminary study suggests that an adapted formula with high levels of lactose and magnesium increases stool water content and improves symptoms of constipation in term-born, formula-fed infants. A larger randomized placebo-controlled trial is indicated. PMID:21595890

  14. Climate Change in Colorado: Developing a Synthesis of the Science to Support Water Resources Management and Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, A. J.; Barsugli, J. J.; Averyt, K. B.; Deheza, V.; Udall, B.

    2008-12-01

    In 2007 Colorado's Governor Ritter issued a Colorado Climate Action Plan, in response to the risks associated with climate change and sets a goal to adapt to those climate changes "that cannot be avoided." The Western Water Assessment, a NOAA funded RISA program, was commissioned to do a synthesis of the science on climate change aimed at planners, decisionmakers, and policymakers in water in Colorado. Changes in Colorado's climate and implications for water resources are occurring in a global context. The objective of the report is to communicate the state of the science regarding the physical aspects of climate change that are important for evaluating impacts on Colorado's water resources, and to support state efforts to develop a water adaptation plan. However, the identification of specific climate change impacts on water resources is beyond the scope of this report. Water managers have a long history of adapting to changing circumstances, including changes in economies and land use, environmental concerns, and population growth. Climate change will further affect the decisions made about use of water. However, current water management practices may not be robust enough to cope with this climate change. This presentation reports on the process of developing the report and challenges we faced. We developed the report based on ongoing interactions with the water management community and discussions with them about their decision processes and needs. A second presentation (see Barsugli et al) presents the synthesis findings from the report. We followed the IPCC WG1 model of observations, attribution, and projections. However, many published studies and datasets include information about Colorado, there are few climate studies that focus only on the state. Consequently, many important scientific analyses for Colorado have not been done, and Colorado- specific information is often imbedded in or averaged with studies of the larger Western U.S. We used findings from

  15. Adapting to a Changing Colorado River: Making Future Water Deliveries More Reliable Through Robust Management Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groves, D.; Bloom, E.; Fischbach, J. R.; Knopman, D.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation and water management agencies representing the seven Colorado River Basin States initiated the Colorado River Basin Study in January 2010 to evaluate the resiliency of the Colorado River system over the next 50 years and compare different options for ensuring successful management of the river's resources. RAND was asked to join this Basin Study Team in January 2012 to help develop an analytic approach to identify key vulnerabilities in managing the Colorado River basin over the coming decades and to evaluate different options that could reduce this vulnerability. Using a quantitative approach for planning under uncertainty called Robust Decision Making (RDM), the RAND team assisted the Basin Study by: identifying future vulnerable conditions that could lead to imbalances that could cause the basin to be unable to meet its water delivery objectives; developing a computer-based tool to define 'portfolios' of management options reflecting different strategies for reducing basin imbalances; evaluating these portfolios across thousands of future scenarios to determine how much they could improve basin outcomes; and analyzing the results from the system simulations to identify key tradeoffs among the portfolios. This talk will describe RAND's contribution to the Basin Study, focusing on the methodologies used to to identify vulnerabilities for Upper Basin and Lower Basin water supply reliability and to compare portfolios of options. Several key findings emerged from the study. Future Streamflow and Climate Conditions Are Key: - Vulnerable conditions arise in a majority of scenarios where streamflows are lower than historical averages and where drought conditions persist for eight years or more. - Depending where the shortages occur, problems will arise for delivery obligations for the upper river basin and the lower river basin. The lower river basin is vulnerable to a broader range of plausible future conditions. Additional Investments in

  16. Science-society collaboration for robust adaptation planning in water management - The Maipo River Basin in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocampo Melgar, Anahí; Vicuña, Sebastián; Gironás, Jorge

    2015-04-01

    The Metropolitan Region (M.R.) in Chile is populated by over 6 million people and supplied by the Maipo River and its large number of irrigation channels. Potential environmental alterations caused by global change will extremely affect managers and users of water resources in this semi-arid basin. These hydro-climatological impacts combined with demographic and economic changes will be particularly complex in the city of Santiago, due to the diverse, counterpoised and equally important existing activities and demands. These challenges and complexities request the implementation of flexible plans and actions to adapt policies, institutions, infrastructure and behaviors to a new future with climate change. Due to the inherent uncertainties in the future, a recent research project entitled MAPA (Maipo Adaptation Plan for its initials in Spanish) has formed a collaborative science-society platform to generate insights into the vulnerabilities, challenges and possible mitigation measures that would be necessary to deal with the potential changes in the M.R. This large stakeholder platform conformed by around 30 public, private and civil society organizations, both at the local and regional level and guided by a Robust Decision Making Framework (RDMF) has identified vulnerabilities, future scenarios, performance indicators and mitigation measures for the Maipo River basin. The RDMF used in this project is the XLRM framework (Lempert et al. 2006) that incorporates policy levers (L), exogenous uncertainties (X), measures of performance standards (M) and relationships (R) in an interlinked process. Both stakeholders' expertise and computational capabilities have been used to create hydrological models for the urban, rural and highland sectors supported also by the Water Evaluation and Planning system software (WEAP). The identification of uncertainties and land use transition trends was used to develop future development scenarios to explore possible water management

  17. Adaptive management of urban watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garmestani, A.; Shuster, W.; Green, O. O.

    2013-12-01

    Consent decree settlements for violations of the Clean Water Act (1972) increasingly include provisions for redress of combined sewer overflow activity through hybrid approaches that incorporate the best of both gray (e.g., storage tunnels) and green infrastructure (e.g., rain gardens). Adaptive management is an environmental management strategy that uses an iterative process of decision-making to improve environmental management via system monitoring. A central tenet of adaptive management is that management involves a learning process that can help regulated communities achieve environmental quality objectives. We are using an adaptive management approach to guide a green infrastructure retrofit of a neighborhood in the Slavic Village Development Corporation area (Cleveland, Ohio). We are in the process of gathering hydrologic and ecosystem services data and will use this data as a basis for collaboration with area citizens on a plan to use green infrastructure to contain stormflows. Monitoring data provides researchers with feedback on the impact of green infrastructure implementation and suggest where improvements can be made.

  18. Rainfall Variability, Adaptation through Irrigation, and Sustainable Management of Water Resources in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishman, R.

    2013-12-01

    Most studies of the impact of climate change on agriculture account for shifts in temperature and total seasonal (or monthly) precipitation. However, climate change is also projected to increase intra-seasonal precipitation variability in many parts of the world. To provide first estimates of the potential impact, I paired daily rainfall and rice yield data during the period 1970-2004, from across India, where about a fifth of the world's rice is produced, and yields have always been highly dependent on the erratic monsoon rainfall. Multivariate regression models revealed that the number of rainless days during the wet season has a statistically robust negative impact on rice yields that exceeds that of total seasonal rainfall. Moreover, a simulation of climate change impacts found that the negative impact of the projected increase in the number of rainless days will trump the positive impact of the projected increase in total precipitation, and reverse the net precipitation effect on rice production from positive (+3%) to negative (-10%). The results also indicate that higher irrigation coverage is correlated with reduced sensitivity to rainfall variability, suggesting the expansion of irrigation can effectively adapt agriculture to these climate change impacts. However, taking into account limitations on water resource availability in India, I calculate that under current irrigation practices, sustainable use of water can mitigate less than a tenth of the impact.

  19. An adaptive ant colony optimization framework for scheduling environmental flow management alternatives under varied environmental water availability conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szemis, J. M.; Maier, H. R.; Dandy, G. C.

    2014-10-01

    Human water use is increasing and, as such, water for the environment is limited and needs to be managed efficiently. One method for achieving this is the scheduling of environmental flow management alternatives (EFMAs) (e.g., releases, wetland regulators), with these schedules generally developed over a number of years. However, the availability of environmental water changes annually as a result of natural variability (e.g., drought, wet years). To incorporate this variation and schedule EFMAs in a operational setting, a previously formulated multiobjective optimization approach for EFMA schedule development used for long-term planning has been modified and incorporated into an adaptive framework. As part of this approach, optimal schedules are updated at regular intervals during the planning horizon based on environmental water allocation forecasts, which are obtained using artificial neural networks. In addition, the changes between current and updated schedules can be minimized to reduce any disruptions to long-term planning. The utility of the approach is assessed by applying it to an 89km section of the River Murray in South Australia. Results indicate that the approach is beneficial under a range of hydrological conditions and an improved ecological response is obtained in a operational setting compared with previous long-term approaches. Also, it successfully produces trade-offs between the number of disruptions to schedules and the ecological response, with results suggesting that ecological response increases with minimal alterations required to existing schedules. Overall, the results indicate that the information obtained using the proposed approach potentially aides managers in the efficient management of environmental water.

  20. Integrated and adaptive management for sustainable water use along ephemeral rivers under severe uncertainty of future flood regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Sven; Attinger, Sabine; Frank, Karin; Baxter, Peter; Hildebrandt, Anke

    2010-05-01

    and human requirements by investigating the management strategies in terms of their ability to sustainably exploit the ground water resource while preserving the natural vegetation structure (here: coexistence of three tree species). We apply a conceptual ecohydrological model and use the information gap decision theory to estimate the robustness of strategies to failure due to flood parameter uncertainty. The performance of every strategy decreased as flood parameter uncertainty increased. However, ecological performance was more vulnerable with increasing uncertainty than the water supply performance, suggesting that the vegetation structure can be used as sensitive indicator and pre-warning system for changing environmental conditions. With the integrated and adaptive strategy it was most likely to sustainably use the ground water while preserving the natural vegetation structure, however, with the effect of reducing the probability of a large total system biomass.

  1. Uncertainty Management in Urban Water Engineering Adaptation to Climate Change - abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current water resource planning and engineering assume a stationary climate, in which the observed historical water flow rate and water quality variations are often used to define the technical basis. When the non-stationarity is considered, however, climate change projection co...

  2. Adaptive Management Implementation: Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program Trinity River Restoration Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wittler, R.; McBain, S.; Stalnaker, C.; Bizier, P.; DeBarry, P.

    2003-01-01

    Two adaptive management programs, the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (GCDAMP) and the Trinity River Restoration Program (TRRP) are examined. In both cases, the focus is on managing the aquatic and riparian systems downstream of a large dam and water supply project. The status of the two programs, lessons learned by the program managers and the Adaptive Environmental Assessment and Management (AEAM) evolution of the TRRP are discussed. The Trinity River illustrates some of the scientific uncertainities that a program faces and the ways the program evolves from concept through implementation.

  3. Climate impacts on European agriculture and water management in the context of adaptation and mitigation--the importance of an integrated approach.

    PubMed

    Falloon, Pete; Betts, Richard

    2010-11-01

    We review and qualitatively assess the importance of interactions and feedbacks in assessing climate change impacts on water and agriculture in Europe. We focus particularly on the impact of future hydrological changes on agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation and adaptation options. Future projected trends in European agriculture include northward movement of crop suitability zones and increasing crop productivity in Northern Europe, but declining productivity and suitability in Southern Europe. This may be accompanied by a widening of water resource differences between the North and South, and an increase in extreme rainfall events and droughts. Changes in future hydrology and water management practices will influence agricultural adaptation measures and alter the effectiveness of agricultural mitigation strategies. These interactions are often highly complex and influenced by a number of factors which are themselves influenced by climate. Mainly positive impacts may be anticipated for Northern Europe, where agricultural adaptation may be shaped by reduced vulnerability of production, increased water supply and reduced water demand. However, increasing flood hazards may present challenges for agriculture, and summer irrigation shortages may result from earlier spring runoff peaks in some regions. Conversely, the need for effective adaptation will be greatest in Southern Europe as a result of increased production vulnerability, reduced water supply and increased demands for irrigation. Increasing flood and drought risks will further contribute to the need for robust management practices. The impacts of future hydrological changes on agricultural mitigation in Europe will depend on the balance between changes in productivity and rates of decomposition and GHG emission, both of which depend on climatic, land and management factors. Small increases in European soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks per unit land area are anticipated considering changes in climate

  4. Hydropower, Adaptive Management, and Biodiversity

    PubMed

    WIERINGA; MORTON

    1996-11-01

    / Adaptive management is a policy framework within which an iterative process of decision making is followed based on the observed responses to and effectiveness of previous decisions. The use of adaptive management allows science-based research and monitoring of natural resource and ecological community responses, in conjunction with societal values and goals, to guide decisions concerning man's activities. The adaptive management process has been proposed for application to hydropower operations at Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado River, a situation that requires complex balancing of natural resources requirements and competing human uses. This example is representative of the general increase in public interest in the operation of hydropower facilities and possible effects on downstream natural resources and of the growing conflicts between uses and users of river-based resources. This paper describes the adaptive management process, using the Glen Canyon Dam example, and discusses ways to make the process work effectively in managing downstream natural resources and biodiversity. KEY WORDS: Adaptive management; Biodiversity; Hydropower; Glen Canyon Dam; Ecology

  5. Water Management Adaptations for Aquatic Ecosystem Services Under a Changing Climate. Analytical Framework and Case Study for Chinook Salmon in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar, M.; Mosser, C. M.; Thompson, L. C.; Purkey, D.; Moyle, P. B.

    2010-12-01

    Spring-run Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) are vulnerable to climate change because, before spawning in autumn, adults hold in river pools where temperature increases during summer. As these species naturally experience temperatures close to tolerable thresholds, climate-induced flow and temperature changes can increase their vulnerability. Our objective was to assemble an analytical framework to assess temperature and streamflow thresholds that would lead to critical reductions in spring-run Chinook salmon abundance, and to evaluate management adaptations to ameliorate these impacts. The analytical framework coupled climate data with watershed hydrology and salmon population dynamics models. We used WEAP, an integrated watershed hydrology, water management, and temperature model; and SALMOD, a spatially explicit and size/stage structured model that predicts population dynamics of salmon in freshwater systems. The models simulated weekly mean streamflow, temperature, and salmon abundance in Butte Creek, California. We calibrated and validated the models to adequately fit historical data. With the analytical framework built, we used bias-corrected and spatially downscaled climate data from six General Circulation Models and two emission scenarios for the period 2010 - 2099 to run the two linked models, and generated a range of potential future outcomes. WEAP predicted that summer base flows were lower, and water temperatures were higher for climate scenarios vs. historical conditions. SALMOD predicted increased summer thermal mortality of adult salmon; the population was predicted to decline for all climate scenarios and model combinations. We tested management adaptations, including cessation of water diverted for power production, and storage of cold reservoir water upstream for release during hot weather. Some adaptations resulted in cooler temperatures, more adults surviving to spawn, and extended population survival time. The coupled models, together

  6. A holistic strategy for adaptive land management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adaptive management is widely applied to natural resources management. Adaptive management can be generally defined as an iterative decision-making process that incorporates formulation of management objectives, actions designed to address these objectives, monitoring of results, and repeated adapta...

  7. Future water quality monitoring--adapting tools to deal with mixtures of pollutants in water resource management.

    PubMed

    Altenburger, Rolf; Ait-Aissa, Selim; Antczak, Philipp; Backhaus, Thomas; Barceló, Damià; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Brion, Francois; Busch, Wibke; Chipman, Kevin; López de Alda, Miren; Umbuzeiro, Gisela de Aragão; Escher, Beate I; Falciani, Francesco; Faust, Michael; Focks, Andreas; Hilscherova, Klara; Hollender, Juliane; Hollert, Henner; Jäger, Felix; Jahnke, Annika; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Krauss, Martin; Lemkine, Gregory F; Munthe, John; Neumann, Steffen; Schymanski, Emma L; Scrimshaw, Mark; Segner, Helmut; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; Smedes, Foppe; Kughathas, Subramaniam; Teodorovic, Ivana; Tindall, Andrew J; Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Walz, Karl-Heinz; Williams, Tim D; Van den Brink, Paul J; van Gils, Jos; Vrana, Branislav; Zhang, Xiaowei; Brack, Werner

    2015-04-15

    Environmental quality monitoring of water resources is challenged with providing the basis for safeguarding the environment against adverse biological effects of anthropogenic chemical contamination from diffuse and point sources. While current regulatory efforts focus on monitoring and assessing a few legacy chemicals, many more anthropogenic chemicals can be detected simultaneously in our aquatic resources. However, exposure to chemical mixtures does not necessarily translate into adverse biological effects nor clearly shows whether mitigation measures are needed. Thus, the question which mixtures are present and which have associated combined effects becomes central for defining adequate monitoring and assessment strategies. Here we describe the vision of the international, EU-funded project SOLUTIONS, where three routes are explored to link the occurrence of chemical mixtures at specific sites to the assessment of adverse biological combination effects. First of all, multi-residue target and non-target screening techniques covering a broader range of anticipated chemicals co-occurring in the environment are being developed. By improving sensitivity and detection limits for known bioactive compounds of concern, new analytical chemistry data for multiple components can be obtained and used to characterise priority mixtures. This information on chemical occurrence will be used to predict mixture toxicity and to derive combined effect estimates suitable for advancing environmental quality standards. Secondly, bioanalytical tools will be explored to provide aggregate bioactivity measures integrating all components that produce common (adverse) outcomes even for mixtures of varying compositions. The ambition is to provide comprehensive arrays of effect-based tools and trait-based field observations that link multiple chemical exposures to various environmental protection goals more directly and to provide improved in situ observations for impact assessment of

  8. Future water quality monitoring--adapting tools to deal with mixtures of pollutants in water resource management.

    PubMed

    Altenburger, Rolf; Ait-Aissa, Selim; Antczak, Philipp; Backhaus, Thomas; Barceló, Damià; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Brion, Francois; Busch, Wibke; Chipman, Kevin; López de Alda, Miren; Umbuzeiro, Gisela de Aragão; Escher, Beate I; Falciani, Francesco; Faust, Michael; Focks, Andreas; Hilscherova, Klara; Hollender, Juliane; Hollert, Henner; Jäger, Felix; Jahnke, Annika; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Krauss, Martin; Lemkine, Gregory F; Munthe, John; Neumann, Steffen; Schymanski, Emma L; Scrimshaw, Mark; Segner, Helmut; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; Smedes, Foppe; Kughathas, Subramaniam; Teodorovic, Ivana; Tindall, Andrew J; Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Walz, Karl-Heinz; Williams, Tim D; Van den Brink, Paul J; van Gils, Jos; Vrana, Branislav; Zhang, Xiaowei; Brack, Werner

    2015-04-15

    Environmental quality monitoring of water resources is challenged with providing the basis for safeguarding the environment against adverse biological effects of anthropogenic chemical contamination from diffuse and point sources. While current regulatory efforts focus on monitoring and assessing a few legacy chemicals, many more anthropogenic chemicals can be detected simultaneously in our aquatic resources. However, exposure to chemical mixtures does not necessarily translate into adverse biological effects nor clearly shows whether mitigation measures are needed. Thus, the question which mixtures are present and which have associated combined effects becomes central for defining adequate monitoring and assessment strategies. Here we describe the vision of the international, EU-funded project SOLUTIONS, where three routes are explored to link the occurrence of chemical mixtures at specific sites to the assessment of adverse biological combination effects. First of all, multi-residue target and non-target screening techniques covering a broader range of anticipated chemicals co-occurring in the environment are being developed. By improving sensitivity and detection limits for known bioactive compounds of concern, new analytical chemistry data for multiple components can be obtained and used to characterise priority mixtures. This information on chemical occurrence will be used to predict mixture toxicity and to derive combined effect estimates suitable for advancing environmental quality standards. Secondly, bioanalytical tools will be explored to provide aggregate bioactivity measures integrating all components that produce common (adverse) outcomes even for mixtures of varying compositions. The ambition is to provide comprehensive arrays of effect-based tools and trait-based field observations that link multiple chemical exposures to various environmental protection goals more directly and to provide improved in situ observations for impact assessment of

  9. Total Water Management - slides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total Water Management (TWM) examines urban water systems in an interconnected manner. It encompasses reducing water demands, increasing water recycling and reuse, creating water supply assets from stormwater management, matching water quality to end-use needs, and achieving envi...

  10. Adaptive management: Promises and pitfalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLain, Rebecca J.; Lee, Robert G.

    1996-07-01

    Proponents of the scientific adaptive management approach argue that it increases knowledge acquisition rates, enhances information flow among policy actors, and provides opportunities for creating shared understandings. However, evidence from efforts to implement the approach in New Brunswick, British Columbia, Canada, and the Columbia River Basin indicates that these promises have not been met. The data show that scientific adaptive management relies excessively on the use of linear systems models, discounts nonscientific forms of knowledge, and pays inadequate attention to policy processes that promote the development of shared understandings among diverse stakeholders. To be effective, new adaptive management efforts will need to incorporate knowledge from multiple sources, make use of multiple systems models, and support new forms of cooperation among stakeholders.

  11. Hydropower, adaptive management, and biodiversity

    SciTech Connect

    Wieringa, M.J.; Morton, A.G.

    1996-11-01

    Adaptive management is a policy framework within which an iterative process of decision making is allowed based on the observed responses to and effectiveness of previous decisions. The use of adaptive management allows science-based research and monitoring of natural resource and ecological community responses, in conjunction with societal values and goals, to guide decisions concerning man`s activities. The adaptive management process has been proposed for application to hydropower operations at Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado River, a situation that requires complex balancing of natural resources requirements and competing human uses. This example is representative of the general increase in public interest in the operation of hydropower facilities and possible effects on downstream natural resources and of the growing conflicts between uses and users of river-based resources. This paper describes the adaptive management process, using the Glen Canyon Dam example, and discusses ways to make the process work effectively in managing downstream natural resources and biodiversity. 10 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Spatial Analysis of Soil Subsidence in Peat Meadow Areas in Friesland in Relation to Land and Water Management, Climate Change, and Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouns, Karlijn; Eikelboom, Tessa; Jansen, Peter C.; Janssen, Ron; Kwakernaak, Cees; van den Akker, Jan J. H.; Verhoeven, Jos T. A.

    2015-02-01

    Dutch peatlands have been subsiding due to peat decomposition, shrinkage and compression, since their reclamation in the 11th century. Currently, subsidence amounts to 1-2 cm/year. Water management in these areas is complex and costly, greenhouse gases are being emitted, and surface water quality is relatively poor. Regional and local authorities and landowners responsible for peatland management have recognized these problems. In addition, the Netherlands Royal Meteorological Institute predicts higher temperatures and drier summers, which both are expected to enhance peat decomposition. Stakeholder workshops have been organized in three case study areas in the province of Friesland to exchange knowledge on subsidence and explore future subsidence rates and the effects of land use and management changes on subsidence rates. Subsidence rates were up to 3 cm/year in deeply drained parcels and increased when we included climate change in the modeling exercises. This means that the relatively thin peat layers in this province (ca 1 m) would shrink or even disappear by the end of the century when current practices continue. Adaptation measures were explored, such as extensive dairy farming and the production of new crops in wetter conditions, but little experience has been gained on best practices. The workshops have resulted in useful exchange of ideas on possible measures and their consequences for land use and water management in the three case study areas. The province and the regional water board will use the results to develop land use and water management policies for the next decades.

  13. Spatial analysis of soil subsidence in peat meadow areas in Friesland in relation to land and water management, climate change, and adaptation.

    PubMed

    Brouns, Karlijn; Eikelboom, Tessa; Jansen, Peter C; Janssen, Ron; Kwakernaak, Cees; van den Akker, Jan J H; Verhoeven, Jos T A

    2015-02-01

    Dutch peatlands have been subsiding due to peat decomposition, shrinkage and compression, since their reclamation in the 11th century. Currently, subsidence amounts to 1-2 cm/year. Water management in these areas is complex and costly, greenhouse gases are being emitted, and surface water quality is relatively poor. Regional and local authorities and landowners responsible for peatland management have recognized these problems. In addition, the Netherlands Royal Meteorological Institute predicts higher temperatures and drier summers, which both are expected to enhance peat decomposition. Stakeholder workshops have been organized in three case study areas in the province of Friesland to exchange knowledge on subsidence and explore future subsidence rates and the effects of land use and management changes on subsidence rates. Subsidence rates were up to 3 cm/year in deeply drained parcels and increased when we included climate change in the modeling exercises. This means that the relatively thin peat layers in this province (ca 1 m) would shrink or even disappear by the end of the century when current practices continue. Adaptation measures were explored, such as extensive dairy farming and the production of new crops in wetter conditions, but little experience has been gained on best practices. The workshops have resulted in useful exchange of ideas on possible measures and their consequences for land use and water management in the three case study areas. The province and the regional water board will use the results to develop land use and water management policies for the next decades.

  14. Changes of water demand - possible adaptation of agricultural crops and management options to improve water use efficiency in the Marchfeld area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaler, S.; Eitzinger, J.; Dubrovsky, M.; Trnka, M.

    2009-04-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the vulnerability of current agricultural cropping systems in the Marchfeld region to climate change. The investigation area Marchfeld is located in the north-eastern (NE) part of Austria and is characterized by a semi-arid climate with low annual rainfall. It is one of the driest regions in the country, but also one of the main field crop production areas. The soil conditions in Marchfeld demonstrate a significant spatial variability, which include soils with low to moderate water-storage capacities. Higher temperatures in the next decades imply higher evaporation and consequently higher water demand for the crops. The phenological development rates of the cultivars will accelerate and an increase of heat stress as well as drought stress can be expected. These points influence intense the water balance and subsequently the yield of the crops in the investigation area. In order to improve water use efficiency under those changing conditions, a shift of average sowing dates and an adjustment of tillage were analyzed. The DSSAT cropping system model was applied for winter wheat and spring barley to assess potential yield under climate scenarios for NE Austria. The scenarios were carried out with ECHAM5, HadCM3 and NCAR PCM global circulation models (GCMs) for present conditions (reference period 1961-1990) and 2035's (2021-2050), based on SRES-A1B emission scenarios. Yield model simulations were done for all defined scenarios (climate, management, crop) and different soil classes. The simulations contain the CO2 fertilizing effect, rain fed farming, adapted sowing date and contemporary crops without consideration of potential profit cuts caused by pest or diseases. Simulation results indicate that climate change will force a delay of the sowing date for winter wheat of maximal 14 days in October. In case of spring barley, climate change allows an earlier sowing date in spring (up to 14 days). Both crops show a

  15. Moving targets, long-lived infrastructure, and increasing needs for integration and adaptation in water management: an illustration from Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Hering, J G; Hoehn, E; Klinke, A; Maurer, M; Peter, A; Reichert, P; Robinson, C; Schirmer, K; Schirmer, M; Stamm, C; Wehrli, B

    2012-01-01

    Switzerland provides an example of successful management of water infrastructure and water resources that was accomplished largely without integration across sectors. Limitations in this approach have become apparent; decisions that were formerly based only on technical and economic feasibility must now incorporate broader objectives such as ecological impact. In addition, current and emerging challenges relate to increasingly complex problems that are likely to demand more integrated approaches. If such integration is to be of benefit, it must be possible to redirect resources across sectors, and the synergies derived from integration must outweigh the additional cost of increased complexity.

  16. Moving Targets, Long-Lived Infrastructure, and Increasing Needs for Integration and Adaptation in Water Management: An Illustration from Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Switzerland provides an example of successful management of water infrastructure and water resources that was accomplished largely without integration across sectors. Limitations in this approach have become apparent; decisions that were formerly based only on technical and economic feasibility must now incorporate broader objectives such as ecological impact. In addition, current and emerging challenges relate to increasingly complex problems that are likely to demand more integrated approaches. If such integration is to be of benefit, it must be possible to redirect resources across sectors, and the synergies derived from integration must outweigh the additional cost of increased complexity. PMID:22208812

  17. Adaptive management, monitoring, and the ecological sustainability of a thermal-polluted water ecosystem: a case in SW Spain.

    PubMed

    Lavado Contador, J F

    2005-05-01

    The construction of the Almaraz nuclear power plant in Spain in the 1970s posed interesting environmental problems concerning the construction of a cooling reservoir (Arrocampo reservoir) to cool the steam condensers and the consequent heating of the reservoir's water. The socio-political context forced decision makers to set up a project for the monitoring and management of the environmental impacts derived from the construction and operation of the power plant. Numerous scientific and technical specialists collaborated with the representatives of social groups towards two goals: the improvement of the biodiversity and of the efficiency of the cooling system. These goals involved the monitoring and managing of the system with respect to different biological aspects, mainly limnology, ichthyology, avian fauna and vegetation. The management plan yielded numerous results. The control of the water eutrophy is one of the most important due to its repercussion on the rest of the ecosystem, especially the fish fauna. The development of the shore vegetation slowly increased the patchwork nature of the reservoir, leading to a greater diversity of the avian species. This paper describes the monitoring and management of the Arrocampo ecosystem, the condition before and after the construction of the reservoir and the results obtained concerning some biological communities.

  18. Managing Expectations: Results from Case Studies of US Water Utilities on Preparing for, Coping with, and Adapting to Extreme Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beller-Simms, N.; Metchis, K.

    2014-12-01

    Water utilities, reeling from increased impacts of successive extreme events such as floods, droughts, and derechos, are taking a more proactive role in preparing for future incursions. A recent study by Federal and water foundation investigators, reveals how six US water utilities and their regions prepared for, responded to, and coped with recent extreme weather and climate events and the lessons they are using to plan future adaptation and resilience activities. Two case studies will be highlighted. (1) Sonoma County, CA, has had alternating floods and severe droughts. In 2009, this area, home to competing water users, namely, agricultural crops, wineries, tourism, and fisheries faced a three-year drought, accompanied at the end by intense frosts. Competing uses of water threatened the grape harvest, endangered the fish industry and resulted in a series of regulations, and court cases. Five years later, new efforts by partners in the entire watershed have identified mutual opportunities for increased basin sustainability in the face of a changing climate. (2) Washington DC had a derecho in late June 2012, which curtailed water, communications, and power delivery during a record heat spell that impacted hundreds of thousands of residents and lasted over the height of the tourist-intensive July 4th holiday. Lessons from this event were applied three months later in anticipation of an approaching Superstorm Sandy. This study will help other communities in improving their resiliency in the face of future climate extremes. For example, this study revealed that (1) communities are planning with multiple types and occurrences of extreme events which are becoming more severe and frequent and are impacting communities that are expanding into more vulnerable areas and (2) decisions by one sector can not be made in a vacuum and require the scientific, sectoral and citizen communities to work towards sustainable solutions.

  19. Multimodel inference and adaptive management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rehme, S.E.; Powell, L.A.; Allen, C.R.

    2011-01-01

    Ecology is an inherently complex science coping with correlated variables, nonlinear interactions and multiple scales of pattern and process, making it difficult for experiments to result in clear, strong inference. Natural resource managers, policy makers, and stakeholders rely on science to provide timely and accurate management recommendations. However, the time necessary to untangle the complexities of interactions within ecosystems is often far greater than the time available to make management decisions. One method of coping with this problem is multimodel inference. Multimodel inference assesses uncertainty by calculating likelihoods among multiple competing hypotheses, but multimodel inference results are often equivocal. Despite this, there may be pressure for ecologists to provide management recommendations regardless of the strength of their study’s inference. We reviewed papers in the Journal of Wildlife Management (JWM) and the journal Conservation Biology (CB) to quantify the prevalence of multimodel inference approaches, the resulting inference (weak versus strong), and how authors dealt with the uncertainty. Thirty-eight percent and 14%, respectively, of articles in the JWM and CB used multimodel inference approaches. Strong inference was rarely observed, with only 7% of JWM and 20% of CB articles resulting in strong inference. We found the majority of weak inference papers in both journals (59%) gave specific management recommendations. Model selection uncertainty was ignored in most recommendations for management. We suggest that adaptive management is an ideal method to resolve uncertainty when research results in weak inference.

  20. Adaptive management of watersheds and related resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Byron K.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of learning about natural resources through the practice of management has been around for several decades and by now is associated with the term adaptive management. The objectives of this paper are to offer a framework for adaptive management that includes an operational definition, a description of conditions in which it can be usefully applied, and a systematic approach to its application. Adaptive decisionmaking is described as iterative, learning-based management in two phases, each with its own mechanisms for feedback and adaptation. The linkages between traditional experimental science and adaptive management are discussed.

  1. Total Water Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will investigate total water management (TWM) as a way of improving water resource management and reducing waste streams. This project will also improve management of potable water, wastewater and wet-weather flow through combined management, reuse and recycling wil...

  2. A holistic strategy for adaptive land management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herrick, Jeffrey E.; Duniway, Michael C.; Pyke, David A.; Bestelmeyer, Brandon T.; Wills, Skye A.; Brown, Joel R.; Karl, Jason W.; Havstad, Kris M.

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive management is widely applied to natural resources management (Holling 1973; Walters and Holling 1990). Adaptive management can be generally defined as an iterative decision-making process that incorporates formulation of management objectives, actions designed to address these objectives, monitoring of results, and repeated adaptation of management until desired results are achieved (Brown and MacLeod 1996; Savory and Butterfield 1999). However, adaptive management is often criticized because very few projects ever complete more than one cycle, resulting in little adaptation and little knowledge gain (Lee 1999; Walters 2007). One significant criticism is that adaptive management is often used as a justification for undertaking actions with uncertain outcomes or as a surrogate for the development of specific, measurable indicators and monitoring programs (Lee 1999; Ruhl 2007).

  3. Contextual and interdependent causes of climate change adaptation barriers for water management: responses from regional and local institutions in Himachal Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhoni, Adani; Holman, Ian; Jude, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Research on adaptation barriers is gaining increasing prominence as the need for climate change adaptation becomes evident. This research seeks to identify and understand the reasons for key barriers preventing water institutions in the mountainous Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh in northern India from adapting to climate change. Semi-structured interviews were carried out in January & February 2015 with representatives from twenty-seven key governmental, academic, NGO and commercial institutions in the State, with responsibilities spanning from municipal water supply to irrigation and hydropower generation in addition to environmental conservation. Empirical analysis of the transcripts found that inadequate knowledge capacity, poor implementation of policies, inadequate resources, normative work culture, weak governance, unavailability and inaccessibility of data & information and limited inter-institutional networks are key barriers for adaptation. Although these generic barriers are similar to those reported elsewhere in literature, they are identified as having locally-contextual root causes. For example, the inadequate resources are identified to be occurring as a consequence of the fragmentation of resources allocation among others. This is due to competing developmental priorities and the desire of the political leadership to please the maximum number of electors rather than the more-usual inadequate budgetary allocation and climate scepticism. The identified individual barriers are found to be highly inter-dependent and closely intertwined which enables the identification of leverage points of interventions that can maximise removal of barriers. For example, breaking down key barriers for data and information accessibility will have to involve normative attitudinal change, through sensitisation of the larger picture of the role of accurate and accessible data; changes in working style involving moving from paper-based data management to digital; and

  4. Passive and active adaptive management: Approaches and an example

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, B.K.

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive management is a framework for resource conservation that promotes iterative learning-based decision making. Yet there remains considerable confusion about what adaptive management entails, and how to actually make resource decisions adaptively. A key but somewhat ambiguous distinction in adaptive management is between active and passive forms of adaptive decision making. The objective of this paper is to illustrate some approaches to active and passive adaptive management with a simple example involving the drawdown of water impoundments on a wildlife refuge. The approaches are illustrated for the drawdown example, and contrasted in terms of objectives, costs, and potential learning rates. Some key challenges to the actual practice of AM are discussed, and tradeoffs between implementation costs and long-term benefits are highlighted. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Adapting natural resource management to climate change: The South Central Oregon and Northern Rockies Adaptation Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halofsky, J.; Peterson, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    Concrete ways to adapt to climate change are needed to help natural resource managers take the first steps to incorporate climate change into management and take advantage of opportunities to balance the negative effects of climate change. We recently initiated two science-management climate change adaptation partnerships, one with three national forests and one national park in south central Oregon, and the other with 16 national forests, three national parks and other stakeholders in the northern Rockies region. Goals of both partnerships were to: (1) synthesize published information and data to assess the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of key resource areas, including water use, infrastructure, fisheries, and vegetation and disturbance; (2) develop science-based adaptation strategies and tactics that will help to mitigate the negative effects of climate change and assist the transition of biological systems and management to a warmer climate; (3) ensure adaptation strategies and tactics are incorporated into relevant planning documents; and (4) foster an enduring partnership to facilitate ongoing dialogue and activities related to climate change in the partnerships regions. After an initial vulnerability assessment by agency and university scientists and local resource specialists, adaptation strategies and tactics were developed in a series of scientist-manager workshops. The final vulnerability assessments and adaptation actions are incorporated in technical reports. The partnerships produced concrete adaptation options for national forest and other natural resource managers and illustrated the utility of place-based vulnerability assessments and scientist-manager workshops in adapting to climate change.

  6. A Systems Approach to Manage Drinking Water Quality through Integrated Model Projections, Adaptive Monitoring and Process Optimization - abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drinking water supplies can be vulnerable to impacts from short-term weather events, long-term changes in land-use and climate, and water quality controls in treatment and distribution. Disinfection by-product (DBP) formation in drinking water is a prominent example to illustrate...

  7. A Systems Approach to Manage Drinking Water Quality through Integrated Model Projections, Adaptive Monitoring and Process Optimization

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drinking water supplies can be vulnerable to impacts from short-term weather events, long-term changes in land-use and climate, and water quality controls in treatment and distribution. Disinfection by-product (DBP) formation in drinking water is a prominent example to illustrate...

  8. "Climate change impact on water resources - a challenge for IWRM". BRAHMATWINN - Twinning European and South Asian River Basins to enhance capacity and implement adaptive management approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartosch, A.; Pechstädt, J.; Müller Schmied, H.; Flügel, W.-A.

    2009-04-01

    BRAHMATWINN addresses climate change impact of the hydrology of two macro-scale river basins having headwaters in alpine mountain massifs. The project will elaborate on the consequential vulnerability of present IWRM and river basin management that have been persistent in these basins during the past decades and will develop tested approaches and technologies for adaptive IWRM and resilience. The overall objective of BRAHMATWINN is to enhance and improve capacity to carry out a harmonized integrated water resources management (IWRM) approach as addressed by the European Water Initiative (EWI) in headwater river systems of alpine mountain massifs in respect to impacts from likely climate change, and to transfer professional IWRM expertise, approaches and tools based on case studies carried out in twinning European and Asian river basins, the Upper Danube River Basin (UDRB) and the Upper Brahmaputra River Basin (UBRB). Sustainable IWRM in river basins of such kind face common problems: (i) floods e.g. during spring melt or heavy storms and droughts during summer; (ii) competing water demands for agriculture, hydropower, rural, urban and industrial development, and the environment; (iii) pollution from point as well as diffuse sources; and (iv) socio-economic and legal issues related to water allocation. Besides those common topics both basins also differ in other issues requiring the adaptation of the IWRM tools; these are for example climate conditions, the density of monitoring network, political framework and trans-boundary conflicts. An IWRM has to consider all water-related issues like the securing of water supply for the population in sufficient quantity and quality, the protection of the ecological function of water bodies and it has to consider the probability of natural hazards like floods and droughts. Furthermore the resource water should be threatened in a way that the needs of future generations can be satisfied. Sustainable development is one of the

  9. Adaptive management for a turbulent future.

    PubMed

    Allen, Craig R; Fontaine, Joseph J; Pope, Kevin L; Garmestani, Ahjond S

    2011-05-01

    The challenges that face humanity today differ from the past because as the scale of human influence has increased, our biggest challenges have become global in nature, and formerly local problems that could be addressed by shifting populations or switching resources, now aggregate (i.e., "scale up") limiting potential management options. Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management based on the philosophy that knowledge is incomplete and much of what we think we know is actually wrong. Adaptive management has explicit structure, including careful elucidation of goals, identification of alternative management objectives and hypotheses of causation, and procedures for the collection of data followed by evaluation and reiteration. It is evident that adaptive management has matured, but it has also reached a crossroads. Practitioners and scientists have developed adaptive management and structured decision making techniques, and mathematicians have developed methods to reduce the uncertainties encountered in resource management, yet there continues to be misapplication of the method and misunderstanding of its purpose. Ironically, the confusion over the term "adaptive management" may stem from the flexibility inherent in the approach, which has resulted in multiple interpretations of "adaptive management" that fall along a continuum of complexity and a priori design. Adaptive management is not a panacea for the navigation of 'wicked problems' as it does not produce easy answers, and is only appropriate in a subset of natural resource management problems where both uncertainty and controllability are high. Nonetheless, the conceptual underpinnings of adaptive management are simple; there will always be inherent uncertainty and unpredictability in the dynamics and behavior of complex social-ecological systems, but management decisions must still be made, and whenever possible, we should incorporate

  10. Adaptive management for a turbulent future

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, C.R.; Fontaine, J.J.; Pope, K.L.; Garmestani, A.S.

    2011-01-01

    The challenges that face humanity today differ from the past because as the scale of human influence has increased, our biggest challenges have become global in nature, and formerly local problems that could be addressed by shifting populations or switching resources, now aggregate (i.e., "scale up") limiting potential management options. Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management based on the philosophy that knowledge is incomplete and much of what we think we know is actually wrong. Adaptive management has explicit structure, including careful elucidation of goals, identification of alternative management objectives and hypotheses of causation, and procedures for the collection of data followed by evaluation and reiteration. It is evident that adaptive management has matured, but it has also reached a crossroads. Practitioners and scientists have developed adaptive management and structured decision making techniques, and mathematicians have developed methods to reduce the uncertainties encountered in resource management, yet there continues to be misapplication of the method and misunderstanding of its purpose. Ironically, the confusion over the term "adaptive management" may stem from the flexibility inherent in the approach, which has resulted in multiple interpretations of "adaptive management" that fall along a continuum of complexity and a priori design. Adaptive management is not a panacea for the navigation of 'wicked problems' as it does not produce easy answers, and is only appropriate in a subset of natural resource management problems where both uncertainty and controllability are high. Nonetheless, the conceptual underpinnings of adaptive management are simple; there will always be inherent uncertainty and unpredictability in the dynamics and behavior of complex social-ecological systems, but management decisions must still be made, and whenever possible, we should incorporate

  11. Adaptive Management for a Turbulent Future

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Craig R.; Fontaine, Joseph J.; Pope, Kevin L.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.

    2011-01-01

    The challenges that face humanity today differ from the past because as the scale of human influence has increased, our biggest challenges have become global in nature, and formerly local problems that could be addressed by shifting populations or switching resources, now aggregate (i.e., "scale up") limiting potential management options. Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management based on the philosophy that knowledge is incomplete and much of what we think we know is actually wrong. Adaptive management has explicit structure, including careful elucidation of goals, identification of alternative management objectives and hypotheses of causation, and procedures for the collection of data followed by evaluation and reiteration. It is evident that adaptive management has matured, but it has also reached a crossroads. Practitioners and scientists have developed adaptive management and structured decision making techniques, and mathematicians have developed methods to reduce the uncertainties encountered in resource management, yet there continues to be misapplication of the method and misunderstanding of its purpose. Ironically, the confusion over the term "adaptive management" may stem from the flexibility inherent in the approach, which has resulted in multiple interpretations of "adaptive management" that fall along a continuum of complexity and a priori design. Adaptive management is not a panacea for the navigation of 'wicked problems' as it does not produce easy answers, and is only appropriate in a subset of natural resource management problems where both uncertainty and controllability are high. Nonetheless, the conceptual underpinnings of adaptive management are simple; there will always be inherent uncertainty and unpredictability in the dynamics and behavior of complex social-ecological systems, but management decisions must still be made, and whenever possible, we should incorporate

  12. Foreseen hydrological changes drive efforts to formulate water balance improvement measures as part of the management options of adaptation at Lake Balaton, Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnar, Gabor; Kutics, Karoly

    2013-04-01

    Located in Western Hungary, Lake Balaton (LB) is one of the shallowest large lakes of the world. The catchment area including the lake is 5775 km2, only 10 times more than the lake surface area of 593 km2. This relatively small catchment area and the relatively dry climate results in high vulnerability of the lake water budget to any hydro-meteorological changes. Due to the combined effects of planned water quality protection measures (refer to adjoining article on LB water quality) water quality was not as serious a concern over the last 15 years. However, a new and potentially more damaging threat, decreasing water level started to emerge in 2000. The natural water budget was negative half of the time, i.e. 6 years in the last 12 years. It hadn't occurred in the previous 80 years, since 1921, the year from which detailed meteorological data on the area are available. This new phenomenon raised and continues to raise serious sustainability concerns in the Lake Balaton area requiring better understanding of climatic changes and their foreseen impacts on hydrological and ecological processes that would lead decision makers to formulate the appropriate vulnerability and adaptation policies. Based on the common methodologies of the EULAKES project, present state of the hydrological conditions was analyzed as well as qualitative vulnerability assessment carried out to the area. Using the climate scenarios developed by the project partner Austrian Institute of Technology, calculations on water budget changes was possible. It is estimated that by the middle of the 21st century the lake will experience a drastic drop in the inflow and, accompanied by the increased evaporation, it is likely that years without outflow and serious drops in water-level would occur. The increased frequency of unfavorable water deficit will cause not only ecological, but also socio-economic conflicts in the multipurpose usage of the lake. Therefore, a qualitative vulnerability assessment was

  13. An adaptive watershed management assessment based on watershed investigation data.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min Goo; Park, Seung Woo

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the states of watersheds in South Korea and to formulate new measures to improve identified inadequacies. The study focused on the watersheds of the Han River basin and adopted an adaptive watershed management framework. Using data collected during watershed investigation projects, we analyzed the management context of the study basin and identified weaknesses in water use management, flood management, and environmental and ecosystems management in the watersheds. In addition, we conducted an interview survey to obtain experts' opinions on the possible management of watersheds in the future. The results of the assessment show that effective management of the Han River basin requires adaptive watershed management, which includes stakeholders' participation and social learning. Urbanization was the key variable in watershed management of the study basin. The results provide strong guidance for future watershed management and suggest that nonstructural measures are preferred to improve the states of the watersheds and that consistent implementation of the measures can lead to successful watershed management. The results also reveal that governance is essential for adaptive watershed management in the study basin. A special ordinance is necessary to establish governance and aid social learning. Based on the findings, a management process is proposed to support new watershed management practices. The results will be of use to policy makers and practitioners who can implement the measures recommended here in the early stages of adaptive watershed management in the Han River basin. The measures can also be applied to other river basins.

  14. 50 CFR 218.241 - Adaptive management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adaptive management. 218.241 Section 218.241 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Low Frequency Active (SURTASS LFA) Sonar § 218.241 Adaptive management. NMFS may modify...

  15. Development of a Demand Sensitive Drought Index and Its Forecasting for Climate Adaptation and Water Management over the Continental United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etienne, E.; Khanbilvardi, R.; Devineni, N.

    2014-12-01

    Drought has cascading effects on the environment, economy and society. Seasonal water deficits resulting from natural variability in rainfall coupled with increased demands have severe implications for the adequacy of water storage in both surface and groundwater stores. Managers need better estimates of potential shortfalls in supply due to droughts of varying severity and duration. While global and national drought indicators exist, none directly connect existing or projected water demand to the potential deficit during the drought. They are essentially supply based. However, the temporal patterns of both demand and supply ultimately determine the stress or impact. Consequently, assessment of risk for various sectorial operations could be much better informed if appropriate stress indices were developed for drought conditions relative to current and projected demands, and their likelihood assessed for future climate scenarios. The present research addresses this methodological gap by (1) developing new drought indices that consider both water supply and current or projected sectorial demands, and (2) developing insights into the large-scale climatic drivers for forecasting drought onset, duration and severity up to one season ahead for climate informed adaptive risk assessment and long-term planning. We present an application at a county level for the conterminous United States considering more than 60 years of rainfall data as the renewable supply, and water demand patterns for 3 sectors (agricultural, industrial, and domestic use). The demand data are available at the county level. Consequently, we use the county rather than river basins as the unit of analysis. The county is also a spatial resolution consistent with political decision making. The index is useful for indicating whether small or large surface storage will suffice, or whether the extent of groundwater storage or external transfers, or changes in demand are needed to achieve a sustainable solution.

  16. Total Water Management - Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current operations put different stresses on the environment and urban infrastructure. Total Water Management (TWM) is an approac...

  17. Is adaptive co-management ethical?

    PubMed

    Fennell, David; Plummer, Ryan; Marschke, Melissa

    2008-07-01

    'Good' governance and adaptive co-management hold broad appeal due to their positive connotations and 'noble ethical claims'. This paper poses a fundamental question: is adaptive co-management ethical? In pursuing an answer to this question, the concept of adaptive co-management is succinctly summarized and three ethical perspectives (deontology, teleology and existentialism) are explored. The case of adaptive co-management in Cambodia is described and subsequently considered through the lens of ethical triangulation. The case illuminates important ethical considerations and directs attention towards the need for meditative thinking which increases the value of tradition, ecology, and culture. Giving ethics a central position makes clear the potential for adaptive co-management to be an agent for governance, which is good, right and authentic as well as an arena to embrace uncertainty. PMID:17391840

  18. Is adaptive co-management ethical?

    PubMed

    Fennell, David; Plummer, Ryan; Marschke, Melissa

    2008-07-01

    'Good' governance and adaptive co-management hold broad appeal due to their positive connotations and 'noble ethical claims'. This paper poses a fundamental question: is adaptive co-management ethical? In pursuing an answer to this question, the concept of adaptive co-management is succinctly summarized and three ethical perspectives (deontology, teleology and existentialism) are explored. The case of adaptive co-management in Cambodia is described and subsequently considered through the lens of ethical triangulation. The case illuminates important ethical considerations and directs attention towards the need for meditative thinking which increases the value of tradition, ecology, and culture. Giving ethics a central position makes clear the potential for adaptive co-management to be an agent for governance, which is good, right and authentic as well as an arena to embrace uncertainty.

  19. Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources and Water Supply Security through Adaptation

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation is to describe the water resources adaptation program (WRAP) at the U.S.EPA National Risk Management Research Laboratory, and to highlight initial research results on hydroclimatic periodicity and changes and on adaptation measures including sustainable water in...

