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Sample records for adaptor protein essential

  1. Small-molecule control of protein degradation using split adaptors.

    PubMed

    Davis, Joseph H; Baker, Tania A; Sauer, Robert T

    2011-11-18

    Targeted intracellular degradation provides a method to study the biological function of proteins and has numerous applications in biotechnology. One promising approach uses adaptor proteins to target substrates with genetically encoded degradation tags for proteolysis. Here, we describe an engineered split-adaptor system, in which adaptor assembly and delivery of substrates to the ClpXP protease depends on a small molecule (rapamycin). This degradation system does not require modification of endogenous proteases, functions robustly over a wide range of adaptor concentrations, and does not require new synthesis of adaptors or proteases to initiate degradation. We demonstrate the efficacy of this system in E. coli by degrading tagged variants of LacI repressor and FtsA, an essential cell-division protein. In the latter case, addition of rapamycin causes pronounced filamentation because daughter cells cannot divide. Strikingly, washing rapamycin away reverses this phenotype. Our system is highly modular, with clearly defined interfaces for substrate binding, protease binding, and adaptor assembly, providing a clear path to extend this system to other degradation tags, proteases, or induction systems. Together, these new reagents should be useful in controlling protein degradation in bacteria. PMID:21866931

  2. Small-molecule control of protein degradation using split adaptors

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Joseph H.; Baker, Tania A.; Sauer, Robert T.

    2011-01-01

    Targeted intracellular degradation provides a method to study the biological function of proteins and has numerous applications in biotechnology. One promising approach uses adaptor proteins to target substrates with genetically encoded degradation tags for proteolysis. Here, we describe an engineered split-adaptor system, in which adaptor assembly and delivery of substrates to the ClpXP protease depends on a small molecule (rapamycin). This degradation system does not require modification of endogenous proteases, functions robustly over a wide range of adaptor concentrations, and does not require new synthesis of adaptors or proteases to initiate degradation. We demonstrate the efficacy of this system in E. coli by degrading tagged variants of LacI repressor and FtsA, an essential cell-division protein. In the latter case, addition of rapamycin causes pronounced filamentation because daughter cells cannot divide. Strikingly, washing rapamycin away reverses this phenotype. Our system is highly modular, with clearly-defined interfaces for substrate binding, protease binding, and adaptor assembly, providing a clear path to extend this system to other degradation tags, proteases, or induction systems. Together, these new reagents should be useful in controlling protein degradation in bacteria. PMID:21866931

  3. An organized co-assembly of clathrin adaptors is essential for endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Skruzny, Michal; Desfosses, Ambroise; Prinz, Simone; Dodonova, Svetlana O; Gieras, Anna; Uetrecht, Charlotte; Jakobi, Arjen J; Abella, Marc; Hagen, Wim J H; Schulz, Joachim; Meijers, Rob; Rybin, Vladimir; Briggs, John A G; Sachse, Carsten; Kaksonen, Marko

    2015-04-20

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis, the main trafficking route from the plasma membrane to the cytoplasm, is critical to many fundamental cellular processes. Clathrin, coupled to the membrane by adaptor proteins, is thought to play a major structural role in endocytosis by self-assembling into a cage-like lattice around the forming vesicle. Although clathrin adaptors are essential for endocytosis, little is known about their structural role in this process. Here we show that the membrane-binding domains of two conserved clathrin adaptors, Sla2 and Ent1, co-assemble in a PI(4,5)P2-dependent manner to form organized lattices on membranes. We determined the structure of the co-assembled lattice by electron cryo-microscopy and designed mutations that specifically impair the lattice formation in vitro. We show that these mutations block endocytosis in vivo. We suggest that clathrin adaptors not only link the polymerized clathrin to the membrane but also form an oligomeric structure, which is essential for membrane remodeling during endocytosis. PMID:25898165

  4. The Emerging and Diverse Roles of Src-Like Adaptor Proteins in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Marton, Nikolett; Baricza, Eszter; Érsek, Barbara; Buzás, Edit I.; Nagy, György

    2015-01-01

    Although Src-like adaptor proteins (SLAP-1 and SLAP-2) were mainly studied in lymphocytes, where they act as negative regulators and provide fine control of receptor signaling, recently, several other functions of these proteins were discovered. In addition to the well-characterized immunoregulatory functions, SLAP proteins appear to have an essential role in the pathogenesis of type I hypersensitivity, osteoporosis, and numerous malignant diseases. Both adaptor proteins are expressed in a wide variety of tissues, where they have mostly inhibitory effects on multiple intracellular signaling pathways. In this review, we summarize the diverse effects of SLAP proteins. PMID:26339145

  5. Anti-adaptors provide multiple modes for regulation of the RssB adaptor protein

    PubMed Central

    Battesti, Aurelia; Hoskins, Joel R.; Tong, Song; Milanesio, Paola; Mann, Jessica M.; Kravats, Andrea; Tsegaye, Yodit M.; Bougdour, Alexandre; Wickner, Sue; Gottesman, Susan

    2013-01-01

    RpoS, an RNA polymerase σ factor, controls the response of Escherichia coli and related bacteria to multiple stress responses. During nonstress conditions, RpoS is rapidly degraded by ClpXP, mediated by the adaptor protein RssB, a member of the response regulator family. In response to stress, RpoS degradation ceases. Small anti-adaptor proteins—IraP, IraM, and IraD, each made under a different stress condition—block RpoS degradation. RssB mutants resistant to either IraP or IraM were isolated and analyzed in vivo and in vitro. Each of the anti-adaptors is unique in its interaction with RssB and sensitivity to RssB mutants. One class of mutants defined an RssB N-terminal region close to the phosphorylation site and critical for interaction with IraP but unnecessary for IraM and IraD function. A second class, in the RssB C-terminal PP2C-like domain, led to activation of RssB function. These mutants allowed the response regulator to act in the absence of phosphorylation but did not abolish interaction with anti-adaptors. This class of mutants is broadly resistant to the anti-adaptors and bears similarity to constitutively activated mutants found in a very different PP2C protein. The mutants provide insight into how the anti-adaptors perturb RssB response regulator function and activation. PMID:24352426

  6. Adaptor Protein 1A Facilitates Dengue Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Yasamut, Umpa; Tongmuang, Nopprarat; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai; Junking, Mutita; Noisakran, Sansanee; Puttikhunt, Chunya; Chu, Justin Jang Hann; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai

    2015-01-01

    Rearrangement of membrane structure induced by dengue virus (DENV) is essential for replication, and requires host cellular machinery. Adaptor protein complex (AP)-1 is a host component, which can be recruited to components required for membrane rearrangement. Therefore, dysfunction of AP-1 may affect membrane organization, thereby decreasing replication of virus in infected cells. In the present study, AP-1-dependent traffic inhibitor inhibited DENV protein expression and virion production. We further clarified the role of AP-1A in the life cycle of DENV by RNA interference. AP-1A was not involved in DENV entry into cells. However, it facilitated DENV RNA replication. Viral RNA level was reduced significantly in Huh7 cells transfected with AP-1A small interfering RNA (siRNA) compared with control siRNA. Transfection of naked DENV viral RNA into Huh7 cells transfected with AP-1A siRNA resulted in less viral RNA and virion production than transfection into Huh7 cells transfected with control siRNA. Huh7 cells transfected with AP-1A siRNA showed greater modification of membrane structures and fewer vesicular packets compared with cells transfected with control siRNA. Therefore, AP-1A may partly control DENV-induced rearrangement of membrane structures required for viral replication. PMID:26090672

  7. Two Clathrin Adaptor Protein Complexes Instruct Axon-Dendrite Polarity.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengpeng; Merrill, Sean A; Jorgensen, Erik M; Shen, Kang

    2016-05-01

    The cardinal feature of neuronal polarization is the establishment and maintenance of axons and dendrites. How axonal and dendritic proteins are sorted and targeted to different compartments is poorly understood. Here, we identified distinct dileucine motifs that are necessary and sufficient to target transmembrane proteins to either the axon or the dendrite through direct interactions with the clathrin-associated adaptor protein complexes (APs) in C. elegans. Axonal targeting requires AP-3, while dendritic targeting is mediated by AP-1. The axonal dileucine motif binds to AP-3 with higher efficiency than to AP-1. Both AP-3 and AP-1 are localized to the Golgi but occupy adjacent domains. We propose that AP-3 and AP-1 directly select transmembrane proteins and target them to axon and dendrite, respectively, by sorting them into distinct vesicle pools. PMID:27151641

  8. Valosin-containing protein (VCP)-Adaptor Interactions are Exceptionally Dynamic and Subject to Differential Modulation by a VCP Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Xue, Liang; Blythe, Emily E; Freiberger, Elyse C; Mamrosh, Jennifer L; Hebert, Alexander S; Reitsma, Justin M; Hess, Sonja; Coon, Joshua J; Deshaies, Raymond J

    2016-09-01

    Protein quality control (PQC) plays an important role in stemming neurodegenerative diseases and is essential for the growth of some cancers. Valosin-containing protein (VCP)/p97 plays a pivotal role in multiple PQC pathways by interacting with numerous adaptors that link VCP to specific PQC pathways and substrates and influence the post-translational modification state of substrates. However, our poor understanding of the specificity and architecture of the adaptors, and the dynamic properties of their interactions with VCP hinders our understanding of fundamental features of PQC and how modulation of VCP activity can best be exploited therapeutically. In this study we use multiple mass spectrometry-based proteomic approaches combined with biophysical studies to characterize the interaction of adaptors with VCP. Our results reveal that most VCP-adaptor interactions are characterized by rapid dynamics that in some cases are modulated by the VCP inhibitor NMS873. These findings have significant implications for both the regulation of VCP function and the impact of VCP inhibition on different VCP-adaptor complexes. PMID:27406709

  9. Structure of the periplasmic adaptor protein from a major facilitator superfamily (MFS) multidrug efflux pump

    PubMed Central

    Hinchliffe, Philip; Greene, Nicholas P.; Paterson, Neil G.; Crow, Allister; Hughes, Colin; Koronakis, Vassilis

    2014-01-01

    Periplasmic adaptor proteins are key components of bacterial tripartite efflux pumps. The 2.85 Å resolution structure of an MFS (major facilitator superfamily) pump adaptor, Aquifex aeolicus EmrA, shows linearly arranged α-helical coiled-coil, lipoyl, and β-barrel domains, but lacks the fourth membrane-proximal domain shown in other pumps to interact with the inner membrane transporter. The adaptor α-hairpin, which binds outer membrane TolC, is exceptionally long at 127 Å, and the β-barrel contains a conserved disordered loop. The structure extends the view of adaptors as flexible, modular components that mediate diverse pump assembly, and suggests that in MFS tripartite pumps a hexamer of adaptors could provide a periplasmic seal. PMID:24996185

  10. Structure of the periplasmic adaptor protein from a major facilitator superfamily (MFS) multidrug efflux pump.

    PubMed

    Hinchliffe, Philip; Greene, Nicholas P; Paterson, Neil G; Crow, Allister; Hughes, Colin; Koronakis, Vassilis

    2014-08-25

    Periplasmic adaptor proteins are key components of bacterial tripartite efflux pumps. The 2.85 Å resolution structure of an MFS (major facilitator superfamily) pump adaptor, Aquifex aeolicus EmrA, shows linearly arranged α-helical coiled-coil, lipoyl, and β-barrel domains, but lacks the fourth membrane-proximal domain shown in other pumps to interact with the inner membrane transporter. The adaptor α-hairpin, which binds outer membrane TolC, is exceptionally long at 127 Å, and the β-barrel contains a conserved disordered loop. The structure extends the view of adaptors as flexible, modular components that mediate diverse pump assembly, and suggests that in MFS tripartite pumps a hexamer of adaptors could provide a periplasmic seal. PMID:24996185

  11. Oncogenic transformation by the signaling adaptor proteins insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and IRS-2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insulin receptor substrates (IRSs) are adaptor proteins that link signaling from upstream activators to multiple downstream effectors to modulate normal growth, metabolism, survival, and differentiation. Recent cell culture studies have shown that IRSs can interact with, and are functionally require...

  12. Alternative Splicing in CaV2.2 Regulates Neuronal Trafficking via Adaptor Protein Complex-1 Adaptor Protein Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Macabuag, Natsuko

    2015-01-01

    N-type voltage-gated calcium (CaV2.2) channels are expressed in neurons and targeted to the plasma membrane of presynaptic terminals, facilitating neurotransmitter release. Here, we find that the adaptor protein complex-1 (AP-1) mediates trafficking of CaV2.2 from the trans-Golgi network to the cell surface. Examination of splice variants of CaV2.2, containing either exon 37a (selectively expressed in nociceptors) or 37b in the proximal C terminus, reveal that canonical AP-1 binding motifs, YxxΦ and [DE]xxxL[LI], present only in exon 37a, enhance intracellular trafficking of exon 37a-containing CaV2.2 to the axons and plasma membrane of rat DRG neurons. Finally, we identify differential effects of dopamine-2 receptor (D2R) and its agonist-induced activation on trafficking of CaV2.2 isoforms. D2R slowed the endocytosis of CaV2.2 containing exon 37b, but not exon 37a, and activation by the agonist quinpirole reversed the effect of the D2R. Our work thus reveals key mechanisms involved in the trafficking of N-type calcium channels. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT CaV2.2 channels are important for neurotransmitter release, but how they are trafficked is still poorly understood. Here, we describe a novel mechanism for trafficking of CaV2.2 from the trans-Golgi network to the cell surface which is mediated by the adaptor protein AP-1. Alternative splicing of exon 37 produces CaV2.2-exon 37a, selectively expressed in nociceptors, or CaV2.2-exon 37b, which is the major splice isoform. Our study reveals that canonical AP-1 binding motifs (YxxΦ and [DE]xxxL[LI]), present in exon 37a, but not 37b, enhance intracellular trafficking of exon 37a-containing CaV2.2 to axons and plasma membrane of DRG neurons. Interaction of APs with CaV2.2 channels may also be key underlying mechanisms for differential effects of the dopamine D2 receptor on trafficking of CaV2.2 splice variants. PMID:26511252

  13. Recruitment of the Adaptor Protein Grb2 to EGFR Tetramers

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Adaptor protein Grb2 binds phosphotyrosines in the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) and thereby links receptor activation to intracellular signaling cascades. Here, we investigated how recruitment of Grb2 to EGFR is affected by the spatial organization and quaternary state of activated EGFR. We used the techniques of image correlation spectroscopy (ICS) and lifetime-detected Förster resonance energy transfer (also known as FLIM-based FRET or FLIM–FRET) to measure ligand-induced receptor clustering and Grb2 binding to activated EGFR in BaF/3 cells. BaF/3 cells were stably transfected with fluorescently labeled forms of Grb2 (Grb2–mRFP) and EGFR (EGFR–eGFP). Following stimulation of the cells with EGF, we detected nanometer-scale association of Grb2–mRFP with EGFR–eGFP clusters, which contained, on average, 4 ± 1 copies of EGFR–eGFP per cluster. In contrast, the pool of EGFR–eGFP without Grb2–mRFP had an average cluster size of 1 ± 0.3 EGFR molecules per punctum. In the absence of EGF, there was no association between EGFR–eGFP and Grb2–mRFP. To interpret these data, we extended our recently developed model for EGFR activation, which considers EGFR oligomerization up to tetramers, to include recruitment of Grb2 to phosphorylated EGFR. The extended model, with adjustment of one new parameter (the ratio of the Grb2 and EGFR copy numbers), is consistent with a cluster size distribution where 2% of EGFR monomers, 5% of EGFR dimers, <1% of EGFR trimers, and 94% of EGFR tetramers are associated with Grb2. Together, our experimental and modeling results further implicate tetrameric EGFR as the key signaling unit and call into question the widely held view that dimeric EGFR is the predominant signaling unit. PMID:24697349

  14. The role of palmitoylation and transmembrane domain in sorting of transmembrane adaptor proteins.

    PubMed

    Chum, Tomáš; Glatzová, Daniela; Kvíčalová, Zuzana; Malínský, Jan; Brdička, Tomáš; Cebecauer, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Plasma membrane proteins synthesised at the endoplasmic reticulum are delivered to the cell surface via sorting pathways. Hydrophobic mismatch theory based on the length of the transmembrane domain (TMD) dominates discussion about determinants required for protein sorting to the plasma membrane. Transmembrane adaptor proteins (TRAP) are involved in signalling events which take place at the plasma membrane. Members of this protein family have TMDs of varying length. We were interested in whether palmitoylation or other motifs contribute to the effective sorting of TRAP proteins. We found that palmitoylation is essential for some, but not all, TRAP proteins independent of their TMD length. We also provide evidence that palmitoylation and proximal sequences can modulate sorting of artificial proteins with TMDs of suboptimal length. Our observations point to a unique character of each TMD defined by its primary amino acid sequence and its impact on membrane protein localisation. We conclude that, in addition to the TMD length, secondary sorting determinants such as palmitoylation or flanking sequences have evolved for the localisation of membrane proteins. PMID:26585312

  15. Phosphorylation-Dependent Regulation of the DNA Damage Response of Adaptor Protein KIBRA in Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Mavuluri, Jayadev; Beesetti, Swarnalatha; Surabhi, Rohan; Kremerskothen, Joachim; Venkatraman, Ganesh; Rayala, Suresh K

    2016-05-01

    Multifunctional adaptor proteins encompassing various protein-protein interaction domains play a central role in the DNA damage response pathway. In this report, we show that KIBRA is a physiologically interacting reversible substrate of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase. We identified the site of phosphorylation in KIBRA as threonine 1006, which is embedded within the serine/threonine (S/T) Q consensus motif, by site-directed mutagenesis, and we further confirmed the same with a phospho-(S/T) Q motif-specific antibody. Results from DNA repair functional assays such as the γ-H2AX assay, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), Comet assay, terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, and clonogenic cell survival assay using stable overexpression clones of wild-type (wt.) KIBRA and active (T1006E) and inactive (T1006A) KIBRA phosphorylation mutants showed that T1006 phosphorylation on KIBRA is essential for optimal DNA double-strand break repair in cancer cells. Further, results from stable retroviral short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown (KD) clones of KIBRA and KIBRA knockout (KO) model cells generated by a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas9 system showed that depleting KIBRA levels compromised the DNA repair functions in cancer cells upon inducing DNA damage. All these phenotypic events were reversed upon reconstitution of KIBRA into cells lacking KIBRA knock-in (KI) model cells. All these results point to the fact that phosphorylated KIBRA might be functioning as a scaffolding protein/adaptor protein facilitating the platform for further recruitment of other DNA damage response factors. In summary, these data demonstrate the imperative functional role of KIBRAper se(KIBRA phosphorylation at T1006 site as a molecular switch that regulates the DNA damage response, possibly via the nonhomologous end joining [NHEJ] pathway), suggesting that KIBRA could be a potential

  16. Adaptor Protein-3-Mediated Trafficking of TLR2 Ligands Controls Specificity of Inflammatory Responses but Not Adaptor Complex Assembly.

    PubMed

    Petnicki-Ocwieja, Tanja; Kern, Aurelie; Killpack, Tess L; Bunnell, Stephen C; Hu, Linden T

    2015-11-01

    Innate immune engagement results in the activation of host defenses that produce microbe-specific inflammatory responses. A long-standing interest in the field of innate immunity is to understand how varied host responses are generated through the signaling of just a limited number of receptors. Recently, intracellular trafficking and compartmental partitioning have been identified as mechanisms that provide signaling specificity for receptors by regulating signaling platform assembly. We show that cytokine activation as a result of TLR2 stimulation occurs at different intracellular locations and is mediated by the phagosomal trafficking molecule adaptor protein-3 (AP-3). AP-3 is required for trafficking TLR2 purified ligands or the Lyme disease causing bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, to LAMP-1 lysosomal compartments. The presence of AP-3 is necessary for the activation of cytokines such as IL-6 but not TNF-α or type I IFNs, suggesting induction of these cytokines occurs from a different compartment. Lack of AP-3 does not interfere with the recruitment of TLR signaling adaptors TRAM and MyD88 to the phagosome, indicating that the TLR-MyD88 signaling complex is assembled at a prelysosomal stage and that IL-6 activation depends on proper localization of signaling molecules downstream of MyD88. Finally, infection of AP-3-deficient mice with B. burgdorferi resulted in altered joint inflammation during murine Lyme arthritis. Our studies further elucidate the effects of phagosomal trafficking on tailoring immune responses in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26423153

  17. Molecular basis of substrate selection by the N-end rule adaptor protein ClpS

    SciTech Connect

    Román-Hernández, Giselle; Grant, Robert A.; Sauer, Robert T.; Baker, Tania A.

    2009-06-19

    The N-end rule is a conserved degradation pathway that relates the stability of a protein to its N-terminal amino acid. Here, we present crystal structures of ClpS, the bacterial N-end rule adaptor, alone and engaged with peptides containing N-terminal phenylalanine, leucine, and tryptophan. These structures, together with a previous structure of ClpS bound to an N-terminal tyrosine, illustrate the molecular basis of recognition of the complete set of primary N-end rule amino acids. In each case, the alpha-amino group and side chain of the N-terminal residue are the major determinants of recognition. The binding pocket for the N-end residue is preformed in the free adaptor, and only small adjustments are needed to accommodate N-end rule residues having substantially different sizes and shapes. M53A ClpS is known to mediate degradation of an expanded repertoire of substrates, including those with N-terminal valine or isoleucine. A structure of Met53A ClpS engaged with an N-end rule tryptophan reveals an essentially wild-type mechanism of recognition, indicating that the Met(53) side chain directly enforces specificity by clashing with and excluding beta-branched side chains. Finally, experimental and structural data suggest mechanisms that make proteins with N-terminal methionine bind very poorly to ClpS, explaining why these high-abundance proteins are not degraded via the N-end rule pathway in the cell.

  18. Distinct adaptor proteins assist exit of Kre2-family proteins from the yeast ER

    PubMed Central

    Noda, Yoichi; Hara, Takehiro; Ishii, Minako; Yoda, Koji

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Svp26 protein of S. cerevisiae is an ER- and Golgi-localized integral membrane protein with 4 potential membrane-spanning domains. It functions as an adaptor protein that facilitates the ER exit of Ktr3, a mannosyltransferase required for biosynthesis of O-linked oligosaccharides, and the ER exit of Mnn2 and Mnn5, mannosyltransferases, which participate in the biosynthesis of N-linked oligosaccharides. Ktr3 belongs to the Kre2 family, which consists of 9 members of type-II membrane proteins sharing sequence similarities. In this report, we examined all Kre2 family members and found that the Golgi localizations of two others, Kre2 and Ktr1, were dependent on Svp26 by immunofluorescence microscopy and cell fractionations in sucrose density gradients. We show that Svp26 functions in facilitating the ER exit of Kre2 and Ktr1 by an in vitro COPII budding assay. Golgi localization of Ktr4 was not dependent on Svp26. Screening null mutants of the genes encoding abundant COPII membrane proteins for those showing mislocalization of Ktr4 in the ER revealed that Erv41 and Erv46 are required for the correct Golgi localization of Ktr4. We provide biochemical evidence that the Erv41-Erv46 complex functions as an adaptor protein for ER exit of Ktr4. This is the first demonstration of the molecular function of this evolutionally conserved protein complex. The domain switching experiments show that the lumenal domain of Ktr4 is responsible for recognition by the Erv41-Erv46 complex. Thus, ER exit of Kre2-family proteins is dependent on distinct adaptor proteins and our results provide new insights into the traffic of Kre2-family mannosyltransferases. PMID:24585773

  19. Identification of a new transmembrane adaptor protein that constitutively binds Grb2 in B cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Zhang, Weiguo

    2008-01-01

    Transmembrane adaptor proteins couple antigen receptor engagement to downstream signaling cascades in lymphocytes. One example of these proteins is the linker for activation of T cells (LAT), which plays an indispensable role in T cell activation and development. Here, we report identification of a new transmembrane adaptor molecule, namely growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2)-binding adaptor protein, transmembrane (GAPT), which is expressed in B cells and myeloid cells. Similar to LAT, GAPT has an extracellular domain, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic tail with multiple Grb2-binding motifs. In contrast to other transmembrane adaptor proteins, GAPT is not phosphorylated upon BCR ligation but associates with Grb2 constitutively through its proline-rich region. Targeted disruption of the gapt gene in mice affects neither B cell development nor a nitrophenylacetyl-specific antibody response. However, in the absence of GAPT, B cell proliferation after BCR cross-linking is enhanced. In aged GAPT−/− mice, the number of marginal zone (MZ) B cells is increased, and other B cell subsets are normal. The serum concentrations of IgM, IgG2b, and IgG3 are also elevated in these mice. These data indicate that GAPT might play an important role in control of B cell activation and proper maintenance of MZ B cells. PMID:18559951

  20. Merkel cell polyomavirus small T antigen targets the NEMO adaptor protein to disrupt inflammatory signaling.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, David A; Abdul-Sada, Hussein; Knight, Laura M; Jackson, Brian R; Richards, Kathryn; Prescott, Emma L; Peach, A Howard S; Blair, G Eric; Macdonald, Andrew; Whitehouse, Adrian

    2013-12-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a highly aggressive nonmelanoma skin cancer arising from epidermal mechanoreceptor Merkel cells. In 2008, a novel human polyomavirus, Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), was identified and is strongly implicated in MCC pathogenesis. Currently, little is known regarding the virus-host cell interactions which support virus replication and virus-induced mechanisms in cellular transformation and metastasis. Here we identify a new function of MCPyV small T antigen (ST) as an inhibitor of NF-κB-mediated transcription. This effect is due to an interaction between MCPyV ST and the NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO) adaptor protein. MCPyV ST expression inhibits IκB kinase α (IKKα)/IKKβ-mediated IκB phosphorylation, which limits translocation of the NF-κB heterodimer to the nucleus. Regulation of this process involves a previously undescribed interaction between MCPyV ST and the cellular phosphatase subunits, protein phosphatase 4C (PP4C) and/or protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) Aβ, but not PP2A Aα. Together, these results highlight a novel function of MCPyV ST to subvert the innate immune response, allowing establishment of early or persistent infection within the host cell. PMID:24109239

  1. Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Small T Antigen Targets the NEMO Adaptor Protein To Disrupt Inflammatory Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, David A.; Abdul-Sada, Hussein; Knight, Laura M.; Jackson, Brian R.; Richards, Kathryn; Prescott, Emma L.; Peach, A. Howard S.; Blair, G. Eric

    2013-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a highly aggressive nonmelanoma skin cancer arising from epidermal mechanoreceptor Merkel cells. In 2008, a novel human polyomavirus, Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), was identified and is strongly implicated in MCC pathogenesis. Currently, little is known regarding the virus-host cell interactions which support virus replication and virus-induced mechanisms in cellular transformation and metastasis. Here we identify a new function of MCPyV small T antigen (ST) as an inhibitor of NF-κB-mediated transcription. This effect is due to an interaction between MCPyV ST and the NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO) adaptor protein. MCPyV ST expression inhibits IκB kinase α (IKKα)/IKKβ-mediated IκB phosphorylation, which limits translocation of the NF-κB heterodimer to the nucleus. Regulation of this process involves a previously undescribed interaction between MCPyV ST and the cellular phosphatase subunits, protein phosphatase 4C (PP4C) and/or protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) Aβ, but not PP2A Aα. Together, these results highlight a novel function of MCPyV ST to subvert the innate immune response, allowing establishment of early or persistent infection within the host cell. PMID:24109239

  2. Adaptor Protein 2 Regulates Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis and Cyst Formation in Giardia lamblia

    PubMed Central

    Rivero, Maria R.; Vranych, Cecilia V.; Bisbal, Mariano; Maletto, Belkys A.; Ropolo, Andrea S.; Touz, Maria C.

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis The parasite Giardia lamblia possesses peripheral vacuoles (PVs) that function as both endosomes and lysosomes and are implicated in the adaptation, differentiation, and survival of the parasite in different environments. The mechanisms by which Giardia traffics essential proteins to these organelles and regulates their secretion have important implications in the control of parasite dissemination. In this study, we describe the participation of the heterotetrameric clathrin-adaptor protein gAP2 complex in lysosomal protein trafficking. A specific monoclonal antibody against the medium subunit (gμ2) of gAP2 showed localization of this complex to the PVs, cytoplasm, and plasma membrane in the growing trophozoites. gAP2 also colocalized with clathrin in the PVs, suggesting its involvement in endocytosis. Uptake experiments using standard molecules for the study of endocytosis revealed that gAP2 specifically participated in the endocytosis of LDL. Targeted downregulation of the gene encoding gμ2 in growing and encysting trophozoites resulted in a large decrease in the amount of cell growth and cyst wall formation, suggesting a distinct mechanism in which gAP2 is directly involved in both endocytosis and vesicular trafficking. PMID:20199400

  3. SR proteins are NXF1 adaptors that link alternative RNA processing to mRNA export

    PubMed Central

    Müller-McNicoll, Michaela; Botti, Valentina; de Jesus Domingues, Antonio M.; Brandl, Holger; Schwich, Oliver D.; Steiner, Michaela C.; Curk, Tomaz; Poser, Ina; Zarnack, Kathi; Neugebauer, Karla M.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear export factor 1 (NXF1) exports mRNA to the cytoplasm after recruitment to mRNA by specific adaptor proteins. How and why cells use numerous different export adaptors is poorly understood. Here we critically evaluate members of the SR protein family (SRSF1–7) for their potential to act as NXF1 adaptors that couple pre-mRNA processing to mRNA export. Consistent with this proposal, >1000 endogenous mRNAs required individual SR proteins for nuclear export in vivo. To address the mechanism, transcriptome-wide RNA-binding profiles of NXF1 and SRSF1–7 were determined in parallel by individual-nucleotide-resolution UV cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (iCLIP). Quantitative comparisons of RNA-binding sites showed that NXF1 and SR proteins bind mRNA targets at adjacent sites, indicative of cobinding. SRSF3 emerged as the most potent NXF1 adaptor, conferring sequence specificity to RNA binding by NXF1 in last exons. Interestingly, SRSF3 and SRSF7 were shown to bind different sites in last exons and regulate 3′ untranslated region length in an opposing manner. Both SRSF3 and SRSF7 promoted NXF1 recruitment to mRNA. Thus, SRSF3 and SRSF7 couple alternative splicing and polyadenylation to NXF1-mediated mRNA export, thereby controlling the cytoplasmic abundance of transcripts with alternative 3′ ends. PMID:26944680

  4. SR proteins are NXF1 adaptors that link alternative RNA processing to mRNA export.

    PubMed

    Müller-McNicoll, Michaela; Botti, Valentina; de Jesus Domingues, Antonio M; Brandl, Holger; Schwich, Oliver D; Steiner, Michaela C; Curk, Tomaz; Poser, Ina; Zarnack, Kathi; Neugebauer, Karla M

    2016-03-01

    Nuclear export factor 1 (NXF1) exports mRNA to the cytoplasm after recruitment to mRNA by specific adaptor proteins. How and why cells use numerous different export adaptors is poorly understood. Here we critically evaluate members of the SR protein family (SRSF1-7) for their potential to act as NXF1 adaptors that couple pre-mRNA processing to mRNA export. Consistent with this proposal, >1000 endogenous mRNAs required individual SR proteins for nuclear export in vivo. To address the mechanism, transcriptome-wide RNA-binding profiles of NXF1 and SRSF1-7 were determined in parallel by individual-nucleotide-resolution UV cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (iCLIP). Quantitative comparisons of RNA-binding sites showed that NXF1 and SR proteins bind mRNA targets at adjacent sites, indicative of cobinding. SRSF3 emerged as the most potent NXF1 adaptor, conferring sequence specificity to RNA binding by NXF1 in last exons. Interestingly, SRSF3 and SRSF7 were shown to bind different sites in last exons and regulate 3' untranslated region length in an opposing manner. Both SRSF3 and SRSF7 promoted NXF1 recruitment to mRNA. Thus, SRSF3 and SRSF7 couple alternative splicing and polyadenylation to NXF1-mediated mRNA export, thereby controlling the cytoplasmic abundance of transcripts with alternative 3' ends. PMID:26944680

  5. Identification of human proteins functionally conserved with the yeast putative adaptors ADA2 and GCN5.

    PubMed Central

    Candau, R; Moore, P A; Wang, L; Barlev, N; Ying, C Y; Rosen, C A; Berger, S L

    1996-01-01

    Transcriptional adaptor proteins are required for full function of higher eukaryotic acidic activators in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, suggesting that this pathway of activation is evolutionarily conserved. Consistent with this view, we have identified possible human homologs of yeast ADA2 (yADA2) and yeast GCN5 (yGCN5), components of a putative adaptor complex. While there is overall sequence similarity between the yeast and human proteins, perhaps more significant is conservation of key sequence features with other known adaptors. We show several functional similarities between the human and yeast adaptors. First, as shown for yADA2 and yGCN5, human ADA2 (hADA2) and human GCN5 (hGCN5) interacted in vivo in a yeast two-hybrid assay. Moreover, hGCN5 interacted with yADA2 in this assay, suggesting that the human proteins form similar complexes. Second, both yADA2 and hADA2 contain cryptic activation domains. Third, hGCN5 and yGCN5 had similar stabilizing effects on yADA2 in vivo. Furthermore, the region of yADA2 that interacted with yGCN5 mapped to the amino terminus of yADA2, which is highly conserved in hADA2. Most striking, is the behavior of the human proteins in human cells. First, GAL4-hADA2 activated transcription in HeLa cells, and second, either hADA2 or hGCN5 augmented GAL4-VP16 activation. These data indicated that the human proteins correspond to functional homologs of the yeast adaptors, suggesting that these cofactors play a key role in transcriptional activation. PMID:8552087

  6. Architecture and roles of periplasmic adaptor proteins in tripartite efflux assemblies.

    PubMed

    Symmons, Martyn F; Marshall, Robert L; Bavro, Vassiliy N

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have seen major advances in the structural understanding of the different components of tripartite efflux assemblies, which encompass the multidrug efflux (MDR) pumps and type I secretion systems. The majority of these investigations have focused on the role played by the inner membrane transporters and the outer membrane factor (OMF), leaving the third component of the system - the Periplasmic Adaptor Proteins (PAPs) - relatively understudied. Here we review the current state of knowledge of these versatile proteins which, far from being passive linkers between the OMF and the transporter, emerge as active architects of tripartite assemblies, and play diverse roles in the transport process. Recognition between the PAPs and OMFs is essential for pump assembly and function, and targeting this interaction may provide a novel avenue for combating multidrug resistance. With the recent advances elucidating the drug efflux and energetics of the tripartite assemblies, the understanding of the interaction between the OMFs and PAPs is the last piece remaining in the complete structure of the tripartite pump assembly puzzle. PMID:26074901

  7. Architecture and roles of periplasmic adaptor proteins in tripartite efflux assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Symmons, Martyn F.; Marshall, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have seen major advances in the structural understanding of the different components of tripartite efflux assemblies, which encompass the multidrug efflux (MDR) pumps and type I secretion systems. The majority of these investigations have focused on the role played by the inner membrane transporters and the outer membrane factor (OMF), leaving the third component of the system – the Periplasmic Adaptor Proteins (PAPs) – relatively understudied. Here we review the current state of knowledge of these versatile proteins which, far from being passive linkers between the OMF and the transporter, emerge as active architects of tripartite assemblies, and play diverse roles in the transport process. Recognition between the PAPs and OMFs is essential for pump assembly and function, and targeting this interaction may provide a novel avenue for combating multidrug resistance. With the recent advances elucidating the drug efflux and energetics of the tripartite assemblies, the understanding of the interaction between the OMFs and PAPs is the last piece remaining in the complete structure of the tripartite pump assembly puzzle. PMID:26074901

  8. Insulin Receptor Substrate Adaptor Proteins Mediate Prognostic Gene Expression Profiles in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Marc A.; Ibrahim, Yasir H.; Oh, Annabell S.; Fagan, Dedra H.; Byron, Sara A.; Sarver, Aaron L.; Lee, Adrian V.; Shaw, Leslie M.; Fan, Cheng; Perou, Charles M.; Yee, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Therapies targeting the type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) have not been developed with predictive biomarkers to identify tumors with receptor activation. We have previously shown that the insulin receptor substrate (IRS) adaptor proteins are necessary for linking IGF1R to downstream signaling pathways and the malignant phenotype in breast cancer cells. The purpose of this study was to identify gene expression profiles downstream of IGF1R and its two adaptor proteins. IRS-null breast cancer cells (T47D-YA) were engineered to express IRS-1 or IRS-2 alone and their ability to mediate IGF ligand-induced proliferation, motility, and gene expression determined. Global gene expression signatures reflecting IRS adaptor specific and primary vs. secondary ligand response were derived (Early IRS-1, Late IRS-1, Early IRS-2 and Late IRS-2) and functional pathway analysis examined. IRS isoforms mediated distinct gene expression profiles, functional pathways, and breast cancer subtype association. For example, IRS-1/2-induced TGFb2 expression and blockade of TGFb2 abrogated IGF-induced cell migration. In addition, the prognostic value of IRS proteins was significant in the luminal B breast tumor subtype. Univariate and multivariate analyses confirmed that IRS adaptor signatures correlated with poor outcome as measured by recurrence-free and overall survival. Thus, IRS adaptor protein expression is required for IGF ligand responses in breast cancer cells. IRS-specific gene signatures represent accurate surrogates of IGF activity and could predict response to anti-IGF therapy in breast cancer. PMID:26991655

  9. Exploring structure and interactions of the bacterial adaptor protein YjbH by crosslinking mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Al-Eryani, Yusra; Ib Rasmussen, Morten; Kjellström, Sven; Højrup, Peter; Emanuelsson, Cecilia; von Wachenfeldt, Claes

    2016-09-01

    Adaptor proteins assist proteases in degrading specific proteins under appropriate conditions. The adaptor protein YjbH promotes the degradation of an important global transcriptional regulator Spx, which controls the expression of hundreds of genes and operons in response to thiol-specific oxidative stress in Bacillus subtilis. Under normal growth conditions, the transcription factor is bound to the adaptor protein and therefore degraded by the AAA+ protease ClpXP. If this binding is alleviated during stress, the transcription factor accumulates and turns on genes encoding stress-alleviating proteins. The adaptor protein YjbH is thus a key player involved in these interactions but its structure is unknown. To gain insight into its structure and interactions we have used chemical crosslinking mass spectrometry. Distance constraints obtained from the crosslinked monomer were used to select and validate a structure model of YjbH and then to probe its interactions with other proteins. The core structure of YjbH is reminiscent of DsbA family proteins. One lysine residue in YjbH (K177), located in one of the α-helices outside the thioredoxin fold, crosslinked to both Spx K99 and Spx K117, thereby suggesting one side of the YjbH for the interaction with Spx. Another lysine residue that crosslinked to Spx was YjbH K5, located in the long and presumably very flexible N-terminal arm of YjbH. Our crosslinking data lend support to a model proposed based on site-directed mutagenesis where the YjbH interaction with Spx can stabilize and present the C-terminal region of Spx for protease recognition and proteolysis. Proteins 2016; 84:1234-1245. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27191337

  10. Nuclear Translocation of Crk Adaptor Proteins by the Influenza A Virus NS1 Protein.

    PubMed

    Ylösmäki, Leena; Fagerlund, Riku; Kuisma, Inka; Julkunen, Ilkka; Saksela, Kalle

    2016-01-01

    The non-structural protein-1 (NS1) of many influenza A strains, especially those of avian origin, contains an SH3 ligand motif, which binds tightly to the cellular adaptor proteins Crk (Chicken tumor virus number 10 (CT10) regulator of kinase) and Crk-like adapter protein (CrkL). This interaction has been shown to potentiate NS1-induced activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), but additional effects on the host cell physiology may exist. Here we show that NS1 can induce an efficient translocation of Crk proteins from the cytoplasm into the nucleus, which results in an altered pattern of nuclear protein tyrosine phosphorylation. This was not observed using NS1 proteins deficient in SH3 binding or engineered to be exclusively cytoplasmic, indicating a physical role for NS1 as a carrier in the nuclear translocation of Crk. These data further emphasize the role of Crk proteins as host cell interaction partners of NS1, and highlight the potential for host cell manipulation gained by a viral protein simply via acquiring a short SH3 binding motif. PMID:27092521

  11. Nuclear Translocation of Crk Adaptor Proteins by the Influenza A Virus NS1 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Ylösmäki, Leena; Fagerlund, Riku; Kuisma, Inka; Julkunen, Ilkka; Saksela, Kalle

    2016-01-01

    The non-structural protein-1 (NS1) of many influenza A strains, especially those of avian origin, contains an SH3 ligand motif, which binds tightly to the cellular adaptor proteins Crk (Chicken tumor virus number 10 (CT10) regulator of kinase) and Crk-like adapter protein (CrkL). This interaction has been shown to potentiate NS1-induced activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), but additional effects on the host cell physiology may exist. Here we show that NS1 can induce an efficient translocation of Crk proteins from the cytoplasm into the nucleus, which results in an altered pattern of nuclear protein tyrosine phosphorylation. This was not observed using NS1 proteins deficient in SH3 binding or engineered to be exclusively cytoplasmic, indicating a physical role for NS1 as a carrier in the nuclear translocation of Crk. These data further emphasize the role of Crk proteins as host cell interaction partners of NS1, and highlight the potential for host cell manipulation gained by a viral protein simply via acquiring a short SH3 binding motif. PMID:27092521

  12. New Insights to Clathrin and Adaptor Protein 2 for the Design and Development of Therapeutic Strategies.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Ebbe Toftgaard; Larsen, Agnete; Zollo, Alen; Jørgensen, Arne L; Sanggaard, Kristian W; Enghild, Jan J; Matrone, Carmela

    2015-01-01

    The Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) has been extensively studied for its role as the precursor of the β-amyloid protein (Aβ) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, our understanding of the normal function of APP is still patchy. Emerging evidence indicates that a dysfunction in APP trafficking and degradation can be responsible for neuronal deficits and progressive degeneration in humans. We recently reported that the Y682 mutation in the 682YENPTY687 domain of APP affects its binding to specific adaptor proteins and leads to its anomalous trafficking, to defects in the autophagy machinery and to neuronal degeneration. In order to identify adaptors that influence APP function, we performed pull-down experiments followed by quantitative mass spectrometry (MS) on hippocampal tissue extracts of three month-old mice incubated with either the 682YENPTY687 peptide, its mutated form, 682GENPTY687 or its phosphorylated form, 682pYENPTY687. Our experiments resulted in the identification of two proteins involved in APP internalization and trafficking: Clathrin heavy chain (hc) and its Adaptor Protein 2 (AP-2). Overall our results consolidate and refine the importance of Y682 in APP normal functions from an animal model of premature aging and dementia. Additionally, they open the perspective to consider Clathrin hc and AP-2 as potential targets for the design and development of new therapeutic strategies. PMID:26690411

  13. New Insights to Clathrin and Adaptor Protein 2 for the Design and Development of Therapeutic Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, Ebbe Toftgaard; Larsen, Agnete; Zollo, Alen; Jørgensen, Arne L.; Sanggaard, Kristian W.; Enghild, Jan J.; Matrone, Carmela

    2015-01-01

    The Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) has been extensively studied for its role as the precursor of the β-amyloid protein (Aβ) in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, our understanding of the normal function of APP is still patchy. Emerging evidence indicates that a dysfunction in APP trafficking and degradation can be responsible for neuronal deficits and progressive degeneration in humans. We recently reported that the Y682 mutation in the 682YENPTY687 domain of APP affects its binding to specific adaptor proteins and leads to its anomalous trafficking, to defects in the autophagy machinery and to neuronal degeneration. In order to identify adaptors that influence APP function, we performed pull-down experiments followed by quantitative mass spectrometry (MS) on hippocampal tissue extracts of three month-old mice incubated with either the 682YENPTY687 peptide, its mutated form, 682GENPTY687 or its phosphorylated form, 682pYENPTY687. Our experiments resulted in the identification of two proteins involved in APP internalization and trafficking: Clathrin heavy chain (hc) and its Adaptor Protein 2 (AP-2). Overall our results consolidate and refine the importance of Y682 in APP normal functions from an animal model of premature aging and dementia. Additionally, they open the perspective to consider Clathrin hc and AP-2 as potential targets for the design and development of new therapeutic strategies. PMID:26690411

  14. Science Signaling Podcast for 12 July 2016: Adaptor proteins limit signaling.

    PubMed

    Wiley, H Steven; VanHook, Annalisa M

    2016-01-01

    This Podcast features an interview with Steven Wiley, senior author of a Research Article that appears in the 12 July 2016 issue of Science Signaling, about how the abundance of adaptor proteins and feedback regulators affect the flow of information downstream of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Information flows through a signaling pathway by sequential interactions between core components of the pathway, many of which have enzymatic activity. Adaptor proteins do not directly participate in relaying the signal and do not have enzymatic activity, but are important for signaling because they facilitate interactions between the core components. Using quantitative methods, Shi et al demonstrated that core components of the EGFR pathway were highly abundant in both normal cells and cancer cells. However, adaptor proteins were present in much lower abundance in both cell types, indicating that it is the abundance of these proteins that limit signaling downstream of EGFR. The authors also found that differences in EGFR signaling between different cell types likely resulted from the variable abundance of feedback regulators.Listen to Podcast. PMID:27405978

  15. Large hepatitis delta antigen is a novel clathrin adaptor-like protein.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cheng; Chang, Shin C; Yu, I-Chen; Tsay, Yeou-Guang; Chang, Ming-Fu

    2007-06-01

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is a common pathway for viral entry, but little is known about the direct association of viral protein with clathrin in the cytoplasm. In this study, a putative clathrin box known to be conserved in clathrin adaptors was identified at the C terminus of the large hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg-L). Similar to clathrin adaptors, HDAg-L directly interacted with the N terminus of the clathrin heavy chain through the clathrin box. HDAg-L is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttle protein important for the assembly of hepatitis delta virus (HDV). Here, we demonstrated that brefeldin A and wortmannin, inhibitors of clathrin-mediated exocytosis and endosomal trafficking, respectively, specifically blocked HDV assembly but had no effect on the assembly of the small surface antigen of hepatitis B virus. In addition, cytoplasm-localized HDAg-L inhibited the clathrin-mediated endocytosis of transferrin and the degradation of epidermal growth factor receptor. These results indicate that HDAg-L is a new clathrin adaptor-like protein, and it may be involved in the maturation and pathogenesis of HDV coinfection or superinfection with hepatitis B virus through interaction with clathrin. PMID:17376909

  16. Molecular physiology of the tensin brotherhood of integrin adaptor proteins.

    PubMed

    Haynie, Donald T

    2014-07-01

    Numerous proteins have been identified as constituents of the adhesome, the totality of molecular components in the supramolecular assemblies known as focal adhesions, fibrillar adhesions and other kinds of adhesive contact. The transmembrane receptor proteins called integrins are pivotal adhesome members, providing a physical link between the extracellular matrix (ECM) and the actin cytoskeleton. Tensins are ever more widely investigated intracellular adhesome constituents. Involved in cell attachment and migration, cytoskeleton reorganization, signal transduction and other processes relevant to cancer research, tensins have recently been linked to functional properties of deleted in liver cancer 1 (DLC1) and a mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), to cell migration in breast cancer, and to metastasis suppression in the kidney. Tensins are close relatives of phosphatase homolog/tensin homolog (PTEN), an extensively studied tumor suppressor. Such findings are recasting the earlier vision of tensin (TNS) as an actin-filament (F-actin) capping protein in a different light. This critical review aims to summarize current knowledge on tensins and thus to highlight key points concerning the expression, structure, function, and evolution of the various members of the TNS brotherhood. Insight is sought by comparisons with homologous proteins. Some historical points are added for perspective. PMID:24634006

  17. Differential Regulation of Clathrin and Its Adaptor Proteins during Membrane Recruitment for Endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Hu, Tianwei; Yan, Xu; Meng, Tingting; Wang, Yutong; Wang, Qingmei; Zhang, Xiaoyue; Gu, Ying; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Clara; Gadeyne, Astrid; Lin, Jinxing; Persson, Staffan; Van Damme, Daniël; Li, Chuanyou; Bednarek, Sebastian Y; Pan, Jianwei

    2016-05-01

    In plants, clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is dependent on the function of clathrin and its accessory heterooligomeric adaptor protein complexes, ADAPTOR PROTEIN2 (AP-2) and the TPLATE complex (TPC), and is negatively regulated by the hormones auxin and salicylic acid (SA). The details for how clathrin and its adaptor complexes are recruited to the plasma membrane (PM) to regulate CME, however, are poorly understood. We found that SA and the pharmacological CME inhibitor tyrphostin A23 reduce the membrane association of clathrin and AP-2, but not that of the TPC, whereas auxin solely affected clathrin membrane association, in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Genetic and pharmacological experiments revealed that loss of AP2μ or AP2σ partially affected the membrane association of other AP-2 subunits and that the AP-2 subunit AP2σ, but not AP2μ, was required for SA- and tyrphostin A23-dependent inhibition of CME Furthermore, we show that although AP-2 and the TPC are both required for the PM recruitment of clathrin in wild-type cells, the TPC is necessary for clathrin PM association in AP-2-deficient cells. These results indicate that developmental signals may differentially modulate the membrane recruitment of clathrin and its core accessory complexes to regulate the process of CME in plant cells. PMID:26945051

  18. Differential Regulation of Clathrin and Its Adaptor Proteins during Membrane Recruitment for Endocytosis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Hu, Tianwei; Yan, Xu; Meng, Tingting; Wang, Yutong; Wang, Qingmei; Zhang, Xiaoyue; Gu, Ying; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Clara; Gadeyne, Astrid; Lin, Jinxing

    2016-01-01

    In plants, clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is dependent on the function of clathrin and its accessory heterooligomeric adaptor protein complexes, ADAPTOR PROTEIN2 (AP-2) and the TPLATE complex (TPC), and is negatively regulated by the hormones auxin and salicylic acid (SA). The details for how clathrin and its adaptor complexes are recruited to the plasma membrane (PM) to regulate CME, however, are poorly understood. We found that SA and the pharmacological CME inhibitor tyrphostin A23 reduce the membrane association of clathrin and AP-2, but not that of the TPC, whereas auxin solely affected clathrin membrane association, in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Genetic and pharmacological experiments revealed that loss of AP2μ or AP2σ partially affected the membrane association of other AP-2 subunits and that the AP-2 subunit AP2σ, but not AP2μ, was required for SA- and tyrphostin A23-dependent inhibition of CME. Furthermore, we show that although AP-2 and the TPC are both required for the PM recruitment of clathrin in wild-type cells, the TPC is necessary for clathrin PM association in AP-2-deficient cells. These results indicate that developmental signals may differentially modulate the membrane recruitment of clathrin and its core accessory complexes to regulate the process of CME in plant cells. PMID:26945051

  19. Your personalized protein structure: Andrei N. Lupas fused to GCN4 adaptors.

    PubMed

    Deiss, Silvia; Hernandez Alvarez, Birte; Bär, Kerstin; Ewers, Carolin P; Coles, Murray; Albrecht, Reinhard; Hartmann, Marcus D

    2014-06-01

    This work presents a protein structure that has been designed purely for aesthetic reasons, symbolizing decades of coiled-coil research and praising its most fundamental model system, the GCN4 leucine zipper. The GCN4 leucine zipper is a highly stable coiled coil which can be tuned to adopt different oligomeric states via mutation of its core residues. For these reasons it is used in structural studies as a stabilizing fusion adaptor. On the occasion of the 50th birthday of Andrei N. Lupas, we used it to create the first personalized protein structure: we fused the sequence ANDREI-N-LVPAS in heptad register to trimeric GCN4 adaptors and determined its structure by X-ray crystallography. The structure demonstrates the robustness and versatility of GCN4 as a fusion adaptor. We learn how proline can be accommodated in trimeric coiled coils, and put the structure into the context of the other GCN4-fusion structures known to date. PMID:24486584

  20. The polarity protein Par3 regulates APP trafficking and processing through the endocytic adaptor protein Numb.

    PubMed

    Sun, Miao; Asghar, Suwaiba Z; Zhang, Huaye

    2016-09-01

    The processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) into β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) is a key step in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and trafficking dysregulations of APP and its secretases contribute significantly to altered APP processing. Here we show that the cell polarity protein Par3 plays an important role in APP processing and trafficking. We found that the expression of full length Par3 is significantly decreased in AD patients. Overexpression of Par3 promotes non-amyloidogenic APP processing, while depletion of Par3 induces intracellular accumulation of Aβ. We further show that Par3 functions by regulating APP trafficking. Loss of Par3 decreases surface expression of APP by targeting APP to the late endosome/lysosome pathway. Finally, we show that the effects of Par3 are mediated through the endocytic adaptor protein Numb, and Par3 functions by interfering with the interaction between Numb and APP. Together, our studies show a novel role for Par3 in regulating APP processing and trafficking. PMID:27072891

  1. Surfactant Protein A Enhances Constitutive Immune Functions of Clathrin Heavy Chain and Clathrin Adaptor Protein 2.

    PubMed

    Moulakakis, Christina; Steinhäuser, Christine; Biedziak, Dominika; Freundt, Katja; Reiling, Norbert; Stamme, Cordula

    2016-07-01

    NF-κB transcription factors are key regulators of pulmonary inflammatory disorders and repair. Constitutive lung cell type- and microenvironment-specific NF-κB/inhibitor κBα (IκB-α) regulation, however, is poorly understood. Surfactant protein (SP)-A provides both a critical homeostatic and lung defense control, in part by immune instruction of alveolar macrophages (AMs) via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. The central endocytic proteins, clathrin heavy chain (CHC) and the clathrin adaptor protein (AP) complex AP2, have pivotal alternative roles in cellular homeostasis that are endocytosis independent. Here, we dissect endocytic from alternative functions of CHC, the α-subunit of AP2, and dynamin in basal and SP-A-modified LPS signaling of macrophages. As revealed by pharmacological inhibition and RNA interference in primary AMs and RAW264.7 macrophages, respectively, CHC and α-adaptin, but not dynamin, prevent IκB-α degradation and TNF-α release, independent of their canonical role in membrane trafficking. Kinetics studies employing confocal microscopy, Western analysis, and immunomagnetic sorting revealed that SP-A transiently enhances the basal protein expression of CHC and α-adaptin, depending on early activation of protein kinase CK2 (former casein kinase II) and Akt1 in primary AMs from rats, SP-A(+/+), and SP-A(-/-) mice, as well as in vivo when intratracheally administered to SP-A(+/+) mice. Constitutive immunomodulation by SP-A, but not SP-A-mediated inhibition of LPS-induced NF-κB activity and TNF-α release, requires CHC, α-adaptin, and dynamin. Our data demonstrate that endocytic proteins constitutively restrict NF-κB activity in macrophages and provide evidence that SP-A enhances the immune regulatory capacity of these proteins, revealing a previously unknown pathway of microenvironment-specific NF-κB regulation in the lung. PMID:26771574

  2. The Adaptor Protein p62 Is Involved in RANKL-induced Autophagy and Osteoclastogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rui-Fang; Chen, Gang; Ren, Jian-Gang; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Zhong-Xing; Liu, Bing; Zhao, Yi-Fang

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have implicated autophagy in osteoclast differentiation. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of p62, a characterized adaptor protein for autophagy, in RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. Real-time quantitative PCR and western blot analyses were used to evaluate the expression levels of autophagy-related markers during RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in mouse macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells. Meanwhile, the potential relationship between p62/LC3 localization and F-actin ring formation was tested using double-labeling immunofluorescence. Then, the expression of p62 in RAW264.7 cells was knocked down using small-interfering RNA (siRNA), followed by detecting its influence on RANKL-induced autophagy activation, osteoclast differentiation, and F-actin ring formation. The data showed that several key autophagy-related markers including p62 were significantly altered during RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation. In addition, the expression and localization of p62 showed negative correlation with LC3 accumulation and F-actin ring formation, as demonstrated by western blot and immunofluorescence analyses, respectively. Importantly, the knockdown of p62 obviously attenuated RANKL-induced expression of autophagy- and osteoclastogenesis-related genes, formation of TRAP-positive multinuclear cells, accumulation of LC3, as well as formation of F-actin ring. Our study indicates that p62 may play essential roles in RANKL-induced autophagy and osteoclastogenesis, which may help to develop a novel therapeutic strategy against osteoclastogenesis-related diseases. PMID:25163928

  3. The SH2B1 Adaptor Protein Associates with a Proximal Region of the Erythropoietin Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Javadi, Mojib; Hofstätter, Edda; Stickle, Natalie; Beattie, Bryan K.; Jaster, Robert; Carter-Su, Christin; Barber, Dwayne L.

    2012-01-01

    Gene targeting experiments have shown that the cytokine erythropoietin (EPO), its cognate erythropoietin receptor (EPO-R), and associated Janus tyrosine kinase, JAK2, are all essential for erythropoiesis. Structural-functional and murine knock-in experiments have suggested that EPO-R Tyr-343 is important in EPO-mediated mitogenesis. Although Stat5 binds to EPO-R phosphotyrosine 343, the initial Stat5-deficient mice did not have profound erythroid abnormalities suggesting that additional Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing effectors may bind to EPO-R Tyr-343 and couple to downstream signaling pathways. We have utilized cloning of ligand target (COLT) screening to demonstrate that EPO-R Tyr(P)-343 and Tyr(P)-401 bind to the SH2 domain-containing adaptor protein SH2B1β. Immunoprecipitation and in vitro mixing experiments reveal that EPO-R binds to SH2B1 in an SH2 domain-dependent manner and that the sequence that confers SH2B1 binding to the EPO-R is pYXXL. Previous studies have shown that SH2B1 binds directly to JAK2, but we show that in hematopoietic cells, SH2B1β preferentially associates with the EPO-R. SH2B1 is capable of constitutive association with EPO-R, which is necessary for its optimal SH2-dependent recruitment to EPO-R-Tyr(P)-343/Tyr(P)-401. We also demonstrate that SH2B1 is responsive to EPO stimulation and becomes phosphorylated, most likely on serines/threonines, in an EPO dose- and time-dependent manner. In the absence of SH2B1, we observe enhanced activation of signaling pathways downstream of the EPO-R, indicating that SH2B1 is a negative regulator of EPO signaling. PMID:22669948

  4. The SH2B1 adaptor protein associates with a proximal region of the erythropoietin receptor.

    PubMed

    Javadi, Mojib; Hofstätter, Edda; Stickle, Natalie; Beattie, Bryan K; Jaster, Robert; Carter-Su, Christin; Barber, Dwayne L

    2012-07-27

    Gene targeting experiments have shown that the cytokine erythropoietin (EPO), its cognate erythropoietin receptor (EPO-R), and associated Janus tyrosine kinase, JAK2, are all essential for erythropoiesis. Structural-functional and murine knock-in experiments have suggested that EPO-R Tyr-343 is important in EPO-mediated mitogenesis. Although Stat5 binds to EPO-R phosphotyrosine 343, the initial Stat5-deficient mice did not have profound erythroid abnormalities suggesting that additional Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing effectors may bind to EPO-R Tyr-343 and couple to downstream signaling pathways. We have utilized cloning of ligand target (COLT) screening to demonstrate that EPO-R Tyr(P)-343 and Tyr(P)-401 bind to the SH2 domain-containing adaptor protein SH2B1β. Immunoprecipitation and in vitro mixing experiments reveal that EPO-R binds to SH2B1 in an SH2 domain-dependent manner and that the sequence that confers SH2B1 binding to the EPO-R is pYXXL. Previous studies have shown that SH2B1 binds directly to JAK2, but we show that in hematopoietic cells, SH2B1β preferentially associates with the EPO-R. SH2B1 is capable of constitutive association with EPO-R, which is necessary for its optimal SH2-dependent recruitment to EPO-R-Tyr(P)-343/Tyr(P)-401. We also demonstrate that SH2B1 is responsive to EPO stimulation and becomes phosphorylated, most likely on serines/threonines, in an EPO dose- and time-dependent manner. In the absence of SH2B1, we observe enhanced activation of signaling pathways downstream of the EPO-R, indicating that SH2B1 is a negative regulator of EPO signaling. PMID:22669948

  5. A Role for the Adaptor Proteins TRAM and TRIF in Toll-like Receptor 2 Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Nilsen, Nadra J.; Vladimer, Gregory I.; Stenvik, Jørgen; Orning, M. Pontus A.; Zeid-Kilani, Maria V.; Bugge, Marit; Bergstroem, Bjarte; Conlon, Joseph; Husebye, Harald; Hise, Amy G.; Fitzgerald, Katherine A.; Espevik, Terje; Lien, Egil

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are involved in sensing invading microbes by host innate immunity. TLR2 recognizes bacterial lipoproteins/lipopeptides, and lipopolysaccharide activates TLR4. TLR2 and TLR4 signal via the Toll/interleukin-1 receptor adaptors MyD88 and MAL, leading to NF-κB activation. TLR4 also utilizes the adaptors TRAM and TRIF, resulting in activation of interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 3. Here, we report a new role for TRAM and TRIF in TLR2 regulation and signaling. Interestingly, we observed that TLR2-mediated induction of the chemokine Ccl5 was impaired in TRAM or TRIF deficient macrophages. Inhibition of endocytosis reduced Ccl5 release, and the data also suggested that TRAM and TLR2 co-localize in early endosomes, supporting the hypothesis that signaling may occur from an intracellular compartment. Ccl5 release following lipoprotein challenge additionally involved the kinase Tbk-1 and Irf3, as well as MyD88 and Irf1. Induction of Interferon-β and Ccl4 by lipoproteins was also partially impaired in cells lacking TRIF cells. Our results show a novel function of TRAM and TRIF in TLR2-mediated signal transduction, and the findings broaden our understanding of how Toll/interleukin-1 receptor adaptor proteins may participate in signaling downstream from TLR2. PMID:25505250

  6. Distinct Involvement of the Gab1 and Grb2 Adaptor Proteins in Signal Transduction by the Related Receptor Tyrosine Kinases RON and MET

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, Amitabha; Xie, Ming-Hong; Yang, Becky; Mahapatra, Kaushiki; Liu, Jinfeng; Marsters, Scot; Bodepudi, Sweta; Ashkenazi, Avi

    2011-01-01

    Although the signal transduction mechanisms of the receptor tyrosine kinase MET are well defined, less is known about its close relative RON. MET initiates intracellular signaling by autophosphorylation on specific cytoplasmic tyrosines that form docking sites for the adaptor proteins Grb2 and Gab1. Grb2 binds directly and is essential for all of the biological activities of MET. Gab1 docks either directly or indirectly via Grb2 and controls only a subset of MET functions. Because MET and RON possess similar adaptor binding sites, it was anticipated that their adaptor interactions would be conserved. Here we show that in contrast to MET, RON relies primarily on Gab1 for signal transmission. Surprisingly, disruption of the Grb2 docking site of RON or Grb2 depletion augments activity, whereas enhancement of Grb2 binding attenuates Gab1 recruitment and signaling. Hence, RON and MET differ in their adaptor interactions; furthermore, Grb2 performs a novel antagonistic role in the context of RON signaling. PMID:21784853

  7. Structural basis for concerted recruitment and activation of IRF-3 by innate immune adaptor proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Baoyu; Shu, Chang; Gao, Xinsheng; Sankaran, Banumathi; Du, Fenglei; Shelton, Catherine L; Herr, Andrew B; Ji, Jun-Yuan; Li, Pingwei

    2016-06-14

    Type I IFNs are key cytokines mediating innate antiviral immunity. cGMP-AMP synthase, ritinoic acid-inducible protein 1 (RIG-I)-like receptors, and Toll-like receptors recognize microbial double-stranded (ds)DNA, dsRNA, and LPS to induce the expression of type I IFNs. These signaling pathways converge at the recruitment and activation of the transcription factor IRF-3 (IFN regulatory factor 3). The adaptor proteins STING (stimulator of IFN genes), MAVS (mitochondrial antiviral signaling), and TRIF (TIR domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-β) mediate the recruitment of IRF-3 through a conserved pLxIS motif. Here we show that the pLxIS motif of phosphorylated STING, MAVS, and TRIF binds to IRF-3 in a similar manner, whereas residues upstream of the motif confer specificity. The structure of the IRF-3 phosphomimetic mutant S386/396E bound to the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB)-binding protein reveals that the pLxIS motif also mediates IRF-3 dimerization and activation. Moreover, rotavirus NSP1 (nonstructural protein 1) employs a pLxIS motif to target IRF-3 for degradation, but phosphorylation of NSP1 is not required for its activity. These results suggest a concerted mechanism for the recruitment and activation of IRF-3 that can be subverted by viral proteins to evade innate immune responses. PMID:27302953

  8. The adaptor protein Dab2 sorts LDL receptors into coated pits independently of AP-2 and ARH.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Meghan E; Cooper, Jonathan A

    2006-10-15

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis requires cargo-specific adaptor proteins that recognize specific receptors and recruit them into coated pits. ARH [also called low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) adaptor protein] serves as an adaptor for LDLR endocytosis in liver. However, ARH is dispensable for LDL uptake by some other cell types. Here, we show that the adaptor Dab2 plays a major role in LDLR internalization in HeLa cells and fibroblasts. Dab2 mediates internalization of LDLRs but not transferrin receptors independently of ARH and the classic clathrin adaptor AP-2. If Dab2 is absent, ARH can mediate LDLR endocytosis, but its action requires AP-2. Furthermore, the rate of LDLR endocytosis is decreased when Dab2 is absent and Dab2, but not ARH, catalyzes the efficient clustering of LDLR into coated pits. Dab2 activity requires its binding to clathrin, LDLR and phospholipids. Dab2 is also involved in moving LDLRs off filopodia. We suggest that Dab2 is a cargo-specific endocytic adaptor protein, stably associating with phospholipids and clathrin to sort LDLR to nascent-coated pits, whereas ARH might accelerate later steps in LDLR endocytosis in cooperation with AP-2. PMID:16984970

  9. Targeted decay of a regulatory small RNA by an adaptor protein for RNase E and counteraction by an anti-adaptor RNA

    PubMed Central

    Göpel, Yvonne; Papenfort, Kai; Reichenbach, Birte; Vogel, Jörg; Görke, Boris

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial small RNAs (sRNAs) are well established to regulate diverse cellular processes, but how they themselves are regulated is less understood. Recently, we identified a regulatory circuit wherein the GlmY and GlmZ sRNAs of Escherichia coli act hierarchically to activate mRNA glmS, which encodes glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN6P) synthase. Although the two sRNAs are highly similar, only GlmZ is a direct activator that base-pairs with the glmS mRNA, aided by protein Hfq. GlmY, however, does not bind Hfq and activates glmS indirectly by protecting GlmZ from RNA cleavage. This complex regulation feedback controls the levels of GlmS protein in response to its product, GlcN6P, a key metabolite in cell wall biosynthesis. Here, we reveal the molecular basis for the regulated turnover of GlmZ, identifying RapZ (RNase adaptor protein for sRNA GlmZ; formerly YhbJ) as a novel type of RNA-binding protein that recruits the major endoribonuclease RNase E to GlmZ. This involves direct interaction of RapZ with the catalytic domain of RNase E. GlmY binds RapZ through a secondary structure shared by both sRNAs and therefore acts by molecular mimicry as a specific decoy for RapZ. Thus, in analogy to regulated proteolysis, RapZ is an adaptor, and GlmY is an anti-adaptor in regulated turnover of a regulatory small RNA. PMID:23475961

  10. The role of small adaptor proteins in the control of oncogenic signaling driven by tyrosine kinases in human cancer

    PubMed Central

    Naudin, Cécile; Chevalier, Clément; Roche, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation on tyrosine (Tyr) residues has evolved as an important mechanism to coordinate cell communication in multicellular organisms. The importance of this process has been revealed by the discovery of the prominent oncogenic properties of tyrosine kinases (TK) upon deregulation of their physiological activities, often due to protein overexpression and/or somatic mutation. Recent reports suggest that TK oncogenic signaling is also under the control of small adaptor proteins. These cytosolic proteins lack intrinsic catalytic activity and signal by linking two functional members of a catalytic pathway. While most adaptors display positive regulatory functions, a small group of this family exerts negative regulatory functions by targeting several components of the TK signaling cascade. Here, we review how these less studied adaptor proteins negatively control TK activities and how their loss of function induces abnormal TK signaling, promoting tumor formation. We also discuss the therapeutic consequences of this novel regulatory mechanism in human oncology. PMID:26788993

  11. The adaptor protein CIN85 assembles intracellular signaling clusters for B cell activation.

    PubMed

    Kühn, Julius; Wong, Leo E; Pirkuliyeva, Sona; Schulz, Kathrin; Schwiegk, Claudia; Fünfgeld, Kevser Gencalp; Keppler, Selina; Batista, Facundo D; Urlaub, Henning; Habeck, Michael; Becker, Stefan; Griesinger, Christian; Wienands, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The adaptor molecule Cbl-interacting protein of 85 kD (CIN85) regulates signaling from a number of cell surface receptors, such as growth factor receptors and antigen receptors on lymphocytes. Because of its multidomain structure, CIN85 is thought to act as a classical adaptor protein that connects functionally distinct components of a given signaling pathway through diverse protein domains. However, we found that in B lymphocytes, CIN85 functions to oligomerize SLP-65, which is the central effector protein of the B cell receptor (BCR). Therefore, CIN85 trimerizes through a carboxyl-terminal, coiled-coil domain. The multiple Src homology 3 (SH3) domains of trimeric CIN85 molecules associated with multiple SLP-65 molecules, which recruited further CIN85 trimers, thereby perpetuating the oligomerization process. Formation of this oligomeric signaling complex in resting B cells rendered the cells poised for the efficient initiation of intracellular signaling upon BCR stimulation. Our data suggest that the functionality of signaling cascades does not rely solely on the qualitative linkage of their various components but requires a critical number of effectors to become concentrated in signaling complexes. PMID:27353366

  12. Nephrin Suppresses Hippo Signaling through the Adaptor Proteins Nck and WTIP.

    PubMed

    Keyvani Chahi, Ava; Martin, Claire E; Jones, Nina

    2016-06-10

    Podocytes are key components of the kidney blood filtration barrier, and their ability to withstand hemodynamic strain is proposed to be closely tied to their unique and flexible cytoarchitecture. However, the mechanisms that control such mechanotransduction are poorly understood. We have previously established that tyrosine phosphorylation of the transmembrane protein nephrin promotes recruitment of the Nck1/2 cytoskeletal adaptor proteins and downstream actin remodeling. We now reveal that Nck integrates nephrin with the Hippo kinase cascade through association with the adaptor protein WTIP. Using mutational analysis, we show that Nck sequesters WTIP and its binding partner Lats1 to phosphorylated nephrin, resulting in decreased phospho-activation of Lats1. We further demonstrate that, coincident with nephrin dephosphorylation in a transient model of podocyte injury in mice, Lats1 is rapidly activated, and this precedes significant down-regulation of the transcription regulator Yap. Moreover, we show reduced levels of Yap protein in mice with chronic disruption of nephrin phospho-signaling. Together, these findings support the existence of a dynamic molecular link between nephrin signaling and the canonical Hippo pathway in podocytes, which may facilitate the conversion of mechanical cues to biochemical signals promoting podocyte viability. PMID:27033705

  13. Nrf2 reduces levels of phosphorylated tau protein by inducing autophagy adaptor protein NDP52

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Chulman; Gundemir, Soner; Pritchard, Susanne; Jin, Youngnam N.; Rahman, Irfan; Johnson, Gail V. W.

    2014-03-01

    Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a pivotal transcription factor in the defence against oxidative stress. Here we provide evidence that activation of the Nrf2 pathway reduces the levels of phosphorylated tau by induction of an autophagy adaptor protein NDP52 (also known as CALCOCO2) in neurons. The expression of NDP52, which we show has three antioxidant response elements (AREs) in its promoter region, is strongly induced by Nrf2, and its overexpression facilitates clearance of phosphorylated tau in the presence of an autophagy stimulator. In Nrf2-knockout mice, phosphorylated and sarkosyl-insoluble tau accumulates in the brains concurrent with decreased levels of NDP52. Moreover, NDP52 associates with phosphorylated tau from brain cortical samples of Alzheimer disease cases, and the amount of phosphorylated tau in sarkosyl-insoluble fractions is inversely proportional to that of NDP52. These results suggest that NDP52 plays a key role in autophagy-mediated degradation of phosphorylated tau in vivo.

  14. Asc1p, a WD40-domain containing adaptor protein, is required for the interaction of the RNA-binding protein Scp160p with polysomes.

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Sonja; Bittins, Margarethe; Frey, Steffen; Seedorf, Matthias

    2004-01-01

    Scp160p interacts in an mRNA-dependent manner with translating ribosomes via multiple RNA-binding heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K-homology (KH) domains. In the present study, we show by protein-protein cross-linking that Scp160p is in close proximity to translation elongation factor 1A and the WD40 (Trp-Asp 40)-repeat containing protein Asc1p at ribosomes. Analysis of a truncation mutant revealed that the C-terminus of Scp160p is essential for ribosome binding and that Cys(1067) at the C-terminus of Scp160p is required to obtain these cross-links. The interaction of Scp160p with ribosomes depends on Asc1p. In fast-growing yeast cells, nearly all Asc1p is tightly bound to ribosomes, but it can also be present in a ribosome-free form depending on growth conditions. The functional homologue of Asc1p, mammalian RACK1 (receptor of activated C kinase), was previously characterized as an adaptor protein bridging activated signalling molecules with their substrates. Our results suggest that Scp160p connects specific mRNAs, ribosomes and a translation factor with an adaptor for signalling molecules. These interactions might regulate the translation activity of ribosomes programmed with specific mRNAs. PMID:15012629

  15. Ubc2, an Ortholog of the Yeast Ste50p Adaptor, Possesses a Basidiomycete-Specific Carboxy terminal Extension Essential for Pathogenicity Independent of Pheromone Response.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteins involved in the MAP kinase pathway controlling mating, morphogenesis and pathogenicity have been identified previously in the fungus Ustilago maydis. One of these, the Ubc2 adaptor protein, possesses a basidiomycete-specific structure. In addition to containing SAM and RA domains typical of...

  16. Synthetic Protein Scaffolds Based on Peptide Motifs and Cognate Adaptor Domains for Improving Metabolic Productivity.

    PubMed

    Horn, Anselm H C; Sticht, Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of many cellular processes relies on the defined interaction among different proteins within the same metabolic or signaling pathway. Consequently, a spatial colocalization of functionally interacting proteins has frequently emerged during evolution. This concept has been adapted within the synthetic biology community for the purpose of creating artificial scaffolds. A recent advancement of this concept is the use of peptide motifs and their cognate adaptor domains. SH2, SH3, GBD, and PDZ domains have been used most often in research studies to date. The approach has been successfully applied to the synthesis of a variety of target molecules including catechin, D-glucaric acid, H2, hydrochinone, resveratrol, butyrate, gamma-aminobutyric acid, and mevalonate. Increased production levels of up to 77-fold have been observed compared to non-scaffolded systems. A recent extension of this concept is the creation of a covalent linkage between peptide motifs and adaptor domains, which leads to a more stable association of the scaffolded systems and thus bears the potential to further enhance metabolic productivity. PMID:26636078

  17. Synthetic Protein Scaffolds Based on Peptide Motifs and Cognate Adaptor Domains for Improving Metabolic Productivity

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Anselm H. C.; Sticht, Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of many cellular processes relies on the defined interaction among different proteins within the same metabolic or signaling pathway. Consequently, a spatial colocalization of functionally interacting proteins has frequently emerged during evolution. This concept has been adapted within the synthetic biology community for the purpose of creating artificial scaffolds. A recent advancement of this concept is the use of peptide motifs and their cognate adaptor domains. SH2, SH3, GBD, and PDZ domains have been used most often in research studies to date. The approach has been successfully applied to the synthesis of a variety of target molecules including catechin, D-glucaric acid, H2, hydrochinone, resveratrol, butyrate, gamma-aminobutyric acid, and mevalonate. Increased production levels of up to 77-fold have been observed compared to non-scaffolded systems. A recent extension of this concept is the creation of a covalent linkage between peptide motifs and adaptor domains, which leads to a more stable association of the scaffolded systems and thus bears the potential to further enhance metabolic productivity. PMID:26636078

  18. Matrilin-2, an extracellular adaptor protein, is needed for the regeneration of muscle, nerve and other tissues

    PubMed Central

    Korpos, Éva; Deák, Ferenc; Kiss, Ibolya

    2015-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) performs essential functions in the differentiation, maintenance and remodeling of tissues during development and regeneration, and it undergoes dynamic changes during remodeling concomitant to alterations in the cell-ECM interactions. Here we discuss recent data addressing the critical role of the widely expressed ECM protein, matrilin-2 (Matn2) in the timely onset of differentiation and regeneration processes in myogenic, neural and other tissues and in tumorigenesis. As a multiadhesion adaptor protein, it interacts with other ECM proteins and integrins. Matn2 promotes neurite outgrowth, Schwann cell migration, neuromuscular junction formation, skeletal muscle and liver regeneration and skin wound healing. Matn2 deposition by myoblasts is crucial for the timely induction of the global switch toward terminal myogenic differentiation during muscle regeneration by affecting transforming growth factor beta/bone morphogenetic protein 7/Smad and other signal transduction pathways. Depending on the type of tissue and the pathomechanism, Matn2 can also promote or suppress tumor growth. PMID:26199591

  19. The Adaptor Protein Rai/ShcC Promotes Astrocyte-Dependent Inflammation during Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Ulivieri, Cristina; Savino, Maria Teresa; Luccarini, Ilaria; Fanigliulo, Emanuela; Aldinucci, Alessandra; Bonechi, Elena; Benagiano, Marisa; Ortensi, Barbara; Pelicci, Giuliana; D'Elios, Mario Milco; Ballerini, Clara; Baldari, Cosima Tatiana

    2016-07-15

    Th17 cells have been casually associated to the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease. We have previously demonstrated that Rai/ShcC, a member of the Shc family of adaptor proteins, negatively regulates Th17 cell differentiation and lupus autoimmunity. In this study, we have investigated the pathogenic outcome of the Th17 bias associated with Rai deficiency on multiple sclerosis development, using the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model. We found that, unexpectedly, EAE was less severe in Rai(-/-) mice compared with their wild-type counterparts despite an enhanced generation of myelin-specific Th17 cells that infiltrated into the CNS. Nevertheless, when adoptively transferred into immunodeficient Rai(+/+) mice, these cells promoted a more severe disease compared with wild-type encephalitogenic Th17 cells. This paradoxical phenotype was caused by a dampened inflammatory response of astrocytes, which were found to express Rai, to IL-17. The results provide evidence that Rai plays opposite roles in Th17 cell differentiation and astrocyte activation, with the latter dominant over the former in EAE, highlighting this adaptor as a potential novel target for the therapy of multiple sclerosis. PMID:27288534

  20. Conserved interdomain linker promotes phase separation of the multivalent adaptor protein Nck

    PubMed Central

    Banjade, Sudeep; Wu, Qiong; Mittal, Anuradha; Peeples, William B.; Pappu, Rohit V.; Rosen, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    The organization of membranes, the cytosol, and the nucleus of eukaryotic cells can be controlled through phase separation of lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Collective interactions of multivalent molecules mediated by modular binding domains can induce gelation and phase separation in several cytosolic and membrane-associated systems. The adaptor protein Nck has three SRC-homology 3 (SH3) domains that bind multiple proline-rich segments in the actin regulatory protein neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP) and an SH2 domain that binds to multiple phosphotyrosine sites in the adhesion protein nephrin, leading to phase separation. Here, we show that the 50-residue linker between the first two SH3 domains of Nck enhances phase separation of Nck/N-WASP/nephrin assemblies. Two linear motifs within this element, as well as its overall positively charged character, are important for this effect. The linker increases the driving force for self-assembly of Nck, likely through weak interactions with the second SH3 domain, and this effect appears to promote phase separation. The linker sequence is highly conserved, suggesting that the sequence determinants of the driving forces for phase separation may be generally important to Nck functions. Our studies demonstrate that linker regions between modular domains can contribute to the driving forces for self-assembly and phase separation of multivalent proteins. PMID:26553976

  1. iRhom2 is essential for innate immunity to DNA viruses by mediating trafficking and stability of the adaptor STING.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wei-Wei; Li, Shu; Li, Chen; Lian, Huan; Yang, Qing; Zhong, Bo; Shu, Hong-Bing

    2016-09-01

    STING is a central adaptor in the innate immune response to DNA viruses. However, the manner in which STING activity is regulated remains unclear. We identified iRhom2 ('inactive rhomboid protein 2') as a positive regulator of DNA-virus-triggered induction of type I interferons. iRhom2 deficiency markedly impaired DNA-virus- and intracellular-DNA-induced signaling in cells, and iRhom2-deficient mice were more susceptible to lethal herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection. iRhom2 was constitutively associated with STING and acted in two distinct processes to regulate STING activity. iRhom2 recruited the translocon-associated protein TRAPβ to the STING complex to facilitate trafficking of STING from the endoplasmic reticulum to perinuclear microsomes. iRhom2 also recruited the deubiquitination enzyme EIF3S5 to maintain the stability of STING through removal of its K48-linked polyubiquitin chains. These results suggest that iRhom2 is essential for STING activity, as it regulates TRAPβ-mediated translocation and EIF3S5-mediated deubiquitination of STING. PMID:27428826

  2. The deca-GX3 proteins Yae1-Lto1 function as adaptors recruiting the ABC protein Rli1 for iron-sulfur cluster insertion

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Viktoria Désirée; Mühlenhoff, Ulrich; Stümpfig, Martin; Seebacher, Jan; Kugler, Karl G; Renicke, Christian; Taxis, Christof; Gavin, Anne-Claude; Pierik, Antonio J; Lill, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Cytosolic and nuclear iron-sulfur (Fe-S) proteins are involved in many essential pathways including translation and DNA maintenance. Their maturation requires the cytosolic Fe-S protein assembly (CIA) machinery. To identify new CIA proteins we employed systematic protein interaction approaches and discovered the essential proteins Yae1 and Lto1 as binding partners of the CIA targeting complex. Depletion of Yae1 or Lto1 results in defective Fe-S maturation of the ribosome-associated ABC protein Rli1, but surprisingly no other tested targets. Yae1 and Lto1 facilitate Fe-S cluster assembly on Rli1 in a chain of binding events. Lto1 uses its conserved C-terminal tryptophan for binding the CIA targeting complex, the deca-GX3 motifs in both Yae1 and Lto1 facilitate their complex formation, and Yae1 recruits Rli1. Human YAE1D1 and the cancer-related ORAOV1 can replace their yeast counterparts demonstrating evolutionary conservation. Collectively, the Yae1-Lto1 complex functions as a target-specific adaptor that recruits apo-Rli1 to the generic CIA machinery. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08231.001 PMID:26182403

  3. PHF6 Degrees of Separation: The Multifaceted Roles of a Chromatin Adaptor Protein

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Matthew A.M.; Ivanochko, Danton; Picketts, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of chromatin regulation to human disease is highlighted by the growing number of mutations identified in genes encoding chromatin remodeling proteins. While such mutations were first identified in severe developmental disorders, or in specific cancers, several genes have been implicated in both, including the plant homeodomain finger protein 6 (PHF6) gene. Indeed, germline mutations in PHF6 are the cause of the Börjeson–Forssman–Lehmann X-linked intellectual disability syndrome (BFLS), while somatic PHF6 mutations have been identified in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Studies from different groups over the last few years have made a significant impact towards a functional understanding of PHF6 protein function. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of PHF6 with particular emphasis on how it interfaces with a distinct set of interacting partners and its functional roles in the nucleoplasm and nucleolus. Overall, PHF6 is emerging as a key chromatin adaptor protein critical to the regulation of neurogenesis and hematopoiesis. PMID:26103525

  4. Vaccinia virus protein A46R targets multiple Toll-like-interleukin-1 receptor adaptors and contributes to virulence.

    PubMed

    Stack, Julianne; Haga, Ismar R; Schröder, Martina; Bartlett, Nathan W; Maloney, Geraldine; Reading, Patrick C; Fitzgerald, Katherine A; Smith, Geoffrey L; Bowie, Andrew G

    2005-03-21

    Viral immune evasion strategies target key aspects of the host antiviral response. Recently, it has been recognized that Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have a role in innate defense against viruses. Here, we define the function of the vaccinia virus (VV) protein A46R and show it inhibits intracellular signalling by a range of TLRs. TLR signalling is triggered by homotypic interactions between the Toll-like-interleukin-1 resistance (TIR) domains of the receptors and adaptor molecules. A46R contains a TIR domain and is the only viral TIR domain-containing protein identified to date. We demonstrate that A46R targets the host TIR adaptors myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), MyD88 adaptor-like, TIR domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-beta (TRIF), and the TRIF-related adaptor molecule and thereby interferes with downstream activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor kappaB. TRIF mediates activation of interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and induction of IFN-beta by TLR3 and TLR4 and suppresses VV replication in macrophages. Here, A46R disrupted TRIF-induced IRF3 activation and induction of the TRIF-dependent gene regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted. Furthermore, we show that A46R is functionally distinct from another described VV TLR inhibitor, A52R. Importantly, VV lacking the A46R gene was attenuated in a murine intranasal model, demonstrating the importance of A46R for VV virulence. PMID:15767367

  5. Losses, Expansions, and Novel Subunit Discovery of Adaptor Protein Complexes in Haptophyte Algae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Laura J Y; Klute, Mary J; Herman, Emily K; Read, Betsy; Dacks, Joel B

    2015-11-01

    The phylum Haptophyta (Diaphoratickes) contains marine algae that perform biomineralization, extruding large, distinctive calcium carbonate scales (coccoliths) that completely cover the cell. Coccolith production is an important part of global carbon cycling; however, the membrane trafficking pathway by which they are secreted has not yet been elucidated. In most eukaryotes, post-Golgi membrane trafficking involves five heterotetrameric adaptor protein (AP) complexes, which impart cargo selection specificity. To better understand coccolith secretion, we performed comparative genomic, phylogenetic, and transcriptomic analyses of the AP complexes in Emiliania huxleyi strains 92A, Van556, EH2, and CCMP1516, and related haptophytes Gephyrocapsa oceanica and Isochrysis galbana; the latter has lost the ability to biomineralize. We show that haptophytes have a modified membrane trafficking system (MTS), as we found both AP subunit losses and duplications. Additionally, we identified a single conserved subunit of the AP-related TSET complex, whose expression suggests a functional role in membrane trafficking. Finally, we detected novel alpha adaptin ear and gamma adaptin ear proteins, the first of their kind to be described outside of opisthokonts. These novel ear proteins and the sculpting of the MTS may support the capacity for biomineralization in haptophytes, enhancing their ability to perform this highly specialized form of secretion. PMID:26519625

  6. Endostatin-induced tyrosine kinase signaling through the Shb adaptor protein regulates endothelial cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Dixelius, J; Larsson, H; Sasaki, T; Holmqvist, K; Lu, L; Engström, A; Timpl, R; Welsh, M; Claesson-Welsh, L

    2000-06-01

    Endostatin, which corresponds to the C-terminal fragment of collagen XVIII, is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2)-induced angiogenesis in the chicken chorioallantoic membrane was inhibited by endostatin, but not by an endostatin mutant R158/270A, lacking heparin-binding ability. Endostatin was internalized by endothelial cells, but not by mouse fibroblasts. Treatment of murine brain endothelial (IBE) cells with endostatin reduced the proportion of cells in S phase, whereas growth-arrested IBE cells in collagen gels treated with endostatin displayed enhanced tubular morphogenesis. IBE cells overexpressing Shb, an adaptor protein implicated in angiostatin-induced apoptosis, displayed elevated apoptosis and decreased tubular morphogenesis in collagen gels in response to endostatin when added together with FGF-2. Induction of apoptosis was dependent on the heparin-binding ability of endostatin and the expression of Shb with a functional Src homology 2 (SH2)-domain. Endostatin treatment for 10 minutes or 24 hours induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Shb and formation of multiprotein complexes. An Shb SH2 domain fusion protein precipitated a 125-kd phosphotyrosyl protein in endostatin-treated cells. The 125-kd component either contained intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity or occurred in complex with a tyrosine kinase. In conclusion, our data show that endostatin induces tyrosine kinase activity and enhanced apoptosis in FGF-treated endothelial cells. PMID:10828022

  7. Activity-Regulated Cytoskeleton-Associated Protein Controls AMPAR Endocytosis through a Direct Interaction with Clathrin-Adaptor Protein 2123

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Mark J.; P. de Almeida, Luciana; Wauters, Sandrine C.; Januário, Yunan C.; Müller, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated (Arc) protein controls synaptic strength by facilitating AMPA receptor (AMPAR) endocytosis. Here we demonstrate that Arc targets AMPAR to be internalized through a direct interaction with the clathrin-adaptor protein 2 (AP-2). We show that Arc overexpression in dissociated hippocampal neurons obtained from C57BL/6 mouse reduces the density of AMPAR GluA1 subunits at the cell surface and reduces the amplitude and rectification of AMPAR-mediated miniature-EPSCs (mEPSCs). Mutations of Arc, that prevent the AP-2 interaction reduce Arc-mediated endocytosis of GluA1 and abolish the reduction in AMPAR-mediated mEPSC amplitude and rectification. Depletion of the AP-2 subunit µ2 blocks the Arc-mediated reduction in mEPSC amplitude, an effect that is restored by reintroducing µ2. The Arc–AP-2 interaction plays an important role in homeostatic synaptic scaling as the Arc-dependent decrease in mEPSC amplitude, induced by a chronic increase in neuronal activity, is inhibited by AP-2 depletion. These data provide a mechanism to explain how activity-dependent expression of Arc decisively controls the fate of AMPAR at the cell surface and modulates synaptic strength, via the direct interaction with the endocytic clathrin adaptor AP-2. PMID:27257628

  8. Stargazin regulates AMPA receptor trafficking through adaptor protein complexes during long-term depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Shinji; Kakegawa, Wataru; Budisantoso, Timotheus; Nomura, Toshihiro; Kohda, Kazuhisa; Yuzaki, Michisuke

    2013-11-01

    Long-term depression (LTD) underlies learning and memory in various brain regions. Although postsynaptic AMPA receptor trafficking mediates LTD, its underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unclear. Here we show that stargazin, a transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein, forms a ternary complex with adaptor proteins AP-2 and AP-3A in hippocampal neurons, depending on its phosphorylation state. Inhibiting the stargazin-AP-2 interaction disrupts NMDA-induced AMPA receptor endocytosis, and inhibiting that of stargazin-AP-3A abrogates the late endosomal/lysosomal trafficking of AMPA receptors, thereby upregulating receptor recycling to the cell surface. Similarly, stargazin’s interaction with AP-2 or AP-3A is necessary for low-frequency stimulus-evoked LTD in CA1 hippocampal neurons. Thus, stargazin has a crucial role in NMDA-dependent LTD by regulating two trafficking pathways of AMPA receptors—transport from the cell surface to early endosomes and from early endosomes to late endosomes/lysosomes—through its sequential binding to AP-2 and AP-3A.