  20. Developing adaptive capacity within groundwater abstraction management systems.

    PubMed

    Holman, I P; Trawick, P

    2011-06-01

    Groundwater is a key resource for global agricultural production but is vulnerable to a changing climate. Given significant uncertainty about future impacts, bottom-up approaches for developing adaptive capacity are a more appropriate paradigm than seeking optimal adaptation strategies that assume a high ability to predict future risks or outcomes. This paper analyses the groundwater management practices adopted at multiple scales in East Anglia, UK, to identify wider lessons for developing adaptive capacity within groundwater management. Key elements are (1) horizontal and vertical integration within resource management; (2) making better use of water resources, at all scales, which vary in space and time; (3) embedding adaptation at multiple scales (from farm to national) within an adaptive management framework which allows strategies and management decisions to be updated in the light of changing understanding or conditions; (4) facilitating the ongoing formation through collective action of local Water Abstractor Groups; (5) promoting efficient use of scarce water resources by these groups, so as to increase their power to negotiate over possible short-term license restrictions; (6) controlling abstractions within a sustainable resource management framework, whether at national (regulatory) or at local (Abstractor Group) scales, that takes account of environmental water needs; and (7) reducing non-climate pressures which have the potential to further reduce the availability of usable groundwater.

  1. Rethinking Social Barriers to Effective Adaptive Management.

    PubMed

    West, Simon; Schultz, Lisen; Bekessy, Sarah

    2016-09-01

    Adaptive management is an approach to environmental management based on learning-by-doing, where complexity, uncertainty, and incomplete knowledge are acknowledged and management actions are treated as experiments. However, while adaptive management has received significant uptake in theory, it remains elusively difficult to enact in practice. Proponents have blamed social barriers and have called for social science contributions. We address this gap by adopting a qualitative approach to explore the development of an ecological monitoring program within an adaptive management framework in a public land management organization in Australia. We ask what practices are used to enact the monitoring program and how do they shape learning? We elicit a rich narrative through extensive interviews with a key individual, and analyze the narrative using thematic analysis. We discuss our results in relation to the concept of 'knowledge work' and Westley's (2002) framework for interpreting the strategies of adaptive managers-'managing through, in, out and up.' We find that enacting the program is conditioned by distinct and sometimes competing logics-scientific logics prioritizing experimentation and learning, public logics emphasizing accountability and legitimacy, and corporate logics demanding efficiency and effectiveness. In this context, implementing adaptive management entails practices of translation to negotiate tensions between objective and situated knowledge, external experts and organizational staff, and collegiate and hierarchical norms. Our contribution embraces the 'doing' of learning-by-doing and marks a shift from conceptualizing the social as an external barrier to adaptive management to be removed to an approach that situates adaptive management as social knowledge practice.

  2. Decision-making triggers in adaptive management.

    PubMed

    Nie, Martin A; Schultz, Courtney A

    2012-12-01

    We analyzed whether decision-making triggers increase accountability of adaptive-management plans. Triggers are prenegotiated commitments in an adaptive-management plan that specify what actions are to be taken and when on the basis of information obtained from monitoring. Triggers improve certainty that particular actions will be taken by agencies in the future. We conducted an in-depth, qualitative review of the political and legal contexts of adaptive management and its application by U.S. federal agencies. Agencies must satisfy the judiciary that adaptive-management plans meet substantive legal standards and comply with the U.S. National Environmental Policy Act. We examined 3 cases in which triggers were used in adaptive-management plans: salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) in the Columbia River, oil and gas development by the Bureau of Land Management, and a habitat conservation plan under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. In all the cases, key aspects of adaptive management, including controls and preidentified feedback loops, were not incorporated in the plans. Monitoring and triggered mitigation actions were limited in their enforceability, which was contingent on several factors, including which laws applied in each case and the degree of specificity in how triggers were written into plans. Other controversial aspects of these plans revolved around who designed, conducted, interpreted, and funded monitoring programs. Additional contentious issues were the level of precaution associated with trigger mechanisms and the definition of ecological baselines used as points of comparison. Despite these challenges, triggers can be used to increase accountability, by predefining points at which an adaptive management plan will be revisited and reevaluated, and thus improve the application of adaptive management in its complicated political and legal context. PMID:22891956

  3. Limitations of science and adaptive management

    SciTech Connect

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    2001-12-20

    Adaptive management consists in patterning human sustenancewithin the constraints of Earth and biological systems whose behavior isinherently uncertain and difficult to control. For successful adaptivemanagement, a mind-set recognizing the limitations of science isneeded.

  4. Rethinking Social Barriers to Effective Adaptive Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Simon; Schultz, Lisen; Bekessy, Sarah

    2016-09-01

    Adaptive management is an approach to environmental management based on learning-by-doing, where complexity, uncertainty, and incomplete knowledge are acknowledged and management actions are treated as experiments. However, while adaptive management has received significant uptake in theory, it remains elusively difficult to enact in practice. Proponents have blamed social barriers and have called for social science contributions. We address this gap by adopting a qualitative approach to explore the development of an ecological monitoring program within an adaptive management framework in a public land management organization in Australia. We ask what practices are used to enact the monitoring program and how do they shape learning? We elicit a rich narrative through extensive interviews with a key individual, and analyze the narrative using thematic analysis. We discuss our results in relation to the concept of `knowledge work' and Westley's 2002) framework for interpreting the strategies of adaptive managers—`managing through, in, out and up.' We find that enacting the program is conditioned by distinct and sometimes competing logics—scientific logics prioritizing experimentation and learning, public logics emphasizing accountability and legitimacy, and corporate logics demanding efficiency and effectiveness. In this context, implementing adaptive management entails practices of translation to negotiate tensions between objective and situated knowledge, external experts and organizational staff, and collegiate and hierarchical norms. Our contribution embraces the `doing' of learning-by-doing and marks a shift from conceptualizing the social as an external barrier to adaptive management to be removed to an approach that situates adaptive management as social knowledge practice.

  5. Institutional and legal arrangements in the Nile river basin: suggestions to improve the current situation toward adaptive integrated water resources management.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, Khalid Mohamed El Hassan

    2008-01-01

    A comparative study was conducted in this work in order to investigate the current situation in the Nile river basin (NRB) regarding the institutional and legal arrangements needed to support the adaptive integrated water resources management (AIWRM) strategy. Two similar river basins were selected to achieve this comparison and to introduce suggestions to reform the current situation in the basin. Before that, the ideal situation is investigated to be as a yardstick for the desired situation. The study indicated that the necessary AIWRM criteria may include regulatory as well as implementation organizations that support shared-vision reaching with its all necessary features (cooperation, stakeholders' participation, subsidiarity, and information and knowledge exchange). Thus the main features of the desired situations regarding AIWRM in river basins are stakeholders' participation, learning-driven ability, quick response to risks and uncertainties, and finally a legal framework that could support these criteria. Although the AIWRM criteria seem to be satisfied in NRB, the basin lacks the necessary regulatory institutions as well as the legal framework. According to this, this study recommends to reform the current situation in NRB by creating regulator institutions (policy and decision making level) as well a legal framework to legitimate them.

  6. Tribal water utility management

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    Contents: primacy program (what is primacy, advantages and disadvantages, treatment as a state, grant applications and funding); safe drinking water act (sampling requirements, coliform standard, public notification, surface water treatment rule impacts, uic and wellhead protection programs, lead/copper rule); water utility management (how is the utility program evaluated, who's responsible, what is the board and tribal council role).

  7. Adaptive grazing management experiment: The new frontier of grazing management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Adaptive Grazing Management experiment at the USDA-ARS Central Plains Experimental Range addresses important gaps in our current understanding of grazing management including: 1) lack of management-science partnerships to more fully understand the effect of management decisions, 2) need for mana...

  8. Everglades Collaborative Adaptive Management Program Progress

    EPA Science Inventory

    When the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) was authorized in 2000, adaptive management (AM) was recognized as a necessary tool to address uncertainty in achieving the broad goals and objectives for restoring a highly managed system. The Everglades covers18,000 squ...

  9. Improving Voluntary Environmental Management Programs: Facilitating Learning and Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genskow, Kenneth D.; Wood, Danielle M.

    2011-05-01

    Environmental planners and managers face unique challenges understanding and documenting the effectiveness of programs that rely on voluntary actions by private landowners. Programs, such as those aimed at reducing nonpoint source pollution or improving habitat, intend to reach those goals by persuading landowners to adopt behaviors and management practices consistent with environmental restoration and protection. Our purpose with this paper is to identify barriers for improving voluntary environmental management programs and ways to overcome them. We first draw upon insights regarding data, learning, and adaptation from the adaptive management and performance management literatures, describing three key issues: overcoming information constraints, structural limitations, and organizational culture. Although these lessons are applicable to a variety of voluntary environmental management programs, we then present the issues in the context of on-going research for nonpoint source water quality pollution. We end the discussion by highlighting important elements for advancing voluntary program efforts.

  10. Purge water management system

    DOEpatents

    Cardoso-Neto, Joao E.; Williams, Daniel W.

    1996-01-01

    A purge water management system for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

  11. Purge water management system

    DOEpatents

    Cardoso-Neto, J.E.; Williams, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    A purge water management system is described for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

  12. EVERGLADES ECOSYSTEM ASSESSMENT: WATER MANAGEMENT AND QUALITY, EUTROPHICATION, MERCURY CONTAMINATION, SOILS AND HABITAT: MONITORING FOR ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT: A R-EMAP STATUS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency’s Everglades Ecosystem Assessment Program is a long-term research, monitoring and assessment effort. Its goal is to provide critical, timely, scientific information needed for management decisions on the Everglades ecosystem and i...

  13. Fuzzy Multicriteria Decision Analysis for Adaptive Watershed Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, N.

    2006-12-01

    The dramatic changes of societal complexity due to intensive interactions among agricultural, industrial, and municipal sectors have resulted in acute issues of water resources redistribution and water quality management in many river basins. Given the fact that integrated watershed management is more a political and societal than a technical challenge, there is a need for developing a compelling method leading to justify a water-based land use program in some critical regions. Adaptive watershed management is viewed as an indispensable tool nowadays for providing step-wise constructive decision support that is concerned with all related aspects of the water consumption cycle and those facilities affecting water quality and quantity temporally and spatially. Yet the greatest challenge that decision makers face today is to consider how to leverage ambiguity, paradox, and uncertainty to their competitive advantage of management policy quantitatively. This paper explores a fuzzy multicriteria evaluation method for water resources redistribution and subsequent water quality management with respect to a multipurpose channel-reservoir system--the Tseng- Wen River Basin, South Taiwan. Four fuzzy operators tailored for this fuzzy multicriteria decision analysis depict greater flexibility in representing the complexity of various possible trade-offs among management alternatives constrained by physical, economic, and technical factors essential for adaptive watershed management. The management strategies derived may enable decision makers to integrate a vast number of internal weirs, water intakes, reservoirs, drainage ditches, transfer pipelines, and wastewater treatment facilities within the basin and bring up the permitting issue for transboundary diversion from a neighboring river basin. Experience gained indicates that the use of different types of fuzzy operators is highly instructive, which also provide unique guidance collectively for achieving the overarching goals

  14. Urban Evolution: The Role of Water and Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushal, S.

    2015-12-01

    The structure, function, and services of urban ecosystems evolve over time scales from seconds to centuries as Earth's population grows, infrastructure ages, and management decisions alter them. The concept of "urban evolution" was proposed in order to study changes in urban ecosystems over time. Urban evolution has exerted a major influence on Earth's water and elemental cycles from local to global scales over human history. A current understanding of urban evolution allows urban planning, management, and restoration to move beyond reactive management to predictive management. We explore two key mechanisms of urban evolution, urban selective pressure and adaptation, and their relationship to the evolution of modern water and biogeochemical cycles. Urban selective pressure is an environmental or societal driver contributing to urban adaptation. Urban adaptation is the sequential process by which an urban structure, function, or services becomes more fitted to its changing environment or human choices. We show how hydrological and biogeochemical traits evolve across successive generations of urban ecosystems via shifts in selective pressures and adaptations. We also discuss how urban evolution can be divided into distinct stages and transition periods of growth and expansion and decay and repair during the Anthropocene epoch. We explore multiple examples and drivers of urban evolution and adaptations including the role of unintended consequences and societal drivers. We also present a conceptual model for the evolution of urban waters from the Industrial Revolution to the present day emphasizing the role of urban adaptations in response to selective pressures. Finally, we conclude by proposing new concepts and questions for future research related to the urban evolution of water, material, and energy cycles.

  15. 77 FR 74203 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity...

  16. 76 FR 23621 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity...

  17. 77 FR 10766 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity...

  18. 75 FR 27814 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity...

  19. 76 FR 34248 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity...

  20. 75 FR 51284 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity...

  1. 75 FR 17158 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity...

  2. 76 FR 70751 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-15

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity...

  3. 76 FR 14044 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity...

  4. 75 FR 10501 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity...

  5. 75 FR 70947 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity...

  6. 77 FR 45370 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity...

  7. 77 FR 50155 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity...

  8. Trade in water and commodities as adaptations to global change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammers, R. B.; Hertel, T. W.; Prousevitch, A.; Baldos, U. L. C.; Frolking, S. E.; Liu, J.; Grogan, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    The human capacity for altering the water cycle has been well documented and given the expected change due to population, income growth, biofuels, climate, and associated land use change, there remains great uncertainty in both the degree of increased pressure on land and water resources and in our ability to adapt to these changes. Alleviating regional shortages in water supply can be carried out in a spatial hierarchy through i) direct trade of water between all regions, ii) development of infrastructure to improve water availability within regions (e.g. impounding rivers), iii) via inter-basin hydrological transfer between neighboring regions and, iv) via virtual water trade. These adaptation strategies can be managed via market trade in water and commodities to identify those strategies most likely to be adopted. This work combines the physically-based University of New Hampshire Water Balance Model (WBM) with the macro-scale Purdue University Simplified International Model of agricultural Prices Land use and the Environment (SIMPLE) to explore the interaction of supply and demand for fresh water globally. In this work we use a newly developed grid cell-based version of SIMPLE to achieve a more direct connection between the two modeling paradigms of physically-based models with optimization-driven approaches characteristic of economic models. We explore questions related to the global and regional impact of water scarcity and water surplus on the ability of regions to adapt to future change. Allowing for a variety of adaptation strategies such as direct trade of water and expanding the built water infrastructure, as well as indirect trade in commodities, will reduce overall global water stress and, in some regions, significantly reduce their vulnerability to these future changes.

  9. Adaptive management for drought on rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adaptive management for drought on rangelands encompasses 1) enterprise flexibility – herd structure where the proportion of cow-calf pairs and yearlings provides plasticity to match forage availability with forage demand, with advantages to economic returns and increased resiliency of plant communi...

  10. Adaptive governance, ecosystem management, and natural capital

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Lisen; Folke, Carl; Österblom, Henrik; Olsson, Per

    2015-01-01

    To gain insights into the effects of adaptive governance on natural capital, we compare three well-studied initiatives; a landscape in Southern Sweden, the Great Barrier Reef in Australia, and fisheries in the Southern Ocean. We assess changes in natural capital and ecosystem services related to these social–ecological governance approaches to ecosystem management and investigate their capacity to respond to change and new challenges. The adaptive governance initiatives are compared with other efforts aimed at conservation and sustainable use of natural capital: Natura 2000 in Europe, lobster fisheries in the Gulf of Maine, North America, and fisheries in Europe. In contrast to these efforts, we found that the adaptive governance cases developed capacity to perform ecosystem management, manage multiple ecosystem services, and monitor, communicate, and respond to ecosystem-wide changes at landscape and seascape levels with visible effects on natural capital. They enabled actors to collaborate across diverse interests, sectors, and institutional arrangements and detect opportunities and problems as they developed while nurturing adaptive capacity to deal with them. They all spanned local to international levels of decision making, thus representing multilevel governance systems for managing natural capital. As with any governance system, internal changes and external drivers of global impacts and demands will continue to challenge the long-term success of such initiatives. PMID:26082542

  11. Adaptable Learning Assistant for Item Bank Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuntiyagul, Atorn; Naruedomkul, Kanlaya; Cercone, Nick; Wongsawang, Damras

    2008-01-01

    We present PKIP, an adaptable learning assistant tool for managing question items in item banks. PKIP is not only able to automatically assist educational users to categorize the question items into predefined categories by their contents but also to correctly retrieve the items by specifying the category and/or the difficulty level. PKIP adapts…

  12. Adaptive governance, ecosystem management, and natural capital.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Lisen; Folke, Carl; Österblom, Henrik; Olsson, Per

    2015-06-16

    To gain insights into the effects of adaptive governance on natural capital, we compare three well-studied initiatives; a landscape in Southern Sweden, the Great Barrier Reef in Australia, and fisheries in the Southern Ocean. We assess changes in natural capital and ecosystem services related to these social-ecological governance approaches to ecosystem management and investigate their capacity to respond to change and new challenges. The adaptive governance initiatives are compared with other efforts aimed at conservation and sustainable use of natural capital: Natura 2000 in Europe, lobster fisheries in the Gulf of Maine, North America, and fisheries in Europe. In contrast to these efforts, we found that the adaptive governance cases developed capacity to perform ecosystem management, manage multiple ecosystem services, and monitor, communicate, and respond to ecosystem-wide changes at landscape and seascape levels with visible effects on natural capital. They enabled actors to collaborate across diverse interests, sectors, and institutional arrangements and detect opportunities and problems as they developed while nurturing adaptive capacity to deal with them. They all spanned local to international levels of decision making, thus representing multilevel governance systems for managing natural capital. As with any governance system, internal changes and external drivers of global impacts and demands will continue to challenge the long-term success of such initiatives. PMID:26082542

  13. Adaptive governance, ecosystem management, and natural capital.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Lisen; Folke, Carl; Österblom, Henrik; Olsson, Per

    2015-06-16

    To gain insights into the effects of adaptive governance on natural capital, we compare three well-studied initiatives; a landscape in Southern Sweden, the Great Barrier Reef in Australia, and fisheries in the Southern Ocean. We assess changes in natural capital and ecosystem services related to these social-ecological governance approaches to ecosystem management and investigate their capacity to respond to change and new challenges. The adaptive governance initiatives are compared with other efforts aimed at conservation and sustainable use of natural capital: Natura 2000 in Europe, lobster fisheries in the Gulf of Maine, North America, and fisheries in Europe. In contrast to these efforts, we found that the adaptive governance cases developed capacity to perform ecosystem management, manage multiple ecosystem services, and monitor, communicate, and respond to ecosystem-wide changes at landscape and seascape levels with visible effects on natural capital. They enabled actors to collaborate across diverse interests, sectors, and institutional arrangements and detect opportunities and problems as they developed while nurturing adaptive capacity to deal with them. They all spanned local to international levels of decision making, thus representing multilevel governance systems for managing natural capital. As with any governance system, internal changes and external drivers of global impacts and demands will continue to challenge the long-term success of such initiatives.

  14. Adaptation of water resource systems to an uncertain future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, C. L.; Blenkinsop, S.; Fowler, H. J.; Burton, A.; Dawson, R. J.; Glenis, V.; Manning, L. J.; Kilsby, C. G.

    2015-09-01

    Globally, water resources management faces significant challenges from changing climate and growing populations. At local scales, the information provided by climate models is insufficient to support the water sector in making future adaptation decisions. Furthermore, projections of change in local water resources are wrought with uncertainties surrounding natural variability, future greenhouse gas emissions, model structure, population growth and water consumption habits. To analyse the magnitude of these uncertainties, and their implications for local scale water resource planning, we present a top-down approach for testing climate change adaptation options using probabilistic climate scenarios and demand projections. An integrated modelling framework is developed which implements a new, gridded spatial weather generator, coupled with a rainfall-runoff model and water resource management simulation model. We use this to provide projections of the number of days, and associated uncertainty that will require implementation of demand saving measures such as hose pipe bans and drought orders. Results, which are demonstrated for the Thames basin, UK, indicate existing water supplies are sensitive to a changing climate and an increasing population, and that the frequency of severe demand saving measures are projected to increase. Considering both climate projections and population growth the median number of drought order occurrences may increase five-fold. The effectiveness of a range of demand management and supply options have been tested and shown to provide significant benefits in terms of reducing the number of demand saving days. We found that increased supply arising from various adaptation options may compensate for increasingly variable flows; however, without reductions in overall demand for water resources such options will be insufficient on their own to adapt to uncertainties in the projected changes in climate and population. For example, a 30

  15. Regional Water System Vulnerabilities and Strengths for Unavoidable Climate Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleick, P. H.; Palaniappan, M.; Christian-Smith, J.; Cooley, H.

    2011-12-01

    A wide range of options are available to help water systems prepare and adapt for unavoidable climate impacts, but these options vary depending on region, climatic conditions, economic status, and technical infrastructure in place. Drawing on case studies from the United States, India, and elsewhere, and from both urban and agricultural water systems, risks to water supply and quality are evaluated and summarized and categories of responses to help improve the effectiveness of adaptation policies are reviewed. Among the issues to be discussed are characteristics unique to developing country cities, such as the predominance of informal actors in the water sector. The formal, or government sector, which often exclusively manages water access and distribution in developed country cities, is only one among many players in the water sector in developing country cities. Informal access to water includes direct access by individuals through private groundwater systems, private water markets using vendors or sales of bottled water, and rainwater harvesting systems on individual homes. In this environment, with already existing pressures on water availability and use, the impacts of climate change on water will be strongly felt. This complicates planning for water supply and demand and risks increasing already prevalent water insecurity, especially for urban poor. In wealthier countries, any planning for water-related climate impacts tends to take the form of "business as usual" responses, such as efforts to expand supply with new infrastructure, manage demand through conservation programs, or simply put off addressing the problem to the next generation of managers and users. These approaches can be effective, but also risk missing unusual, non-linear, or threshold impacts. Examples of more informed and innovative efforts to substantively address climate change risks will be presented.

  16. Adaptive Resource Management Technology for Satellite Constellations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Lonnie; Tjaden, Brett; Pfarr, Barbara B.; Hennessy, Joseph F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This manuscript describes the Sensor Web Adaptive Resource Manager (SWARM) project. The primary focus of the project is on the design and prototyping of middleware for managing computing and network resources in a way that enables the information systems of satellite constellations to provide realtime performance within dynamic environments. The middleware has been prototyped, and it has been evaluated by employing it to manage a pool of distributed resources for the ITOS (Integrated Test and Operations System) satellite command and control software system. The design of the middleware is discussed and a summary of the evaluation effort is provided.

  17. Energy and Water Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valek, Susan E.

    2008-01-01

    Energy efficiency isn't just a good idea; it's a necessity, both for cost reasons and to meet federal regulatory requirements. First, rising energy unit costs continue to erode NASA's mission budget. NASA spent roughly $156M on facility energy in FY 2007. Although that represents less than one per cent of NASA's overall annual budget, the upward trend in energy costs concerns the agency. While NASA reduced consumption 13%, energy unit costs have risen 63%. Energy cost increases counteract the effects of energy conservation, which results in NASA buying less yet spending more. The second factor is federal energy legislation. The National Energy Conservation Policy Act, as amended by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Executive Order (EO) 13423 (January, 2007), and the Energy Independence and Security Act (December, 2007), mandates energy/water conservation goals for all federal agencies, including NASA. There are also reporting requirements associated with this legislation. The Energy/Water Management Task was created to support NASA Headquarters Environmental Management Division (HO EMD) in meeting these requirements. With assistance from TEERM, HQ EMD compiled and submitted the NASA Annual Report to the Department of Energy FY 2007. The report contains information on how NASA is meeting federally mandated energy and water management goals. TEERM monitored input for timeliness, errors, and conformity to the new energy/water reporting guidelines and helped compile the information into the final report. TEERM also assists NASA Energy/Water Management with proposal and award calls, updates to the energy/water management database, and facilitating communication within the energy/water management community. TEERM is also supporting NASA and the Interagency Working Group (IWG) on Hydrogen and Fuel Cells. Established shortly after the President announced the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative in 2003, this IWG serves as the mechanism for collaboration among the Federal agencies

  18. Adaptable data management for systems biology investigations

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, John; Rovira, Hector; Cavnor, Chris; Burdick, David; Killcoyne, Sarah; Shmulevich, Ilya

    2009-01-01

    Background Within research each experiment is different, the focus changes and the data is generated from a continually evolving barrage of technologies. There is a continual introduction of new techniques whose usage ranges from in-house protocols through to high-throughput instrumentation. To support these requirements data management systems are needed that can be rapidly built and readily adapted for new usage. Results The adaptable data management system discussed is designed to support the seamless mining and analysis of biological experiment data that is commonly used in systems biology (e.g. ChIP-chip, gene expression, proteomics, imaging, flow cytometry). We use different content graphs to represent different views upon the data. These views are designed for different roles: equipment specific views are used to gather instrumentation information; data processing oriented views are provided to enable the rapid development of analysis applications; and research project specific views are used to organize information for individual research experiments. This management system allows for both the rapid introduction of new types of information and the evolution of the knowledge it represents. Conclusion Data management is an important aspect of any research enterprise. It is the foundation on which most applications are built, and must be easily extended to serve new functionality for new scientific areas. We have found that adopting a three-tier architecture for data management, built around distributed standardized content repositories, allows us to rapidly develop new applications to support a diverse user community. PMID:19265554

  19. Confronting socially generated uncertainty in adaptive management.

    PubMed

    Tyre, Andrew J; Michaels, Sarah

    2011-05-01

    As more and more organizations with responsibility for natural resource management adopt adaptive management as the rubric in which they wish to operate, it becomes increasingly important to consider the sources of uncertainty inherent in their endeavors. Without recognizing that uncertainty originates both in the natural world and in human undertakings, efforts to manage adaptively at the least will prove frustrating and at the worst will prove damaging to the very natural resources that are the management targets. There will be more surprises and those surprises potentially may prove at the very least unwanted and at the worst devastating. We illustrate how acknowledging uncertainty associated with the natural world is necessary but not sufficient to avoid surprise using case studies of efforts to manage three wildlife species; Hector's Dolphins, American Alligators and Pallid Sturgeon. Three characteristics of indeterminism are salient to all of them; non-stationarity, irreducibility and an inability to define objective probabilities. As an antidote, we recommend employing a holistic treatment of indeterminism, that includes recognizing that uncertainty originates in ecological systems and in how people perceive, interact and decide about the natural world of which they are integral players. PMID:20965642

  20. Adaptive Management for Urban Watersheds: The Slavic Village Pilot Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adaptive management is an environmental management strategy that uses an iterative process of decision-making to reduce the uncertainty in environmental management via system monitoring. A central tenet of adaptive management is that management involves a learning process that ca...

  1. Adaptive management of natural resources-framework and issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, B.K.

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive management, an approach for simultaneously managing and learning about natural resources, has been around for several decades. Interest in adaptive decision making has grown steadily over that time, and by now many in natural resources conservation claim that adaptive management is the approach they use in meeting their resource management responsibilities. Yet there remains considerable ambiguity about what adaptive management actually is, and how it is to be implemented by practitioners. The objective of this paper is to present a framework and conditions for adaptive decision making, and discuss some important challenges in its application. Adaptive management is described as a two-phase process of deliberative and iterative phases, which are implemented sequentially over the timeframe of an application. Key elements, processes, and issues in adaptive decision making are highlighted in terms of this framework. Special emphasis is given to the question of geographic scale, the difficulties presented by non-stationarity, and organizational challenges in implementing adaptive management. ?? 2010.

  2. Competing risks and the development of adaptive management plans for water resources: Field reconnaissance investigation of risks to fishes and other aquatic biota exposed to endocrine disrupting chemicals (edcs) in lake mead, Nevada USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Linder, G.; Little, E.E.

    2009-01-01

    The analysis and characterization of competing risks for water resources rely on a wide spectrum of tools to evaluate hazards and risks associated with their management. For example, waters of the lower Colorado River stored in reservoirs such as Lake Mead present a wide range of competing risks related to water quantity and water quality. These risks are often interdependent and complicated by competing uses of source waters for sustaining biological resources and for supporting a range of agricultural, municipal, recreational, and industrial uses. USGS is currently conducting a series of interdisciplinary case-studies on water quality of Lake Mead and its source waters. In this case-study we examine selected constituents potentially entering the Lake Mead system, particularly endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Worldwide, a number of environmental EDCs have been identified that affect reproduction, development, and adaptive behaviors in a wide range of organisms. Many EDCs are minimally affected by current treatment technologies and occur in treated sewage effluents. Several EDCs have been detected in Lake Mead, and several substances have been identified that are of concern because of potential impacts to the aquatic biota, including the sport fishery of Lake Mead and endangered razorback suckers (Xyrauchen texanus) that occur in the Colorado River system. For example, altered biomarkers relevant to reproduction and thyroid function in fishes have been observed and may be predictive of impaired metabolism and development. Few studies, however, have addressed whether such EDC-induced responses observed in the field have an ecologically significant effect on the reproductive success of fishes. To identify potential linkages between EDCs and species of management concern, the risk analysis and characterization in this reconnaissance study focused on effects (and attendant uncertainties) that might be expressed by exposed populations. In addition, risk reduction

  3. Adaptive management of social-ecological systems: the path forward

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Craig R.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive management remains at the forefront of environmental management nearly 40 years after its original conception, largely because we have yet to develop other methodologies that offer the same promise. Despite the criticisms of adaptive management and the numerous failed attempts to implement it, adaptive management has yet to be replaced with a better alternative. The concept persists because it is simple, allows action despite uncertainty, and fosters learning. Moving forward, adaptive management of social-ecological systems provides policymakers, managers and scientists a powerful tool for managing for resilience in the face of uncertainty.

  4. Managing Climate Change Refugia for Climate Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Christopher; Dobrowski, Solomon Z.; Dulen, Deanna M.; Ebersole, Joseph L.; Jackson, Stephen T.; Lundquist, Jessica D.; Millar, Constance I.; Maher, Sean P.; Monahan, William B.; Nydick, Koren R.; Redmond, Kelly T.; Sawyer, Sarah C.; Stock, Sarah; Beissinger, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    Refugia have long been studied from paleontological and biogeographical perspectives to understand how populations persisted during past periods of unfavorable climate. Recently, researchers have applied the idea to contemporary landscapes to identify climate change refugia, here defined as areas relatively buffered from contemporary climate change over time that enable persistence of valued physical, ecological, and socio-cultural resources. We differentiate historical and contemporary views, and characterize physical and ecological processes that create and maintain climate change refugia. We then delineate how refugia can fit into existing decision support frameworks for climate adaptation and describe seven steps for managing them. Finally, we identify challenges and opportunities for operationalizing the concept of climate change refugia. Managing climate change refugia can be an important option for conservation in the face of ongoing climate change. PMID:27509088

  5. Managing Climate Change Refugia for Climate Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Toni Lyn; Daly, Christopher; Dobrowski, Solomon Z; Dulen, Deanna M; Ebersole, Joseph L; Jackson, Stephen T; Lundquist, Jessica D; Millar, Constance I; Maher, Sean P; Monahan, William B; Nydick, Koren R; Redmond, Kelly T; Sawyer, Sarah C; Stock, Sarah; Beissinger, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    Refugia have long been studied from paleontological and biogeographical perspectives to understand how populations persisted during past periods of unfavorable climate. Recently, researchers have applied the idea to contemporary landscapes to identify climate change refugia, here defined as areas relatively buffered from contemporary climate change over time that enable persistence of valued physical, ecological, and socio-cultural resources. We differentiate historical and contemporary views, and characterize physical and ecological processes that create and maintain climate change refugia. We then delineate how refugia can fit into existing decision support frameworks for climate adaptation and describe seven steps for managing them. Finally, we identify challenges and opportunities for operationalizing the concept of climate change refugia. Managing climate change refugia can be an important option for conservation in the face of ongoing climate change. PMID:27509088

  6. Adaptive momentum management for large space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, E.

    1987-01-01

    Momentum management is discussed for a Large Space Structure (LSS) with the structure selected configuration being the Initial Orbital Configuration (IOC) of the dual keel space station. The external forces considered were gravity gradient and aerodynamic torques. The goal of the momentum management scheme developed is to remove the bias components of the external torques and center the cyclic components of the stored angular momentum. The scheme investigated is adaptive to uncertainties of the inertia tensor and requires only approximate knowledge of principle moments of inertia. Computational requirements are minimal and should present no implementation problem in a flight type computer and the method proposed is shown to be effective in the presence of attitude control bandwidths as low as .01 radian/sec.

  7. Managing Climate Change Refugia for Climate Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Toni Lyn; Daly, Christopher; Dobrowski, Solomon Z; Dulen, Deanna M; Ebersole, Joseph L; Jackson, Stephen T; Lundquist, Jessica D; Millar, Constance I; Maher, Sean P; Monahan, William B; Nydick, Koren R; Redmond, Kelly T; Sawyer, Sarah C; Stock, Sarah; Beissinger, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    Refugia have long been studied from paleontological and biogeographical perspectives to understand how populations persisted during past periods of unfavorable climate. Recently, researchers have applied the idea to contemporary landscapes to identify climate change refugia, here defined as areas relatively buffered from contemporary climate change over time that enable persistence of valued physical, ecological, and socio-cultural resources. We differentiate historical and contemporary views, and characterize physical and ecological processes that create and maintain climate change refugia. We then delineate how refugia can fit into existing decision support frameworks for climate adaptation and describe seven steps for managing them. Finally, we identify challenges and opportunities for operationalizing the concept of climate change refugia. Managing climate change refugia can be an important option for conservation in the face of ongoing climate change.

  8. Water Management Decisions within a Changing Hydrologic Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegner, D. L.

    2013-12-01

    Across the United States and around the world we are facing unprecedented demands on our surface and ground water. Increasing population demands coupled with maintaining water quality, supporting species and ecosystem services, distribution of supply, hydrologic variability associated with changing climatic conditions - all require us to look more rigorously at the intersection of policy, management and science. The water supply and hydroelectric constituencies has embraced the concept of Adaptive Management in balancing the needs of resources, people, economies and providing ecosystem support. In its infancy Adaptive Management was employed as a way to move forward on dam operation and reservoir management decisions while recognizing the unknowns of how up or downstream physical and biological elements of freshwater systems would respond. River science at the time was not mature or expansive enough to address the interrelated and complex impacts of the nuances of changing operations of dams. Adaptive Management, the concept, made good sense and has provided a framework to inform management and policy decisions while keeping the door open for integrating new knowledge into a management matrix - the essence of adaptation. The application of Adaptive Management principles has continued to expand as water management demands increase. The application and reality of the use of Adaptive Management has had variable success. In the United States we have over 25 federal agencies that have water in their mission statements. Combine this with 50 states with their own water management requirements, Native American Tribes, and countless watershed and local water supply constraints and you get a sense of the challenge associated with collaborating and addressing water management issues. Without having a set of national water objectives and goals (a National Water Policy) it is up to the collaboration and integration of the multiple water silos with appropriate science. It is

  9. Adaptation of water resource systems to an uncertain future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Claire L.; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Fowler, Hayley J.; Burton, Aidan; Dawson, Richard J.; Glenis, Vassilis; Manning, Lucy J.; Jahanshahi, Golnaz; Kilsby, Chris G.

    2016-05-01

    Globally, water resources management faces significant challenges from changing climate and growing populations. At local scales, the information provided by climate models is insufficient to support the water sector in making future adaptation decisions. Furthermore, projections of change in local water resources are wrought with uncertainties surrounding natural variability, future greenhouse gas emissions, model structure, population growth, and water consumption habits. To analyse the magnitude of these uncertainties, and their implications for local-scale water resource planning, we present a top-down approach for testing climate change adaptation options using probabilistic climate scenarios and demand projections. An integrated modelling framework is developed which implements a new, gridded spatial weather generator, coupled with a rainfall-runoff model and water resource management simulation model. We use this to provide projections of the number of days and associated uncertainty that will require implementation of demand saving measures such as hose pipe bans and drought orders. Results, which are demonstrated for the Thames Basin, UK, indicate existing water supplies are sensitive to a changing climate and an increasing population, and that the frequency of severe demand saving measures are projected to increase. Considering both climate projections and population growth, the median number of drought order occurrences may increase 5-fold by the 2050s. The effectiveness of a range of demand management and supply options have been tested and shown to provide significant benefits in terms of reducing the number of demand saving days. A decrease in per capita demand of 3.75 % reduces the median frequency of drought order measures by 50 % by the 2020s. We found that increased supply arising from various adaptation options may compensate for increasingly variable flows; however, without reductions in overall demand for water resources such options will be

  10. Water Management Strategies against Water Shortage in the Alps (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, C.

    2009-12-01

    In the European Alps water has been perceived as ubiquitous and not the subject of management. Climate change and anthropogenic pressures have changed demand and supply relations rapidly and over the last 10 years, water problems have increasingly become apparent over temporal and spatial hotspots. Stakeholders in the Alpine Space have been confronted with water management problems in agriculture, tourism and hydropower to such an extent that they approached scientists to create solution strategies based on adaptation and mitigation. In this context, Alp-Water-Scarce, a European project on Water Management Strategies against Water Scarcity in the Alps was funded by the Alpine Space programme as part of the "European Territorial Cooperation" scheme. It has 17 project partners from Austria Switzerland, France, Italy and Slovenia from local governments, provinces, federal institutes and offices, universities, regional agencies, alpine societies, geological surveys, and chambers of agriculture and forestry. The Lead Partner is the Mountain Institute in Savoy, Rhone-Alpes, France. The main challenges of this project are to create local Early Warning Systems against Water Scarcity in the Alps. This system is based on strengthening existing long-term monitoring and modeling and creating new measuring networks in those countries where they do not yet exist. It is anchored strongly and actively within a Stakeholder Interaction Forum linked across comparative and contrasting regions across the Alps. The Early Warning System is based on the linkage and improvement of field monitoring and assemblage of qualitative and quantitative data derived both from natural water reservoirs as well as from anthropogenic water use in 28 selected pilot regions selected in France, Italy, Austria, Slovenia and Switzerland. The objectives are to improve water management at the short term (annual scale) and long term (using future scenarios) based on modelling and application of climate change

  11. Urban water sustainability: an integrative framework for regional water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzales, P.; Ajami, N. K.

    2015-11-01

    Traditional urban water supply portfolios have proven to be unsustainable under the uncertainties associated with growth and long-term climate variability. Introducing alternative water supplies such as recycled water, captured runoff, desalination, as well as demand management strategies such as conservation and efficiency measures, has been widely proposed to address the long-term sustainability of urban water resources. Collaborative efforts have the potential to achieve this goal through more efficient use of common pool resources and access to funding opportunities for supply diversification projects. However, this requires a paradigm shift towards holistic solutions that address the complexity of hydrologic, socio-economic and governance dynamics surrounding water management issues. The objective of this work is to develop a regional integrative framework for the assessment of water resource sustainability under current management practices, as well as to identify opportunities for sustainability improvement in coupled socio-hydrologic systems. We define the sustainability of a water utility as the ability to access reliable supplies to consistently satisfy current needs, make responsible use of supplies, and have the capacity to adapt to future scenarios. To compute a quantitative measure of sustainability, we develop a numerical index comprised of supply, demand, and adaptive capacity indicators, including an innovative way to account for the importance of having diverse supply sources. We demonstrate the application of this framework to the Hetch Hetchy Regional Water System in the San Francisco Bay Area of California. Our analyses demonstrate that water agencies that share common water supplies are in a good position to establish integrative regional management partnerships in order to achieve individual and collective short-term and long-term benefits.

  12. Public access management as an adaptive wildlife management tool

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ouren, Douglas S.; Watts, Raymond D.

    2005-01-01

    One key issue in the Black Mesa – Black Canyon area is the interaction between motorized vehicles and. The working hypothesis for this study is that early season elk movement onto private lands and the National Park is precipitated by increased use of Off Highway Vehicles (OHV’s). Data on intensity of motorized use is extremely limited. In this study, we monitor intensity of motorized vehicle and trail use on elk movements and habitat usage and analyze interactions. If management agencies decide to alter accessibility, we will monitor wildlife responses to changes in the human-use regime. This provides a unique opportunity for adaptive management experimentation based on coordinated research and monitoring. The products from this project will provide natural resource managers across the nation with tools and information to better meet these resource challenges.

  13. Adaptive Management of Social-Ecological Systems: The Path Forward

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adaptive management remains at the forefront of environmental management nearly 40 years after its original conception, largely because we have yet to develop other methodologies that offer the same promise. Despite the criticisms of adaptive management and the numerous failed at...

  14. Water Science, Management and Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lifland, Jonathan

    2004-02-01

    A new AGU book, Water:Science, Management and Policy, edited by Richard Lawford, Denise Fort, Holly Hartmann, and Susanna Eden, explores the scientific and political issues behind water use and sustainability worldwide. The book investigates critical issues facing water managers, policy makers, and scientists in the 21st century, examining specific examples of water planning and decision-making. Among the topics discussed by the authors are the current state of water engineering, sharing resources across state and international borders, and the best methods for managing the resource with the future impact of climate change and additional pollution.

  15. Bayesian adaptive survey protocols for resource management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halstead, Brian J.; Wylie, Glenn D.; Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Transparency in resource management decisions requires a proper accounting of uncertainty at multiple stages of the decision-making process. As information becomes available, periodic review and updating of resource management protocols reduces uncertainty and improves management decisions. One of the most basic steps to mitigating anthropogenic effects on populations is determining if a population of a species occurs in an area that will be affected by human activity. Species are rarely detected with certainty, however, and falsely declaring a species absent can cause improper conservation decisions or even extirpation of populations. We propose a method to design survey protocols for imperfectly detected species that accounts for multiple sources of uncertainty in the detection process, is capable of quantitatively incorporating expert opinion into the decision-making process, allows periodic updates to the protocol, and permits resource managers to weigh the severity of consequences if the species is falsely declared absent. We developed our method using the giant gartersnake (Thamnophis gigas), a threatened species precinctive to the Central Valley of California, as a case study. Survey date was negatively related to the probability of detecting the giant gartersnake, and water temperature was positively related to the probability of detecting the giant gartersnake at a sampled location. Reporting sampling effort, timing and duration of surveys, and water temperatures would allow resource managers to evaluate the probability that the giant gartersnake occurs at sampled sites where it is not detected. This information would also allow periodic updates and quantitative evaluation of changes to the giant gartersnake survey protocol. Because it naturally allows multiple sources of information and is predicated upon the idea of updating information, Bayesian analysis is well-suited to solving the problem of developing efficient sampling protocols for species of

  16. Efficacy of adaptation measures to future water scarcity on a global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, S.; Kanae, S.

    2015-12-01

    Water supply sources for all sector are critically important for agricultural and industrial productivity. The current rapid increase in water use is considered unsustainable and threatens human life. In our previous study (Yoshikawa et al., 2014 in HESS), we estimated the time-varying dependence of water requirements from water supply sources during past and future periods using the global water resources model, H08. The sources of water requirements were specified using four categories: rivers, large reservoirs, medium-size reservoirs, and non-local non-renewable blue water (NNBW). We also estimated ΔNNBW which is defined as an increase in NNBW from the past to the future. From the results, we could require the further development of water supply sources in order to sustain future water use. For coping with water scarcity using ΔNNBW, there is need for adaptation measure. To address adaptation measures, we need to set adaptation options which can be divided between 'Supply enhancement' and 'Demand management'. The supply enhancement includes increased storage, groundwater development, inter-basin transfer, desalination and re-use urban waste water. Demand management is defined as a set of actions controlling water demand by reducing water loss, increasing water productivity, and water re-allocation. In this study, we focus on estimating further future water demand under taking into account of several adaptation measures using H08 model.

  17. Adapting Landscape Mosaics of medIteranean Rainfed Agrosystems for a sustainable management of crop production, water and soil resources: the ALMIRA project.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, Frédéric; Mekki, Insaf; Chikhaoui, Mohamed

    2014-05-01

    In the context of mitigating the pressures induced by global change combined with demography and market pressures, there is increasing societal demand and scientific need to understand the functioning of Mediterranean Rainfed Agrosystems (MRAs) for their potential to provide various environmental and economic services of importance such as food production, preservation of employment and local knowhow, downstream water delivery or mitigation of rural exodus. Efficient MRAs management strategies that allow for compromises between economic development and natural resources preservation are needed. Such strategies require innovative system based research, integration across approaches and scales. One of the major challenges is to make all contributions from different disciplines converging towards a reproducible transdisciplinary approach. The objective of this communication is to present the ALMIRA project, a Tunisian - Moroccan - French project which lasts four years (2014 - 2017). The communication details the societal context, the scientific positioning and the related work hypothesis, the study areas, the project structure, the expected outcomes and the partnership which capitalizes on long term collaborations. ALMIRA aims to explore the modulation of landscape mosaics within MRAs to optimize landscape services. To explore this new lever, ALMIRA proposes to design, implement and test a new Integrated Assessment Modelling approach that explicitly i) includes innovations and action means into prospective scenarii for landscape evolutions, and ii) addresses landscape mosaics and processes of interest from the agricultural field to the resource governance catchment. This requires tackling methodological challenges in relation to i) the design of spatially explicit landscape evolution scenarii, ii) the coupling of biophysical processes related to agricultural catchment hydrology, iii) the digital mapping of landscape properties and iv) the economic assessment of the

  18. Lessons Learned from the Everglades Collaborative Adaptive Management Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent technical papers explore whether adaptive management (AM) is useful for environmental management and restoration efforts and discuss the many challenges to overcome for successful implementation, especially for large-scale restoration programs (McLain and Lee 1996; Levine ...

  19. Adaptive Delta Management: cultural aspects of dealing with uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmermans, Jos; Haasnoot, Marjolijn; Hermans, Leon; Kwakkel, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Deltas are generally recognized as vulnerable to climate change and therefore a salient topic in adaptation science. Deltas are also highly dynamic systems viewed from physical (erosion, sedimentation, subsidence), social (demographic), economic (trade), infrastructures (transport, energy, metropolization) and cultural (multi-ethnic) perspectives. This multi-faceted dynamic character of delta areas warrants the emergence of a branch of applied adaptation science, Adaptive Delta Management, which explicitly focuses on climate adaptation of such highly dynamic and deeply uncertain systems. The application of Adaptive Delta Management in the Dutch Delta Program and its active international dissemination by Dutch professionals results in the rapid dissemination of Adaptive Delta Management to deltas worldwide. This global dissemination raises concerns among professionals in delta management on its applicability in deltas with cultural conditions and historical developments quite different from those found in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom where the practices now labelled as Adaptive Delta Management first emerged. This research develops an approach and gives a first analysis of the interaction between the characteristics of different approaches in Adaptive Delta Management and their alignment with the cultural conditions encountered in various delta's globally. In this analysis, first different management theories underlying approaches to Adaptive Delta Management as encountered in both scientific and professional publications are identified and characterized on three dimensions: The characteristics dimensions used are: orientation on today, orientation on the future, and decision making (Timmermans, 2015). The different underlying management theories encountered are policy analysis, strategic management, transition management, and adaptive management. These four management theories underlying different approaches in Adaptive Delta Management are connected to

  20. 43 CFR 46.145 - Using adaptive management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... implementation decisions. The NEPA analysis conducted in the context of an adaptive management approach should... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Using adaptive management. 46.145 Section... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT OF 1969 Protection and Enhancement of Environmental Quality § 46.145 Using...

  1. 78 FR 7810 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) makes recommendations to the Secretary of the Interior concerning Glen Canyon Dam operations...

  2. 76 FR 24516 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) makes recommendations to the Secretary of the Interior concerning Glen Canyon Dam operations...

  3. 77 FR 9265 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) makes recommendations to the Secretary of the Interior concerning Glen Canyon Dam operations...

  4. 78 FR 21415 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) makes recommendations to the Secretary of the Interior concerning Glen Canyon Dam operations...

  5. 75 FR 34476 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... Interior (Secretary) is renewing the charter for the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group. The... with respect to the operation of Glen Canyon Dam and the exercise of other authorities pursuant...

  6. 77 FR 22801 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting (WebEx/conference call). SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive... Dam operations and other management actions to protect resources downstream of Glen Canyon...

  7. 77 FR 43117 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) makes recommendations to the Secretary of the Interior concerning Glen Canyon Dam operations...

  8. Complex Adaptive Systems as Metaphors for Organizational Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmberg, Klara

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of complex adaptive systems (CAS) from the perspective of managing organizations, to describe and explore the management principles in a case study of an organization with unconventional ways of management and to present a tentative model for managing organizations as CAS--system…

  9. Hydrologic landscape units and adaptive management of intermountain wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Stephen G.; Sojda, R.S.

    2006-01-01

    daptive management is often proposed to assist in the management of national wildlife refuges and allows the exploration of alternatives as well as the addition of ne w knowledge as it becomes available. The hydrological landscape unit can be a good foundation for such efforts. Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) is in an intermountain basin dominated by vertical tectonics in the Northern Rocky Mountains. A geographic information system was used to define the boundaries for the hydrologic landscape units there. Units identified include alluvial fan, interfan, stream alluvi um and basin flat. Management alternatives can be informed by ex amination of processes that occu r on the units. For example, an ancient alluvial fan unit related to Red Rock Creek appear s to be isolated from stream flow today, with recharge dominated by precipitation and bedrock springs; while other alluvial fan units in the area have shallow ground water recharged from mountain streams and precipitation. The scale of hydrologic processes in interfan units differs from that in alluvial fan hydrologic landscape units. These differences are important when the refuge is evaluating habitat management activities. Hydrologic landscape units provide scientific unde rpinnings for the refuge’s comprehensive planning process. New geologic, hydrologic, and biologic knowledge can be integrated into the hydrologic landscape unit definition and improve adaptive management.