  9. Impairment of dendritic cell functions in patients with adaptor protein-3 complex deficiency.

    PubMed

    Prandini, Alberto; Salvi, Valentina; Colombo, Francesca; Moratto, Daniele; Lorenzi, Luisa; Vermi, William; De Francesco, Maria Antonia; Notarangelo, Lucia Dora; Porta, Fulvio; Plebani, Alessandro; Facchetti, Fabio; Sozzani, Silvano; Badolato, Raffaele

    2016-06-30

    Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 2 (HPS2) is a primary immunodeficiency due to adaptor protein-3 (AP-3) complex deficiency. HPS2 patients present neutropenia, partial albinism, and impaired lysosomal vesicles formation in hematopoietic cells. Given the role of dendritic cells (DCs) in the immune response, we studied monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs) and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) in two HPS2 siblings. Mature HPS2 moDCs showed impaired expression of CD83 and DC-lysosome-associated membrane protein (LAMP), low levels of MIP1-β/CCL4, MIG/CXCL9, and severe defect of interleukin-12 (IL-12) secretion. DCs in lymph-node biopsies from the same patients showed a diffuse cytoplasm reactivity in a large fraction of DC-LAMP(+) cells, instead of the classical dot-like stain. In addition, analysis of pDC-related functions of blood-circulating mononuclear cells revealed reduced interferon-α secretion in response to herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), whereas granzyme-B induction upon IL-3/IL-10 stimulation was normal. Finally, T-cell costimulatory activity, as measured by mixed lymphocyte reaction assay, was lower in patients, suggesting that function and maturation of DCs is abnormal in patients with HPS2. PMID:27207797

  10. The adaptor protein insulin receptor substrate 2 inhibits alternative macrophage activation and allergic lung inflammation.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Preeta; Dorsey, Nicolas J; Li, Jiaqi; Qi, Xiulan; Smith, Elizabeth P; Yamaji-Kegan, Kazuyo; Keegan, Achsah D

    2016-01-01

    Insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2) is an adaptor protein that becomes tyrosine-phosphorylated in response to the cytokines interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13, which results in activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway. IL-4 and IL-13 contribute to allergic lung inflammation. To examine the role of IRS2 in allergic disease, we evaluated the responses of IRS2-deficient (IRS2(-/-)) mice. Unexpectedly, loss of IRS2 resulted in a substantial increase in the expression of a subset of genes associated with the generation of alternatively activated macrophages (AAMs) in response to IL-4 or IL-13 in vitro. AAMs secrete factors that enhance allergic responses and promote airway remodeling. Moreover, compared to IRS2(+/+) mice, IRS2(+/-) and IRS2(-/-) mice developed enhanced pulmonary inflammation, accumulated eosinophils and AAMs, and exhibited airway and vascular remodeling upon allergen stimulation, responses that partially depended on macrophage-intrinsic IRS2 signaling. Both in unstimulated and IL-4-stimulated macrophages, lack of IRS2 enhanced phosphorylation of Akt and ribosomal S6 protein. Thus, we identified a critical inhibitory loop downstream of IRS2, demonstrating an unanticipated and previously unrecognized role for IRS2 in suppressing allergic lung inflammation and remodeling. PMID:27330190

  11. Molecular protein adaptor with genetically encoded interaction sites guiding the hierarchical assembly of plasmonically active nanoparticle architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, Andreas; Huber, Matthias C.; Cölfen, Helmut; Schiller, Stefan M.

    2015-03-01

    The control over the defined assembly of nano-objects with nm-precision is important to create systems and materials with enhanced properties, for example, metamaterials. In nature, the precise assembly of inorganic nano-objects with unique features, for example, magnetosomes, is accomplished by efficient and reliable recognition schemes involving protein effectors. Here we present a molecular approach using protein-based ‘adaptors/connectors’ with genetically encoded interaction sites to guide the assembly and functionality of different plasmonically active gold nanoparticle architectures (AuNP). The interaction of the defined geometricaly shaped protein adaptors with the AuNP induces the self-assembly of nanoarchitectures ranging from AuNP encapsulation to one-dimensional chain-like structures, complex networks and stars. Synthetic biology and bionanotechnology are applied to co-translationally encode unnatural amino acids as additional site-specific modification sites to generate functionalized biohybrid nanoarchitectures. This protein adaptor-based nano-object assembly approach might be expanded to other inorganic nano-objects creating biohybrid materials with unique electronic, photonic, plasmonic and magnetic properties.

  12. Molecular protein adaptor with genetically encoded interaction sites guiding the hierarchical assembly of plasmonically active nanoparticle architectures.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Andreas; Huber, Matthias C; Cölfen, Helmut; Schiller, Stefan M

    2015-01-01

    The control over the defined assembly of nano-objects with nm-precision is important to create systems and materials with enhanced properties, for example, metamaterials. In nature, the precise assembly of inorganic nano-objects with unique features, for example, magnetosomes, is accomplished by efficient and reliable recognition schemes involving protein effectors. Here we present a molecular approach using protein-based 'adaptors/connectors' with genetically encoded interaction sites to guide the assembly and functionality of different plasmonically active gold nanoparticle architectures (AuNP). The interaction of the defined geometricaly shaped protein adaptors with the AuNP induces the self-assembly of nanoarchitectures ranging from AuNP encapsulation to one-dimensional chain-like structures, complex networks and stars. Synthetic biology and bionanotechnology are applied to co-translationally encode unnatural amino acids as additional site-specific modification sites to generate functionalized biohybrid nanoarchitectures. This protein adaptor-based nano-object assembly approach might be expanded to other inorganic nano-objects creating biohybrid materials with unique electronic, photonic, plasmonic and magnetic properties. PMID:25813537

  13. Cysteine-based regulation of the CUL3 adaptor protein Keap1

    SciTech Connect

    Sekhar, Konjeti R.; Rachakonda, Girish; Freeman, Michael L.

    2010-04-01

    Nrf2 (NF-E2-related factor 2) is a master transcription factor containing a powerful acidic transcriptional activation domain. Nrf2-dependent gene expression impacts cancer chemoprevention strategies, inflammatory responses, and progression of neurodegenerative diseases. Under basal conditions, association of Nrf2 with the CUL3 adaptor protein Keap1 results in the rapid Nrf2 ubiquitylation and proteasome-dependent degradation. Inhibition of Keap1 function blocks ubiquitylation of Nrf2, allowing newly synthesized Nrf2 to translocate into the nucleus, bind to ARE sites and direct target gene expression. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments coupled with proteomic analysis support a model in which Keap1 contains at least 2 distinct cysteine motifs. The first is located at Cys 151 in the BTB domain. The second is located in the intervening domain and centers around Cys 273 and 288. Adduction or oxidation at Cys151 has been shown to produce a conformational change in Keap1 that results in dissociation of Keap1 from CUL3, thereby inhibiting Nrf2 ubiquitylation. Thus, adduction captures specific chemical information and translates it into biochemical information via changes in structural conformation.

  14. Tetraspanins and Transmembrane Adaptor Proteins As Plasma Membrane Organizers—Mast Cell Case

    PubMed Central

    Halova, Ivana; Draber, Petr

    2016-01-01

    The plasma membrane contains diverse and specialized membrane domains, which include tetraspanin-enriched domains (TEMs) and transmembrane adaptor protein (TRAP)-enriched domains. Recent biophysical, microscopic, and functional studies indicated that TEMs and TRAP-enriched domains are involved in compartmentalization of physicochemical events of such important processes as immunoreceptor signal transduction and chemotaxis. Moreover, there is evidence of a cross-talk between TEMs and TRAP-enriched domains. In this review we discuss the presence and function of such domains and their crosstalk using mast cells as a model. The combined data based on analysis of selected mast cell-expressed tetraspanins [cluster of differentiation (CD)9, CD53, CD63, CD81, CD151)] or TRAPs [linker for activation of T cells (LAT), non-T cell activation linker (NTAL), and phosphoprotein associated with glycosphingolipid-enriched membrane microdomains (PAG)] using knockout mice or specific antibodies point to a diversity within these two families and bring evidence of the important roles of these molecules in signaling events. An example of this diversity is physical separation of two TRAPs, LAT and NTAL, which are in many aspects similar but show plasma membrane location in different microdomains in both non-activated and activated cells. Although our understanding of TEMs and TRAP-enriched domains is far from complete, pharmaceutical applications of the knowledge about these domains are under way. PMID:27243007

  15. Lymphocyte adaptor protein LNK deficiency exacerbates hypertension and end-organ inflammation.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Mohamed A; McMaster, William G; Wu, Jing; Norlander, Allison E; Funt, Samuel A; Thabet, Salim R; Kirabo, Annet; Xiao, Liang; Chen, Wei; Itani, Hana A; Michell, Danielle; Huan, Tianxiao; Zhang, Yahua; Takaki, Satoshi; Titze, Jens; Levy, Daniel; Harrison, David G; Madhur, Meena S

    2015-03-01

    The lymphocyte adaptor protein LNK (also known as SH2B3) is primarily expressed in hematopoietic and endothelial cells, where it functions as a negative regulator of cytokine signaling and cell proliferation. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the gene encoding LNK are associated with autoimmune and cardiovascular disorders; however, it is not known how LNK contributes to hypertension. Here, we determined that loss of LNK exacerbates angiotensin II-induced (Ang II-induced) hypertension and the associated renal and vascular dysfunction. At baseline, kidneys from Lnk-/- mice exhibited greater levels of inflammation, oxidative stress, and glomerular injury compared with WT animals, and these parameters were further exacerbated by Ang II infusion. Aortas from Lnk-/- mice exhibited enhanced inflammation, reduced nitric oxide levels, and impaired endothelial-dependent relaxation. Bone marrow transplantation studies demonstrated that loss of LNK in hematopoietic cells is primarily responsible for the observed renal and vascular inflammation and predisposition to hypertension. Ang II infusion increased IFN-γ-producing CD8+ T cells in the spleen and kidneys of Lnk-/- mice compared with WT mice. Moreover, IFN-γ deficiency resulted in blunted hypertension in response to Ang II infusion. Together, these results suggest that LNK is a potential therapeutic target for hypertension and its associated renal and vascular sequela. PMID:25664851

  16. PLEKHA7: Cytoskeletal adaptor protein at center stage in junctional organization and signaling.

    PubMed

    Shah, Jimit; Guerrera, Diego; Vasileva, Ekaterina; Sluysmans, Sophie; Bertels, Eva; Citi, Sandra

    2016-06-01

    PLEKHA7 is a recently characterized component of the cytoplasmic region of epithelial adherens junctions (AJ). It comprises two WW domains, a pleckstrin-homology domain, and proline-rich and coiled-coil domains. PLEKHA7 interacts with cytoplasmic components of the AJ (p120-catenin, paracingulin, afadin), stabilizes the E-cadherin complex by linking it to the minus ends of noncentrosomal microtubules, and stabilizes junctional nectins through the newly identified interactor PDZD11. Similarly to afadin, and unlike E-cadherin and p120-catenin, the localization of PLEKHA7 at AJ is strictly zonular (in the zonula adhaerens subdomain of AJ), and does not extend along the basolateral contacts. Genome-wide association studies and experiments on animal and cellular models show that although PLEKHA7 is not required for organism viability, it is implicated in cardiovascular physiology, hypertension, primary angle closure glaucoma, susceptibility to staphylococcal α-toxin, and epithelial morphogenesis and growth. Thus, PLEKHA7 is a cytoskeletal adaptor protein important for AJ organization, and at the center of junction-associated signaling pathways which fine-tune important pathophysiological processes. PMID:27072621

  17. Adaptor protein LNK is a negative regulator of brain neural stem cell proliferation after stroke.

    PubMed

    Ahlenius, Henrik; Devaraju, Karthikeyan; Monni, Emanuela; Oki, Koichi; Wattananit, Somsak; Darsalia, Vladimer; Iosif, Robert E; Torper, Olof; Wood, James C; Braun, Sebastian; Jagemann, Lucas; Nuber, Ulrike A; Englund, Elisabet; Jacobsen, Sten-Eirik W; Lindvall, Olle; Kokaia, Zaal

    2012-04-11

    Ischemic stroke causes transient increase of neural stem and progenitor cell (NSPC) proliferation in the subventricular zone (SVZ), and migration of newly formed neuroblasts toward the damaged area where they mature to striatal neurons. The molecular mechanisms regulating this plastic response, probably involved in structural reorganization and functional recovery, are poorly understood. The adaptor protein LNK suppresses hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal, but its presence and role in the brain are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that LNK is expressed in NSPCs in the adult mouse and human SVZ. Lnk(-/-) mice exhibited increased NSPC proliferation after stroke, but not in intact brain or following status epilepticus. Deletion of Lnk caused increased NSPC proliferation while overexpression decreased mitotic activity of these cells in vitro. We found that Lnk expression after stroke increased in SVZ through the transcription factors STAT1/3. LNK attenuated insulin-like growth factor 1 signaling by inhibition of AKT phosphorylation, resulting in reduced NSPC proliferation. Our findings identify LNK as a stroke-specific, endogenous negative regulator of NSPC proliferation, and suggest that LNK signaling is a novel mechanism influencing plastic responses in postischemic brain. PMID:22496561

  18. Lymphocyte adaptor protein LNK deficiency exacerbates hypertension and end-organ inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Mohamed A.; McMaster, William G.; Wu, Jing; Norlander, Allison E.; Funt, Samuel A.; Thabet, Salim R.; Kirabo, Annet; Xiao, Liang; Chen, Wei; Itani, Hana A.; Michell, Danielle; Huan, Tianxiao; Zhang, Yahua; Takaki, Satoshi; Titze, Jens; Levy, Daniel; Harrison, David G.; Madhur, Meena S.

    2015-01-01

    The lymphocyte adaptor protein LNK (also known as SH2B3) is primarily expressed in hematopoietic and endothelial cells, where it functions as a negative regulator of cytokine signaling and cell proliferation. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the gene encoding LNK are associated with autoimmune and cardiovascular disorders; however, it is not known how LNK contributes to hypertension. Here, we determined that loss of LNK exacerbates angiotensin II–induced (Ang II–induced) hypertension and the associated renal and vascular dysfunction. At baseline, kidneys from Lnk–/– mice exhibited greater levels of inflammation, oxidative stress, and glomerular injury compared with WT animals, and these parameters were further exacerbated by Ang II infusion. Aortas from Lnk–/– mice exhibited enhanced inflammation, reduced nitric oxide levels, and impaired endothelial-dependent relaxation. Bone marrow transplantation studies demonstrated that loss of LNK in hematopoietic cells is primarily responsible for the observed renal and vascular inflammation and predisposition to hypertension. Ang II infusion increased IFN-γ–producing CD8+ T cells in the spleen and kidneys of Lnk–/– mice compared with WT mice. Moreover, IFN-γ deficiency resulted in blunted hypertension in response to Ang II infusion. Together, these results suggest that LNK is a potential therapeutic target for hypertension and its associated renal and vascular sequela. PMID:25664851

  19. The methyltransferase adaptor protein Trm112 is involved in biogenesis of both ribosomal subunits

    PubMed Central

    Sardana, Richa; Johnson, Arlen W.

    2012-01-01

    We previously identified Bud23 as the methyltransferase that methylates G1575 of rRNA in the P-site of the small (40S) ribosomal subunit. In this paper, we show that Bud23 requires the methyltransferase adaptor protein Trm112 for stability in vivo. Deletion of Trm112 results in a bud23Δ-like mutant phenotype. Thus Trm112 is required for efficient small-subunit biogenesis. Genetic analysis suggests the slow growth of a trm112Δ mutant is due primarily to the loss of Bud23. Surprisingly, suppression of the bud23Δ-dependent 40S defect revealed a large (60S) biogenesis defect in a trm112Δ mutant. Using sucrose gradient sedimentation analysis and coimmunoprecipitation, we show that Trm112 is also involved in 60S subunit biogenesis. The 60S defect may be dependent on Nop2 and Rcm1, two additional Trm112 interactors that we identify. Our work extends the known range of Trm112 function from modification of tRNAs and translation factors to both ribosomal subunits, showing that its effects span all aspects of the translation machinery. Although Trm112 is required for Bud23 stability, our results suggest that Trm112 is not maintained in a stable complex with Bud23. We suggest that Trm112 stabilizes its free methyltransferase partners not engaged with substrate and/or helps to deliver its methyltransferase partners to their substrates. PMID:22956767

  20. The adaptor protein DCAF7 mediates the interaction of the adenovirus E1A oncoprotein with the protein kinases DYRK1A and HIPK2

    PubMed Central

    Glenewinkel, Florian; Cohen, Michael J.; King, Cason R.; Kaspar, Sophie; Bamberg-Lemper, Simone; Mymryk, Joe S.; Becker, Walter

    2016-01-01

    DYRK1A is a constitutively active protein kinase that has a critical role in growth and development which functions by regulating cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. DCAF7 (also termed WDR68 or HAN11) is a cellular binding partner of DYRK1A and also regulates signalling by the protein kinase HIPK2. DCAF7 is an evolutionarily conserved protein with a single WD40 repeat domain and has no catalytic activity. We have defined a DCAF7 binding motif of 12 amino acids in the N-terminal domain of class 1 DYRKs that is functionally conserved in DYRK1 orthologs from Xenopus, Danio rerio and the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. A similar sequence was essential for DCAF7 binding to HIPK2, whereas the closely related HIPK1 family member did not bind DCAF7. Immunoprecipitation and pulldown experiments identified DCAF7 as an adaptor for the association of the adenovirus E1A protein with DYRK1A and HIPK2. Furthermore, DCAF7 was required for the hyperphosphorylation of E1A in DYRK1A or HIPK2 overexpressing cells. Our results characterize DCAF7 as a substrate recruiting subunit of DYRK1A and HIPK2 and suggest that it is required for the negative effect of DYRK1A on E1A-induced oncogenic transformation. PMID:27307198

  1. The adaptor protein DCAF7 mediates the interaction of the adenovirus E1A oncoprotein with the protein kinases DYRK1A and HIPK2.

    PubMed

    Glenewinkel, Florian; Cohen, Michael J; King, Cason R; Kaspar, Sophie; Bamberg-Lemper, Simone; Mymryk, Joe S; Becker, Walter

    2016-01-01

    DYRK1A is a constitutively active protein kinase that has a critical role in growth and development which functions by regulating cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. DCAF7 (also termed WDR68 or HAN11) is a cellular binding partner of DYRK1A and also regulates signalling by the protein kinase HIPK2. DCAF7 is an evolutionarily conserved protein with a single WD40 repeat domain and has no catalytic activity. We have defined a DCAF7 binding motif of 12 amino acids in the N-terminal domain of class 1 DYRKs that is functionally conserved in DYRK1 orthologs from Xenopus, Danio rerio and the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. A similar sequence was essential for DCAF7 binding to HIPK2, whereas the closely related HIPK1 family member did not bind DCAF7. Immunoprecipitation and pulldown experiments identified DCAF7 as an adaptor for the association of the adenovirus E1A protein with DYRK1A and HIPK2. Furthermore, DCAF7 was required for the hyperphosphorylation of E1A in DYRK1A or HIPK2 overexpressing cells. Our results characterize DCAF7 as a substrate recruiting subunit of DYRK1A and HIPK2 and suggest that it is required for the negative effect of DYRK1A on E1A-induced oncogenic transformation. PMID:27307198

  2. Modulation of Hepatitis C Virus Genome Replication by Glycosphingolipids and Four-Phosphate Adaptor Protein 2

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Irfan; Katikaneni, Divya S.; Han, Qingxia; Sanchez-Felipe, Lorena; Hanada, Kentaro; Ambrose, Rebecca L.; Mackenzie, Jason M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hepatitis C virus (HCV) assembles its replication complex on cytosolic membrane vesicles often clustered in a membranous web (MW). During infection, HCV NS5A protein activates PI4KIIIα enzyme, causing massive production and redistribution of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) lipid to the replication complex. However, the role of PI4P in the HCV life cycle is not well understood. We postulated that PI4P recruits host effectors to modulate HCV genome replication or virus particle production. To test this hypothesis, we generated cell lines for doxycycline-inducible expression of short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) targeting the PI4P effector, four-phosphate adaptor protein 2 (FAPP2). FAPP2 depletion attenuated HCV infectivity and impeded HCV RNA synthesis. Indeed, FAPP2 has two functional lipid-binding domains specific for PI4P and glycosphingolipids. While expression of the PI4P-binding mutant protein was expected to inhibit HCV replication, a marked drop in replication efficiency was observed unexpectedly with the glycosphingolipid-binding mutant protein. These data suggest that both domains are crucial for the role of FAPP2 in HCV genome replication. We also found that HCV significantly increases the level of some glycosphingolipids, whereas adding these lipids to FAPP2-depleted cells partially rescued replication, further arguing for the importance of glycosphingolipids in HCV RNA synthesis. Interestingly, FAPP2 is redistributed to the replication complex (RC) characterized by HCV NS5A, NS4B, or double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) foci. Additionally, FAPP2 depletion disrupts the RC and alters the colocalization of HCV replicase proteins. Altogether, our study implies that HCV coopts FAPP2 for virus genome replication via PI4P binding and glycosphingolipid transport to the HCV RC. IMPORTANCE Like most viruses with a positive-sense RNA genome, HCV replicates its RNA on remodeled host membranes composed of lipids hijacked from various internal membrane compartments

  3. Btn3 regulates the endosomal sorting function of the yeast Ent3 epsin, an adaptor for SNARE proteins.

    PubMed

    Morvan, Joëlle; de Craene, Johan-Owen; Rinaldi, Bruno; Addis, Vanessa; Misslin, Cédric; Friant, Sylvie

    2015-02-15

    Ent3 and Ent5 are yeast epsin N-terminal homology (ENTH) domain-containing proteins involved in protein trafficking between the Golgi and late endosomes. They interact with clathrin, clathrin adaptors at the Golgi (AP-1 and GGA) and different SNAREs (Vti1, Snc1, Pep12 and Syn8) required for vesicular transport at the Golgi and endosomes. To better understand the role of these epsins in membrane trafficking, we performed a protein-protein interaction screen. We identified Btn3 (also known as Tda3), a putative oxidoreductase, as a new partner of both Ent3 and Ent5. Btn3 is a negative regulator of the Batten-disease-linked protein Btn2 involved in the retrieval of specific SNAREs (Vti1, Snc1, Tlg1 and Tlg2) from the late endosome to the Golgi. We show that Btn3 endosomal localization depends on the epsins Ent3 and Ent5. We demonstrated that in btn3Δ mutant cells, endosomal sorting of ubiquitylated cargos and endosomal recycling of the Snc1 SNARE are delayed. We thus propose that Btn3 regulates the sorting function of two adaptors for SNARE proteins, the epsin Ent3 and the Batten-disease-linked protein Btn2. PMID:25512335

  4. Detachment-Based Equilibrium of Anoikic Cell Death and Autophagic Cell Survival Through Adaptor Protein p66(Shc).

    PubMed

    Cai, Zeyuan; Zhao, Dan; Sun, Yanan; Gao, Dan; Li, Xia; Yang, Jie; Ma, Zhenyi

    2016-03-01

    Anoikis (detachment-induced cell death) confers a tumor-suppressive function in metastatic cancer cells. Autophagy, a conserved self-degradative process, enhances the anoikis resistance of detached cancer cells by maintaining cellular homeostasis. However, the mechanism of regulating cell fate-decision by balancing anoikis and autophagy has been poorly understood. Our previous studies have shown that the adaptor protein p66(Shc) mediates anoikis through RhoA activation and inhibits tumor metastasis in vivo. We also found that p66(Shc) depletion mitigates nutrient-deprivation-induced autophagy. These findings suggest p66(Shc) may coordinately regulate these two processes. To verify this hypothesis, we investigated the effect of p66(Shc) on the cell death of detached lung cancer cells, and measured autophagy markers and autophagic flux. Results showed that p66(Shc) depletion significantly inhibited anoikis, and reduced the formation of LC3B-II and the degradation of Sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1, p62) in detachment-induced cells. Using monodansylcadaverine (MDC)-LysoTracker double staining and monomeric Cherry (mCherry)-GFP-LC3 assay, we found that the autophagic flux was also mitigated by p66(Shc) depletion. In addition, p66(Shc) knockdown increased the formation of full-length X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP)-associated factor 1 (XAF1), which enhances anoikis sensitivity. In conclusion, p66(Shc) plays an essential role in detachment-based equilibrium of anoikic cell death and autophagic cell survival. Anat Rec, 299:325-333, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26643258

  5. Shc adaptor proteins are key transducers of mitogenic signaling mediated by the G protein-coupled thrombin receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y; Grall, D; Salcini, A E; Pelicci, P G; Pouysségur, J; Van Obberghen-Schilling, E

    1996-01-01

    The serine protease thrombin activates G protein signaling systems that lead to Ras activation and, in certain cells, proliferation. Whereas the steps leading to Ras activation by G protein-coupled receptors are not well defined, the mechanisms of Ras activation by receptor tyrosine kinases have recently been elucidated biochemically and genetically. The present study was undertaken to determine whether common signaling components are used by these two distinct classes of receptors. Here we report that the adaptor protein Shc, is phosphorylated on tyrosine residues following stimulation of the thrombin receptor in growth-responsive CCL39 fibroblasts. Shc phosphorylation by thrombin or the thrombin receptor agonist peptide is maximal by 15 min and persists for > or = 2 h. Following thrombin stimulation, phosphorylated Shc is recruited to Grb2 complexes. One or more pertussis toxin-insensitive proteins appear to mediate this effect, since (i) pertussis toxin pre-treatment of cells does not blunt the action of thrombin and (ii) Shc phosphorylation on tyrosine can be stimulated by the muscarinic m1 receptor. Shc phosphorylation does not appear to involve protein kinase C, since the addition of 4-beta-phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate has no effect. Rather, thrombin-induced Shc phosphorylation is enhanced in cells depleted of phorbol ester-sensitive protein kinase C isoforms. Expression of mutant Shc proteins defective in Grb2 binding displays a dominant-negative effect on thrombin-stimulated p44 MAP kinase activation, gene induction and cell growth. From these data, we conclude that Shc represents a crucial point of convergence between signaling pathways activated by receptor tyrosine kinases and G protein-coupled receptors. Images PMID:8605873

  6. Structure, Function and On-Off Switching of a Core Unit Contact between CheA Kinase and CheW Adaptor Protein in the Bacterial Chemosensory Array: A Disulfide Mapping and TAM-IDS Study

    PubMed Central

    Natale, Andrew M.; Duplantis, Jane L.; Piasta, Kene N.; Falke, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    The ultrasensitive, ultrastable bacterial chemosensory array of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium is representative of the large, conserved family of sensory arrays that control the cellular chemotaxis of motile bacteria and Archaea. The core framework of the membrane-bound array is a lattice assembled from three components: a transmembrane receptor, a cytoplasmic His kinase (CheA), and a cytoplasmic adaptor protein (CheW). Structural studies in the field have revealed the global architecture of the array and complexes between specific components, but much remains to be learned about the essential protein-protein interfaces that define array structure and transmit signals between components. This study has focused on the structure, function and on-off switching of a key contact between the kinase and adaptor proteins in the working, membrane-bound array. Specifically, the study addressed interface 1 in the putative kinase-adaptor ring where subdomain 1 of the kinase regulatory domain contacts subdomain 2 of the adaptor protein. Two independent approaches – disulfide mapping and site-directed Trp and Ala mutagenesis – were employed to (i) test the structural model of interface 1 and (ii) investigate its functional roles in both stable kinase incorporation and receptor-regulated kinase on-off switching. Studies were carried out in functional, membrane-bound arrays or in live cells. The findings reveal that crystal structures of binary and ternary complexes accurately depict the native interface in its kinase-activating on state. Furthermore, the findings indicate that at least part of the interface becomes less closely packed in its kinase-inhibiting off state. Together, the evidence shows the interface has a dual structural and signaling function that is crucial for stable kinase incorporation into the array, for kinase activation in the array on state, and likely for attractant-triggered kinase on-off switching. A model is presented that describes the

  7. The alternate AP-1 adaptor subunit Apm2 interacts with the Mil1 regulatory protein and confers differential cargo sorting

    PubMed Central

    Whitfield, Shawn T.; Burston, Helen E.; Bean, Björn D. M.; Raghuram, Nandini; Maldonado-Báez, Lymarie; Davey, Michael; Wendland, Beverly; Conibear, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Heterotetrameric adaptor protein complexes are important mediators of cargo protein sorting in clathrin-coated vesicles. The cell type–specific expression of alternate μ chains creates distinct forms of AP-1 with altered cargo sorting, but how these subunits confer differential function is unclear. Whereas some studies suggest the μ subunits specify localization to different cellular compartments, others find that the two forms of AP-1 are present in the same vesicle but recognize different cargo. Yeast have two forms of AP-1, which differ only in the μ chain. Here we show that the variant μ chain Apm2 confers distinct cargo-sorting functions. Loss of Apm2, but not of Apm1, increases cell surface levels of the v-SNARE Snc1. However, Apm2 is unable to replace Apm1 in sorting Chs3, which requires a dileucine motif recognized by the γ/σ subunits common to both complexes. Apm2 and Apm1 colocalize at Golgi/early endosomes, suggesting that they do not associate with distinct compartments. We identified a novel, conserved regulatory protein that is required for Apm2-dependent sorting events. Mil1 is a predicted lipase that binds Apm2 but not Apm1 and contributes to its membrane recruitment. Interactions with specific regulatory factors may provide a general mechanism to diversify the functional repertoire of clathrin adaptor complexes. PMID:26658609

  8. The 3A Protein from Multiple Picornaviruses Utilizes the Golgi Adaptor Protein ACBD3 To Recruit PI4KIIIβ

    PubMed Central

    Greninger, Alexander L.; Knudsen, Giselle M.; Betegon, Miguel; Burlingame, Alma L.

    2012-01-01

    The activity of phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase class III beta (PI4KIIIβ) has been shown to be required for the replication of multiple picornaviruses; however, it is unclear whether a physical association between PI4KIIIβ and the viral replication machinery exists and, if it does, whether association is necessary. We examined the ability of the 3A protein from 18 different picornaviruses to form a complex with PI4KIIIβ by affinity purification of Strep-Tagged transiently transfected constructs followed by mass spectrometry and Western blotting for putative interacting targets. We found that the 3A proteins of Aichi virus, bovine kobuvirus, poliovirus, coxsackievirus B3, and human rhinovirus 14 all copurify with PI4KIIIβ. Furthermore, we found that multiple picornavirus 3A proteins copurify with the Golgi adaptor protein acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) binding domain protein 3 (ACBD3/GPC60), including those from Aichi virus, bovine kobuvirus, human rhinovirus 14, poliovirus, and coxsackievirus B2, B3, and B5. Affinity purification of ACBD3 confirmed interaction with multiple picornaviral 3A proteins and revealed the ability to bind PI4KIIIβ in the absence of 3A. Mass-spectrometric analysis of transiently expressed Aichi virus, bovine kobuvirus, and human klassevirus 3A proteins demonstrated that the N-terminal glycines of these 3A proteins are myristoylated. Alanine-scanning mutagenesis along the entire length of Aichi virus 3A followed by transient expression and affinity purification revealed that copurification of PI4KIIIβ could be eliminated by mutation of specific residues, with little or no effect on recruitment of ACBD3. One mutation at the N terminus, I5A, significantly reduced copurification of both ACBD3 and PI4KIIIβ. The dependence of Aichi virus replication on the activity of PI4KIIIβ was confirmed by both chemical and genetic inhibition. Knockdown of ACBD3 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) also prevented replication of both Aichi virus and poliovirus

  9. Dissecting nuclear Wingless signalling: recruitment of the transcriptional co-activator Pygopus by a chain of adaptor proteins.

    PubMed

    Städeli, Reto; Basler, Konrad

    2005-11-01

    Members of the Wingless (Wg)/Wnt family of secreted glycoproteins control cell fate during embryonic development and adult homeostasis. Wnt signals regulate the expression of target genes by activating a conserved signal transduction pathway. Upon receptor activation, the signal is transmitted intracellularly by stabilization of Armadillo (Arm)/beta-catenin. Arm/beta-catenin translocates to the nucleus, interacts with DNA-binding factors of the Pangolin (Pan)/TCF/LEF class and activates transcription of target genes in cooperation with the recently identified proteins Legless/BCL9 (Lgs) and Pygopus (Pygo). Here, we analyse the mode of action of Pan, Arm, Lgs, and Pygo in Drosophila cultured cells. We provide evidence that together these four proteins form a 'chain of adaptors' linking the NH2-terminal homology domain (NHD) of Pygo to the DNA-binding domain of Pan. We show that the NHD has potent transcriptional activation capacity, which differs from that of acidic activator domains and depends on a conserved NPF tripeptide. A single point mutation within this NPF motif abolishes the transcriptional activity of the Pygo NHD in vitro and strongly reduces Wg signalling in vivo. Together, our results suggest that the transcriptional output of Wg pathway activity largely relies on a 'chain of adaptors' design to direct the Pygo NHD to Wg target promoters in an Arm-dependent manner. PMID:16169192

  10. Single Amino Acid Substitutions Confer the Antiviral Activity of the TRAF3 Adaptor Protein onto TRAF5

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Reichardt, Anna; Liang, Huanhuan; Aliyari, Roghiyh; Cheng, David; Wang, Yaya; Xu, Feng

    2014-01-01

    The TRAF [tumor necrosis factor receptor–associated factor] family of cytoplasmic adaptor proteins link cell-surface receptors to intracellular signaling pathways that regulate innate and adaptive immune responses. In response to activation of RIG-I (retinoic acid–inducible gene I), a component of a pattern recognition receptor that detects viruses, TRAF3 binds to the adaptor protein Cardif [caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD) adaptor–inducing interferon-b (IFN-b)], leading to induction of type I IFNs. We report the crystal structures of the TRAF domain of TRAF5 and that of TRAF3 bound to a peptide from the TRAF-interacting motif of Cardif. By comparing these structures, we identified two residues located near the Cardif binding pocket in TRAF3 (Tyr440 and Phe473) that potentially contributed to Cardif recognition. In vitro and cellular experiments showed that forms of TRAF5 with mutation of the corresponding residues to those of TRAF3 had TRAF3-like antiviral activity. Our results provide a structural basis for the critical role of TRAF3 in activating RIG-I–mediated IFN production. PMID:23150880

  11. Bicaudal D Family of Motor Adaptors: Linking Dynein Motility to Cargo Binding.

    PubMed

    Hoogenraad, Casper C; Akhmanova, Anna

    2016-05-01

    Transport of different intracellular cargoes along cytoskeleton filaments is essential for the morphogenesis and function of a broad variety of eukaryotic cells. Intracellular transport is mediated by cytoskeletal motors including myosin, kinesin, and dynein, which are typically linked to various cargoes by adaptor proteins. Recent studies suggest that adaptor proteins can also act as essential transport cofactors, which control motor activity and coordination. Characterization of the evolutionary conserved Bicaudal D (BICD) family of dynein adaptor proteins has provided important insights into the fundamental mechanisms governing cargo trafficking. This review highlights the advances in the current understanding of how BICD adaptors regulate microtubule-based transport and how they contribute to developmental processes and human disease. PMID:26822037

  12. The adaptor proteins p140CAP and p130CAS as molecular hubs in cell migration and invasion of cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Di Stefano, Paola; Leal, Maria Pilar Camacho; Tornillo, Giusy; Bisaro, Brigitte; Repetto, Daniele; Pincini, Alessandra; Santopietro, Emanuela; Sharma, Nanaocha; Turco, Emilia; Cabodi, Sara; Defilippi, Paola

    2011-01-01

    The assembly of molecular hubs upon integrin and growth factor stimulation represents a preferential way to transduce signals throughout the cell. Among the intracellular kinases that are responsive to integrin and growth factor activation, Src Family Kinases (SFKs) are crucial regulators of cell migration and invasion. Increasing evidence highlight the importance of adaptor proteins in these processes, based on their ability to create signalling platforms that control downstream signals. Among these adaptors we will discuss the molecular features of p130Cas and p140Cap proteins in terms of regulation of cell migration and invasion in normal and transformed cells. PMID:21994904

  13. A dual role for the adaptor protein DRK in Drosophila olfactory learning and memory

    PubMed Central

    Moressis, Anastasios; Friedrich, Anke R.; Pavlopoulos, Elias; Davis, Ronald L.; Skoulakis, Efthimios M. C.

    2009-01-01

    Participation of RAS, RAF and MAPK in learning and memory has been demonstrated in a number of studies, but the molecular events requisite for cascade activation and regulation have not been explored. We demonstrate that the adapter protein DRK which is essential for signaling to RAS in developmental contexts, is preferentially distributed in the adult mushroom bodies, centers for olfactory learning and memory. We demonstrate that drk mutant heterozygotes exhibit deficits in olfactory learning and memory, apparent under limited training conditions, but are not impaired in sensory responses requisite for the association of the stimuli, or brain neuroanatomy. Furthermore we demonstrate that the protein is required acutely within mushroom body neurons to mediate efficient learning, a process that requires RAF activation. Importantly, 90-minute memory remained impaired, even after differential training yielding equivalent learning in animals with compromised DRK levels and controls, and did not require RAF. Sustained MAPK activation is compromised in drk mutants and surprisingly is negatively regulated by constitutive RAF activity. The data establish a role for DRK in Drosophila behavioral neuroplasticity and suggest a dual role for the protein, first in RAF activation-dependent learning and additionally in RAF-inhibition dependent sustained MAPK activation essential for memory formation or stability. PMID:19244537

  14. The adaptor protein Cindr regulates JNK activity to maintain epithelial sheet integrity.

    PubMed

    Yasin, Hannah W R; van Rensburg, Samuel H; Feiler, Christina E; Johnson, Ruth I

    2016-02-15

    Epithelia are essential barrier tissues that must be appropriately maintained for their correct function. To achieve this a plethora of protein interactions regulate epithelial cell number, structure and adhesion, and differentiation. Here we show that Cindr (the Drosophila Cin85 and Cd2ap ortholog) is required to maintain epithelial integrity. Reducing Cindr triggered cell delamination and movement. Most delaminating cells died. These behaviors were consistent with JNK activation previously associated with loss of epithelial integrity in response to ectopic oncogene activity. We confirmed a novel interaction between Cindr and Drosophila JNK (dJNK), which when perturbed caused inappropriate JNK signaling. Genetically reducing JNK signaling activity suppressed the effects of reducing Cindr. Furthermore, ectopic JNK signaling phenocopied loss of Cindr and was partially rescued by concomitant cindr over-expression. Thus, correct Cindr-dJNK stoichiometry is essential to maintain epithelial integrity and disturbing this balance may contribute to the pathogenesis of disease states, including cancer. PMID:26772997

  15. Multiple interactions drive adaptor-mediated recruitment of the ubiquitin ligase rsp5 to membrane proteins in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, James A; Lewis, Michael J; Nikko, Elina; Pelham, Hugh R B

    2007-07-01

    Recognition of membrane proteins by the Nedd4/Rsp5 ubiquitin ligase family is a critical step in their targeting to the multivesicular body pathway. Some substrates contain "PY" motifs (PPxY), which bind to WW domains in the ligase. Others lack PY motifs and instead rely on adaptors that recruit the ligase to them. To investigate the mechanism of adaptor-mediated ubiquitination, we have characterized the interactions between the adaptor Bsd2, the ubiquitin ligase Rsp5, and the membrane proteins Cps1, Tre1, and Smf1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have reconstituted adaptor-mediated modification of Cps1 and Tre1 in vitro, and we show that two PY motifs in Bsd2 and two WW domains (WW2 and WW3) in Rsp5 are crucial for this. The binding of a weak noncanonical DMAPSY motif in Bsd2 to WW3 is an absolute requirement for Bsd2 adaptor function. We show that sorting of the manganese transporter Smf1, which requires both Bsd2 and Tre1, depends upon two PY motifs in Bsd2 and one motif in Tre1 but only two WW domains in Rsp5. We suggest that sequential assembly of first a Bsd2/Rsp5 complex, then a Tre1/Bsd2/Rsp5 complex followed by a rearrangement of PY-WW interactions is required for the ubiquitination of Smf1. PMID:17429078

  16. AP-1/σ1A and AP-1/σ1B adaptor-proteins differentially regulate neuronal early endosome maturation via the Rab5/Vps34-pathway

    PubMed Central

    Candiello, Ermes; Kratzke, Manuel; Wenzel, Dirk; Cassel, Dan; Schu, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The σ1 subunit of the AP-1 clathrin-coated-vesicle adaptor-protein complex is expressed as three isoforms. Tissues express σ1A and one of the σ1B and σ1C isoforms. Brain is the tissue with the highest σ1A and σ1B expression. σ1B-deficiency leads to severe mental retardation, accumulation of early endosomes in synapses and fewer synaptic vesicles, whose recycling is slowed down. AP-1/σ1A and AP-1/σ1B regulate maturation of these early endosomes into multivesicular body late endosomes, thereby controlling synaptic vesicle protein transport into a degradative pathway. σ1A binds ArfGAP1, and with higher affinity brain-specific ArfGAP1, which bind Rabex-5. AP-1/σ1A-ArfGAP1-Rabex-5 complex formation leads to more endosomal Rabex-5 and enhanced, Rab5GTP-stimulated Vps34 PI3-kinase activity, which is essential for multivesicular body endosome formation. Formation of AP-1/σ1A-ArfGAP1-Rabex-5 complexes is prevented by σ1B binding of Rabex-5 and the amount of endosomal Rabex-5 is reduced. AP-1 complexes differentially regulate endosome maturation and coordinate protein recycling and degradation, revealing a novel molecular mechanism by which they regulate protein transport besides their established function in clathrin-coated-vesicle formation. PMID:27411398

  17. Nck adaptor proteins control the organization of neuronal circuits important for walking.

    PubMed

    Fawcett, James P; Georgiou, John; Ruston, Julie; Bladt, Friedhelm; Sherman, Andrew; Warner, Neil; Saab, Bechara J; Scott, Rizaldy; Roder, John C; Pawson, Tony

    2007-12-26

    The intracellular signaling targets used by mammalian axon guidance receptors to organize the nervous system in vivo are unclear. The Nck1 and Nck2 SH2/SH3 adaptors (collectively Nck) can couple phosphotyrosine (pTyr) signals to reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and are therefore candidates for linking guidance cues to the regulatory machinery of the cytoskeleton. We find that selective inactivation of Nck in the murine nervous system causes a hopping gait and a defect in the spinal central pattern generator, which is characterized by synchronous firing of bilateral ventral motor neurons. Nck-deficient mice also show abnormal projections of corticospinal tract axons and defective development of the posterior tract of the anterior commissure. These phenotypes are consistent with a role for Nck in signaling initiated by different classes of guidance receptors, including the EphA4 receptor tyrosine kinase. Our data indicate that Nck adaptors couple pTyr guidance signals to cytoskeletal events required for the ipsilateral projections of spinal cord neurons and thus for normal limb movement. PMID:18093944

  18. Molecular basis for the specific recognition of the metazoan cyclic GMP-AMP by the innate immune adaptor protein STING

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Heping; Wu, Jiaxi; Chen, Zhijian J.; Chen, Chuo

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic GMP-AMP containing a unique combination of mixed phosphodiester linkages (2′3′-cGAMP) is an endogenous second messenger molecule that activates the type-I IFN pathway upon binding to the homodimer of the adaptor protein STING on the surface of endoplasmic reticulum membrane. However, the preferential binding of the asymmetric ligand 2′3′-cGAMP to the symmetric dimer of STING represents a physicochemical enigma. Here we show that 2′3′-cGAMP, but not its linkage isomers, adopts an organized free-ligand conformation that resembles the STING-bound conformation and pays low entropy and enthalpy costs in converting into the active conformation. Our results demonstrate that analyses of free-ligand conformations can be as important as analyses of protein conformations in understanding protein–ligand interactions. PMID:26150511

  19. RNF11 is a GGA protein cargo and acts as a molecular adaptor for GGA3 ubiquitination mediated by Itch.

    PubMed

    Santonico, E; Mattioni, A; Panni, S; Belleudi, F; Mattei, M; Torrisi, M R; Cesareni, G; Castagnoli, L

    2015-06-01

    Ring finger protein 11 (RNF11) is a RING (really interesting new gene)-H2 E3 ligase that is overexpressed in several human tumor tissues. The mature protein, which is anchored to membranes via a double acylation, localizes to early endosome and recycling compartments. Apart from its subcellular localization, additional lines of evidence implicate RNF11 in the mechanisms underlying vesicle traffic. Here we identify two acidic-cluster dileucine (Ac-LL) motifs, which are recognized by the VHS domains of Golgi-localized, gamma adaptin era-containing, ADP-ribosylation factor-binding protein (GGA) adaptors, as the molecular determinants governing RNF11 sorting at the trans-Golgi network and its internalization from the plasma membrane. We also show that RNF11 recruits itch to drive the ubiquitination of GGA3. This function is experimentally detectable only in cells overexpressing an RNF11 variant that is inactivated in the RING domain, indicating that RNF11 recruits GGA3 and controls its ubiquitination by regulating itch activity. Accordingly, our data demonstrate the involvement of itch in regulating GGA3 stability. Indeed, we observe that the endogenous levels of GGA3 are increased in cells knocked down for itch and endogenous GGA3 is hyperubiquitinated in an itch-dependent manner in a cell line expressing catalytically inactive RNF11. Our data are consistent with a model whereby the RING E3 ligase RNF11 is a novel GGA cargo actively participating in regulating the ubiquitination of the GGA protein family. The results that we are presenting put RNF11 at the center of a finally regulated system where it acts both as an adaptor and a modulator of itch-mediated control of ubiquitination events underlying membrane traffic. PMID:25195858

  20. Toll-Interleukin 1 Receptor domain-containing adaptor protein positively regulates BV2 cell M1 polarization.

    PubMed

    Gong, Leilei; Wang, Hanxiang; Sun, Xiaolei; Liu, Chun; Duan, Chengwei; Cai, Rixin; Gu, Xingxing; Zhu, Shunxing

    2016-06-01

    Microglial activation, including classical (M1) and alternative (M2) activation, plays important roles in the development of several central nervous system disorders and promotes tissue reconstruction. Toll-like receptor (TLR)4 is important for microglial polarization. TIR domain-containing adaptor protein (TIRAP) is an intracellular adaptor protein, which is responsible for the early phase of TLR4 activation. The role of TIRAP in BV2 cell M1 polarization is still unknown. In this study, we showed that TIRAP expression is greatly elevated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/interferon (IFN)-γ-treated microglia. TIRAP overexpression promoted BV2 microglial M1 polarization by increasing M1-related marker production (inducible nitric oxide synthase, CD86, interleukin-6, interleukin-1β and tumour necrosis factor-α). In contrast, TIRAP knockdown prevented M1-related marker production. Mechanistically, TIRAP could interact with TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 6 (TRAF6) to increase M1-related marker production in TIRAP overexpressed and LPS/IFN-γ-treated BV2 cells. In addition, silencing of TIRAP effectively inhibited the activation of the Transforming Growth Factor-Beta-Activated Kinase 1/I-Kappa-B Kinase /Nuclear Factor of Kappa Light Polypeptide Gene Enhancer in B-Cells (TAK1/IKK/NF-κB) signalling pathway and the phosphorylation of Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinases, which were activated by LPS/IFN-γ stimulation. Thus, our results suggest that TIRAP positively regulated BV2 microglial M1 polarization through TLR4-mediated TAK1/IKK/NF-κB, mitogen-activated protein kinases and Akt signalling pathways. PMID:27061018

  1. Interaction of atypical cadherin Fat1 with SoHo adaptor proteins CAP/ponsin and ArgBP2.

    PubMed

    Braun, Gerald S; Kuszka, Andrzej; Dau, Cécile; Kriz, Wilhelm; Moeller, Marcus J

    2016-03-25

    Mammalian Fat1 is a giant atypical cadherin/tumor suppressor involved in the regulation of cellular orientation, migration, and growth. Fat1 is implicated in the development of the brain, eye, and kidney. Altered expression or mutations of FAT1 are also associated with cancer and facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). Yet, the mechanistic functions of this pathway remain incompletely understood. Here, we report the identification of Sorbin-homology (SoHo) proteins as novel interaction partners of Fat1 by virtue of a yeast-two-hybrid screen. SoHo proteins play diverse roles as adaptor proteins in cell signaling, cell adhesion and sarcomere architecture, including altered expression in cancer and FSHD. Specifically, we found SoHo proteins CAP/ponsin-1 and -2 (Sorbs1) and ArgBP2 (Sorbs2) to interact with the cytoplasmic domain of Fat1. We mapped the interaction to a prolin-rich classic type II PXXP motif within Fat1 and to the three Src-homology (SH3) domains within SoHo proteins using mutant expression in yeast, pulldown assays, and cell culture. Functionally, endogenous ponsin-2 expression of NRK-52E cells at cellular leading edges was lost upon knockdown of Fat1. In summary, our data point to an interaction of Fat1 with SoHo proteins that is able to recruit SoHo proteins to sites of Fat1 expression. PMID:26903299

  2. Brucella TIR-like protein TcpB/Btp1 specifically targets the host adaptor protein MAL/TIRAP to promote infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenna; Ke, Yuehua; Wang, Yufei; Yang, Mingjuan; Gao, Junguang; Zhan, Shaoxia; Xinying, Du; Huang, Liuyu; Li, Wenfeng; Chen, Zeliang; Li, Juan

    2016-08-26

    Brucella spp. are known to avoid host immune recognition and weaken the immune response to infection. Brucella like accomplish this by employing two clever strategies, called the stealth strategy and hijacking strategy. The TIR domain-containing protein (TcpB/Btp1) of Brucella melitensis is thought to be involved in inhibiting host NF-κB activation by binding to adaptors downstream of Toll-like receptors. However, of the five TIR domain-containing adaptors conserved in mammals, whether MyD88 or MAL, even other three adaptors, are specifically targeted by TcpB has not been identified. Here, we confirmed the effect of TcpB on B.melitensis virulence in mice and found that TcpB selectively targets MAL. By using siRNA against MAL, we found that TcpB from B.melitensis is involved in intracellular survival and that MAL affects intracellular replication of B.melitensis. Our results confirm that TcpB specifically targets MAL/TIRAP to disrupt downstream signaling pathways and promote intra-host survival of Brucella spp. PMID:27311859

  3. Adaptor protein complex 4 deficiency causes severe autosomal-recessive intellectual disability, progressive spastic paraplegia, shy character, and short stature.

    PubMed

    Abou Jamra, Rami; Philippe, Orianne; Raas-Rothschild, Annick; Eck, Sebastian H; Graf, Elisabeth; Buchert, Rebecca; Borck, Guntram; Ekici, Arif; Brockschmidt, Felix F; Nöthen, Markus M; Munnich, Arnold; Strom, Tim M; Reis, Andre; Colleaux, Laurence

    2011-06-10

    Intellectual disability inherited in an autosomal-recessive fashion represents an important fraction of severe cognitive-dysfunction disorders. Yet, the extreme heterogeneity of these conditions markedly hampers gene identification. Here, we report on eight affected individuals who were from three consanguineous families and presented with severe intellectual disability, absent speech, shy character, stereotypic laughter, muscular hypotonia that progressed to spastic paraplegia, microcephaly, foot deformity, decreased muscle mass of the lower limbs, inability to walk, and growth retardation. Using a combination of autozygosity mapping and either Sanger sequencing of candidate genes or next-generation exome sequencing, we identified one mutation in each of three genes encoding adaptor protein complex 4 (AP4) subunits: a nonsense mutation in AP4S1 (NM_007077.3: c.124C>T, p.Arg42(∗)), a frameshift mutation in AP4B1 (NM_006594.2: c.487_488insTAT, p.Glu163_Ser739delinsVal), and a splice mutation in AP4E1 (NM_007347.3: c.542+1_542+4delGTAA, r.421_542del, p.Glu181Glyfs(∗)20). Adaptor protein complexes (AP1-4) are ubiquitously expressed, evolutionarily conserved heterotetrameric complexes that mediate different types of vesicle formation and the selection of cargo molecules for inclusion into these vesicles. Interestingly, two mutations affecting AP4M1 and AP4E1 have recently been found to cause cerebral palsy associated with severe intellectual disability. Combined with previous observations, these results support the hypothesis that AP4-complex-mediated trafficking plays a crucial role in brain development and functioning and demonstrate the existence of a clinically recognizable syndrome due to deficiency of the AP4 complex. PMID:21620353

  4. Proteins recruited by SH3 domains of Ruk/CIN85 adaptor identified by LC-MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Havrylov, Serhiy; Rzhepetskyy, Yuriy; Malinowska, Agata; Drobot, Lyudmyla; Redowicz, Maria Jolanta

    2009-01-01

    Background Ruk/CIN85 is a mammalian adaptor molecule with three SH3 domains. Using its SH3 domains Ruk/CIN85 can cluster multiple proteins and protein complexes, and, consequently, facilitates organisation of elaborate protein interaction networks with diverse regulatory roles. Previous research linked Ruk/CIN85 with the regulation of vesicle-mediated transport and cancer cell invasiveness. Despite the recent findings, precise molecular functions of Ruk/CIN85 in these processes remain largely elusive and further research is hampered by a lack of complete lists of its partner proteins. Results In the present study we employed a LC-MS/MS-based experimental pipeline to identify a considerable number (over 100) of proteins recruited by the SH3 domains of Ruk/CIN85 in vitro. Most of these identifications are novel Ruk/CIN85 interaction candidates. The identified proteins have diverse molecular architectures and can interact with other proteins, as well as with lipids and nucleic acids. Some of the identified proteins possess enzymatic activities. Functional profiling analyses and literature mining demonstrate that many of the proteins recruited by the SH3 domains of Ruk/CIN85 identified in this work were involved in the regulation of membranes and cytoskeletal structures necessary for vesicle-mediated transport and cancer cell invasiveness. Several groups of the proteins were also associated with few other cellular processes not previously related to Ruk/CIN85, most prominently with cell division. Conclusion Obtained data support the notion that Ruk/CIN85 regulates vesicle-mediated transport and cancer cell invasiveness through the assembly of multimeric protein complexes governing coordinated remodelling of membranes and underlying cytoskeletal structures, and imply its important roles in formation of coated vesicles and biogenesis of invadopodia. In addition, this study points to potential involvement of Ruk/CIN85 in other cellular processes, chiefly in cell division

  5. Adaptor protein complexes AP-1 and AP-3 are required by the HHV-7 Immunoevasin U21 for rerouting of class I MHC molecules to the lysosomal compartment.

    PubMed

    Kimpler, Lisa A; Glosson, Nicole L; Downs, Deanna; Gonyo, Patrick; May, Nathan A; Hudson, Amy W

    2014-01-01

    The human herpesvirus-7 (HHV-7) U21 gene product binds to class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules and reroutes them to a lysosomal compartment. Trafficking of integral membrane proteins to lysosomes is mediated through cytoplasmic sorting signals that recruit heterotetrameric clathrin adaptor protein (AP) complexes, which in turn mediate protein sorting in post-Golgi vesicular transport. Since U21 can mediate rerouting of class I molecules to lysosomes even when lacking its cytoplasmic tail, we hypothesize the existence of a cellular protein that contains the lysosomal sorting information required to escort class I molecules to the lysosomal compartment. If such a protein exists, we expect that it might recruit clathrin adaptor protein complexes as a means of lysosomal sorting. Here we describe experiments demonstrating that the μ adaptins from AP-1 and AP-3 are involved in U21-mediated trafficking of class I molecules to lysosomes. These experiments support the idea that a cellular protein(s) is necessary for U21-mediated lysosomal sorting of class I molecules. We also examine the impact of transient versus chronic knockdown of these adaptor protein complexes, and show that the few remaining μ subunits in the cells are eventually able to reroute class I molecules to lysosomes. PMID:24901711

  6. Essential protein identification based on essential protein-protein interaction prediction by Integrated Edge Weights.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuexu; Wang, Yan; Pang, Wei; Chen, Liang; Sun, Huiyan; Liang, Yanchun; Blanzieri, Enrico

    2015-07-15

    Essential proteins play a crucial role in cellular survival and development process. Experimentally, essential proteins are identified by gene knockouts or RNA interference, which are expensive and often fatal to the target organisms. Regarding this, an alternative yet important approach to essential protein identification is through computational prediction. Existing computational methods predict essential proteins based on their relative densities in a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. Degree, betweenness, and other appropriate criteria are often used to measure the relative density. However, no matter what criterion is used, a protein is actually ordered by the attributes of this protein per se. In this research, we presented a novel computational method, Integrated Edge Weights (IEW), to first rank protein-protein interactions by integrating their edge weights, and then identified sub PPI networks consisting of those highly-ranked edges, and finally regarded the nodes in these sub networks as essential proteins. We evaluated IEW on three model organisms: Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae), Escherichia coli (E. coli), and Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). The experimental results showed that IEW achieved better performance than the state-of-the-art methods in terms of precision-recall and Jackknife measures. We had also demonstrated that IEW is a robust and effective method, which can retrieve biologically significant modules by its highly-ranked protein-protein interactions for S. cerevisiae, E. coli, and C. elegans. We believe that, with sufficient data provided, IEW can be used to any other organisms' essential protein identification. A website about IEW can be accessed from http://digbio.missouri.edu/IEW/index.html. PMID:25892709

  7. A Cyclic di-GMP-binding Adaptor Protein Interacts with Histidine Kinase to Regulate Two-component Signaling.

    PubMed

    Xu, Linghui; Venkataramani, Prabhadevi; Ding, Yichen; Liu, Yang; Deng, Yinyue; Yong, Grace Lisi; Xin, Lingyi; Ye, Ruijuan; Zhang, Lianhui; Yang, Liang; Liang, Zhao-Xun

    2016-07-29

    The bacterial messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) binds to a diverse range of effectors to exert its biological effect. Despite the fact that free-standing PilZ proteins are by far the most prevalent c-di-GMP effectors known to date, their physiological function and mechanism of action remain largely unknown. Here we report that the free-standing PilZ protein PA2799 from the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa interacts directly with the hybrid histidine kinase SagS. We show that PA2799 (named as HapZ: histidine kinase associated PilZ) binds directly to the phosphoreceiver (REC) domain of SagS, and that the SagS-HapZ interaction is further enhanced at elevated c-di-GMP concentration. We demonstrate that binding of HapZ to SagS inhibits the phosphotransfer between SagS and the downstream protein HptB in a c-di-GMP-dependent manner. In accordance with the role of SagS as a motile-sessile switch and biofilm growth factor, we show that HapZ impacts surface attachment and biofilm formation most likely by regulating the expression of a large number of genes. The observations suggest a previously unknown mechanism whereby c-di-GMP mediates two-component signaling through a PilZ adaptor protein. PMID:27231351

  8. The membrane-associated proteins FCHo and SGIP are allosteric activators of the AP2 clathrin adaptor complex

    PubMed Central

    Hollopeter, Gunther; Lange, Jeffrey J; Zhang, Ying; Vu, Thien N; Gu, Mingyu; Ailion, Michael; Lambie, Eric J; Slaughter, Brian D; Unruh, Jay R; Florens, Laurence; Jorgensen, Erik M

    2014-01-01

    The AP2 clathrin adaptor complex links protein cargo to the endocytic machinery but it is unclear how AP2 is activated on the plasma membrane. Here we demonstrate that the membrane-associated proteins FCHo and SGIP1 convert AP2 into an open, active conformation. We screened for Caenorhabditis elegans mutants that phenocopy the loss of AP2 subunits and found that AP2 remains inactive in fcho-1 mutants. A subsequent screen for bypass suppressors of fcho-1 nulls identified 71 compensatory mutations in all four AP2 subunits. Using a protease-sensitivity assay we show that these mutations restore the open conformation in vivo. The domain of FCHo that induces this rearrangement is not the F-BAR domain or the µ-homology domain, but rather is an uncharacterized 90 amino acid motif, found in both FCHo and SGIP proteins, that directly binds AP2. Thus, these proteins stabilize nascent endocytic pits by exposing membrane and cargo binding sites on AP2. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03648.001 PMID:25303366

  9. Structural basis of HIV-1 Vpu-mediated BST2 antagonism via hijacking of the clathrin adaptor protein complex 1

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Xiaofei; Weber, Erin; Tokarev, Andrey; Lewinski, Mary; Rizk, Maryan; Suarez, Marissa; Guatelli, John; Xiong, Yong

    2014-01-01

    BST2/tetherin, an antiviral restriction factor, inhibits the release of enveloped viruses from the cell surface. Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) antagonizes BST2 through viral protein u (Vpu), which downregulates BST2 from the cell surface. We report the crystal structure of a protein complex containing Vpu and BST2 cytoplasmic domains and the core of the clathrin adaptor protein complex 1 (AP1). This, together with our biochemical and functional validations, reveals how Vpu hijacks the AP1-dependent membrane trafficking pathways to mistraffick BST2. Vpu mimics a canonical acidic dileucine-sorting motif to bind AP1 in the cytosol, while simultaneously interacting with BST2 in the membrane. These interactions enable Vpu to build on an intrinsic interaction between BST2 and AP1, presumably causing the observed retention of BST2 in juxtanuclear endosomes and stimulating its degradation in lysosomes. The ability of Vpu to hijack AP-dependent trafficking pathways suggests a potential common theme for Vpu-mediated downregulation of host proteins. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02362.001 PMID:24843023

  10. The cytoskeleton adaptor protein ankyrin-1 is upregulated by p53 following DNA damage and alters cell migration.

    PubMed

    Hall, A E; Lu, W-T; Godfrey, J D; Antonov, A V; Paicu, C; Moxon, S; Dalmay, T; Wilczynska, A; Muller, P A J; Bushell, M

    2016-01-01

    The integrity of the genome is maintained by a host of surveillance and repair mechanisms that are pivotal for cellular function. The tumour suppressor protein p53 is a major component of the DNA damage response pathway and plays a vital role in the maintenance of cell-cycle checkpoints. Here we show that a microRNA, miR-486, and its host gene ankyrin-1 (ANK1) are induced by p53 following DNA damage. Strikingly, the cytoskeleton adaptor protein ankyrin-1 was induced over 80-fold following DNA damage. ANK1 is upregulated in response to a variety of DNA damage agents in a range of cell types. We demonstrate that miR-486-5p is involved in controlling G1/S transition following DNA damage, whereas the induction of the ankyrin-1 protein alters the structure of the actin cytoskeleton and sustains limited cell migration during DNA damage. Importantly, we found that higher ANK1 expression correlates with decreased survival in cancer patients. Thus, these observations highlight ANK1 as an important effector downstream of the p53 pathway. PMID:27054339

  11. The cytoskeleton adaptor protein ankyrin-1 is upregulated by p53 following DNA damage and alters cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Hall, A E; Lu, W-T; Godfrey, J D; Antonov, A V; Paicu, C; Moxon, S; Dalmay, T; Wilczynska, A; Muller, P A J; Bushell, M

    2016-01-01

    The integrity of the genome is maintained by a host of surveillance and repair mechanisms that are pivotal for cellular function. The tumour suppressor protein p53 is a major component of the DNA damage response pathway and plays a vital role in the maintenance of cell-cycle checkpoints. Here we show that a microRNA, miR-486, and its host gene ankyrin-1 (ANK1) are induced by p53 following DNA damage. Strikingly, the cytoskeleton adaptor protein ankyrin-1 was induced over 80-fold following DNA damage. ANK1 is upregulated in response to a variety of DNA damage agents in a range of cell types. We demonstrate that miR-486-5p is involved in controlling G1/S transition following DNA damage, whereas the induction of the ankyrin-1 protein alters the structure of the actin cytoskeleton and sustains limited cell migration during DNA damage. Importantly, we found that higher ANK1 expression correlates with decreased survival in cancer patients. Thus, these observations highlight ANK1 as an important effector downstream of the p53 pathway. PMID:27054339

  12. SorLA/LR11 regulates processing of amyloid precursor protein via interaction with adaptors GGA and PACS-1.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Vanessa; Sporbert, Anje; Rohe, Michael; Reimer, Tatjana; Rehm, Armin; Andersen, Olav M; Willnow, Thomas E

    2007-11-01

    SorLA has been recognized as a novel sorting receptor that regulates trafficking and processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and that represents a significant risk factor for sporadic Alzheimer disease. Here, we investigated the cellular mechanisms that control intracellular trafficking of sorLA and their relevance for APP processing. We demonstrate that sorLA acts as a retention factor for APP in trans-Golgi compartments/trans-Golgi network, preventing release of the precursor into regular processing pathways. Proper localization and activity of sorLA are dependent on functional interaction with GGA and PACS-1, adaptor proteins involved in protein transport to and from the trans-Golgi network. Aberrant targeting of sorLA to the recycling compartment or the plasma membrane causes faulty APP trafficking and imbalance in non-amyloidogenic and amyloidogenic processing fates. Thus, our findings identified altered routing of sorLA as a major cellular mechanism contributing to abnormal APP processing and enhanced amyloid beta-peptide formation. PMID:17855360

  13. An Inducible System for Rapid Degradation of Specific Cellular Proteins Using Proteasome Adaptors

    PubMed Central

    Wilmington, Shameika R.; Matouschek, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    A common way to study protein function is to deplete the protein of interest from cells and observe the response. Traditional methods involve disrupting gene expression but these techniques are only effective against newly synthesized proteins and leave previously existing and stable proteins untouched. Here, we introduce a technique that induces the rapid degradation of specific proteins in mammalian cells by shuttling the proteins to the proteasome for degradation in a ubiquitin-independent manner. We present two implementations of the system in human culture cells that can be used individually to control protein concentration. Our study presents a simple, robust, and flexible technology platform for manipulating intracellular protein levels. PMID:27043013

  14. A novel class of antihyperlipidemic agents with low density lipoprotein receptor up-regulation via the adaptor protein autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Asano, Shigehiro; Ban, Hitoshi; Tsuboya, Norie; Uno, Shinsaku; Kino, Kouichi; Ioriya, Katsuhisa; Kitano, Masafumi; Ueno, Yoshihide

    2010-04-22

    We have previously reported compound 2 as a inhibitor of acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol O-acyltransferase (ACAT) and up-regulator of the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) expression. In this study we focused on compound 2, a unique LDL-R up-regulator, and describe the discovery of a novel class of up-regulators of LDL-R. Replacement the methylene urea linker in compound 2 with an acylsulfonamide linker kept a potent LDL-R up-regulatory activity, and subsequent optimization work gave compound 39 as a highly potent LDL-R up-regulator (39; EC(25) = 0.047 microM). Compound 39 showed no ACAT inhibitory activity even at 1 microM. The sodium salts of compound 39 reduced plasma total and LDL cholesterol levels in a dose-dependent manner in an experimental animal model of hyperlipidemia. Moreover, we revealed in this study using RNA interference that autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia (ARH), an adaptor protein of LDL-R, is essential for compound 39 up-regulation of LDL-R expression. PMID:20356098

  15. Adaptor protein CRK induces epithelial–mesenchymal transition and metastasis of bladder cancer cells through HGF/c-Met feedback loop

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Ryuji; Tsuda, Masumi; Wang, Lei; Maishi, Nako; Abe, Takashige; Kimura, Taichi; Tanino, Mishie; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Hida, Kyoko; Ohba, Yusuke; Shinohara, Nobuo; Nonomura, Katsuya; Tanaka, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    We have previously reported that an adaptor protein CRK, including CRK-I and CRK-II, plays essential roles in the malignant potential of various aggressive human cancers, suggesting the validity of targeting CRK in molecular targeted therapy of a wide range of cancers. Nevertheless, the role of CRK in human bladder cancer with marked invasion, characterized by distant metastasis and poor prognosis, remains obscure. In the present study, immunohistochemistry indicated a striking enhancement of CRK-I/-II, but not CRK-like, in human bladder cancer tissues compared to normal urothelium. We established CRK-knockdown bladder cancer cells using 5637 and UM-UC-3, which showed a significant decline in cell migration, invasion, and proliferation. It is noteworthy that an elimination of CRK conferred suppressed phosphorylation of c-Met and the downstream scaffold protein Gab1 in a hepatocyte growth factor-dependent and -independent manner. In epithelial–mesenchymal transition-related molecules, E-cadherin was upregulated by CRK elimination, whereas N-cadherin, vimentin, and Zeb1 were downregulated. A similar effect was observed following treatment with c-Met inhibitor SU11274. Depletion of CRK significantly decreased cell proliferation of 5637 and UM-UC-3, consistent with reduced activity of ERK. An orthotopic xenograft model with bioluminescent imaging revealed that CRK knockdown significantly attenuated not only tumor volume but also the number of circulating tumor cells, resulted in a complete abrogation of metastasis. Taken together, this evidence uncovered essential roles of CRK in invasive bladder cancer through the hepatocyte growth factor/c-Met/CRK feedback loop for epithelial–mesenchymal transition induction. Thus, CRK might be a potent molecular target in bladder cancer, particularly for preventing metastasis, leading to the resolution of clinically longstanding critical issues. PMID:25816892

  16. The adaptor protein TRAF3 inhibits interleukin-6 receptor signaling in B cells to limit plasma cell development

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wai W.; Yi, Zuoan; Stunz, Laura L.; Maine, Christian J.; Sherman, Linda A.; Bishop, Gail A.

    2016-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor–associated factor 3 (TRAF3) is an adaptor protein that inhibits signaling by CD40 and by the receptor for B cell–activating factor (BAFF) and negatively regulates homeostatic B cell survival. Loss-of-function mutations in TRAF3 are associated with human B cell malignancies, in particular multiple myeloma. The cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) supports the differentiation and survival of normal and neoplastic plasma cells. We found that mice with a deficiency in TRAF3 specifically in B cells (B-Traf3−/− mice) had about twice as many plasma cells as did their littermate controls. TRAF3-deficient B cells had enhanced responsiveness to IL-6, and genetic loss of IL-6 in B-Traf3−/− mice restored their plasma cell numbers to normal. TRAF3 inhibited IL-6 receptor (IL-6R)–mediated signaling by facilitating the association of PTPN22 (a nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatase) with the kinase Janus-activated kinase 1 (Jak1), which in turn blocked phosphorylation of the transcription factor STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3). Consistent with these results, the number of plasma cells in the PTPN22-deficient mice was increased compared to that in the wild-type mice. Our findings identify TRAF3 and PTPN22 as inhibitors of IL-6R signaling in B cells and reveal a previously uncharacterized role for TRAF3 in the regulation of plasma cell differentiation. PMID:26329582

  17. Transmembrane Adaptor Protein PAG/CBP Is Involved in both Positive and Negative Regulation of Mast Cell Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Draberova, Lubica; Bugajev, Viktor; Potuckova, Lucie; Halova, Ivana; Bambouskova, Monika; Polakovicova, Iva; Xavier, Ramnik J.; Seed, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The transmembrane adaptor protein PAG/CBP (here, PAG) is expressed in multiple cell types. Tyrosine-phosphorylated PAG serves as an anchor for C-terminal SRC kinase, an inhibitor of SRC-family kinases. The role of PAG as a negative regulator of immunoreceptor signaling has been examined in several model systems, but no functions in vivo have been determined. Here, we examined the activation of bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) with PAG knockout and PAG knockdown and the corresponding controls. Our data show that PAG-deficient BMMCs exhibit impaired antigen-induced degranulation, extracellular calcium uptake, tyrosine phosphorylation of several key signaling proteins (including the high-affinity IgE receptor subunits, spleen tyrosine kinase, and phospholipase C), production of several cytokines and chemokines, and chemotaxis. The enzymatic activities of the LYN and FYN kinases were increased in nonactivated cells, suggesting the involvement of a LYN- and/or a FYN-dependent negative regulatory loop. When BMMCs from PAG-knockout mice were activated via the KIT receptor, enhanced degranulation and tyrosine phosphorylation of the receptor were observed. In vivo experiments showed that PAG is a positive regulator of passive systemic anaphylaxis. The combined data indicate that PAG can function as both a positive and a negative regulator of mast cell signaling, depending upon the signaling pathway involved. PMID:25246632

  18. Adaptor Protein Complex 2–Mediated Endocytosis Is Crucial for Male Reproductive Organ Development in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo Youn; Xu, Zheng-Yi; Song, Kyungyoung; Kim, Dae Heon; Kang, Hyangju; Reichardt, Ilka; Sohn, Eun Ju; Friml, Jiří; Juergens, Gerd; Hwang, Inhwan

    2013-01-01

    Fertilization in flowering plants requires the temporal and spatial coordination of many developmental processes, including pollen production, anther dehiscence, ovule production, and pollen tube elongation. However, it remains elusive as to how this coordination occurs during reproduction. Here, we present evidence that endocytosis, involving heterotetrameric adaptor protein complex 2 (AP-2), plays a crucial role in fertilization. An Arabidopsis thaliana mutant ap2m displays multiple defects in pollen production and viability, as well as elongation of staminal filaments and pollen tubes, all of which are pivotal processes needed for fertilization. Of these abnormalities, the defects in elongation of staminal filaments and pollen tubes were partially rescued by exogenous auxin. Moreover, DR5rev:GFP (for green fluorescent protein) expression was greatly reduced in filaments and anthers in ap2m mutant plants. At the cellular level, ap2m mutants displayed defects in both endocytosis of N-(3-triethylammonium-propyl)-4-(4-diethylaminophenylhexatrienyl) pyridinium dibromide, a lypophilic dye used as an endocytosis marker, and polar localization of auxin-efflux carrier PIN FORMED2 (PIN2) in the stamen filaments. Moreover, these defects were phenocopied by treatment with Tyrphostin A23, an inhibitor of endocytosis. Based on these results, we propose that AP-2–dependent endocytosis plays a crucial role in coordinating the multiple developmental aspects of male reproductive organs by modulating cellular auxin level through the regulation of the amount and polarity of PINs. PMID:23975898

  19. Bivalent Motif-Ear Interactions Mediate the Association of the Accessory Protein Tepsin with the AP-4 Adaptor Complex.

    PubMed

    Mattera, Rafael; Guardia, Carlos M; Sidhu, Sachdev S; Bonifacino, Juan S

    2015-12-25

    The heterotetrameric (ϵ-β4-μ4-σ4) complex adaptor protein 4 (AP-4) is a component of a non-clathrin coat involved in protein sorting at the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Considerable interest in this complex has arisen from the recent discovery that mutations in each of its four subunits are the cause of a congenital intellectual disability and movement disorder in humans. Despite its physiological importance, the structure and function of this coat remain poorly understood. To investigate the assembly of the AP-4 coat, we dissected the determinants of interaction of AP-4 with its only known accessory protein, the ENTH/VHS-domain-containing protein tepsin. Using a variety of protein interaction assays, we found that tepsin comprises two phylogenetically conserved peptide motifs, [GS]LFXG[ML]X[LV] and S[AV]F[SA]FLN, within its C-terminal unstructured region, which interact with the C-terminal ear (or appendage) domains of the β4 and ϵ subunits of AP-4, respectively. Structure-based mutational analyses mapped the binding site for the [GS]LFXG[ML]X[LV] motif to a conserved, hydrophobic surface on the β4-ear platform fold. Both peptide-ear interactions are required for efficient association of tepsin with AP-4, and for recruitment of tepsin to the TGN. The bivalency of the interactions increases the avidity of tepsin for AP-4 and may enable cross-linking of multiple AP-4 heterotetramers, thus contributing to the assembly of the AP-4 coat. In addition to revealing critical aspects of this coat, our findings extend the paradigm of peptide-ear interactions, previously established for clathrin-AP-1/AP-2 coats, to a non-clathrin coat. PMID:26542808

  20. Role of Adaptor Protein Toll-Like Interleukin Domain Containing Adaptor Inducing Interferon β in Toll-Like Receptor 3- and 4-Mediated Regulation of Hepatic Drug Metabolizing Enzyme and Transporter Genes.

    PubMed

    Shah, Pranav; Omoluabi, Ozozoma; Moorthy, Bhagavatula; Ghose, Romi

    2016-01-01

    The expressions and activities of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters (DMETs) are altered during infection and inflammation. Inflammatory responses in the liver are mediated primarily by Toll-like receptor (TLR)-signaling, which involves recruitment of Toll/interleukin (IL)-1 receptor (TIR) domain containing adaptor protein (TIRAP) and TIR domain containing adaptor inducing interferon (IFN)-β (TRIF) that eventually leads to induction of proinflammatory cytokines and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activates the Gram-negative bacterial receptor TLR4 and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (polyI:C) activates the viral receptor TLR3. TLR4 signaling involves TIRAP and TRIF, whereas TRIF is the only adaptor protein involved in the TLR3 pathway. We have shown previously that LPS-mediated downregulation of DMETs is independent of TIRAP. To determine the role of TRIF, we treated TRIF(+/+) and TRIF(-/-) mice with LPS or polyI:C. LPS downregulated (∼40%-60%) Cyp3a11, Cyp2a4, Ugt1a1, Mrp2 mRNA levels, whereas polyI:C downregulated (∼30%-60%) Cyp3a11, Cyp2a4, Cyp1a2, Cyp2b10, Ugt1a1, Mrp2, and Mrp3 mRNA levels in TRIF(+/+) mice. This downregulation was not attenuated in TRIF(-/-) mice. Induction of cytokines by LPS was observed in both TRIF(+/+) and TRIF(-/-) mice. Cytokine induction was delayed in polyI:C-treated TRIF(-/-) mice, indicating that multiple mechanisms mediating polyI:C signaling exist. To assess the role of MAPKs, primary hepatocytes were pretreated with specific inhibitors before treatment with LPS/polyI:C. We found that only the c-jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor attenuated the down-regulation of DMETs. These results show that TRIF-independent pathways can be involved in the downregulation of DMETs through TLR4 and 3. JNK-dependent mechanisms likely mediate this downregulation. PMID:26470915

  1. Early Loss of Telomerase Action in Yeast Creates a Dependence on the DNA Damage Response Adaptor Proteins.

    PubMed

    Jay, Kyle A; Smith, Dana L; Blackburn, Elizabeth H

    2016-07-15

    Telomeres cap the ends of chromosomes, protecting them from degradation and inappropriate DNA repair processes that can lead to genomic instability. A short telomere elicits increased telomerase action on itself that replenishes telomere length, thereby stabilizing the telomere. In the prolonged absence of telomerase activity in dividing cells, telomeres eventually become critically short, inducing a permanent cell cycle arrest (senescence). We recently showed that even early after telomerase inactivation (ETI), yeast cells have accelerated mother cell aging and mildly perturbed cell cycles. Here, we show that the complete disruption of DNA damage response (DDR) adaptor proteins in ETI cells causes severe growth defects. This synthetic-lethality phenotype was as pronounced as that caused by extensive DNA damage in wild-type cells but showed genetic dependencies distinct from such damage and was completely alleviated by SML1 deletion, which increases deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) pools. Our results indicated that these deleterious effects in ETI cells cannot be accounted for solely by the slow erosion of telomeres due to incomplete replication that leads to senescence. We propose that normally occurring telomeric DNA replication stress is resolved by telomerase activity and the DDR in two parallel pathways and that deletion of Sml1 prevents this stress. PMID:27161319

  2. The Adaptor Protein-1 μ1B Subunit Expands the Repertoire of Basolateral Sorting Signal Recognition in Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiaoli; Mattera, Rafael; Ren, Xuefeng; Chen, Yu; Retamal, Claudio; González, Alfonso; Bonifacino, Juan S.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY An outstanding question in protein sorting is why polarized epithelial cells express two isoforms of the μ1 subunit of the AP-1 clathrin adaptor complex: the ubiquitous μ1A and the epithelial-specific μ1B. Previous studies led to the notion that μ1A and μ1B mediate basolateral sorting predominantly from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and recycling endosomes, respectively. Using improved analytical tools, however, we find that μ1A and μ1B largely colocalize with each other. They also colocalize to similar extents with TGN and recycling endosome markers, as well as with basolateral cargoes transiting biosynthetic and endocytic-recycling routes. Instead, the two isoforms differ in their signal-recognition specificity. In particular, μ1B preferentially binds a subset of signals from cargoes that are sorted basolaterally in a μ1B-dependent manner. We conclude that expression of distinct μ1 isoforms in epithelial cells expands the repertoire of signals recognized by AP-1 for sorting of a broader range of cargoes to the basolateral surface. PMID:24229647

  3. Early Loss of Telomerase Action in Yeast Creates a Dependence on the DNA Damage Response Adaptor Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Jay, Kyle A.; Smith, Dana L.

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres cap the ends of chromosomes, protecting them from degradation and inappropriate DNA repair processes that can lead to genomic instability. A short telomere elicits increased telomerase action on itself that replenishes telomere length, thereby stabilizing the telomere. In the prolonged absence of telomerase activity in dividing cells, telomeres eventually become critically short, inducing a permanent cell cycle arrest (senescence). We recently showed that even early after telomerase inactivation (ETI), yeast cells have accelerated mother cell aging and mildly perturbed cell cycles. Here, we show that the complete disruption of DNA damage response (DDR) adaptor proteins in ETI cells causes severe growth defects. This synthetic-lethality phenotype was as pronounced as that caused by extensive DNA damage in wild-type cells but showed genetic dependencies distinct from such damage and was completely alleviated by SML1 deletion, which increases deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) pools. Our results indicated that these deleterious effects in ETI cells cannot be accounted for solely by the slow erosion of telomeres due to incomplete replication that leads to senescence. We propose that normally occurring telomeric DNA replication stress is resolved by telomerase activity and the DDR in two parallel pathways and that deletion of Sml1 prevents this stress. PMID:27161319

  4. The beta-appendages of the four adaptor-protein (AP) complexes: structure and binding properties, and identification of sorting nexin 9 as an accessory protein to AP-2.