  10. Adapting Water Infrastructure to Non-stationary Climate Changes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water supply and sanitation are carried out by three major types of water infrastructure: drinking water treatment and distribution, wastewater collection and treatment, and storm water collection and management. Their sustainability is measured by resilience against and adapta...

  11. Adaptive management of river flows in Europe: A transferable framework for implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, M. F.; Holman, I. P.; Grabowski, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    The evidence base for defining flow regimes to support healthy river ecosystems is weak, as there are few studies which quantify the ecological impact associated with different degrees of hydrological alteration. As a result, river flow standards used to manage water abstraction are largely based on expert judgement. Planned adaptive management studies on multiple rivers under the European Water Framework Directive represent an opportunity to learn about ecological flow requirements and improve the quantitative evidence base. However, identifying clear ecological responses to flow alteration can be a significant challenge, because of the complexity of river systems and the other factors which may confound the response. This paper describes the Adaptive River Management (ARM) framework, a flexible framework for implementing adaptive management of river flows that is transferable to other regions of the world. Application of the framework will ensure that the effectiveness of implemented management actions is appraised and that transferable quantitative data are collected that can be used in other geographical regions.

  12. A century scale human-induced hydrological and ecological changes of wetlands of two large river basins in Australia (Murray) and China (Yangtze): development of an adaptive water resource management framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kattel, G. R.; Dong, X.; Yang, X.

    2015-08-01

    Recently, the provision of food and water resources of two of the world's large river basins, the Murray and the Yangtze, has been significantly altered through widespread landscape modification. Long-term sedimentary archives, dating back to past centuries, from wetlands of these river basins reveal that rapid, basin-wide development has reduced resilience of biological communities, resulting in considerable decline in ecosystem services, including water quality. In particular, large-scale human disturbance to river systems, due to river regulation during the mid-20th century, has transformed the hydrology of rivers and wetlands, causing widespread disturbance to aquatic biological communities. Historical changes of cladoceran zooplankton (water fleas) were used to assess the hydrology and ecology of three Murray and Yangtze River wetlands over the past century. Subfossil assemblages of cladocerans retrieved from sediment cores (94, 45 and 65 cm) of three wetlands: Kings Billabong (Murray), Zhangdu and Liangzi Lakes (Yangtze) strongly responded to hydrological changes of the river after the mid-20th century. River regulation caused by construction of dams and weirs, and river channel modifications has led to hydrological alterations. The hydrological disturbances were either: (1) a prolonged inundation of wetlands, or (2) reduced river flow, which caused variability in wetland depth. These phenomena subsequently transformed the natural wetland habitats, leading to a switch in cladoceran assemblages preferring poor water quality and eutrophication. An adaptive water resource management framework for both of these river basins has been proposed to restore or optimize the conditions of wetland ecosystems impacted by 20th century human disturbance and climate change.

  13. A roadmap for climate change adaptation in Sweden's forests: addressing wicked problems using adaptive management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rist, L.; Felton, A.; Samuelsson, L.; Marald, E.; Karlsson, B.; Johansson, U.; Rosvall, O.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change is expected to have significant direct and indirect effects on forest ecosystems. Forests will have to adapt not only to changes in mean climate variables but also to increased climatic variability and altered disturbance regimes. Rates of change will likely exceed many forests capabilities to naturally adapt and many of today's trees will be exposed to the climates of 2090. In Sweden the effects are already being seen and more severe impacts are expected in the future. Exacerbating the challenge posed by climate change, a large proportion of Sweden's forests are, as a consequence of dominant production goals, greatly simplified and thus potentially more vulnerable to the uncertainties and risks associated with climate change. This simplification also confers reduced adaptive capacity to respond to potential impacts. Furthermore, many adaptation measures themselves carry uncertainties and risks. Future changes and effects are thus uncertain, yet forest managers, policymakers, scientists and other stakeholders must act. Strategies that build social and ecological resilience in the face of multiple interacting unknowns and surprises are needed. Adaptive management aims to collect and integrate knowledge about how a managed system is likely to respond to alternative management schemes and changing environmental conditions within a continuous decision process. There have been suggestions that adaptive management is not well suited to the large complex uncertainties associated with climate change and associated adaptation measures. However, more recently it has been suggested that adaptive management can handle such wicked problems, given adequate resources and a suitable breakdown of the targeted uncertainties. Here we test this hypothesis by evaluating how an adaptive management process could be used to manage the uncertainties and risks associated with securing resilient, biodiverse and productive forests in Sweden in the face of climate change. We

  14. Agricultural Catchments: Evaluating Policies and Monitoring Adaptive Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, P.; Shortle, G.; Mellander, P. E.; Shore, M.; McDonald, N.; Buckley, C.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural management in river catchments must combine the objectives of economic profit and environmental stewardship and, in many countries, mitigate the decline of water quality and/or maintain high water quality. Achieving these objectives is, amongst other activities, in the remit of 'sustainable intensification'. Of concern is the efficient use of crop nutrients, phosphorus and nitrogen, and minimising or offsetting the effects of transfers from land to water - corner-stone requirements of many agri-environmental regulations. This requires a robust monitoring programme that can audit the stages of nutrient inputs and outputs in river catchments and indicate where the likely points of successful policy interventions can be observed - or confounded. In this paper, a catchment, or watershed, experimental design and results are described for monitoring the nutrient transfer continuum in the Irish agricultural landscape against the backdrop of the European Union Nitrates and Water Framework Directives. This Agricultural Catchments Programme experimental design also serves to indicate water quality pressure-points that may be catchment specific as agricultural activities intensify to adapt to national efforts to build important parts of the post-recession economy.

  15. Selecting downscaled climate projections for water resource impacts and adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, Jean-Philippe; Hingray, Benoît

    2015-04-01

    Increasingly large ensembles of global and regional climate projections are being produced and delivered to the climate impact community. However, such an enormous amount of information can hardly been dealt with by some impact models due to computational constraints. Strategies for transparently selecting climate projections are therefore urgently needed for informing small-scale impact and adaptation studies and preventing potential pitfalls in interpreting ensemble results from impact models. This work proposes results from a selection approach implemented for an integrated water resource impact and adaptation study in the Durance river basin (Southern French Alps). A large ensemble of 3000 daily transient gridded climate projections was made available for this study. It was built from different runs of 4 ENSEMBLES Stream2 GCMs, statistically downscaled by 3 probabilistic methods based on the K-nearest neighbours resampling approach (Lafaysse et al., 2014). The selection approach considered here exemplifies one of the multiple possible approaches described in a framework for identifying tailored subsets of climate projections for impact and adaptation studies proposed by Vidal & Hingray (2014). It was chosen based on the specificities of both the study objectives and the characteristics of the projection dataset. This selection approach aims at propagating as far as possible the relative contributions of the four different sources of uncertainties considered, namely GCM structure, large-scale natural variability, structure of the downscaling method, and catchment-scale natural variability. Moreover, it took the form of a hierarchical structure to deal with the specific constraints of several types of impact models (hydrological models, irrigation demand models and reservoir management models). The implemented 3-layer selection approach is therefore mainly based on conditioned Latin Hypercube sampling (Christierson et al., 2012). The choice of conditioning

  16. Technology for Water Treatment (National Water Management)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The buildup of scale and corrosion is the most costly maintenance problem in cooling tower operation. Jet Propulsion Laboratory successfully developed a non-chemical system that not only curbed scale and corrosion, but also offered advantages in water conservation, cost savings and the elimination of toxic chemical discharge. In the system, ozone is produced by an on-site generator and introduced to the cooling tower water. Organic impurities are oxidized, and the dissolved ozone removes bacteria and scale. National Water Management, a NASA licensee, has installed its ozone advantage systems at some 200 cooling towers. Customers have saved money and eliminated chemical storage and discharge.

  17. Reducing uncertainty about objective functions in adaptive management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, B.K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper extends the uncertainty framework of adaptive management to include uncertainty about the objectives to be used in guiding decisions. Adaptive decision making typically assumes explicit and agreed-upon objectives for management, but allows for uncertainty as to the structure of the decision process that generates change through time. Yet it is not unusual for there to be uncertainty (or disagreement) about objectives, with different stakeholders expressing different views not only about resource responses to management but also about the appropriate management objectives. In this paper I extend the treatment of uncertainty in adaptive management, and describe a stochastic structure for the joint occurrence of uncertainty about objectives as well as models, and show how adaptive decision making and the assessment of post-decision monitoring data can be used to reduce uncertainties of both kinds. Different degrees of association between model and objective uncertainty lead to different patterns of learning about objectives. ?? 2011.

  18. Managing Climate Risk. Integrating Adaptation into World Bank Group Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Van Aalst, M.

    2006-08-15

    Climate change is already taking place, and further changes are inevitable. Developing countries, and particularly the poorest people in these countries, are most at risk. The impacts result not only from gradual changes in temperature and sea level but also, in particular, from increased climate variability and extremes, including more intense floods, droughts, and storms. These changes are already having major impacts on the economic performance of developing countries and on the lives and livelihoods of millions of poor people around the world. Climate change thus directly affects the World Bank Group's mission of eradicating poverty. It also puts at risk many projects in a wide range of sectors, including infrastructure, agriculture, human health, water resources, and environment. The risks include physical threats to the investments, potential underperformance, and the possibility that projects will indirectly contribute to rising vulnerability by, for example, triggering investment and settlement in high-risk areas. The way to address these concerns is not to separate climate change adaptation from other priorities but to integrate comprehensive climate risk management into development planning, programs, and projects. While there is a great need to heighten awareness of climate risk in Bank work, a large body of experience on climate risk management is already available, in analytical work, in country dialogues, and in a growing number of investment projects. This operational experience highlights the general ingredients for successful integration of climate risk management into the mainstream development agenda: getting the right sectoral departments and senior policy makers involved; incorporating risk management into economic planning; engaging a wide range of nongovernmental actors (businesses, nongovernmental organizations, communities, and so on); giving attention to regulatory issues; and choosing strategies that will pay off immediately under current

  19. U.S. natural resources and climate change: concepts and approaches for management adaptation.

    PubMed

    West, Jordan M; Julius, Susan H; Kareiva, Peter; Enquist, Carolyn; Lawler, Joshua J; Petersen, Brian; Johnson, Ayana E; Shaw, M Rebecca

    2009-12-01

    Public lands and waters in the United States traditionally have been managed using frameworks and objectives that were established under an implicit assumption of stable climatic conditions. However, projected climatic changes render this assumption invalid. Here, we summarize general principles for management adaptations that have emerged from a major literature review. These general principles cover many topics including: (1) how to assess climate impacts to ecosystem processes that are key to management goals; (2) using management practices to support ecosystem resilience; (3) converting barriers that may inhibit management responses into opportunities for successful implementation; and (4) promoting flexible decision making that takes into account challenges of scale and thresholds. To date, the literature on management adaptations to climate change has mostly focused on strategies for bolstering the resilience of ecosystems to persist in their current states. Yet in the longer term, it is anticipated that climate change will push certain ecosystems and species beyond their capacity to recover. When managing to support resilience becomes infeasible, adaptation may require more than simply changing management practices--it may require changing management goals and managing transitions to new ecosystem states. After transitions have occurred, management will again support resilience--this time for a new ecosystem state. Thus, successful management of natural resources in the context of climate change will require recognition on the part of managers and decisions makers of the need to cycle between "managing for resilience" and "managing for change."

  20. An introduction to adaptive management for threatened and endangered species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runge, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    Management of threatened and endangered species would seem to be a perfect context for adaptive management. Many of the decisions are recurrent and plagued by uncertainty, exactly the conditions that warrant an adaptive approach. But although the potential of adaptive management in these settings has been extolled, there are limited applications in practice. The impediments to practical implementation are manifold and include semantic confusion, institutional inertia, misperceptions about the suitability and utility, and a lack of guiding examples. In this special section of the Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management, we hope to reinvigorate the appropriate application of adaptive management for threatened and endangered species by framing such management in a decision-analytical context, clarifying misperceptions, classifying the types of decisions that might be amenable to an adaptive approach, and providing three fully developed case studies. In this overview paper, I define terms, review the past application of adaptive management, challenge perceived hurdles, and set the stage for the case studies which follow.

  1. Genetics of water use physiology in locally adapted Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Mojica, Julius P; Mullen, Jack; Lovell, John T; Monroe, J Grey; Paul, John R; Oakley, Christopher G; McKay, John K

    2016-10-01

    Identifying the genetic basis of adaptation to climate has long been a goal in evolutionary biology and has applications in agriculture. Adaptation to drought represents one important aspect of local adaptation, and drought is the major factor limiting agricultural yield. We examined local adaptation between Sweden and Italy Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes, which show contrasting levels of water availability in their local environments. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling water use physiology traits and adaptive trait QTL (genomic regions where trait QTL and fitness QTL colocalize), we performed QTL mapping on 374F9 recombinant inbred lines in well-watered and terminal drought conditions. We found 72 QTL (32 in well-watered, 31 in drought, 9 for plasticity) across five water use physiology traits: δ(13)C, rosette area, dry rosette weight, leaf water content and percent leaf nitrogen. Some of these genomic regions colocalize with fitness QTL and with other physiology QTL in defined hotspots. In addition, we found evidence of both constitutive and inducible water use physiology QTL. Finally, we identified highly divergent candidate genes, in silico. Our results suggest that many genes with minor effects may influence adaptation through water use physiology and that pleiotropic water use physiology QTL have fitness consequences.

  2. Genetics of water use physiology in locally adapted Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Mojica, Julius P; Mullen, Jack; Lovell, John T; Monroe, J Grey; Paul, John R; Oakley, Christopher G; McKay, John K

    2016-10-01

    Identifying the genetic basis of adaptation to climate has long been a goal in evolutionary biology and has applications in agriculture. Adaptation to drought represents one important aspect of local adaptation, and drought is the major factor limiting agricultural yield. We examined local adaptation between Sweden and Italy Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes, which show contrasting levels of water availability in their local environments. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling water use physiology traits and adaptive trait QTL (genomic regions where trait QTL and fitness QTL colocalize), we performed QTL mapping on 374F9 recombinant inbred lines in well-watered and terminal drought conditions. We found 72 QTL (32 in well-watered, 31 in drought, 9 for plasticity) across five water use physiology traits: δ(13)C, rosette area, dry rosette weight, leaf water content and percent leaf nitrogen. Some of these genomic regions colocalize with fitness QTL and with other physiology QTL in defined hotspots. In addition, we found evidence of both constitutive and inducible water use physiology QTL. Finally, we identified highly divergent candidate genes, in silico. Our results suggest that many genes with minor effects may influence adaptation through water use physiology and that pleiotropic water use physiology QTL have fitness consequences. PMID:27593459

  3. Conservative water management in the widespread conifer genus Callitris

    PubMed Central

    Brodribb, Timothy J.; Bowman, David M. J. S.; Grierson, Pauline F.; Murphy, Brett P.; Nichols, Scott; Prior, Lynda D.

    2013-01-01

    Water management by woody species encompasses characters involved in seeking, transporting and evaporating water. Examples of adaptation of individual characters to water availability are common, but little is known about the adaptability of whole-plant water management. Here we use plant hydration and growth to examine variation in whole-plant water management characteristics within the conifer genus Callitris. Using four species that cover the environmental extremes in the Australian continent, we compare seasonal patterns of growth and hydration over 2 years to determine the extent to which species exhibit adaptive variation to the local environment. Detailed measurements of gas exchange in one species are used to produce a hydraulic model to predict changes in leaf water potential throughout the year. This same model, when applied to the remaining three species, provided a close representation of the measured patterns of water potential gradient at all sites, suggesting strong conservation in water management, a conclusion supported by carbon and oxygen isotope measurements in Callitris from across the continent. We conclude that despite its large range in terms of rainfall, Callitris has a conservative water management strategy, characterized by a high sensitivity of growth to rainfall and a delayed (anisohydric) closure of stomata during soil drying.

  4. Avoiding the pitfalls of adaptive management implementation in Swedish silviculture.

    PubMed

    Rist, Lucy; Felton, Adam; Mårald, Erland; Samuelsson, Lars; Lundmark, Tomas; Rosvall, Ola

    2016-02-01

    There is a growing demand for alternatives to Sweden's current dominant silvicultural system, driven by a desire to raise biomass production, meet environmental goals and mitigate climate change. However, moving towards diversified forest management that deviates from well established silvicultural practices carries many uncertainties and risks. Adaptive management is often suggested as an effective means of managing in the context of such complexities. Yet there has been scepticism over its appropriateness in cases characterised by large spatial extents, extended temporal scales and complex land ownership-characteristics typical of Swedish forestry. Drawing on published research, including a new paradigm for adaptive management, we indicate how common pitfalls can be avoided during implementation. We indicate the investment, infrastructure, and considerations necessary to benefit from adaptive management. In doing so, we show how this approach could offer a pragmatic operational model for managing the uncertainties, risks and obstacles associated with new silvicultural systems and the challenges facing Swedish forestry. PMID:26744049

  5. Avoiding the pitfalls of adaptive management implementation in Swedish silviculture.

    PubMed

    Rist, Lucy; Felton, Adam; Mårald, Erland; Samuelsson, Lars; Lundmark, Tomas; Rosvall, Ola

    2016-02-01

    There is a growing demand for alternatives to Sweden's current dominant silvicultural system, driven by a desire to raise biomass production, meet environmental goals and mitigate climate change. However, moving towards diversified forest management that deviates from well established silvicultural practices carries many uncertainties and risks. Adaptive management is often suggested as an effective means of managing in the context of such complexities. Yet there has been scepticism over its appropriateness in cases characterised by large spatial extents, extended temporal scales and complex land ownership-characteristics typical of Swedish forestry. Drawing on published research, including a new paradigm for adaptive management, we indicate how common pitfalls can be avoided during implementation. We indicate the investment, infrastructure, and considerations necessary to benefit from adaptive management. In doing so, we show how this approach could offer a pragmatic operational model for managing the uncertainties, risks and obstacles associated with new silvicultural systems and the challenges facing Swedish forestry.

  6. Operational water quantity management in a river basin.

    PubMed

    Morgenschweis, G; Brudy-Zippelius, T; Ihringer, J

    2003-01-01

    The real-time water quantity management of complex water resources systems can be successfully supported by mathematical models. Since there were no models available for integrated water management on the catchment scale, a generally applicable model system for quantitative water management has been developed and adapted to the watershed of the River Ruhr in Germany. The first results attained with this model system in the Ruhr catchment basin show that it is a powerful tool for operational water quantity management and is able to simulate a differentially structured watershed with high anthropogenic impacts. The use of this model has enabled Ruhrverband to make crucial improvements and increase the objectivity of operational water quantity management.

  7. The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program: An experiment in science-based resource management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    kaplinski, m

    2001-12-01

    In 1996, Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management (GCDAMP) program was established to provide input on Glen Canyon Dam operations and their affect on the Colorado Ecosystem in Grand Canyon. The GCDAMP is a bold experiment in federal resource management that features a governing partnership with all relevant stakeholders sitting at the same table. It is a complicated, difficult process where stakeholder-derived management actions must balance resource protection with water and power delivery compacts, the Endangered Species Act, the National Historical Preservation Act, the Grand Canyon Protection Act, National Park Service Policy, and other stakeholder concerns. The program consists of four entities: the Adaptive Management Workgroup (AMWG), the Technical Workgroup (TWG), the Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC), and independent review panels. The AMWG and TWG are federal advisory committees that consists of federal and state resource managers, Native American tribes, power, environmental and recreation interests. The AMWG is develops, evaluates and recommends alternative dam operations to the Secretary. The TWG translates AMWG policy and goals into management objectives and information needs, provides questions that serve as the basis for long-term monitoring and research activities, interprets research results from the GCMRC, and prepares reports as required for the AMWG. The GCMRC is an independent science center that is responsible for all GCDAMP monitoring and research activities. The GCMRC utilizes proposal requests with external peer review and an in-house staff that directs and synthesizes monitoring and research results. The GCMRC meets regularly with the TWG and AMWG and provides scientific information on the consequences of GCDAMP actions. Independent review panels consist of external peer review panels that provide reviews of scientific activities and the program in general, technical advice to the GCMRC, TWG and AMWG, and play a critical

  8. Total Water Management: A Watershed Based Approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this urbanizing world, municipal water managers need to develop planning and management frameworks to meet challenges such as limiting fresh water supplies, degrading receiving waters, increasing regulatory requirements, flooding, aging infrastructure, rising utility (energy) ...

  9. Missing and neglected links in water management.

    PubMed

    Biswas, A K

    2001-01-01

    In the current revolution in water management; issues that must be addressed include both urbanisation and ruralisation, water quality, and globalisation and energy policy. Water management must struggle against inappropriate research, myths and inadequate data.

  10. Pecos River Water Management Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, J. D.; James, S. C.

    2003-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is providing technical assistance to farmer members of the Carlsbad Irrigation District (CID) to better plan the storage, delivery, and application of water to the Carlsbad Project. The surface waters along the Pecos River are allocated by the State of New Mexico to three major entities: 1) The State of Texas - each year a percentage of water from the natural river flow must be delivered to Texas as governed by the Interstate Streams Commission; 2) CID farmer members - a fixed portion of water must be delivered to the farming members of the CID; and 3) wildlife - an amount of water must be allocated to support the wildlife habitat in the Pecos River, most notably, the endangered Pecos Bluntnose Shiner Minnow. The Pecos Bluntnose Shiner Minnow habitat preference is under investigation by other state and national agencies and preliminary work has established that water depth, water velocity, and sediment activity (dunes, ripples, etc.) are the key parameters influencing minnow habitat preference. The amount of water (river flow rate) necessary to maintain a preferable habitat to support this species has yet to be determined. With a limited amount of water in the Pecos River and its reservoirs, it is critical to allocate water efficiently such that habitat is maintained, the farmers of the CID are supported, and New Mexico meets its commitments to the State of Texas. This study investigates the relationship between flow rate in the river and water depth, water velocity, and sediment activity. The goal is to establish a predictive tool that supports informed decisions about water management practices along the Pecos River that will maximize water available for agriculture and the State of Texas while maintaining the aquatic habitat.

  11. Water management practices, irrigated cropland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigation is practiced on about 17 percent of the world’s arable land and accounts for 33 percent of the world’s food production. U.S. Department of Agriculture conservation programs are commonly used to improve water management on irrigated land and reduce impacts of irrigation on the environment ...

  12. Instruments for Water Quality Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations and Water, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The old system of licensing within the different sectors of the society in Norway is in the process of being incorporated into a system of total natural resource planning and regulation. This article outlines comprehensive physical and economic water pollution management plans for the municipality, the county, and the state. (Author/MA)

  13. Protocol and practice in the adaptive management of waterfowl harvests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, F.; Williams, K.

    1999-01-01

    Waterfowl harvest management in North America, for all its success, historically has had several shortcomings, including a lack of well-defined objectives, a failure to account for uncertain management outcomes, and inefficient use of harvest regulations to understand the effects of management. To address these and other concerns, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service began implementation of adaptive harvest management in 1995. Harvest policies are now developed using a Markov decision process in which there is an explicit accounting for uncontrolled environmental variation, partial controllability of harvest, and structural uncertainty in waterfowl population dynamics. Current policies are passively adaptive, in the sense that any reduction in structural uncertainty is an unplanned by-product of the regulatory process. A generalization of the Markov decision process permits the calculation of optimal actively adaptive policies, but it is not yet clear how state-specific harvest actions differ between passive and active approaches. The Markov decision process also provides managers the ability to explore optimal levels of aggregation or "management scale" for regulating harvests in a system that exhibits high temporal, spatial, and organizational variability. Progress in institutionalizing adaptive harvest management has been remarkable, but some managers still perceive the process as a panacea, while failing to appreciate the challenges presented by this more explicit and methodical approach to harvest regulation. Technical hurdles include the need to develop better linkages between population processes and the dynamics of landscapes, and to model the dynamics of structural uncertainty in a more comprehensive fashion. From an institutional perspective, agreement on how to value and allocate harvests continues to be elusive, and there is some evidence that waterfowl managers have overestimated the importance of achievement-oriented factors in setting hunting

  14. Adaptive Management of Bull Trout Populations in the Lemhi Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, James T.; Tyre, Andrew J.; Converse, Sarah J.; Bogich, Tiffany L.; Miller, Damien; Post van der Burg, Max; Thomas, Carmen; Thompson, Ralph J.; Wood, Jeri; Brewer, Donna; Runge, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    The bull trout Salvelinus confluentus, a stream-living salmonid distributed in drainages of the northwestern United States, is listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act because of rangewide declines. One proposed recovery action is the reconnection of tributaries in the Lemhi Basin. Past water use policies in this core area disconnected headwater spawning sites from downstream habitat and have led to the loss of migratory life history forms. We developed an adaptive management framework to analyze which types of streams should be prioritized for reconnection under a proposed Habitat Conservation Plan. We developed a Stochastic Dynamic Program that identified optimal policies over time under four different assumptions about the nature of the migratory behavior and the effects of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis on subpopulations of bull trout. In general, given the current state of the system and the uncertainties about the dynamics, the optimal policy would be to connect streams that are currently occupied by bull trout. We also estimated the value of information as the difference between absolute certainty about which of our four assumptions were correct, and a model averaged optimization assuming no knowledge. Overall there is little to be gained by learning about the dynamics of the system in its current state, although in other parts of the state space reducing uncertainties about the system would be very valuable. We also conducted a sensitivity analysis; the optimal decision at the current state does not change even when parameter values are changed up to 75% of the baseline values. Overall, the exercise demonstrates that it is possible to apply adaptive management principles to threatened and endangered species, but logistical and data availability constraints make detailed analyses difficult.

  15. The Value of Adaptive Regret Management in Retirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farquhar, Jamie C.; Wrosch, Carsten; Pushkar, Dolores; Li, Karen Z. H.

    2013-01-01

    This 3-year longitudinal study examined the associations between regret management, everyday activities, and retirement satisfaction among recent retirees. We hypothesized that the regulation of a severe life regret can facilitate activity engagement and retirement satisfaction, but only if retirees manage their regrets adaptively by either…

  16. Engaging stakeholders for adaptive management using structured decision analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irwin, Elise R.; Kathryn, D.; Kennedy, Mickett

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive management is different from other types of management in that it includes all stakeholders (versus only policy makers) in the process, uses resource optimization techniques to evaluate competing objectives, and recognizes and attempts to reduce uncertainty inherent in natural resource systems. Management actions are negotiated by stakeholders, monitored results are compared to predictions of how the system should respond, and management strategies are adjusted in a “monitor-compare-adjust” iterative routine. Many adaptive management projects fail because of the lack of stakeholder identification, engagement, and continued involvement. Primary reasons for this vary but are usually related to either stakeholders not having ownership (or representation) in decision processes or disenfranchisement of stakeholders after adaptive management begins. We present an example in which stakeholders participated fully in adaptive management of a southeastern regulated river. Structured decision analysis was used to define management objectives and stakeholder values and to determine initial flow prescriptions. The process was transparent, and the visual nature of the modeling software allowed stakeholders to see how their interests and values were represented in the decision process. The development of a stakeholder governance structure and communication mechanism has been critical to the success of the project.

  17. Managing Adaptive Challenges: Learning with Principals in Bermuda and Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drago-Severson, Eleanor; Maslin-Ostrowski, Patricia; Hoffman, Alexander M.; Barbaro, Justin

    2014-01-01

    We interviewed eight principals from Bermuda and Florida about how they identify and manage their most pressing challenges. Their challenges are composed of both adaptive and technical work, requiring leaders to learn to diagnose and manage them. Challenges focused on change and were traced to accountability contexts, yet accountability was not…

  18. Adapting livestock behaviour to achieve management goals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using livestock to efficiently achieve management goals requires melding animal behavior with mechanical and electronic equipment. Practices such as autonomously obtaining individual animal liveweight when combined with individual animal electronic identification can produce numerous cost saving ad...

  19. Energy Sector Adaptation in Response to Water Scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, N. A.; Fricko, O.; Parkinson, S.; Riahi, K.

    2015-12-01

    Global energy systems models have largely ignored the impacts of water scarcity on the energy sector and the related implications for climate change mitigation. However, significant water is required in the production of energy, including for thermoelectric power plant cooling, hydropower generation, irrigation for bioenergy, and the extraction and refining of liquid fuels. With a changing climate and expectations of increasing competition for water from the agricultural and municipal sectors, it is unclear whether sufficient water will be available where needed to support water-intensive energy technologies in the future. Thus, it is important that water use and water constraints are incorporated into energy systems models to better understand energy sector adaptation to water scarcity. The global energy systems model, MESSAGE, has recently been updated to quantify the water consumption and withdrawal requirements of the energy sector and now includes several cooling technologies for addressing water scarcity. This study introduces water constraints into the model to examine whether and how the energy sector can adapt to water scarcity over the next century. In addition, the implications for climate mitigation are evaluated under a scenario in which warming is limited to 2˚C over the pre-industrial level. Given the difficulty of introducing meaningful water constraints into global models, we use a simplistic approach and evaluate a series of scenarios in which the water available to the energy sector is systematically reduced. This approach allows for the evaluation of energy sector adaptations under various levels of water scarcity and can provide insight into how water scarcity, whether from climate change or competing demands, may impact the energy sector in different world regions. This study will provide insight into the following questions: How does the energy sector adapt to water scarcity in different regions? What are the costs associated with adaptation

  20. MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR RISK MANAGEMENT OF DRINKING WATER TREATMENT; II. DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS: HALOACETIC ACIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Risk management of drinking water relies on quality analytical data. Analytical methodology can often be adapted from environmental monitoring sources. However, risk management sometimes presents special analytical challenges because data may be needed from a source for which n...

  1. Adapting environmental management to uncertain but inevitable change

    PubMed Central

    Nicol, Sam; Fuller, Richard A.; Iwamura, Takuya; Chadès, Iadine

    2015-01-01

    Implementation of adaptation actions to protect biodiversity is limited by uncertainty about the future. One reason for this is the fear of making the wrong decisions caused by the myriad future scenarios presented to decision-makers. We propose an adaptive management (AM) method for optimally managing a population under uncertain and changing habitat conditions. Our approach incorporates multiple future scenarios and continually learns the best management strategy from observations, even as conditions change. We demonstrate the performance of our AM approach by applying it to the spatial management of migratory shorebird habitats on the East Asian–Australasian flyway, predicted to be severely impacted by future sea-level rise. By accounting for non-stationary dynamics, our solution protects 25 000 more birds per year than the current best stationary approach. Our approach can be applied to many ecological systems that require efficient adaptation strategies for an uncertain future. PMID:25972463

  2. Change Ahead: Transient Scenarios for Long-term Water Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haasnoot, Marjolijn; Beersma, Jules; Schellekens, Jaap

    2013-04-01

    While the use of an ensemble of transient scenarios is common in climate change studies, they are rarely used in water management studies. Present planning studies on long-term water management often use a few plausible futures for one or two projection years, ignoring the dynamic aspect of adaptation through the interaction between the water system and society. Over the course of time society experiences, learns and adapts to changes and events, making policy responses part of a plausible future, and thus the success of a water management strategy. Exploring transient scenarios and policy options over time can support decision making on water management strategies in an uncertain and changing environment. We have developed and applied such a method, called exploring adaptation pathways (Haasnoot et al., 2012; Haasnoot et al., 2011). This method uses multiple realisations of transient scenarios to assess the efficacy of policy actions over time. In case specified objectives are not achieved anymore, an adaptation tipping point (Kwadijk et al., 2010) is reached. After reaching a tipping point, additional actions are needed to reach the objectives. As a result, a pathway emerges. In this presentation we describe the development of transient scenarios for long term water management, and how these scenarios can be used for long term water management under uncertainty. We illustrate this with thought experiments, and results from computational modeling experiment for exploring adaptation pathways in the lower Rhine delta. The results and the thought experiments show, among others, that climate variability is at least just as important as climate change for taking decisions in water management. References Haasnoot, M., Middelkoop, H., Offermans, A., Beek, E., Deursen, W.A.v. (2012) Exploring pathways for sustainable water management in river deltas in a changing environment. Climatic Change 115, 795-819. Haasnoot, M., Middelkoop, H., van Beek, E., van Deursen, W

  3. Total Water Management, the New Paradigm for Urban Water Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current resource management practices put different stresses on local water resources and urban infrastructure. Total Water Manag...

  4. Co-Adapting Water Demand and Supply to Changing Climate in Agricultural Water Systems, A Case Study in Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, M.; Li, Y.; Mainardi, M.; Arias Munoz, C.; Castelletti, A.; Gandolfi, C.

    2013-12-01

    Exponentially growing water demands and increasing uncertainties in the hydrologic cycle due to changes in climate and land use will challenge water resources planning and management in the next decade. Improving agricultural productivity is particularly critical, being this sector the one characterized by the highest water demand. Moreover, to meet projected growth in human population and per-capita food demand, agricultural production will have to significantly increase in the next decades, even though water availability is expected to decrease due to climate change impacts. Agricultural systems are called to adapt their strategies (e.g., changing crop patterns and the corresponding water demand, or maximizing the efficiency in the water supply modifying irrigation scheduling and adopting high efficiency irrigation techniques) in order to re-optimize the use of limited water resources. Although many studies have assessed climate change impacts on agricultural practices and water management, most of them assume few scenarios of water demand or water supply separately, while an analysis of their reciprocal feedbacks is still missing. Moreover, current practices are generally established according to historical agreements and normative constraints and, in the absence of dramatic failures, the shift toward more efficient water management is not easily achievable. In this work, we propose to activate an information loop between farmers and water managers to improve the effectiveness of agricultural water management practices by matching the needs of the farmers with the design of water supply strategies. The proposed approach is tested on a real-world case study, namely the Lake Como serving the Muzza-Bassa Lodigiana irrigation district (Italy). A distributed-parameter, dynamic model of the system allows to simulate crop growth and the final yield over a range of hydro-climatic conditions, irrigation strategies and water-related stresses. The spatial component of the

  5. Assessing Water and Carbon Footprints for Sustainable Water Resource Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    The key points of this presentation are: (1) Water footprint and carbon footprint as two sustainability attributes in adaptations to climate and socioeconomic changes, (2) Necessary to evaluate carbon and water footprints relative to constraints in resource capacity, (3) Critical...

  6. National Water Infrastructure Adaptation Assessment, Part I: Climate Change Adaptation Readiness Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report “National Water Infrastructure Adaptation Assessment” is comprised of four parts (Part I to IV), each in an independent volume. The Part I report presented herein describes a preliminary regulatory and technical analysis of water infrastructure and regulations in the ...

  7. Management of the water balance and quality in mining areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasanen, Antti; Krogerus, Kirsti; Mroueh, Ulla-Maija; Turunen, Kaisa; Backnäs, Soile; Vento, Tiia; Veijalainen, Noora; Hentinen, Kimmo; Korkealaakso, Juhani

    2015-04-01

    Although mining companies have long been conscious of water related risks they still face environmental management problems. These problems mainly emerge because mine sites' water balances have not been adequately assessed in the stage of the planning of mines. More consistent approach is required to help mining companies identify risks and opportunities related to the management of water resources in all stages of mining. This approach requires that the water cycle of a mine site is interconnected with the general hydrologic water cycle. In addition to knowledge on hydrological conditions, the control of the water balance in the mining processes require knowledge of mining processes, the ability to adjust process parameters to variable hydrological conditions, adaptation of suitable water management tools and systems, systematic monitoring of amounts and quality of water, adequate capacity in water management infrastructure to handle the variable water flows, best practices to assess the dispersion, mixing and dilution of mine water and pollutant loading to receiving water bodies, and dewatering and separation of water from tailing and precipitates. WaterSmart project aims to improve the awareness of actual quantities of water, and water balances in mine areas to improve the forecasting and the management of the water volumes. The study is executed through hydrogeological and hydrological surveys and online monitoring procedures. One of the aims is to exploit on-line water quantity and quality monitoring for the better management of the water balances. The target is to develop a practical and end-user-specific on-line input and output procedures. The second objective is to develop mathematical models to calculate combined water balances including the surface, ground and process waters. WSFS, the Hydrological Modeling and Forecasting System of SYKE is being modified for mining areas. New modelling tools are developed on spreadsheet and system dynamics platforms to

  8. Bridging the management-science partnership gap: Adaptive grazing management experiment in shortgrass steppe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Adaptive Grazing Management experiment (2013-2023) in shortgrass steppe of Colorado addresses a critical gap in grazing management: lack of management-science partnerships to more fully understand the effect of management decisions for multiple ecosystem goods and services at ranch-scales. A Sta...

  9. Guiding climate change adaptation within vulnerable natural resource management systems.

    PubMed

    Bardsley, Douglas K; Sweeney, Susan M

    2010-05-01

    Climate change has the potential to compromise the sustainability of natural resources in Mediterranean climatic systems, such that short-term reactive responses will increasingly be insufficient to ensure effective management. There is a simultaneous need for both the clear articulation of the vulnerabilities of specific management systems to climate risk, and the development of appropriate short- and long-term strategic planning responses that anticipate environmental change or allow for sustainable adaptive management in response to trends in resource condition. Governments are developing climate change adaptation policy frameworks, but without the recognition of the importance of responding strategically, regional stakeholders will struggle to manage future climate risk. In a partnership between the South Australian Government, the Adelaide and Mt Lofty Ranges Natural Resource Management Board and the regional community, a range of available research approaches to support regional climate change adaptation decision-making, were applied and critically examined, including: scenario modelling; applied and participatory Geographical Information Systems modelling; environmental risk analysis; and participatory action learning. As managers apply ideas for adaptation within their own biophysical and socio-cultural contexts, there would be both successes and failures, but a learning orientation to societal change will enable improvements over time. A base-line target for regional responses to climate change is the ownership of the issue by stakeholders, which leads to an acceptance that effective actions to adapt are now both possible and vitally important. Beyond such baseline knowledge, the research suggests that there is a range of tools from the social and physical sciences available to guide adaptation decision-making.

  10. Guiding Climate Change Adaptation Within Vulnerable Natural Resource Management Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardsley, Douglas K.; Sweeney, Susan M.

    2010-05-01

    Climate change has the potential to compromise the sustainability of natural resources in Mediterranean climatic systems, such that short-term reactive responses will increasingly be insufficient to ensure effective management. There is a simultaneous need for both the clear articulation of the vulnerabilities of specific management systems to climate risk, and the development of appropriate short- and long-term strategic planning responses that anticipate environmental change or allow for sustainable adaptive management in response to trends in resource condition. Governments are developing climate change adaptation policy frameworks, but without the recognition of the importance of responding strategically, regional stakeholders will struggle to manage future climate risk. In a partnership between the South Australian Government, the Adelaide and Mt Lofty Ranges Natural Resource Management Board and the regional community, a range of available research approaches to support regional climate change adaptation decision-making, were applied and critically examined, including: scenario modelling; applied and participatory Geographical Information Systems modelling; environmental risk analysis; and participatory action learning. As managers apply ideas for adaptation within their own biophysical and socio-cultural contexts, there would be both successes and failures, but a learning orientation to societal change will enable improvements over time. A base-line target for regional responses to climate change is the ownership of the issue by stakeholders, which leads to an acceptance that effective actions to adapt are now both possible and vitally important. Beyond such baseline knowledge, the research suggests that there is a range of tools from the social and physical sciences available to guide adaptation decision-making.

  11. Environmental management of water projects

    SciTech Connect

    Gangstad, E.O.; Stanley, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    This book is divided in three parts and contains the following: PART I: ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTS. Environmental conditions for water resource projects. Characteristics of some large scale reservoirs. Biological parameters of the TVA Eurasian watermilfoil management program. Ecological parameters influencing aquatic plant growth. Biological parameters influencing growth and reproduction of hydrilla. PART II: EVALUATION OF SELECTED AQUATIC HERBICIDES. Technical review of the factors affecting 2,4-D for aquatic use. Technical review of the factors affecting endothall for aquatic use. Technical review of factors affecting diquat for aquatic use. Technical review of the factors affecting use of dicamba. Technical review of the factors affecting aquatic use of dichlobenil. PART III: EVALUATION OF VEGETATION MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS. Strategies for aquatic vegetation management. (A) conversion of factors for U.S. and metric units. (B) Glossary of terms. Index.

  12. Water Governance and Adaptation to Disturbances in Irrigated Semi-Arid Agricultural Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, T. P.; McCord, P. F.; McBride, L.; Gower, D.; Caylor, K. K.

    2013-12-01

    Climate and other physical drivers of environmental systems are modifying the global availability of water for irrigation. At the same time population growth is placing an increased demand on water resources as local municipalities promote agricultural production as a mechanism to support human welfare and development. Substantial has research focused on household-level agricultural decision-making and adaptation. But equally important are institutional dynamics, or the rules implemented to allocate water resources across different user groups. Previous work has identified design principles for common-pool resource systems that tend to lead to sustained governance regimes. Likewise, past research has addressed the issue of "institutional fit", or locally adapted governance arrangements characterized through governance structure. However, much of the complexity behind institutional dynamics and adaptive capacity lies in the translation of data to information to knowledge, and how this sequence contributes to effective cross-scale water management and decision-making - an arena that has arguably received less attention in the water management literature. We investigate the interplay between governance regimes, data/information and institutional dynamics in irrigation systems in semi-arid regions of Kenya. In particular, we articulate the role of knowledge and data in institutional dynamics at multiple levels of analysis. How do users at different decision-making levels incorporate social and hydrological information in water governance? What data is needed to develop the information and knowledge users need for effective management? While governance structure is certainly a critical component of water management systems - we emphasize the interplay between the data-information-knowledge sequence and institutional dynamics. We present findings from household and manager-level surveys examining irrigation practices and the institutions designed to equitably allocate

  13. Tensions in water management: Dutch tradition and European policy.

    PubMed

    Ravesteijn, W; Kroesen, O

    2007-01-01

    Present-day worldwide water problems require new management tools and sustainable system innovations. At Delft University of Technology research is being carried out into water resources and management development aimed at forming such tools and innovations, focused on Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM). One of the case-studies deals with Dutch water management and technology in the context of European IRBM in the form of the 2000 Water Frame Directive. The Netherlands experience many water problems and European IRBM could bring help by offering a framework for both international cooperation and technological innovations. To work as an adequate management tool European IRBM should be tailored to the Dutch water tradition, which recently culminated in Integrated Water Management. Both approaches are in some respects contradicting. Europe pursues, for example, centralized control; while the Dutch have their strongly water boards based decentralized administration. The tensions between both approaches require mutual adaptation, for which the concept of subsidiarity might offer points of departure. This paper describes the first results of the case-research into Dutch water management and technology in the context of Europe as well as the backgrounds and the set-up of the research as a whole.

  14. Climate change adaptation strategies for resource management and conservation planning.

    PubMed

    Lawler, Joshua J

    2009-04-01

    Recent rapid changes in the Earth's climate have altered ecological systems around the globe. Global warming has been linked to changes in physiology, phenology, species distributions, interspecific interactions, and disturbance regimes. Projected future climate change will undoubtedly result in even more dramatic shifts in the states of many ecosystems. These shifts will provide one of the largest challenges to natural resource managers and conservation planners. Managing natural resources and ecosystems in the face of uncertain climate requires new approaches. Here, the many adaptation strategies that have been proposed for managing natural systems in a changing climate are reviewed. Most of the recommended approaches are general principles and many are tools that managers are already using. What is new is a turning toward a more agile management perspective. To address climate change, managers will need to act over different spatial and temporal scales. The focus of restoration will need to shift from historic species assemblages to potential future ecosystem services. Active adaptive management based on potential future climate impact scenarios will need to be a part of everyday operations. And triage will likely become a critical option. Although many concepts and tools for addressing climate change have been proposed, key pieces of information are still missing. To successfully manage for climate change, a better understanding will be needed of which species and systems will likely be most affected by climate change, how to preserve and enhance the evolutionary capacity of species, how to implement effective adaptive management in new systems, and perhaps most importantly, in which situations and systems will the general adaptation strategies that have been proposed work and how can they be effectively applied.

  15. Adaptive management: from more talk to real action.

    PubMed

    Williams, Byron K; Brown, Eleanor D

    2014-02-01

    The challenges currently facing resource managers are large-scale and complex, and demand new approaches to balance development and conservation goals. One approach that shows considerable promise for addressing these challenges is adaptive management, which by now is broadly seen as a natural, intuitive, and potentially effective way to address decision-making in the face of uncertainties. Yet the concept of adaptive management continues to evolve, and its record of success remains limited. In this article, we present an operational framework for adaptive decision-making, and describe the challenges and opportunities in applying it to real-world problems. We discuss the key elements required for adaptive decision-making, and their integration into an iterative process that highlights and distinguishes technical and social learning. We illustrate the elements and processes of the framework with some successful on-the-ground examples of natural resource management. Finally, we address some of the difficulties in applying learning-based management, and finish with a discussion of future directions and strategic challenges. PMID:24271618

  16. Public Sector Reform and Governance for Adaptation: Implications of New Public Management for Adaptive Capacity in Mexico and Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eakin, Hallie; Eriksen, Siri; Eikeland, Per-Ove; Øyen, Cecilie

    2011-03-01

    Although many governments are assuming the responsibility of initiating adaptation policy in relation to climate change, the compatibility of "governance-for-adaptation" with the current paradigms of public administration has generally been overlooked. Over the last several decades, countries around the globe have embraced variants of the philosophy of administration broadly called "New Public Management" (NPM) in an effort to improve administrative efficiencies and the provision of public services. Using evidence from a case study of reforms in the building sector in Norway, and a case study of water and flood risk management in central Mexico, we analyze the implications of the adoption of the tenets of NPM for adaptive capacity. Our cases illustrate that some of the key attributes associated with governance for adaptation—namely, technical and financial capacities; institutional memory, learning and knowledge; and participation and accountability—have been eroded by NPM reforms. Despite improvements in specific operational tasks of the public sector in each case, we show that the success of NPM reforms presumes the existence of core elements of governance that have often been found lacking, including solid institutional frameworks and accountability. Our analysis illustrates the importance of considering both longer-term adaptive capacities and short-term efficiency goals in public sector administration reform.

  17. Adapters, strugglers, and case managers: a typology of spouse caregivers.

    PubMed

    Davis, Linda Lindsey; Chestnutt, Deborah; Molloy, Margory; Deshefy-Longhi, Tess; Shim, Bomin; Gilliss, Catherine L

    2014-11-01

    Although family home care problems are frequently described in the health care literature, the ways in which families and other informal caregivers manage those problems are not often addressed. We conducted a descriptive analysis of interviews in which spouses caring for a partner with Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease were asked to describe difficult home care problems and how they managed those problems. Analysis of these interviews indicated three recurring management styles. Adapters told stories about applying pre-existing skills to manage home care problems. Strugglers told stories of reoccurring home care problems for which they had few or no management strategies. Case managers' interview stories focused on the challenges of finding and coordinating home care services. These findings suggest that caregiving burden might be influenced more by the caregiver's management style than the demands of the care situation. Suggestions for tailoring support programs for the three types of caregivers are proposed.

  18. Modeling water scarcity and droughts for policy adaptation to climate change in arid and semiarid regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahil, Mohamed Taher; Dinar, Ariel; Albiac, Jose

    2015-03-01

    Growing water extractions combined with emerging demands for environment protection increase competition for scarce water resources worldwide, especially in arid and semiarid regions. In those regions, climate change is projected to exacerbate water scarcity and increase the recurrence and intensity of droughts. These circumstances call for methodologies that can support the design of sustainable water management. This paper presents a hydro-economic model that links a reduced form hydrological component, with economic and environmental components. The model is applied to an arid and semiarid basin in Southeastern Spain to analyze the effects of droughts and to assess alternative adaptation policies. Results indicate that drought events have large impacts on social welfare, with the main adjustments sustained by irrigation and the environment. The water market policy seems to be a suitable option to overcome the negative economic effects of droughts, although the environmental effects may weaken its advantages for society. The environmental water market policy, where water is acquired for the environment, is an appealing policy to reap the private benefits of markets while protecting ecosystems. The current water management approach in Spain, based on stakeholders' cooperation, achieves almost the same economic outcomes and better environmental outcomes compared to a pure water market. These findings call for a reconsideration of the current management in arid and semiarid basins around the world. The paper illustrates the potential of hydro-economic modeling for integrating the multiple dimensions of water resources, becoming a valuable tool in the advancement of sustainable water management policies.

  19. Adaptive livelihood strategies for coping with water scarcity in the drylands of central Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liwenga, Emma T.

    In this paper, it is argued that local knowledge for adapting to water scarcity is important for integrated resource management by taking into consideration both the natural and social constraints in a particular setting based on accumulated experience. The paper examines the relevance of local knowledge in sustaining agricultural production in the semiarid areas of central Tanzania. The paper specifically focuses on how water scarcity, as the major limiting factor, is addressed in the study area using local knowledge to sustain livelihoods of its people. The study was conducted in four villages; Mzula, Ilolo, Chanhumba and Ngahelezi, situation in Mvumi Division in Dodoma Region. The study mainly employed qualitative data collection techniques. Participatory methods provided a means of exploring perceptions and gaining deeper insights regarding natural resource utilization in terms of problems and opportunities. The main data sources drawn upon in this study were documentation, group interviews and field observations. Group interviews involved discussions with a group of 6-12 people selected on the basis of gender, age and socio-economic groups. Data analysis entailed structural and content analysis within the adaptive livelihood framework in relation to management of water scarcity using local knowledge. The findings confirm that rainfall is the main limiting factor for agricultural activities in the drylands of Central Tanzania. As such, local communities have developed, through time, indigenous knowledge to cope with such environments utilizing seasonality and diversity of landscapes. Use of this local knowledge is therefore effective in managing water scarcity by ensuring a continuous production of crops throughout the year. This practice implies increased food availability and accessibility through sales of such agricultural products. Local innovations for water management, such as cultivation in sandy rivers, appear to be very important means of accessing

  20. Lessons Learned from the First Decade of Adaptive Management in Comprehensive Everglades Restoration

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although few successful examples of large-scale adaptive management applications are available to ecosystem restoration scientists and managers, examining where and how the components of an adaptive management program have been successfully implemented yields insight into what ...

  1. Watershed Conservation, Groundwater Management, and Adaptation to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roumasset, J.; Burnett, K.; Wada, C.

    2009-12-01

    5-10% reduction in wet season mean precipitation and a 5% increase during the dry season by the end of the 21st century. These trends will be used to condition the time series analysis through Bayesian updating. The resulting distributions, conditioned for seasonality and long-run climate change, will be used to recursively simulate daily rainfalls, thereby allowing for serial correlation and forming a basis for the watershed model to recursively determine components of the water balance equation. The methodology will allow us to generate different sequences of rainfall from the estimated distribution and the corresponding recharge functions. These in turn are used as the basis of optimizing groundwater management under both the watershed conservation program and no conservation. We calculate how much adaptation via joint optimization of watershed conservation and groundwater management decreases the damages from declining precipitation. Inasmuch as groundwater scarcity increases with the forecasted climate change, even under optimal groundwater management, the value of watershed conservation also increases.

  2. Learning and adaptation in the management of waterfowl harvests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Fred A.

    2011-01-01

    A formal framework for the adaptive management of waterfowl harvests was adopted by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in 1995. The process admits competing models of waterfowl population dynamics and harvest impacts, and relies on model averaging to compute optimal strategies for regulating harvest. Model weights, reflecting the relative ability of the alternative models to predict changes in population size, are used in the model averaging and are updated each year based on a comparison of model predictions and observations of population size. Since its inception the adaptive harvest program has focused principally on mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), which constitute a large portion of the U.S. waterfowl harvest. Four competing models, derived from a combination of two survival and two reproductive hypotheses, were originally assigned equal weights. In the last year of available information (2007), model weights favored the weakly density-dependent reproductive hypothesis over the strongly density-dependent one, and the additive mortality hypothesis over the compensatory one. The change in model weights led to a more conservative harvesting policy than what was in effect in the early years of the program. Adaptive harvest management has been successful in many ways, but nonetheless has exposed the difficulties in defining management objectives, in predicting and regulating harvests, and in coping with the tradeoffs inherent in managing multiple waterfowl stocks exposed to a common harvest. The key challenge now facing managers is whether adaptive harvest management as an institution can be sufficiently adaptive, and whether the knowledge and experience gained from the process can be reflected in higher-level policy decisions.

  3. Learning about colonization when managing metapopulations under an adaptive management framework.

    PubMed

    Southwell, Darren M; Hauser, Cindy E; McCarthy, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive management is a framework for resolving key uncertainties while managing complex ecological systems. Its use has been prominent in fisheries research and wildlife harvesting; however, its application to other areas of environmental management remains somewhat limited. Indeed, adaptive management has not been used to guide and inform metapopulation restoration, despite considerable uncertainty surrounding such actions. In this study, we determined how best to learn about the colonization rate when managing metapopulations under an adaptive management framework. We developed a mainland-island metapopulation model based on the threatened bay checkerspot butterfly (Euphydryas editha bayensis) and assessed three management approaches: adding new patches, adding area to existing patches, and doing nothing. Using stochastic dynamic programming, we found the optimal passive and active adaptive management strategies by monitoring colonization of vacant patches. Under a passive adaptive strategy, increasing patch area was best when the expected colonization rate was below a threshold; otherwise, adding new patches was optimal. Under an active adaptive strategy, it was best to add patches only when we were reasonably confident that the colonization rate was high. This research provides a framework for managing mainland-island metapopulations in the face of uncertainty while learning about the dynamics of these complex systems. PMID:27039525

  4. Judging adaptive management practices of U.S. agencies.

    PubMed

    Fischman, Robert L; Ruhl, J B

    2016-04-01

    All U.S. federal agencies administering environmental laws purport to practice adaptive management (AM), but little is known about how they actually implement this conservation tool. A gap between the theory and practice of AM is revealed in judicial decisions reviewing agency adaptive management plans. We analyzed all U.S. federal court opinions published through 1 January 2015 to identify the agency AM practices courts found most deficient. The shortcomings included lack of clear objectives and processes, monitoring thresholds, and defined actions triggered by thresholds. This trio of agency shortcuts around critical, iterative steps characterizes what we call AM-lite. Passive AM differs from active AM in its relative lack of management interventions through experimental strategies. In contrast, AM-lite is a distinctive form of passive AM that fails to provide for the iterative steps necessary to learn from management. Courts have developed a sophisticated understanding of AM and often offer instructive rather than merely critical opinions. The role of the judiciary is limited by agency discretion under U.S. administrative law. But courts have overturned some agency AM-lite practices and insisted on more rigorous analyses to ensure that the promised benefits of structured learning and fine-tuned management have a reasonable likelihood of occurring. Nonetheless, there remains a mismatch in U.S. administrative law between the flexibility demanded by adaptive management and the legal objectives of transparency, public participation, and finality.

  5. Adaptive resource management and the value of information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Byron K.; Eaton, Mitchell J.; Breininger, David R.

    2011-01-01

    The value of information is a general and broadly applicable concept that has been used for several decades to aid in making decisions in the face of uncertainty. Yet there are relatively few examples of its use in ecology and natural resources management, and almost none that are framed in terms of the future impacts of management decisions. In this paper we discuss the value of information in a context of adaptive management, in which actions are taken sequentially over a timeframe and both future resource conditions and residual uncertainties about resource responses are taken into account. Our objective is to derive the value of reducing or eliminating uncertainty in adaptive decision making. We describe several measures of the value of information, with each based on management objectives that are appropriate for adaptive management. We highlight some mathematical properties of these measures, discuss their geometries, and illustrate them with an example in natural resources management. Accounting for the value of information can help to inform decisions about whether and how much to monitor resource conditions through time.

  6. Adaptive resource management and the value of information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, B.K.; Eaton, M.J.; Breininger, D.R.

    2011-01-01

    The value of information is a general and broadly applicable concept that has been used for several decades to aid in making decisions in the face of uncertainty. Yet there are relatively few examples of its use in ecology and natural resources management, and almost none that are framed in terms of the future impacts of management decisions. In this paper we discuss the value of information in a context of adaptive management, in which actions are taken sequentially over a timeframe and both future resource conditions and residual uncertainties about resource responses are taken into account. Our objective is to derive the value of reducing or eliminating uncertainty in adaptive decision making. We describe several measures of the value of information, with each based on management objectives that are appropriate for adaptive management. We highlight some mathematical properties of these measures, discuss their geometries, and illustrate them with an example in natural resources management. Accounting for the value of information can help to inform decisions about whether and how much to monitor resource conditions through time. ?? 2011.

  7. Judging adaptive management practices of U.S. agencies.

    PubMed

    Fischman, Robert L; Ruhl, J B

    2016-04-01

    All U.S. federal agencies administering environmental laws purport to practice adaptive management (AM), but little is known about how they actually implement this conservation tool. A gap between the theory and practice of AM is revealed in judicial decisions reviewing agency adaptive management plans. We analyzed all U.S. federal court opinions published through 1 January 2015 to identify the agency AM practices courts found most deficient. The shortcomings included lack of clear objectives and processes, monitoring thresholds, and defined actions triggered by thresholds. This trio of agency shortcuts around critical, iterative steps characterizes what we call AM-lite. Passive AM differs from active AM in its relative lack of management interventions through experimental strategies. In contrast, AM-lite is a distinctive form of passive AM that fails to provide for the iterative steps necessary to learn from management. Courts have developed a sophisticated understanding of AM and often offer instructive rather than merely critical opinions. The role of the judiciary is limited by agency discretion under U.S. administrative law. But courts have overturned some agency AM-lite practices and insisted on more rigorous analyses to ensure that the promised benefits of structured learning and fine-tuned management have a reasonable likelihood of occurring. Nonetheless, there remains a mismatch in U.S. administrative law between the flexibility demanded by adaptive management and the legal objectives of transparency, public participation, and finality. PMID:26306648

  8. 77 FR 30314 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... Course Road, Weaverville, CA 96093. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Meeting Information: Nancy J....

  9. Adaptive Knowledge Management of Project-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilchin, Oleg; Kittany, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    The goal of an approach to Adaptive Knowledge Management (AKM) of project-based learning (PBL) is to intensify subject study through guiding, inducing, and facilitating development knowledge, accountability skills, and collaborative skills of students. Knowledge development is attained by knowledge acquisition, knowledge sharing, and knowledge…

  10. Vulnerability and adaptation to water scarcity in the European Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isoard, S.; McCallum, S.; Prutsch, A.; Benno Hain, B.; Schauser, I.

    2009-04-01

    The European Environment Agency (EEA) has recently undertaken a project addressing vulnerability and adaptation to water availability in the European Alps. Mountains are indeed one of the most vulnerable regions to climate change in Europe (EEA 2008, IPCC 2007).The Alps, in particular, can be presented as the ‘water towers' of Europe (the amount of water delivered by the Alps allocates 40% of EU consumption) where changes in water availability affect all socio-economical sectors. This therefore makes adaptation actions a regional topic with an outstanding European dimension. The specific objectives of the study were to highlight the importance of the Alps in their function as ‘water towers' for Europe and analyse the vulnerability of the Alpine Region with regard to impacts of climate change (but also to global change as a whole) focussing on water availability. Given the EU and regional policy background with regard to adaptation and water issues, the study assessed the possible needs, constraints and opportunities for adaptation to the adverse impacts for various sectors pending on water resources. Findings of this activity expanded the knowledge base, fed into the preparation of European Commission's 2009 White Paper and the Alpine Convention 2009 Report on the State of the Alps, and complemented other recent studies (e.g. OECD 2007, European Parliament Committee on Agriculture & Rural Development 2008). The method used for the study relied on the one hand on findings from recent key publications on climate change impacts (EEA 2008, IPCC 2007) and EU research projects (e.g. ClimChAlp, ProClim); on the other side it was based on selected case studies chosen within the four climatic regions of the eight Alpine countries for which an extensive series of interviews with local and regional stakeholders and decision makers has been undertaken. The interviewees had been directly involved in designing and implementing water availability-related adaptation measures

  11. Surprise and opportunity for learning in Grand Canyon: the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melis, Theodore S.; Walters, Carl; Korman, Josh

    2015-01-01

    With a focus on resources of the Colorado River ecosystem below Glen Canyon Dam, the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program has included a variety of experimental policy tests, ranging from manipulation of water releases from the dam to removal of non-native fish within Grand Canyon National Park. None of these field-scale experiments has yet produced unambiguous results in terms of management prescriptions. But there has been adaptive learning, mostly from unanticipated or surprising resource responses relative to predictions from ecosystem modeling. Surprise learning opportunities may often be viewed with dismay by some stakeholders who might not be clear about the purpose of science and modeling in adaptive management. However, the experimental results from the Glen Canyon Dam program actually represent scientific successes in terms of revealing new opportunities for developing better river management policies. A new long-term experimental management planning process for Glen Canyon Dam operations, started in 2011 by the U.S. Department of the Interior, provides an opportunity to refocus management objectives, identify and evaluate key uncertainties about the influence of dam releases, and refine monitoring for learning over the next several decades. Adaptive learning since 1995 is critical input to this long-term planning effort. Embracing uncertainty and surprise outcomes revealed by monitoring and ecosystem modeling will likely continue the advancement of resource objectives below the dam, and may also promote efficient learning in other complex programs.

  12. America's Water Supply Challenge: Adaptation to Future Population Growth and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahat, V.; Brown, T. C.; Ramirez, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Water shortages, and the prospect of such shortages, have been repeatedly faced and addressed as population and economic growth placed increasing demands on available water over the past century. Such challenges have been most common in arid areas, but also have been encountered in some more humid portions of the US during times of drought. The challenges have been met using a wide range of adaptation measures, from large infrastructure projects (e.g., major trans-basin diversions) to alterations in local water prices (e.g., increasing block pricing). The future may bring even greater adaptation challenges as, in addition to continued growth in population, climate change will reduce water supplies in many locations. In this study we report on the relative importance of changes in demand versus changes in supply in causing projected future shortages in basins throughout the contiguous U.S. under different sets of socioeconomic and climatic conditions. We then examine the degree to which projected shortages can be avoided through adaptation. The adaptations examined include reductions in demand of major water use sectors, alterations in water management infrastructure, and inter-basin water transfers.

  13. Adapters, Strugglers, and Case Managers: A Typology of Spouse Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Linda Lindsey; Chestnutt, Deborah; Molloy, Margory; Deshefy-Longhi, Tess; Shim, Bomin; Gilliss, Catherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Although family home care problems are frequently described in the health care literature, the ways in which families and other informal caregivers manage those problems are not often addressed. We conducted a descriptive analysis of interviews in which spouses caring for a partner with Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s disease were asked to describe difficult home care problems and how they managed those problems. Analysis of these interviews indicated three recurring management styles. Adapters told stories about applying pre-existing skills to manage home care problems. Strugglers told stories of reoccurring home care problems for which they had few or no management strategies. Case Managers’ interview stories focused on the challenges of finding and coordinating home care services. These findings suggest that caregiving burden might be influenced more by the caregiver’s management style than the demands of the care situation. Suggestions for tailoring support programs for the three types of caregivers are proposed. PMID:25189535

  14. Adapting a Mediterranean marginal Oak forest to water scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Sanchis, María; del Campo, Antonio; Lidón, Antonio; Llull, Cristina; Bautista, Inmaculada; Pabón, Carlos Antonio; Francés, Félix

    2014-05-01

    Adaptive Forest Management (AFM) aims to adapt the forest to water availability by means of an artificial regulation of the forest structure and density. Areas under water scarcity situations, such as the Mediterranean region, might require AFM to optimize the hydrological cycle under normal and future global change conditions, especially on those forests growing in marginal habitats. However, forest treatments can also cause nutrient and soil loss as well as increase soil water evaporation. Therefore, AFM has to find a compromise that satisfies both forest and catchment needs. The present study applies the AFM to a Mediterranean marginal oak forest with the aim to optimize the hydrological resources, but avoiding the possible negative impacts such as nutrient and soil loss or an excessive soil water evaporation. The forest is located in a typical Mediterranean area, within the public forest La Hunde, Valencia (E Spain). Two contiguous plots, control and treatment, of 1800 m2 area respectively were selected. The orientation (NO), slope (30 %) and forest density (861 tree per ha) were the same for both plots. Treatment plot was thinned in May 2012, following the forest requirements. The initial forest density was then reduced from 861 to 414 tree per ha. Control plot was not thinned. The thinning effects into the hydrological and biogeochemical cycles were characterized comparing control and thinned plots. In the same way, primary tree growth and nutrient resorption proficiency were also compared. The hydrological cycle was characterized by means of throughfall, stemflow, runoff, soil moisture and transpiration monitoring. The biogeochemical cycle was characterized through the analysis of N, P and C content in: rainfall, throughfall, stemflow, runoff and soil leaching. The primary growth was registered for the years 2012-2013. The nutrient resorption proficiency was analyzed comparing C, N, K and P contents and ratios of green leaves, old leaves and litter. The

  15. Adaptive resolution simulation of an atomistic protein in MARTINI water

    SciTech Connect

    Zavadlav, Julija; Melo, Manuel Nuno; Marrink, Siewert J.; Praprotnik, Matej

    2014-02-07

    We present an adaptive resolution simulation of protein G in multiscale water. We couple atomistic water around the protein with mesoscopic water, where four water molecules are represented with one coarse-grained bead, farther away. We circumvent the difficulties that arise from coupling to the coarse-grained model via a 4-to-1 molecule coarse-grain mapping by using bundled water models, i.e., we restrict the relative movement of water molecules that are mapped to the same coarse-grained bead employing harmonic springs. The water molecules change their resolution from four molecules to one coarse-grained particle and vice versa adaptively on-the-fly. Having performed 15 ns long molecular dynamics simulations, we observe within our error bars no differences between structural (e.g., root-mean-squared deviation and fluctuations of backbone atoms, radius of gyration, the stability of native contacts and secondary structure, and the solvent accessible surface area) and dynamical properties of the protein in the adaptive resolution approach compared to the fully atomistically solvated model. Our multiscale model is compatible with the widely used MARTINI force field and will therefore significantly enhance the scope of biomolecular simulations.

  16. Hell and High Water: Practice-Relevant Adaptation Science

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, Richard H.; Meehl, G.; Lemos, Maria Carmen; Smith, J. B.; Arnold, J. R.; Arnott, J. C.; Behar, D.; Brasseur, Guy P.; Broomell, S. B.; Busalacchi, Antonio; Dessai, S.; Ebi, Kristie L.; Edmonds, James A.; Furlow, J.; Goddard, L.; Hartmann, Holly; Hurrell, Jim; Katzenberger, J. W.; Liverman, D. M.; Mote, Phil; Moser, S. C.; Kumar, A.; Pulwarty, Roger; Seyller, E. A.; Turner, B.L.; Washington, Warren M.; Wilbanks, Thomas

    2013-11-08

    Recent extreme weather such as Hurricane Sandy and the 2012 drought demonstrate the vulnerability of the United States to climate extremes in the present and point to the potential for increased future damages under a changing climate. They also provide lessons for reducing harm and realizing any potential benefits. Preparedness measures – also referred to as adaptation – can cost-effectively increase resilience today and in the future. The upfront costs will be more than offset by reductions in property damage, lives and livelihoods lost, and expensive post-disaster recovery processes. While others have addressed use of science for adaptation in specific sectors including biodiversity (Heller and Zavaleta, 2009) and freshwater ecosystem management (Wilby et al., 2010), or by simply taking a more pragmatic approach to adaptation under uncertainty (Hallegatte, 2009), here the authors make the case that a new, comprehensive approach is needed to create and use science to inform adaptations with applicable and sound knowledge (Kerr et al., 2011).

  17. Understanding barriers to implementation of an adaptive land management program.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Susan K; Morris, Julie K; Sanders, J Scott; Wiley, Eugene N; Brooks, Michael; Bennetts, Robert E; Percival, H Franklin; Marynowski, Susan

    2006-10-01

    The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission manages over 650,000 ha, including 26 wildlife management and environmental areas. To improve management, they developed an objective-based vegetation management (OBVM) process that focuses on desired conditions of plant communities through an adaptive management framework. Our goals were to understand potential barriers to implementing OBVM and to recommend strategies to overcome barriers. A literature review identified 47 potential barriers in six categories to implementation of adaptive and ecosystem management: logistical, communication, attitudinal, institutional, conceptual, and educational. We explored these barriers through a bureau-wide survey of 90 staff involved in OBVM and personal interviews with area managers, scientists, and administrators. The survey incorporated an organizational culture assessment instrument to gauge how institutional factors might influence OBVM implementation. The survey response rate was 69%. Logistics and communications were the greatest barriers to implementing OBVM. Respondents perceived that the agency had inadequate resources for implementing OBVM and provided inadequate information. About one-third of the respondents believed OBVM would decrease their job flexibility and perceived greater institutional barriers to the approach. The 43% of respondents who believed they would have more responsibility under OBVM also had greater attitudinal barriers. A similar percentage of respondents reported OBVM would not give enough priority to wildlife. Staff believed that current agency culture was hierarchical but preferred a culture that would provide more flexibility for adaptive management and would foster learning from land management activities. In light of the barriers to OBVM, we recommend the following: (1) mitigation of logistical barriers by addressing real and perceived constraints of staff, funds, and other resources in a participatory manner; (2) mitigation of

  18. Understanding barriers to implementation of an adaptive land management program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, S.K.; Morris, J.K.; Sanders, J.S.; Wiley, E.N.; Brooks, M.; Bennetts, R.E.; Percival, H.F.; Marynowski, S.

    2006-01-01

    The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission manages over 650,000 ha, including 26 wildlife management and environmental areas. To improve management, they developed an objective-based vegetation management (OBVM) process that focuses on desired conditions of plant communities through an adaptive management framework. Our goals were to understand potential barriers to implementing OBVM and to recommend strategies to overcome barriers. A literature review identified 47 potential barriers in six categories to implementation of adaptive and ecosystem management: logistical, communication, attitudinal, institutional, conceptual, and educational. We explored these barriers through a bureau-wide survey of 90 staff involved in OBVM and personal interviews with area managers, scientists, and administrators. The survey incorporated an organizational culture assessment instrument to gauge how institutional factors might influence OBVM implementation. The survey response rate was 69%. Logistics and communications were the greatest barriers to implementing OBVM. Respondents perceived that the agency had inadequate resources for implementing OBVM and provided inadequate information. About one-third of the respondents believed OBVM would decrease their job flexibility and perceived greater institutional barriers to the approach. The 43% of respondents who believed they would have more responsibility under OBVM also had greater attitudinal barriers. A similar percentage of respondents reported OBVM would not give enough priority to wildlife. Staff believed that current agency culture was hierarchical but preferred a culture that would provide more flexibility for adaptive management and would foster learning from land management activities. In light of the barriers to OBVM, we recommend the following: (1) mitigation of logistical barriers by addressing real and perceived constraints of staff, funds, and other resources in a participatory manner; (2) mitigation of

  19. Adaptive management in EBIPM: A key to success in invasive plant management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    EBIPM is an important advancement in management of invasive plants. EBIPM puts land management decisions on a sound-footing based on ecological principles that cause plant community change. These principles, however, must be incorporated into the adaptive management cycle to truly make a change in h...

  20. Dynamic and adaptive data-management in ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lassnig, Mario; Garonne, Vincent; Branco, Miguel; Molfetas, Angelos

    2010-04-01

    Distributed data-management on the grid is subject to huge uncertainties yet static policies govern its usage. Due to the unpredictability of user behaviour, the high-latency and the heterogeneous nature of the environment, distributed data-management on the grid is challenging. In this paper we present the first steps towards a future dynamic data-management system that adapts to the changing conditions and environment. Such a system would eliminate the number of manual interventions and remove unnecessary software layers, thereby providing a higher quality of service to the collaboration.

  1. The Swedish monitoring of surface waters: 50 years of adaptive monitoring.

    PubMed

    Fölster, Jens; Johnson, Richard K; Futter, Martyn N; Wilander, Anders

    2014-01-01

    For more than 50 years, scientific insights from surface water monitoring have supported Swedish evidence-based environmental management. Efforts to understand and control eutrophication in the 1960s led to construction of wastewater treatment plants with phosphorus retention, while acid rain research in the 1970s contributed to international legislation curbing emissions. By the 1990s, long-time series were being used to infer climate effects on surface water chemistry and biology. Monitoring data play a key role in implementing the EU Water Framework Directive and other legislation and have been used to show beneficial effects of agricultural management on Baltic Sea eutrophication. The Swedish experience demonstrates that well-designed and financially supported surface water monitoring can be used to understand and manage a range of stressors and societal concerns. Using scientifically sound adaptive monitoring principles to balance continuity and change has ensured long-time series and the capability to address new questions over time.

  2. The Swedish monitoring of surface waters: 50 years of adaptive monitoring.

    PubMed

    Fölster, Jens; Johnson, Richard K; Futter, Martyn N; Wilander, Anders

    2014-01-01

    For more than 50 years, scientific insights from surface water monitoring have supported Swedish evidence-based environmental management. Efforts to understand and control eutrophication in the 1960s led to construction of wastewater treatment plants with phosphorus retention, while acid rain research in the 1970s contributed to international legislation curbing emissions. By the 1990s, long-time series were being used to infer climate effects on surface water chemistry and biology. Monitoring data play a key role in implementing the EU Water Framework Directive and other legislation and have been used to show beneficial effects of agricultural management on Baltic Sea eutrophication. The Swedish experience demonstrates that well-designed and financially supported surface water monitoring can be used to understand and manage a range of stressors and societal concerns. Using scientifically sound adaptive monitoring principles to balance continuity and change has ensured long-time series and the capability to address new questions over time. PMID:25403966

  3. Integrating water resources management in eco-hydrological modelling.

    PubMed

    Koch, H; Liersch, S; Hattermann, F F

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the integration of water resources management with regard to reservoir management in an eco-hydrological model is described. The model was designed to simulate different reservoir management options, such as optimized hydropower production, irrigation intake from the reservoir or optimized provisioning downstream. The integrated model can be used to investigate the impacts of climate variability/change on discharge or to study possible adaptation strategies in terms of reservoir management. The study area, the Upper Niger Basin located in the West African Sahel, is characterized by a monsoon-type climate. Rainfall and discharge regime are subject to strong seasonality. Measured data from a reservoir are used to show that the reservoir model and the integrated management options can be used to simulate the regulation of this reservoir. The inflow into the reservoir and the discharge downstream of the reservoir are quite distinctive, which points out the importance of the inclusion of water resources management.

  4. Accelerating adaptation of natural resource management to address climate change.

    PubMed

    Cross, Molly S; McCarthy, Patrick D; Garfin, Gregg; Gori, David; Enquist, Carolyn A F

    2013-02-01

    Natural resource managers are seeking tools to help them address current and future effects of climate change. We present a model for collaborative planning aimed at identifying ways to adapt management actions to address the effects of climate change in landscapes that cross public and private jurisdictional boundaries. The Southwest Climate Change Initiative (SWCCI) piloted the Adaptation for Conservation Targets (ACT) planning approach at workshops in 4 southwestern U.S. landscapes. This planning approach successfully increased participants' self-reported capacity to address climate change by providing them with a better understanding of potential effects and guiding the identification of solutions. The workshops fostered cross-jurisdictional and multidisciplinary dialogue on climate change through active participation of scientists and managers in assessing climate change effects, discussing the implications of those effects for determining management goals and activities, and cultivating opportunities for regional coordination on adaptation of management plans. Facilitated application of the ACT framework advanced group discussions beyond assessing effects to devising options to mitigate the effects of climate change on specific species, ecological functions, and ecosystems. Participants addressed uncertainty about future conditions by considering more than one climate-change scenario. They outlined opportunities and identified next steps for implementing several actions, and local partnerships have begun implementing actions and conducting additional planning. Continued investment in adaptation of management plans and actions to address the effects of climate change in the southwestern United States and extension of the approaches used in this project to additional landscapes are needed if biological diversity and ecosystem services are to be maintained in a rapidly changing world.

  5. Adaptation of sweeteners in water and in tannic acid solutions.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, S S; Pecore, S D; Booth, B J; Losee, M L; Carr, B T; Sattely-Miller, E; Graham, B G; Warwick, Z S

    1994-03-01

    Repeated exposure to a tastant often leads to a decrease in magnitude of the perceived intensity; this phenomenon is termed adaptation. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of adaptation of the sweet response for a variety of sweeteners in water and in the presence of two levels of tannic acid. Sweetness intensity ratings were given by a trained panel for 14 sweeteners: three sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose), two polyhydric alcohols (mannitol, sorbitol), two terpenoid glycosides (rebaudioside-A, stevioside), two dipeptide derivatives (alitame, aspartame), one sulfamate (sodium cyclamate), one protein (thaumatin), two N-sulfonyl amides (acesulfame-K, sodium saccharin), and one dihydrochalcone (neohesperidin dihydrochalcone). Panelists were given four isointense concentrations of each sweetener by itself and in the presence of two concentrations of tannic acid. Each sweetener concentration was tasted and rated four consecutive times with a 30 s interval between each taste and a 2 min interval between each concentration. Within a taste session, a series of concentrations of a given sweetener was presented in ascending order of magnitude. Adaptation was calculated as the decrease in intensity from the first to the fourth sample. The greatest adaptation in water solutions was found for acesulfame-K, Na saccharin, rebaudioside-A, and stevioside. This was followed by the dipeptide sweeteners, alitame and aspartame. The least adaptation occurred with the sugars, polyhydric alcohols, and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone. Adaptation was greater in tannic acid solutions than in water for six sweeteners. Adaptation of sweet taste may result from the desensitization of sweetener receptors analogous to the homologous desensitization found in the beta adrenergic system.

  6. Adapting to climate change: water distribution in BBA City, Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeroual, A.; Meddi, M.; Assani, A. A.

    2015-04-01

    For over 20 years, the eastern Algeria region has had significant rainfall deficits that resulted in severe droughts, which seriously affected the availability of water for drinking. Owing to considerations of affordability, drinking water is systematically underpriced because water is essential for life. Such a low price results in water being used inefficiently. This research presents the impact that a high leakage level in the water distribution network has on the water service price in BBA (Bordj Bou Arréridj) city and expected future water resources management scenarios in BBA watersheds by taking into account to the river flow simulated by GR2M using the outputs of climate models with emissions scenarios A1 and A1B. The analysis of the results shows a large economy can be made with regard to water losses, reaching up to 47% saving of the produced water volume; also, BBA city is expected to experience water stress before 2030.

  7. Towards sustainable groundwater use: Setting long-term goals, backcasting, and managing adaptively

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gleeson, T.; Alley, W.M.; Allen, D.M.; Sophocleous, M.A.; Zhou, Y.; Taniguchi, M.; Vandersteen, J.

    2012-01-01

    The sustainability of crucial earth resources, such as groundwater, is a critical issue. We consider groundwater sustainability a value-driven process of intra- and intergenerational equity that balances the environment, society, and economy. Synthesizing hydrogeological science and current sustainability concepts, we emphasize three sustainability approaches: setting multigenerational sustainability goals, backcasting, and managing adaptively. As most aquifer problems are long-term problems, we propose that multigenerational goals (50 to 100 years) for water quantity and quality that acknowledge the connections between groundwater, surface water, and ecosystems be set for many aquifers. The goals should be set by a watershed- or aquifer-based community in an inclusive and participatory manner. Policies for shorter time horizons should be developed by backcasting, and measures implemented through adaptive management to achieve the long-term goals. Two case histories illustrate the importance and complexity of a multigenerational perspective and adaptive management. These approaches could transform aquifer depletion and contamination to more sustainable groundwater use, providing groundwater for current and future generations while protecting ecological integrity and resilience. ?? 2011, The Author(s). Ground Water ?? 2011, National Ground Water Association.

  8. An Integrated Systems Approach to Designing Climate Change Adaptation Policy in Water Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, D.; Malano, H. M.; Davidson, B.; George, B.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change projections are characterised by large uncertainties with rainfall variability being the key challenge in designing adaptation policies. Climate change adaptation in water resources shows all the typical characteristics of 'wicked' problems typified by cognitive uncertainty as new scientific knowledge becomes available, problem instability, knowledge imperfection and strategic uncertainty due to institutional changes that inevitably occur over time. Planning that is characterised by uncertainties and instability requires an approach that can accommodate flexibility and adaptive capacity for decision-making. An ability to take corrective measures in the event that scenarios and responses envisaged initially derive into forms at some future stage. We present an integrated-multidisciplinary and comprehensive framework designed to interface and inform science and decision making in the formulation of water resource management strategies to deal with climate change in the Musi Catchment of Andhra Pradesh, India. At the core of this framework is a dialogue between stakeholders, decision makers and scientists to define a set of plausible responses to an ensemble of climate change scenarios derived from global climate modelling. The modelling framework used to evaluate the resulting combination of climate scenarios and adaptation responses includes the surface and groundwater assessment models (SWAT & MODFLOW) and the water allocation modelling (REALM) to determine the water security of each adaptation strategy. Three climate scenarios extracted from downscaled climate models were selected for evaluation together with four agreed responses—changing cropping patterns, increasing watershed development, changing the volume of groundwater extraction and improving irrigation efficiency. Water security in this context is represented by the combination of level of water availability and its associated security of supply for three economic activities (agriculture

  9. Water resource management: an Indian perspective.

    PubMed

    Khadse, G K; Labhasetwar, P K; Wate, S R

    2012-10-01

    Water is precious natural resource for sustaining life and environment. Effective and sustainable management of water resources is vital for ensuring sustainable development. In view of the vital importance of water for human and animal life, for maintaining ecological balance and for economic and developmental activities of all kinds, and considering its increasing scarcity, the planning and management of water resource and its optimal, economical and equitable use has become a matter of the utmost urgency. Management of water resources in India is of paramount importance to sustain one billion plus population. Water management is a composite area with linkage to various sectors of Indian economy including the agricultural, industrial, domestic and household, power, environment, fisheries and transportation sector. The water resources management practices should be based on increasing the water supply and managing the water demand under the stressed water availability conditions. For maintaining the quality of freshwater, water quality management strategies are required to be evolved and implemented. Decision support systems are required to be developed for planning and management of the water resources project. There is interplay of various factors that govern access and utilization of water resources and in light of the increasing demand for water it becomes important to look for holistic and people-centered approaches for water management. Clearly, drinking water is too fundamental and serious an issue to be left to one institution alone. It needs the combined initiative and action of all, if at all we are serious in socioeconomic development. Safe drinking water can be assured, provided we set our mind to address it. The present article deals with the review of various options for sustainable water resource management in India.

  10. Climate change adaptation potential for water in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, J. R.

    2008-12-01

    California has an extensive, diverse, and highly interconnected water management system which serves a wide variety of purposes. Climatic change can have many effects on this system and there are many means to manage California's water systems with climatic change. Many studies of climate change in California support several conclusions that will be the focus of the talk. But more work is needed. Climatic change's effects on California's water system will coincide with significant population growth, economic change, technology development, and continuing evolution of water management for these and other reasons. California's large and highly-interconnected water infrastructure system provides many options for responding to climatic and other changes, and its decentralized water management system, while noisy, can provide a more responsive and thorough means of responding to climatic change. Large amounts of surface and groundwater storage significantly dampen the water supply effects of a seasonal shift in runoff. While a seasonal shift in runoff is inconvenient and adds costs for water supply, it is probably not the most vulnerable to climate warming. The water supply system is more vulnerable to long- term reductions in streamflow or persistent droughts, drier forms of climate change. The current water conveyance system is also highly vulnerable to sea level rise in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. The flood management system is less well studied for climate change, but appears to be far more vulnerable to climate warming, especially wetter forms of climate warming. Revising reservoir flood operations manuals is like to be needed, along with changes to downstream infrastructure and land use. The ecosystem is probably the most vulnerable major water use to climatic change. Warmer marine and inland water temperatures combined with seasonal shifts and continued loss of habitat will increase challenges to native species, and in some cases these challenges are likely

  11. Designing Forest Adaptation Experiments through Manager-Scientist Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, L. M.; Swanston, C.; Janowiak, M.

    2014-12-01

    Three common forest adaptation options discussed in the context of an uncertain future climate are: creating resistance, promoting resilience, and enabling forests to respond to change. Though there is consensus on the broad management goals addressed by each of these options, translating these concepts into management plans specific for individual forest types that vary in structure, composition, and function remains a challenge. We will describe a decision-making framework that we employed within a manager-scientist partnership to develop a suite of adaptation treatments for two contrasting forest types as part of a long-term forest management experiment. The first, in northern Minnesota, is a red pine-dominated forest with components of white pine, aspen, paper birch, and northern red oak, with a hazel understory. The second, in southwest Colorado, is a warm-dry mixed conifer forest dominated by ponderosa pine, white fir, and Douglas-fir, with scattered aspen and an understory of Gambel oak. The current conditions at both sites are characterized by overstocking with moderate-to-high fuel loading, vulnerability to numerous forest health threats, and are generally uncharacteristic of historic structure and composition. The desired future condition articulated by managers for each site included elements of historic structure and natural range of variability, but were greatly tempered by known vulnerabilities and projected changes to climate and disturbance patterns. The resultant range of treatments we developed are distinct for each forest type, and address a wide range of management objectives.

  12. Water Reserves Program. An adaptation strategy to prevent imbalance of water in nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinas-Rodriguez, S. A.; López Pérez, M.; Barrios Ordóñez, J.; Wickel, B.; Villón Bracamonte, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    allocated, and where the flow regime is then protected before over-allocation takes place. The strategy has been to identify and protect basins with an availability of water that is close to their natural flow regime and that also have a high conservation value (based on prior national conservation priority definitions such as protected areas, and biodiversity conservation gap analyses) in order to implement legal restrictions on water resource development. With such protection, these systems will be best positioned to adjust and respond to water shortages, and regime shifts. To date, 189 basins around the country were identified as potential water reserves. The next step will be the nomination of these water reserves to be integrated in the National Water Reserves Program. This program forms the core of the official Mexican government adaptation strategy towards climate prepared water management, which recognizes that water reserves are the buffer society needs to face uncertainty, imbalance of the man-made, global changes, and thus to reduce water scarcity risk. The development of activities that alter the natural flow regime such as dams and levees are closely examined, and would potentially be restricted.

  13. Building Adaptive Capacity with the Delphi Method and Mediated Modeling for Water Quality and Climate Change Adaptation in Lake Champlain Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, S.; Hurley, S.; Koliba, C.; Zia, A.; Exler, S.

    2014-12-01

    Eutrophication and nutrient pollution of surface waters occur within complex governance, social, hydrologic and biophysical basin contexts. The pervasive and perennial nutrient pollution in Lake Champlain Basin, despite decades of efforts, exemplifies problems found across the world's surface waters. Stakeholders with diverse values, interests, and forms of explicit and tacit knowledge determine water quality impacts through land use, agricultural and water resource decisions. Uncertainty, ambiguity and dynamic feedback further complicate the ability to promote the continual provision of water quality and ecosystem services. Adaptive management of water resources and land use requires mechanisms to allow for learning and integration of new information over time. The transdisciplinary Research on Adaptation to Climate Change (RACC) team is working to build regional adaptive capacity in Lake Champlain Basin while studying and integrating governance, land use, hydrological, and biophysical systems to evaluate implications for adaptive management. The RACC team has engaged stakeholders through mediated modeling workshops, online forums, surveys, focus groups and interviews. In March 2014, CSS2CC.org, an interactive online forum to source and identify adaptive interventions from a group of stakeholders across sectors was launched. The forum, based on the Delphi Method, brings forward the collective wisdom of stakeholders and experts to identify potential interventions and governance designs in response to scientific uncertainty and ambiguity surrounding the effectiveness of any strategy, climate change impacts, and the social and natural systems governing water quality and eutrophication. A Mediated Modeling Workshop followed the forum in May 2014, where participants refined and identified plausible interventions under different governance, policy and resource scenarios. Results from the online forum and workshop can identify emerging consensus across scales and sectors

  14. New soil water sensors for irrigation management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective irrigation management is key to obtaining the most crop production per unit of water applied and increasing production in the face of competing demands on water resources. Management methods have included calculating crop water needs based on weather station measurements, calculating soil ...

  15. Water Reserves Program. An adaptation strategy to balance water in nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez Perez, M.; Barrios, E.; Salinas-Rodriguez, S.; Wickel, B.; Villon, R. A.

    2013-05-01

    -allocation takes place. The strategy is to identify and protect basins with an availability of water that is close to their natural flow regime and that also have a high conservation value (based on prior national conservation priority definitions such as protected areas, and biodiversity conservation gap analyses) in order to implement legal restrictions on water resource development. With such protection, these systems will be best positioned to adjust and respond to water shortages, and regime shifts. To date, 189 basins around the country were identified as potential water reserves. The next step will be the nomination of these water reserves to be integrated in the National Water Reserves Program. This program forms the core of the official Mexican government adaptation strategy towards climate prepared water management, which recognizes that water reserves are the buffer society needs to face uncertainty, and reduce water scarcity risk. The development of activities that alter the natural flow regime such as dams and levees are closely examined, and would potentially be restricted.

  16. Climate change adaptation through urban heat management in Atlanta, Georgia.

    PubMed

    Stone, Brian; Vargo, Jason; Liu, Peng; Hu, Yongtao; Russell, Armistead

    2013-07-16

    This study explores the potential effectiveness of metropolitan land cover change as a climate change adaptation strategy for managing rising temperatures in a large and rapidly warming metropolitan region of the United States. Through the integration of a mesoscale meteorological model with estimated land cover data for the Atlanta, Georgia region in 2010, this study quantifies the influence of extensive land cover change at the periphery of a large metropolitan region on temperature within the city center. The first study to directly model a metropolitan scale heat transfer mechanism, we find both enhanced tree canopy and impervious cover in the suburban zones of the Atlanta region to produce statistically significant cooling and warming effects in the urban core. Based on these findings, we conclude that urban heat island management both within and beyond the central developed core of large cities may provide an effective climate change adaptation strategy for large metropolitan regions.

  17. Water footprint as a tool for integrated water resources management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldaya, Maite; Hoekstra, Arjen

    2010-05-01

    In a context where water resources are unevenly distributed and, in some regions precipitation and drought conditions are increasing, enhanced water management is a major challenge to final consumers, businesses, water resource users, water managers and policymakers in general. By linking a large range of sectors and issues, virtual water trade and water footprint analyses provide an appropriate framework to find potential solutions and contribute to a better management of water resources. The water footprint is an indicator of freshwater use that looks not only at direct water use of a consumer or producer, but also at the indirect water use. The water footprint of a product is the volume of freshwater used to produce the product, measured over the full supply chain. It is a multi-dimensional indicator, showing water consumption volumes by source and polluted volumes by type of pollution; all components of a total water footprint are specified geographically and temporally. The water footprint breaks down into three components: the blue (volume of freshwater evaporated from surface or groundwater systems), green (water volume evaporated from rainwater stored in the soil as soil moisture) and grey water footprint (the volume of polluted water associated with the production of goods and services). Closely linked to the concept of water footprint is that of virtual water trade, which represents the amount of water embedded in traded products. Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. Virtual water trade between nations and even continents could thus be used as an instrument to improve global water use efficiency and to achieve water security in water-poor regions of the world. The virtual water trade

  18. Transfer of adapted water supply technologies through a demonstration and teaching facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nestmann, F.; Oberle, P.; Ikhwan, M.; Stoffel, D.; Blaß, H. J.; Töws, D.; Schmidt, S.

    2016-05-01

    Water scarcity can be defined as a lack of sufficient water resources or as the limited or even missing access to a safe water supply. Latter can be classified as `economic water scarcity' which among others can commonly be met in tropical and subtropical karst regions of emerging and developing countries. Karst aquifers, mostly consisting of limestone and carbonate rock, show high infiltration rates which leads to a lack of above ground storage possibilities. Thus, the water will drain rapidly into the underground and evolve vast river networks. Considering the lack of appropriate infrastructure and limited human capacities in the affected areas, these underground water resources cannot be exploited adequately. Against this, background innovative and adapted technologies are required to utilize hard-to-access water resources in a sustainable way. In this context, the German-Indonesian joint R&D project "Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) Indonesia" dealt with the development of highly adaptable water technologies and management strategies. Under the aegis of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), these innovative technical concepts were exemplarily implemented to remedy this deficiency in the model region Gunung Sewu, a karst area situated on the southern coast of Java Island, Indonesia. The experiences gained through the interdisciplinary joint R&D activities clearly showed that even in the case of availability of appropriate technologies, a comprising transfer of knowhow and the buildup of capabilities (Capacity Development) is inevitable to sustainably implement and disseminate new methods. In this context, an adapted water supply facility was developed by KIT which hereafter shall serve for demonstration, teaching, and research purposes. The plant's functionality, its teaching and research concept, as well as the design process, which was accomplished in collaboration with the

  19. Transfer of adapted water supply technologies through a demonstration and teaching facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nestmann, F.; Oberle, P.; Ikhwan, M.; Stoffel, D.; Blaß, H. J.; Töws, D.; Schmidt, S.

    2016-09-01

    Water scarcity can be defined as a lack of sufficient water resources or as the limited or even missing access to a safe water supply. Latter can be classified as `economic water scarcity' which among others can commonly be met in tropical and subtropical karst regions of emerging and developing countries. Karst aquifers, mostly consisting of limestone and carbonate rock, show high infiltration rates which leads to a lack of above ground storage possibilities. Thus, the water will drain rapidly into the underground and evolve vast river networks. Considering the lack of appropriate infrastructure and limited human capacities in the affected areas, these underground water resources cannot be exploited adequately. Against this, background innovative and adapted technologies are required to utilize hard-to-access water resources in a sustainable way. In this context, the German-Indonesian joint R&D project "Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) Indonesia" dealt with the development of highly adaptable water technologies and management strategies. Under the aegis of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), these innovative technical concepts were exemplarily implemented to remedy this deficiency in the model region Gunung Sewu, a karst area situated on the southern coast of Java Island, Indonesia. The experiences gained through the interdisciplinary joint R&D activities clearly showed that even in the case of availability of appropriate technologies, a comprising transfer of knowhow and the buildup of capabilities (Capacity Development) is inevitable to sustainably implement and disseminate new methods. In this context, an adapted water supply facility was developed by KIT which hereafter shall serve for demonstration, teaching, and research purposes. The plant's functionality, its teaching and research concept, as well as the design process, which was accomplished in collaboration with the

  20. Climate Adaptation Capacity for Conventional Drinking Water Treatment Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, A.; Goodrich, J.; Yang, J.

    2013-12-01

    Water supplies are vulnerable to a host of climate- and weather-related stressors such as droughts, intense storms/flooding, snowpack depletion, sea level changes, and consequences from fires, landslides, and excessive heat or cold. Surface water resources (lakes, reservoirs, rivers, and streams) are especially susceptible to weather-induced changes in water availability and quality. The risks to groundwater systems may also be significant. Typically, water treatment facilities are designed with an underlying assumption that water quality from a given source is relatively predictable based on historical data. However, increasing evidence of the lack of stationarity is raising questions about the validity of traditional design assumptions, particularly since the service life of many facilities can exceed fifty years. Given that there are over 150,000 public water systems in the US that deliver drinking water to over 300 million people every day, it is important to evaluate the capacity for adapting to the impacts of a changing climate. Climate and weather can induce or amplify changes in physical, chemical, and biological water quality, reaction rates, the extent of water-sediment-air interactions, and also impact the performance of treatment technologies. The specific impacts depend on the watershed characteristics and local hydrological and land-use factors. Water quality responses can be transient, such as erosion-induced increases in sediment and runoff. Longer-term impacts include changes in the frequency and intensity of algal blooms, gradual changes in the nature and concentration of dissolved organic matter, dissolved solids, and modulation of the microbiological community structure, sources and survival of pathogens. In addition, waterborne contaminants associated with municipal, industrial, and agricultural activities can also impact water quality. This presentation evaluates relationships between climate and weather induced water quality variability and

  1. Water law as an adaptation strategy for global water scarcity in the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakinuma, K.; Yoshikawa, S.; Endo, T.; Kanae, S.

    2014-12-01

    Water scarcity due to climate changes and growing human population is a major concern for the world. Adaptation and mitigation strategies should be developed for water scarcity in the future. Previous studies assessed the future water availability by hard technology (e.g., reservoirs, reclaimed and desalinated water plants) as adaptation strategies. On the other hand, soft path such as water law and policy would also be important for adaptation strategies. Water transfers is reallocation of water among water users. For example, distribution of the amount of available water is often heterogeneous especially during drought periods. If water transfers are permitted in these areas, water can be moved from surplus areas/sections to critical need areas/sections. There are several studies which describe the water transfer at the local scales (i.e., water bank in California), however the factors that determined the establishment of water transfer are not clear. If we can detect the factors, it could be used to estimate in which areas the water transfer would come into existence. This in turn would reduce the water stress. Here, we focus on historical interaction between human activity and water environments. Generally, rules of water use are developed by repeated discussion among water users. The frequency of these discussions would be related with their land use, frequency of drought and water resource sizes. For example, people in rice crop area need to discuss about water allocation compared to wheat crop area. Therefore, we examine the relationship between the permission of water transfer and factors such as water environment and human activity in the world.

  2. Adaptive management: a paradigm for remediation of public facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Janecky, David R; Whicker, Jeffrey J; Doerr, Ted B

    2009-01-01

    Public facility restoration planning traditionally focused on response to natural disasters and hazardous materials accidental releases. These plans now need to integrate response to terrorist actions. Therefore, plans must address a wide range of potential vulnerabilities. Similar types of broad remediation planning are needed for restoration of waste and hazardous material handling areas and facilities. There are strong similarities in damage results and remediation activities between unintentional and terrorist actions; however, the uncertainties associated with terrorist actions result in a re-evaluation of approaches to planning. Restoration of public facilities following a release of a hazardous material is inherently far more complex than in confined industrial settings and has many unique technical, economic, social, and political challenges. Therefore, they arguably involve a superset of drivers, concerns and public agencies compared to other restoration efforts. This superset of conditions increases complexity of interactions, reduces our knowledge of the initial conditions, and even condenses the timeline for restoration response. Therefore, evaluations of alternative restoration management approaches developed for responding to terrorist actions provide useful knowledge for large, complex waste management projects. Whereas present planning documents have substantial linearity in their organization, the 'adaptive management' paradigm provides a constructive parallel operations paradigm for restoration of facilities that anticipates and plans for uncertainty, multiple/simUltaneous public agency actions, and stakeholder participation. Adaptive management grew out of the need to manage and restore natural resources in highly complex and changing environments with limited knowledge about causal relationships and responses to restoration actions. Similarities between natural resource management and restoration of a facility and surrounding area(s) after a

  3. Managing Water Resources for Drought: Insights from California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medellin-Azuara, Josue; Lund, Jay

    2016-04-01

    Droughts bring great opportunities to better understand and improve water systems. California's economic powerhouse relies on highly engineered water systems to fulfill large and growing urban and agricultural water demands. Current and past droughts show these systems are highly robust and resilient to droughts, as they recover promptly. However, environmental systems remain highly vulnerable and have shown less resilience to drought, with each drought bringing additional native species closer to extinction, often with little recovery following the drought. This paper provides an overview of the economic and ecosystem impacts of the recent multi-year drought in California in the context of a global economy. We explore the potential of water markets, groundwater management and use of remote sensing technology to improve understanding of adaptation to drought. Insights for future management of water resources and scientific work are discussed.

  4. Sustainable Water Management & Satellite Remote Sensing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eutrophication assessment frameworks such as the Australian National Water Quality Management Strategy, Oslo Paris (OSPAR) Commission Common Procedure, Water Framework Directive (WFD) of the European Union, Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) from the European Commission, ...