    PubMed Central

    Lundmark, Richard; Carlsson, Sven R

    2002-01-01

    Adaptor protein (AP) complexes are essential components for the formation of coated vesicles and the recognition of cargo proteins for intracellular transport. Each AP complex exposes two appendage domains with that function to bind regulatory accessory proteins in the cytosol. Secondary structure predictions, sequence alignments and CD spectroscopy were used to relate the beta-appendages of all human AP complexes to the previously published crystal structure of AP-2. The results suggested that the beta-appendages of AP-1, AP-2 and AP-3 have similar structures, consisting of two subdomains, whereas that of AP-4 lacks the inner subdomain. Pull-down and overlay assays showed partial overlap in the binding specificities of the beta-appendages of AP-1 and AP-2, whereas the corresponding domain of AP-3 displayed a unique binding pattern. That AP-4 may have a truncated, non-functional domain was indicated by its apparent inability to bind any proteins from cytosol. Of several novel beta-appendage-binding proteins detected, one that had affinity exclusively for AP-2 was identified as sorting nexin 9 (SNX9). SNX9, which contains a phox and an Src homology 3 domain, was found in large complexes and was at least partially associated with AP-2 in the cytosol. SNX9 may function to assist AP-2 in its role at the plasma membrane. PMID:11879186

  5. The interaction of Kinesin-1 with its adaptor protein JIP1 can be regulated via proteins binding to the JIP1-PTB domain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The regulatory mechanisms of motor protein-dependent intracellular transport are still not fully understood. The kinesin-1-binding protein, JIP1, can function as an adaptor protein that links kinesin-1 and other JIP1-binding “cargo” proteins. However, it is unknown whether these “cargo” proteins influence the JIP1–kinesin-1 binding. Results We show here that JIP1–kinesin-1 binding in Neuro2a cells was dependent on conserved amino acid residues in the JIP1-phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domain, including F687. In addition, mutation of F687 severely affected the neurite tip localization of JIP1. Proteomic analysis revealed another kinesin-1 binding protein, JIP3, as a major JIP1 binding protein. The association between JIP1 and JIP3 was dependent on the F687 residue in JIP1, and this association induced the formation of a stable ternary complex with kinesin-1. On the other hand, the binding of JIP1 and JIP3 was independent of kinesin-1 binding. We also show that other PTB binding proteins can interrupt the formation of the ternary complex. Conclusions The formation of the JIP1–kinesin-1 complex depends on the protein binding-status of the JIP1 PTB domain. This may imply a regulatory mechanism of kinesin-1-dependent intracellular transport. PMID:23496950

  6. Structure of a putative ClpS N-end rule adaptor protein from the malaria pathogen Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    AhYoung, Andrew P; Koehl, Antoine; Vizcarra, Christina L; Cascio, Duilio; Egea, Pascal F

    2016-03-01

    The N-end rule pathway uses an evolutionarily conserved mechanism in bacteria and eukaryotes that marks proteins for degradation by ATP-dependent chaperones and proteases such as the Clp chaperones and proteases. Specific N-terminal amino acids (N-degrons) are sufficient to target substrates for degradation. In bacteria, the ClpS adaptor binds and delivers N-end rule substrates for their degradation upon association with the ClpA/P chaperone/protease. Here, we report the first crystal structure, solved at 2.7 Å resolution, of a eukaryotic homolog of bacterial ClpS from the malaria apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium falciparum (Pfal). Despite limited sequence identity, Plasmodium ClpS is very similar to bacterial ClpS. Akin to its bacterial orthologs, plasmodial ClpS harbors a preformed hydrophobic pocket whose geometry and chemical properties are compatible with the binding of N-degrons. However, while the N-degron binding pocket in bacterial ClpS structures is open and accessible, the corresponding pocket in Plasmodium ClpS is occluded by a conserved surface loop that acts as a latch. Despite the closed conformation observed in the crystal, we show that, in solution, Pfal-ClpS binds and discriminates peptides mimicking bona fide N-end rule substrates. The presence of an apicoplast targeting peptide suggests that Pfal-ClpS localizes to this plastid-like organelle characteristic of all Apicomplexa and hosting most of its Clp machinery. By analogy with the related ClpS1 from plant chloroplasts and cyanobacteria, Plasmodium ClpS likely functions in association with ClpC in the apicoplast. Our findings open new venues for the design of novel anti-malarial drugs aimed at disrupting parasite-specific protein quality control pathways. PMID:26701219

  7. A combinatorial F box protein directed pathway controls TRAF adaptor stability to regulate inflammation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bill B; Coon, Tiffany A; Glasser, Jennifer R; McVerry, Bryan J; Zhao, Jing; Zhao, Yutong; Zou, Chunbin; Ellis, Bryon; Sciurba, Frank C; Zhang, Yingze; Mallampalli, Rama K

    2013-05-01

    Uncontrolled activation of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (TRAF) proteins may result in profound tissue injury by linking surface signals to cytokine release. Here we show that a ubiquitin E3 ligase component, Fbxo3, potently stimulates cytokine secretion from human inflammatory cells by destabilizing a sentinel TRAF inhibitor, Fbxl2. Fbxo3 and TRAF protein in circulation positively correlated with cytokine responses in subjects with sepsis, and we identified a polymorphism in human Fbxo3, with one variant being hypofunctional. A small-molecule inhibitor targeting Fbxo3 was sufficient to lessen severity of cytokine-driven inflammation in several mouse disease models. These studies identified a pathway of innate immunity that may be useful to detect subjects with altered immune responses during critical illness or provide a basis for therapeutic intervention targeting TRAF protein abundance. PMID:23542741

  8. CD2v Interacts with Adaptor Protein AP-1 during African Swine Fever Infection

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Núñez, Daniel; García-Urdiales, Eduardo; Martínez-Bonet, Marta; Nogal, María L.; Barroso, Susana; Revilla, Yolanda; Madrid, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) CD2v protein is believed to be involved in virulence enhancement, viral hemadsorption, and pathogenesis, although the molecular mechanisms of the function of this viral protein are still not fully understood. Here we describe that CD2v localized around viral factories during ASFV infection, suggesting a role in the generation and/or dynamics of these viral structures and hence in disturbing cellular traffic. We show that CD2v targeted the regulatory trans-Golgi network (TGN) protein complex AP-1, a key element in cellular traffic. This interaction was disrupted by brefeldin A even though the location of CD2v around the viral factory remained unchanged. CD2v-AP-1 binding was independent of CD2v glycosylation and occurred on the carboxy-terminal part of CD2v, where a canonical di-Leu motif previously reported to mediate AP-1 binding in eukaryotic cells, was identified. This motif was shown to be functionally interchangeable with the di-Leu motif present in HIV-Nef protein in an AP-1 binding assay. However, we demonstrated that it was not involved either in CD2v cellular distribution or in CD2v-AP-1 binding. Taken together, these findings shed light on CD2v function during ASFV infection by identifying AP-1 as a cellular factor targeted by CD2v and hence elucidate the cellular pathways used by the virus to enhance infectivity. PMID:25915900

  9. The adaptor protein alpha-syntrophin regulates adipocyte lipid droplet growth.

    PubMed

    Eisinger, Kristina; Rein-Fischboeck, Lisa; Pohl, Rebekka; Meier, Elisabeth M; Krautbauer, Sabrina; Buechler, Christa

    2016-07-01

    The scaffold protein alpha-syntrophin (SNTA) regulates lipolysis indicating a role in lipid homeostasis. Adipocytes are the main lipid storage cells in the body, and here, the function of SNTA has been analyzed in 3T3-L1 cells. SNTA is expressed in preadipocytes and is induced early during adipogenesis. Knock-down of SNTA in preadipocytes increases their proliferation. Proteins which are induced during adipogenesis like adiponectin and caveolin-1, and the inflammatory cytokine IL-6 are at normal levels in the mature cells differentiated from preadipocytes with low SNTA. This suggests that SNTA does neither affect differentiation nor inflammation. Expression of proteins with a role in cholesterol and triglyceride homeostasis is unchanged. Consequently, basal and epinephrine induced lipolysis as well as insulin stimulated phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2 are normal. Importantly, adipocytes with low SNTA form smaller lipid droplets and store less triglycerides. Stearoyl-CoA reductase and MnSOD are reduced upon SNTA knock-down but do not contribute to lower lipid levels. Oleate uptake is even increased in cells with SNTA knock-down. In summary, current data show that SNTA is involved in the expansion of lipid droplets independent of adipogenesis. Enhanced preadipocyte proliferation and capacity to store surplus fatty acids may protect adipocytes with low SNTA from lipotoxicity in obesity. PMID:27242274

  10. Structural and Functional Characterization of Cargo-Binding Sites on the μ4-Subunit of Adaptor Protein Complex 4

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Breyan H.; Lin, Yimo; Corales, Esteban A.; Burgos, Patricia V.; Mardones, Gonzalo A.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptor protein (AP) complexes facilitate protein trafficking by playing key roles in the selection of cargo molecules to be sorted in post-Golgi compartments. Four AP complexes (AP-1 to AP-4) contain a medium-sized subunit (μ1-μ4) that recognizes YXXØ-sequences (Ø is a bulky hydrophobic residue), which are sorting signals in transmembrane proteins. A conserved, canonical region in μ subunits mediates recognition of YXXØ-signals by means of a critical aspartic acid. Recently we found that a non-canonical YXXØ-signal on the cytosolic tail of the Alzheimer's disease amyloid precursor protein (APP) binds to a distinct region of the μ4 subunit of the AP-4 complex. In this study we aimed to determine the functionality of both binding sites of μ4 on the recognition of the non-canonical YXXØ-signal of APP. We found that substitutions in either binding site abrogated the interaction with the APP-tail in yeast-two hybrid experiments. Further characterization by isothermal titration calorimetry showed instead loss of binding to the APP signal with only the substitution R283D at the non-canonical site, in contrast to a decrease in binding affinity with the substitution D190A at the canonical site. We solved the crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of the D190A mutant bound to this non-canonical YXXØ-signal. This structure showed no significant difference compared to that of wild-type μ4. Both differential scanning fluorimetry and limited proteolysis analyses demonstrated that the D190A substitution rendered μ4 less stable, suggesting an explanation for its lower binding affinity to the APP signal. Finally, in contrast to overexpression of the D190A mutant, and acting in a dominant-negative manner, overexpression of μ4 with either a F255A or a R283D substitution at the non-canonical site halted APP transport at the Golgi apparatus. Together, our analyses support that the functional recognition of the non-canonical YXXØ-signal of APP is limited to the non

  11. Structural and functional characterization of cargo-binding sites on the μ4-subunit of adaptor protein complex 4.

    PubMed

    Ross, Breyan H; Lin, Yimo; Corales, Esteban A; Burgos, Patricia V; Mardones, Gonzalo A

    2014-01-01

    Adaptor protein (AP) complexes facilitate protein trafficking by playing key roles in the selection of cargo molecules to be sorted in post-Golgi compartments. Four AP complexes (AP-1 to AP-4) contain a medium-sized subunit (μ1-μ4) that recognizes YXXØ-sequences (Ø is a bulky hydrophobic residue), which are sorting signals in transmembrane proteins. A conserved, canonical region in μ subunits mediates recognition of YXXØ-signals by means of a critical aspartic acid. Recently we found that a non-canonical YXXØ-signal on the cytosolic tail of the Alzheimer's disease amyloid precursor protein (APP) binds to a distinct region of the μ4 subunit of the AP-4 complex. In this study we aimed to determine the functionality of both binding sites of μ4 on the recognition of the non-canonical YXXØ-signal of APP. We found that substitutions in either binding site abrogated the interaction with the APP-tail in yeast-two hybrid experiments. Further characterization by isothermal titration calorimetry showed instead loss of binding to the APP signal with only the substitution R283D at the non-canonical site, in contrast to a decrease in binding affinity with the substitution D190A at the canonical site. We solved the crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of the D190A mutant bound to this non-canonical YXXØ-signal. This structure showed no significant difference compared to that of wild-type μ4. Both differential scanning fluorimetry and limited proteolysis analyses demonstrated that the D190A substitution rendered μ4 less stable, suggesting an explanation for its lower binding affinity to the APP signal. Finally, in contrast to overexpression of the D190A mutant, and acting in a dominant-negative manner, overexpression of μ4 with either a F255A or a R283D substitution at the non-canonical site halted APP transport at the Golgi apparatus. Together, our analyses support that the functional recognition of the non-canonical YXXØ-signal of APP is limited to the non

  12. Adaptor Protein MecA Is a Negative Regulator of the Expression of Late Competence Genes in Streptococcus thermophilus

    PubMed Central

    Boutry, Céline; Wahl, Astrid; Delplace, Brigitte; Clippe, André; Fontaine, Laetitia

    2012-01-01

    In Streptococcus thermophilus, the ComRS regulatory system governs the transcriptional level of comX expression and, hence, controls the early stage of competence development. The present work focuses on the posttranslational control of the activity of the sigma factor ComX and, therefore, on the late stage of competence regulation. In silico analysis performed on the S. thermophilus genome revealed the presence of a homolog of mecA (mecASt), which codes for the adaptor protein that is involved in ComK degradation by ClpCP in Bacillus subtilis. Using reporter strains and microarray experiments, we showed that MecASt represses late competence genes without affecting the early competence stage under conditions that are not permissive for competence development. In addition, this repression mechanism was found not only to act downstream of comX expression but also to be fully dependent on the presence of a functional comX gene. This negative control was similarly released in strains deleted for clpC, mecA, and clpC-mecA. Under artificial conditions of comX expression, we next showed that the abundance of ComX is higher in the absence of MecA or ClpC. Finally, results of bacterial two-hybrid assays strongly suggested that MecA interacts with both ComX and ClpC. Based on these results, we proposed that ClpC and MecA act together in the same regulatory circuit to control the abundance of ComX in S. thermophilus. PMID:22287513

  13. The Wnt Adaptor Protein ATP6AP2 Regulates Multiple Stages of Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jinju; Pena, Monique; von Bohlen und Halbach, Oliver; Peters, Jörg; Gage, Fred H.

    2015-01-01

    In the mammalian hippocampus, canonical Wnt signals provided by the microenvironment regulate the differentiation of adult neural stem cells (NSCs) toward the neuronal lineage. Wnts are part of a complex and diverse set of signaling pathways and the role of Wnt/Planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling in adult neurogenesis remains unknown. Using in vitro assays on differentiating adult NSCs, we identified a transition of Wnt signaling responsiveness from Wnt/β-catenin to Wnt/PCP signaling. In mice, retroviral knockdown strategies against ATP6AP2, a recently discovered core protein involved in both signaling pathways, revealed that its dual role is critical for granule cell fate and morphogenesis. We were able to confirm its dual role in neurogenic Wnt signaling in vitro for both canonical Wnt signaling in proliferating adult NSCs and non-canonical Wnt signaling in differentiating neuroblasts. Although LRP6 appeared to be critical for granule cell fate determination, in vivo knockdown of PCP core proteins FZD3 and CELSR1-3 revealed severe maturational defects without changing the identity of newborn granule cells. Furthermore, we found that CELSR1-3 control distinctive aspects of PCP-mediated granule cell morphogenesis with CELSR1 regulating the direction of dendrite initiation sites and CELSR2/3 controlling radial migration and dendritic patterning. The data presented here characterize distinctive roles for Wnt/β-catenin signaling in granule cell fate determination and for Wnt/PCP signaling in controlling the morphological maturation of differentiating neuroblasts. PMID:25810528

  14. The Wnt adaptor protein ATP6AP2 regulates multiple stages of adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Schafer, Simon T; Han, Jinju; Pena, Monique; von Bohlen Und Halbach, Oliver; Peters, Jörg; Gage, Fred H

    2015-03-25

    In the mammalian hippocampus, canonical Wnt signals provided by the microenvironment regulate the differentiation of adult neural stem cells (NSCs) toward the neuronal lineage. Wnts are part of a complex and diverse set of signaling pathways and the role of Wnt/Planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling in adult neurogenesis remains unknown. Using in vitro assays on differentiating adult NSCs, we identified a transition of Wnt signaling responsiveness from Wnt/β-catenin to Wnt/PCP signaling. In mice, retroviral knockdown strategies against ATP6AP2, a recently discovered core protein involved in both signaling pathways, revealed that its dual role is critical for granule cell fate and morphogenesis. We were able to confirm its dual role in neurogenic Wnt signaling in vitro for both canonical Wnt signaling in proliferating adult NSCs and non-canonical Wnt signaling in differentiating neuroblasts. Although LRP6 appeared to be critical for granule cell fate determination, in vivo knockdown of PCP core proteins FZD3 and CELSR1-3 revealed severe maturational defects without changing the identity of newborn granule cells. Furthermore, we found that CELSR1-3 control distinctive aspects of PCP-mediated granule cell morphogenesis with CELSR1 regulating the direction of dendrite initiation sites and CELSR2/3 controlling radial migration and dendritic patterning. The data presented here characterize distinctive roles for Wnt/β-catenin signaling in granule cell fate determination and for Wnt/PCP signaling in controlling the morphological maturation of differentiating neuroblasts. PMID:25810528

  15. Invertebrate and Vertebrate Class III Myosins Interact with MORN Repeat-Containing Adaptor Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Mecklenburg, Kirk L.; Freed, Stephanie A.; Raval, Manmeet; Quintero, Omar A.; Yengo, Christopher M.; O'Tousa, Joseph. E.

    2015-01-01

    In Drosophila photoreceptors, the NINAC-encoded myosin III is found in a complex with a small, MORN-repeat containing, protein Retinophilin (RTP). Expression of these two proteins in other cell types showed NINAC myosin III behavior is altered by RTP. NINAC deletion constructs were used to map the RTP binding site within the proximal tail domain of NINAC. In vertebrates, the RTP ortholog is MORN4. Co-precipitation experiments demonstrated that human MORN4 binds to human myosin IIIA (MYO3A). In COS7 cells, MORN4 and MYO3A, but not MORN4 and MYO3B, co-localize to actin rich filopodia extensions. Deletion analysis mapped the MORN4 binding to the proximal region of the MYO3A tail domain. MYO3A dependent MORN4 tip localization suggests that MYO3A functions as a motor that transports MORN4 to the filopodia tips and MORN4 may enhance MYO3A tip localization by tethering it to the plasma membrane at the protrusion tips. These results establish conserved features of the RTP/MORN4 family: they bind within the tail domain of myosin IIIs to control their behavior. PMID:25822849

  16. The Cytoskeletal Adaptor Protein Band 4.1B is Required for the Maintenance of Paranodal Axo-Glial Septate Junctions in Myelinated Axons

    PubMed Central

    Buttermore, Elizabeth D.; Dupree, Jeffrey L.; Cheng, JrGang; An, Xiuli; Tessarollo, Lino; Bhat, Manzoor A.

    2011-01-01

    Precise targeting and maintenance of axonal domains in myelinated axons is essential for saltatory conduction. Caspr and Caspr2, which localize at paranodal and juxtaparanodal domains, contain binding sites for the cytoskeletal adaptor protein 4.1B. The exact role of 4.1B in the organization and maintenance of axonal domains is still not clear. Here we report the generation and characterization of 4.1B null mice. We show that loss of 4.1B in the PNS results in mislocalization of Caspr at paranodes and destabilization of paranodal axo-glial septate junctions (AGSJs) as early as postnatal day 30. In the CNS, Caspr localization is progressively disrupted and ultrastructural analysis showed paranodal regions that were completely devoid of AGSJs, with axolemma separated from the myelin loops, and loops coming off the axolemma. Most importantly, our phenotypic analysis of previously generated 4.1B mutants, used in Horresh et al. (2010), showed that Caspr localization was not affected in the PNS, even after one year; and 4.1R was neither expressed, nor enriched at the paranodes. Furthermore, ultrastructural analysis of these 4.1B mutants showed destabilization of CNS AGSJs at about one year. We also discovered that the 4.1B locus is differentially expressed in the PNS and CNS, and generates multiple splice isoforms in the PNS, suggesting 4.1B may function differently in the PNS versus CNS. Together, our studies provide direct evidence that 4.1B plays a pivotal role in interactions between the paranodal AGSJs and axonal cytoskeleton, and that 4.1B is critically required for long-term maintenance of axonal domains in myelinated axons. PMID:21632923

  17. The cytoskeletal adaptor protein band 4.1B is required for the maintenance of paranodal axoglial septate junctions in myelinated axons.

    PubMed

    Buttermore, Elizabeth D; Dupree, Jeffrey L; Cheng, JrGang; An, Xiuli; Tessarollo, Lino; Bhat, Manzoor A

    2011-06-01

    Precise targeting and maintenance of axonal domains in myelinated axons is essential for saltatory conduction. Caspr and Caspr2, which localize at paranodal and juxtaparanodal domains, contain binding sites for the cytoskeletal adaptor protein 4.1B. The exact role of 4.1B in the organization and maintenance of axonal domains is still not clear. Here, we report the generation and characterization of 4.1B-null mice. We show that loss of 4.1B in the PNS results in mislocalization of Caspr at paranodes and destabilization of paranodal axoglial septate junctions (AGSJs) as early as postnatal day 30. In the CNS, Caspr localization is progressively disrupted and ultrastructural analysis showed paranodal regions that were completely devoid of AGSJs, with axolemma separated from the myelin loops, and loops coming off the axolemma. Most importantly, our phenotypic analysis of previously generated 4.1B mutants, used in the study by Horresh et al. (2010), showed that Caspr localization was not affected in the PNS, even after 1 year; and 4.1R was neither expressed, nor enriched at the paranodes. Furthermore, ultrastructural analysis of these 4.1B mutants showed destabilization of CNS AGSJs at ∼ 1 year. We also discovered that the 4.1B locus is differentially expressed in the PNS and CNS, and generates multiple splice isoforms in the PNS, suggesting 4.1B may function differently in the PNS versus CNS. Together, our studies provide direct evidence that 4.1B plays a pivotal role in interactions between the paranodal AGSJs and axonal cytoskeleton, and that 4.1B is critically required for long-term maintenance of axonal domains in myelinated axons. PMID:21632923

  18. The AP2 clathrin adaptor protein complex regulates the abundance of GLR-1 glutamate receptors in the ventral nerve cord of Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Garafalo, Steven D.; Luth, Eric S.; Moss, Benjamin J.; Monteiro, Michael I.; Malkin, Emily; Juo, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Regulation of glutamate receptor (GluR) abundance at synapses by clathrin-mediated endocytosis can control synaptic strength and plasticity. We take advantage of viable, null mutations in subunits of the clathrin adaptor protein 2 (AP2) complex in Caenorhabditis elegans to characterize the in vivo role of AP2 in GluR trafficking. In contrast to our predictions for an endocytic adaptor, we found that levels of the GluR GLR-1 are decreased at synapses in the ventral nerve cord (VNC) of animals with mutations in the AP2 subunits APM-2/μ2, APA-2/α, or APS-2/σ2. Rescue experiments indicate that APM-2/μ2 functions in glr-1–expressing interneurons and the mature nervous system to promote GLR-1 levels in the VNC. Genetic analyses suggest that APM-2/μ2 acts upstream of GLR-1 endocytosis in the VNC. Consistent with this, GLR-1 accumulates in cell bodies of apm-2 mutants. However, GLR-1 does not appear to accumulate at the plasma membrane of the cell body as expected, but instead accumulates in intracellular compartments including Syntaxin-13– and RAB-14–labeled endosomes. This study reveals a novel role for the AP2 clathrin adaptor in promoting the abundance of GluRs at synapses in vivo, and implicates AP2 in the regulation of GluR trafficking at an early step in the secretory pathway. PMID:25788288

  19. Impaired Fracture Healing Caused by Deficiency of the Immunoreceptor Adaptor Protein DAP12.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Masayuki; Mori, Yu; Sugahara-Tobinai, Akiko; Takai, Toshiyuki; Itoi, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    Osteoclasts play an important role in bone metabolism, but their exact role in fracture healing remains unclear. DAP12 is an immunoadaptor protein with associated immunoreceptors on myeloid lineage cells, including osteoclasts. Its deficiency causes osteopetrosis due to suppression of osteoclast development and activation. In this report, we assessed the impact of DAP12 on the fracture healing process using C57BL/6 (B6) and DAP12-/- mice. Healing was evaluated using radiography, micro-CT, histology, immunohistochemistry and real-time RT-PCR. Radiography showed lower callus volume and lower callus radiolucency in DAP12-/- mice during later stages. Micro-CT images and quantitative structural analysis indicated that DAP12-/- mice developed calluses of dense trabecular structures and experienced deteriorated cortical shell formation on the surface. Histologically, DAP12-/- mice showed less cartilaginous resorption and woven bone formation. In addition, prominent cortical shell formation was much less in DAP12-/- mice. Immunohistochemistry revealed lower invasion of F4/80 positive monocytes and macrophages into the fracture hematoma in DAP12-/- mice. The expression levels of Col1a1, Col2a1 and Col10a1 in DAP12-/- mice increased and subsequently became higher than those in B6 mice. There was a decrease in the gene expression of Tnf during the early stages in DAP12-/- mice. Our results indicate that DAP12 deficiency impairs fracture healing, suggesting a significant role of DAP12 in the initial inflammatory response, bone remodeling and regeneration. PMID:26030755

  20. Impaired Fracture Healing Caused by Deficiency of the Immunoreceptor Adaptor Protein DAP12

    PubMed Central

    Kamimura, Masayuki; Mori, Yu; Sugahara-Tobinai, Akiko; Takai, Toshiyuki; Itoi, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    Osteoclasts play an important role in bone metabolism, but their exact role in fracture healing remains unclear. DAP12 is an immunoadaptor protein with associated immunoreceptors on myeloid lineage cells, including osteoclasts. Its deficiency causes osteopetrosis due to suppression of osteoclast development and activation. In this report, we assessed the impact of DAP12 on the fracture healing process using C57BL/6 (B6) and DAP12–/– mice. Healing was evaluated using radiography, micro-CT, histology, immunohistochemistry and real-time RT-PCR. Radiography showed lower callus volume and lower callus radiolucency in DAP12–/– mice during later stages. Micro-CT images and quantitative structural analysis indicated that DAP12–/– mice developed calluses of dense trabecular structures and experienced deteriorated cortical shell formation on the surface. Histologically, DAP12–/– mice showed less cartilaginous resorption and woven bone formation. In addition, prominent cortical shell formation was much less in DAP12–/– mice. Immunohistochemistry revealed lower invasion of F4/80 positive monocytes and macrophages into the fracture hematoma in DAP12–/– mice. The expression levels of Col1a1, Col2a1 and Col10a1 in DAP12–/– mice increased and subsequently became higher than those in B6 mice. There was a decrease in the gene expression of Tnf during the early stages in DAP12–/– mice. Our results indicate that DAP12 deficiency impairs fracture healing, suggesting a significant role of DAP12 in the initial inflammatory response, bone remodeling and regeneration. PMID:26030755

  1. Adaptor protein 2–mediated endocytosis of the β-secretase BACE1 is dispensable for amyloid precursor protein processing

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, Yogikala; Burgos, Patricia V.; Schindler, Christina; Farías, Ginny G.; Magadár, Javier G.; Bonifacino, Juan S.

    2012-01-01

    The β-site amyloid precursor protein (APP)–cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is a transmembrane aspartyl protease that catalyzes the proteolytic processing of APP and other plasma membrane protein precursors. BACE1 cycles between the trans-Golgi network (TGN), the plasma membrane, and endosomes by virtue of signals contained within its cytosolic C-terminal domain. One of these signals is the DXXLL-motif sequence DISLL, which controls transport between the TGN and endosomes via interaction with GGA proteins. Here we show that the DISLL sequence is embedded within a longer [DE]XXXL[LI]-motif sequence, DDISLL, which mediates internalization from the plasma membrane by interaction with the clathrin-associated, heterotetrameric adaptor protein 2 (AP-2) complex. Mutation of this signal or knockdown of either AP-2 or clathrin decreases endosomal localization and increases plasma membrane localization of BACE1. Remarkably, internalization-defective BACE1 is able to cleave an APP mutant that itself cannot be delivered to endosomes. The drug brefeldin A reversibly prevents BACE1-catalyzed APP cleavage, ruling out that this reaction occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or ER–Golgi intermediate compartment. Taken together, these observations support the notion that BACE1 is capable of cleaving APP in late compartments of the secretory pathway. PMID:22553349

  2. Phosphorylation of APP-CTF-AICD domains and interaction with adaptor proteins: signal transduction and/or transcriptional role--relevance for Alzheimer pathology.

    PubMed

    Schettini, Gennaro; Govoni, Stefano; Racchi, Marco; Rodriguez, Guido

    2010-12-01

    In recent decades, the study of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and of its proteolytic products carboxy terminal fragment (CTF), APP intracellular C-terminal domain (AICD) and amyloid beta has been mostly focussed on the role of APP as a producer of the toxic amyloid beta peptide. Here, we reconsider the role of APP suggesting, in a provocative way, the protein as a central player in a putative signalling pathway. We highlight the presence in the cytosolic tail of APP of the YENPTY motif which is typical of tyrosine kinase receptors, the phosphorylation of the tyrosine, serine and threonine residues, the kinases involved and the interaction with intracellular adaptor proteins. In particular, we examine the interaction with Shc and Grb2 regulators, which through the activation of Ras proteins elicit downstream signalling events such as the MAPK pathway. The review also addresses the interaction of APP, CTFs and AICD with other adaptor proteins and in particular with Fe65 for nuclear transcriptional activity and the importance of phosphorylation for sorting the secretases involved in the amyloidogenic or non-amyloidogenic pathways. We provide a novel perspective on Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis, focussing on the perturbation of the physiological activities of APP-CTFs and AICD as an alternative perspective from that which normally focuses on the accumulation of neurotoxic proteolytic fragments. PMID:21039524

  3. The COPII adaptor protein TMED7 is required to initiate and mediate the anterograde trafficking of Toll-like receptor 4 to the plasma membrane

    PubMed Central

    Liaunardy-Jopeace, Ardiyanto; Bryant, Clare E.; Gay, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), the receptor for the bacterial product endotoxin, is subject to multiple points of regulation at the levels of signaling, biogenesis, and trafficking. Dysregulation of TLR4 signaling can cause serious inflammatory diseases, such as sepsis. We found that the p24 family protein TMED7 (transmembrane emp24 protein transport domain containing 7) is required for the trafficking of TLR4 from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface through the Golgi. TMED7 formed a stable complex with the ectodomain of TLR4, an interaction that required the coiled-coil and GOLD domains, but not the cytosolic, COP II sorting motif, of TMED7. Depletion of TMED7 reduced TLR4 signaling mediated by the adaptor protein MyD88, but not that mediated by the adaptor proteins TRAM and TRIF. Truncated forms of TMED7 lacking the COP II sorting motif or the transmembrane domain were mislocalized and resulted in constitutive activation of TLR4 signaling. Together, these results support the hypothesis that p24 proteins perform a quality control step by recognizing correctly folded anterograde cargo, such as TLR4, in early secretory compartments and facilitating the translocation of this cargo to the cell surface. PMID:25074978

  4. Mutations in the gene encoding the Sigma 2 subunit of the adaptor protein 1 complex, AP1S2, cause X-linked mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Tarpey, Patrick S; Stevens, Claire; Teague, Jon; Edkins, Sarah; O'Meara, Sarah; Avis, Tim; Barthorpe, Syd; Buck, Gemma; Butler, Adam; Cole, Jennifer; Dicks, Ed; Gray, Kristian; Halliday, Kelly; Harrison, Rachel; Hills, Katy; Hinton, Jonathon; Jones, David; Menzies, Andrew; Mironenko, Tatiana; Perry, Janet; Raine, Keiran; Richardson, David; Shepherd, Rebecca; Small, Alexandra; Tofts, Calli; Varian, Jennifer; West, Sofie; Widaa, Sara; Yates, Andy; Catford, Rachael; Butler, Julia; Mallya, Uma; Moon, Jenny; Luo, Ying; Dorkins, Huw; Thompson, Deborah; Easton, Douglas F; Wooster, Richard; Bobrow, Martin; Carpenter, Nancy; Simensen, Richard J; Schwartz, Charles E; Stevenson, Roger E; Turner, Gillian; Partington, Michael; Gecz, Jozef; Stratton, Michael R; Futreal, P Andrew; Raymond, F Lucy

    2006-12-01

    In a systematic sequencing screen of the coding exons of the X chromosome in 250 families with X-linked mental retardation (XLMR), we identified two nonsense mutations and one consensus splice-site mutation in the AP1S2 gene on Xp22 in three families. Affected individuals in these families showed mild-to-profound mental retardation. Other features included hypotonia early in life and delay in walking. AP1S2 encodes an adaptin protein that constitutes part of the adaptor protein complex found at the cytoplasmic face of coated vesicles located at the Golgi complex. The complex mediates the recruitment of clathrin to the vesicle membrane. Aberrant endocytic processing through disruption of adaptor protein complexes is likely to result from the AP1S2 mutations identified in the three XLMR-affected families, and such defects may plausibly cause abnormal synaptic development and function. AP1S2 is the first reported XLMR gene that encodes a protein directly involved in the assembly of endocytic vesicles. PMID:17186471

  5. Adaptors for radiation detectors

    DOEpatents

    Livesay, Ronald Jason

    2014-04-22

    Described herein are adaptors and other devices for radiation detectors that can be used to make accurate spectral measurements of both small and large bulk sources of radioactivity, such as building structures, soils, vessels, large equipment, and liquid bodies. Some exemplary devices comprise an adaptor for a radiation detector, wherein the adaptor can be configured to collimate radiation passing through the adapter from an external radiation source to the radiation detector and the adaptor can be configured to enclose a radiation source within the adapter to allow the radiation detector to measure radiation emitted from the enclosed radiation source.

  6. Adaptors for radiation detectors

    DOEpatents

    Livesay, Ronald Jason

    2015-07-28

    Described herein are adaptors and other devices for radiation detectors that can be used to make accurate spectral measurements of both small and large bulk sources of radioactivity, such as building structures, soils, vessels, large equipment, and liquid bodies. Some exemplary devices comprise an adaptor for a radiation detector, wherein the adaptor can be configured to collimate radiation passing through the adapter from an external radiation source to the radiation detector and the adaptor can be configured to enclose a radiation source within the adapter to allow the radiation detector to measure radiation emitted from the enclosed radiation source.

  7. Impaired Lysosomal Integral Membrane Protein 2-dependent Peroxiredoxin 6 Delivery to Lamellar Bodies Accounts for Altered Alveolar Phospholipid Content in Adaptor Protein-3-deficient pearl Mice.

    PubMed

    Kook, Seunghyi; Wang, Ping; Young, Lisa R; Schwake, Michael; Saftig, Paul; Weng, Xialian; Meng, Ying; Neculai, Dante; Marks, Michael S; Gonzales, Linda; Beers, Michael F; Guttentag, Susan

    2016-04-15

    The Hermansky Pudlak syndromes (HPS) constitute a family of disorders characterized by oculocutaneous albinism and bleeding diathesis, often associated with lethal lung fibrosis. HPS results from mutations in genes of membrane trafficking complexes that facilitate delivery of cargo to lysosome-related organelles. Among the affected lysosome-related organelles are lamellar bodies (LB) within alveolar type 2 cells (AT2) in which surfactant components are assembled, modified, and stored. AT2 from HPS patients and mouse models of HPS exhibit enlarged LB with increased phospholipid content, but the mechanism underlying these defects is unknown. We now show that AT2 in the pearl mouse model of HPS type 2 lacking the adaptor protein 3 complex (AP-3) fails to accumulate the soluble enzyme peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6) in LB. This defect reflects impaired AP-3-dependent trafficking of PRDX6 to LB, because pearl mouse AT2 cells harbor a normal total PRDX6 content. AP-3-dependent targeting of PRDX6 to LB requires the transmembrane protein LIMP-2/SCARB2, a known AP-3-dependent cargo protein that functions as a carrier for lysosomal proteins in other cell types. Depletion of LB PRDX6 in AP-3- or LIMP-2/SCARB2-deficient mice correlates with phospholipid accumulation in lamellar bodies and with defective intraluminal degradation of LB disaturated phosphatidylcholine. Furthermore, AP-3-dependent LB targeting is facilitated by protein/protein interaction between LIMP-2/SCARB2 and PRDX6 in vitro and in vivo Our data provide the first evidence for an AP-3-dependent cargo protein required for the maturation of LB in AT2 and suggest that the loss of PRDX6 activity contributes to the pathogenic changes in LB phospholipid homeostasis found HPS2 patients. PMID:26907692

  8. The Adaptor Protein Myd88 Is a Key Signaling Molecule in the Pathogenesis of Irinotecan-Induced Intestinal Mucositis

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Deysi V. T.; Lima-Júnior, Roberto C. P.; Carvalho, Cibele B. M.; Borges, Vanessa F.; Wanderley, Carlos W. S.; Bem, Amanda X. C.; Leite, Caio A. V. G.; Teixeira, Maraiza A.; Batista, Gabriela L. P.; Silva, Rangel L.; Cunha, Thiago M.; Brito, Gerly A. C.; Almeida, Paulo R. C.; Cunha, Fernando Q.; Ribeiro, Ronaldo A.

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal mucositis is a common side effect of irinotecan-based anticancer regimens. Mucositis causes cell damage, bacterial/endotoxin translocation and production of cytokines including IL–1 and IL–18. These molecules and toll-like receptors (TLRs) activate a common signaling pathway that involves the Myeloid Differentiation adaptor protein, MyD88, whose role in intestinal mucositis is unknown. Then, we evaluated the involvement of TLRs and MyD88 in the pathogenesis of irinotecan-induced intestinal mucositis. MyD88-, TLR2- or TLR9-knockout mice and C57BL/6 (WT) mice were given either saline or irinotecan (75 mg/kg, i.p. for 4 days). On day 7, animal survival, diarrhea and bacteremia were assessed, and following euthanasia, samples of the ileum were obtained for morphometric analysis, myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay and measurement of pro-inflammatory markers. Irinotecan reduced the animal survival (50%) and induced a pronounced diarrhea, increased bacteremia, neutrophil accumulation in the intestinal tissue, intestinal damage and more than twofold increased expression of MyD88 (200%), TLR9 (400%), TRAF6 (236%), IL–1β (405%), IL–18 (365%), COX–2 (2,777%) and NF-κB (245%) in the WT animals when compared with saline-injected group (P<0.05). Genetic deletion of MyD88, TLR2 or TLR9 effectively controlled the signs of intestinal injury when compared with irinotecan-administered WT controls (P<0.05). In contrast to the MyD88-/- and TLR2-/- mice, the irinotecan-injected TLR9-/- mice showed a reduced survival, a marked diarrhea and an enhanced expression of IL–18 versus irinotecan-injected WT controls. Additionally, the expression of MyD88 was reduced in the TLR2-/- or TLR9-/- mice. This study shows a critical role of the MyD88-mediated TLR2 and TLR9 signaling in the pathogenesis of irinotecan-induced intestinal mucositis. PMID:26440613

  9. Adaptor Protein Complex 2 (AP-2) Mediated, Clathrin Dependent Endocytosis, And Related Gene Activities, Are A Prominent Feature During Maturation Stage Amelogenesis

    PubMed Central

    LACRUZ, Rodrigo S.; BROOKES, Steven J.; WEN, Xin; JIMENEZ, Jaime M.; VIKMAN, Susanna; HU, Ping; WHITE, Shane N.; LYNGSTADAAS, S. Petter; OKAMOTO, Curtis T.; SMITH, Charles E.; PAINE, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Molecular events defining enamel matrix removal during amelogenesis are poorly understood. Early reports have suggested that adaptor proteins (AP) participate in ameloblast-mediated endocytosis. Enamel formation involves the secretory and maturation stages, with an increase in resorptive function during the latter. Here, using real time PCR, we show that the expression of clathrin and adaptor protein subunits are up-regulated in maturation stage rodent enamel organ cells. AP-2 is the most up-regulated of the four distinct adaptor protein complexes. Immunolocalization confirms the presence of AP-2 and clathrin in ameloblasts with strongest reactivity at the apical pole. These data suggest that the resorptive functions of enamel cells involve AP-2 mediated, clathrin dependent endocytosis, thus implying the likelihood of a specific membrane-bound receptor(s) of enamel matrix protein debris. The mRNA expression of other endocytosis-related gene products is also up-regulated during maturation including: lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 (Lamp1), cluster of differentiation 63 and 68 (Cd63 and Cd68), ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal V0 subunit D2 (Atp6v0d2), ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal V1 subunit B2 (Atp6v1b2), chloride channel, voltage-sensitive 7 (Clcn7) and cathepsin K (Ctsk). Immunohistological data confirms the expression of a number of these proteins in maturation stage ameloblasts. The enamel of Cd63-null mice was also examined. Despite increased mRNA and protein expression in the enamel organ during maturation, the enamel of Cd63-null mice appeared normal. This may suggest inherent functional redundancies between Cd63 and related gene products, such as Lamp1 and Cd68. Ameloblast-like LS8 cells treated with the enamel matrix protein complex Emdogain® showed up-regulation of AP-2 and clathrin subunits, further supporting the existence of a membrane-bound receptor regulated pathway for the endocytosis of enamel matrix proteins. These data together

  10. A novel GTP-binding protein-adaptor protein complex responsible for export of Vangl2 from the trans Golgi network.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yusong; Zanetti, Giulia; Schekman, Randy

    2013-01-01

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) requires the asymmetric sorting of distinct signaling receptors to distal and proximal surfaces of polarized epithelial cells. We have examined the transport of one PCP signaling protein, Vangl2, from the trans Golgi network (TGN) in mammalian cells. Using siRNA knockdown experiments, we find that the GTP-binding protein, Arfrp1, and the clathrin adaptor complex 1 (AP-1) are required for Vangl2 transport from the TGN. In contrast, TGN export of Frizzled 6, which localizes to the opposing epithelial surface from Vangl2, does not depend on Arfrp1 or AP-1. Mutagenesis studies identified a YYXXF sorting signal in the C-terminal cytosolic domain of Vangl2 that is required for Vangl2 traffic and interaction with the μ subunit of AP-1. We propose that Arfrp1 exposes a binding site on AP-1 that recognizes the Vangl2 sorting motif for capture into a transport vesicle destined for the proximal surface of a polarized epithelial cell.DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00160.001. PMID:23326640

  11. High Fat Diet Enhances β-Site Cleavage of Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) via Promoting β-Site APP Cleaving Enzyme 1/Adaptor Protein 2/Clathrin Complex Formation.