  5. A National Climate Change Adaptation Network for Protecting Water Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, A.; Sauchyn, D.; Byrne, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    Water security and resource-dependent community-survival are being increasingly challenged as a consequence of climate change, and it is urgent that we plan now for the security of our water supplies which support our lives and livelihoods. However, the range of impacts of climate change on water availability, and the consequent environmental and human adaptations that are required, is so complex and serious that it will take the combined work of natural, health and social scientists working with industries and communities to solve them. Networks are needed that will identify crucial water issues under climate change at a range of scales in order to provide regionally-sensitive, solutions-oriented research and adaptation. We suggest national and supra-national water availability and community sustainability issues must be addressed by multidisciplinary research and adaptation networks. The work must be driven by a bottom-up research paradigm — science in the service of community and governance. We suggest that interdisciplinary teams of researchers, in partnership with community decision makers and local industries, are the best means to develop solutions as communities attempt to address future water demands, protect their homes from infrastructure damage, and meet their food, drinking water, and other essential resource requirements. The intention is to cover: the impact of climate change on Canadian natural resources, both marine and terrestrial; issues of long-term sustainability and resilience in human communities and the environments in which they are embedded; the making and moving of knowledge, be that between members of Indigenous and non-Indigenous communities, researchers of different disciplines, communities, industry, policymakers and the academy and the crucial involvement of the various orders of government in the response to water problems, under conditions of heightened uncertainty. Such an adaptation network must include a national

  6. Economic resilience through "One-Water" management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, Randall T.; Schmid, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Disruption of water availability leads to food scarcity and loss of economic opportunity. Development of effective water-resource policies and management strategies could provide resiliance to local economies in the face of water disruptions such as drought, flood, and climate change. To accomplish this, a detailed understanding of human water use and natural water resource availability is needed. A hydrologic model is a computer software system that simulates the movement and use of water in a geographic area. It takes into account all components of the water cycle--“One Water”--and helps estimate water budgets for groundwater, surface water, and landscape features. The U.S. Geological Survey MODFLOW One-Water Integrated Hydrologic Model (MODFLOWOWHM) software and scientific methods can provide water managers and political leaders with hydrologic information they need to help ensure water security and economic resilience.

  7. Pathology and failure in the design and implementation of adaptive management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Craig R.; Gunderson, Lance H.

    2011-01-01

    The conceptual underpinnings for adaptive management are simple; there will always be inherent uncertainty and unpredictability in the dynamics and behavior of complex ecological systems as a result non-linear interactions among components and emergence, yet management decisions must still be made. The strength of adaptive management is in the recognition and confrontation of such uncertainty. Rather than ignore uncertainty, or use it to preclude management actions, adaptive management can foster resilience and flexibility to cope with an uncertain future, and develop safe to fail management approaches that acknowledge inevitable changes and surprises. Since its initial introduction, adaptive management has been hailed as a solution to endless trial and error approaches to complex natural resource management challenges. However, its implementation has failed more often than not. It does not produce easy answers, and it is appropriate in only a subset of natural resource management problems. Clearly adaptive management has great potential when applied appropriately. Just as clearly adaptive management has seemingly failed to live up to its high expectations. Why? We outline nine pathologies and challenges that can lead to failure in adaptive management programs. We focus on general sources of failures in adaptive management, so that others can avoid these pitfalls in the future. Adaptive management can be a powerful and beneficial tool when applied correctly to appropriate management problems; the challenge is to keep the concept of adaptive management from being hijacked for inappropriate use.

  8. Alp-Water-Scarce - Water Management Strategies Against Water Scarcity in the Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, C.

    2009-04-01

    Alp-Water-Scarce is a European project on Water Management Strategies against Water Scarcity in the Alps funded by the Alpine Space programme as part of the "European Territorial Cooperation" scheme. The main challenges of this project are to create local Early Warning Systems against Water Scarcity in the Alps. This system will be based on sound, long-term monitoring and modeling and anchored strongly and actively within a Stakeholder Interaction Forum linked across comparative and contrasting regions across the Alps. The Early Warning System is based on the linkage and improvement of field monitoring and assemblage of qualitative and quantitative data derived both from natural water reservoirs as well as from anthropogenic water use in 28 selected pilot regions selected in France, Italy, Austria, Slovenia and Switzerland. These range across different altitudinal and climatological zones, from humid to semi-arid and include inner alpine dry valleys as well as pre-alpine regions. Both groundwater and surface water systems will be considered in addition to a wide range of regimes from glaciated, snow-fed to karstic. The objectives are to improve water management at the short term (annual scale) and long term (using future scenarios) based on modelling and application of climate change and anthropogenic scenarios. Innovative measures of mitigation and adaptation should predict and prevent future water shortages. Awareness raising and stakeholder interaction will form an important part of problem identification, participation in the project, dissemination of results and implementation of new approaches. Alp-Water-Scarce started in October 2008 for a total period of 3 years and has a global budget of approx. 4 Mill. €. It has 17 project partners including 4 Austrian, 2 Swiss, 3 French, 5 Italian, and 3 Slovenian from local governments, provinces, federal institutes and offices, universities, regional agencies, alpine societies, geological surveys, and chambers of

  9. Drainage water management for water quality protection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land drainage has been central to the development of North America since colonial times. Increasingly, agricultural drainage is being targeted as a conduit for pollution, particularly nutrient pollution. The export of agricultural drainage water and associated pollutants to surface water can be mana...

  10. 78 FR 54482 - Charter Renewal, Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Charter Renewal, Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of... the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group. The purpose of the Adaptive Management Work Group is to provide advice and recommendations to the Secretary concerning the operation of Glen Canyon...

  11. 76 FR 54487 - Charter Renewal, Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Charter Renewal, Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of... the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group. The purpose of the Adaptive Management Work Group... Canyon Dam and the exercise of other authorities pursuant to applicable Federal law. FOR...

  12. Frameworks for amending reservoir water management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mower, Ethan; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2013-01-01

    Managing water storage and withdrawals in many reservoirs requires establishing seasonal targets for water levels (i.e., rule curves) that are influenced by regional precipitation and diverse water demands. Rule curves are established as an attempt to balance various water needs such as flood control, irrigation, and environmental benefits such as fish and wildlife management. The processes and challenges associated with amending rule curves to balance multiuse needs are complicated and mostly unfamiliar to non-US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) natural resource managers and to the public. To inform natural resource managers and the public we describe the policies and process involved in amending rule curves in USACE reservoirs, including 3 frameworks: a general investigation, a continuing authority program, and the water control plan. Our review suggests that water management in reservoirs can be amended, but generally a multitude of constraints and competing demands must be addressed before such a change can be realized.

  13. The role of adaptive management as an operational approach for resource management agencies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, B.L.

    1999-01-01

    In making resource management decisions, agencies use a variety of approaches that involve different levels of political concern, historical precedence, data analyses, and evaluation. Traditional decision-making approaches have often failed to achieve objectives for complex problems in large systems, such as the Everglades or the Colorado River. I contend that adaptive management is the best approach available to agencies for addressing this type of complex problem, although its success has been limited thus far. Traditional decision-making approaches have been fairly successful at addressing relatively straightforward problems in small, replicated systems, such as management of trout in small streams or pulp production in forests. However, this success may be jeopardized as more users place increasing demands on these systems. Adaptive management has received little attention from agencies for addressing problems in small-scale systems, but I suggest that it may be a useful approach for creating a holistic view of common problems and developing guidelines that can then be used in simpler, more traditional approaches to management. Although adaptive management may be more expensive to initiate than traditional approaches, it may be less expensive in the long run if it leads to more effective management. The overall goal of adaptive management is not to maintain an optimal condition of the resource, but to develop an optimal management capacity. This is accomplished by maintaining ecological resilience that allows the system to react to inevitable stresses, and generating flexibility in institutions and stakeholders that allows managers to react when conditions change. The result is that, rather than managing for a single, optimal state, we manage within a range of acceptable outcomes while avoiding catastrophes and irreversible negative effects. Copyright ?? 1999 by The Resilience Alliance.

  14. Flexible Ubiquitous Learning Management System Adapted to Learning Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Ji-Seong; Kim, Mihye; Park, Chan; Yoo, Jae-Soo; Yoo, Kwan-Hee

    This paper proposes a u-learning management system (ULMS) appropriate to the ubiquitous learning environment, with emphasis on the significance of context awareness and adaptation in learning. The proposed system supports the basic functions of an e-learning management system and incorporates a number of tools and additional features to provide a more customized learning service. The proposed system automatically corresponds to various forms of user terminal without modifying the existing system. The functions, formats, and course learning activities of the system are dynamically and adaptively constructed at runtime according to user terminals, course types, pedagogical goals as well as student characteristics and learning context. A prototype for university use has been implemented to demonstrate and evaluate the proposed approach. We regard the proposed ULMS as an ideal u-learning system because it can not only lead students into continuous and mobile 'anytime, anywhere' learning using any kind of terminal, but can also foster enhanced self-directed learning through the establishment of an adaptive learning environment.

  15. Monitoring in the context of structured decision-making and adaptive management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyons, J.E.; Runge, M.C.; Laskowski, H.P.; Kendall, W.L.

    2008-01-01

    In a natural resource management setting, monitoring is a crucial component of an informed process for making decisions, and monitoring design should be driven by the decision context and associated uncertainties. Monitoring itself can play >3 roles. First, it is important for state-dependent decision-making, as when managers need to know the system state before deciding on the appropriate course of action during the ensuing management cycle. Second, monitoring is critical for evaluating the effectiveness of management actions relative to objectives. Third, in an adaptive management setting, monitoring provides the feedback loop for learning about the system; learning is sought not for its own sake but primarily to better achieve management objectives. In this case, monitoring should be designed to reduce the critical uncertainties in models of the managed system. The United States Geological Survey and United States Fish and Wildlife Service are conducting a large-scale management experiment on 23 National Wildlife Refuges across the Northeast and Midwest Regions. The primary management objective is to provide habitat for migratory waterbirds, particularly during migration, using water-level manipulations in managed wetlands. Key uncertainties are related to the potential trade-offs created by management for a specific waterbird guild (e.g., migratory shorebirds) and the response of waterbirds, plant communities, and invertebrates to specific experimental hydroperiods. We reviewed the monitoring program associated with this study, and the ways that specific observations fill >1 of the roles identified above. We used observations from our monitoring to improve state-dependent decisions to control undesired plants, to evaluate management performance relative to shallow-water habitat objectives, and to evaluate potential trade-offs between waterfowl and shorebird habitat management. With limited staff and budgets, management agencies need efficient monitoring

  16. Status of ISS Water Management and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Layne; Brown, Christopher; Orozco, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Water management on ISS is responsible for the provision of water to the crew for drinking water, food preparation, and hygiene, to the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for oxygen production via electrolysis, to the Waste & Hygiene Compartment (WHC) for flush water, and for experiments on ISS. This paper summarizes water management activities on the ISS US Segment, and provides a status of the performance and issues related to the operation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the on-orbit status as of June 2013, and describes the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.

  17. Status of ISS Water Management and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Layne; Pruitt, Jennifer; Brown, Christopher A.; Schaezler, Ryan; Bankers, Lyndsey

    2015-01-01

    Water management on ISS is responsible for the provision of water to the crew for drinking water, food preparation, and hygiene, to the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for oxygen production via electrolysis, to the Waste & Hygiene Compartment (WHC) for flush water, and for experiments on ISS. This paper summarizes water management activities on the ISS US Segment, and provides a status of the performance and issues related to the operation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the on-orbit status as of May 2015 and describes the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past two years.

  18. Status of ISS Water Management and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Layne; Pruitt, Jennifer; Brown, Christopher A.; Bazley, Jesse; Gazda, Daniel; Schaezler, Ryan; Bankers, Lyndsey

    2016-01-01

    Water management on ISS is responsible for the provision of water to the crew for drinking water, food preparation, and hygiene, to the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for oxygen production via electrolysis, to the Waste & Hygiene Compartment (WHC) for flush water, and for experiments on ISS. This paper summarizes water management activities on the ISS US Segment and provides a status of the performance and issues related to the operation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the on-orbit status as of May 2016 and describes the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.

  19. Status of ISS Water Management and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Layne; Wilson, Laura Labuda; Orozco, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Water management on ISS is responsible for the provision of water to the crew for drinking water, food preparation, and hygiene, to the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for oxygen production via electrolysis, to the Waste & Hygiene Compartment (WHC) for flush water, and for experiments on ISS. This paper summarizes water management activities on the ISS US Segment, and provides a status of the performance and issues related to the operation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the on-orbit status as of May 2011, and describes the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.

  20. Status of ISS Water Management and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Layne; Tobias, Barry; Orozco, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Water management on ISS is responsible for the provision of water to the crew for drinking water, food preparation, and hygiene, to the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for oxygen production via electrolysis, to the Waste & Hygiene Compartment (WHC) for flush water, and for experiments on ISS. This paper summarizes water management activities on the ISS US Segment, and provides a status of the performance and issues related to the operation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the on-orbit status as of June 2012, and describes the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.

  1. Valuing flexibilities in the design of urban water management systems.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yinghan; Cardin, Michel-Alexandre; Babovic, Vladan; Santhanakrishnan, Deepak; Schmitter, Petra; Meshgi, Ali

    2013-12-15

    Climate change and rapid urbanization requires decision-makers to develop a long-term forward assessment on sustainable urban water management projects. This is further complicated by the difficulties of assessing sustainable designs and various design scenarios from an economic standpoint. A conventional valuation approach for urban water management projects, like Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) analysis, fails to incorporate uncertainties, such as amount of rainfall, unit cost of water, and other uncertainties associated with future changes in technological domains. Such approach also fails to include the value of flexibility, which enables managers to adapt and reconfigure systems over time as uncertainty unfolds. This work describes an integrated framework to value investments in urban water management systems under uncertainty. It also extends the conventional DCF analysis through explicit considerations of flexibility in systems design and management. The approach incorporates flexibility as intelligent decision-making mechanisms that enable systems to avoid future downside risks and increase opportunities for upside gains over a range of possible futures. A water catchment area in Singapore was chosen to assess the value of a flexible extension of standard drainage canals and a flexible deployment of a novel water catchment technology based on green roofs and porous pavements. Results show that integrating uncertainty and flexibility explicitly into the decision-making process can reduce initial capital expenditure, improve value for investment, and enable decision-makers to learn more about system requirements during the lifetime of the project.

  2. Residuals Management and Water Pollution Control Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Public Affairs.

    This pamphlet addresses the problems associated with residuals and water quality especially as it relates to the National Water Pollution Control Program. The types of residuals and appropriate management systems are discussed. Additionally, one section is devoted to the role of citizen participation in developing management programs. (CS)

  3. WQM: A Water Quality Management Simulation Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharda, Ramesh; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Description of WQM, a simulation game designed to introduce students to the water quality management function, emphasizes the decision-making process involved in various facets of business. The simulation model is described, computer support is explained, and issues in water resource management are discussed. (13 references) (LRW)

  4. Adaptive management of irrigation and crops' biodiversity: a case study on tomato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lorenzi, Francesca; Alfieri, Silvia Maria; Basile, Angelo; Bonfante, Antonello; Monaco, Eugenia; Riccardi, Maria; Menenti, Massimo

    2013-04-01

    We have assessed the impacts of climate change and evaluated options to adapt irrigation management in the face of predicted changes of agricultural water demand. We have evaluated irrigation scheduling and its effectiveness (versus crop transpiration), and cultivars' adaptability. The spatial and temporal variations of effectiveness and adaptability were studied in an irrigated district of Southern Italy. Two climate scenarios were considered: reference (1961-90) and future (2021-2050) climate, the former from climatic statistics, and the latter from statistical downscaling of general circulation models (AOGCM). Climatic data consist of daily time series of maximum and minimum temperature, and daily rainfall on a grid with a spatial resolution of 35 km. The work was carried out in the Destra Sele irrigation scheme (18.000 ha. Twenty-five soil units were identified and their hydrological properties were determined (measured or estimated from texture through pedo-transfer functions). A tomato crop, in a rotation typical of the area, was considered. A mechanistic model of water flow in the soil-plant-atmosphere system (SWAP) was used to study crop water requirements and water consumption. The model was calibrated and validated in the same area for many different crops. Tomato crop input data and model parameters were estimated on the basis of scientific literature and assumed to be generically representative of the species. Simulations were performed for reference and future climate, and for different irrigation scheduling options. In all soil units, six levels of irrigation volumes were applied: full irrigation (100%), deficit irrigation (80%, 60%, 40%, 20%), no irrigation. From simulation runs, indicators of soil water availability were calculated, moreover the marginal increases of transpiration per unit of irrigation volume, i.e. the effectiveness of irrigation (ΔT/I), were computed, in both climate scenarios. Indicators and marginal increases were used to

  5. Towards sustainable groundwater use: setting long-term goals, backcasting, and managing adaptively.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, Tom; Alley, William M; Allen, Diana M; Sophocleous, Marios A; Zhou, Yangxiao; Taniguchi, Makoto; VanderSteen, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    The sustainability of crucial earth resources, such as groundwater, is a critical issue. We consider groundwater sustainability a value-driven process of intra- and intergenerational equity that balances the environment, society, and economy. Synthesizing hydrogeological science and current sustainability concepts, we emphasize three sustainability approaches: setting multigenerational sustainability goals, backcasting, and managing adaptively. As most aquifer problems are long-term problems, we propose that multigenerational goals (50 to 100 years) for water quantity and quality that acknowledge the connections between groundwater, surface water, and ecosystems be set for many aquifers. The goals should be set by a watershed- or aquifer-based community in an inclusive and participatory manner. Policies for shorter time horizons should be developed by backcasting, and measures implemented through adaptive management to achieve the long-term goals. Two case histories illustrate the importance and complexity of a multigenerational perspective and adaptive management. These approaches could transform aquifer depletion and contamination to more sustainable groundwater use, providing groundwater for current and future generations while protecting ecological integrity and resilience.

  6. 33 CFR 385.31 - Adaptive management program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of the South Florida ecosystem to implementation of the Plan; to determine whether or not these... ecosystem. (3) RECOVER shall conduct monitoring activities and use the information collected and analyzed... Florida Water Management District shall also consult with the South Florida Ecosystem Restoration...

  7. 33 CFR 385.31 - Adaptive management program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of the South Florida ecosystem to implementation of the Plan; to determine whether or not these... ecosystem. (3) RECOVER shall conduct monitoring activities and use the information collected and analyzed... Florida Water Management District shall also consult with the South Florida Ecosystem Restoration...

  8. Water Availability and Management of Water Resources

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the most pressing national and global issues is the availability of freshwater due to global climate change, energy scarcity issues and the increase in world population and accompanying economic growth. Estimates of water supplies and flows through the world's hydrologic c...

  9. Assessment of the Relationship Between Flexibility and Adaptive Capacity in Flood Management Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiFrancesco, K.; Tullos, D. D.

    2013-12-01

    Discussions around adapting water management systems to future changes often state the need to increase system flexibility. Intuitively, a flexible, easily modifiable system seems desirable when faced with a wide range of uncertain, but plausible future conditions. Yet, despite the frequent use of the terms flexibility, very little work has examined what exactly it means to have a flexible water management system, what makes one system more flexible than another, or the extent to which flexibility increases adaptive capacity. This study applies a methodology for assessing the inherent flexibility of the structural and non-structural components of flood management systems using original flexibility metrics in the categories of: slack, intensity, connectivity, adjustability, and coordination. We use these metrics to assess the flexibility of three sub-systems within the Sacramento Valley flood management system in California, USA under current system conditions as well as with proposed management actions in place. We then assess the range of hydrologic conditions under which each sub-system can meet flood risk targets in order to determine whether more flexible systems are also more robust and able to perform over a wider range of hydrologic conditions. In doing so, we identify flexible characteristics of flood management systems that enhance the ability of the system to preform over a wide range of conditions making them better suited to adapt to an uncertain hydrologic future. We find that the flexibility characteristics that increase the range of conditions under which the system can meet performance goals varies depending on whether the region is considered urban, rural, or a small community. In some cases, a decrease in certain flexibility characteristics is associated with an increase in robustness, indicating that more flexibility is not always desirable. Future work will assess the transferability of these results to other regions and systems.

  10. [Ecophysiological adaptability of tropical water organisms to salinity changes].

    PubMed

    Chung, K S

    2001-03-01

    Physiological response of tropical organisms to salinity changes was studied for some marine, estuarine and freshwater fishes (Astyanax bimaculatus, Petenia karussii, Cyprinodon dearborni, and Oreochromis mossambicus), marine and freshwater crustaceans (Penaeus brasiliensis, Penaeus schmitti and Macrobrachium carcinus), and marine bivalves (Perna perna, Crassostrea rhizophorae, and Arca zebra) collected from Northeast Venezuela. They were acclimated for four weeks at various salinities, and (1) placed at high salinities to determine mean lethal salinity, (2) tested by increasing salinity 5@1000 per day to define upper lethal salinity tolerance limit, or (3) observed in a saline gradient tank to determine salinity preference. Acclimation level was the most significant factor. This phenomenon is important for tropical aquatic organisms in shallow waters, where they can adapt to high salinity during the dry season and cannot lose their acclimation level at low salinity during abrupt rain. For saline adaptation of tropical organisms, this behavior will contribute to their proliferation and distribution in fluctuating salinity environments.

  11. [Ecophysiological adaptability of tropical water organisms to salinity changes].

    PubMed

    Chung, K S

    2001-03-01

    Physiological response of tropical organisms to salinity changes was studied for some marine, estuarine and freshwater fishes (Astyanax bimaculatus, Petenia karussii, Cyprinodon dearborni, and Oreochromis mossambicus), marine and freshwater crustaceans (Penaeus brasiliensis, Penaeus schmitti and Macrobrachium carcinus), and marine bivalves (Perna perna, Crassostrea rhizophorae, and Arca zebra) collected from Northeast Venezuela. They were acclimated for four weeks at various salinities, and (1) placed at high salinities to determine mean lethal salinity, (2) tested by increasing salinity 5@1000 per day to define upper lethal salinity tolerance limit, or (3) observed in a saline gradient tank to determine salinity preference. Acclimation level was the most significant factor. This phenomenon is important for tropical aquatic organisms in shallow waters, where they can adapt to high salinity during the dry season and cannot lose their acclimation level at low salinity during abrupt rain. For saline adaptation of tropical organisms, this behavior will contribute to their proliferation and distribution in fluctuating salinity environments. PMID:11795174

  12. Meeting multiple demands: Water transaction opportunities for environmental benefits promoting adaptation to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, Amy

    2015-04-01

    In arid regions, the challenge of balancing water use among a diversity of sectors expands in lock step with conditions of water stress that are exacerbated by climate variability, prolonged drought, and growing water-use demands. The elusiveness of achieving a sustainable balance under conditions of environmental change in the southwestern United States is evidenced by reductions in both overall water availability and freshwater ecosystem health, as well as by recent projections of shortages on the Colorado River within the next five years. The water sustainability challenge in this region, as well as drylands throughout the world, can therefore be viewed through the lens of water stress, a condition wherein demands on land and water -- including the needs of freshwater ecosystems -- exceed reliable supplies, and the full range of water needs cannot be met without tradeoffs across multiple uses. Water stress influences not only ecosystems, but a region's economy, land management, quality of life, and cultural heritage -- each of which requires water to thrive. With respect to promoting successful adaptation to climate change, achieving full water sustainability would allow for water to be successfully divided among water users -- including municipalities, agriculture, and freshwater ecosystems -- at a level that meets the goals of water users and the governing body. Over the last ten to fifteen years, the use of transactional approaches in the western U.S., Mexico, and Australia has proven to be a viable management tool for achieving stream flow and shallow aquifer restoration. By broad definition, environmental water transactions are an equitable and adaptable tool that brings diverse stakeholders to the table to facilitate a fair-market exchange of rights to use water in a manner that benefits both water users and the environment. This talk will present a basic framework of necessary stakeholder engagement, hydrologic conditions, enabling laws and policies

  13. From adaptive management to adjustive management: a pragmatic account of biodiversity values.

    PubMed

    Maris, Virginie; Béchet, Arnaud

    2010-08-01

    The conservation of biodiversity poses an exceptionally difficult problem in that it needs to be effective in a context of double uncertainty: scientific (i.e., how to conserve biodiversity) and normative (i.e., which biodiversity to conserve and why). Although adaptive management offers a promising approach to overcome scientific uncertainty, normative uncertainty is seldom tackled by conservation science. We expanded on the approach proposed by adaptive-management theorists by devising an integrative and iterative approach to conservation that encompasses both types of uncertainty. Inspired by environmental pragmatism, we suggest that moral values at stake in biodiversity conservation are plastic and that a plurality of individual normative positions can coexist and evolve. Moral values should thus be explored through an experimental process as additional parameters to be incorporated in the traditional adaptive-management approach. As such, moral values should also be monitored by environmental ethicists working side by side with scientists and managers on conservation projects. Acknowledging the diversity of moral values and integrating them in a process of collective deliberation will help overcome the normative uncertainty. We used Dewey's distinction between adaptation and adjustment to offer a new paradigm built around what we call adjustive management, which reflects both the uncertainty and the likely evolution of the moral values humans attribute to biodiversity. We illustrate how this paradigm relates to practical conservation decisions by exploring the case of the Sacred Ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus), an alien species in France that is the target of an eradication plan undertaken with little regard for moral issues. We propose that a more satisfying result of efforts to control Sacred Ibis could have been reached by rerouting the traditional feedback loop of adaptive management to include a normative inquiry. This adjustive management approach now

  14. Seeking sustainability: Israel's evolving water management strategy.

    PubMed

    Tal, Alon

    2006-08-25

    The water management policies adopted to address Israel's chronic scarcity have not been without environmental consequences. Yet, through a trial-and-error process, a combined strategy of water transport, rainwater harvesting, and wastewater reuse and desalination, along with a variety of water conservation measures, have put the country on a more sustainable path for the future.

  15. STORM WATER MANAGEMENT MODEL (SWMM) MODERNIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Water Supply and Water Resources Division in partnership with the consulting firm of CDM to redevelop and modernize the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM). In the initial phase of this project EPA rewrote SWMM's computational engine usi...

  16. Drainage Water Management for the Midwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Subsurface tile drainage is an essential water management practice on many highly productive fields in the Midwest. However, nitrate carried in drainage water can lead to local water quality problems and contribute to hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico, so strategies are needed to reduce the nitrate load...

  17. Regional Cumulative Effects Groundwater Management Associated with Large Resource Development Projects: Integrating Adaptive Management with Monitoring and Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckers, J.; Fennell, J.; Scott, M.

    2011-12-01

    existing water management guidelines. Each of the three main tools for groundwater management cannot be used in isolation, decision making and regional management is optimized by their proper integration where each tool informs the others. Lastly, water management needs to be adaptive. The tools developed for groundwater management are dynamic, not static, and require regular updating and maintenance as new information becomes available (performance monitoring) and/or new questions and challenges arise. This in turn requires a clear specification of roles and responsibilities of various parties including regulators, operators, stakeholders and consultants. The presentation will introduce our systematic methodology to water management with examples of recent successful implementation from Canada and/or Australia.

  18. NONPOTABLE WATER REUSE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Globally, the need for water reuse is increasing due to rising water demands and finite water resources. In addition, certain regulations and policies, such as zero discharge initiatives or limited new dam construction, may indirectly contribute to the need for reuse. Also, with ...

  19. NONPOTABLE WATER REUSE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Globally, the need for water reuse is increasing due to rising water demands and finite water resources. In addition, certain regulations and policies, such as zero discharge initiatives or limited new dam construction, may indirectly contribute to the need for reuse. With growin...

  20. Operational Management System for Regulated Water Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loenen, A.; van Dijk, M.; van Verseveld, W.; Berger, H.

    2012-04-01

    Most of the Dutch large rivers, canals and lakes are controlled by the Dutch water authorities. The main reasons concern safety, navigation and fresh water supply. Historically the separate water bodies have been controlled locally. For optimizating management of these water systems an integrated approach was required. Presented is a platform which integrates data from all control objects for monitoring and control purposes. The Operational Management System for Regulated Water Systems (IWP) is an implementation of Delft-FEWS which supports operational control of water systems and actively gives advice. One of the main characteristics of IWP is that is real-time collects, transforms and presents different types of data, which all add to the operational water management. Next to that, hydrodynamic models and intelligent decision support tools are added to support the water managers during their daily control activities. An important advantage of IWP is that it uses the Delft-FEWS framework, therefore processes like central data collection, transformations, data processing and presentation are simply configured. At all control locations the same information is readily available. The operational water management itself gains from this information, but it can also contribute to cost efficiency (no unnecessary pumping), better use of available storage and advise during (water polution) calamities.

  1. Efficient Assessment of the Environment for Integral Urban Water Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rost, Grit; Londong, Jörg

    2015-04-01

    Introduction: Sustainable water supply and sanitation is fundamental, especially in countries that are also particularly vulnerable to water-related problems. The Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) approach makes sure that water management is organised in a transdisciplinary way taking into account the river basin, the hydrologic system and the appendant organisation like culture, law and economics. The main objective of IWRM is the sustainable organisation of water resources quality and quantity (GWP and INBO 2009). However there are more important targets in sustainable use of water resources. New sanitation systems are focussing on adding value and maintaining essential resources in circular flow. Focussing on material fluxes can contribute on water quality, food security, sustainable use of renewable energy, adaption on water scarcity and also on rising water and sanitation demand because of rapid urban and suburban growth (Price and Vojinović 2011; Rost et al 2013; Stäudel et al 2014). Problem: There are several planning tools for IWRM as well as for urban water management. But to complete the IWRM approach for the resource oriented concept a systematic assessment tool is missing. The assessment of crucial indicators obviously requires a lot of data from different subjects/disciplines, in different scales of detail and in different accuracy and in data acquisition (Karthe et al 2014). On the one hand there will be data abundance and on the other hand the data can be unavailable or unfeasible for example because of scale and specification(Rost et al 2013). Such a complex integrated concept requires a clearly worked out structure for the way of managing and priority setting. Purpose: To get systematic in the complex planning process the toolbox model is going to develop. The assessment of the environmental screening (one part of the toolbox) is going to be presented in this paper. The first step of assessment leans on the assertion that each of the

  2. Evaluating mallard adaptive management models with time series

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conn, P.B.; Kendall, W.L.

    2004-01-01

    Wildlife practitioners concerned with midcontinent mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) management in the United States have instituted a system of adaptive harvest management (AHM) as an objective format for setting harvest regulations. Under the AHM paradigm, predictions from a set of models that reflect key uncertainties about processes underlying population dynamics are used in coordination with optimization software to determine an optimal set of harvest decisions. Managers use comparisons of the predictive abilities of these models to gauge the relative truth of different hypotheses about density-dependent recruitment and survival, with better-predicting models giving more weight to the determination of harvest regulations. We tested the effectiveness of this strategy by examining convergence rates of 'predictor' models when the true model for population dynamics was known a priori. We generated time series for cases when the a priori model was 1 of the predictor models as well as for several cases when the a priori model was not in the model set. We further examined the addition of different levels of uncertainty into the variance structure of predictor models, reflecting different levels of confidence about estimated parameters. We showed that in certain situations, the model-selection process favors a predictor model that incorporates the hypotheses of additive harvest mortality and weakly density-dependent recruitment, even when the model is not used to generate data. Higher levels of predictor model variance led to decreased rates of convergence to the model that generated the data, but model weight trajectories were in general more stable. We suggest that predictive models should incorporate all sources of uncertainty about estimated parameters, that the variance structure should be similar for all predictor models, and that models with different functional forms for population dynamics should be considered for inclusion in predictor model! sets. All of these

  3. Adapting and improving resilience to climate change in communities (moravian community as a pilot), by creating new capabilities based on the implementation of a new water culture; protection and management of natural resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos Gallo, A.

    2015-04-01

    Water, in all its dimensions and scope, concerns humans as civilization, individuals and communities immersed in an environment that faces serious environmental threats and changes. The efficient way to deal with this crisis is education of present and future generations, breaking paradigms, creating awareness and new development models, seeking community groups and forces to empower their water resource and care, manage and renew it in an efficient and sustainable manner. The multiple uses of water in personal uses, irrigation, agro-industry and clean energy production, transforms this resource in a strategic element to any nation. With support from the Centro Nacional de Alta Tecnologia (CeNAT), it was possible to formulate the "Agenda Ambiental de Moravia", agreeing to be the "Consejo Tecnico de Fuerzas Vivas" (CTFV) from Moravia - articulated network of stakeholders - the one that coordinate all actions refered to water Resources, pollution and cleaner technologies and protected Areas. CeNAT and CTFV have developed distinguished efforts to improve the Moravians quality of life, and this has led the initiative of constitution of a whole education and training project in rescuing the Upper Basin of the Rio Tarcoles, through the implementation of an ecological - recreative garden ("Parque Comunitario Pulmon Verde de Moravia"), fostersing good use of natural resources, and also works as a platform for training and awareness program in Sustainable Development, based on "Hacia una Nueva Cultura del Agua" (powered through the United Nations by Dr. Pedro Arrojo Agudo and his " Feria de Aguas, Rios y Pueblos", presented in many countries). This initiative is projected to the national and international communities, through the "Water International Conference", which propel initiatives, laws and decisions which enable the development of Costa Rica and other countries under a sustainable model, focused on this essential component for life on the planet.

  4. Assessing Adaptation with Asymmetric Climate Information: evidence from water bargaining field experiments in Northeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfaff, A.; Velez, M.; Taddei, R.; Broad, K.

    2011-12-01

    We assess how asymmetric climate information affects bargaining -- an adaptation institution. As often observed in the field, some actors lack information. This yields vulnerability, despite participation. We examine the loss for a participant from being uncertain about water quantity when bargaining with a fully informed participant in an ultimatum game in Northeast Brazil. When all are fully informed, our field populations in the capital city and an agricultural valley produce a typical 60-40 split between those initiating and responding in one-shot bargaining. With asymmetric information, when initiators know the water quantity is low they get 80%. Thus even within bargaining, i.e. given strong participation, better integrating climate science into water management via greater effort to communicate relevant information to all involved can help to avoid inequities that could arise despite all of the stakeholders being 'at the table', as may well occur within future water allocation along a large new canal in the case we study.

  5. Improving our legacy: Incorporation of adaptive management into state wildlife action plans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fontaine, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    The loss of biodiversity is a mounting concern, but despite numerous attempts there are few large scale conservation efforts that have proven successful in reversing current declines. Given the challenge of biodiversity conservation, there is a need to develop strategic conservation plans that address species declines even with the inherent uncertainty in managing multiple species in complex environments. In 2002, the State Wildlife Grant program was initiated to fulfill this need, and while not explicitly outlined by Congress follows the fundamental premise of adaptive management, 'Learning by doing'. When action is necessary, but basic biological information and an understanding of appropriate management strategies are lacking, adaptive management enables managers to be proactive in spite of uncertainty. However, regardless of the strengths of adaptive management, the development of an effective adaptive management framework is challenging. In a review of 53 State Wildlife Action Plans, I found a keen awareness by planners that adaptive management was an effective method for addressing biodiversity conservation, but the development and incorporation of explicit adaptive management approaches within each plan remained elusive. Only ???25% of the plans included a framework for how adaptive management would be implemented at the project level within their state. There was, however, considerable support across plans for further development and implementation of adaptive management. By furthering the incorporation of adaptive management principles in conservation plans and explicitly outlining the decision making process, states will be poised to meet the pending challenges to biodiversity conservation. ?? 2010 .

  6. Soil management systems to improve water availability for plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klik, A.; Rosner, J.

    2009-04-01

    Due to climate change it is expected that the air temperature will increase and the amount as well as the variability of rainfall will change drastically within this century. Higher temperatures and fewer rainy days with more extreme events will increase the risk of surface runoff and erosion. This will lead to reduced soil water storage and therefore to a lower water use efficiency of plants. Soil and land management systems need to be applied and adapted to improve the amount of water stored in the soil and to ensure crop productivity functions of soils under changing climatic conditions. In a 14-yr. long field experiment, the effects of three soil management systems have been studied at three sites in Austria with respect to surface runoff, soil erosion, losses of nutrients and pesticides. Eight years after beginning of the project soil samples have been taken from different depth throughout the root zone to investigate the effects on soil properties. The results show that soil management systems with reduced tillage intensity are able to improve infiltration and soil water storage. More soil water enables plant development during longer dry periods and decreases amounts of irrigation. Overall, the higher water retention in the landscape improves the regional water balance and reduces environmental problems like soil erosion and nutrient and pesticide losses

  7. Natural water purification and water management by artificial groundwater recharge

    PubMed Central

    Balke, Klaus-Dieter; Zhu, Yan

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide, several regions suffer from water scarcity and contamination. The infiltration and subsurface storage of rain and river water can reduce water stress. Artificial groundwater recharge, possibly combined with bank filtration, plant purification and/or the use of subsurface dams and artificial aquifers, is especially advantageous in areas where layers of gravel and sand exist below the earth’s surface. Artificial infiltration of surface water into the uppermost aquifer has qualitative and quantitative advantages. The contamination of infiltrated river water will be reduced by natural attenuation. Clay minerals, iron hydroxide and humic matter as well as microorganisms located in the subsurface have high decontamination capacities. By this, a final water treatment, if necessary, becomes much easier and cheaper. The quantitative effect concerns the seasonally changing river discharge that influences the possibility of water extraction for drinking water purposes. Such changes can be equalised by seasonally adapted infiltration/extraction of water in/out of the aquifer according to the river discharge and the water need. This method enables a continuous water supply over the whole year. Generally, artificially recharged groundwater is better protected against pollution than surface water, and the delimitation of water protection zones makes it even more save. PMID:18357624

  8. Natural water purification and water management by artificial groundwater recharge.

    PubMed

    Balke, Klaus-Dieter; Zhu, Yan

    2008-03-01

    Worldwide, several regions suffer from water scarcity and contamination. The infiltration and subsurface storage of rain and river water can reduce water stress. Artificial groundwater recharge, possibly combined with bank filtration, plant purification and/or the use of subsurface dams and artificial aquifers, is especially advantageous in areas where layers of gravel and sand exist below the earth's surface. Artificial infiltration of surface water into the uppermost aquifer has qualitative and quantitative advantages. The contamination of infiltrated river water will be reduced by natural attenuation. Clay minerals, iron hydroxide and humic matter as well as microorganisms located in the subsurface have high decontamination capacities. By this, a final water treatment, if necessary, becomes much easier and cheaper. The quantitative effect concerns the seasonally changing river discharge that influences the possibility of water extraction for drinking water purposes. Such changes can be equalised by seasonally adapted infiltration/extraction of water in/out of the aquifer according to the river discharge and the water need. This method enables a continuous water supply over the whole year. Generally, artificially recharged groundwater is better protected against pollution than surface water, and the delimitation of water protection zones makes it even more save.

  9. Collaborative Research for Water Resource Management under Climate Change Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brundiers, K.; Garfin, G. M.; Gober, P.; Basile, G.; Bark, R. H.

    2010-12-01

    participating scientists and water managers throughout the process. Lessons learned include: RESULTS: The research process needs to generate academic (peer-reviewed publications, grant proposals) and applied (usable dataset, communication support) products. Additionally, the project also strives for intangible products, e.g., the research currently continues to support efforts to predict future regional hydroclimatology, whereas management requires a paradigm shift toward anticipation of needs for adapting to multiple possible futures. APPROACH: Collaborative research is not a one-off event or consultation, but a process of mutual engagement that needs to allow for adaptive evolution of the project and its organization. TOPICS: With the acceptance of hydroclimatic non-stationarity, the focus of water managers shifts from reducing scientific uncertainty to enhancing their ability to present academically and politically defensible scenarios to their constituencies. This requires addressing the related need for exploring how to deal with political and institutional uncertainties in decision-making.

  10. Handbook for state ground water managers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    ;Table of Contents: Nonpoint Source Implementation; State Public Water System Supervision; State Underground Water Source Protection (Underground Injection Control); Water Pollution Control -- State and Interstate Program Support (106 Grants); Water Quality Management Planning; Agriculture in Concert with the Environment; Consolidated Pesticide Compliance Monitoring and Program Cooperative Agreements; Pollution Prevention Incentives for States; Hazardous Substance Response Trust Fund; Hazardous Waste Financial Assistance; Underground Storage Tank Program; Leaking Underground Storage Tank Trust Fund; State/EPA Data Management Financial Assistance Program; Environmental Education; and Multi-Media Assistance Agreements for Indian Tribes.

  11. Climate Change and Water in Vulnerable Agriculture: Impacts - Mitigation - Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalezios, Nicolas; Tarquis, Ana Maria

    2016-04-01

    Agriculture highly depends on climate and is adversely affected by climate extremes caused mainly by anthropogenic climate change and increasing climate variability. Moreover, agricultural production risks and vulnerability of agriculture may become an issue in several regions around the world, since they are likely to increase the incidence of crop failure. The aim of this paper is to present the water availability and requirements in Southern Europe and specifically in the Mediterranean region, which is characterized by vulnerable agriculture. Indeed, the climatic trend in the 21st century for this region indicates temperature increase, precipitation decrease combined with an increase in the frequency of climate extremes, such as droughts, heat waves and forest fires. The three major components of climate change are examined, namely impacts, mitigation and adaptation. In particular, precipitation frequency analysis has already indicated a reduction in the precipitation amounts and a shift towards more intense rainstorms. Moreover, time series of drought indices are presented in affected areas. The importance of climate change mitigation measures is also highlighted. Finally, an adaptation scheme for agriculture from climate change in vulnerable and water scarce areas is presented.

  12. Moving towards Total Water Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation will discuss the following topics: Stormwater Best Management Practice (BMP) Placement (SUSTAIN); Sanitary Sewer Overflow Toolbox (SSOAP); BMP and Low Impact Development (LID) Performance; Green/Grey Infrastructure for Stormwater; Combined Sewers and Reuse; Infra...

  13. Modeling the effects of irrigation frequencies, initial water and nitrogen on corn yield responses for best management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Competing demands for fresh water resources necessitate adaptation of limited water irrigations in agriculture. In this context, the Crop Water Production Functions (CWPF) used in limited water irrigation management need to integrate the effects of climate, initial soil water content at planting, an...

  14. Adaptive data management in the ARC Grid middleware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, D.; Gholami, A.; Karpenko, D.; Konstantinov, A.

    2011-12-01

    The Advanced Resource Connector (ARC) Grid middleware was designed almost 10 years ago, and has proven to be an attractive distributed computing solution and successful in adapting to new data management and storage technologies. However, with an ever-increasing user base and scale of resources to manage, along with the introduction of more advanced data transfer protocols, some limitations in the current architecture have become apparent. The simple first-in first-out approach to data transfer leads to bottlenecks in the system, as does the built-in assumption that all data is immediately available from remote data storage. We present an entirely new data management architecture for ARC which aims to alleviate these problems, by introducing a three-layer structure. The top layer accepts incoming requests for data transfer and directs them to the middle layer, which schedules individual transfers and negotiates with various intermediate catalog and storage systems until the physical file is ready to be transferred. The lower layer performs all operations which use large amounts of bandwidth, i.e. the physical data transfer. Using such a layered structure allows more efficient use of the available bandwidth as well as enabling late-binding of jobs to data transfer slots based on a priority system. Here we describe in full detail the design and implementation of the new system.

  15. Evaluation of Water Rights to Reveal Hidden Patterns and Trends in Water Resources Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grantham, T.; Viers, J. H.

    2013-12-01

    California's current water management challenges are strongly influenced by the legacy of 19th century legal doctrines, which aim to maximize the appropriation of available water for human uses and benefits. As a consequence and over time, most of the water flowing through the state's rivers and streams has been dedicated through water rights to human uses, limiting potential for sustainable water management and climate change adaptation. This history is recorded in a database of water rights, which contains approximately 50,000 records of diversion and storage projects dating from the early 19th century to the present day. Although water rights records are rarely considered in regional water budgeting, information on the location, age, purpose, and face values of water rights offer insight into the spatial and temporal dimensions of water-use pressures and can be used to identify opportunities for management interventions. Using the state water rights database, we calculated cumulative face-value rights at the HUC12-watershed scale and compared water appropriation volumes with modeled predictions of surface water availability. Total annual allocations of current water rights exceed 340 million-acre feet (4 x 1011 m3), approximately five times the state's mean annual runoff. The total volume of face-value water rights is 25 to 1,000% of annual water availability in major river basins (greater than 400 km2), with the greatest degree of appropriation observed in tributaries to the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers and coastal streams in southern California. Trends in water rights appropriation since 1900 indicate periods of rapid demand growth between 1925-1940, 1950-1960, and 1975-1985, which mirror major dam building eras. We illustrate how information on the spatial distribution of water rights, appropriation volumes, and priority of use, can guide strategic planning for re-allocating water for environmental benefits and other management objectives. We also

  16. Water management in the Roman world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dermody, Brian J.; van Beek, Rens L. P. H.; Meeks, Elijah; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; Scheidel, Walter; Wassen, Martin J.; van der Velde, Ype; Dekker, Stefan C.

    2014-05-01

    Climate variability can have extreme impacts on societies in regions that are water-limited for agriculture. A society's ability to manage its water resources in such environments is critical to its long-term viability. Water management can involve improving agricultural yields through in-situ irrigation or redistributing water resources through trade in food. Here, we explore how such water management strategies affected the resilience of the Roman Empire to climate variability in the water-limited region of the Mediterranean. Using the large-scale hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB and estimates of landcover based on the Historical Database of the Global Environment (HYDE) we generate potential agricultural yield maps under variable climate. HYDE maps of population density in conjunction with potential yield estimates are used to develop maps of agricultural surplus and deficit. The surplus and deficit regions are abstracted to nodes on a water redistribution network based on the Stanford Geospatial Network Model of the Roman World (ORBIS). This demand-driven, water redistribution network allows us to quantitatively explore how water management strategies such as irrigation and food trade improved the resilience of the Roman Empire to climate variability.

  17. Produced Water Management and Beneficial Use

    SciTech Connect

    Terry Brown; Carol Frost; Thomas Hayes; Leo Heath; Drew Johnson; David Lopez; Demian Saffer; Michael Urynowicz; John Wheaton; Mark Zoback

    2007-10-31

    Large quantities of water are associated with the production of coalbed methane (CBM) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. The chemistry of co-produced water often makes it unsuitable for subsequent uses such as irrigated agriculture. However, co-produced waters have substantial potential for a variety of beneficial uses. Achieving this potential requires the development of appropriate water management strategies. There are several unique characteristics of co-produced water that make development of such management strategies a challenge. The production of CBM water follows an inverse pattern compared to traditional wells. CBM wells need to maintain low reservoir pressures to promote gas production. This need renders the reinjection of co-produced waters counterproductive. The unique water chemistry of co-produced water can reduce soil permeability, making surface disposal difficult. Unlike traditional petroleum operations where co-produced water is an undesirable by-product, co-produced water in the PRB often is potable, making it a highly valued resource in arid western states. This research project developed and evaluated a number of water management options potentially available to CBM operators. These options, which focus on cost-effective and environmentally-sound practices, fall into five topic areas: Minimization of Produced Water, Surface Disposal, Beneficial Use, Disposal by Injection and Water Treatment. The research project was managed by the Colorado Energy Research Institute (CERI) at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) and involved personnel located at CERI, CSM, Stanford University, Pennsylvania State University, the University of Wyoming, the Argonne National Laboratory, the Gas Technology Institute, the Montana Bureau of Mining and Geology and PVES Inc., a private firm.

  18. Facilitating adaptive management in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed through the use of online decision support tools

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mullinx, Cassandra; Phillips, Scott; Shenk, Kelly; Hearn, Paul; Devereux, Olivia

    2009-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay Program (CBP) is attempting to more strategically implement management actions to improve the health of the Nation’s largest estuary. In 2007 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) CBP office began a joint effort to develop a suite of Internetaccessible decision-support tools and to help meet the needs of CBP partners to improve water quality and habitat conditions in the Chesapeake Bay and its watersheds. An adaptive management framework is being used to provide a structured decision process for information and individual tools needed to implement and assess practices to improve the condition of the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. The Chesapeake Online Adaptive Support Toolkit (COAST) is a collection of web-based analytical tools and information, organized in an adaptive management framework, intended to aid decisionmakers in protecting and restoring the integrity of the Bay ecosystem. The initial version of COAST is focused on water quality issues. During early and mid- 2008, initial ideas for COAST were shared and discussed with various CBP partners and other potential user groups. At these meetings, test cases were selected to help improve understanding of the types of information and analytical functionality that would be most useful for specific partners’ needs. These discussions added considerable knowledge about the nature of decisionmaking for Federal, State, local and nongovernmental partners. Version 1.0 of COAST, released in early winter of 2008, will be further reviewed to determine improvements needed to address implementation and assessment of water quality practices. Future versions of COAST may address other aspects of ecosystem restoration, including restoration of habitat and living resources and maintaining watershed health.

  19. Water Security - science and management challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheater, H. S.

    2015-04-01

    This paper briefly reviews the contemporary issues of Water Security, noting that current and prospective pressures represent major challenges for society. It is argued that, given the complex interdependencies and multi-faceted nature of these challenges, new trans-disciplinary science is needed to support the development of science-based policy and management. The effects of human society on land and water are now large and extensive. Hence we conclude that: (a) the management of water involves the management of a complex human-natural system, and (b) potential impacts of the human footprint on land and water systems can influence not only water quantity and quality, but also local and regional climate. We note, however, that research to quantify impacts of human activities is, in many respects, in its infancy. The development of the science base requires a trans-disciplinary place-based focus that must include the natural sciences, social sciences and engineering, and address management challenges at scales that range from local to large river basin scale, and may include trans-boundary issues. Large basin scale studies can provide the focus to address these science and management challenges, including the feedbacks associated with man's impact from land and water management on regional climate systems.

  20. Designing monitoring programs in an adaptive management context for regional multiple species conservation plans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atkinson, A.J.; Trenham, P.C.; Fisher, R.N.; Hathaway, S.A.; Johnson, B.S.; Torres, S.G.; Moore, Y.C.

    2004-01-01

    critical management uncertainties; and 3) implementing long-term monitoring and adaptive management. Ultimately, the success of regional conservation planning depends on the ability of monitoring programs to confront the challenges of adaptively managing and monitoring complex ecosystems and diverse arrays of sensitive species.

  1. 78 FR 5830 - Renewal of the Trinity River Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... Office of the Secretary Renewal of the Trinity River Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Office of... consultation with the General Services Administration, has renewed the Trinity River Adaptive Management... to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity River restoration efforts....

  2. Deriving empirical benchmarks from existing monitoring datasets for rangeland adaptive management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Under adaptive management, goals and decisions for managing rangeland resources are shaped by requirements like the Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM’s) Land Health Standards, which specify desired conditions. Without formalized, quantitative benchmarks for triggering management actions, adaptive man...

  3. [Specifically adapted management of diabetics after myocardial infarct].

    PubMed

    Passa, P

    1998-06-13

    Approximately 20% of all patients hospitalized for myocardial infarction have diabetes. The percentage has been increasing constantly and mortality is significantly higher in these patients. The highest rate is observed in women. Despite continuing progress in patient management there has been no reduction in the overmortality after myocardial infarction in diabetic patients. The majority of these deaths are unwarranted and could be avoided if diabetic patients were given specifically adapted treatment after myocardial infarction. Unfortunately, as shown by the EURASPIRE study, there is a gap between intensive care unit discharge prescriptions and follow-up care. With the explosive "epidemic" of noninsulin-diabetes and population aging the number of patients with coronary artery disease and diabetes will rise in the future. Wouldn't it be reasonable to establish special cardiodiabetic units where such patients could benefit from close, and daily, cooperation between diabetologists and cardiologists? Such facilities could be expected to significantly reduce the overmortality in diabetic patients after myocardial infarction.

  4. ADGS-2100 Adaptive Display and Guidance System Window Manager Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Mike W.; Innis, John D.; Miller, Steven P.; Wagner, Lucas G.

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in modeling languages have made it feasible to formally specify and analyze the behavior of large system components. Synchronous data flow languages, such as Lustre, SCR, and RSML-e are particularly well suited to this task, and commercial versions of these tools such as SCADE and Simulink are growing in popularity among designers of safety critical systems, largely due to their ability to automatically generate code from the models. At the same time, advances in formal analysis tools have made it practical to formally verify important properties of these models to ensure that design defects are identified and corrected early in the lifecycle. This report describes how these tools have been applied to the ADGS-2100 Adaptive Display and Guidance Window Manager being developed by Rockwell Collins Inc. This work demonstrates how formal methods can be easily and cost-efficiently used to remove defects early in the design cycle.

  5. Root developmental adaptation to Fe toxicity: Mechanisms and management.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangjie; Kronzucker, Herbert J; Shi, Weiming

    2016-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential microelement but is highly toxic when in excess. To cope with Fe excess, plants have evolved complex adaptive responses that include morphological and physiological modifications. The highly dynamic adjustments in overall root system architecture (RSA) determine root plasticity and allow plants to efficiently adapt to environmental constraints. However, the effects of Fe excess on RSA are poorly understood. Recently, we showed that excess Fe treatment in Arabidopsis not only directly impairs primary root (PR) growth but also arrests lateral root (LR) formation by acting at the tip of the growing primary root. Such a change is believed to help RSA adjust and restrict excessive Fe absorption in the part of the rhizosphere subject to acute toxicity while maintaining the absorption of other nutrients in the less stressed components of the root system. We further showed that the suppression of PR growth and LR formation under excess Fe is alleviated by K(+) addition, providing useful insight into the effectiveness of nutrient management to improve RSA and alleviate Fe toxicity symptoms in the field.

  6. Adaptive and Rational Anticipations in Risk Management Systems and Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, Daniel M.; Holmberg, Stig C.

    2010-11-01

    The global financial crisis of year 2009 is explained as a result of uncoordinated risk management decisions in business firms and economic organisations. The underlying reason for this can be found in the current financial system. As the financial market has lost much of its direct coupling to the concrete economy it provides misleading information to economic decision makers at all levels. Hence, the financial system has moved from a state of moderate and slow cyclical fluctuations into a state of fast and chaotic ones. Those misleading decisions can further be described, but not explained, by help of adaptive and rational expectations from macroeconomic theory. In this context, AE, the Adaptive Expectations are related to weak passive Exo-anticipation, and RE, the Rational expectations can be related to a strong, active and design oriented anticipation. The shortcomings of conventional cures, which builds on a reactive paradigm, have already been demonstrated in economic literature and are here further underlined by help of Ashby's "Law of Requisite Variety", Weaver's distinction between systems of "Disorganized Complexity" and those of "Organized Complexity", and Klir's "Reconstructability Analysis". Anticipatory decision-making is hence here proposed as a replacement to current expectation based and passive risk management. An anticipatory model of the business cycle is presented for supporting that proposition. The model, which is an extension of the Kaldor-Kalecki model, includes both retardation and anticipation. While cybernetics with the feedback process in control system deals with an explicit goal or purpose given to a system, the anticipatory system discussed here deals with a behaviour for which the future state of the system is built by the system itself, without explicit goal. A system with weak anticipation is based on a predictive model of the system, while a system with strong anticipation builds its own future by itself. Numerical simulations on

  7. Crop water productivity and irrigation management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modern irrigation systems offer large increases in crop water productivity compared with rainfed or gravity irrigation, but require different management approaches to achieve this. Flood, sprinkler, low-energy precision application, LEPA, and subsurface drip irrigation methods vary widely in water a...

  8. Troubled waters: managing our vital resources.

    PubMed

    1999-03-01

    Presented are articles from Global Issues, an electronic journal of the US Information Agency that focuses on managing the water resources of the world. The three main articles are as follows: 1) ¿The Quiet Revolution to Restore Our Aquatic Ecosystems¿, 2) ¿Charting a New Course to Save America's Waters¿, and 3) ¿Freshwater: Will the World's Future Needs be Met?¿ The journal also presents commentaries on the age-old water shortage in the Middle East; solutions to water waste on the farm and in cities; managing water scarcity in the driest region of the US; and a new approach to environmental management in the Bermejo River in Argentina and Bolivia. Furthermore, this issue contains statistics on water usage and supplies and a report that examines proposals for policies that could set the world on a better course for water management. Lastly, this issue provides a bibliography of books, documents, and articles on freshwater issues as well as a list of Internet sites offering further information on water quality, supplies, and conservation. PMID:12290381

  9. Operational water management of Rijnland water system and pilot of ensemble forecasting system for flood control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Zwan, Rene

    2013-04-01

    The Rijnland water system is situated in the western part of the Netherlands, and is a low-lying area of which 90% is below sea-level. The area covers 1,100 square kilometres, where 1.3 million people live, work, travel and enjoy leisure. The District Water Control Board of Rijnland is responsible for flood defence, water quantity and quality management. This includes design and maintenance of flood defence structures, control of regulating structures for an adequate water level management, and waste water treatment. For water quantity management Rijnland uses, besides an online monitoring network for collecting water level and precipitation data, a real time control decision support system. This decision support system consists of deterministic hydro-meteorological forecasts with a 24-hr forecast horizon, coupled with a control module that provides optimal operation schedules for the storage basin pumping stations. The uncertainty of the rainfall forecast is not forwarded in the hydrological prediction. At this moment 65% of the pumping capacity of the storage basin pumping stations can be automatically controlled by the decision control system. Within 5 years, after renovation of two other pumping stations, the total capacity of 200 m3/s will be automatically controlled. In critical conditions there is a need of both a longer forecast horizon and a probabilistic forecast. Therefore ensemble precipitation forecasts of the ECMWF are already consulted off-line during dry-spells, and Rijnland is running a pilot operational system providing 10-day water level ensemble forecasts. The use of EPS during dry-spells and the findings of the pilot will be presented. Challenges and next steps towards on-line implementation of ensemble forecasts for risk-based operational management of the Rijnland water system will be discussed. An important element in that discussion is the question: will policy and decision makers, operator and citizens adapt this Anticipatory Water

  10. A predictive model to inform adaptive management of double-crested cormorants and fisheries in Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tsehaye, Iyob; Jones, Michael L.; Irwin, Brian J.; Fielder, David G.; Breck, James E.; Luukkonen, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The proliferation of double-crested cormorants (DCCOs; Phalacrocorax auritus) in North America has raised concerns over their potential negative impacts on game, cultured and forage fishes, island and terrestrial resources, and other colonial water birds, leading to increased public demands to reduce their abundance. By combining fish surplus production and bird functional feeding response models, we developed a deterministic predictive model representing bird–fish interactions to inform an adaptive management process for the control of DCCOs in multiple colonies in Michigan. Comparisons of model predictions with observations of changes in DCCO numbers under management measures implemented from 2004 to 2012 suggested that our relatively simple model was able to accurately reconstruct past DCCO population dynamics. These comparisons helped discriminate among alternative parameterizations of demographic processes that were poorly known, especially site fidelity. Using sensitivity analysis, we also identified remaining critical uncertainties (mainly in the spatial distributions of fish vs. DCCO feeding areas) that can be used to prioritize future research and monitoring needs. Model forecasts suggested that continuation of existing control efforts would be sufficient to achieve long-term DCCO control targets in Michigan and that DCCO control may be necessary to achieve management goals for some DCCO-impacted fisheries in the state. Finally, our model can be extended by accounting for parametric or ecological uncertainty and including more complex assumptions on DCCO–fish interactions as part of the adaptive management process.

  11. Adaptive Resolution Simulation of Supramolecular Water: The Concurrent Making, Breaking, and Remaking of Water Bundles

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The adaptive resolution scheme (AdResS) is a multiscale molecular dynamics simulation approach that can concurrently couple atomistic (AT) and coarse-grained (CG) resolution regions, i.e., the molecules can freely adapt their resolution according to their current position in the system. Coupling to supramolecular CG models, where several molecules are represented as a single CG bead, is challenging, but it provides higher computational gains and connection to the established MARTINI CG force field. Difficulties that arise from such coupling have been so far bypassed with bundled AT water models, where additional harmonic bonds between oxygen atoms within a given supramolecular water bundle are introduced. While these models simplify the supramolecular coupling, they also cause in certain situations spurious artifacts, such as partial unfolding of biomolecules. In this work, we present a new clustering algorithm SWINGER that can concurrently make, break, and remake water bundles and in conjunction with the AdResS permits the use of original AT water models. We apply our approach to simulate a hybrid SPC/MARTINI water system and show that the essential properties of water are correctly reproduced with respect to the standard monoscale simulations. The developed hybrid water model can be used in biomolecular simulations, where a significant speed up can be obtained without compromising the accuracy of the AT water model. PMID:27409519

  12. Adaptive Resolution Simulation of Supramolecular Water: The Concurrent Making, Breaking, and Remaking of Water Bundles.

    PubMed

    Zavadlav, Julija; Marrink, Siewert J; Praprotnik, Matej

    2016-08-01

    The adaptive resolution scheme (AdResS) is a multiscale molecular dynamics simulation approach that can concurrently couple atomistic (AT) and coarse-grained (CG) resolution regions, i.e., the molecules can freely adapt their resolution according to their current position in the system. Coupling to supramolecular CG models, where several molecules are represented as a single CG bead, is challenging, but it provides higher computational gains and connection to the established MARTINI CG force field. Difficulties that arise from such coupling have been so far bypassed with bundled AT water models, where additional harmonic bonds between oxygen atoms within a given supramolecular water bundle are introduced. While these models simplify the supramolecular coupling, they also cause in certain situations spurious artifacts, such as partial unfolding of biomolecules. In this work, we present a new clustering algorithm SWINGER that can concurrently make, break, and remake water bundles and in conjunction with the AdResS permits the use of original AT water models. We apply our approach to simulate a hybrid SPC/MARTINI water system and show that the essential properties of water are correctly reproduced with respect to the standard monoscale simulations. The developed hybrid water model can be used in biomolecular simulations, where a significant speed up can be obtained without compromising the accuracy of the AT water model. PMID:27409519

  13. Adaptive Resolution Simulation of Supramolecular Water: The Concurrent Making, Breaking, and Remaking of Water Bundles.

    PubMed

    Zavadlav, Julija; Marrink, Siewert J; Praprotnik, Matej

    2016-08-01

    The adaptive resolution scheme (AdResS) is a multiscale molecular dynamics simulation approach that can concurrently couple atomistic (AT) and coarse-grained (CG) resolution regions, i.e., the molecules can freely adapt their resolution according to their current position in the system. Coupling to supramolecular CG models, where several molecules are represented as a single CG bead, is challenging, but it provides higher computational gains and connection to the established MARTINI CG force field. Difficulties that arise from such coupling have been so far bypassed with bundled AT water models, where additional harmonic bonds between oxygen atoms within a given supramolecular water bundle are introduced. While these models simplify the supramolecular coupling, they also cause in certain situations spurious artifacts, such as partial unfolding of biomolecules. In this work, we present a new clustering algorithm SWINGER that can concurrently make, break, and remake water bundles and in conjunction with the AdResS permits the use of original AT water models. We apply our approach to simulate a hybrid SPC/MARTINI water system and show that the essential properties of water are correctly reproduced with respect to the standard monoscale simulations. The developed hybrid water model can be used in biomolecular simulations, where a significant speed up can be obtained without compromising the accuracy of the AT water model.

  14. Decision support system for drinking water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janža, M.

    2012-04-01

    The problems in drinking water management are complex and often solutions must be reached under strict time constrains. This is especially distinct in case of environmental accidents in the catchment areas of the wells that are used for drinking water supply. The beneficial tools that can help decision makers and make program of activities more efficient are decision support systems (DSS). In general they are defined as computer-based support systems that help decision makers utilize data and models to solve unstructured problems. The presented DSS was developed in the frame of INCOME project which is focused on the long-term stable and safe drinking water supply in Ljubljana. The two main water resources Ljubljana polje and Barje alluvial aquifers are characterized by a strong interconnection of surface and groundwater, high vulnerability, high velocities of groundwater flow and pollutant transport. In case of sudden pollution, reactions should be very fast to avoid serious impact to the water supply. In the area high pressures arising from urbanization, industry, traffic, agriculture and old environmental burdens. The aim of the developed DSS is to optimize the activities in cases of emergency water management and to optimize the administrative work regarding the activities that can improve groundwater quality status. The DSS is an interactive computer system that utilizes data base, hydrological modelling, and experts' and stakeholders' knowledge. It consists of three components, tackling the different abovementioned issues in water management. The first one utilizes the work on identification, cleaning up and restoration of illegal dumpsites that are a serious threat to the qualitative status of groundwater. The other two components utilize the predictive capability of the hydrological model and scenario analysis. The user interacts with the system by a graphical interface that guides the user step-by-step to the recommended remedial measures. Consequently, the

  15. Resource Management for Real-Time Adaptive Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Lonnie; Chelberg, David; Pfarr, Barbara; Fleeman, David; Parrott, David; Tan, Zhen-Yu; Jain, Shikha; Drews, Frank; Bruggeman, Carl; Shuler, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Increased autonomy and automation in onboard flight systems offer numerous potential benefits, including cost reduction and greater flexibility. The existence of generic mechanisms for automation is critical for handling unanticipated science events and anomalies where limitations in traditional control software with fixed, predetermined algorithms can mean loss of science data and missed opportunities for observing important terrestrial events. We have developed such a mechanism by adding a Hierarchical Agent-based ReaLTime technology (HART) extension to our Dynamic Resource Management (DRM) middleware. Traditional DRM provides mechanisms to monitor the realtime performance of distributed applications and to move applications among processors to improve real-time performance. In the HART project we have designed and implemented a performance adaptation mechanism to improve reaktime performance. To use this mechanism, applications are developed that can run at various levels of quality. The DRM can choose a setting for the quality level of an application dynamically at run-time in order to manage satellite resource usage more effectively. A groundbased prototype of a satellite system that captures and processes images has also been developed as part of this project to be used as a benchmark for evaluating the resource management framework A significant enhancement of this generic mission-independent framework allows scientists to specify the utility, or "scientific benefit," of science observations under various conditions like cloud cover and compression method. The resource manager then uses these benefit tables to determine in redtime how to set the quality levels for applications to maximize overall system utility as defined by the scientists running the mission. We also show how maintenance functions llke health and safety data can be integrated into the utility framework. Once thls framework has been certified for missions and successfully flight tested it

  16. Potato Nitrogen and Water Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato tuber yields and quality are extremely sensitive to adequate availability of water and nitrogen, particularly at some growth stages. Irrigation to replenish 70% of evapotranspiration (ET) as compared to that of full ET, resulted in about 18% reduction in tuber yield. However, 20% deficit irri...

  17. Active adaptive management for reintroduction of an animal population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runge, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    Captive animals are frequently reintroduced to the wild in the face of uncertainty, but that uncertainty can often be reduced over the course of the reintroduction effort, providing the opportunity for adaptive management. One common uncertainty in reintroductions is the short-term survival rate of released adults (a release cost), an important factor because it can affect whether releasing adults or juveniles is better. Information about this rate can improve the success of the reintroduction program, but does the expected gain offset the costs of obtaining the information? I explored this question for reintroduction of the griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus) by framing the management question as a belief Markov decision process, characterizing uncertainty about release cost with 2 information state variables, and finding the solution using stochastic dynamic programming. For a reintroduction program of fixed length (e.g., 5 years of releases), the optimal policy in the final release year resembles the deterministic solution: release either all adults or all juveniles depending on whether the point estimate for the survival rate in question is above or below a specific threshold. But the optimal policy in the earlier release years 1) includes release of a mixture of juveniles and adults under some circumstances, and 2) recommends release of adults even when the point estimate of survival is much less than the deterministic threshold. These results show that in an iterated decision setting, the optimal decision in early years can be quite different from that in later years because of the value of learning. 

  18. 18 CFR 740.4 - State water management planning program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false State water management planning program. 740.4 Section 740.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL STATE WATER MANAGEMENT PLANNING PROGRAM § 740.4 State water management planning program. (a) A...

  19. 18 CFR 740.4 - State water management planning program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false State water management planning program. 740.4 Section 740.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL STATE WATER MANAGEMENT PLANNING PROGRAM § 740.4 State water management planning program. (a) A...

  20. 18 CFR 740.4 - State water management planning program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false State water management planning program. 740.4 Section 740.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL STATE WATER MANAGEMENT PLANNING PROGRAM § 740.4 State water management planning program. (a) A...

  1. 18 CFR 740.4 - State water management planning program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true State water management planning program. 740.4 Section 740.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL STATE WATER MANAGEMENT PLANNING PROGRAM § 740.4 State water management planning program. (a) A...

  2. 18 CFR 740.4 - State water management planning program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false State water management planning program. 740.4 Section 740.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL STATE WATER MANAGEMENT PLANNING PROGRAM § 740.4 State water management planning program. (a) A...

  3. AOIPS water resources data management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merritt, E. S.; Shotwell, R. L.; Place, M. C.; Belknap, N. J.

    1976-01-01

    A geocoded data management system applicable for hydrological applications was designed to demonstrate the utility of the Atmospheric and Oceanographic Information Processing System (AOIPS) for hydrological applications. Within that context, the geocoded hydrology data management system was designed to take advantage of the interactive capability of the AOIPS hardware. Portions of the Water Resource Data Management System which best demonstrate the interactive nature of the hydrology data management system were implemented on the AOIPS. A hydrological case study was prepared using all data supplied for the Bear River watershed located in northwest Utah, southeast Idaho, and western Wyoming.

  4. Complex water management in modern agriculture: Trends in the water-energy-food nexus over the High Plains Aquifer.

    PubMed

    Smidt, Samuel J; Haacker, Erin M K; Kendall, Anthony D; Deines, Jillian M; Pei, Lisi; Cotterman, Kayla A; Li, Haoyang; Liu, Xiao; Basso, Bruno; Hyndman, David W

    2016-10-01

    In modern agriculture, the interplay between complex physical, agricultural, and socioeconomic water use drivers must be fully understood to successfully manage water supplies on extended timescales. This is particularly evident across large portions of the High Plains Aquifer where groundwater levels have declined at unsustainable rates despite improvements in both the efficiency of water use and water productivity in agricultural practices. Improved technology and land use practices have not mitigated groundwater level declines, thus water management strategies must adapt accordingly or risk further resource loss. In this study, we analyze the water-energy-food nexus over the High Plains Aquifer as a framework to isolate the major drivers that have shaped the history, and will direct the future, of water use in modern agriculture. Based on this analysis, we conclude that future water management strategies can benefit from: (1) prioritizing farmer profit to encourage decision-making that aligns with strategic objectives, (2) management of water as both an input into the water-energy-food nexus and a key incentive for farmers, (3) adaptive frameworks that allow for short-term objectives within long-term goals, (4) innovative strategies that fit within restrictive political frameworks, (5) reduced production risks to aid farmer decision-making, and (6) increasing the political desire to conserve valuable water resources. This research sets the foundation to address water management as a function of complex decision-making trends linked to the water-energy-food nexus. Water management strategy recommendations are made based on the objective of balancing farmer profit and conserving water resources to ensure future agricultural production. PMID:27344509

  5. Mechanistic basis of adaptive maternal effects: egg jelly water balance mediates embryonic adaptation to acidity in Rana arvalis.

    PubMed

    Shu, Longfei; Suter, Marc J-F; Laurila, Anssi; Räsänen, Katja

    2015-11-01

    Environmental stress, such as acidification, can challenge persistence of natural populations and act as a powerful evolutionary force at ecological time scales. The ecological and evolutionary responses of natural populations to environmental stress at early life-stages are often mediated via maternal effects. During early life-stages, maternal effects commonly arise from egg coats (the extracellular structures surrounding the embryo), but the role of egg coats has rarely been studied in the context of adaptation to environmental stress. Previous studies on the moor frog Rana arvalis found that the egg coat mediated adaptive divergence along an acidification gradient in embryonic acid stress tolerance. However, the exact mechanisms underlying these adaptive maternal effects remain unknown. Here, we investigated the role of water balance and charge state (zeta potential) of egg jelly coats in embryonic adaptation to acid stress in three populations of R. arvalis. We found that acidic pH causes severe water loss in the egg jelly coat, but that jelly coats from an acid-adapted population retained more water than jelly coats from populations not adapted to acidity. Moreover, embryonic acid tolerance (survival at pH 4.0) correlated with both water loss and charge state of the jelly, indicating that negatively charged glycans influence jelly water balance and contribute to embryonic adaptation to acidity. These results indicate that egg coats can harbor extensive intra-specific variation, probably facilitated in part via strong selection on water balance and glycosylation status of egg jelly coats. These findings shed light on the molecular mechanisms of environmental stress tolerance and adaptive maternal effects.

  6. Mechanistic basis of adaptive maternal effects: egg jelly water balance mediates embryonic adaptation to acidity in Rana arvalis.

    PubMed

    Shu, Longfei; Suter, Marc J-F; Laurila, Anssi; Räsänen, Katja

    2015-11-01

    Environmental stress, such as acidification, can challenge persistence of natural populations and act as a powerful evolutionary force at ecological time scales. The ecological and evolutionary responses of natural populations to environmental stress at early life-stages are often mediated via maternal effects. During early life-stages, maternal effects commonly arise from egg coats (the extracellular structures surrounding the embryo), but the role of egg coats has rarely been studied in the context of adaptation to environmental stress. Previous studies on the moor frog Rana arvalis found that the egg coat mediated adaptive divergence along an acidification gradient in embryonic acid stress tolerance. However, the exact mechanisms underlying these adaptive maternal effects remain unknown. Here, we investigated the role of water balance and charge state (zeta potential) of egg jelly coats in embryonic adaptation to acid stress in three populations of R. arvalis. We found that acidic pH causes severe water loss in the egg jelly coat, but that jelly coats from an acid-adapted population retained more water than jelly coats from populations not adapted to acidity. Moreover, embryonic acid tolerance (survival at pH 4.0) correlated with both water loss and charge state of the jelly, indicating that negatively charged glycans influence jelly water balance and contribute to embryonic adaptation to acidity. These results indicate that egg coats can harbor extensive intra-specific variation, probably facilitated in part via strong selection on water balance and glycosylation status of egg jelly coats. These findings shed light on the molecular mechanisms of environmental stress tolerance and adaptive maternal effects. PMID:25983113

  7. Illinois drainage water management demonstration project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pitts, D.J.; Cooke, R.; Terrio, P.J.; ,

    2004-01-01

    Due to naturally high water tables and flat topography, there are approximately 4 million ha (10 million ac) of farmland artificially drained with subsurface (tile) systems in Illinois. Subsurface drainage is practiced to insure trafficable field conditions for farm equipment and to reduce crop stress from excess water within the root zone. Although drainage is essential for economic crop production, there have been some significant environmental costs. Tile drainage systems tend to intercept nutrient (nitrate) rich soil-water and shunt it to surface water. Data from numerous monitoring studies have shown that a significant amount of the total nitrate load in Illinois is being delivered to surface water from tile drainage systems. In Illinois, these drainage systems are typically installed without control mechanisms and allow the soil to drain whenever the water table is above the elevation of the tile outlet. An assessment of water quality in the tile drained areas of Illinois showed that approximately 50 percent of the nitrate load was being delivered through the tile systems during the fallow period when there was no production need for drainage to occur. In 1998, a demonstration project to introduce drainage water management to producers in Illinois was initiated by NRCS4 An initial aspect of the project was to identify producers that were willing to manage their drainage system to create a raised water table during the fallow (November-March) period. Financial assistance from two federal programs was used to assist producers in retrofitting the existing drainage systems with control structures. Growers were also provided guidance on the management of the structures for both water quality and production benefits. Some of the retrofitted systems were monitored to determine the effect of the practice on water quality. This paper provides background on the water quality impacts of tile drainage in Illinois, the status of the demonstration project, preliminary

  8. Water management, agriculture, and ground-water supplies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nace, Raymond L.

    1960-01-01

    Southeastern States. Ground water is not completely 'self-renewing' because, where it is being mined, the reserve is being diminished and the reserve would be renewed only if pumping were stopped. Water is being mined at the rate of 5 million acre-feet per year in Arizona and 6 million in the High Plains of Texas. In contrast, water has been going into storage in the Snake River Plain of Idaho, where deep percolation from surface-water irrigation has added about 10 million acre-feet of storage since irrigation began. Situations in California illustrate problems of land subsidence resulting from pumping and use of water, and deterioration of ground-water reservoirs due to sea-water invasion. Much water development in the United States has been haphazard and rarely has there been integrated development of ground water and surface water. Competition is sharpening and new codes of water law are in the making. New laws, however, will not prevent the consequences of bad management. An important task for water management is to recognize the contingencies that may arise in the future and to prepare for them. The three most important tasks at hand are to make more efficient use of water, to develop improved quantitative evaluations of water supplies arid their quality, and to develop management practices which are based on scientific hydrology.

  9. Integrated Ecosystem Assessment: Lake Ontario Water Management

    PubMed Central

    Bain, Mark B.; Singkran, Nuanchan; Mills, Katherine E.

    2008-01-01

    Background Ecosystem management requires organizing, synthesizing, and projecting information at a large scale while simultaneously addressing public interests, dynamic ecological properties, and a continuum of physicochemical conditions. We compared the impacts of seven water level management plans for Lake Ontario on a set of environmental attributes of public relevance. Methodology and Findings Our assessment method was developed with a set of established impact assessment tools (checklists, classifications, matrices, simulations, representative taxa, and performance relations) and the concept of archetypal geomorphic shoreline classes. We considered each environmental attribute and shoreline class in its typical and essential form and predicted how water level change would interact with defining properties. The analysis indicated that about half the shoreline of Lake Ontario is potentially sensitive to water level change with a small portion being highly sensitive. The current water management plan may be best for maintaining the environmental resources. In contrast, a natural water regime plan designed for greatest environmental benefits most often had adverse impacts, impacted most shoreline classes, and the largest portion of the lake coast. Plans that balanced multiple objectives and avoided hydrologic extremes were found to be similar relative to the environment, low on adverse impacts, and had many minor impacts across many shoreline classes. Significance The Lake Ontario ecosystem assessment provided information that can inform decisions about water management and the environment. No approach and set of methods will perfectly and unarguably accomplish integrated ecosystem assessment. For managing water levels in Lake Ontario, we found that there are no uniformly good and bad options for environmental conservation. The scientific challenge was selecting a set of tools and practices to present broad, relevant, unbiased, and accessible information to guide

  10. Integrated water resources management using engineering measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y.

    2015-04-01

    The management process of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) consists of aspects of policies/strategies, measures (engineering measures and non-engineering measures) and organizational management structures, etc., among which engineering measures such as reservoirs, dikes, canals, etc., play the backbone that enables IWRM through redistribution and reallocation of water in time and space. Engineering measures are usually adopted for different objectives of water utilization and water disaster prevention, such as flood control and drought relief. The paper discusses the planning and implementation of engineering measures in IWRM of the Changjiang River, China. Planning and implementation practices of engineering measures for flood control and water utilization, etc., are presented. Operation practices of the Three Gorges Reservoir, particularly the development and application of regulation rules for flood management, power generation, water supply, ecosystem needs and sediment issues (e.g. erosion and siltation), are also presented. The experience obtained in the implementation of engineering measures in Changjiang River show that engineering measures are vital for IWRM. However, efforts should be made to deal with changes of the river system affected by the operation of engineering measures, in addition to escalatory development of new demands associated with socio-economic development.

  11. Accelerating Adaptation of Natural Resource Management to Address Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Molly S; McCarthy, Patrick D; Garfin, Gregg; Gori, David; Enquist, Carolyn AF

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Natural resource managers are seeking tools to help them address current and future effects of climate change. We present a model for collaborative planning aimed at identifying ways to adapt management actions to address the effects of climate change in landscapes that cross public and private jurisdictional boundaries. The Southwest Climate Change Initiative (SWCCI) piloted the Adaptation for Conservation Targets (ACT) planning approach at workshops in 4 southwestern U.S. landscapes. This planning approach successfully increased participants’ self-reported capacity to address climate change by providing them with a better understanding of potential effects and guiding the identification of solutions. The workshops fostered cross-jurisdictional and multidisciplinary dialogue on climate change through active participation of scientists and managers in assessing climate change effects, discussing the implications of those effects for determining management goals and activities, and cultivating opportunities for regional coordination on adaptation of management plans. Facilitated application of the ACT framework advanced group discussions beyond assessing effects to devising options to mitigate the effects of climate change on specific species, ecological functions, and ecosystems. Participants addressed uncertainty about future conditions by considering more than one climate-change scenario. They outlined opportunities and identified next steps for implementing several actions, and local partnerships have begun implementing actions and conducting additional planning. Continued investment in adaptation of management plans and actions to address the effects of climate change in the southwestern United States and extension of the approaches used in this project to additional landscapes are needed if biological diversity and ecosystem services are to be maintained in a rapidly changing world. Acelerando la Adaptación del Manejo de Recursos Naturales para

  12. Accelerating Adaptation of Natural Resource Management to Address Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Molly S; McCarthy, Patrick D; Garfin, Gregg; Gori, David; Enquist, Carolyn AF

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Natural resource managers are seeking tools to help them address current and future effects of climate change. We present a model for collaborative planning aimed at identifying ways to adapt management actions to address the effects of climate change in landscapes that cross public and private jurisdictional boundaries. The Southwest Climate Change Initiative (SWCCI) piloted the Adaptation for Conservation Targets (ACT) planning approach at workshops in 4 southwestern U.S. landscapes. This planning approach successfully increased participants’ self-reported capacity to address climate change by providing them with a better understanding of potential effects and guiding the identification of solutions. The workshops fostered cross-jurisdictional and multidisciplinary dialogue on climate change through active participation of scientists and managers in assessing climate change effects, discussing the implications of those effects for determining management goals and activities, and cultivating opportunities for regional coordination on adaptation of management plans. Facilitated application of the ACT framework advanced group discussions beyond assessing effects to devising options to mitigate the effects of climate change on specific species, ecological functions, and ecosystems. Participants addressed uncertainty about future conditions by considering more than one climate-change scenario. They outlined opportunities and identified next steps for implementing several actions, and local partnerships have begun implementing actions and conducting additional planning. Continued investment in adaptation of management plans and actions to address the effects of climate change in the southwestern United States and extension of the approaches used in this project to additional landscapes are needed if biological diversity and ecosystem services are to be maintained in a rapidly changing world. Acelerando la Adaptación del Manejo de Recursos Naturales para

  13. Adaptive Flow Management in Regulated Rivers: Successes and Challenges (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, C. T.; Melis, T. S.; Kennedy, T.; Korman, J.; Ortlepp, J.

    2013-12-01

    Experimental high flows are becoming common management actions in rivers affected by large dams. When implemented under clear objectives and goals, experimental flows provide opportunities for long-term ecological successes but also impose various ecological challenges as systems shift under environmental change or from human-related actions. We present case studies from long-term adaptive flow management programs on the River Spöl, Switzerland and the Colorado River, USA, both of which are regulated by high dams and flow through National Parks. The management goals in each system differ thus reflecting the different high flow practices implemented over time. Regulated flows in the Spöl reflect a compromise between hydropower needs and ecology (native brown trout fishery), whereas Glen Canyon Dam flows have mainly been directed towards maintenance of river beaches in Grand Canyon National Park with co-management of both nonnative rainbow trout in the tailwater immediately below the dam and downstream endangered native fish of Grand Canyon also an objective. Some 24 experimental floods have occurred on the Spöl over the last 13 years, resulting in a positive effect on the trout fishery and a zoobenthic assemblage having a more typical alpine stream composition. The system has experienced various shifts in assemblage composition over time with the last shift occurring 7 years after the initial floods. A major challenge occurred in spring 2013 with an accidental release of fine sediments from the reservoir behind Punt dal Gall Dam, causing high fish mortality and smothering of the river bottom. Results showed that the effect was pronounced near the dam and gradually lessened downriver to the lower reservoir. Zoobenthic assemblages displayed relatively high resistance to the event and some fish found refugia in the lower reservoir and larger side tributaries, thus projecting a faster recovery than initially thought. Below Glen Canyon dam, benefits to sandbars have

  14. Managing the urban water-energy nexus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escriva-Bou, Alvar; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel; Lund, Jay R.

    2016-04-01

    Water use directly causes a significant amount of energy use in cities. In this paper we assess energy and greenhouse emissions related with each part of the urban water cycle and the consequences of several changes in residential water use for customers, water and energy utilities, and the environment. First, we develop an hourly model of urban water uses by customer category including water-related energy consumption. Next, using real data from East Bay Municipal Utility District in California, we calibrate a model of the energy used in water supply, treatment, pumping and wastewater treatment by the utility. Then, using data from the California Independent System Operator, we obtain hourly costs of energy for the energy utility. Finally, and using emission factors reported by the energy utilities we estimate greenhouse gas emissions for the entire urban water cycle. Results of the business-as-usual scenario show that water end uses account for almost 95% of all water-related energy use, but the 5% managed by the utility is still worth over 12 million annually. Several simulations analyze the potential benefits for water demand management actions showing that moving some water end-uses from peak to off-peak hours such as outdoor use, dishwasher or clothes washer use have large benefits for water and energy utilities, especially for locations with a high proportion of electric water heaters. Other interesting result is that under the current energy rate structures with low or no fixed charges, energy utilities burden most of the cost of the conservation actions.

  15. An integrated stochastic approach to the assessment of agricultural water demand and adaptation to water scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, T.; Butler, A. P.; McIntyre, N.

    2012-12-01

    Increasing water demands from growing populations coupled with changing water availability, for example due to climate change, are likely to increase water scarcity. Agriculture will be exposed to risk due to the importance of reliable water supplies as an input to crop production. To assess the efficiency of agricultural adaptation options requires a sound understanding of the relationship between crop growth and water application. However, most water resource planning models quantify agricultural water demand using highly simplified, temporally lumped estimated crop-water production functions (CWPFs). Such CWPFs fail to capture the biophysical complexities in crop-water relations and mischaracterise farmers ability to respond to water scarcity. Application of these models in policy analyses will be ineffective and may lead to unsustainable water policies. Crop simulation models provide an alternative means of defining the complex nature of the CWPF. Here we develop a daily water-limited crop model for this purpose. The model is based on the approach used in the FAO's AquaCrop model, balancing biophysical and computational complexities. We further develop the model by incorporating improved simulation routines to calculate the distribution of water through the soil profile. Consequently we obtain a more realistic representation of the soil water balance with concurrent improvements in the prediction of water-limited yield. We introduce a methodology to utilise this model for the generation of stochastic crop-water production functions (SCWPFs). This is achieved by running the model iteratively with both time series of climatic data and variable quantities of irrigation water, employing a realistic rule-based approach to farm irrigation scheduling. This methodology improves the representation of potential crop yields, capturing both the variable effects of water deficits on crop yield and the stochastic nature of the CWPF due to climatic variability. Application to

  16. Controlled Environments Enable Adaptive Management in Aquatic Ecosystems Under Altered Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystems worldwide are impacted by altered environment conditions resulting from climate, drought, and land use changes. Gaps in the science knowledge base regarding plant community response to these novel and rapid changes limit both science understanding and management of ecosystems. We describe how CE Technologies have enabled the rapid supply of gap-filling science, development of ecosystem simulation models, and remote sensing assessment tools to provide science-informed, adaptive management methods in the impacted aquatic ecosystem of the California Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. The Delta is the hub for California's water, supplying Southern California agriculture and urban communities as well as the San Francisco Bay area. The changes in environmental conditions including temperature, light, and water quality and associated expansion of invasive aquatic plants negatively impact water distribution and ecology of the San Francisco Bay/Delta complex. CE technologies define changes in resource use efficiencies, photosynthetic productivity, evapotranspiration, phenology, reproductive strategies, and spectral reflectance modifications in native and invasive species in response to altered conditions. We will discuss how the CE technologies play an enabling role in filling knowledge gaps regarding plant response to altered environments, parameterization and validation of ecosystem models, development of satellite-based, remote sensing tools, and operational management strategies.

  17. The Glen Canyon Dam adaptive management program: progress and immediate challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamill, John F.; Melis, Theodore S.; Boon, Philip J.; Raven, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive management emerged as an important resource management strategy for major river systems in the United States (US) in the early 1990s. The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (‘the Program’) was formally established in 1997 to fulfill a statutory requirement in the 1992 Grand Canyon Protection Act (GCPA). The GCPA aimed to improve natural resource conditions in the Colorado River corridor in the Glen Canyon National Recreation Area and Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona that were affected by the Glen Canyon dam. The Program achieves this by using science and a variety of stakeholder perspectives to inform decisions about dam operations. Since the Program started the ecosystem is now much better understood and several biological and physical improvements have been achieved. These improvements include: (i) an estimated 50% increase in the adult population of endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha) between 2001 and 2008, following previous decline; (ii) a 90% decrease in non-native rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), which are known to compete with and prey on native fish, as a result of removal experiments; and (iii) the widespread reappearance of sandbars in response to an experimental high-flow release of dam water in March 2008.Although substantial progress has been made, the Program faces several immediate challenges. These include: (i) defining specific, measurable objectives and desired future conditions for important natural, cultural and recreational attributes to inform science and management decisions; (ii) implementing structural and operational changes to improve collaboration among stakeholders; (iii) establishing a long-term experimental programme and management plan; and (iv) securing long-term funding for monitoring programmes to assess ecosystem and other responses to management actions. Addressing these challenges and building on recent progress will require strong and consistent leadership from the US Department of the Interior

  18. Advanced fuels for plutonium management in pressurized water reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasile, A.; Dufour, Ph; Golfier, H.; Grouiller, J. P.; Guillet, J. L.; Poinot, Ch; Youinou, G.; Zaetta, A.

    2003-06-01

    Several fuel concepts are under investigation at CEA with the aim of manage plutonium inventories in pressurized water reactors. This options range from the use of mature technologies like MOX adapted in the case of MOX-EUS (enriched uranium support) and COmbustible Recyclage A ILot (CORAIL) assemblies to more innovative technologies using IMF like DUPLEX and advanced plutonium assembly (APA). The plutonium burning performances reported to the electrical production go from 7 to 60 kg (TW h) -1. More detailed analysis covering economic, sustainability, reliability and safety aspects and their integration in the whole fuel cycle would allow identifying the best candidate.

  19. Water Management Strategy in Assessing the Water Scarcity in Northern Western Region of Nile Delta, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabrouk, Badr; Arafa, Salah; Gemajl, Khaled

    2015-04-01

    Sustainable development in the Nile Delta of Egypt is retarded by serious environmental problems, where land-use and land-cover of the region are subjected to continuous changes; including shoreline changes either by erosion or accretion, subsidence of the delta, as well as by sea level rise due to climate change. The current research attempts to; (1) study the vulnerability of the northern western region of the Nile Delta coastal zone to climate change/sea level rise while setting basic challenges, review adaptation strategies based on adaptation policy framework, and highlight recommended programs for preparedness to climate change, (2) study the scarcity of water resources in the area of study with review of the socioeconomic impacts and the critical need of establishing desalination plants with new standards assessing the environmental situation and population clusters, and (3) monitor of the brine water extracted from the desalination plants and injected to subsurface strata. This monitoring process is divided into 3 main directions: 1) studying the chemical characteristics of water extracted from the water desalinations plants qualitatively and quantitatively. 2) mapping the subsurface of which that brine water will be injected to it and the flow directions and effects using resistivity data, and 3) using GIS and suitable numerical models in order to study the effect, volume, flow of the brine water and its long term environmental impacts on the area. The results indicate that the area is particularly vulnerable to the impact of SLR, salt water intrusion, the deterioration of coastal tourism and the impact of extreme dust storms. This in turn will directly affect the agricultural productivity and human settlements in coastal zones. The paper presents different scenarios for water management and recommends the most suitable scenarios in order to establish a core for water management strategy in the region according to existing socio-economic and environmental

  20. The Energy-Water Nexus: Managing the Links between Energy and Water for a Sustainable Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussey, Karen; Petit, Carine

    2010-05-01

    Water and energy are both indispensable inputs to modern economies but currently both resources are under threat owing to the impacts of an ever-increasing population and associated demand, unsustainable practices in agriculture and manufacturing, and the implications of a changing climate. However, it is where water and energy rely on each other that pose the most complex challenges for policy-makers. Water is needed for mining coal, drilling oil, refining gasoline, and generating and distributing electricity; and, conversely, vast amounts of energy are needed to pump, transport, treat and distribute water, particularly in the production of potable water through the use of desalination plants and waste water treatment plants. Despite the links, and the urgency in both sectors for security of supply, in existing policy frameworks energy and water policies are developed largely in isolation from one another. Worse still, some policies designed to encourage alternative energy supplies give little thought to the resultant consequences on water resources, and, similarly, policies designed to secure water supplies pay little attention to the resultant consequences on energy use. The development of new technologies presents both opportunities and challenges for managing the energy-water nexus but a better understanding of the links between energy and water is essential in any attempt to formulate policies for more resilient and adaptable societies. The energy-water nexus must be adequately integrated into policy and decision-making or governments run the risk of contradicting their efforts, and therefore failing in their objectives, in both sectors. A series of COST Exploratory Workshops, drawing on on-going research in the energy-water nexus from a number of international teams, identified the implications of the energy-water nexus on the development of (i) energy policies (ii) water resource management policies and (iii) climate adaptation and mitigation policies. A

  1. 75 FR 439 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (AMP) was implemented as a result of the Record of Decision on the Operation of Glen Canyon Dam...

  2. 78 FR 42799 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-17

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group Meetings AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) makes recommendations to the Secretary of the Interior concerning Glen Canyon...

  3. 77 FR 60138 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group; Public Teleconference/Web-Based Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group; Public Teleconference/ Web-Based... Wildlife Service, announce a public teleconference/web-based meeting of ] the Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG). DATES: Teleconference/web-based meeting: Wednesday October 17, 2012, from 9 a.m....

  4. 75 FR 44809 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (AMP) was implemented as a result of the Record of Decision on the Operation of Glen Canyon Dam...

  5. An Adaptive Approach to Managing Knowledge Development in a Project-Based Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilchin, Oleg; Kittany, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose an adaptive approach to managing the development of students' knowledge in the comprehensive project-based learning (PBL) environment. Subject study is realized by two-stage PBL. It shapes adaptive knowledge management (KM) process and promotes the correct balance between personalized and collaborative learning. The…

  6. Consideration of reference points for the management of renewable resources under an adaptive management paradigm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irwin, Brian J.; Conroy, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The success of natural resource management depends on monitoring, assessment and enforcement. In support of these efforts, reference points (RPs) are often viewed as critical values of management-relevant indicators. This paper considers RPs from the standpoint of objective-driven decision making in dynamic resource systems, guided by principles of structured decision making (SDM) and adaptive resource management (AM). During the development of natural resource policy, RPs have been variously treated as either ‘targets’ or ‘triggers’. Under a SDM/AM paradigm, target RPs correspond approximately to value-based objectives, which may in turn be either of fundamental interest to stakeholders or intermediaries to other central objectives. By contrast, trigger RPs correspond to decision rules that are presumed to lead to desirable outcomes (such as the programme targets). Casting RPs as triggers or targets within a SDM framework is helpful towards clarifying why (or whether) a particular metric is appropriate. Further, the benefits of a SDM/AM process include elucidation of underlying untested assumptions that may reveal alternative metrics for use as RPs. Likewise, a structured decision-analytic framework may also reveal that failure to achieve management goals is not because the metrics are wrong, but because the decision-making process in which they are embedded is insufficiently robust to uncertainty, is not efficiently directed at producing a resource objective, or is incapable of adaptation to new knowledge.

  7. Managing water resources for crop production

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, J. S.; Batchelor, C. H.

    1997-01-01

    Increasing crop production to meet the food requirements of the world's growing population will put great pressure on global water resources. Given that the vast freshwater resources that are available in the world are far from fully exploited, globally there should be sufficient water for future agricultural requirements. However, there are large areas where low water supply and high human demand may lead to regional shortages of water for future food production. In these arid and semi-arid areas, where water is a major constraint on production, improving water resource management is crucial if Malthusian disasters are to be avoided. There is considerable scope for improvement, since in both dryland and irrigated agriculture only about one-third of the available water (as rainfall, surface, or groundwater) is used to grow useful plants. This paper illustrates a range of techniques that could lead to increased crop production by improving agricultural water use efficiency. This may be achieved by increasing the total amount of water available to plants or by increasing the efficiency with which that water is used to produce biomass. Although the crash from the Malthusian precipice may ultimately be inevitable if population growth is not addressed, the time taken to reach the edge of the precipice could be lengthened by more efficient use of existing water resources.

  8. Challenges to managing forests for carbon sequestration, bioenergy production, and natural adaptation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, B. E.

    2010-12-01

    Managing forests for increasing carbon sequestration and bioenergy product is often cited as a way to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, although the consequences to ecosystems are often unclear or overlooked. Forest carbon sequestration could be maintained or increased by avoided deforestation and forest degradation, afforestation and reforestation. There is much interest in bioenergy production by thinning existing forests and land-use conversion to plantations. Regional analysis in the western U.S. shows that thinning to prevent fire emissions or to provide stock for bioenergy from existing forests results in a decrease in forest carbon stocks and net biome production (NBP) and increased emissions. A separate DGVM model analysis predicts declines in water availability to some forests, leading to large increases in forest area burned and severity by the end of the 21st century with climate change, and suggests those forests could be thinned to reduce competition for water and minimize impacts. Land-use conversion and broad-scale repeated thinning ignores the potential consequences to habitat, species migration (natural adaptation), and other ecosystem services. To facilitate adaptation of forests to climate change, there is a need sustaining genetic and species diversity through forest preservation and landscape connectivity for migration of plant and animal species. Improved high-resolution regional analysis is needed to include these effects on potential future distribution of species in addition to carbon, water and nutrient cycling in the face of climate change.

  9. Risk management for assuring safe drinking water.

    PubMed

    Hrudey, Steve E; Hrudey, Elizabeth J; Pollard, Simon J T

    2006-12-01

    Millions of people die every year around the world from diarrheal diseases much of which is caused by contaminated drinking water. By contrast, drinking water safety is largely taken for granted by many citizens of affluent nations. The ability to drink water that is delivered into households without fear of becoming ill may be one of the key defining characteristics of developed nations in relation to the majority of the world. Yet there is well-documented evidence that disease outbreaks remain a risk that could be better managed and prevented even in affluent nations. A detailed retrospective analysis of more than 70 case studies of disease outbreaks in 15 affluent nations over the past 30 years provides the basis for much of our discussion [Hrudey, S.E. and Hrudey, E.J. Safe Drinking Water--Lessons from Recent Outbreaks in Affluent Nations. London, UK: IWA Publishing; 2004.]. The insights provided can assist in developing a better understanding within the water industry of the causes of drinking water disease outbreaks, so that more effective preventive measures can be adopted by water systems that are vulnerable. This preventive feature lies at the core of risk management for the provision of safe drinking water.

  10. Water inventory management in condenser pool of boiling water reactor

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, Douglas M.

    1996-01-01

    An improved system for managing the water inventory in the condenser pool of a boiling water reactor has means for raising the level of the upper surface of the condenser pool water without adding water to the isolation pool. A tank filled with water is installed in a chamber of the condenser pool. The water-filled tank contains one or more holes or openings at its lowermost periphery and is connected via piping and a passive-type valve (e.g., squib valve) to a high-pressure gas-charged pneumatic tank of appropriate volume. The valve is normally closed, but can be opened at an appropriate time following a loss-of-coolant accident. When the valve opens, high-pressure gas inside the pneumatic tank is released to flow passively through the piping to pressurize the interior of the water-filled tank. In so doing, the initial water contents of the tank are expelled through the openings, causing the water level in the condenser pool to rise. This increases the volume of water available to be boiled off by heat conducted from the passive containment cooling heat exchangers. 4 figs.