    PubMed

    Maesako, Masato; Uemura, Maiko; Tashiro, Yoshitaka; Sasaki, Kazuki; Watanabe, Kiwamu; Noda, Yasuha; Ueda, Karin; Asada-Utsugi, Megumi; Kubota, Masakazu; Okawa, Katsuya; Ihara, Masafumi; Shimohama, Shun; Uemura, Kengo; Kinoshita, Ayae

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes are risk factors of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We reported that a high fat diet (HFD) promotes amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleavage by β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) without increasing BACE1 levels in APP transgenic mice. However, the detailed mechanism had remained unclear. Here we demonstrate that HFD promotes BACE1/Adaptor protein-2 (AP-2)/clathrin complex formation by increasing AP-2 levels in APP transgenic mice. In Swedish APP overexpressing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells as well as in SH-SY5Y cells, overexpression of AP-2 promoted the formation of BACE1/AP-2/clathrin complex, increasing the level of the soluble form of APP β (sAPPβ). On the other hand, mutant D495R BACE1, which inhibits formation of this trimeric complex, was shown to decrease the level of sAPPβ. Overexpression of AP-2 promoted the internalization of BACE1 from the cell surface, thus reducing the cell surface BACE1 level. As such, we concluded that HFD may induce the formation of the BACE1/AP-2/clathrin complex, which is followed by its transport of BACE1 from the cell surface to the intracellular compartments. These events might be associated with the enhancement of β-site cleavage of APP in APP transgenic mice. Here we present evidence that HFD, by regulation of subcellular trafficking of BACE1, promotes APP cleavage. PMID:26414661

  12. The μ Subunit of Arabidopsis Adaptor Protein-2 Is Involved in Effector-Triggered Immunity Mediated by Membrane-Localized Resistance Proteins.

    PubMed

    Hatsugai, Noriyuki; Hillmer, Rachel; Yamaoka, Shohei; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko; Katagiri, Fumiaki

    2016-05-01

    Endocytosis has been suggested to be important in the cellular processes of plant immune responses. However, our understanding of its role during effector-triggered immunity (ETI) is still limited. We have previously shown that plant endocytosis, especially clathrin-coated vesicle formation at the plasma membrane, is mediated by the adaptor protein-2 (AP-2) complex and that loss of the μ subunit of AP-2 (AP2M) affects plant growth and floral organ development. Here, we report that AP2M is required for full-strength ETI mediated by the disease resistance (R) genes RPM1 and RPS2 in Arabidopsis. Reduced ETI was observed in an ap2m mutant plant, measured by growth of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 strains carrying the corresponding effector genes avrRpm1 or avrRpt2 and by hypersensitive cell death response and defense gene expression triggered by these strains. In contrast, RPS4-mediated ETI and its associated immune responses were not affected by the ap2m mutation. While RPM1 and RPS2 are localized to the plasma membrane, RPS4 is localized to the cytoplasm and nucleus. Our results suggest that AP2M is involved in ETI mediated by plasma membrane-localized R proteins, possibly by mediating endocytosis of the immune receptor complex components from the plasma membrane. PMID:26828402

  13. Structural and Functional Investigation of the Ag(+)/Cu(+) Binding Domains of the Periplasmic Adaptor Protein SilB from Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34.

    PubMed

    Urbina, Patricia; Bersch, Beate; De Angelis, Fabien; Derfoufi, Kheiro-Mouna; Prévost, Martine; Goormaghtigh, Erik; Vandenbussche, Guy

    2016-05-24

    Silver ion resistance in bacteria mainly relies on efflux systems, and notably on tripartite efflux complexes involving a transporter from the resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) superfamily, such as the SilCBA system from Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34. The periplasmic adaptor protein SilB hosts two specific metal coordination sites, located in the N-terminal and C-terminal domains, respectively, that are believed to play a different role in the efflux mechanism and the trafficking of metal ions from the periplasm to the RND transporter. On the basis of the known domain structure of periplasmic adaptor proteins, we designed different protein constructs derived from SilB domains with either one or two metal binding sites per protein chain. ITC data acquired on proteins with single metal sites suggest a slightly higher affinity of Ag(+) for the N-terminal metal site, compared to that for the C-terminal one. Remarkably, via the study of a protein construct featuring both metal sites, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and fluorescence spectroscopies concordantly show that the C-terminal site is saturated prior to the N-terminal one. The C-terminal binding site is supposed to transfer the metal ions to the RND protein, while the transport driven by this latter is activated upon binding of the metal ion to the N-terminal site. Our results suggest that the filling of the C-terminal metal site is a key prerequisite for preventing futile activation of the transport system. Exhaustive NMR studies reveal for the first time the structure and dynamics of the functionally important N-terminal domain connected to the membrane proximal domain as well as of its Ag(+) binding site. PMID:27145046

  14. Recombinant production of functional full-length and truncated human TRAM/TICAM-2 adaptor protein involved in Toll-like receptor and interferon signaling.

    PubMed

    Ullah, M Obayed; Valkov, Eugene; Ve, Thomas; Williams, Simon; Mas, Caroline; Mansell, Ashley; Kobe, Bostjan

    2015-02-01

    TRAM/TICAM-2 is used by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) as a bridging adaptor during the mammalian innate immune response. It recruits TRIF, another TIR domain-containing adaptor protein, to TLR4 via TIR domain interactions, which leads to the activation of transcription factors responsible for the production of type-1 interferon and cytokines. The molecular mechanisms of these dual interactions mediated by the TRAM TIR domain are not clear. To understand the molecular basis of TIR:TIR domain interactions, structural and biochemical studies of TRAM TIR domain are necessary, and require a functional soluble protein. In this paper, we report a successful purification and characterization of full-length TRAM. Because full-length TRAM likely contains unstructured regions that may be disadvantageous for structural studies, we also carried out a systematic construct design to determine the boundaries of the TRAM TIR domain. The truncated TRAM constructs were designed based on secondary structure predictions and screened by small-scale expression. Selected constructs were subjected to biophysical analyses. We show that the expressed TRAM TIR domain is functional using in vitro GST pull-down assays that demonstrate a physical interaction with the TLR4 TIR domain. We further show, by site-directed mutagenesis, that the "BB loop" regions of both the TRAM TIR domain and the TLR4 TIR domain are crucial for this physical interaction. PMID:25306876

  15. Adaptor protein containing PH domain, PTB domain and leucine zipper (APPL1) regulates the protein level of EGFR by modulating its trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jae-Rin; Hahn, Hwa-Sun; Kim, Young-Hoon; Nguyen, Hong-Hoa; Yang, Jun-Mo; Kang, Jong-Sun; Hahn, Myong-Joon

    2011-11-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer APPL1 regulates the protein level of EGFR in response to EGF stimulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Depletion of APPL1 accelerates the movement of EGF/EGFR from the cell surface to the perinuclear region in response to EGF. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knockdown of APPL1 enhances the activity of Rab5. -- Abstract: The EGFR-mediated signaling pathway regulates multiple biological processes such as cell proliferation, survival and differentiation. Previously APPL1 (adaptor protein containing PH domain, PTB domain and leucine zipper 1) has been reported to function as a downstream effector of EGF-initiated signaling. Here we demonstrate that APPL1 regulates EGFR protein levels in response to EGF stimulation. Overexpression of APPL1 enhances EGFR stabilization while APPL1 depletion by siRNA reduces EGFR protein levels. APPL1 depletion accelerates EGFR internalization and movement of EGF/EGFR from cell surface to the perinuclear region in response to EGF treatment. Conversely, overexpression of APPL1 decelerates EGFR internalization and translocation of EGF/EGFR to the perinuclear region. Furthermore, APPL1 depletion enhances the activity of Rab5 which is involved in internalization and trafficking of EGFR and inhibition of Rab5 in APPL1-depleted cells restored EGFR levels. Consistently, APPL1 depletion reduced activation of Akt, the downstream signaling effector of EGFR and this is restored by inhibition of Rab5. These findings suggest that APPL1 is required for EGFR signaling by regulation of EGFR stabilities through inhibition of Rab5.

  16. TLR adaptor MyD88 is essential for pathogen control during oral toxoplasma gondii infection but not adaptive immunity induced by a vaccine strain of the parasite.

    PubMed

    Sukhumavasi, Woraporn; Egan, Charlotte E; Warren, Amy L; Taylor, Gregory A; Fox, Barbara A; Bzik, David J; Denkers, Eric Y

    2008-09-01

    TLR adaptor MyD88 activation is important in host resistance to Toxoplasma gondii during i.p. infection, but the function of this signaling pathway during oral infection, in which mucosal immunity assumes a predominant role, has not been examined. In this study, we show that MyD88(-/-) mice fail to control the parasite and succumb within 2 wk of oral infection. Early during infection, T cell IFN-gamma production, recruitment of neutrophils and induction of p47 GTPase IGTP (Irgm3) in the intestinal mucosa were dependent upon functional MyD88. Unexpectedly, these responses were MyD88-independent later during acute infection. In particular, CD4(+) T cell IFN-gamma reached normal levels independently of MyD88, despite continued absence of IL-12 in these animals. The i.p. vaccination of MyD88(-/-) mice with an avirulent T. gondii uracil auxotroph elicited robust IFN-gamma responses and protective immunity to challenge with a high virulence T. gondii strain. Our results demonstrate that MyD88 is required to control Toxoplasma infection, but that the parasite can trigger adaptive immunity without the need for this TLR adaptor molecule. PMID:18714019

  17. Protein Modifications Regulate the Role of 14-3-3γ Adaptor Protein in cAMP-induced Steroidogenesis in MA-10 Leydig Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Aghazadeh, Yasaman; Ye, Xiaoying; Blonder, Josip; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2014-01-01

    The 14-3-3 protein family comprises adaptors and scaffolds that regulate intracellular signaling pathways. The 14-3-3γ isoform is a negative regulator of steroidogenesis that is hormonally induced and transiently functions at the initiation of steroidogenesis by delaying maximal steroidogenesis in MA-10 mouse tumor Leydig cells. Treatment of MA-10 cells with the cAMP analog 8-bromo-cAMP (8-Br-cAMP), which stimulates steroidogenesis, triggers the interaction of 14-3-3γ with the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR) in the cytosol, limiting STAR activity to basal levels. Over time, this interaction ceases, allowing for a 2-fold induction in STAR activity and maximal increase in the rate of steroid formation. The 14-3-3γ/STAR pattern of interaction was found to be opposite that of the 14-3-3γ homodimerization pattern. Phosphorylation and acetylation of 14-3-3γ showed similar patterns to homodimerization and STAR binding, respectively. 14-3-3γ Ser58 phosphorylation and 14-3-3γ Lys49 acetylation were blocked using trans-activator of HIV transcription factor 1 peptides coupled to 14-3-3γ sequences containing Ser58 or Lys49. Blocking either one of these modifications further induced 8-Br-cAMP-induced steroidogenesis while reducing lipid storage, suggesting that the stored cholesterol is used for steroid formation. Taken together, these results indicate that Ser58 phosphorylation and Lys49 acetylation of 14-3-3γ occur in a coordinated time-dependent manner to regulate 14-3-3γ homodimerization. 14-3-3γ Ser58 phosphorylation is required for STAR interactions under control conditions, and 14-3-3γ Lys49 acetylation is important for the cAMP-dependent induction of these interactions. PMID:25086053

  18. Interaction of the protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPL1 with the PtdIns(3,4)P2-binding adaptor protein TAPP1.

    PubMed Central

    Kimber, Wendy A; Deak, Maria; Prescott, Alan R; Alessi, Dario R

    2003-01-01

    It has been postulated that PtdIns(3,4) P (2), one of the immediate breakdown products of PtdIns(3,4,5) P (3), functions as a signalling molecule in insulin- and growth-factor-stimulated pathways. To date, the t andem- P H-domain-containing p rotein- 1 (TAPP1) and related TAPP2 are still the only known PH-domain-containing proteins that interact strongly and specifically with PtdIns(3,4) P (2). In this study we demonstrate that endogenously expressed TAPP1, is constitutively associated with the protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-like protein-1 (PTPL1 also known as FAP-1). We show that PTPL1 binds to TAPP1 and TAPP2, principally though its first PDZ domain [where PDZ is postsynaptic density protein ( P SD-95)/ Drosophila disc large tumour suppressor ( d lg)/tight junction protein ( Z O1)] and show that this renders PTPL1 capable of associating with PtdIns(3,4) P (2) in vitro. Our data suggest that the binding of TAPP1 to PTPL1 does not influence PTPL1 phosphatase activity, but instead functions to maintain PTPL1 in the cytoplasm. Following stimulation of cells with hydrogen peroxide to induce PtdIns(3,4) P (2) production, PTPL1, complexed to TAPP1, translocates to the plasma membrane. This study provides the first evidence that TAPP1 and PtdIns(3,4) P (2) could function to regulate the membrane localization of PTPL1. We speculate that if PTPL1 was recruited to the plasma membrane by increasing levels of PtdIns(3,4) P (2), it could trigger a negative feedback loop in which phosphoinositide-3-kinase-dependent or other signalling pathways could be switched off by the phosphatase-catalysed dephosphorylation of receptor tyrosine kinases or tyrosine phosphorylated adaptor proteins such as IRS1 or IRS2. Consistent with this notion we observed RNA-interference-mediated knock-down of TAPP1 in HEK-293 cells, enhanced activation and phosphorylation of PKB following IGF1 stimulation. PMID:14516276

  19. Structure of Staphylococcus aureus EsxA suggests a contribution to virulence by action as a transport chaperone and/or adaptor protein

    PubMed Central

    Sundaramoorthy, Ramasubramanian; Fyfe, Paul K.; Hunter, William N.

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis depends on a specialized protein secretion system, ESX-1, that delivers a range of virulence factors to assist infectivity. We report the characterization of two such factors, EsxA and EsxB; small acidic dimeric proteins carrying a distinctive WXG motif. EsxA crystallized in triclinic and monoclinic forms and high-resolution structures were determined. The asymmetric unit of each crystal form is a dimer. The EsxA subunit forms an elongated cylindrical structure created from side-by-side α-helices linked with a hairpin bend formed by the WXG motif. Approximately 25% of the solvent accessible surface area of each subunit is involved in interactions, predominantly hydrophobic, with the partner subunit. Secondary structure predictions suggest that EsxB displays a similar structure. The WXG motif helps to create a shallow cleft at each end of the dimer, forming a short β-sheet-like feature with an N-terminal segment of the partner subunit. Structural and sequence comparisons, exploiting biological data on related proteins found in Mycobacteria tuberculosis suggest that this family of proteins may contribute to pathogenesis by transporting protein cargo through the ESX-1 system exploiting a C-terminal secretion signal and / or are capable of acting as adaptor proteins to facilitate interactions with host receptor proteins. PMID:18773907

  20. The proteolysis adaptor, NblA, is essential for degradation of the core pigment of the cyanobacterial light-harvesting complex.

    PubMed

    Sendersky, Eleonora; Kozer, Noga; Levi, Mali; Moizik, Michael; Garini, Yuval; Shav-Tal, Yaron; Schwarz, Rakefet

    2015-09-01

    The cyanobacterial light-harvesting complex, the phycobilisome, is degraded under nutrient limitation, allowing the cell to adjust light absorbance to its metabolic capacity. This large light-harvesting antenna comprises a core complex of the pigment allophycocyanin, and rod-shaped pigment assemblies emanating from the core. NblA, a low-molecular-weight protein, is essential for degradation of the phycobilisome. NblA mutants exhibit high absorbance of rod pigments under conditions that generally elicit phycobilisome degradation, implicating NblA in degradation of these pigments. However, the vast abundance of rod pigments and the substantial overlap between the absorbance spectra of rod and core pigments has made it difficult to directly associate NblA with proteolysis of the phycobilisome core. Furthermore, lack of allophycocyanin degradation in an NblA mutant may reflect a requirement for rod degradation preceding core degradation, and does not prove direct involvement of NblA in proteolysis of the core pigment. Therefore, in this study, we used a mutant lacking phycocyanin, the rod pigment of Synechococcus elongatusPCC7942, to examine whether NblA is required for allophycocyanin degradation. We demonstrate that NblA is essential for degradation of the core complex of the phycobilisome. Furthermore, fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy provided in situ evidence for the interaction of NblA with allophycocyanin, and indicated that NblA interacts with allophycocyanin complexes that are associated with the photosynthetic membranes. Based on these data, as well as previous observations indicating interaction of NblA with phycobilisomes attached to the photosynthetic membranes, we suggest a model for sequential phycobilisome disassembly by NblA. PMID:26173720

  1. Identification of essential proteins based on edge clustering coefficient.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianxin; Li, Min; Wang, Huan; Pan, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Identification of essential proteins is key to understanding the minimal requirements for cellular life and important for drug design. The rapid increase of available protein-protein interaction (PPI) data has made it possible to detect protein essentiality on network level. A series of centrality measures have been proposed to discover essential proteins based on network topology. However, most of them tended to focus only on the location of single protein, but ignored the relevance between interactions and protein essentiality. In this paper, a new centrality measure for identifying essential proteins based on edge clustering coefficient, named as NC, is proposed. Different from previous centrality measures, NC considers both the centrality of a node and the relationship between it and its neighbors. For each interaction in the network, we calculate its edge clustering coefficient. A node’s essentiality is determined by the sum of the edge clustering coefficients of interactions connecting it and its neighbors. The new centrality measure NC takes into account the modular nature of protein essentiality. NC is applied to three different types of yeast protein-protein interaction networks, which are obtained from the DIP database, the MIPS database and the BioGRID database, respectively. The experimental results on the three different networks show that the number of essential proteins discovered by NC universally exceeds that discovered by the six other centrality measures: DC, BC, CC, SC, EC, and IC. Moreover, the essential proteins discovered by NC show significant cluster effect. PMID:22084147

  2. The Adaptor Complex AP-4 Regulates Vacuolar Protein Sorting at the trans-Golgi Network by Interacting with VACUOLAR SORTING RECEPTOR1.

    PubMed

    Fuji, Kentaro; Shirakawa, Makoto; Shimono, Yuki; Kunieda, Tadashi; Fukao, Yoichiro; Koumoto, Yasuko; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko; Shimada, Tomoo

    2016-01-01

    Adaptor protein (AP) complexes play critical roles in protein sorting among different post-Golgi pathways by recognizing specific cargo protein motifs. Among the five AP complexes (AP-1-AP-5) in plants, AP-4 is one of the most poorly understood; the AP-4 components, AP-4 cargo motifs, and AP-4 functional mechanism are not known. Here, we identify the AP-4 components and show that the AP-4 complex regulates receptor-mediated vacuolar protein sorting by recognizing VACUOLAR SORTING RECEPTOR1 (VSR1), which was originally identified as a sorting receptor for seed storage proteins to target protein storage vacuoles in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). From the vacuolar sorting mutant library GREEN FLUORESCENT SEED (GFS), we isolated three gfs mutants that accumulate abnormally high levels of VSR1 in seeds and designated them as gfs4, gfs5, and gfs6. Their responsible genes encode three (AP4B, AP4M, and AP4S) of the four subunits of the AP-4 complex, respectively, and an Arabidopsis mutant (ap4e) lacking the fourth subunit, AP4E, also had the same phenotype. Mass spectrometry demonstrated that these four proteins form a complex in vivo. The four mutants showed defects in the vacuolar sorting of the major storage protein 12S globulins, indicating a role for the AP-4 complex in vacuolar protein transport. AP4M bound to the tyrosine-based motif of VSR1. AP4M localized at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) subdomain that is distinct from the AP-1-localized TGN subdomain. This study provides a novel function for the AP-4 complex in VSR1-mediated vacuolar protein sorting at the specialized domain of the TGN. PMID:26546666

  3. Skb5, an SH3 adaptor protein, regulates Pmk1 MAPK signaling by controlling the intracellular localization of the MAPKKK Mkh1.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Yuki; Satoh, Ryosuke; Matsumoto, Saki; Ikeda, Chisato; Inutsuka, Natsumi; Hagihara, Kanako; Matzno, Sumio; Tsujimoto, Sho; Kita, Ayako; Sugiura, Reiko

    2016-08-15

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is a highly conserved signaling module composed of MAPK kinase kinases (MAPKKKs), MAPK kinases (MAPKK) and MAPKs. The MAPKKK Mkh1 is an initiating kinase in Pmk1 MAPK signaling, which regulates cell integrity in fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe). Our genetic screen for regulators of Pmk1 signaling identified Shk1 kinase binding protein 5 (Skb5), an SH3-domain-containing adaptor protein. Here, we show that Skb5 serves as an inhibitor of Pmk1 MAPK signaling activation by downregulating Mkh1 localization to cell tips through its interaction with the SH3 domain. Consistent with this, the Mkh1(3PA) mutant protein, with impaired Skb5 binding, remained in the cell tips, even when Skb5 was overproduced. Intriguingly, Skb5 needs Mkh1 to localize to the growing ends as Mkh1 deletion and disruption of Mkh1 binding impairs Skb5 localization. Deletion of Pck2, an upstream activator of Mkh1, impaired the cell tip localization of Mkh1 and Skb5 as well as the Mkh1-Skb5 interaction. Interestingly, both Pck2 and Mkh1 localized to the cell tips at the G1/S phase, which coincided with Pmk1 MAPK activation. Taken together, Mkh1 localization to cell tips is important for transmitting upstream signaling to Pmk1, and Skb5 spatially regulates this process. PMID:27451356

  4. Human kidney anion exchanger 1 interacts with adaptor-related protein complex 1 {mu}1A (AP-1 mu1A)

    SciTech Connect

    Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Junking, Mutita; Ngaojanlar, Piengpaga; Sukomon, Nattakan; Ungsupravate, Duangporn; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai; Akkarapatumwong, Varaporn; Noisakran, Sansanee; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

    2010-10-08

    Research highlights: {yields} Trafficking defect of kAE1 is a cause of dRTA but trafficking pathway of kAE1 has not been clearly described. {yields} Adaptor-related protein complex 1 {mu}1A (AP-1 mu1A) was firstly reported to interact with kAE1. {yields} The interacting site for AP-1 mu1A on Ct-kAE1 was found to be Y904DEV907, a subset of YXXO motif. {yields} AP-1 mu1A knockdown showed a marked reduction of kAE1 on the cell membrane and its accumulation in endoplasmic reticulum. {yields} AP-1 mu1A has a critical role in kAE1 trafficking to the plasma membrane. -- Abstract: Kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) mediates chloride (Cl{sup -}) and bicarbonate (HCO{sub 3}{sup -}) exchange at the basolateral membrane of kidney {alpha}-intercalated cells. Impaired trafficking of kAE1 leads to defect of the Cl{sup -}/HCO{sub 3}{sup -} exchange at the basolateral membrane and failure of proton (H{sup +}) secretion at the apical membrane, causing a kidney disease - distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). To gain a better insight into kAE1 trafficking, we searched for proteins physically interacting with the C-terminal region of kAE1 (Ct-kAE1), which contains motifs crucial for intracellular trafficking, by a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system. An adaptor-related protein complex 1 {mu}1A (AP-1 mu1A) subunit was found to interact with Ct-kAE1. The interaction between either Ct-kAE1 or full-length kAE1 and AP-1 mu1A were confirmed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T by co-immunoprecipitation, affinity co-purification, co-localization, yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-based protein fragment complementation assay (PCA) and GST pull-down assay. The interacting site for AP-1 mu1A on Ct-kAE1 was found to be Y904DEV907, a subset of YXXO motif. Interestingly, suppression of endogenous AP-1 mu1A in HEK 293T by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreased membrane localization of kAE1 and increased its intracellular accumulation, suggesting for the first time that AP-1 mu1A is involved in the kAE1

  5. Role of an adaptor protein Lin-7B in brain development: possible involvement in autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Makoto; Matsumoto, Ayumi; Hamada, Nanako; Ito, Hidenori; Miyauchi, Akihiko; Jimbo, Eriko F; Momoi, Mariko Y; Tabata, Hidenori; Yamagata, Takanori; Nagata, Koh-Ichi

    2015-01-01

    Using comparative genomic hybridization analysis for an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patient, a 73-Kb duplication at 19q13.33 (nt. 49 562 755-49 635 956) including LIN7B and 5 other genes was detected. We then identified a novel frameshift mutation in LIN7B in another ASD patient. Since LIN7B encodes a scaffold protein essential for neuronal function, we analyzed the role of Lin-7B in the development of cerebral cortex. Acute knockdown of Lin-7B with in utero electroporation caused a delay in neuronal migration during corticogenesis. When Lin-7B was knocked down in cortical neurons in one hemisphere, their axons failed to extend efficiently into the contralateral hemisphere after leaving the corpus callosum. Meanwhile, enhanced expression of Lin-7B had no effects on both cortical neuron migration and axon growth. Notably, silencing of Lin-7B did not affect the proliferation of neuronal progenitors and stem cells. Taken together, Lin-7B was found to play a pivotal role in corticogenesis through the regulation of excitatory neuron migration and interhemispheric axon growth, while further analyses are required to directly link functional defects of Lin-7B to ASD pathophysiology. Lin-7 plays a pivotal role as a scaffold protein in synaptic development and plasticity. Based on genetic analyses we identified mutations in LIN-7B gene in some ASD (autism-spectrum disorder) patients. Functional defects in Lin-7B caused abnormal neuronal migration and interhemispheric axon growth during mouse brain development. Thus, functional deficiency in Lin-7B could be implicated in clinical phenotypes in some ASD patients through bringing about abnormal cortical architecture. PMID:25196215

  6. The Src homology and collagen A (ShcA) adaptor protein is required for the spatial organization of the costamere/Z-disk network during heart development.

    PubMed

    Mlih, Mohamed; Host, Lionel; Martin, Sophie; Niederhoffer, Nathalie; Monassier, Laurent; Terrand, Jérôme; Messaddeq, Nadia; Radke, Michael; Gotthardt, Michael; Bruban, Véronique; Kober, Frank; Bernard, Monique; Canet-Soulas, Emmanuelle; Abt-Jijon, Francisco; Boucher, Philippe; Matz, Rachel L

    2015-01-23

    Src homology and collagen A (ShcA) is an adaptor protein that binds to tyrosine kinase receptors. Its germ line deletion is embryonic lethal with abnormal cardiovascular system formation, and its role in cardiovascular development is unknown. To investigate its functional role in cardiovascular development in mice, ShcA was deleted in cardiomyocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells by crossing ShcA flox mice with SM22a-Cre transgenic mice. Conditional mutant mice developed signs of severe dilated cardiomyopathy, myocardial infarctions, and premature death. No evidence of a vascular contribution to the phenotype was observed. Histological analysis of the heart revealed aberrant sarcomeric Z-disk and M-band structures, and misalignments of T-tubules with Z-disks. We find that not only the ErbB3/Neuregulin signaling pathway but also the baroreceptor reflex response, which have been functionally associated, are altered in the mutant mice. We further demonstrate that ShcA interacts with Caveolin-1 and the costameric protein plasma membrane Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent ATPase (PMCA), and that its deletion leads to abnormal dystrophin signaling. Collectively, these results demonstrate that ShcA interacts with crucial proteins and pathways that link Z-disk and costamere. PMID:25488665

  7. The Src Homology and Collagen A (ShcA) Adaptor Protein Is Required for the Spatial Organization of the Costamere/Z-disk Network during Heart Development*

    PubMed Central

    Mlih, Mohamed; Host, Lionel; Martin, Sophie; Niederhoffer, Nathalie; Monassier, Laurent; Terrand, Jérôme; Messaddeq, Nadia; Radke, Michael; Gotthardt, Michael; Bruban, Véronique; Kober, Frank; Bernard, Monique; Canet-Soulas, Emmanuelle; Abt-Jijon, Francisco; Boucher, Philippe; Matz, Rachel L.

    2015-01-01

    Src homology and collagen A (ShcA) is an adaptor protein that binds to tyrosine kinase receptors. Its germ line deletion is embryonic lethal with abnormal cardiovascular system formation, and its role in cardiovascular development is unknown. To investigate its functional role in cardiovascular development in mice, ShcA was deleted in cardiomyocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells by crossing ShcA flox mice with SM22a-Cre transgenic mice. Conditional mutant mice developed signs of severe dilated cardiomyopathy, myocardial infarctions, and premature death. No evidence of a vascular contribution to the phenotype was observed. Histological analysis of the heart revealed aberrant sarcomeric Z-disk and M-band structures, and misalignments of T-tubules with Z-disks. We find that not only the ErbB3/Neuregulin signaling pathway but also the baroreceptor reflex response, which have been functionally associated, are altered in the mutant mice. We further demonstrate that ShcA interacts with Caveolin-1 and the costameric protein plasma membrane Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent ATPase (PMCA), and that its deletion leads to abnormal dystrophin signaling. Collectively, these results demonstrate that ShcA interacts with crucial proteins and pathways that link Z-disk and costamere. PMID:25488665

  8. Molecular cloning of the mouse grb2 gene: differential interaction of the Grb2 adaptor protein with epidermal growth factor and nerve growth factor receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Suen, K L; Bustelo, X R; Pawson, T; Barbacid, M

    1993-01-01

    We report the isolation and molecular characterization of the mouse grb2 gene. The product of this gene, the Grb2 protein, is highly related to the Caenorhabditis elegans sem-5 gene product and the human GRB2 protein and displays the same SH3-SH2-SH3 structural motifs. In situ hybridization studies revealed that the mouse grb2 gene is widely expressed throughout embryonic development (E9.5 to P0). However, grb2 transcripts are not uniformly distributed, and in certain tissues (e.g., thymus) they appear to be regulated during development. Recent genetic and biochemical evidence has implicated the Grb2 protein in the signaling pathways that link cell surface tyrosine kinase receptors with Ras. We have investigated the association of the Grb2 protein with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) receptors in PC12 pheochromocytoma cells. EGF treatment of PC12 cells results in the rapid association of Grb2 with the activated EGF receptors, an interaction mediated by the Grb2 SH2 domain. However, Grb2 does not bind to NGF-activated Trk receptors. Mitogenic signaling of NGF in NIH 3T3 cells ectopically expressing Trk receptors also takes place without detectable association between Grb2 and Trk. These results suggest that whereas EGF and NGF can activate the Ras signaling pathway in PC12 cells, only the EGF receptor is likely to do so through a direct interaction with Grb2. Finally, binding studies with glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins indicate that Grb2 binds two distinct subsets of proteins which are individually recognized by its SH2 and SH3 domains. These observations add further support to the concept that Grb2 is a modular adaptor protein. Images PMID:7689150

  9. Loss of Apm1, the μ1 Subunit of the Clathrin-Associated Adaptor-Protein-1 Complex, Causes Distinct Phenotypes and Synthetic Lethality with Calcineurin Deletion in Fission Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Kita, Ayako; Sugiura, Reiko; Shoji, Hiromi; He, Yi; Deng, Lu; Lu, Yabin; Sio, Susie O.; Takegawa, Kaoru; Sakaue, Motoyoshi; Shuntoh, Hisato; Kuno, Takayoshi

    2004-01-01

    Calcineurin is a highly conserved regulator of Ca2+ signaling in eukaryotes. In fission yeast, calcineurin is not essential for viability but is required for cytokinesis and Cl- homeostasis. In a genetic screen for mutations that are synthetically lethal with calcineurin deletion, we isolated a mutant, cis1-1/apm1-1, an allele of the apm1+ gene that encodes a homolog of the mammalian μ1A subunit of the clathrin-associated adaptor protein-1 (AP-1) complex. The cis1-1/apm1-1 mutant as well as the apm1-deleted (Δapm1) cells showed distinct phenotypes: temperature sensitivity; tacrolimus (FK506) sensitivity; and pleiotropic defects in cytokinesis, cell integrity, and vacuole fusion. Electron micrographs revealed that Δapm1 cells showed large vesicular structures associated with Golgi stacks and accumulated post-Golgi secretory vesicles. Δapm1 cells also showed the massive accumulation of the exocytic v-SNARE Syb1 in the Golgi/endosomes and a reduced secretion of acid phosphatase. These phenotypes observed in apm1 mutations were accentuated upon temperature up-shift and FK506 treatment. Notably, Apm1-GFP localized to the Golgi/endosomes, the spindle pole bodies, and the medial region. These findings suggest a role for Apm1 associated with the Golgi/endosome function, thereby affecting various cellular processes, including secretion, cytokinesis, vacuole fusion, and cell integrity and also suggest that calcineurin is involved in these events. PMID:15047861

  10. Protein Interaction Profiling of the p97 Adaptor UBXD1 Points to a Role for the Complex in Modulating ERGIC-53 Trafficking*

    PubMed Central

    Haines, Dale S.; Lee, J. Eugene; Beauparlant, Stephen L.; Kyle, Dane B.; den Besten, Willem; Sweredoski, Michael J.; Graham, Robert L. J.; Hess, Sonja; Deshaies, Raymond J.

    2012-01-01

    UBXD1 is a member of the poorly understood subfamily of p97 adaptors that do not harbor a ubiquitin association domain or bind ubiquitin-modified proteins. Of clinical importance, p97 mutants found in familial neurodegenerative conditions Inclusion Body Myopathy Paget's disease of the bone and/or Frontotemporal Dementia and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis are defective at interacting with UBXD1, indicating that functions regulated by a p97-UBXD1 complex are altered in these diseases. We have performed liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of UBXD1-interacting proteins to identify pathways in which UBXD1 functions. UBXD1 displays prominent association with ERGIC-53, a hexameric type I integral membrane protein that functions in protein trafficking. The UBXD1-ERGIC-53 interaction requires the N-terminal 10 residues of UBXD1 and the C-terminal cytoplasmic 12 amino acid tail of ERGIC-53. Use of p97 and E1 enzyme inhibitors indicate that complex formation between UBXD1 and ERGIC-53 requires the ATPase activity of p97, but not ubiquitin modification. We also performed SILAC-based quantitative proteomic profiling to identify ERGIC-53 interacting proteins. This analysis identified known (e.g. COPI subunits) and novel (Rab3GAP1/2 complex involved in the fusion of vesicles at the cell membrane) interactions that are also mediated through the C terminus of the protein. Immunoprecipitation and Western blotting analysis confirmed the proteomic interaction data and it also revealed that an UBXD1-Rab3GAP association requires the ERGIC-53 binding domain of UBXD1. Localization studies indicate that UBXD1 modules the sub-cellular trafficking of ERGIC-53, including promoting movement to the cell membrane. We propose that p97-UBXD1 modulates the trafficking of ERGIC-53-containing vesicles by controlling the interaction of transport factors with the cytoplasmic tail of ERGIC-53. PMID:22337587

  11. Role of adaptor proteins and clathrin in the trafficking of human kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) to the cell surface.

    PubMed

    Junking, Mutita; Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Duangtum, Natapol; Cheunsuchon, Boonyarit; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

    2014-07-01

    Kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) plays an important role in acid-base homeostasis by mediating chloride/bicarbornate (Cl-/HCO3-) exchange at the basolateral membrane of α-intercalated cells in the distal nephron. Impaired intracellular trafficking of kAE1 caused by mutations of SLC4A1 encoding kAE1 results in kidney disease - distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). However, it is not known how the intracellular sorting and trafficking of kAE1 from trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the basolateral membrane occurs. Here, we studied the role of basolateral-related sorting proteins, including the mu1 subunit of adaptor protein (AP) complexes, clathrin and protein kinase D, on kAE1 trafficking in polarized and non-polarized kidney cells. By using RNA interference, co-immunoprecipitation, yellow fluorescent protein-based protein fragment complementation assays and immunofluorescence staining, we demonstrated that AP-1 mu1A, AP-3 mu1, AP-4 mu1 and clathrin (but not AP-1 mu1B, PKD1 or PKD2) play crucial roles in intracellular sorting and trafficking of kAE1. We also demonstrated colocalization of kAE1 and basolateral-related sorting proteins in human kidney tissues by double immunofluorescence staining. These findings indicate that AP-1 mu1A, AP-3 mu1, AP-4 mu1 and clathrin are required for kAE1 sorting and trafficking from TGN to the basolateral membrane of acid-secreting α-intercalated cells. PMID:24698155

  12. The Ras suppressor Rsu-1 binds to the LIM 5 domain of the adaptor protein PINCH1 and participates in adhesion-related functions

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, Gerard W.; Chopp, Treasa; Qi Shengmei; Cutler, Mary Lou . E-mail: mcutler@usuhs.mil

    2005-05-15

    Rsu-1 is a highly conserved leucine rich repeat (LRR) protein that is expressed ubiquitously in mammalian cells. Rsu-1 was identified based on its ability to inhibit transformation by Ras, and previous studies demonstrated that ectopic expression of Rsu-1 inhibited anchorage-independent growth of Ras-transformed cells and human tumor cell lines. Using GAL4-based yeast two-hybrid screening, the LIM domain protein, PINCH1, was identified as the binding partner of Rsu-1. PINCH1 is an adaptor protein that localizes to focal adhesions and it has been implicated in the regulation of adhesion functions. Subdomain mapping in yeast revealed that Rsu-1 binds to the LIM 5 domain of PINCH1, a region not previously identified as a specific binding domain for any other protein. Additional testing demonstrated that PINCH2, which is highly homologous to PINCH1, except in the LIM 5 domain, does not interact with Rsu-1. Glutathione transferase fusion protein binding studies determined that the LRR region of Rsu-1 interacts with PINCH1. Transient expression studies using epitope-tagged Rsu-1 and PINCH1 revealed that Rsu-1 co-immunoprecipitated with PINCH1 and colocalized with vinculin at sites of focal adhesions in mammalian cells. In addition, endogenous P33 Rsu-1 from 293T cells co-immunoprecipitated with transiently expressed myc-tagged PINCH1. Furthermore, RNAi-induced reduction in Rsu-1 RNA and protein inhibited cell attachment, and while previous studies demonstrated that ectopic expression of Rsu-1 inhibited Jun kinase activation, the depletion of Rsu-1 resulted in activation of Jun and p38 stress kinases. These studies demonstrate that Rsu-1 interacts with PINCH1 in mammalian cells and functions, in part, by altering cell adhesion.

  13. MEK Kinase 2 and the Adaptor Protein Lad Regulate Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 5 Activation by Epidermal Growth Factor via Src

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Weiyong; Wei, Xudong; Kesavan, Kamala; Garrington, Timothy P.; Fan, Ruihua; Mei, Junjie; Anderson, Steven M.; Gelfand, Erwin W.; Johnson, Gary L.

    2003-01-01

    Lad is an SH2 domain-containing adaptor protein that binds MEK kinase 2 (MEKK2), a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase kinase for the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) and JNK pathways. Lad and MEKK2 are in a complex in resting cells. Antisense knockdown of Lad expression and targeted gene disruption of MEKK2 expression results in loss of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and stress stimuli-induced activation of ERK5. Activation of MEKK2 and the ERK5 pathway by EGF and stress stimuli is dependent on Src kinase activity. The Lad-binding motif is encoded within amino acids 228 to 282 in the N terminus of MEKK2, and expression of this motif blocks Lad-MEKK2 interaction, resulting in inhibition of Src-dependent activation of MEKK2 and ERK5. JNK activation by EGF is similarly inhibited by loss of Lad or MEKK2 expression and by blocking the interaction of MEKK2 and Lad. Our studies demonstrate that Src kinase activity is required for ERK5 activation in response to EGF, MEKK2 expression is required for ERK5 activation by Src, Lad and MEKK2 association is required for Src activation of ERK5, and EGF and Src stimulation of ERK5-regulated MEF2-dependent promoter activity requires a functional Lad-MEKK2 signaling complex. PMID:12640115

  14. Endoproteolytic cleavage of FE65 converts the adaptor protein to a potent suppressor of the sAPPalpha pathway in primates.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qubai; Wang, Lin; Yang, Zheng; Cool, Bethany H; Zitnik, Galynn; Martin, George M

    2005-04-01

    Adaptor protein FE65 (APBB1) specifically binds to the intracellular tail of the type I transmembrane protein, beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP). The formation of this complex may be important for modulation of the processing and function of APP. APP is proteolytically cleaved at multiple sites. The cleavages and their regulation are of central importance in the pathogenesis of dementias of the Alzheimer type. In cell cultures and perhaps in vivo, secretion of the alpha-cleaved APP ectodomain (sAPPalpha) is the major pathway in the most cells. Regulation of the process may require extracellular/intracellular cues. Neither extracellular ligands nor intracellular mediators have been identified, however. Here, we show novel evidence that the major isoform of FE65 (97-kDa FE65, p97FE65) can be converted to a 65-kDa N-terminally truncated C-terminal fragment (p65FE65) via endoproteolysis. The cleavage region locates immediately after an acidic residue cluster but before the three major protein-protein binding domains. The cleavage activity is particularly high in human and non-human primate cells and low in rodent cells; the activity appears to be triggered/enhanced by high cell density, presumably via cell-cell/cell-substrate contact cues. As a result, p65FE65 exhibits extraordinarily high affinity for APP (up to 40-fold higher than p97FE65) and potent suppression (up to 90%) of secretion of sAPPalpha. Strong p65FE65-APP binding is required for the suppression. The results suggest that p65FE65 may be an intracellular mediator in a signaling cascade regulating alpha-secretion of APP, particularly in primates. PMID:15647266

  15. Identification of essential proteins based on ranking edge-weights in protein-protein interaction networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Sun, Huiyan; Du, Wei; Blanzieri, Enrico; Viero, Gabriella; Xu, Ying; Liang, Yanchun

    2014-01-01

    Essential proteins are those that are indispensable to cellular survival and development. Existing methods for essential protein identification generally rely on knock-out experiments and/or the relative density of their interactions (edges) with other proteins in a Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) network. Here, we present a computational method, called EW, to first rank protein-protein interactions in terms of their Edge Weights, and then identify sub-PPI-networks consisting of only the highly-ranked edges and predict their proteins as essential proteins. We have applied this method to publicly-available PPI data on Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Yeast) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) for essential protein identification, and demonstrated that EW achieves better performance than the state-of-the-art methods in terms of the precision-recall and Jackknife measures. The highly-ranked protein-protein interactions by our prediction tend to be biologically significant in both the Yeast and E. coli PPI networks. Further analyses on systematically perturbed Yeast and E. coli PPI networks through randomly deleting edges demonstrate that the proposed method is robust and the top-ranked edges tend to be more associated with known essential proteins than the lowly-ranked edges. PMID:25268881

  16. Adaptor Protein Cerebral Cavernous Malformation 3 (CCM3) Mediates Phosphorylation of the Cytoskeletal Proteins Ezrin/Radixin/Moesin by Mammalian Ste20-4 to Protect Cells from Oxidative Stress*

    PubMed Central

    Fidalgo, Miguel; Guerrero, Ana; Fraile, María; Iglesias, Cristina; Pombo, Celia M.; Zalvide, Juan

    2012-01-01

    While studying the functions of CCM3/PDCD10, a gene encoding an adaptor protein whose mutation results in vascular malformations, we have found that it is involved in a novel response to oxidative stress that results in phosphorylation and activation of the ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) family of proteins. This phosphorylation protects cells from accidental cell death induced by oxidative stress. We also present evidence that ERM phosphorylation is performed by the GCKIII kinase Mst4, which is activated and relocated to the cell periphery after oxidative stress. The cellular levels of Mst4 and its activation after oxidative stress depend on the presence of CCM3, as absence of the latter impairs the phosphorylation of ERM proteins and enhances death of cells exposed to reactive oxygen species. These findings shed new light on the response of cells to oxidative stress and identify an important pathophysiological situation in which ERM proteins and their phosphorylation play a significant role. PMID:22291017

  17. Overexpression of Isoforms of Nitric Oxide Synthase 1 Adaptor Protein, Encoded by a Risk Gene for Schizophrenia, Alters Actin Dynamics and Synaptic Function

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Kristina; Swiatkowski, Przemyslaw; Patel, Mihir V.; Liang, Chen; Dudzinski, Natasha R.; Brzustowicz, Linda M.; Firestein, Bonnie L.