  11. Water inventory management in condenser pool of boiling water reactor

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, D.M.

    1996-03-12

    An improved system for managing the water inventory in the condenser pool of a boiling water reactor has means for raising the level of the upper surface of the condenser pool water without adding water to the isolation pool. A tank filled with water is installed in a chamber of the condenser pool. The water-filled tank contains one or more holes or openings at its lowermost periphery and is connected via piping and a passive-type valve (e.g., squib valve) to a high-pressure gas-charged pneumatic tank of appropriate volume. The valve is normally closed, but can be opened at an appropriate time following a loss-of-coolant accident. When the valve opens, high-pressure gas inside the pneumatic tank is released to flow passively through the piping to pressurize the interior of the water-filled tank. In so doing, the initial water contents of the tank are expelled through the openings, causing the water level in the condenser pool to rise. This increases the volume of water available to be boiled off by heat conducted from the passive containment cooling heat exchangers. 4 figs.

  12. 33 CFR 151.1510 - Ballast water management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ballast water management. 151..., AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in the Great Lakes and Hudson River § 151.1510 Ballast water management. (a) The master of each vessel subject to this...

  13. 33 CFR 151.1510 - Ballast water management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ballast water management. 151..., AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in the Great Lakes and Hudson River § 151.1510 Ballast water management. (a) The master of each vessel subject to this...

  14. Increasing sustainable stormwater management adaption through transdisciplinary research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wingfield, Thea; Potter, Karen; Jones, Gareth; Spees, Jack; Macdonald, Neil

    2016-04-01

    The Ribble Rivers Trust leads a partnership of land and water management organisations that use a holistic approach to water management in the Ribble catchment. They are interested in incorporating sustainable stormwater systems, into their program of delivery with a view to ensuring that their activities to improve the environments and habitats of the catchment also contribute to reducing flood risk. A methodology, to locate interventions that would slow water within the catchment are identified; however partner buy in, institutional caution and economic barriers are felt to be hindering delivery. In response a transdisciplinary research project in which both the academics of the University of Liverpool and the practitioners of The Ribble Rivers Trust are active investigators has been established. The project aims to increase the uptake of sustainable stormwater management techniques through the analysis of the institutional, experiential and governance processes and their interactions with the physical hydrological processes governing stormwater systems. Research that is transdisciplinary must integrate academic knowledge with practitioner, local understanding and practice. Furthermore methodologies belonging to different academic fields must be blended together to collect, analyse and interpret data in order to examine complex problems through different disciplinary lenses in an integrated way. This approach has been developed in response to the complex relationships of cause and effect of contemporary inter-related economic, environmental and societal challenges. There have been a number of challenges to overcome as transdisciplinary researchers, the first and most important was to understand the different research philosophies and theoretical assumptions behind various natural science and social science research methods. Without this understanding research methodologies could be flawed and would not be effectively integrated and the data would not be

  15. Knowledge and information management for integrated water resource management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watershed information systems that integrate data and analytical tools are critical enabling technologies to support Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) by converting data into information, and information into knowledge. Many factors bring people to the table to participate in an IWRM fra...

  16. Total Water Management: A Watershed Based Approach - slides

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT In this urbanizing world, municipal water managers need to develop planning and management frameworks to meet challenges such as limiting fresh water supplies, degrading receiving waters, increasing regulatory requirements, flooding, aging infrastructure, rising utility...

  17. Watershed management: Clean water`s next act

    SciTech Connect

    Hite, R.W.

    1996-09-23

    14 articles related to watershed management comprise this special advertising section of the Association of Metropolitan Sewerage Agencies. Subtopics include water quality, regulations, US Environmental Protection Agency activities, analysis tools, economics, flooding and erosions, and non-point source pollutions. Articles on arid and coastal are included. Several articles describe municipal watershed programs being planned or in place.

  18. Integrated approaches to natural resources management in practice: the catalyzing role of National Adaptation Programmes for Action.

    PubMed

    Stucki, Virpi; Smith, Mark

    2011-06-01

    The relationship of forests in water quantity and quality has been debated during the past years. At the same time, focus on climate change has increased interest in ecosystem restoration as a means for adaptation. Climate change might become one of the key drivers pushing integrated approaches for natural resources management into practice. The National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) is an initiative agreed under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. An analysis was done to find out how widely ecosystem restoration and integrated approaches have been incorporated into NAPA priority adaptation projects. The data show that that the NAPAs can be seen as potentially important channel for operationalizing various integrated concepts. Key challenge is to implement the NAPA projects. The amount needed to implement the NAPA projects aiming at ecosystem restoration using integrated approaches presents only 0.7% of the money pledged in Copenhagen for climate change adaptation.

  19. Q-BIC3 - A Québec-Bavarian international collaboration for adapting regional watershed management to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Ralf

    2010-05-01

    Adapting to the impacts of climate change is certainly one of the major challenges in water resources management over the next decades. Adaptation to climate change risks is most crucial in this domain, since projected increase in mean air temperature in combination with an expected increase in the temporal variability of precipitation patterns will contribute to pressure on current water availability, allocation and management practices. The latter often involve the utilization of valuable infrastructure, such as dams, reservoirs and water intakes, for which adaptation options must by developed over long-term and often dynamic planning horizons. Research to establish novel methodologies for improved adaptation to climate change is thus very important and only beginning to emerge in regional watershed management. The presented project Q-BIC³, funded by the Bavarian Minstry for the Environment and the Québec Ministère du Développement économique, de l'Innovation et de l'Exportation, aims to develop and apply a newly designed spectrum of tools to support the improved assessment of adaptation options to climate change in regional watershed management. It addresses in particular selected study sites in Québec and Bavaria. The following key issues have been prioritized within Q-BIC³: i) The definition of potential adaptation options in the context of climate change for pre-targeted water management key issues using a subsequent and logical chain of modelling tools (climate, hydrological and water management modeling tools) ii) The definition of an approach that accounts for hydrological projection uncertainties in the search for potential adaptation options in the context of climate change iii) The investigation of the required complexity in hydrological models to estimate climate change impacts and to develop specific adaptation options for Québec and Bavaria watersheds. iv) The development and prototyping of a regionally transferable and modular modelling

  20. Water resources management. World Bank policy paper

    SciTech Connect

    Easter, K.W.; Feder, G.; Le Moigne, G.; Duda, A.M.; Forsyth, E.

    1993-01-01

    Water resources have been one of the most important areas of World Bank lending during the past three decades. Through its support for sector work and investments in irrigation, water supply, sanitation, flood control, and hydropower, the Bank has contributed to the development of many countries and helped provide essential services to many communities. Moreover, the Bank and governments have not taken sufficient account of environmental concerns in the management of water resources. (Copyright (c) 1993 International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank.)

  1. Integrated waste and water management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, R. W.; Sauer, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    The performance requirements of the NASA Space Station have prompted a reexamination of a previously developed integrated waste and water management system that used distillation and catalytic oxydation to purify waste water, and microbial digestion and incineration for waste solids disposal. This system successfully operated continuously for 206 days, for a 4-man equivalent load of urine, feces, wash water, condensate, and trash. Attention is given to synergisms that could be established with other life support systems, in the cases of thermal integration, design commonality, and novel technologies.

  2. Receptivity to transformative change in the Dutch urban water management sector.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, R E; Dahm, R J; Icke, J; Goetgeluk, R W; Jansen, S J T; van de Ven, F H M

    2009-01-01

    Worldwide, the need for transformative change in urban water management is acknowledged by scientists and policy makers. The effects of climate change and developments such as urbanization, the European Water Framework Directive, and societal concerns about the sustainability of urban water system force the sector to adapt. In The Netherlands, a shift towards integration of spatial planning and water management can be observed. Despite major changes in water management policy and approach, changes in the physical urban water management infrastructure remain limited to incremental solutions and demonstration projects. Policy studies show that institutional factors and professional perceptions are important factors for application of innovations in urban water management. An online survey among Dutch urban water management professionals demonstrates that according to most respondents, optimization of the current system is sufficient to achieve both European and national objectives for sustainable urban water management. The respondents are most concerned with the effects of climate change on urban water systems. In contrast to current policy of the national government, priority factors that should be addressed to achieve a more sustainable urban water system are improving knowledge of local urban water systems, capacity building, developing trust between stakeholders, and improving involvement of elected officials and citizens. PMID:19633372

  3. Game Theory in water resources management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsanevaki, Styliani Maria; Varouchakis, Emmanouil; Karatzas, George

    2015-04-01

    Rural water management is a basic requirement for the development of the primary sector and involves the exploitation of surface/ground-water resources. Rational management requires the study of parameters that determine their exploitation mainly environmental, economic and social. These parameters reflect the influence of irrigation on the aquifer behaviour and on the level-streamflow of nearby rivers as well as on the profit from the farming activity for the farmers' welfare. The question of rural water management belongs to the socio-political problems, since the factors involved are closely related to user behaviour and state position. By applying Game Theory one seeks to simulate the behaviour of the system 'surface/ground-water resources to water-users' with a model based on a well-known game, "The Prisoner's Dilemma" for economic development of the farmers without overexploitation of the water resources. This is a game of two players that have been extensively studied in Game Theory, economy and politics because it can describe real-world cases. The present proposal aims to investigate the rural water management issue that is referred to two competitive small partnerships organised to manage their agricultural production and to achieve a better profit. For the farmers' activities water is required and ground-water is generally preferable because consists a more stable recourse than river-water which in most of the cases in Greece are of intermittent flow. If the two farmer groups cooperate and exploit the agreed water quantities they will gain equal profits and benefit from the sustainable availability of the water recourses (p). If both groups overexploitate the resource to maximize profit, then in the medium-term they will incur a loss (g), due to the water resources reduction and the increase of the pumping costs. If one overexploit the resource while the other use the necessary required, then the first will gain great benefit (P), and the second will

  4. The Carpe Diem West Academy: Connecting Water Resources Practitioners and Decision Support Tool Developers in Pursuit of Climate Change Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, H. C.; morino, K.; Wiltshire, K.

    2012-12-01

    Water resources practitioners face a confusing and often overwhelming plethora of evolving tools and methods for considering climate change in planning and management. Many tools require substantial investments in data gathering, analysis, or stakeholder engagement. Many address only pieces of the climate change adaptation challenge without clear interconnection. Additionally, there are few standards of practice in the application of these tools. The Carpe Diem West Academy provides knowledge sharing, community building, and collaboration among water resources practitioners and decision support tool developers to facilitate use of science in adaptation efforts. The technical core of the Academy is a web portal (carpediemwestacademy.org) that uses multiple frameworks, including iterative risk management, to organize an interactive compendium of over 150 tools and training resources developed by others, that are useful for water resources planning and management, including consideration of interconnections with other resources such as energy and ecosystem services. Academy users are supported through a variety of experimental approaches, including webinars and facilitated web discussion, for efficiently engaging water resources practitioners, at a scale that is practical to sustain, that fosters shared learning about tools and their application in adaptation efforts, and that can support establishment of best practices for incorporating uncertainty and climate change. The Academy has also been useful for identifying gaps where additional tools, methods, or professional development training are needed, and for providing feedback to tool developers. We report on key findings on the effectiveness of the Academy's multiple approaches.

  5. Managing Water supply in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, P. P.

    2001-05-01

    If the estimates are correct that, in the large urban areas of the developing world 30 percent of the population lack access to safe water supply and 50 percent lack access to adequate sanitation, then we are currently faced with 510 million urban residents without access to domestic water and 850 million without access to sanitation. Looking to the year 2020, we will face an additional 1,900 million in need of water and sanitation services. The provision of water services to these billions of people over the next two decades is one of the greatest challenges facing the nations of the world. In addition to future supplies, major problems exist with the management of existing systems where water losses can account for a significant fraction of the water supplied. The entire governance of the water sector and the management of particular systems raise serious questions about the application of the best technologies and the appropriate economic incentive systems. The paper outlines a few feasible technical and economic solutions.

  6. Storm Water Management Model Applications Manual

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) is a dynamic rainfall-runoff simulation model that computes runoff quantity and quality from primarily urban areas. This manual is a practical application guide for new SWMM users who have already had some previous training in hydrolog...

  7. Universal optimization of water quality management strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unami, K.; Kawachi, T.

    Although many optimization models for water quality problems have been developed, methodology for judging the necessity of applying them is scarcely worked out. The universal optimization scheme presented here is to determine a management strategy for controlling water quality in a generic body of water. Dynamics of a water quality index is represented by an ordinary differential equation, and a linear system model is deduced. The H∞ control theory, which summarizes system stabilization and error minimization, is applied to a generalized water quality control problem including the linear system model. A class of H∞ controllers is identified, and a temporal discretization scheme for a controller is proposed. Three application examples demonstrate the conception of universal optimization and the validity of its implementation using an H∞ controller.

  8. Integrated urban water management in commercial buildings.

    PubMed

    Trowsdale, S; Gabe, J; Vale, R

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring results are presented as an annual water balance from the pioneering Landcare Research green building containing commercial laboratory and office space. The building makes use of harvested roof runoff to flush toilets and urinals and irrigate glasshouse experiments, reducing the demand for city-supplied water and stormwater runoff. Stormwater treatment devices also manage the runoff from the carpark, helping curb stream degradation. Composting toilets and low-flow tap fittings further reduce the water demand. Despite research activities requiring the use of large volumes of water, the demand for city-supplied water is less than has been measured in many other green buildings. In line with the principles of sustainability, the composting toilets produce a useable product from wastes and internalise the wastewater treatment process.

  9. A vulnerability tool for adapting water and aquatic resources to climate change and extremes on the Shoshone National Forest, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, J.; Joyce, L. A.; Armel, B.; Bevenger, G.; Zubic, R.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change introduces a significant challenge for land managers and decision makers managing the natural resources that provide many benefits from forests. These benefits include water for urban and agricultural uses, wildlife habitat, erosion and climate control, aquifer recharge, stream flows regulation, water temperature regulation, and cultural services such as outdoor recreation and aesthetic enjoyment. The Forest Service has responded to this challenge by developing a national strategy for responding to climate change (the National Roadmap for Responding to Climate Change, July 2010). In concert with this national strategy, the Forest Service's Westwide Climate Initiative has conducted 4 case studies on individual Forests in the western U.S to develop climate adaptation tools. Western National Forests are particularly vulnerable to climate change as they have high-mountain topography, diversity in climate and vegetation, large areas of water limited ecosystems, and increasing urbanization. Information about the vulnerability and capacity of resources to adapt to climate change and extremes is lacking. There is an urgent need to provide customized tools and synthesized local scale information about the impacts to resources from future climate change and extremes, as well as develop science based adaptation options and strategies in National Forest management and planning. The case study on the Shoshone National Forest has aligned its objectives with management needs by developing a climate extreme vulnerability tool that guides adaptation options development. The vulnerability tool determines the likely degree to which native Yellowstone cutthroat trout and water availability are susceptible to, or unable to cope with adverse effects of climate change extremes. We spatially categorize vulnerability for water and native trout resources using exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity indicators that use minimum and maximum climate and GIS data. Results

  10. FORUM: Balancing Endangered Species and Ecosystems: A Case Study of Adaptive Management in Grand Canyon.

    PubMed

    Meretsky; Wegner; Stevens

    2000-06-01

    / Adaptive ecosystem management seeks to sustain ecosystems while extracting or using natural resources. The goal of endangered species management under the Endangered Species Act is limited to the protection and recovery of designated species, and the act takes precedence over other policies and regulations guiding ecosystem management. We present an example of conflict between endangered species and ecosystem management during the first planned flood on the Colorado River in Grand Canyon in 1996. We discuss the resolution of the conflict and the circumstances that allowed a solution to be reached. We recommend that adaptive management be implemented extensively and early in ecosystem management so that information and working relationships will be available to address conflicts as they arise. Though adaptive management is not a panacea, it offers the best opportunity for balanced solutions to competing management goals.

  11. Reductions in urban outdoor water use as an adaptation to declining water supplies in southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pataki, D. E.; Hogue, T. S.; Litvak, E.; Mini, C.; Pincetl, S.

    2012-12-01

    Many irrigated cities in the semi-arid west wish to reduce their water consumption by more efficiently planning and managing outdoor landscapes. This requires accurate information about the actual water budget of these landscapes, which is still quite uncertain. We evaluated urban water use and the potential for reductions in outdoor water use in Los Angeles, which relies heavily on imported water from high elevation recharge outside the urban area, and is therefore very sensitive to declining snowpack as a result of climate change. Most landscapes in Los Angeles are irrigated, and outdoor water use constitutes a significant fraction of total municipal water use. Quantifying the fate of this water and the implications for water-conserving landscape designs requires a combination of direct measurements, hydrologic modeling, and analysis of water consumption data. We analyzed water billing records in relation to climatic and land use characteristics, directly measured transpiration in a variety of species and landscape types, and characterized regional evapotranspiration (ET) with a remote-sensing based model. We found that climate variables explaining approximately 1-30% of the variability in residential water use depending on neighborhood. Over a 10 year period, there was no correlation between interannual variability in water use and interannual variability in remote-sensing based vegetation greenness. Following the implementation of conservation measures, residential water use declined throughout the city, but greenness remained constant. Direct measurements of plant water use and plant water relations confirmed that most vegetation was well-watered and showed few signs of water stress. Transpiration rates were highly species specific, with the highest transpiration rates and lowest water use efficiency found in species originating from humid environments or from riparian habitats. Unshaded turfgrass showed the highest rates of ET in any measured landscape, but

  12. Impacts Of Climate Change On Ecosystems Management In Africa: An Assessment Of Disaster Risk Management And Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndebele-Murisa, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    This paper is a synthesis of eight studies which demonstrate the interface between disaster risk management (DRM) and adaptation. The studies; conducted from November 2011 to July 2012 included diverse ecosystems from forests, coastlines, rural areas to a lake region and showed that climate change/variability are major factors among other factors such as deforestation and land degradation, unsustainable land use practices, overharvesting of natural products and invasive species encroachment that are causing changes in ecosystems. The most common extreme events reported included shifts in and shorter rainfall seasons, extended droughts, increased temperatures, extreme heat, heavy rainfall, flooding, inundation, strong winds and sea level rises. As a result of these climate phenomena, adverse impacts on ecosystems and communities were reported as biodiversity loss, reduced fish catch, reduced water for forests/agriculture/consumption, increased rough waves, coastal erosion/sediment deposition and lastly land/mud slides in order of commonality. In response to these impacts communities are practicing coping and adaptation strategies but there is a huge gap between proper DRM and adaptation. This is mainly because the adaptation is practiced as an aftermath with very little effort propelled towards proactive DRM or preparedness. In addition, national level policies are archaic and do not address the current environmental changes. This was demonstrated in Togo where wood energy potential is deteriorating at an unprecedented rate but is projected to increase between 6.4% and 101% in the near and far future if the national forest action plans are implemented; preventing an energy crisis in the country. This shows that appropriate legal and policy frameworks and well planned responses to projected extreme events and climate changes are crucial in order to prevent disasters and to achieve sustainable utilisation of resources in the continent.

  13. Scheduling and adaptation of London's future water supply and demand schemes under uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huskova, Ivana; Matrosov, Evgenii S.; Harou, Julien J.; Kasprzyk, Joseph R.; Reed, Patrick M.

    2015-04-01

    The changing needs of society and the uncertainty of future conditions complicate the planning of future water infrastructure and its operating policies. These systems must meet the multi-sector demands of a range of stakeholders whose objectives often conflict. Understanding these conflicts requires exploring many alternative plans to identify possible compromise solutions and important system trade-offs. The uncertainties associated with future conditions such as climate change and population growth challenge the decision making process. Ideally planners should consider portfolios of supply and demand management schemes represented as dynamic trajectories over time able to adapt to the changing environment whilst considering many system goals and plausible futures. Decisions can be scheduled and adapted over the planning period to minimize the present cost of portfolios while maintaining the supply-demand balance and ecosystem services as the future unfolds. Yet such plans are difficult to identify due to the large number of alternative plans to choose from, the uncertainty of future conditions and the computational complexity of such problems. Our study optimizes London's future water supply system investments as well as their scheduling and adaptation over time using many-objective scenario optimization, an efficient water resource system simulator, and visual analytics for exploring key system trade-offs. The solutions are compared to Pareto approximate portfolios obtained from previous work where the composition of infrastructure portfolios that did not change over the planning period. We explore how the visual analysis of solutions can aid decision making by investigating the implied performance trade-offs and how the individual schemes and their trajectories present in the Pareto approximate portfolios affect the system's behaviour. By doing so decision makers are given the opportunity to decide the balance between many system goals a posteriori as well as

  14. Assessing confidence in management adaptation approaches for climate-sensitive ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, J. M.; Julius, S. H.; Weaver, C. P.

    2012-03-01

    A number of options are available for adapting ecosystem management to improve resilience in the face of climatic changes. However, uncertainty exists as to the effectiveness of these options. A report prepared for the US Climate Change Science Program reviewed adaptation options for a range of federally managed systems in the United States. The report included a qualitative uncertainty analysis of conceptual approaches to adaptation derived from the review. The approaches included reducing anthropogenic stressors, protecting key ecosystem features, maintaining representation, replicating, restoring, identifying refugia and relocating organisms. The results showed that the expert teams had the greatest scientific confidence in adaptation options that reduce anthropogenic stresses. Confidence in other approaches was lower because of gaps in understanding of ecosystem function, climate change impacts on ecosystems, and management effectiveness. This letter discusses insights gained from the confidence exercise and proposes strategies for improving future assessments of confidence for management adaptations to climate change.

  15. Management Strategies for Complex Adaptive Systems: Sensemaking, Learning, and Improvisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Reuben R., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Misspecification of the nature of organizations may be a major reason for difficulty in achieving performance improvement. Organizations are often viewed as machine-like, but complexity science suggests that organizations should be viewed as complex adaptive systems. I identify the characteristics of complex adaptive systems and give examples of…

  16. Impact of learning adaptability and time management disposition on study engagement among Chinese baccalaureate nursing students.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing-Ying; Liu, Yan-Hui; Yang, Ji-Peng

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationships among study engagement, learning adaptability, and time management disposition in a sample of Chinese baccalaureate nursing students. A convenient sample of 467 baccalaureate nursing students was surveyed in two universities in Tianjin, China. Students completed a questionnaire that included their demographic information, Chinese Utrecht Work Engagement Scale-Student Questionnaire, Learning Adaptability Scale, and Adolescence Time Management Disposition Scale. One-way analysis of variance tests were used to assess the relationship between certain characteristics of baccalaureate nursing students. Pearson correlation was performed to test the correlation among study engagement, learning adaptability, and time management disposition. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed to explore the mediating role of time management disposition. The results revealed that study engagement (F = 7.20, P < .01) and learning adaptability (F = 4.41, P < .01) differed across grade groups. Learning adaptability (r = 0.382, P < .01) and time management disposition (r = 0.741, P < .01) were positively related with study engagement. Time management disposition had a partially mediating effect on the relationship between study engagement and learning adaptability. The findings implicate that educators should not only promote interventions to increase engagement of baccalaureate nursing students but also focus on development, investment in adaptability, and time management.

  17. Some aspects of integrated water resources management in central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaydarova, V.; Penkova, N.; Pak, E.; Poberejsky, L.; Beltrao, J.

    2003-04-01

    Two main tasks are to be implemented for elaboration of the governmental water distribution criteria in Central Asia: 1 -development of the common methodological basis for the intergovernmental water distribution; and 2 - to reopen and continue both theoretical and experimental researches of various aspects of the wastewater reuse. The prospects of socio economic development of all Central Asian countries are substantially defined by the water resources availability. The water resources of Central Asia belong, mainly, watersheds of the Syr-Darya and Amu Darya rivers. The basic flow of Amu Darya is formed in territory of Tajikistan. Then the Amu Darya river proceeds along border of Afghanistan with Uzbekistan, crosses Turkmenistan and again comes back to Uzbekistan and then runs into the Aral Sea. The Syr-Darya is second river on the water discharge and is first river on length in Central Asia. The basic flow of Syr Darya is formed in territory of Kyrgyzstan. Then the Syr-Darya river crosses of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan and runs into the Aral Sea in territory of Kazakhstan. During the Soviet Union the water resources of two river watersheds were divided among the Central Asian republics on the basis of the general plans developed by the center in Moscow. In the beginning of 90s years, after taking of sovereignty by the former Soviet republics, the unified control system of water resources management was abolished and the various approaches to its transformation caused by features of the national economy developing, elected models of transition from command to market mechanisms of economic activity, and also specificity of political and social processes in each of the states of region were planned. The distinctions of modern priorities of economic development of the states of region have generated the contradiction of interests in the intergovernmental water distribution that can in the long term become complicated even more in connection with the increasing of water

  18. Assessing water resources adaptive capacity to climate change impacts in the Pacific Northwest Region of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamlet, A. F.

    2010-07-01

    and institutional arrangements provide a solid foundation for coping with climate change impacts, and that the mandates of existing water resources policy and water resources management institutions are at least consistent with the fundamental objectives of climate change adaptation. A deeper inquiry into the underlying nature of PNW water resources systems, however, reveals significant and persistent obstacles to climate change adaptation, which will need to be overcome if effective use of the region's extensive water resources management capacity can be brought to bear on this problem. Primary obstacles include assumptions of stationarity as the fundamental basis of water resources system design, entrenched use of historic records as the sole basis for planning, problems related to the relatively short time scale of planning, lack of familiarity with climate science and models, downscaling procedures, and hydrologic models, limited access to climate change scenarios and hydrologic products for specific water systems, and rigid water allocation and water resources operating rules that effectively block adaptive response. Institutional barriers include systematic loss of technical capacity in many water resources agencies following the dam building era, jurisdictional fragmentation affecting response to drought, disconnections between water policy and practice, and entrenched bureaucratic resistance to change in many water management agencies. These factors, combined with a federal agenda to block climate change policy in the US during the Bush administration has (with some exceptions) led to institutional "gridlock" in the PNW over the last decade or so despite a growing awareness of climate change as a significant threat to water management. In the last several years, however, significant progress has been made in surmounting these obstacles, and the region's water resources agencies at all levels of governance are making progress in addressing the fundamental

  19. Assessing water resources adaptive capacity to climate change impacts in the Pacific Northwest Region of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamlet, A. F.

    2011-05-01

    provide a reasonably solid foundation for coping with climate change impacts, and that the mandates of existing water resources policy and water resources management institutions are at least consistent with the fundamental objectives of climate change adaptation. A deeper inquiry into the underlying nature of PNW water resources systems, however, reveals significant and persistent obstacles to climate change adaptation, which will need to be overcome if effective use of the region's extensive water resources management capacity can be brought to bear on this problem. Primary obstacles include assumptions of stationarity as the fundamental basis of water resources system design, entrenched use of historical records as the sole basis for planning, problems related to the relatively short time scale of planning, lack of familiarity with climate science and models, downscaling procedures, and hydrologic models, limited access to climate change scenarios and hydrologic products for specific water systems, and rigid water allocation and water resources operating rules that effectively block adaptive response. Institutional barriers include systematic loss of technical capacity in many water resources agencies following the dam building era, jurisdictional fragmentation affecting response to drought, disconnections between water policy and practice, and entrenched bureaucratic resistance to change in many water management agencies. These factors, combined with a federal agenda to block climate change policy in the US during the Bush administration have (with some exceptions) contributed to widespread institutional "gridlock" in the PNW over the last decade or so despite a growing awareness of climate change as a significant threat to water management. In the last several years, however, significant progress has been made in surmounting some of these obstacles, and the region's water resources agencies at all levels of governance are making progress in addressing the fundamental

  20. Ocean Environmental Assessment and Adaptive Resource Management within the Framework of IOOS and CLEANER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonner, J.; Brezonik, P.; Clesceri, N.; Gouldman, C.; Jamail, R.; Zilkoski, D.

    2006-12-01

    environmental field facilities (or observatories). Mutual coordination and collaboration would exist among these coasts through RES interactions based on a cyberinfrastructure supporting all aspects of quantitative analysis. Because the U.S. Ocean Action Plan refers to the creation of a National Water Quality Monitoring Network, a close liaison between IOOS and WATERS Network could be mutually advantageous considering the shared visions, goals and objectives. A focus on activities and initiatives involving sensor and sensor networks for coastal margin observation and assessment would be a specific instance of this liaison, leveraging the infrastructural base of both organizations to maximize resource allocation. This coordinated venture with intelligent environmental systems would include new specialized coastal monitoring networks, and management of near-real-time data, including data assimilation models. An ongoing NSF planning grant aimed at environmental observatory design for coastal margins is a component of the broader WATERS Network planning for collaborative research to support adaptive and sustainable environmental management. We propose a collaborative framework between IOOS and WATERS Network wherein collaborative research will be enabled by cybernetworks to support adaptive and sustainable management of the coastal regions.

  1. Integrated Water Resources Management: A Global Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, V.; Cohen, M.; Akudago, J.; Keith, D.; Palaniappan, M.

    2011-12-01

    The diversity of water resources endowments and the societal arrangements to use, manage, and govern water makes defining a single paradigm or lens through which to define, prioritize and evaluate interventions in the water sector particularly challenging. Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) emerged as the dominant intervention paradigm for water sector interventions in the early 1990s. Since then, while many successful implementations of IWRM have been demonstrated at the local, basin, national and trans-national scales, IWRM has also been severely criticized by the global water community as "having a dubious record that has never been comprehensively analyzed", "curiously ambiguous", and "ineffective at best and counterproductive at worst". Does IWRM hold together as a coherent paradigm or is it a convenient buzzword to describe a diverse collection of water sector interventions? We analyzed 184 case study summaries of IWRM interventions on the Global Water Partnership (GWP) website. The case studies were assessed to find the nature, scale, objectives and outcomes of IWRM. The analysis does not suggest any coherence in IWRM as a paradigm - but does indicate distinct regional trends in IWRM. First, IWRM was done at very different scales in different regions. In Africa two-thirds of the IWRM interventions involved creating national or transnational organizations. In contrast, in Asia and South America, almost two-thirds were watershed, basin, or local body initiatives. Second, IWRM interventions involved very different types of activities in different regions. In Africa and Europe, IWRM entailed creation of policy documents, basin plans and institution building. In contrast, in Asia and Latin America the interventions were much more likely to entail new technology, infrastructure or watershed measures. In Australia, economic measures, new laws and enforcement mechanisms were more commonly used than anywhere else.

  2. Interregional management of ground and surface water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, H.E.

    1957-01-01

    I feel that there is not a large gap between what we have and what we need for "management" of the people who must give their assent to any program for management of water resources. We need a "generalist" approach in addition to our specialist approach, to achieve a synthesis of the results of the specialist's analysis of specific problems. And as a means of developing these generalists, closer coordination or perhaps "combined operations" of groups of specialists in diverse fields might provide the comprehensive and overall understanding which we need, and which is needed by the general public.

  3. Water scarcity and institutional change: lessons in adaptive governance from the drought experience of Perth, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Bettini, Y; Brown, R; de Haan, F J

    2013-01-01

    Urban water systems will be increasingly challenged under future climates and global pressures. Meeting challenges by reconfiguring water systems to integrate supplies and deliver multifunctional uses is technically well described. Adjusting the institutions that frame the management of these systems is not well operationalized in practice or conceptualized in theory. This study seeks to address this gap through an institutional analysis of Perth, Australia, a city where drought crisis has put under pressure both management practices and the institutional setting that underlies them. The study found that while trusted practices moderated water scarcity, the stability of the institutional setting may not facilitate a shift toward adaptable institutional configurations suited to future conditions. The results identified three key ingredients for a flexible institutional setting: (i) feedbacks in the system through better information management, (ii) reflexive dialogue and strategic use of projects to generate greater learning opportunities, and (iii) policy level support for sector-wide collaboration through progressive agendas, incentives for innovation and capacity building in stakeholder and community engagement. Further, the results suggest that a deeper understanding of institutional dynamics is needed to enable adaptive governance. The paper provides an analytical framework for diagnosing how greater adaptive capacity might be mobilized through influencing these dynamics. PMID:23676383

  4. Water scarcity and institutional change: lessons in adaptive governance from the drought experience of Perth, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Bettini, Y; Brown, R; de Haan, F J

    2013-01-01

    Urban water systems will be increasingly challenged under future climates and global pressures. Meeting challenges by reconfiguring water systems to integrate supplies and deliver multifunctional uses is technically well described. Adjusting the institutions that frame the management of these systems is not well operationalized in practice or conceptualized in theory. This study seeks to address this gap through an institutional analysis of Perth, Australia, a city where drought crisis has put under pressure both management practices and the institutional setting that underlies them. The study found that while trusted practices moderated water scarcity, the stability of the institutional setting may not facilitate a shift toward adaptable institutional configurations suited to future conditions. The results identified three key ingredients for a flexible institutional setting: (i) feedbacks in the system through better information management, (ii) reflexive dialogue and strategic use of projects to generate greater learning opportunities, and (iii) policy level support for sector-wide collaboration through progressive agendas, incentives for innovation and capacity building in stakeholder and community engagement. Further, the results suggest that a deeper understanding of institutional dynamics is needed to enable adaptive governance. The paper provides an analytical framework for diagnosing how greater adaptive capacity might be mobilized through influencing these dynamics.

  5. Russia in the World Water Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibikova, Tatiana; Koronkevich, Nikolay; Barabanova, Elena; Zaytseva, Irina

    2014-05-01

    resources, including surface and ground waters, for the territory and the population; precipitation; indicators of anthropogenic impact, such as population, water withdrawals, sewage waters, irrevocable consumption of water, data on flow regulation by reservoirs; the state of natural waters was estimated by comparison of the average long-term values of water resources with characteristics of anthropogenic impact, and economic efficiency of water use - by water and gross domestic product comparison. The objective of this paper was to give a general idea of the position of Russia in the world water management in the period of time. Further work on this subject is aimed at clarifying the indicators of water resources, human impact on them and the effectiveness of their use. Particular attention will be paid to the assessment of the impact of economic activity in the catchment on rivers and reservoirs. Such kind of assessment is necessary for achieving sustainable water supply in the near and distant future, raising living standards and preserving the environment. References: Koronkevich N.I., Zaytseva I.S., 2003. Anthropogenic Influences on Water Resources of Russia and Neighboring Countries at the end of XXth Century. Moscow, Nauka. Bibikova T., 2011 Comparative Analysis of Anthropogenic Impact on Water Resources in Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine in the Post-Soviet Period. Water Res. Vol. 38 No. 5, 549-556.

  6. Management of bulimia nervosa: a case study with the Roy adaptation model.

    PubMed

    Seah, Xin Yi; Tham, Xiang Cong

    2015-04-01

    Bulimia nervosa is a crippling and chronic disorder, with individuals experiencing repeated binge-purge episodes. It is not widely understood by society. The use of the Roy adaptation model for the management of bulimia nervosa is examined in this article. Nursing models are utilized to provide a structure for planning and implementation of patient management. The Roy adaptation model focuses on the importance of individuals as able to adapt well to their changing surrounding environments. This model can be useful in managing patients with bulimia nervosa.

  7. Adaptive harvest management of North American waterfowl populations: a brief history and future prospects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Runge, M.C.; Johnson, F.A.; Williams, B.K.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1995, the US Fish and Wildlife Service has used an adaptive approach to the management of sport harvest of mid-continent Mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) in North America. This approach differs from many current approaches to conservation and management in requiring close collaboration between managers and scientists. Key elements of this process are objectives, alternative management actions, models permitting prediction of system responses, and a monitoring program. The iterative process produces optimal management decisions and leads to reduction in uncertainty about response of populations to management. This general approach to management has a number of desirable features and is recommended for use in many other programs of management and conservation.

  8. Water management, purification, and conservation in arid climates. Volume 1: Water management

    SciTech Connect

    Goosen, M.F.A.; Shayya, W.H.

    1999-07-01

    Arid regions are already feeling the severe restraining effects of potable water shortages. In coming years, humid and sub-humid regions of the world will also have to face many of these same problems. In the future, serious conflicts may arise not because of a lack of oil, but due to water shortages. Are there solutions to these problems? Aside from increasing public awareness about the importance of water, society needs to take a three pronged approach: water needs to be effectively managed, it needs to be economically purified, and it needs to be conserved. Only by doing these three things in unison can they hope to alleviate the water problems faced by arid regions of the world. This book presents information valuable to seeking, finding and using current technologies to help solve these problems now. Volume 1 examines water management problems in detail, along with water problems and water resources in arid climates, and includes chapters that cover aspects of water management. Water purification technology is another key issue. The economics of this technology is becoming more critical in arid areas due to increasing urbanization and industrialization.

  9. Developing Sustainable Spacecraft Water Management Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Evan A.; Klaus, David M.

    2009-01-01

    It is well recognized that water handling systems used in a spacecraft are prone to failure caused by biofouling and mineral scaling, which can clog mechanical systems and degrade the performance of capillary-based technologies. Long duration spaceflight applications, such as extended stays at a Lunar Outpost or during a Mars transit mission, will increasingly benefit from hardware that is generally more robust and operationally sustainable overtime. This paper presents potential design and testing considerations for improving the reliability of water handling technologies for exploration spacecraft. Our application of interest is to devise a spacecraft wastewater management system wherein fouling can be accommodated by design attributes of the management hardware, rather than implementing some means of preventing its occurrence.

  10. Water quality management library. 2. edition

    SciTech Connect

    Eckenfelder, W.W.; Malina, J.F.; Patterson, J.W.

    1998-12-31

    A series of ten books offered in conjunction with Water Quality International, the Biennial Conference and Exposition of the International Association on Water Pollution Research and Control (IAWPRC). Volume 1, Activated Sludge Process, Design and Control, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 2, Upgrading Wastewater Treatment Plants, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 3, Toxicity Reduction, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 4, Municipal Sewage Sludge Management, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 5, Design and Retrofit of Wastewater Treatment Plants for Biological Nutrient Removal, 1st edition, 1992: Volume 6, Dynamics and Control of the Activated Sludge Process, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 7: Design of Anaerobic Processes for the Treatment of Industrial and Municipal Wastes, 1st edition, 1992: Volume 8, Groundwater Remediation, 1st edition, 1992: Volume 9, Nonpoint Pollution and Urban Stormwater Management, 1st edition, 1995: Volume 10, Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse, 1st edition, 1998.

  11. Tapping Alternatives: The Benefits of Managing Urban Water Demands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dziegielewski, Benedykt; Baumann, Duane D.

    1992-01-01

    Presents the California plan for water demand management. Water conservation techniques are used to balance demand with supply. Discusses the implementation process: (1) water-use and service area analysis; (2) water-use forecasts; (3) benefit-cost analysis; (4) and development of a long-term water management plan. (17 references) (MCO)

  12. Water Management of Noninsulating and Insulating Sheathings

    SciTech Connect

    Smegal, J.; Lstiburek, J.

    2012-04-01

    There is an increasing market in liquid (or fluid) applied water management barriers for residential applications that could be used in place of tapes and other self-adhering membranes if applied correctly, especially around penetrations in the enclosure. This report discusses current best practices, recommends ways in which the best practices can be improved, and looks at some current laboratory testing and testing standards.

  13. Integrated water quality management for drinking water of good quality.

    PubMed

    Isaji, C

    2003-01-01

    The Nagoya Waterworks and Sewerage Bureau has developed original supporting tools for the systematic and cost-effective management of problem solving. An environmental information map and prediction of pollutant reaching are used for rapid and appropriate proper countermeasures against water quality accidents in the source area. In disinfection byproduct control a method for estimating trihalomethane (THM) contents was effective for the complement of their observations. Surrogate indicators such as turbidity and conductivity that could be measured continuously also could complement water quality items measured monthly. A processing tool of voluminous data was practical for rapid judgment of water quality. Systematic monitoring was established for stricter turbidity control for measures against Cryptosporidium and keeping residual chlorine stable in the service area.

  14. Water resources management in a homogenizing world: Averting the Growth and Underinvestment trajectory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirchi, Ali; Watkins, David W.; Huckins, Casey J.; Madani, Kaveh; Hjorth, Peder

    2014-09-01

    Biotic homogenization, a de facto symptom of a global biodiversity crisis, underscores the urgency of reforming water resources management to focus on the health and viability of ecosystems. Global population and economic growth, coupled with inadequate investment in maintenance of ecological systems, threaten to degrade environmental integrity and ecosystem services that support the global socioeconomic system, indicative of a system governed by the Growth and Underinvestment (G&U) archetype. Water resources management is linked to biotic homogenization and degradation of system integrity through alteration of water systems, ecosystem dynamics, and composition of the biota. Consistent with the G&U archetype, water resources planning primarily treats ecological considerations as exogenous constraints rather than integral, dynamic, and responsive parts of the system. It is essential that the ecological considerations be made objectives of water resources development plans to facilitate the analysis of feedbacks and potential trade-offs between socioeconomic gains and ecological losses. We call for expediting a shift to ecosystem-based management of water resources, which requires a better understanding of the dynamics and links between water resources management actions, ecological side-effects, and associated long-term ramifications for sustainability. To address existing knowledge gaps, models that include dynamics and estimated thresholds for regime shifts or ecosystem degradation need to be developed. Policy levers for implementation of ecosystem-based water resources management include shifting away from growth-oriented supply management, better demand management, increased public awareness, and institutional reform that promotes adaptive and transdisciplinary management approaches.

  15. Multi-agent Water Resources Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelletti, A.; Giuliani, M.

    2011-12-01

    Increasing environmental awareness and emerging trends such as water trading, energy market, deregulation and democratization of water-related services are challenging integrated water resources planning and management worldwide. The traditional approach to water management design based on sector-by-sector optimization has to be reshaped to account for multiple interrelated decision-makers and many stakeholders with increasing decision power. Centralized management, though interesting from a conceptual point of view, is unfeasible in most of the modern social and institutional contexts, and often economically inefficient. Coordinated management, where different actors interact within a full open trust exchange paradigm under some institutional supervision is a promising alternative to the ideal centralized solution and the actual uncoordinated practices. This is a significant issue in most of the Southern Alps regulated lakes, where upstream hydropower reservoirs maximize their benefit independently form downstream users; it becomes even more relevant in the case of transboundary systems, where water management upstream affects water availability downstream (e.g. the River Zambesi flowing through Zambia, Zimbabwe and Mozambique or the Red River flowing from South-Western China through Northern Vietnam. In this study we apply Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) theory to design an optimal management in a decentralized way, considering a set of multiple autonomous agents acting in the same environment and taking into account the pay-off of individual water users, which are inherently distributed along the river and need to coordinate to jointly reach their objectives. In this way each real-world actor, representing the decision-making entity (e.g. the operator of a reservoir or a diversion dam) can be represented one-to-one by a computer agent, defined as a computer system that is situated in some environment and that is capable of autonomous action in this environment in

  16. Efficient use of information in adaptive management with an application to managing recreation near golden eagle nesting sites.

    PubMed

    Fackler, Paul L; Pacifici, Krishna; Martin, Julien; McIntyre, Carol

    2014-01-01

    It is generally the case that a significant degree of uncertainty exists concerning the behavior of ecological systems. Adaptive management has been developed to address such structural uncertainty, while recognizing that decisions must be made without full knowledge of how a system behaves. This paradigm attempts to use new information that develops during the course of management to learn how the system works. To date, however, adaptive management has used a very limited information set to characterize the learning that is possible. This paper uses an extension of the Partial Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP) framework to expand the information set used to update belief in competing models. This feature can potentially increase the speed of learning through adaptive management, and lead to better management in the future. We apply this framework to a case study wherein interest lies in managing recreational restrictions around golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) nesting sites. The ultimate management objective is to maintain an abundant eagle population in Denali National Park while minimizing the regulatory burden on park visitors. In order to capture this objective, we developed a utility function that trades off expected breeding success with hiker access. Our work is relevant to the management of human activities in protected areas, but more generally demonstrates some of the benefits of POMDP in the context of adaptive management. PMID:25098955

  17. Efficient use of information in adaptive management with an application to managing recreation near golden eagle nesting sites.

    PubMed

    Fackler, Paul L; Pacifici, Krishna; Martin, Julien; McIntyre, Carol

    2014-01-01

    It is generally the case that a significant degree of uncertainty exists concerning the behavior of ecological systems. Adaptive management has been developed to address such structural uncertainty, while recognizing that decisions must be made without full knowledge of how a system behaves. This paradigm attempts to use new information that develops during the course of management to learn how the system works. To date, however, adaptive management has used a very limited information set to characterize the learning that is possible. This paper uses an extension of the Partial Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP) framework to expand the information set used to update belief in competing models. This feature can potentially increase the speed of learning through adaptive management, and lead to better management in the future. We apply this framework to a case study wherein interest lies in managing recreational restrictions around golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) nesting sites. The ultimate management objective is to maintain an abundant eagle population in Denali National Park while minimizing the regulatory burden on park visitors. In order to capture this objective, we developed a utility function that trades off expected breeding success with hiker access. Our work is relevant to the management of human activities in protected areas, but more generally demonstrates some of the benefits of POMDP in the context of adaptive management.

  18. Efficient Use of Information in Adaptive Management with an Application to Managing Recreation near Golden Eagle Nesting Sites

    PubMed Central

    Fackler, Paul L.; Pacifici, Krishna; Martin, Julien; McIntyre, Carol

    2014-01-01

    It is generally the case that a significant degree of uncertainty exists concerning the behavior of ecological systems. Adaptive management has been developed to address such structural uncertainty, while recognizing that decisions must be made without full knowledge of how a system behaves. This paradigm attempts to use new information that develops during the course of management to learn how the system works. To date, however, adaptive management has used a very limited information set to characterize the learning that is possible. This paper uses an extension of the Partial Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP) framework to expand the information set used to update belief in competing models. This feature can potentially increase the speed of learning through adaptive management, and lead to better management in the future. We apply this framework to a case study wherein interest lies in managing recreational restrictions around golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) nesting sites. The ultimate management objective is to maintain an abundant eagle population in Denali National Park while minimizing the regulatory burden on park visitors. In order to capture this objective, we developed a utility function that trades off expected breeding success with hiker access. Our work is relevant to the management of human activities in protected areas, but more generally demonstrates some of the benefits of POMDP in the context of adaptive management. PMID:25098955

  19. Linking integrated water resources management and integrated coastal zone management.

    PubMed

    Rasch, P S; Ipsen, N; Malmgren-Hansen, A; Mogensen, B

    2005-01-01

    Some of the world's most valuable aquatic ecosystems such as deltas, lagoons and estuaries are located in the coastal zone. However, the coastal zone and its aquatic ecosystems are in many places under environmental stress from human activities. About 50% of the human population lives within 200 km of the coastline, and the population density is increasing every day. In addition, the majority of urban centres are located in the coastal zone. It is commonly known that there are important linkages between the activities in the upstream river basins and the environment conditions in the downstream coastal zones. Changes in river flows, e.g. caused by irrigation, hydropower and water supply, have changed salinity in estuaries and lagoons. Land use changes, such as intensified agricultural activities and urban and industrial development, cause increasing loads of nutrients and a variety of chemicals resulting in considerable adverse impacts in the coastal zones. It is recognised that the solution to such problems calls for an integrated approach. Therefore, the terms Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) and Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) are increasingly in focus on the international agenda. Unfortunately, the concepts of IWRM and ICZM are mostly being developed independently from each other by separate management bodies using their own individual approaches and tools. The present paper describes how modelling tools can be used to link IWRM and ICZM. It draws a line from the traditional sectoral use of models for the Istanbul Master Planning and assessment of the water quality and ecological impact in the Bosphorus Strait and the Black Sea 10 years ago, to the most recent use of models in a Water Framework Directive (WFD) context for one of the selected Pilot River Basins in Denmark used for testing of the WFD Guidance Documents.

  20. Linking integrated water resources management and integrated coastal zone management.

    PubMed

    Rasch, P S; Ipsen, N; Malmgren-Hansen, A; Mogensen, B

    2005-01-01

    Some of the world's most valuable aquatic ecosystems such as deltas, lagoons and estuaries are located in the coastal zone. However, the coastal zone and its aquatic ecosystems are in many places under environmental stress from human activities. About 50% of the human population lives within 200 km of the coastline, and the population density is increasing every day. In addition, the majority of urban centres are located in the coastal zone. It is commonly known that there are important linkages between the activities in the upstream river basins and the environment conditions in the downstream coastal zones. Changes in river flows, e.g. caused by irrigation, hydropower and water supply, have changed salinity in estuaries and lagoons. Land use changes, such as intensified agricultural activities and urban and industrial development, cause increasing loads of nutrients and a variety of chemicals resulting in considerable adverse impacts in the coastal zones. It is recognised that the solution to such problems calls for an integrated approach. Therefore, the terms Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) and Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) are increasingly in focus on the international agenda. Unfortunately, the concepts of IWRM and ICZM are mostly being developed independently from each other by separate management bodies using their own individual approaches and tools. The present paper describes how modelling tools can be used to link IWRM and ICZM. It draws a line from the traditional sectoral use of models for the Istanbul Master Planning and assessment of the water quality and ecological impact in the Bosphorus Strait and the Black Sea 10 years ago, to the most recent use of models in a Water Framework Directive (WFD) context for one of the selected Pilot River Basins in Denmark used for testing of the WFD Guidance Documents. PMID:16114636

  1. Climate change and managing water crisis: Pakistan's perspective.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Mumtaz; Mumtaz, Saniea

    2014-01-01

    scarcity. To minimize adverse impacts of climate change on the water crisis in Pakistan, the preparation of integrated national, provincial, and local level master plans encompassing technical, social, environmental, administrative, and financial considerations is necessary. It is imperative to implement two simultaneous approaches of adaptation (living with climate change) and mitigation (addressing negativities of climate change). Salient features are integrated management of watersheds/catchments/water bodies, optimum exploitation of present sources, development of new sources, water conservation, adequate drainage, efficient design of water storage, conveyance, distribution and supply systems, utilization of waste water, and regulation of water quality. PMID:24695031

  2. Climate change and managing water crisis: Pakistan's perspective.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Mumtaz; Mumtaz, Saniea

    2014-01-01

    scarcity. To minimize adverse impacts of climate change on the water crisis in Pakistan, the preparation of integrated national, provincial, and local level master plans encompassing technical, social, environmental, administrative, and financial considerations is necessary. It is imperative to implement two simultaneous approaches of adaptation (living with climate change) and mitigation (addressing negativities of climate change). Salient features are integrated management of watersheds/catchments/water bodies, optimum exploitation of present sources, development of new sources, water conservation, adequate drainage, efficient design of water storage, conveyance, distribution and supply systems, utilization of waste water, and regulation of water quality.

  3. An open source simulator for water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, Stephen; Meier, Philipp; Selby, Philip; Mohammed, Khaled; Khadem, Majed; Padula, Silvia; Harou, Julien; Rosenberg, David; Rheinheimer, David

    2015-04-01

    Descriptive modelling of water resource systems requires the representation of different aspects in one model: the physical system including hydrological inputs and engineered infrastructure, and human management, including social, economic and institutional behaviours and constraints. Although most water resource systems share some characteristics such as the ability to represent them as a network of nodes and links, geographical, institutional and other differences mean that invariably each water system functions in a unique way. A diverse group is developing an open source simulation framework which will allow model developers to build generalised water management models that are customised to the institutional, physical and economical components they are seeking to model. The framework will allow the simulation of complex individual and institutional behaviour required for the assessment of real-world resource systems. It supports the spatial and hierarchical structures commonly found in water resource systems. The individual infrastructures can be operated by different actors while policies are defined at a regional level by one or more institutional actors. The framework enables building multi-agent system simulators in which developers can define their own agent types and add their own decision making code. Developers using the framework have two main tasks: (i) Extend the core classes to represent the aspects of their particular system, and (ii) write model structure files. Both are done in Python. For task one, users must either write new decision making code for each class or link to an existing code base to provide functionality to each of these extension classes. The model structure file links these extension classes in a standardised way to the network topology. The framework will be open-source and written in Python and is to be available directly for download through standard installer packages. Many water management model developers are unfamiliar

  4. 75 FR 20381 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting (webinar conference call). SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive... Canyon Dam Final Environmental Impact Statement to comply with consultation requirements of the...

  5. Yet Another Adaptive Learning Management System Based on Felder and Silverman's Learning Styles and Mashup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yi-Hsing; Chen, Yen-Yi; Chen, Nian-Shing; Lu, You-Te; Fang, Rong-Jyue

    2016-01-01

    This study designs and implements an adaptive learning management system based on Felder and Silverman's Learning Style Model and the Mashup technology. In this system, Felder and Silverman's Learning Style model is used to assess students' learning styles, in order to provide adaptive learning to leverage learners' learning preferences.…

  6. Building America Top Innovations 2012: EEBA Water Management Guide

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes the DOE-sponsored Water Management Guide, which identifies durability issues and solutions for high-performance homes. The Water Management Guide has sold 15,000 copies since its first printing.

  7. Integrated soil fertility management in sub-Saharan Africa: unravelling local adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanlauwe, B.; Descheemaeker, K.; Giller, K. E.; Huising, J.; Merckx, R.; Nziguheba, G.; Wendt, J.; Zingore, S.

    2014-12-01

    Intensification of smallholder agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa is necessary to address rural poverty and natural resource degradation. Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM) is a means to enhance crop productivity while maximizing the agronomic efficiency (AE) of applied inputs, and can thus contribute to sustainable intensification. ISFM consists of a set of best practices, preferably used in combination, including the use of appropriate germplasm, the appropriate use of fertilizer and of organic resources, and good agronomic practices. The large variability in soil fertility conditions within smallholder farms is also recognised within ISFM, including soils with constraints beyond those addressed by fertilizer and organic inputs. The variable biophysical environments that characterize smallholder farming systems have profound effects on crop productivity and AE and targeted application of limited agro-inputs and management practices is necessary to enhance AE. Further, management decisions depend on the farmer's resource endowments and production objectives. In this paper we discuss the "local adaptation" component of ISFM and how this can be conceptualized within an ISFM framework, backstopped by analysis of AE at plot and farm level. At plot level, a set of four constraints to maximum AE is discussed in relation to "local adaptation": soil acidity, secondary nutrient and micro-nutrient (SMN) deficiencies, physical constraints, and drought stress. In each of these cases, examples are presented whereby amendments and/or practices addressing these have a significantly positive impact on fertilizer AE, including mechanistic principles underlying these effects. While the impact of such amendments and/or practices is easily understood for some practices (e.g., the application of SMNs where these are limiting), for others, more complex interactions with fertilizer AE can be identified (e.g., water harvesting under varying rainfall conditions). At farm scale

  8. Integrated soil fertility management in sub-Saharan Africa: unravelling local adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanlauwe, B.; Descheemaeker, K.; Giller, K. E.; Huising, J.; Merckx, R.; Nziguheba, G.; Wendt, J.; Zingore, S.

    2015-06-01

    Intensification of smallholder agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa is necessary to address rural poverty and natural resource degradation. Integrated soil fertility management (ISFM) is a means to enhance crop productivity while maximizing the agronomic efficiency (AE) of applied inputs, and can thus contribute to sustainable intensification. ISFM consists of a set of best practices, preferably used in combination, including the use of appropriate germplasm, the appropriate use of fertilizer and of organic resources, and good agronomic practices. The large variability in soil fertility conditions within smallholder farms is also recognized within ISFM, including soils with constraints beyond those addressed by fertilizer and organic inputs. The variable biophysical environments that characterize smallholder farming systems have profound effects on crop productivity and AE, and targeted application of agro-inputs and management practices is necessary to enhance AE. Further, management decisions depend on the farmer's resource endowments and production objectives. In this paper we discuss the "local adaptation" component of ISFM and how this can be conceptualized within an ISFM framework, backstopped by analysis of AE at plot and farm level. At plot level, a set of four constraints to maximum AE is discussed in relation to "local adaptation": soil acidity, secondary nutrient and micronutrient (SMN) deficiencies, physical constraints, and drought stress. In each of these cases, examples are presented whereby amendments and/or practices addressing these have a significantly positive impact on fertilizer AE, including mechanistic principles underlying these effects. While the impact of such amendments and/or practices is easily understood for some practices (e.g. the application of SMNs where these are limiting), for others, more complex processes influence AE (e.g. water harvesting under varying rainfall conditions). At farm scale, adjusting fertilizer applications to

  9. Assessing the components of adaptive capacity to improve conservation and management efforts under global change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicotra, Adrienne; Beever, Erik; Robertson, Amanda; Hofmann, Gretchen; O’Leary, John

    2015-01-01

    Natural-resource managers and other conservation practitioners are under unprecedented pressure to categorize and quantify the vulnerability of natural systems based on assessment of the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of species to climate change. Despite the urgent need for these assessments, neither the theoretical basis of adaptive capacity nor the practical issues underlying its quantification has been articulated in a manner that is directly applicable to natural-resource management. Both are critical for researchers, managers, and other conservation practitioners to develop reliable strategies for assessing adaptive capacity. Drawing from principles of classical and contemporary research and examples from terrestrial, marine, plant, and animal systems, we examined broadly the theory behind the concept of adaptive capacity. We then considered how interdisciplinary, trait- and triage-based approaches encompassing the oft-overlooked interactions among components of adaptive capacity can be used to identify species and populations likely to have higher (or lower) adaptive capacity. We identified the challenges and value of such endeavors and argue for a concerted interdisciplinary research approach that combines ecology, ecological genetics, and eco-physiology to reflect the interacting components of adaptive capacity. We aimed to provide a basis for constructive discussion between natural-resource managers and researchers, discussions urgently needed to identify research directions that will deliver answers to real-world questions facing resource managers, other conservation practitioners, and policy makers. Directing research to both seek general patterns and identify ways to facilitate adaptive capacity of key species and populations within species, will enable conservation ecologists and resource managers to maximize returns on research and management investment and arrive at novel and dynamic management and policy decisions.

  10. Assessing the components of adaptive capacity to improve conservation and management efforts under global change.

    PubMed

    Nicotra, Adrienne B; Beever, Erik A; Robertson, Amanda L; Hofmann, Gretchen E; O'Leary, John

    2015-10-01

    Natural-resource managers and other conservation practitioners are under unprecedented pressure to categorize and quantify the vulnerability of natural systems based on assessment of the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of species to climate change. Despite the urgent need for these assessments, neither the theoretical basis of adaptive capacity nor the practical issues underlying its quantification has been articulated in a manner that is directly applicable to natural-resource management. Both are critical for researchers, managers, and other conservation practitioners to develop reliable strategies for assessing adaptive capacity. Drawing from principles of classical and contemporary research and examples from terrestrial, marine, plant, and animal systems, we examined broadly the theory behind the concept of adaptive capacity. We then considered how interdisciplinary, trait- and triage-based approaches encompassing the oft-overlooked interactions among components of adaptive capacity can be used to identify species and populations likely to have higher (or lower) adaptive capacity. We identified the challenges and value of such endeavors and argue for a concerted interdisciplinary research approach that combines ecology, ecological genetics, and eco-physiology to reflect the interacting components of adaptive capacity. We aimed to provide a basis for constructive discussion between natural-resource managers and researchers, discussions urgently needed to identify research directions that will deliver answers to real-world questions facing resource managers, other conservation practitioners, and policy makers. Directing research to both seek general patterns and identify ways to facilitate adaptive capacity of key species and populations within species, will enable conservation ecologists and resource managers to maximize returns on research and management investment and arrive at novel and dynamic management and policy decisions.

  11. Assessing the components of adaptive capacity to improve conservation and management efforts under global change.

    PubMed

    Nicotra, Adrienne B; Beever, Erik A; Robertson, Amanda L; Hofmann, Gretchen E; O'Leary, John

    2015-10-01

    Natural-resource managers and other conservation practitioners are under unprecedented pressure to categorize and quantify the vulnerability of natural systems based on assessment of the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of species to climate change. Despite the urgent need for these assessments, neither the theoretical basis of adaptive capacity nor the practical issues underlying its quantification has been articulated in a manner that is directly applicable to natural-resource management. Both are critical for researchers, managers, and other conservation practitioners to develop reliable strategies for assessing adaptive capacity. Drawing from principles of classical and contemporary research and examples from terrestrial, marine, plant, and animal systems, we examined broadly the theory behind the concept of adaptive capacity. We then considered how interdisciplinary, trait- and triage-based approaches encompassing the oft-overlooked interactions among components of adaptive capacity can be used to identify species and populations likely to have higher (or lower) adaptive capacity. We identified the challenges and value of such endeavors and argue for a concerted interdisciplinary research approach that combines ecology, ecological genetics, and eco-physiology to reflect the interacting components of adaptive capacity. We aimed to provide a basis for constructive discussion between natural-resource managers and researchers, discussions urgently needed to identify research directions that will deliver answers to real-world questions facing resource managers, other conservation practitioners, and policy makers. Directing research to both seek general patterns and identify ways to facilitate adaptive capacity of key species and populations within species, will enable conservation ecologists and resource managers to maximize returns on research and management investment and arrive at novel and dynamic management and policy decisions. PMID:25926277

  12. Towards risk-based drought management in the Netherlands: making water supply levels transparent to water users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maat Judith, Ter; Marjolein, Mens; Vuren Saskia, Van; der Vat Marnix, Van

    2016-04-01

    To prepare the Dutch Delta for future droughts and water scarcity, a nation-wide 4-year project, called Delta Programme, assessed the impact of climate change and socio-economic development, and explored strategies to deal with these impacts. The Programme initiated a joint approach to water supply management with stakeholders and developed a national adaptation plan that is able to adapt to future uncertain conditions. The adaptation plan consists of a set of preferred policy pathways - sequences of possible actions and measures through time - to achieve targets while responding in a flexible manner to uncertain developments over time, allowing room to respond to new opportunities and insights. With regard to fresh water allocation, the Delta Programme stated that supplying water of sufficient quality is a shared responsibility that requires cohesive efforts among users in the main and regional water system. The national and local authorities and water users involved agreed that the water availability and, where relevant, the water quality should be as transparent and predictable as possible under normal, dry and extremely dry conditions. They therefore introduced the concept of "water supply service levels", which should describe water availability and quality that can be delivered with a certain return period, for all regions and all relevant water users in the Netherlands. The service levels form an addition to the present policy and should be decided on by 2021. At present water allocation during periods of (expected) water shortage occurs according to a prearranged ranking system (a water hierarchy scheme based on a list of priorities), if water availability drops below a critical low level. The aim is to have supply levels available that are based on the probability of occurrence and economic impact of water shortage, and that are transparent for all water users in the regional water systems and the main water system. As part of the European project

  13. Adapting livestock management to spatio-temporal heterogeneity in semi-arid rangelands.

    PubMed

    Jakoby, O; Quaas, M F; Baumgärtner, S; Frank, K

    2015-10-01

    Management strategies in rotational grazing systems differ in their level of complexity and adaptivity. Different components of such grazing strategies are expected to allow for adaptation to environmental heterogeneities in space and time. However, most models investigating general principles of rangeland management strategies neglect spatio-temporal system properties including seasonality and spatial heterogeneity of environmental variables. We developed an ecological-economic rangeland model that combines a spatially explicit farm structure with intra-annual time steps. This allows investigating different management components in rotational grazing systems (including stocking and rotation rules) and evaluating their effect on the ecological and economic states of semi-arid grazing systems. Our results show that adaptive stocking is less sensitive to overstocking compared to a constant stocking strategy. Furthermore, the rotation rule becomes important only at stocking numbers that maximize expected income. Altogether, the best of the tested strategies is adaptive stocking combined with a rotation that adapts to both spatial forage availability and seasonality. This management strategy maximises mean income and at the same time maintains the rangeland in a viable condition. However, we could also show that inappropriate adaptation that neglects seasonality even leads to deterioration. Rangelands characterised by higher inter-annual climate variability show a higher risk of income losses under a non-adaptive stocking rule, and non-adaptive rotation is least able to buffer increasing climate variability. Overall, all important system properties including seasonality and spatial heterogeneity of available resources need to be considered when designing an appropriate rangeland management system. Resulting adaptive rotational grazing strategies can be valuable for improving management and mitigating income risks.

  14. Water Infrastructure Adaptation in New Urban Design: Possibilities and Constraints

    EPA Science Inventory

    Natural constraints, including climate change and dynamic socioeconomic development, can significantly impact the way we plan, design, and operate water infrastructure, thus its sustainability to deliver reliable quality water supplies and comply with environmental regulations. ...

  15. A perspective on nonstationarity and water management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hirsch, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    This essay offers some perspectives on climate-related nonstationarity and water resources. Hydrologists must not lose sight of the many sources of nonstationarity, recognizing that many of them may be of much greater magnitude than those that may arise from climate change. It is paradoxical that statistical and deterministic approaches give us better insights about changes in mean conditions than about the tails of probability distributions, and yet the tails are very important to water management. Another paradox is that it is difficult to distinguish between long-term hydrologic persistence and trend. Using very long hydrologic records is helpful in mitigating this problem, but does not guarantee success. Empirical approaches, using long-term hydrologic records, should be an important part of the portfolio of research being applied to understand the hydrologic response to climate change. An example presented here shows very mixed results for trends in the size of the annual floods, with some strong clusters of positive trends and a strong cluster of negative trends. The potential for nonstationarity highlights the importance of the continuity of hydrologic records, the need for repeated analysis of the data as the time series grow, and the need for a well-trained cadre of scientists and engineers, ready to interpret the data and use those analyses to help adjust the management of our water resources.

  16. Adaptation to deep-sea methane seeps from Cretaceous shallow-water black shale environments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiel, Steffen; Wiese, Frank; Titus, Alan

    2013-04-01

    Sulfide-enriched environments in shallow water were considered as sites where animals acquire pre-adaptations enabling them to colonize deep-sea hydrothermal vents and seeps or where they survived extinction events in their deep-sea habitats. Here we present upper Cenomanian (early Late Cretaceous) shallow-water seep communities from the Tropic Shale in the Western Interior Seaway, USA, that lived during a time of extremely warm deep-water temperatures, which supposedly facilitates adaptations to the deep sea, and time-equivalent with a period of widespread oceanic and photic zone anoxia (OAE 2) that supposedly extinguished deep-water vent and seep faunas. Contrary to the expectation, the taxa inhabiting the Tropic Shale seeps were not found at any coeval or younger deep-water seep or vent deposit. This suggests that (i) pre-adaptations for living at deep-sea vents and seeps do not evolve at shallow-water methane seeps, and probably also not in sulfide-rich shallow-water environments in general; (ii) a low temperature gradient from shallow to deep water does not facilitate onshore-offshore adaptations to deep-sea vents and seeps; and (iii) shallow-water seeps did not act as refuges for deep-sea vent and seep animals. We hypothesize that the vast majority of adaptations to successfully colonize deep-sea vents and seeps are acquired below the photic zone.

  17. Risk management frameworks: supporting the next generation of Murray-Darling Basin water sharing plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podger, G. M.; Cuddy, S. M.; Peeters, L.; Smith, T.; Bark, R. H.; Black, D. C.; Wallbrink, P.

    2014-09-01

    Water jurisdictions in Australia are required to prepare and implement water resource plans. In developing these plans the common goal is realising the best possible use of the water resources - maximising outcomes while minimising negative impacts. This requires managing the risks associated with assessing and balancing cultural, industrial, agricultural, social and environmental demands for water within a competitive and resource-limited environment. Recognising this, conformance to international risk management principles (ISO 31000:2009) have been embedded within the Murray-Darling Basin Plan. Yet, to date, there has been little strategic investment by water jurisdictions in bridging the gap between principle and practice. The ISO 31000 principles and the risk management framework that embodies them align well with an adaptive management paradigm within which to conduct water resource planning. They also provide an integrative framework for the development of workflows that link risk analysis with risk evaluation and mitigation (adaptation) scenarios, providing a transparent, repeatable and robust platform. This study, through a demonstration use case and a series of workflows, demonstrates to policy makers how these principles can be used to support the development of the next generation of water sharing plans in 2019. The workflows consider the uncertainty associated with climate and flow inputs, and model parameters on irrigation and hydropower production, meeting environmental flow objectives and recreational use of the water resource. The results provide insights to the risks associated with meeting a range of different objectives.

  18. An enhanced adaptive management approach for remediation of legacy mercury in the South River.

    PubMed

    Foran, Christy M; Baker, Kelsie M; Grosso, Nancy R; Linkov, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainties about future conditions and the effects of chosen actions, as well as increasing resource scarcity, have been driving forces in the utilization of adaptive management strategies. However, many applications of adaptive management have been criticized for a number of shortcomings, including a limited ability to learn from actions and a lack of consideration of stakeholder objectives. To address these criticisms, we supplement existing adaptive management approaches with a decision-analytical approach that first informs the initial selection of management alternatives and then allows for periodic re-evaluation or phased implementation of management alternatives based on monitoring information and incorporation of stakeholder values. We describe the application of this enhanced adaptive management (EAM) framework to compare remedial alternatives for mercury in the South River, based on an understanding of the loading and behavior of mercury in the South River near Waynesboro, VA. The outcomes show that the ranking of remedial alternatives is influenced by uncertainty in the mercury loading model, by the relative importance placed on different criteria, and by cost estimates. The process itself demonstrates that a decision model can link project performance criteria, decision-maker preferences, environmental models, and short- and long-term monitoring information with management choices to help shape a remediation approach that provides useful information for adaptive, incremental implementation.

  19. Surprise and Opportunity for Learning in Grand Canyon: the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melis, T. S.; Walters, C. J.; Korman, J.

    2013-12-01

    With a focus on resources of the Colorado River ecosystem downstream of Glen Canyon Dam in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area (GCNRA) and Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP) of northern Arizona, the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program has evaluated experimental flow and nonflow policy tests since 1990. Flow experiments have consisted of a variety of water releases from the dam within pre-existing annual downstream delivery agreements. The daily experimental dam operation, termed the Modified Low Fluctuating Flow (MLFF), implemented in 1996 to increase daily low flows and decrease daily peaks were intended to limit daily flow range to conserve tributary sand inputs and improve navigation among other objectives, including hydropower energy. Other flow tests have included controlled floods with some larger releases bypassing the dam's hydropower plant to rebuild and maintain eroded sandbars in GCNP. Experimental daily hydropeaking tests beyond MLFF have also been evaluated for managing the exotic recreational rainbow trout fishery in the dam's GCNRA tailwater. Experimental nonflow policies, such as physical removal of exotic fish below the tailwater, and experimental translocation of endangered native humpback chub from spawning habitats in the Little Colorado River (the largest natal origin site for chub in the basin) to other tributaries within GCNP have also been monitored. None of these large-scale field experiments has yet produced unambiguous results in terms of management prescriptions, owing to inadequate monitoring programs and confounding of treatment effects with effects of ongoing natural changes; most notably, a persistent warming of the river resulting from reduced storage in the dam's reservoir after 2003. But there have been several surprising results relative to predictions from models developed to identify monitoring needs and evaluate experimental design options at the start of the adaptive ecosystem assessment and management program in 1997

  20. Effect of biomass adaptation to biodegradation of dissolved organic carbon in water.

    PubMed

    Tihomirova, K; Briedis, A; Rubulis, J; Juhna, T

    2012-04-01

    In the present study the time of adaptation of fixed biomass for biodegradation of natural organic matter was investigated. The experiments were done in columns that are usually used for rapid determination of biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC). The biomass was adapted to samples with different concentrations of organic substances before measurements by pumping water to be investigated through the columns for several days. The time of adaptation was dependent on the initial concentration of the organic matter in the water sample. The adaptation time increased from 6 to 24 h with increase of concentration of acetate solution from 2 to 10 mg/l, thus adaptation rate decreased simultaneously from 0.28 to 0.11 min(-1). In natural water samples with the initial concentration in the range from 4.61-10.82 mg/l of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) the maximal adaptation time was less than 24 h. During the adaptation period the increase in reproducibility and decrease in the standard deviation was observed. The study showed that adaptation of column to the different concentration of organic matter in water sample is necessary in order to decrease the bias in BDOC measurements when using columns tests. PMID:21892664

  1. Total Water Management: The New Paradigm for Urban Water Resources Planning

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current resource management practices put different stresses on local water resources and urban infrastructure. Total Water Manag...

  2. An overview of soil water sensors for salinity & irrigation management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigation water management has to do with the appropriate application of water to soils, in terms of amounts, rates, and timing to satisfy crop water demands while protecting the soil and water resources from degradation. Accurate irrigation management is even more important in salt affected soils ...

  3. Adaptive Urban Stormwater Management Using a Two-stage Stochastic Optimization Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, F.; Hobbs, B. F.; McGarity, A. E.

    2014-12-01

    In many older cities, stormwater results in combined sewer overflows (CSOs) and consequent water quality impairments. Because of the expense of traditional approaches for controlling CSOs, cities are considering the use of green infrastructure (GI) to reduce runoff and pollutants. Examples of GI include tree trenches, rain gardens, green roofs, and rain barrels. However, the cost and effectiveness of GI are uncertain, especially at the watershed scale. We present a two-stage stochastic extension of the Stormwater Investment Strategy Evaluation (StormWISE) model (A. McGarity, JWRPM, 2012, 111-24) to explicitly model and optimize these uncertainties in an adaptive management framework. A two-stage model represents the immediate commitment of resources ("here & now") followed by later investment and adaptation decisions ("wait & see"). A case study is presented for Philadelphia, which intends to extensively deploy GI over the next two decades (PWD, "Green City, Clean Water - Implementation and Adaptive Management Plan," 2011). After first-stage decisions are made, the model updates the stochastic objective and constraints (learning). We model two types of "learning" about GI cost and performance. One assumes that learning occurs over time, is automatic, and does not depend on what has been done in stage one (basic model). The other considers learning resulting from active experimentation and learning-by-doing (advanced model). Both require expert probability elicitations, and learning from research and monitoring is modelled by Bayesian updating (as in S. Jacobi et al., JWRPM, 2013, 534-43). The model allocates limited financial resources to GI investments over time to achieve multiple objectives with a given reliability. Objectives include minimizing construction and O&M costs; achieving nutrient, sediment, and runoff volume targets; and community concerns, such as aesthetics, CO2 emissions, heat islands, and recreational values. CVaR (Conditional Value at Risk) and

  4. Options for Managing Student Behavior: Adaptations for Individual Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Rita C.; Evans, Elizabeth T.

    This paper applies principles of situational leadership theory to the management of student behavior problems. First, it summarizes situational leadership, noting the theory's premise that leaders must consider two important factors to gain acceptance and compliance in managing people--the maturity level of the individuals and the nature of the…

  5. Analysis of Risk Management in Adapted Physical Education Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Kelle L.; Donovan, Jacqueline B.; Berg, Dominck A.

    2016-01-01

    Physical education teacher education (PETE) programs vary on how the topics of safe teaching and risk management are addressed. Common practices to cover such issues include requiring textbooks, lesson planning, peer teaching, videotaping, reflecting, and reading case law analyses. We used a mixed methods design to examine how risk management is…

  6. Water management problems in the Ethiopian rift: Challenges for development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayenew, Tenalem

    2007-06-01

    The Ethiopian rift is characterized by many perennial rivers and lakes occupying volcano-tectonic depressions with highly variable hydrogeological setting. The rift lakes and rivers were the focal points for relatively large-scale water resources development. They are used for irrigation, soda abstraction, commercial fish farming, recreation and support a wide variety of endemic birds and wild animals. Ethiopia's major mechanized irrigation farms and commercial fishery are confined within the rift. A few of the lakes have shrunk as a result of excessive abstraction of water; others expanded due to increased surface runoff and groundwater flux from percolated over-irrigated fields and active tectonism. Excessive land degradation and deforestation have also played a role. Human factors, in combination with the natural conditions of climate and geology have influenced the water quality. The chemistry of some of the lakes has been changed dramatically. This paper tries to present the challenges of surface water resources development with particular reference to environmental problems caused in the last few decades. The methods employed include field hydrological mapping supported by aerial photograph and satellite imagery interpretations, hydrometeorological and hydrochemical data analysis and catchment hydrological modeling. A converging evidence approach was adapted to reconstruct the temporal and spatial variations of lake levels and the hydrochemistry. The result revealed that the major changes in the rift valley are related mainly to recent improper utilization of water and land resources in the rivers draining the rift floor and the lakes' catchment, and to direct lake water abstraction, aggravated intermittently by natural factors (climate and tectonism). These changes appear to have grave environmental consequences, which demand urgent integrated basin-wide water management practice.

  7. Shifts in fisheries management: adapting to regime shifts

    PubMed Central

    King, Jacquelynne R.; McFarlane, Gordon A.; Punt, André E.

    2015-01-01

    For many years, fisheries management was based on optimizing yield and maintaining a target biomass, with little regard given to low-frequency environmental forcing. However, this policy was often unsuccessful. In the last two to three decades, fisheries science and management have undergone a shift towards balancing sustainable yield with conservation, with the goal of including ecosystem considerations in decision-making frameworks. Scientific understanding of low-frequency climate–ocean variability, which is manifested as ecosystem regime shifts and states, has led to attempts to incorporate these shifts and states into fisheries assessment and management. To date, operationalizing these attempts to provide tactical advice has met with limited success. We review efforts to incorporate regime shifts and states into the assessment and management of fisheries resources, propose directions for future investigation and outline a potential framework to include regime shifts and changes in ecosystem states into fisheries management.

  8. AOIPS water resources data management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanwie, P.

    1977-01-01

    The text and computer-generated displays used to demonstrate the AOIPS (Atmospheric and Oceanographic Information Processing System) water resources data management system are investigated. The system was developed to assist hydrologists in analyzing the physical processes occurring in watersheds. It was designed to alleviate some of the problems encountered while investigating the complex interrelationships of variables such as land-cover type, topography, precipitation, snow melt, surface runoff, evapotranspiration, and streamflow rates. The system has an interactive image processing capability and a color video display to display results as they are obtained.

  9. Water resources management in the Ganges Basin: a comparison of three strategies for conjunctive use of groundwater and surface water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Khan, Mahfuzur R.; Voss, Clifford I.; Yu, Winston; Michael, Holly A.

    2014-01-01

    The most difficult water resources management challenge in the Ganges Basin is the imbalance between water demand and seasonal availability. More than 80 % of the annual flow in the Ganges River occurs during the 4-month monsoon, resulting in widespread flooding. During the rest of the year, irrigation, navigation, and ecosystems suffer because of water scarcity. Storage of monsoonal flow for utilization during the dry season is one approach to mitigating these problems. Three conjunctive use management strategies involving subsurface water storage are evaluated in this study: Ganges Water Machine (GWM), Pumping Along Canals (PAC), and Distributed Pumping and Recharge (DPR). Numerical models are used to determine the efficacy of these strategies. Results for the Indian State of Uttar Pradesh (UP) indicate that these strategies create seasonal subsurface storage from 6 to 37 % of the yearly average monsoonal flow in the Ganges exiting UP over the considered range of conditions. This has clear implications for flood reduction, and each strategy has the potential to provide irrigation water and to reduce soil waterlogging. However, GWM and PAC require significant public investment in infrastructure and management, as well as major shifts in existing water use practices; these also involve spatially-concentrated pumping, which may induce land subsidence. DPR also requires investment and management, but the distributed pumping is less costly and can be more easily implemented via adaptation of existing water use practices in the basin.

  10. Adaptive management on the central Platte River--science, engineering, and decision analysis to assist in the recovery of four species.

    PubMed

    Smith, Chadwin B

    2011-05-01

    Active adaptive management is the centerpiece of a major species recovery program now underway on the central Platte River in Nebraska. The Platte River Recovery Implementation Program initiated on January 1, 2007 and is a joint effort between the states of Colorado, Wyoming, and Nebraska; the U.S. Department of the Interior; waters users; and conservation groups. This program is intended to address issues related to endangered species and loss of habitat along the Platte River in central Nebraska by managing land and water resources and using adaptive management as its science framework. The adaptive management plan provides a systematic process to test hypotheses and apply the information learned to improve management on the ground, and is centered on conceptual models and priority hypotheses that reflect different interpretations of how river processes work and the best approach to meeting key objectives. This framework reveals a shared attempt to use the best available science to implement experiments, learn, and revise management actions accordingly on the Platte River. This paper focuses on the status of adaptive management implementation on the Platte, experimental and habitat design issues, and the use of decision analysis tools to help set objectives and guide decisions.

  11. Water governance and adaptation to climate change in the Indus River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yi-Chen E.; Brown, Casey; Yu, Winston; Wescoat, James; Ringler, Claudia

    2014-11-01

    Conflicting approaches to water governance at multiple scales within large international river basins may have detrimental effects on the productivity of water resources and consequently the economic activities of the basin. In the Indus River Basin, local scale water productivity decisions are affected by international and intra-national scale water governance. Water availability and productivity is modulated by the Indus Waters Treaty between India and Pakistan, and within Pakistan by the agreements governing water allocation between and within provinces. Much of the literature on governance at multiple scales in the Indus basin, and others, has employed qualitative methods of institutional analysis. This paper extends that approach with quantitative modeling of surface water allocation rules at multiple scales and the consequent economic impact on water use and productivity in the Indus River of Pakistan. The effects of the existing water allocation mechanisms on the ability to adapt to possible future climate conditions are examined. The study is conducted using the Indus Basin Model Revised - Multi-Year (IBMR-MY), a hydro-agro-economic model of the Indus River within Pakistan that simulates river and canal flows, groundwater pumping, water use and economic activities with a distributed, partial equilibrium model of the local scale agro-economic activities in the basin. Results suggest that without changes in response to changing conditions, the current governance mechanisms impede the provinces' ability to adapt to changing climate conditions, in ways that are significant, inflicting economic costs under both high and low flow conditions. However surface water allocation between the provinces does not appear to hinder adaptation. The greatest gains for economic water allocation are achieved at the sub-provincial level. The results imply that adaptive mechanisms for water allocation that allow response to changing climate conditions within provinces may be a

  12. Societal transformation and adaptation necessary to manage dynamics in flood hazard and risk mitigation (TRANS-ADAPT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Sven; Thaler, Thomas; Bonnefond, Mathieu; Clarke, Darren; Driessen, Peter; Hegger, Dries; Gatien-Tournat, Amandine; Gralepois, Mathilde; Fournier, Marie; Mees, Heleen; Murphy, Conor; Servain-Courant, Sylvie

    2015-04-01

    project is both scientifically innovative and policy relevant, thereby supporting climate policy needs in Europe towards a concept of risk governance. Key words: climate change adaptation; transformation; flood risk management; resilience; vulnerability; innovative bottom-up developments; multifunctional use

  13. Turnaround Management Strategies: The Adaptive Model and the Constructive Model. ASHE 1983 Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, Ellen E.

    The use of two management strategies by 14 liberal arts and comprehensive colleges attempting to recover from serious financial decline during 1973-1976 were studied. The adaptive model of strategy, based on resource dependence, involves managing demands in order to satisfy critical-resource providers. The constructive model of strategy, based on…

  14. Strategic Management of Electronic Commerce: An Adaptation of the Balanced Scorecard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasan, Helen; Tibbits, Hendrika

    2000-01-01

    The balanced scorecard is a formal management technique built on the premise that measurement is a prerequisite to strategic management. A case study of the implementation of the balanced scorecard in a public utility is analyzed to suggest how the basic concepts and philosophy of the balanced scorecard can be retained in its adaptation to the…

  15. Absence of a tiGH effect on adaptability to brackish water in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    PubMed

    Auperin, B; Leguen, I; Rentier-Delrue, F; Smal, J; Prunet, P

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible role of growth hormone in the adaptation of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to brackish water and to analyze its interactions with prolactin in this process. Plasma levels of growth hormone do not change upon transfer to brackish water. Treatment of intact tilapia in fresh water with growth hormone prior to transfer did not enable the fish to preadapt to brackish water: the duration of the hydromineral imbalance after transfer was the same in treated animals and controls. The major osmoregulatory role of prolactin in fresh water led us to test the hypothesis that prolactin might antagonize the effect of growth hormone on adaptation to brackish water. Growth-hormone-treated hypophysectomized animals, however, exhibited no increased osmoregulatory capacity as compared to hypophysectomized controls, confirming the absence of a growth-hormone-related osmoregulatory effect. When prolactin and growth hormone were coinjected, growth hormone also proved unable to oppose the Na+ retaining effect of prolactin, in both brackish and fresh water. Surprisingly, hypophysectomized animals adapt better to brackish water than do sham-operated animals. This result is discussed in light of the effects of prolactin and cortisol on osmoregulation in brackish water and we suggest that an important event which allows O. niloticus to adapt to hyperosmotic environment is the reduction of plasma PRL upon transfer to brackish water.

  16. International Space Station (ISS) Potable Water Dispenser (PWD) Beverage Adapter (BA) Redesign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgerly, Rachel; Benoit, Jace; Shindo, David

    2012-01-01

    The Potable Water Dispenser used on the International Space Station (ISS) interfaces with food and drink packages using the Beverage Adapter and Needle. Unexpected leakage has been seen in this interface. The Beverage Adapter used on ]orbit was returned to the ground for Test, Teardown, and Evaluation. The results of that investigation prompted a redesign of the Beverage Adapter and Needle. The Beverage Adapter materials were changed to be more corrosion resistant, and the Needle was redesigned to preclude leakage. The redesigns have been tested and proven.

  17. International Space Station (ISS) Potable Water Dispenser (PWD) Beverage Adapter (BA) Redesign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgerly, Rachel; Benoit, Jace; Shindo, David

    2011-01-01

    The Potable Water Dispenser used on the International Space Station (ISS) interfaces with food and drink packages using the Beverage Adapter and Needle. Unexpected leakage has been seen in this interface. The Beverage Adapter used on-orbit was returned to the ground for Test, Teardown, and Evaluation. The results of that investigation prompted a redesign of the Beverage Adapter and Needle. The Beverage Adapter materials will be changed to be more corrosion resistant, and the Needle will be redesigned to preclude leakage. The redesigns have been tested and proven.

  18. Anticipating on amplifying water stress: Optimal crop production supported by anticipatory water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholomeus, Ruud; van den Eertwegh, Gé; Simons, Gijs

    2015-04-01

    Agricultural crop yields depend largely on the soil moisture conditions in the root zone. Drought but especially an excess of water in the root zone and herewith limited availability of soil oxygen reduces crop yield. With ongoing climate change, more prolonged dry periods alternate with more intensive rainfall events, which changes soil moisture dynamics. With unaltered water management practices, reduced crop yield due to both drought stress and waterlogging will increase. Therefore, both farmers and water management authorities need to be provided with opportunities to reduce risks of decreasing crop yields. In The Netherlands, agricultural production of crops represents a market exceeding 2 billion euros annually. Given the increased variability in meteorological conditions and the resulting larger variations in soil moisture contents, it is of large economic importance to provide farmers and water management authorities with tools to mitigate risks of reduced crop yield by anticipatory water management, both at field and at regional scale. We provide the development and the field application of a decision support system (DSS), which allows to optimize crop yield by timely anticipation on drought and waterlogging situations. By using this DSS, we will minimize plant water stress through automated drainage and irrigation management. In order to optimize soil moisture conditions for crop growth, the interacting processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere system need to be considered explicitly. Our study comprises both the set-up and application of the DSS on a pilot plot in The Netherlands, in order to evaluate its implementation into daily agricultural practice. The DSS focusses on anticipatory water management at the field scale, i.e. the unit scale of interest to a farmer. We combine parallel field measurements ('observe'), process-based model simulations ('predict'), and the novel Climate Adaptive Drainage (CAD) system ('adjust') to optimize soil moisture

  19. Evaluating natural flood management measures using an ecosystem based adaptation framework: a meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacob, Oana; Rowan, John; Brown, Iain; Ellis, Chris

    2014-05-01

    Climate change is projected to alter river flows and the magnitude/frequency characteristics of floods and droughts. As a result flood risk is expected to increase with environmental, social and economic impacts. Traditionally flood risk management has been heavily relying on engineering measures, however with climate change their capacity to provide protection is expected to decrease. Ecosystem-based adaptation highlights the interdependence of human and natural systems, and the potential to buffer the impacts of climate change by maintaining functioning ecosystems that continue to provide multiple societal benefits. Natural flood management measures have the potential to provide a greater adaptive capacity to negate the impacts of climate change and provide ancillary benefits. To understand the impacts of different NFM measures on ecosystem services a meta-analysis was undertaken. Twenty five studies from across the world were pulled together to assess their effectiveness on reducing the flood risk but also on other ecosystems services as defined by the UK National Ecosystem Assessment, which distinguishes between provisioning, regulating, cultural and supporting services. Four categories of NFM measures were considered: (i) afforestation measures, (ii) drainage and blocking the drains, (iii) wetland restoration and (iv) combined measures. Woodland expansion measures provide significant benefits for flood protection more pronounced for low magnitude events, but also for other services such as carbon sequestration and water quality. These measures however will come at a cost for livestock and crop provisioning services as a result of land use changes. Drainage operations and blocking the drains have mixed impacts on carbon sequestration and water quality depending on soil type, landscape settings and local characteristics. Wetland and floodplain restoration measures have generally a few disbenefits and provide improvements for regulating and supporting services

  20. Water Resources Management for Shale Energy Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoxtheimer, D.

    2015-12-01

    The increase in the exploration and extraction of hydrocarbons, especially natural gas, from shale formations has been facilitated by advents in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies. Shale energy resources are very promising as an abundant energy source, though environmental challenges exist with their development, including potential adverse impacts to water quality. The well drilling and construction process itself has the potential to impact groundwater quality, however if proper protocols are followed and well integrity is established then impacts such as methane migration or drilling fluids releases can be minimized. Once a shale well has been drilled and hydraulically fractured, approximately 10-50% of the volume of injected fluids (flowback fluids) may flow out of the well initially with continued generation of fluids (produced fluids) throughout the well's productive life. Produced fluid TDS concentrations often exceed 200,000 mg/L, with elevated levels of strontium (Sr), bromide (Br), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), barium (Ba), chloride (Cl), radionuclides originating from the shale formation as well as fracturing additives. Storing, managing and properly disposisng of these fluids is critical to ensure water resources are not impacted by unintended releases. The most recent data in Pennsylvania suggests an estimated 85% of the produced fluids were being recycled for hydraulic fracturing operations, while many other states reuse less than 50% of these fluids and rely moreso on underground injection wells for disposal. Over the last few years there has been a shift to reuse more produced fluids during well fracturing operations in shale plays around the U.S., which has a combination of economic, regulatory, environmental, and technological drivers. The reuse of water is cost-competitive with sourcing of fresh water and disposal of flowback, especially when considering the costs of advanced treatment to or disposal well injection and lessens

  1. Infrastructure and adaptive management in an eco-hydrological Delta: Lessons learned from design and construction of the Haringvliet Sluices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsen, Max; Mostert, Erik; van der Zaag, Pieter

    2015-04-01

    Consequences of climate change include an increase in extreme weather events in North-West Europe. The Netherlands is directly affected by these extreme events, in particular in water management practices. Large investments in infrastructure were made ever since the floods of 1953, leading to a higher level of protection against flooding from the sea and to a managed eco-hydrological Delta. Adaptive water management is presented as an approach to deal with challenges in water allocation and flood protection. One challenge to adaptive water management relates to infrastructure. Large works are often inevitable and essential in flood protection. Hydraulic infrastructure however tends to be inflexible by nature and requires a level of robustness to deliver the desired performance over time. In this study, we focus on the relation between desired performance of infrastructure and adaptation to environmental change and evolving social demands. The objective of this study is to gain an understanding of the evolution of the desired performance of water management infrastructure. This serves two purposes: an increased understanding of design and construction of existing infrastructure, and potential lessons learned for future hydraulic infrastructure in the context of adaptive management. A qualitative approach was used to evaluate over 130 reports on all stages of the design, planning and construction of the Haringvliet sluices as part of the realization of the Delta Works. The time frame is set between 1950 and 1970. The main source of information is a set of quarterly reports to the Dutch parliament, published between 1956 and 1988, and which provided detailed information on design, construction, maintenance, system behavior, policy needs, social demands and stakeholders. The original objectives of the infrastructure were reflected in its design: protection against flooding, protection against salt intrusion and discharge of water and ice - all with a desired ease of

  2. Adaptive management in the U.S. National Wildlife Refuge System: science-management partnerships for conservation delivery.

    PubMed

    Moore, Clinton T; Lonsdorf, Eric V; Knutson, Melinda G; Laskowski, Harold P; Lor, Socheata K

    2011-05-01

    Adaptive management is an approach to recurrent decision making in which uncertainty about the decision is reduced over time through comparison of outcomes predicted by competing models against observed values of those outcomes. The National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS) of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is a large land management program charged with making natural resource management decisions, which often are made under considerable uncertainty, severe operational constraints, and conditions that limit ability to precisely carry out actions as intended. The NWRS presents outstanding opportunities for the application of adaptive management, but also difficult challenges. We describe two cooperative programs between the Fish and Wildlife Service and the U.S. Geological Survey to implement adaptive management at scales ranging from small, single refuge applications to large, multi-refuge, multi-region projects. Our experience to date suggests three important attributes common to successful implementation: a vigorous multi-partner collaboration, practical and informative decision framework components, and a sustained commitment to the process. Administrators in both agencies should consider these attributes when developing programs to promote the use and acceptance of adaptive management in the NWRS. PMID:21109341

  3. Adaptive management in the U.S. National Wildlife Refuge System: Science-management partnerships for conservation delivery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, C.T.; Lonsdorf, E.V.; Knutson, M.G.; Laskowski, H.P.; Lor, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive management is an approach to recurrent decision making in which uncertainty about the decision is reduced over time through comparison of outcomes predicted by competing models against observed values of those outcomes. The National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS) of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is a large land management program charged with making natural resource management decisions, which often are made under considerable uncertainty, severe operational constraints, and conditions that limit ability to precisely carry out actions as intended. The NWRS presents outstanding opportunities for the application of adaptive management, but also difficult challenges. We describe two cooperative programs between the Fish and Wildlife Service and the U.S. Geological Survey to implement adaptive management at scales ranging from small, single refuge applications to large, multi-refuge, multi-region projects. Our experience to date suggests three important attributes common to successful implementation: a vigorous multi-partner collaboration, practical and informative decision framework components, and a sustained commitment to the process. Administrators in both agencies should consider these attributes when developing programs to promote the use and acceptance of adaptive management in the NWRS. ?? 2010 .

  4. Water Plan 2030: A Dynamic Education Model for Teaching Water Management Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupprecht, C.; Washburne, J.; Lansey, K.; Williams, A.

    2006-12-01

    Dynamic educational tools to assist teachers and students in recognizing the impacts of water management decisions in a realistic context are not readily available. Water policy issues are often complex and difficult for students trying to make meaningful connections between system components. To fill this need, we have developed a systems modeling-based educational decision support system (DSS) with supplementary materials. This model, called Water Plan 2030, represents a general semi-arid watershed; it allows users to examine water management alternatives by changing input values for various water uses and basin conditions and immediately receive graphical outputs to compare decisions. The main goal of our DSS model is to foster students' abilities to make knowledgeable decisions with regard to water resources issues. There are two reasons we have developed this model for traditional classroom settings. First, the DSS model provides teachers with a mechanism for educating students about inter-related hydrologic concepts, complex systems and facilitates discussion of water resources issues. Second, Water Plan 2030 encourages student discovery of cause/effect relationships in a dynamic, hands-on environment and develops the ability to realize the implications of water management alternatives. The DSS model has been utilized in an undergraduate, non-major science class for 5 course hours, each of the past 4 semesters. Accompanying the PC-based model are supplementary materials to improve the effectiveness of implementation by emphasizing important concepts and guiding learners through the model components. These materials include in-class tutorials, introductory questions, role-playing activities and homework extensions that have been revised after each user session, based on student and instructor feedback. Most recently, we have developed individual lessons that teach specific model functions and concepts. These modules provide teachers the flexibility to adapt

  5. Enhanced Adaptive Management: Integrating Decision Analysis, Scenario Analysis and Environmental Modeling for the Everglades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Convertino, Matteo; Foran, Christy M.; Keisler, Jeffrey M.; Scarlett, Lynn; Loschiavo, Andy; Kiker, Gregory A.; Linkov, Igor

    2013-10-01

    We propose to enhance existing adaptive management efforts with a decision-analytical approach that can guide the initial selection of robust restoration alternative plans and inform the need to adjust these alternatives in the course of action based on continuously acquired monitoring information and changing stakeholder values. We demonstrate an application of enhanced adaptive management for a wetland restoration case study inspired by the Florida Everglades restoration effort. We find that alternatives designed to reconstruct the pre-drainage flow may have a positive ecological impact, but may also have high operational costs and only marginally contribute to meeting other objectives such as reduction of flooding. Enhanced adaptive management allows managers to guide investment in ecosystem modeling and monitoring efforts through scenario and value of information analyses to support optimal restoration strategies in the face of uncertain and changing information.

  6. Bridging the climate-induced water gap in the twenty-first century: adaptation support based on water supply, demand, adaptation and financing.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straatsma, Menno; Droogers, Peter; Brandsma, Jaïrus; Buytaert, Wouter; Karssenberg, Derek; Van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Sutanudjaja, Edwin; Vitolo, Claudia; Schmitz, Oliver; Meijer, Karen; Van Aalst, Maaike; Bierkens, Marc

    2014-05-01

    Water scarcity affects large parts of the world. Over the course of the twenty-first century, water demand is likely to increase due to population growth and associated food production, and increased economic activity, while water supply is projected to decrease in many regions due to climate change. Despite recent studies that analyze the effect of climate change on water scarcity, e.g. using climate projections under representative concentration pathways (RCP) of the fifth assessment report of the IPCC (AR5), decision support for closing the water gap between now and 2100 does not exist at a meaningful scale and with a global coverage. In this study, we aimed (i) to assess the joint impact of climatic and socio-economic change on water scarcity, (ii) to integrate impact and potential adaptation in one workflow, (iii) to prioritize adaptation options to counteract water scarcity based on their financial, regional socio-economic and environmental implications, and (iv) to deliver all this information in an integrated user-friendly web-based service. To enable the combination of global coverage with local relevance, we aggregated all results for 1604 water provinces (food producing units) delineated in this study, which is five times smaller than previous food producing units. Water supply was computed using the PCR-GLOBWB hydrological and water resources model, parameterized at 5 arcminutes for the whole globe, excluding Antarctica and Greenland. We ran PCR-GLOBWB with a daily forcing derived from five different GCM models from the CMIP5 (GFDL-ESM2M, Hadgem2-ES, IPSL-CMA5-LR, MIROC-ESM-CHEM, NorESM1-M) that were bias corrected using observation-based WATCH data between 1960-1999. For each of the models all four RCPs (RCP 2.6, 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5) were run, producing the ensemble of 20 future projections. The blue water supply was aggregated per month and per water province. Industrial, domestic and irrigation water demands were computed for a limited number of

  7. Native Prairie Adaptive Management: a multi region adaptive approach to invasive plant management on Fish and Wildlife Service owned native prairies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannon, Jill J.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Moore, Clinton T.

    2013-01-01

    Much of the native prairie managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of the northern Great Plains is extensively invaded by the introduced cool-season grasses, smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis). Management to suppress these invasive plants has had poor to inconsistent success. The central challenge to managers is selecting ap