    2016-01-01

    Proper communication between neurons depends upon appropriate patterning of dendrites and correct distribution and structure of spines. Schizophrenia is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by alterations in dendrite branching and spine density. Nitric oxide synthase 1 adaptor protein (NOS1AP), a risk gene for schizophrenia, encodes proteins that are upregulated in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of individuals with schizophrenia. To elucidate the effects of NOS1AP overexpression observed in individuals with schizophrenia, we investigated changes in actin dynamics and spine development when a long (NOS1AP-L) or short (NOS1AP-S) isoform of NOS1AP is overexpressed. Increased NOS1AP-L protein promotes the formation of immature spines when overexpressed in rat cortical neurons from day in vitro (DIV) 14 to DIV 17 and reduces the amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs). In contrast, increased NOS1AP-S protein increases the rate of actin polymerization and the number of immature and mature spines, which may be attributed to a decrease in total Rac1 expression and a reduction in the levels of active cofilin. The increase in the number of mature spines by overexpression of NOS1AP-S is accompanied by an increase in the frequency of mEPSCs. Our findings show that overexpression of NOS1AP-L or NOS1AP-S alters the actin cytoskeleton and synaptic function. However, the mechanisms by which these isoforms induce these changes are distinct. These results are important for understanding how increased expression of NOS1AP isoforms can influence spine development and synaptic function. PMID:26869880

  18. Crystal structure of Src-like adaptor protein 2 reveals close association of SH3 and SH2 domains through β-sheet formation.

    PubMed

    Wybenga-Groot, Leanne E; McGlade, C Jane

    2013-12-01

    The Src-like adaptor proteins (SLAP/SLAP2) are key components of Cbl-dependent downregulation of antigen receptor, cytokine receptor, and receptor tyrosine kinase signaling in hematopoietic cells. SLAP and SLAP2 consist of adjacent SH3 and SH2 domains that are most similar in sequence to Src family kinases (SFKs). Notably, the SH3-SH2 connector sequence is significantly shorter in SLAP/SLAP2 than in SFKs. To understand the structural implication of a short SH3-SH2 connector sequence, we solved the crystal structure of a protein encompassing the SH3 domain, SH3-SH2 connector, and SH2 domain of SLAP2 (SLAP2-32). While both domains adopt typical folds, the short SH3-SH2 connector places them in close association. Strand βe of the SH3 domain interacts with strand βA of the SH2 domain, resulting in the formation of a continuous β sheet that spans the length of the protein. Disruption of the SH3/SH2 interface through mutagenesis decreases SLAP-32 stability in vitro, consistent with inter-domain binding being an important component of SLAP2 structure and function. The canonical peptide binding pockets of the SH3 and SH2 domains are fully accessible, in contrast to other protein structures that display direct interaction between SH3 and SH2 domains, in which either peptide binding surface is obstructed by the interaction. Our results reveal potential sites of novel interaction for SH3 and SH2 domains, and illustrate the adaptability of SH2 and SH3 domains in mediating interactions. As well, our results suggest that the SH3 and SH2 domains of SLAP2 function interdependently, with implications on their mode of substrate binding. PMID:24018043

  19. The Shc-related adaptor protein, Sck, forms a complex with the vascular-endothelial-growth-factor receptor KDR in transfected cells.

    PubMed Central

    Warner, A J; Lopez-Dee, J; Knight, E L; Feramisco, J R; Prigent, S A

    2000-01-01

    Despite much progress in recent years, the precise signalling events triggered by the vascular-endothelial-growth-factor (VEGF) receptors, fms-like tyrosine kinase (Flt1) and kinase insert domain-containing receptor (KDR), are incompletely defined. Results obtained when Flt1 and KDR are individually expressed in fibroblasts or porcine aortic endothelial cells have not been entirely consistent with those observed in other endothelial cells expressing both receptors endogenously. It has also been difficult to demonstrate VEGF-induced phosphorylation of Flt1, which has led to speculation that KDR may be the more important receptor for the mitogenic action of VEGF on endothelial cells. In an attempt to identify physiologically important effectors which bind to KDR, we have screened a yeast two-hybrid mouse embryo library with the cytoplasmic domain of KDR. Here we describe the identification of the adaptor protein, Shc-like protein (Sck), as a binding partner for KDR. We demonstrate that this interaction requires phosphorylation of KDR, and identify the binding site for the Src-homology 2 (SH2) domain as tyrosine-1175 of KDR. We have also shown that the SH2 domain of Sck, but not that of Src-homology collagen protein (Shc), can precipitate phosphorylated KDR from VEGF-stimulated porcine aortic endothelial cells expressing KDR, and that an N-terminally truncated Sck protein can associate with KDR, in a phosphorylation-dependent fashion, when co-expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that in the two-hybrid assay, both Shc and Sck SH2 domains can associate with the related receptor Flt1. PMID:10749680

  20. Overexpression of Isoforms of Nitric Oxide Synthase 1 Adaptor Protein, Encoded by a Risk Gene for Schizophrenia, Alters Actin Dynamics and Synaptic Function.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Kristina; Swiatkowski, Przemyslaw; Patel, Mihir V; Liang, Chen; Dudzinski, Natasha R; Brzustowicz, Linda M; Firestein, Bonnie L

    2016-01-01

    Proper communication between neurons depends upon appropriate patterning of dendrites and correct distribution and structure of spines. Schizophrenia is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by alterations in dendrite branching and spine density. Nitric oxide synthase 1 adaptor protein (NOS1AP), a risk gene for schizophrenia, encodes proteins that are upregulated in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of individuals with schizophrenia. To elucidate the effects of NOS1AP overexpression observed in individuals with schizophrenia, we investigated changes in actin dynamics and spine development when a long (NOS1AP-L) or short (NOS1AP-S) isoform of NOS1AP is overexpressed. Increased NOS1AP-L protein promotes the formation of immature spines when overexpressed in rat cortical neurons from day in vitro (DIV) 14 to DIV 17 and reduces the amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs). In contrast, increased NOS1AP-S protein increases the rate of actin polymerization and the number of immature and mature spines, which may be attributed to a decrease in total Rac1 expression and a reduction in the levels of active cofilin. The increase in the number of mature spines by overexpression of NOS1AP-S is accompanied by an increase in the frequency of mEPSCs. Our findings show that overexpression of NOS1AP-L or NOS1AP-S alters the actin cytoskeleton and synaptic function. However, the mechanisms by which these isoforms induce these changes are distinct. These results are important for understanding how increased expression of NOS1AP isoforms can influence spine development and synaptic function. PMID:26869880

  1. Human kidney anion exchanger 1 interacts with adaptor-related protein complex 1 μ1A (AP-1 mu1A).

    PubMed

    Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Junking, Mutita; Ngaojanlar, Piengpaga; Sukomon, Nattakan; Ungsupravate, Duangporn; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai; Akkarapatumwong, Varaporn; Noisakran, Sansanee; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-Thai

    2010-10-01

    Kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) mediates chloride (Cl⁻) and bicarbonate (HCO₃⁻) exchange at the basolateral membrane of kidney α-intercalated cells. Impaired trafficking of kAE1 leads to defect of the Cl⁻/HCO₃⁻ exchange at the basolateral membrane and failure of proton (H+) secretion at the apical membrane, causing a kidney disease--distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). To gain a better insight into kAE1 trafficking, we searched for proteins physically interacting with the C-terminal region of kAE1 (Ct-kAE1), which contains motifs crucial for intracellular trafficking, by a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system. An adaptor-related protein complex 1 μ1A (AP-1 mu1A) subunit was found to interact with Ct-kAE1. The interaction between either Ct-kAE1 or full-length kAE1 and AP-1 mu1A were confirmed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T by co-immunoprecipitation, affinity co-purification, co-localization, yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-based protein fragment complementation assay (PCA) and GST pull-down assay. The interacting site for AP-1 mu1A on Ct-kAE1 was found to be Y904DEV907, a subset of YXXØ motif. Interestingly, suppression of endogenous AP-1 mu1A in HEK 293T by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreased membrane localization of kAE1 and increased its intracellular accumulation, suggesting for the first time that AP-1 mu1A is involved in the kAE1 trafficking of kidney α-intercalated cells. PMID:20833140

  2. The adaptor protein SAP directly associates with PECAM-1 and regulates PECAM-1-mediated-cell adhesion in T-like cell lines.

    PubMed

    Proust, Richard; Crouin, Catherine; Gandji, Leslie Yewakon; Bertoglio, Jacques; Gesbert, Franck

    2014-04-01

    SAP is a small cytosolic adaptor protein expressed in hematopoietic lineages whose main function is to regulate intracellular signaling pathways induced by the triggering of members of the SLAM receptor family. In this paper, we have identified the adhesion molecule PECAM-1 as a new partner for SAP in a conditional yeast two-hybrid screen. PECAM-1 is an immunoglobulin-like molecule expressed by endothelial cells and leukocytes, which possesses both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties. However, little is known about PECAM-1 functions in T cells. We show that SAP directly and specifically interacts with the cytosolic tyrosine 686 of PECAM-1. We generated different T-like cell lines in which SAP or PECAM-1 are expressed or down modulated and we demonstrate that a diminished SAP expression correlates with a diminished PECAM-1-mediated adhesion. Although SAP has mainly been shown to associate with SLAM receptors, we evidence here that SAP is a new actor downstream of PECAM-1. PMID:24388971

  3. Recruitment of the adaptor protein Nck to PECAM-1 couples oxidative stress to canonical NF-κB signaling and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Leskov, Igor L; Yurdagul, Arif; Thiel, Bonnie; Kevil, Christopher G; Stokes, Karen Y; Orr, A Wayne

    2015-02-24

    Oxidative stress stimulates nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation and NF-κB-dependent proinflammatory gene expression in endothelial cells during several pathological conditions, including ischemia/reperfusion injury. We found that the Nck family of adaptor proteins linked tyrosine kinase signaling to oxidative stress-induced activation of NF-κB through the classic IκB kinase-dependent pathway. Depletion of Nck prevented oxidative stress induced by exogenous hydrogen peroxide or hypoxia/reoxygenation injury from activating NF-κB in endothelial cells, increasing the abundance of the proinflammatory molecules ICAM-1 (intracellular adhesion molecule-1) and VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1) and recruiting leukocytes. Nck depletion also attenuated endothelial cell expression of genes encoding proinflammatory factors but not those encoding antioxidants. Nck promoted oxidative stress-induced activation of NF-κB by coupling the tyrosine phosphorylation of PECAM-1 (platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1) to the activation of p21-activated kinase, which mediates oxidative stress-induced NF-κB signaling. Consistent with this mechanism, treatment of mice subjected to ischemia/reperfusion injury in the cremaster muscle with a Nck inhibitory peptide blocked leukocyte adhesion and emigration and the accompanying vascular leak. Together, these data identify Nck as an important mediator of oxidative stress-induced inflammation and a potential therapeutic target for ischemia/reperfusion injury. PMID:25714462

  4. Disruption of adaptor protein 2μ (AP-2μ) in cochlear hair cells impairs vesicle reloading of synaptic release sites and hearing.

    PubMed

    Jung, SangYong; Maritzen, Tanja; Wichmann, Carolin; Jing, Zhizi; Neef, Andreas; Revelo, Natalia H; Al-Moyed, Hanan; Meese, Sandra; Wojcik, Sonja M; Panou, Iliana; Bulut, Haydar; Schu, Peter; Ficner, Ralf; Reisinger, Ellen; Rizzoli, Silvio O; Neef, Jakob; Strenzke, Nicola; Haucke, Volker; Moser, Tobias

    2015-11-01

    Active zones (AZs) of inner hair cells (IHCs) indefatigably release hundreds of vesicles per second, requiring each release site to reload vesicles at tens per second. Here, we report that the endocytic adaptor protein 2μ (AP-2μ) is required for release site replenishment and hearing. We show that hair cell-specific disruption of AP-2μ slows IHC exocytosis immediately after fusion of the readily releasable pool of vesicles, despite normal abundance of membrane-proximal vesicles and intact endocytic membrane retrieval. Sound-driven postsynaptic spiking was reduced in a use-dependent manner, and the altered interspike interval statistics suggested a slowed reloading of release sites. Sustained strong stimulation led to accumulation of endosome-like vacuoles, fewer clathrin-coated endocytic intermediates, and vesicle depletion of the membrane-distal synaptic ribbon in AP-2μ-deficient IHCs, indicating a further role of AP-2μ in clathrin-dependent vesicle reformation on a timescale of many seconds. Finally, we show that AP-2 sorts its IHC-cargo otoferlin. We propose that binding of AP-2 to otoferlin facilitates replenishment of release sites, for example, via speeding AZ clearance of exocytosed material, in addition to a role of AP-2 in synaptic vesicle reformation. PMID:26446278

  5. Recruitment of the adaptor protein Nck to PECAM-1 couples oxidant stress to canonical NF-κB signaling and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jie; Leskov, Igor L.; Yurdagul, Arif; Thiel, Bonnie; Kevil, Christopher G.; Stokes, Karen Y.; Orr, A. Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Oxidant stress drives nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation and NF-κB-dependent proinflammatory gene expression in endothelial cells during several pathological conditions, including ischemia/reperfusion injury. We showed that the Nck family of adaptor proteins linked tyrosine kinase signaling to oxidant stress-induced activation of NF-κB through the classic IκB kinase (IKK)-dependent pathway. Depletion of Nck prevented oxidant stress induced by exogenous peroxide or hypoxia/reoxygenation injury from triggering the activation of NF-κB in endothelial cells, increases in the abundance of the pro-inflammatory molecules ICAM-1 (intracellular adhesion molecule 1) and VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule 1), and leukocyte recruitment. Nck depletion also attenuated endothelial cell expression of genes encoding proinflammatory factors, but not those encoding antioxidants. We further showed that Nck promoted oxidant stress-induced activation of NF-κB by coupling the tyrosine phosphorylation of platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) to the activation of p21 activated kinase, which mediates oxidant stress-induced NF-κB signaling. Consistent with this model, treatment of mice subjected to ischemia/reperfusion injury in the cremaster muscle with a Nck inhibitory peptide inhibited leukocyte adhesion and emigration and the accompanying vascular leak. Together, these data identify Nck as an important mediator of oxidant stress-induced inflammation and a potential therapeutic target for ischemia/reperfusion injury. PMID:25714462

  6. Cell biological characterization of a multidomain adaptor protein, ArgBP2, in epithelial NMuMG cells, and identification of a novel short isoform.

    PubMed

    Murase, Kana; Ito, Hidenori; Kanoh, Hiroyuki; Sudo, Kaori; Iwamoto, Ikuko; Morishita, Rika; Soubeyran, Philippe; Seishima, Mariko; Nagata, Koh-Ichi

    2012-12-01

    ArgBP2 is a member of the SoHo (sorbin-homology) family of adaptor proteins believed to play roles in cell adhesion, cytoskeletal organization, and signaling. We show here a novel splicing isoform of ArgBP2, i.e., ArgBP2™, composed of only three SH3 (src-homology 3) domains and structurally similar to vinexinß. We then characterized the biochemical and cell biological properties of ArgBP2 to compare these with vinexin. Similar to vinexin, ArgBP2 was enriched at focal adhesions in REF52 fibroblast cells and induced anchorage-dependent extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation in NIH3T3 fibroblast cells. In epithelial NMuMG cells, immunofluorescence analyses revealed localization of ArgBP2 at tight junctions (TJs), whereas vinexin was distributed in cytoplasm as well as cell-cell boundaries. During TJ formation, recruitment of ZO-1 to TJs was followed by ArgBP2. Based on mutation analyses, a second SH3 domain was found to be important for ArgBP2 localization to the cell-cell contact sites. These data suggest some role of ArgBP2 in NMuMG cells at TJs that may be distinct from the function of vinexin. PMID:22431180

  7. Adjuvanticity of the oil-in-water emulsion MF59 is independent of Nlrp3 inflammasome but requires the adaptor protein MyD88

    PubMed Central

    Seubert, Anja; Calabro, Samuele; Santini, Laura; Galli, Barbara; Genovese, Alessia; Valentini, Sara; Aprea, Susanna; Colaprico, Annalisa; D'Oro, Ugo; Giuliani, Marzia M.; Pallaoro, Michele; Pizza, Mariagrazia; O'Hagan, Derek T.; Wack, Andreas; Rappuoli, Rino; De Gregorio, Ennio

    2011-01-01

    Oil-in-water emulsions have been successfully used to increase the efficacy, immunogenicity, and cross-protection of human vaccines; however, their mechanism of action is still largely unknown. Nlrp3 inflammasome has been previously associated to the activity of alum, another adjuvant broadly used in human vaccines, and MyD88 adaptor protein is required for the adjuvanticity of most Toll-like receptor agonists. We compared the contribution of Nlrp3 and MyD88 to the adjuvanticity of alum, the oil-in-water emulsion MF59, and complete Freund's adjuvant in mice using a three-component vaccine against serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis (rMenB). Although the basal antibody responses to the nonadjuvanted rMenB vaccine were largely dependent on Nlrp3, the high-level antibody responses induced by alum, MF59, or complete Freund's adjuvant did not require Nlrp3. Surprisingly, we found that MF59 requires MyD88 to enhance bactericidal antibody responses to the rMenB vaccine. Because MF59 did not activate any of the Toll-like receptors in vitro, we propose that MF59 requires MyD88 for a Toll-like receptor-independent signaling pathway. PMID:21690334

  8. Pseudomonas aeruginosa ExoT Induces Atypical Anoikis Apoptosis in Target Host Cells by Transforming Crk Adaptor Protein into a Cytotoxin.

    PubMed

    Wood, Stephen; Goldufsky, Josef; Shafikhani, Sasha H

    2015-05-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that Pseudomonas aeruginosa ExoT induces potent apoptosis in host epithelial cells in a manner that primarily depends on its ADP-ribosyltransferase domain (ADPRT) activity. However, the mechanism underlying ExoT/ADPRT-induced apoptosis remains undetermined. We now report that ExoT/ADPRT disrupts focal adhesion sites, activates p38β and JNK, and interferes with integrin-mediated survival signaling; causing atypical anoikis. We show that ExoT/ADPRT-induced anoikis is mediated by the Crk adaptor protein. We found that Crk-/- knockout cells are significantly more resistant to ExoT-induced apoptosis, while Crk-/- cells complemented with Crk are rendered sensitive to ExoT-induced apoptosis. Moreover, a dominant negative (DN) mutant form of Crk phenocopies ExoT-induced apoptosis both kinetically and mechanistically. Crk is generally believed to be a component of focal adhesion (FA) and its role in cellular survival remains controversial in that it has been found to be either pro-survival or pro-apoptosis. Our data demonstrate that although Crk is recruited to FA sites, its function is likely not required for FA assembly or for survival per se. However, when modified by ExoT or by mutagenesis, it can be transformed into a cytotoxin that induces anoikis by disrupting FA sites and interfering with integrin survival signaling. To our knowledge, this is the first example whereby a bacterial toxin exerts its cytotoxicity by subverting the function of an innocuous host cellular protein and turning it against the host cell. PMID:26020630

  9. Protease-activated Receptor-4 Signaling and Trafficking Is Regulated by the Clathrin Adaptor Protein Complex-2 Independent of β-Arrestins.

    PubMed

    Smith, Thomas H; Coronel, Luisa J; Li, Julia G; Dores, Michael R; Nieman, Marvin T; Trejo, JoAnn

    2016-08-26

    Protease-activated receptor-4 (PAR4) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) for thrombin and is proteolytically activated, similar to the prototypical PAR1. Due to the irreversible activation of PAR1, receptor trafficking is intimately linked to signal regulation. However, unlike PAR1, the mechanisms that control PAR4 trafficking are not known. Here, we sought to define the mechanisms that control PAR4 trafficking and signaling. In HeLa cells depleted of clathrin by siRNA, activated PAR4 failed to internalize. Consistent with clathrin-mediated endocytosis, expression of a dynamin dominant-negative K44A mutant also blocked activated PAR4 internalization. However, unlike most GPCRs, PAR4 internalization occurred independently of β-arrestins and the receptor's C-tail domain. Rather, we discovered a highly conserved tyrosine-based motif in the third intracellular loop of PAR4 and found that the clathrin adaptor protein complex-2 (AP-2) is important for internalization. Depletion of AP-2 inhibited PAR4 internalization induced by agonist. In addition, mutation of the critical residues of the tyrosine-based motif disrupted agonist-induced PAR4 internalization. Using Dami megakaryocytic cells, we confirmed that AP-2 is required for agonist-induced internalization of endogenous PAR4. Moreover, inhibition of activated PAR4 internalization enhanced ERK1/2 signaling, whereas Akt signaling was markedly diminished. These findings indicate that activated PAR4 internalization requires AP-2 and a tyrosine-based motif and occurs independent of β-arrestins, unlike most classical GPCRs. Moreover, these findings are the first to show that internalization of activated PAR4 is linked to proper ERK1/2 and Akt activation. PMID:27402844

  10. Baculovirus vectors expressing F proteins in combination with virus-induced signaling adaptor (VISA) molecules confer protection against respiratory syncytial virus infection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Qiao, Lei; Hu, Xiao; Zhao, Kang; Zhang, Yanwen; Chai, Feng; Pan, Zishu

    2016-01-01

    Baculovirus has been exploited for use as a novel vaccine vector. To investigate the feasibility and efficacy of recombinant baculoviruses (rBVs) expressing respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) fusion (F) proteins, four constructs (Bac-tF/64, Bac-CF, Bac-CF/tF64 and Bac-CF/tF64-VISA) were generated. Bac-tF64 displays the F ectodomain (tF) on the envelope of rBVs, whereas Bac-CF expresses full-length F protein in transduced mammalian cells. Bac-CF/tF64 not only displays tF on the envelope but also expresses F in cells. Bac-CF/tF64-VISA comprises Bac-CF/tF64 harboring the virus-induced signaling adaptor (VISA) gene. After administration to BALB/c mice, all four vectors elicited RSV neutralizing antibody (Ab), systemic Ab (IgG, IgG1, and IgG2a), and cytokine responses. Compared with Bac-tF64, mice inoculated with Bac-CF and Bac-CF/tF64 exhibited an increased mixed Th1/Th2 cytokine response, increased ratios of IgG2a/IgG1 antibody responses, and reduced immunopathology upon RSV challenge. Intriguingly, co-expression of VISA reduced Th2 cytokine (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10) production induced by Bac-CF/tF64, thus relieving lung pathology upon a subsequent RSV challenge. Our results indicated that the Bac-CF/tF64 vector incorporated with the VISA molecule may provide an effective vaccine strategy for protection against RSV. PMID:26643933

  11. ScaC, an Adaptor Protein Carrying a Novel Cohesin That Expands the Dockerin-Binding Repertoire of the Ruminococcus flavefaciens 17 Cellulosome

    PubMed Central

    Rincón, Marco T.; Martin, Jennifer C.; Aurilia, Vincenzo; McCrae, Sheila I.; Rucklidge, Garry J.; Reid, Martin D.; Bayer, Edward A.; Lamed, Raphael; Flint, Harry J.

    2004-01-01

    A new gene, designated scaC and encoding a protein carrying a single cohesin, was identified in the cellulolytic rumen anaerobe Ruminococcus flavefaciens 17 as part of a gene cluster that also codes for the cellulosome structural components ScaA and ScaB. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the sequence of the ScaC cohesin is distinct from the sequences of other cohesins, including the sequences of R. flavefaciens ScaA and ScaB. The scaC gene product also includes at its C terminus a dockerin module that closely resembles those found in R. flavefaciens enzymes that bind to the cohesins of the primary ScaA scaffoldin. The putative cohesin domain and the C-terminal dockerin module were cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli as His6-tagged products (ScaC-Coh and ScaC-Doc, respectively). Affinity probing of protein extracts of R. flavefaciens 17 separated in one-dimensional and two-dimensional gels with recombinant cohesins from ScaC and ScaA revealed that two distinct subsets of native proteins interact with ScaC-Coh and ScaA-Coh. Furthermore, ScaC-Coh failed to interact with the recombinant dockerin module from the enzyme EndB that is recognized by ScaA cohesins. On the other hand, ScaC-Doc was shown to interact specifically with the recombinant cohesin domain from ScaA, and the ScaA-Coh probe was shown to interact with a native 29-kDa protein spot identified as ScaC by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization—time of flight mass spectrometry. These results suggest that ScaC plays the role of an adaptor scaffoldin that is bound to ScaA via the ScaC dockerin module, which, via the distinctive ScaC cohesin, expands the range of proteins that can bind to the ScaA-based enzyme complex. PMID:15090497

  12. Adaptor protein Ste50p links the Ste11p MEKK to the HOG pathway through plasma membrane association

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Cunle; Jansen, Gregor; Zhang, Jianchun; Thomas, David Y.; Whiteway, Malcolm

    2006-01-01

    In a variety of yeast cellular pathways, the Ste50p protein regulates the kinase function of the mitogen extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEKK) Ste11p. Both Ste11p and Ste50p contain sterile α motif (SAM) domains; these are interchangeable, and can be replaced by other protein-interacting modules. Furthermore, the function of the Ras association (RA)-like domain of Ste50p can be mimicked by a plasma membrane recruiting signal, and direct plasma membrane targeting of Ste11p bypasses the requirement of Ste50p for Ste11p function. Thus the regulatory role of Ste50p requires both the N-terminal SAM domain to bind Ste11p and the C-terminal RA-like domain to direct kinase localization. We have identified Opy2p, an integral membrane protein that can interact with Ste50p, as a new component in the Sho1p–Ste11p/Ste50p signaling branch of the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway. We propose that Opy2p can serve as a membrane anchor for the Ste50p/Ste11p module in the activation of the HOG pathway. PMID:16543225

  13. Structural and functional insights into CARDs of zebrafish (Danio rerio) NOD1 and NOD2, and their interaction with adaptor protein RIP2.

    PubMed

    Maharana, Jitendra; Dehury, Budheswar; Sahoo, Jyoti Ranjan; Jena, Itishree; Bej, Aritra; Panda, Debashis; Sahoo, Bikash Ranjan; Patra, Mahesh Chandra; Pradhan, Sukanta Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain-containing protein 1 (NOD1) and NOD2 are cytosolic pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) composed of an N-terminal caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD), a central NACHT domain and C-terminal leucine-rich repeats (LRRs). They play a vital role in innate immune signaling by activating the NF-κB pathway via recognition of peptidoglycans by LRRs, and ATP-dependent self-oligomerization of NACHT followed by downstream signaling. After oligomerization, CARD/s play a crucial role in activating downstream signaling via the adaptor molecule, RIP2. Due to the inadequacy of experimental 3D structures of CARD/s of NOD2 and RIP2, and results from differential experimental setups, the RIP2-mediated CARD-CARD interaction has remained as a contradictory statement. We employed a combinatorial approach involving protein modeling, docking, molecular dynamics simulation, and binding free energy calculation to illuminate the molecular mechanism that shows the possible involvement of either the acidic or basic patch of zebrafish NOD1/2-CARD/a and RIP2-CARD in CARD-CARD interaction. Herein, we have hypothesized 'type-I' mode of CARD-CARD interaction in NOD1 and NOD2, where NOD1/2-CARD/a involve their acidic surfaces to interact with RIP2. Asp37 and Glu51 (of NOD1) and Arg477, Arg521 and Arg529 (of RIP2) were identified to be crucial for NOD1-RIP2 interaction. However, in NOD2-RIP2, Asp32 (of NOD2) and Arg477 and Arg521 (of RIP2) were anticipated to be significant for downstream signaling. Furthermore, we found that strong electrostatic contacts and salt bridges are crucial for protein-protein interactions. Altogether, our study has provided novel insights into the RIP2-mediated CARD-CARD interaction in zebrafish NOD1 and NOD2, which will be helpful to understand the molecular basis of the NOD1/2 signaling mechanism. PMID:26079944

  14. Identification of Atg2 and ArfGAP1 as Candidate Genetic Modifiers of the Eye Pigmentation Phenotype of Adaptor Protein-3 (AP-3) Mutants in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Fernandez, Imilce A.; Dell’Angelica, Esteban C.

    2015-01-01

    The Adaptor Protein (AP)-3 complex is an evolutionary conserved, molecular sorting device that mediates the intracellular trafficking of proteins to lysosomes and related organelles. Genetic defects in AP-3 subunits lead to impaired biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles (LROs) such as mammalian melanosomes and insect eye pigment granules. In this work, we have performed a forward screening for genetic modifiers of AP-3 function in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Specifically, we have tested collections of large multi-gene deletions–which together covered most of the autosomal chromosomes–to identify chromosomal regions that, when deleted in single copy, enhanced or ameliorated the eye pigmentation phenotype of two independent AP-3 subunit mutants. Fine-mapping led us to define two non-overlapping, relatively small critical regions within fly chromosome 3. The first critical region included the Atg2 gene, which encodes a conserved protein involved in autophagy. Loss of one functional copy of Atg2 ameliorated the pigmentation defects of mutants in AP-3 subunits as well as in two other genes previously implicated in LRO biogenesis, namely Blos1 and lightoid, and even increased the eye pigment content of wild-type flies. The second critical region included the ArfGAP1 gene, which encodes a conserved GTPase-activating protein with specificity towards GTPases of the Arf family. Loss of a single functional copy of the ArfGAP1 gene ameliorated the pigmentation phenotype of AP-3 mutants but did not to modify the eye pigmentation of wild-type flies or mutants in Blos1 or lightoid. Strikingly, loss of the second functional copy of the gene did not modify the phenotype of AP-3 mutants any further but elicited early lethality in males and abnormal eye morphology when combined with mutations in Blos1 and lightoid, respectively. These results provide genetic evidence for new functional links connecting the machinery for biogenesis of LROs with molecules implicated

  15. Cellular Heterogeneity During Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation to Epiblast Stem Cells is Revealed by the ShcD/RaLP Adaptor Protein

    PubMed Central

    Turco, Margherita Y; Furia, Laura; Dietze, Anja; Fernandez Diaz, Luis; Ronzoni, Simona; Sciullo, Anna; Simeone, Antonio; Constam, Daniel; Faretta, Mario; Lanfrancone, Luisa

    2012-01-01

    The Shc family of adaptor proteins are crucial mediators of a plethora of receptors such as the tyrosine kinase receptors, cytokine receptors, and integrins that drive signaling pathways governing proliferation, differentiation, and migration. Here, we report the role of the newly identified family member, ShcD/RaLP, whose expression in vitro and in vivo suggests a function in embryonic stem cell (ESC) to epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs) transition. The transition from the naïve (ESC) to the primed (EpiSC) pluripotent state is the initial important step for ESCs to commit to differentiation and the mechanisms underlying this process are still largely unknown. Using a novel approach to simultaneously assess pluripotency, apoptosis, and proliferation by multiparameter flow cytometry, we show that ESC to EpiSC transition is a process involving a tight coordination between the modulation of the Oct4 expression, cell cycle progression, and cell death. We also describe, by high-content immunofluorescence analysis and time-lapse microscopy, the emergence of cells expressing caudal-related homeobox 2 (Cdx2) transcription factor during ESC to EpiSC transition. The use of the ShcD knockout ESCs allowed the unmasking of this process as they presented deregulated Oct4 modulation and an enrichment in Oct4-negative Cdx2-positive cells with increased MAPK/extracellular-regulated kinases 1/2 activation, within the differentiating population. Collectively, our data reveal ShcD as an important modulator in the switch of key pathway(s) involved in determining EpiSC identity. Stem Cells2012;30:2423–2436 PMID:22948967

  16. Rat and mouse CD94 associate directly with the activating transmembrane adaptor proteins DAP12 and DAP10 and activate NK cell cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Saether, Per C; Hoelsbrekken, Sigurd E; Fossum, Sigbjørn; Dissen, Erik

    2011-12-15

    Signaling by the CD94/NKG2 heterodimeric NK cell receptor family has been well characterized in the human but has remained unclear in the mouse and rat. In the human, the activating receptor CD94/NKG2C associates with DAP12 by an ionic bond between oppositely charged residues within the transmembrane regions of NKG2C and DAP12. The lysine residue responsible for DAP12 association is absent in rat and mouse NKG2C and -E, raising questions about signaling mechanisms in these species. As a possible substitute, rat and mouse NKG2C and -E contain an arginine residue in the transition between the transmembrane and stalk regions. In this article, we demonstrate that, similar to their human orthologs, NKG2A inhibits, whereas NKG2C activates, rat NK cells. Redirected lysis assays using NK cells transfected with a mutated NKG2C construct indicated that the activating function of CD94/NKG2C did not depend on the transmembrane/stalk region arginine residue. Flow cytometry and biochemical analysis demonstrated that both DAP12 and DAP10 can associate with rat CD94/NKG2C. Surprisingly, DAP12 and DAP10 did not associate with NKG2C but instead with CD94. These associations depended on a transmembrane lysine residue in CD94 that is unique to rodents. Thus, in the mouse and rat, the ability to bind activating adaptor proteins has been transferred from NKG2C/E to the CD94 chain as a result of mutation events in both chains. Remarkable from a phylogenetic perspective, this sheds new light on the evolution and function of the CD94/NKG2 receptor family. PMID:22084441

  17. Direct interactions of adaptor protein complexes 1 and 2 with the copper transporter ATP7A mediate its anterograde and retrograde trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Ling; Kaler, Stephen G.

    2015-01-01

    ATP7A is a P-type ATPase in which diverse mutations lead to X-linked recessive Menkes disease or occipital horn syndrome. Recently, two previously unknown ATP7A missense mutations, T994I and P1386S, were shown to cause an isolated distal motor neuropathy without clinical or biochemical features of other ATP7A disorders. These mutant alleles cause subtle defects in ATP7A intracellular trafficking, resulting in preferential plasma membrane localization compared with wild-type ATP7A. We reported previously that ATP7AP1386S causes unstable insertion of the eighth and final transmembrane segment, preventing proper position of the carboxyl-terminal tail in a proportion of mutant molecules. Here, we utilize this and other naturally occurring and engineered mutant ATP7A alleles to identify mechanisms of normal ATP7A trafficking. We show that adaptor protein (AP) complexes 1 and 2 physically interact with ATP7A and that binding is mediated in part by a carboxyl-terminal di-leucine motif. In contrast to other ATP7A missense mutations, ATP7AP1386S partially disturbs interactions with both APs, leading to abnormal axonal localization in transfected NSC-34 motor neurons and altered calcium-signaling following glutamate stimulation. Our results imply that AP-1 normally tethers ATP7A at the trans-Golgi network in the somatodendritic segments of motor neurons and that alterations affecting the ATP7A carboxyl-terminal tail induce release of the copper transporter to the axons or axonal membranes. The latter effects are intensified by diminished interaction with AP-2, impeding ATP7A retrograde trafficking. Taken together, these findings further illuminate the normal molecular mechanisms of ATP7A trafficking and suggest a pathophysiological basis for ATP7A-related distal motor neuropathy. PMID:25574028

  18. The Mu subunit of Plasmodium falciparum clathrin-associated adaptor protein 2 modulates in vitro parasite response to artemisinin and quinine.

    PubMed

    Henriques, Gisela; van Schalkwyk, Donelly A; Burrow, Rebekah; Warhurst, David C; Thompson, Eloise; Baker, David A; Fidock, David A; Hallett, Rachel; Flueck, Christian; Sutherland, Colin J

    2015-05-01

    The emergence of drug-resistant parasites is a serious threat faced by malaria control programs. Understanding the genetic basis of resistance is critical to the success of treatment and intervention strategies. A novel locus associated with antimalarial resistance, ap2-mu (encoding the mu chain of the adaptor protein 2 [AP2] complex), was recently identified in studies on the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi (pcap2-mu). Furthermore, analysis in Kenyan malaria patients of polymorphisms in the Plasmodium falciparum ap2-mu homologue, pfap2-mu, found evidence that differences in the amino acid encoded by codon 160 are associated with enhanced parasite survival in vivo following combination treatments which included artemisinin derivatives. Here, we characterize the role of pfap2-mu in mediating the in vitro antimalarial drug response of P. falciparum by generating transgenic parasites constitutively expressing codon 160 encoding either the wild-type Ser (Ser160) or the Asn mutant (160Asn) form of pfap2-mu. Transgenic parasites carrying the pfap2-mu 160Asn allele were significantly less sensitive to dihydroartemisinin using a standard 48-h in vitro test, providing direct evidence of an altered parasite response to artemisinin. Our data also provide evidence that pfap2-mu variants can modulate parasite sensitivity to quinine. No evidence was found that pfap2-mu variants contribute to the slow-clearance phenotype exhibited by P. falciparum in Cambodian patients treated with artesunate monotherapy. These findings provide compelling evidence that pfap2-mu can modulate P. falciparum responses to multiple drugs. We propose that this gene should be evaluated further as a potential molecular marker of antimalarial resistance. PMID:25691625

  19. Mitochondrial antiviral-signalling protein plays an essential role in host immunity against human metapneumovirus

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Junfang; Chen, Yu; Liu, Guangliang; Ren, Junping; Go, Caroline; Ivanciuc, Teodora; Deepthi, Kolli; Casola, Antonella; Garofalo, Roberto P.

    2015-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a common cause of respiratory tract infection in the paediatrics population. Recently, we and others have shown that retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) are essential for hMPV-induced cellular antiviral signalling. However, the contribution of those receptors to host immunity against pulmonary hMPV infection is largely unexplored. In this study, mice deficient in mitochondrial antiviral-signalling protein (MAVS), an adaptor of RLRs, were used to investigate the role(s) of these receptors in pulmonary immune responses to hMPV infection. MAVS deletion significantly impaired the induction of antiviral and pro-inflammatory cytokines and the recruitment of immune cells to the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid by hMPV. Compared with WT mice, mice lacking MAVS demonstrated decreased abilities to activate pulmonary dendritic cells (DCs) and abnormal primary T-cell responses to hMPV infection. In addition, mice deficient in MAVS had a higher peak of viral load at day 5 post-infection (p.i.) than WT mice, but were able to clear hMPV by day 7 p.i. similarly to WT mice. Taken together, our data indicate a role of MAVS-mediated pathways in the pulmonary immune responses to hMPV infection and the early control of hMPV replication. PMID:25953917

  20. Enhancement of cell surface expression and receptor functions of membrane progestin receptor α (mPRα) by progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1): evidence for a role of PGRMC1 as an adaptor protein for steroid receptors.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Peter; Pang, Yefei; Dong, Jing

    2014-03-01

    A variety of functions have been proposed for progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1), including acting as a component of a membrane progestin receptor and as an adaptor protein. Here we show that stable overexpression of human PGRMC1 in nuclear progesterone receptor (PR)-negative breast cancer cell lines causes increased expression of PGRMC1 and membrane progesterone receptor α (mPRα) on cell membranes that is associated with increased specific [(3)H]progesterone binding. The membrane progestin binding affinity and specificity were characteristic of mPRα, with a Kd of 4.7 nM and high affinity for the mPR-specific agonist, Org OD 02-0, and low affinity for corticosteroids. Progestin treatment caused activation of G proteins, further evidence for increased expression of functional mPRs on PGRMC1-transfected cell membranes. Immunocytochemical and coimmunoprecipitation studies showed a close association of PGRMC1 with mPRα in cell membranes. Transfection of PGRMC1 into spontaneously immortalized rat granulosa cells was associated with membrane expression of PGRMC1 and mPRα as well as antiapoptotic effects of progestins that were abolished after cotransfection with small interfering RNA for mPRα. These data demonstrate that PGRMC1 can act as an adaptor protein, transporting mPRα to the cell surface, and that the progestin binding and apoptotic functions previously ascribed to PGRMC1 are dependent on cell surface expression of mPRα. Collectively, the results suggest PGRMC1 and mPRα are components of a membrane progesterone receptor protein complex. Increased expression of estrogen receptor β was also observed in the membranes of PGRMC1-transfected cells, suggesting that PGRMC1 can act as an adaptor protein for multiple classes of steroid receptors. PMID:24424068

  1. Adaptors in toll-like receptor signaling and their potential as therapeutic targets.

    PubMed

    Ve, Thomas; Gay, Nicholas J; Mansell, Ashley; Kobe, Bostjan; Kellie, Stuart

    2012-10-01

    To initiate the innate immune response, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) associate with cytoplasmic adaptor proteins through TIR (Toll/interleukin-1 receptor) domain interactions. The four principal signaling adaptor proteins include MyD88, MAL, TRIF and TRAM, and the fifth protein SARM, involved in negative regulation of TLR pathways, is usually considered a part of the TIR domain-containing adaptor protein group. Other TIR domain-containing proteins have also been shown to regulate these signaling pathways, including ST2 and SIGIRR, as well as several bacterial and viral TIR domain-containing proteins that modulate these pathways as virulence factors. TLR pathways and the adaptor proteins are associated with a number of diseases, including infection, sepsis, inflammatory, allergic and autoimmune diseases and cancer. We review our current understanding of the structure and function of adaptor proteins and their regulatory proteins, their association with disease and their potential as therapeutic targets in human disease. PMID:22664090

  2. Phospholipase Cgamma2 dosage is critical for B cell development in the absence of adaptor protein BLNK.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shengli; Huo, Jianxin; Chew, Weng-Keong; Hikida, Masaki; Kurosaki, Tomohiro; Lam, Kong-Peng

    2006-04-15

    B cell linker (BLNK) protein and phospholipase Cgamma2 (PLCgamma2) are components of the BCR signalosome that activate calcium signaling in B cells. Mice lacking either molecule have a severe but incomplete block in B lymphopoiesis. In this study, we generated BLNK-/- PLCgamma2-/- mice to examine the effect of simultaneous disruption of both molecules on B cell development. We showed that BLNK-/- PLCgamma2-/- mice had compounded defects in B cell maturation compared with either single mutant, suggesting that these two molecules cooperatively or synergistically signaled B lymphopoiesis. However, Ig H chain allelic exclusion was maintained in single and double mutants, indicating that signals propagated by BLNK and PLCgamma2 were not involved in this process. Interestingly, in the absence of BLNK, B cell development was dependent on plcgamma2 gene dosage. This was evidenced by the proportionate decrease in splenic B cell population and increase in bone marrow surface pre-BCR+ cells in PLCgamma2-diploid, -haploid, and -null animals. Intracellular calcium signaling and ERK activation in response to BCR engagement were also proportionately decreased and delayed, respectively, with stepwise reduction of plcgamma2 dosage in a BLNK(null) background. Thus, these data indicate the importance of BLNK not only as a conduit to specifically channel BCR-signaling pathways and as a scaffold for the assembling of macromolecular complex, but also as an efficient aggregator or concentrator of PLCgamma2 molecules to effect optimal signaling for B cell generation and activation. PMID:16585562

  3. A combined LDL receptor/LDL receptor adaptor protein 1 mutation as the cause for severe familial hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Soufi, Muhidien; Rust, Stephan; Walter, Michael; Schaefer, Juergen R

    2013-05-25

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) results from impaired catabolism of plasma low density lipoproteins (LDL), thus leading to high cholesterol, atherosclerosis, and a high risk of premature myocardial infarction. FH is commonly caused by defects of the LDL receptor or its main ligand apoB, together mediating cellular uptake and clearance of plasma LDL. In some cases FH is inherited by mutations in the genes of PCSK9 and LDLRAP1 (ARH) in a dominant or recessive trait. The encoded proteins are required for LDL receptor stability and internalization within the LDLR pathway. To detect the underlying genetic defect in a family of Turkish descent showing unregular inheritance of severe FH, we screened the four candidate genes by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) mutation analysis. We identified different combinatory mixtures of LDLR- and LDLRAP1-gene defects as the cause for severe familial hypercholesterolemia in this family. We also show for the first time that a heterozygous LDLR mutation combined with a homozygous LDLRAP1 mutation produces a more severe hypercholesterolemia phenotype in the same family than a homozygous LDLR mutation alone. PMID:23510778

  4. REGULATION OF PROCESS RETRACTION AND CELL MIGRATION BY EPHA3 IS MEDIATED BY THE ADAPTOR PROTEIN NCK1†

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Tianjing; Shi, Guanfang; Larose, Louise; Rivera, Gonzalo M.; Mayer, Bruce J.; Zhou, Renping

    2009-01-01

    The Eph family of tyrosine kinase receptors and their ligands, the ephrins, participates in the regulation of a wide variety of biological functions under normal and pathological conditions. During embryonic development, interactions between the ligands and receptors define tissue boundaries, guide migrating axons, and regulate angiogenesis, as well as bone morphogenesis. These molecules have also been shown to modify neural activity in the adult nervous system, and influence tumor progression. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these diverse functions are not completely understood. In the present study, a yeast two-hybrid screen has been conducted to identify molecules that physically interact with Eph receptors using the cytoplasmic domain of EphA3 as “bait”. This study identified Nck1 as a strong binding partner of EphA3 as assayed using both GST-fusion protein pull down and co-immunoprecipitation techniques. The interaction is mediated through binding of the Nck1 SH2 domain to the phosphotyrosine residue at position 602 (Y602) of EphA3 receptor. The removal of the SH2 domain or the mutation of the Y602 residue abolishes the interaction. It is further demonstrated that EphA3 activation inhibits cell migration and process outgrowth, and these inhibiting effects are partially alleviated by dominant-negative Nck1 mutants that lack functional SH2 or SH3 domains, but not by the wild type Nck1 gene. These results suggest that Nck1 interacts with EphA3 to regulate cell migration and process retraction. PMID:19505147

  5. Reduced photoreceptor death and improved retinal function during retinal degeneration in mice lacking innate immunity adaptor protein MyD88

    PubMed Central

    Syeda, Sarah; Patel, Amit K.; Lee, Tinthu; Hackam, Abigail S.

    2015-01-01

    The injury inflammatory response mediated by the innate immune system is an important contributor to neurodegeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) and retina. A major branch of the innate immune system is regulated by the Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which are receptors for endogenous damage associated molecules released from injured cells as well as pathogen-derived molecules, and interleukin-1 receptors (IL-1R), which are activated by IL-1α, IL-1β and IL-18 cytokines. TLRs and IL-1R are expressed on immune and non-immune cell types and act as first responders to cell damage, which results in tissue repair, or inflammation and apoptosis. Both TLR and IL-1R require the adaptor protein myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) for signaling. Although inflammation is implicated in neuronal death in the retina, the role of MyD88-dependent TLR and IL-1R signaling in retinal degeneration is unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the role of MyD88-mediated signaling in neuronal degeneration in the retinal degeneration 1 (rd1) mouse model, which exhibits a phenotype of rapid photoreceptor death and inflammation. To generate rd1 mice lacking the MyD88 gene, rd1 were bred with MyD88 knockout mice (MyD88-/-) for several generations to produce rd1/MyD88+/+ and rd1/MyD88-/- genotypes. Chemokine mRNA expression levels were analyzed by qRT-PCR, and recruitment of activated microglia was quantified by immunodetection of the IBA-1 protein. Retinal outer nuclear layer cell counts were performed to quantify photoreceptor degeneration, and retinal function was assessed using electroretinograms (ERG). Our results revealed that retinal expression of Ccl2, Ccl4, Ccl7 and Cxcl10 was reduced by 2 to 8-fold in rd1/MyD88-/- mice compared with rd1/MyD88+/+ mice (p<0.05), which coincided with attenuated microglial activation, higher numbers of photoreceptors and higher retina responses to photopic and scotopic stimuli. At later ages, rd1/MyD88

  6. Phosphoinositides, kinases and adaptors coordinating endocytosis in Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Manna, Paul T; Field, Mark C

    2015-01-01

    In the kinetoplastid parasite Trypanosoma brucei clathrin-mediated endocytosis is essential for survival and aids immune evasion in the mammalian host. The formation of endocytic clathrin coated vesicles in T. brucei is via a unique mechanism owing to an evolutionarily recent loss of the adaptor protein (AP)2 complex, a central hub in endocytic vesicle assembly. Despite this loss, recent studies examining endocytic clathrin coat assembly have highlighted a high degree of conservation between trypanosomes and their mammalian hosts. In particular phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) and its putative effectors, TbCALM and TbEpsinR, are central to clathrin-mediated endocytosis in the trypanosome, just as they are in animal cells. In addition to providing insights into the cell biology of T. brucei, these studies also suggest an ancient, possibly pan-eukaryotic connection between PtdIns(4,5)P2 and endocytosis. PMID:27064836

  7. The clathrin adaptor proteins ARH, Dab2, and numb play distinct roles in Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 versus low density lipoprotein receptor-mediated cholesterol uptake.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jian; Fu, Zhen-Yan; Li, Pei-Shan; Miao, Hong-Hua; Li, Bo-Liang; Ma, Yi-Tong; Song, Bao-Liang

    2014-11-28

    The uptake of circulating low density lipoproteins (LDL) is mediated by LDL receptor (LDLR) through clathrin-dependent endocytosis. At the early stage of this process, adaptor proteins ARH and Dab2 specifically bind the endocytic signal motif in LDLR and recruit clathrin/AP2 to initiate internalization. On the other hand, intestinal cholesterol is absorbed by Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1) through clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Another adaptor protein, Numb recognizes the endocytic motif in NPC1L1 C terminus and couples NPC1L1 to endocytic machinery. The ARH, Dab2, and Numb proteins contain a homogeneous phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domain that directly binds endocytic motifs. Because ARH, Dab2, and Numb are all PTB domain family members, the emerging mystery is whether these adaptors act complementally in LDLR and NPC1L1 endocytosis. Here, we found that ARH and Dab2 did not bind NPC1L1 and were not required for NPC1L1 internalization. Similarly, Numb lacked the ability to interact with the LDLR C terminus and was dispensable for LDL uptake. Only the Numb isoforms with shorter PTB domain could facilitate NPC1L1 endocytosis. Besides the reported function in intestinal cholesterol absorption, Numb also mediated cholesterol reabsorption from bile in liver. We further identified a Numb variant with G595D substitution in humans of low blood LDL-cholesterol. The G595D substitution impaired NPC1L1 internalization and cholesterol reabsorption, due to attenuating affinity of Numb to clathrin/AP2. These results demonstrate that Numb specifically regulates NPC1L1-mediated cholesterol absorption both in human intestine and liver, distinct from ARH and Dab2, which selectively participate in LDLR-mediated LDL uptake. PMID:25331956

  8. Structural Basis for Small G Protein Effector Interaction of Ras-related Protein 1 (Rap1) and Adaptor Protein Krev Interaction Trapped 1 (KRIT1)

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Rong; Draheim, Kyle M.; Liu, Weizhi; Calderwood, David A.; Boggon, Titus J.

    2012-09-17

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) affect 0.1-0.5% of the population resulting in leaky vasculature and severe neurological defects. KRIT1 (Krev interaction trapped-1) mutations associate with {approx}40% of familial CCMs. KRIT1 is an effector of Ras-related protein 1 (Rap1) GTPase. Rap1 relocalizes KRIT1 from microtubules to cell membranes to impact integrin activation, potentially important for CCM pathology. We report the 1.95 {angstrom} co-crystal structure of KRIT1 FERM domain in complex with Rap1. Rap1-KRIT1 interaction encompasses an extended surface, including Rap1 Switch I and II and KRIT1 FERM F1 and F2 lobes. Rap1 binds KRIT1-F1 lobe using a GTPase-ubiquitin-like fold interaction but binds KRIT1-F2 lobe by a novel interaction. Point mutagenesis confirms the interaction. High similarity between KRIT1-F2/F3 and talin is revealed. Additionally, the mechanism for FERM domains acting as GTPase effectors is suggested. Finally, structure-based alignment of each lobe suggests classification of FERM domains as ERM-like and TMFK-like (talin-myosin-FAK-KRIT-like) and that FERM lobes resemble domain 'modules.'

  9. A Novel Interaction of the Catalytic Subunit of Protein Phosphatase 2A with the Adaptor Protein CIN85 Suppresses Phosphatase Activity and Facilitates Platelet Outside-in αIIbβ3 Integrin Signaling.

    PubMed

    Khatlani, Tanvir; Pradhan, Subhashree; Da, Qi; Shaw, Tanner; Buchman, Vladimir L; Cruz, Miguel A; Vijayan, K Vinod

    2016-08-12

    The transduction of signals generated by protein kinases and phosphatases are critical for the ability of integrin αIIbβ3 to support stable platelet adhesion and thrombus formation. Unlike kinases, it remains unclear how serine/threonine phosphatases engage the signaling networks that are initiated following integrin ligation. Because protein-protein interactions form the backbone of signal transduction, we searched for proteins that interact with the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2Ac). In a yeast two-hybrid study, we identified a novel interaction between PP2Ac and an adaptor protein CIN85 (Cbl-interacting protein of 85 kDa). Truncation and alanine mutagenesis studies revealed that PP2Ac binds to the P3 block ((396)PAIPPKKPRP(405)) of the proline-rich region in CIN85. The interaction of purified PP2Ac with CIN85 suppressed phosphatase activity. Human embryonal kidney 293 αIIbβ3 cells overexpressing a CIN85 P3 mutant, which cannot support PP2Ac binding, displayed decreased adhesion to immobilized fibrinogen. Platelets contain the ∼85 kDa CIN85 protein along with the PP2Ac-CIN85 complex. A myristylated cell-permeable peptide derived from residues 395-407 of CIN85 protein (P3 peptide) disrupted the platelet PP2Ac-CIN85 complex and decreased αIIbβ3 signaling dependent functions such as platelet spreading on fibrinogen and thrombin-mediated fibrin clot retraction. In a phospho-profiling study P3 peptide treated platelets also displayed decreased phosphorylation of several signaling proteins including Src and GSK3β. Taken together, these data support a role for the novel PP2Ac-CIN85 complex in supporting integrin-dependent platelet function by dampening the phosphatase activity. PMID:27334924

  10. Adaptor protein-2 sigma subunit mutations causing familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia type 3 (FHH3) demonstrate genotype-phenotype correlations, codon bias and dominant-negative effects.

    PubMed

    Hannan, Fadil M; Howles, Sarah A; Rogers, Angela; Cranston, Treena; Gorvin, Caroline M; Babinsky, Valerie N; Reed, Anita A; Thakker, Clare E; Bockenhauer, Detlef; Brown, Rosalind S; Connell, John M; Cook, Jacqueline; Darzy, Ken; Ehtisham, Sarah; Graham, Una; Hulse, Tony; Hunter, Steven J; Izatt, Louise; Kumar, Dhavendra; McKenna, Malachi J; McKnight, John A; Morrison, Patrick J; Mughal, M Zulf; O'Halloran, Domhnall; Pearce, Simon H; Porteous, Mary E; Rahman, Mushtaqur; Richardson, Tristan; Robinson, Robert; Scheers, Isabelle; Siddique, Haroon; Van't Hoff, William G; Wang, Timothy; Whyte, Michael P; Nesbit, M Andrew; Thakker, Rajesh V

    2015-09-15

    The adaptor protein-2 sigma subunit (AP2σ2) is pivotal for clathrin-mediated endocytosis of plasma membrane constituents such as the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR). Mutations of the AP2σ2 Arg15 residue result in familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia type 3 (FHH3), a disorder of extracellular calcium (Ca(2+) o) homeostasis. To elucidate the role of AP2σ2 in Ca(2+) o regulation, we investigated 65 FHH probands, without other FHH-associated mutations, for AP2σ2 mutations, characterized their functional consequences and investigated the genetic mechanisms leading to FHH3. AP2σ2 mutations were identified in 17 probands, comprising 5 Arg15Cys, 4 Arg15His and 8 Arg15Leu mutations. A genotype-phenotype correlation was observed with the Arg15Leu mutation leading to marked hypercalcaemia. FHH3 probands harboured additional phenotypes such as cognitive dysfunction. All three FHH3-causing AP2σ2 mutations impaired CaSR signal transduction in a dominant-negative manner. Mutational bias was observed at the AP2σ2 Arg15 residue as other predicted missense substitutions (Arg15Gly, Arg15Pro and Arg15Ser), which also caused CaSR loss-of-function, were not detected in FHH probands, and these mutations were found to reduce the numbers of CaSR-expressing cells. FHH3 probands had significantly greater serum calcium (sCa) and magnesium (sMg) concentrations with reduced urinary calcium to creatinine clearance ratios (CCCR) in comparison with FHH1 probands with CaSR mutations, and a calculated index of sCa × sMg/100 × CCCR, which was ≥ 5.0, had a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 83 and 86%, respectively, for FHH3. Thus, our studies demonstrate AP2σ2 mutations to result in a more severe FHH phenotype with genotype-phenotype correlations, and a dominant-negative mechanism of action with mutational bias at the Arg15 residue. PMID:26082470

  11. Dynamics of essential collective motions in proteins: Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanova, Maria

    2007-11-01

    A general theoretical background is introduced for characterization of conformational motions in protein molecules, and for building reduced coarse-grained models of proteins, based on the statistical analysis of their phase trajectories. Using the projection operator technique, a system of coupled generalized Langevin equations is derived for essential collective coordinates, which are generated by principal component analysis of molecular dynamic trajectories. The number of essential degrees of freedom is not limited in the theory. An explicit analytic relation is established between the generalized Langevin equation for essential collective coordinates and that for the all-atom phase trajectory projected onto the subspace of essential collective degrees of freedom. The theory introduced is applied to identify correlated dynamic domains in a macromolecule and to construct coarse-grained models representing the conformational motions in a protein through a few interacting domains embedded in a dissipative medium. A rigorous theoretical background is provided for identification of dynamic correlated domains in a macromolecule. Examples of domain identification in protein G are given and employed to interpret NMR experiments. Challenges and potential outcomes of the theory are discussed.

  12. Pex19p, a Farnesylated Protein Essential for Peroxisome Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Götte, Klaudia; Girzalsky, Wolfgang; Linkert, Michael; Baumgart, Evelyn; Kammerer, Stefan; Kunau, Wolf-Hubert; Erdmann, Ralf

    1998-01-01

    We report the identification and molecular characterization of Pex19p, an oleic acid-inducible, farnesylated protein of 39.7 kDa that is essential for peroxisome biogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cells lacking Pex19p are characterized by the absence of morphologically detectable peroxisomes and mislocalization of peroxisomal matrix proteins to the cytosol. The human HK33 gene product was identified as the putative human ortholog of Pex19p. Evidence is provided that farnesylation of Pex19p takes place at the cysteine of the C-terminal CKQQ amino acid sequence. Farnesylation of Pex19p was shown to be essential for the proper function of the protein in peroxisome biogenesis. Pex19p was shown to interact with Pex3p in vivo, and this interaction required farnesylation of Pex19p. PMID:9418908

  13. Aberrant expression of signaling proteins in essential thrombocythemia.

    PubMed

    Hui, Wuhan; Ye, Fei; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Congyan; Cui, Miao; Li, Wei; Xu, Juan; Zhang, David Y

    2013-09-01

    Dysregulated expression of signaling proteins may contribute to the pathophysiology of essential thrombocythemia (ET). This study aimed to characterize protein expression in ET and to correlate the dysregulated proteins with phenotypes and prognosis of ET patients. The expression of 128 proteins in peripheral blood neutrophils from 74 ET patients was assessed and compared with those from 29 healthy subjects and 35 polycythemia vera (PV) patients using protein pathway array. Fifteen proteins were differentially expressed between ET patients and normal controls. These dysregulated proteins were involved in the signaling pathways related with apoptosis and inflammation. Our results showed a significant overlap in protein expression between ET patients with JAK2V617F mutation and PV patients. In addition, nine proteins were associated with JAK2V617F mutation status in ET patients. Furthermore, estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) and Stat3 were independent risk factors for subsequent thrombosis during follow-up on multivariable analysis. Our study shows a broad dysregulation of signaling protein in ET patients, suggesting their roles in ET pathogenesis. The expression levels of ERβ and Stat3 could be promising predictors of subsequent thrombosis in ET patients. PMID:23639951

  14. Cytoplasmic protein methylation is essential for neural crest migration

    PubMed Central

    Vermillion, Katie L.; Lidberg, Kevin A.

    2014-01-01

    As they initiate migration in vertebrate embryos, neural crest cells are enriched for methylation cycle enzymes, including S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAHH), the only known enzyme to hydrolyze the feedback inhibitor of trans-methylation reactions. The importance of methylation in neural crest migration is unknown. Here, we show that SAHH is required for emigration of polarized neural crest cells, indicating that methylation is essential for neural crest migration. Although nuclear histone methylation regulates neural crest gene expression, SAHH and lysine-methylated proteins are abundant in the cytoplasm of migratory neural crest cells. Proteomic profiling of cytoplasmic, lysine-methylated proteins from migratory neural crest cells identified 182 proteins, several of which are cytoskeleton related. A methylation-resistant form of one of these proteins, the actin-binding protein elongation factor 1 alpha 1 (EF1α1), blocks neural crest migration. Altogether, these data reveal a novel and essential role for post-translational nonhistone protein methylation during neural crest migration and define a previously unknown requirement for EF1α1 methylation in migration. PMID:24379414

  15. Blood harmane concentrations and dietary protein consumption in essential tremor

    PubMed Central

    Louis, E.D.; Zheng, W.; Applegate, L.; Shi, L.; Factor-Litvak, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background β-Carboline alkaloids (e.g., harmane) are highly tremorogenic chemicals. Animal protein (meat) is the major dietary source of these alkaloids. The authors previously demonstrated that blood harmane concentrations were elevated in patients with essential tremor (ET) vs controls. Whether this difference is due to greater animal protein consumption by patients or their failure to metabolize harmane is unknown. Objective The aim of this study was to determine whether patients with ET and controls differ with regard to 1) daily animal protein consumption and 2) the correlation between animal protein consumption and blood harmane concentration. Methods Data on current diet were collected with a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire and daily calories and consumption of animal protein and other food types was calculated. Blood harmane concentrations were log-transformed (logHA). Results The mean logHA was higher in 106 patients than 161 controls (0.61 ± 0.67 vs 0.43 ± 0.72 g−10/mL, p = 0.035). Patients and controls consumed similar amounts of animal protein (50.2 ± 19.6 vs 49.4 ± 19.1 g/day, p = 0.74) and other food types (animal fat, carbohydrates, vegetable fat) and had similar caloric intakes. In controls, logHA was correlated with daily consumption of animal protein (r = 0.24, p = 0.003); in patients, there was no such correlation (r = −0.003, p = 0.98). Conclusions The similarity between patients and controls in daily animal protein consumption and the absence of the normal correlation between daily animal protein consumption and logHA in patients suggests that another factor (e.g., a metabolic defect) may be increasing blood harmane concentration in patients. PMID:16087903

  16. A novel protein kinase is essential in bloodstream Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Bryan C; Booster, Nick; Vidadala, Rama Subba Rao; Maly, Dustin J; Parsons, Marilyn

    2016-07-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis a fatal disease for which no vaccines exist and treatment regimens are difficult. Here, we evaluate a Trypanosoma brucei protein kinase, AEK1, as a potential drug target. Conditional knockouts confirmed AEK1 essentiality in bloodstream forms. For chemical validation, we overcame the lack of AEK1 inhibitors by creating parasites expressing a single, functional analog-sensitive AEK1 allele. Analog treatment of mice infected with this strain delayed parasitemia and death, with one-third of animals showing no parasitemia. These studies validate AEK1 as a drug target and highlight the need for further understanding of its function. PMID:27018127

  17. Signal Recognition Particle: An essential protein targeting machine

    PubMed Central

    Akopian, David; Shen, Kuang; Zhang, Xin; Shan, Shu-ou

    2013-01-01

    The signal recognition particle (SRP) and its receptor comprise a universally conserved and essential cellular machinery that couples the synthesis of nascent proteins to their proper membrane localization. The past decade has witnessed an explosion in in-depth mechanistic investigations of this targeting machine at increasingly higher resolution. In this review, we summarize recent work that elucidates how the SRP and SRP receptor interact with the cargo protein and the target membrane, respectively, and how these interactions are coupled to a novel GTPase cycle in the SRP•SRP receptor complex to provide the driving force and enhance the fidelity of this fundamental cellular pathway. We also discuss emerging frontiers where important questions remain to be addressed. PMID:23414305

  18. Essential bacterial helicases that counteract the toxicity of recombination proteins.

    PubMed

    Petit, Marie-Agnès; Ehrlich, Dusko

    2002-06-17

    PcrA, Rep and UvrD are three closely related bacterial helicases with a DExx signature. PcrA is encoded by Gram-positive bacteria and is essential for cell growth. Rep and UvrD are encoded by Gram-negative bacteria, and mutants lacking both helicases are also not viable. To understand the non-viability of the helicase mutants, we characterized spontaneous extragenic suppressors of a Bacillus subtilis pcrA null mutation. Here we report that one of these suppressors maps in recF and that previously isolated mutations in B.subtilis recF, recL, recO and recR, which belong to the same complementation group, all suppress the lethality of a pcrA mutation. Similarly, recF, recO or recR mutations suppress the lethality of the Escherichia coli rep uvrD double mutant. We conclude that RecFOR proteins are toxic in cells devoid of PcrA in Gram-positive bacteria, or Rep and UvrD in Gram-negative bacteria, and propose that the RecFOR proteins interfere with an essential cellular process, possibly replication, when DExx helicases PcrA, or Rep and UvrD are absent. PMID:12065426

  19. Trypanosome Letm1 Protein Is Essential for Mitochondrial Potassium Homeostasis*

    PubMed Central

    Hashimi, Hassan; McDonald, Lindsay; Stříbrná, Eva; Lukeš, Julius

    2013-01-01

    Letm1 is a conserved protein in eukaryotes bearing energized mitochondria. Hemizygous deletion of its gene has been implicated in symptoms of the human disease Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome. Studies almost exclusively performed in opisthokonts have attributed several roles to Letm1, including maintaining mitochondrial morphology, mediating either calcium or potassium/proton antiport, and facilitating mitochondrial translation. We address the ancestral function of Letm1 in the highly diverged protist and significant pathogen, Trypanosoma brucei. We demonstrate that Letm1 is involved in maintaining mitochondrial volume via potassium/proton exchange across the inner membrane. This role is essential in the vector-dwelling procyclic and mammal-infecting bloodstream stages as well as in Trypanosoma brucei evansi, a form of the latter stage lacking an organellar genome. In the pathogenic bloodstream stage, the mitochondrion consumes ATP to maintain an energized state, whereas that of T. brucei evansi also lacks a conventional proton-driven membrane potential. Thus, Letm1 performs its function in different physiological states, suggesting that ion homeostasis is among the few characterized essential pathways of the mitochondrion at this T. brucei life stage. Interestingly, Letm1 depletion in the procyclic stage can be complemented by exogenous expression of its human counterpart, highlighting the conservation of protein function between highly divergent species. Furthermore, although mitochondrial translation is affected upon Letm1 ablation, it is an indirect consequence of K+ accumulation in the matrix. PMID:23893410

  20. Trypanosome Letm1 protein is essential for mitochondrial potassium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Hashimi, Hassan; McDonald, Lindsay; Stríbrná, Eva; Lukeš, Julius

    2013-09-13

    Letm1 is a conserved protein in eukaryotes bearing energized mitochondria. Hemizygous deletion of its gene has been implicated in symptoms of the human disease Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome. Studies almost exclusively performed in opisthokonts have attributed several roles to Letm1, including maintaining mitochondrial morphology, mediating either calcium or potassium/proton antiport, and facilitating mitochondrial translation. We address the ancestral function of Letm1 in the highly diverged protist and significant pathogen, Trypanosoma brucei. We demonstrate that Letm1 is involved in maintaining mitochondrial volume via potassium/proton exchange across the inner membrane. This role is essential in the vector-dwelling procyclic and mammal-infecting bloodstream stages as well as in Trypanosoma brucei evansi, a form of the latter stage lacking an organellar genome. In the pathogenic bloodstream stage, the mitochondrion consumes ATP to maintain an energized state, whereas that of T. brucei evansi also lacks a conventional proton-driven membrane potential. Thus, Letm1 performs its function in different physiological states, suggesting that ion homeostasis is among the few characterized essential pathways of the mitochondrion at this T. brucei life stage. Interestingly, Letm1 depletion in the procyclic stage can be complemented by exogenous expression of its human counterpart, highlighting the conservation of protein function between highly divergent species. Furthermore, although mitochondrial translation is affected upon Letm1 ablation, it is an indirect consequence of K(+) accumulation in the matrix. PMID:23893410

  1. A New Method for Identifying Essential Proteins Based on Network Topology Properties and Protein Complexes.

    PubMed

    Qin, Chao; Sun, Yongqi; Dong, Yadong

    2016-01-01

    Essential proteins are indispensable to the viability and reproduction of an organism. The identification of essential proteins is necessary not only for understanding the molecular mechanisms of cellular life but also for disease diagnosis, medical treatments and drug design. Many computational methods have been proposed for discovering essential proteins, but the precision of the prediction of essential proteins remains to be improved. In this paper, we propose a new method, LBCC, which is based on the combination of local density, betweenness centrality (BC) and in-degree centrality of complex (IDC). First, we introduce the common centrality measures; second, we propose the densities Den1(v) and Den2(v) of a node v to describe its local properties in the network; and finally, the combined strategy of Den1, Den2, BC and IDC is developed to improve the prediction precision. The experimental results demonstrate that LBCC outperforms traditional topological measures for predicting essential proteins, including degree centrality (DC), BC, subgraph centrality (SC), eigenvector centrality (EC), network centrality (NC), and the local average connectivity-based method (LAC). LBCC also improves the prediction precision by approximately 10 percent on the YMIPS and YMBD datasets compared to the most recently developed method, LIDC. PMID:27529423

  2. A New Method for Identifying Essential Proteins Based on Network Topology Properties and Protein Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Chao; Sun, Yongqi; Dong, Yadong

    2016-01-01

    Essential proteins are indispensable to the viability and reproduction of an organism. The identification of essential proteins is necessary not only for understanding the molecular mechanisms of cellular life but also for disease diagnosis, medical treatments and drug design. Many computational methods have been proposed for discovering essential proteins, but the precision of the prediction of essential proteins remains to be improved. In this paper, we propose a new method, LBCC, which is based on the combination of local density, betweenness centrality (BC) and in-degree centrality of complex (IDC). First, we introduce the common centrality measures; second, we propose the densities Den1(v) and Den2(v) of a node v to describe its local properties in the network; and finally, the combined strategy of Den1, Den2, BC and IDC is developed to improve the prediction precision. The experimental results demonstrate that LBCC outperforms traditional topological measures for predicting essential proteins, including degree centrality (DC), BC, subgraph centrality (SC), eigenvector centrality (EC), network centrality (NC), and the local average connectivity-based method (LAC). LBCC also improves the prediction precision by approximately 10 percent on the YMIPS and YMBD datasets compared to the most recently developed method, LIDC. PMID:27529423

  3. Interchangeable adaptors regulate mitochondrial dynamin assembly for membrane scission

    PubMed Central

    Koirala, Sajjan; Guo, Qian; Kalia, Raghav; Bui, Huyen T.; Eckert, Debra M.; Frost, Adam; Shaw, Janet M.

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial fission is mediated by the dynamin-related GTPases Dnm1/Drp1 (yeast/mammals), which form spirals around constricted sites on mitochondria. Additional membrane-associated adaptor proteins (Fis1, Mdv1, Mff, and MiDs) are required to recruit these GTPases from the cytoplasm to the mitochondrial surface. Whether these adaptors participate in both GTPase recruitment and membrane scission is not known. Here we use a yeast strain lacking all fission proteins to identify the minimal combinations of GTPases and adaptors sufficient for mitochondrial fission. Although Fis1 is dispensable for fission, membrane-anchored Mdv1, Mff, or MiDs paired individually with their respective GTPases are sufficient to divide mitochondria. In addition to their role in Drp1 membrane recruitment, MiDs coassemble with Drp1 in vitro. The resulting heteropolymer adopts a dramatically different structure with a narrower diameter than Drp1 homopolymers assembled in isolation. This result demonstrates that an adaptor protein alters the architecture of a mitochondrial dynamin GTPase polymer in a manner that could facilitate membrane constriction and severing activity. PMID:23530241

  4. Identification of DNA-Damage DNA-Binding Protein 1 as a Conditional Essential Factor for Cytomegalovirus Replication in Interferon-γ-Stimulated Cells

    PubMed Central

    Trilling, Mirko; Le, Vu Thuy Khanh; Fiedler, Manuela; Zimmermann, Albert; Bleifuß, Elke; Hengel, Hartmut

    2011-01-01

    The mouse cytomegaloviral (MCMV) protein pM27 represents an indispensable factor for viral fitness in vivo selectively, antagonizing signal transducer and activator of transcription 2 (STAT2)-mediated interferon signal transduction. We wished to explore by which molecular mechanism pM27 accomplishes this effect. We demonstrate that pM27 is essential and sufficient to curtail the protein half-life of STAT2 molecules. Pharmacologic inhibition of the proteasome restored STAT2 amounts, leading to poly-ubiquitin-conjugated STAT2 forms. PM27 was found in complexes with an essential host ubiquitin ligase complex adaptor protein, DNA-damage DNA-binding protein (DDB) 1. Truncation mutants of pM27 showed a strict correlation between DDB1 interaction and their ability to degrade STAT2. SiRNA-mediated knock-down of DDB1 restored STAT2 in the presence of pM27 and strongly impaired viral replication in interferon conditioned cells, thus phenocopying the growth attenuation of M27-deficient virus. In a constructive process, pM27 recruits DDB1 to exploit ubiquitin ligase complexes catalyzing the obstruction of the STAT2-dependent antiviral state of cells to permit viral replication. PMID:21698215

  5. Glycosylation of arabinogalactan-proteins essential for development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Showalter, Allan M; Basu, Debarati

    2016-01-01

    Arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) are ubiquitous cell wall components present throughout the plant kingdom. They are extensively post translationally modified by conversion of proline to hydroxyproline (Hyp) and by addition of arabinogalactan (AG) polysaccharides to Hyp residues. Two small gene subfamilies within the CAZy GT31 family, referred to as Hyp-galactosyltransferases (Hyp-GALTs and HPGTs), encode enzymes that specifically add galactose to AGP protein backbones as revealed by heterologous expression of the genes coupled with an in vitro enzyme assay and by biochemical characterization of the genetic knock-out mutants. Biochemical analysis of galt2galt5 double and hpgt1hpgt2hpgt3 triple knockout mutants revealed significant reductions in both AGP-specific Hyp-GALT activity and β-Gal-Yariv precipitable AGPs. Further analysis of these mutants demonstrated both overlapping and distinct pleiotropic growth and development phenotypes, indicating the important contributions of the carbohydrate moieties toward AGP function. Current research indicates that all 8 Hyp-GALT/HPGT genes encode enzymes that catalyze the initial step for AGP glycosylation and that AGP glycans play essential roles in plant growth and development. PMID:27489583

  6. Glycosylation of arabinogalactan-proteins essential for development in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Showalter, Allan M.; Basu, Debarati

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) are ubiquitous cell wall components present throughout the plant kingdom. They are extensively post translationally modified by conversion of proline to hydroxyproline (Hyp) and by addition of arabinogalactan (AG) polysaccharides to Hyp residues. Two small gene subfamilies within the CAZy GT31 family, referred to as Hyp-galactosyltransferases (Hyp-GALTs and HPGTs), encode enzymes that specifically add galactose to AGP protein backbones as revealed by heterologous expression of the genes coupled with an in vitro enzyme assay and by biochemical characterization of the genetic knock-out mutants. Biochemical analysis of galt2galt5 double and hpgt1hpgt2hpgt3 triple knockout mutants revealed significant reductions in both AGP-specific Hyp-GALT activity and β-Gal-Yariv precipitable AGPs. Further analysis of these mutants demonstrated both overlapping and distinct pleiotropic growth and development phenotypes, indicating the important contributions of the carbohydrate moieties toward AGP function. Current research indicates that all 8 Hyp-GALT/HPGT genes encode enzymes that catalyze the initial step for AGP glycosylation and that AGP glycans play essential roles in plant growth and development. PMID:27489583

  7. TFPI cofactor function of protein S: essential role of the protein S SHBG-like domain

    PubMed Central

    Reglińska-Matveyev, Natalia; Andersson, Helena M.; Rezende, Suely M.; Dahlbäck, Björn; Crawley, James T. B.; Lane, David A.; Ahnström, Josefin

    2014-01-01

    Protein S is a cofactor for tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), accelerating the inhibition of activated factor X (FXa). TFPI Kunitz domain 3 residue Glu226 is essential for enhancement of TFPI by protein S. To investigate the complementary functional interaction site on protein S, we screened 44 protein S point, composite or domain swap variants spanning the whole protein S molecule for their TFPI cofactor function using a thrombin generation assay. Of these variants, two protein S/growth arrest–specific 6 chimeras, with either the whole sex hormone–binding globulin (SHBG)-like domain (Val243-Ser635; chimera III) or the SHBG laminin G-type 1 subunit (Ser283-Val459; chimera I), respectively, substituted by the corresponding domain in growth arrest–specific 6, were unable to enhance TFPI. The importance of the protein S SHBG-like domain (and its laminin G-type 1 subunit) for binding and enhancement of TFPI was confirmed in FXa inhibition assays and using surface plasmon resonance. In addition, protein S bound to C4b binding protein showed greatly reduced enhancement of TFPI-mediated inhibition of FXa compared with free protein S. We show that binding of TFPI to the protein S SHBG-like domain enables TFPI to interact optimally with FXa on a phospholipid membrane. PMID:24740810

  8. Toll-Like Receptor Adaptor MyD88 is Essential for Pathogen Control During Oral Toxoplasma gondii Infection but not Adaptive Immunity Induced by a Vaccine Strain of the Parasite1

    PubMed Central

    Sukhumavasi, Woraporn; Egan, Charlotte E.; Warren, Amy L.; Taylor, Gregory A.; Fox, Barbara A.; Bzik, David J.; Denkers, Eric Y.

    2008-01-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR)/MyD88 activation is important in host resistance to Toxoplasma gondii during i. p. infection, but the function of this signaling pathway during oral infection, in which mucosal immunity assumes a predominant role, has not been examined. Here, we show that MyD88−/− mice fail to control the parasite and succumb within two weeks of oral infection. Early during infection, T cell IFN-γ production, recruitment of neutrophils and induction of p47 GTPase Irgm3/IGTP in the intestinal mucosa were dependent upon functional MyD88. Unexpectedly, these responses were MyD88-independent later during acute infection. In particular, CD4+ T cell IFN-γ reached normal levels independently of MyD88, despite continued absence of IL-12 in these animals. Intraperitoneal vaccination of MyD88−/− mice with an avirulent T. gondii uracil axotroph elicited robust IFN-γ responses and protective immunity to challenge with a high virulence T. gondii strain. Our results demonstrate that MyD88 is required to control Toxoplasma infection, but that the parasite can trigger adaptive immunity without the need for this TLR adaptor molecule. PMID:18714019

  9. A novel interaction between the SH2 domain of signaling adaptor protein Nck-1 and the upstream regulator of the Rho family GTPase Rac1 engulfment and cell motility 1 (ELMO1) promotes Rac1 activation and cell motility.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo; Chen, Xia; Qiu, Fanghua; Zhu, Fengxin; Lei, Wenjing; Nie, Jing

    2014-08-15

    Nck family proteins function as adaptors to couple tyrosine phosphorylation signals to actin cytoskeleton reorganization. Several lines of evidence indicate that Nck family proteins involve in regulating the activity of Rho family GTPases. In the present study, we characterized a novel interaction between Nck-1 with engulfment and cell motility 1 (ELMO1). GST pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that the Nck-1-ELMO1 interaction is mediated by the SH2 domain of Nck-1 and the phosphotyrosine residues at position 18, 216, 395, and 511 of ELMO1. A R308K mutant of Nck-1 (in which the SH2 domain was inactive), or a 4YF mutant of ELMO1 lacking these four phosphotyrosine residues, diminished Nck-1-ELMO1 interaction. Conversely, tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor treatment and overexpression of Src family kinase Hck significantly enhanced Nck-1-ELMO1 interaction. Moreover, wild type Nck-1, but not R308K mutant, significantly augmented the interaction between ELMO1 and constitutively active RhoG (RhoG(V12A)), thus promoted Rac1 activation and cell motility. Taken together, the present study characterized a novel Nck-1-ELMO1 interaction and defined a new role for Nck-1 in regulating Rac1 activity. PMID:24928514

  10. Non-redundant and complementary functions of adaptor proteins TRAF2 and TRAF3 in a ubiquitination cascade that activates NIK-dependent alternative NF-κB signaling

    PubMed Central

    Vallabhapurapu, Sivakumar; Matsuzawa, Atsushi; Zhang, WeiZhou; Tseng, Ping-Hui; Keats, Jonathan J.; Wang, Haopeng; Vignali, Dario A. A.; Bergsagel, P. Leif; Karin, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The adaptor and signaling proteins TRAF2, TRAF3 and cIAP1 and cIAP2 were suggested to inhibit alternative nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling in resting cells by targeting NF-κB inducing kinase (NIK) to ubiquitin-dependent degradation, thus preventing processing of the NF-κB2 precursor protein p100 to release p52. However, the respective functions of TRAF2 and TRAF3 in NIK degradation and activation of alternative NF-κB signaling has remained elusive. We now show that CD40 or BAFF receptor activation resulted in TRAF3 degradation in a cIAP1-cIAP2- and TRAF2- dependent way due to enhanced cIAP1, cIAP2 TRAF3-directed ubiquitin ligase activity. Receptor-induced activation of cIAP1 and cIAP2 correlated with their K63-linked ubiquitination by TRAF2. Degradation of TRAF3 prevented association of NIK with the cIAP1-cIAP2-TRAF2 ubiquitin ligase complex, which resulted in NIK stabilization and NF-κB2-p100 processing. Constitutive activation of this pathway causes perinatal lethality and lymphoid defects. PMID:18997792

  11. A local average connectivity-based method for identifying essential proteins from the network level.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Wang, Jianxin; Chen, Xiang; Wang, Huan; Pan, Yi

    2011-06-01

    Identifying essential proteins is very important for understanding the minimal requirements of cellular survival and development. Fast growth in the amount of available protein-protein interactions has produced unprecedented opportunities for detecting protein essentiality from the network level. Essential proteins have been found to be more abundant among those highly connected proteins. However, there exist a number of highly connected proteins which are not essential. By analyzing these proteins, we find that few of their neighbors interact with each other. Thus, we propose a new local method, named LAC, to determine a protein's essentiality by evaluating the relationship between a protein and its neighbors. The performance of LAC is validated based on the yeast protein interaction networks obtained from two different databases: DIP and BioGRID. The experimental results of the two networks show that the number of essential proteins predicted by LAC clearly exceeds that explored by Degree Centrality (DC). More over, LAC is also compared with other seven measures of protein centrality (Neighborhood Component (DMNC), Betweenness Centrality (BC), Closeness Centrality (CC), Bottle Neck (BN), Information Centrality (IC), Eigenvector Centrality (EC), and Subgraph Centrality (SC)) in identifying essential proteins. The comparison results based on the validations of sensitivity, specificity, F-measure, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy consistently show that LAC outweighs these seven previous methods. PMID:21704260

  12. Phosphorylation of Adaptor Protein Containing Pleckstrin Homology Domain, Phosphotyrosine Binding Domain, and Leucine Zipper Motif 1 (APPL1) at Ser430 Mediates Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Stress-induced Insulin Resistance in Hepatocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Meilian; Zhou, Lijun; Wei, Li; Villarreal, Ricardo; Yang, Xin; Hu, Derong; Riojas, Ramon A.; Holmes, Bekke M.; Langlais, Paul R.; Lee, Hakjoo; Dong, Lily Q.

    2012-01-01

    APPL1 is an adaptor protein that plays a critical role in regulating adiponectin and insulin signaling. However, how APPL1 is regulated under normal and pathological conditions remains largely unknown. In this study, we show that APPL1 undergoes phosphorylation at Ser430 and that this phosphorylation is enhanced in the liver of obese mice displaying insulin resistance. In cultured mouse hepatocytes, APPL1 phosphorylation at Ser430 is stimulated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, an activator of classic PKC isoforms, and by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inducer, thapsigargin. Overexpression of wild-type but not dominant negative PKCα increases APPL1 phosphorylation at Ser430 in mouse hepatocytes. In addition, suppressing PKCα expression by shRNA in hepatocytes reduces ER stress-induced APPL1 phosphorylation at Ser430 as well as the inhibitory effect of ER stress on insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation. Consistent with a negative regulatory role of APPL1 phosphorylation at Ser430 in insulin signaling, overexpression of APPL1S430D but not APPL1S430A impairs the potentiating effect of APPL1 on insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation at Thr308. Taken together, our results identify APPL1 as a novel target in ER stress-induced insulin resistance and PKCα as the kinase mediating ER stress-induced phosphorylation of APPL1 at Ser430. PMID:22685300

  13. Fast kinase domain-containing protein 3 is a mitochondrial protein essential for cellular respiration

    SciTech Connect

    Simarro, Maria; Gimenez-Cassina, Alfredo; Kedersha, Nancy; Lazaro, Jean-Bernard; Adelmant, Guillaume O.; Marto, Jarrod A.; Rhee, Kirsten; Tisdale, Sarah; Danial, Nika; Benarafa, Charaf; Orduna, Anonio; Anderson, Paul

    2010-10-22

    Research highlights: {yields} Five members of the FAST kinase domain-containing proteins are localized to mitochondria in mammalian cells. {yields} The FASTKD3 interactome includes proteins involved in various aspects of mitochondrial metabolism. {yields} Targeted knockdown of FASTKD3 significantly reduces basal and maximal mitochondrial oxygen consumption. -- Abstract: Fas-activated serine/threonine phosphoprotein (FAST) is the founding member of the FAST kinase domain-containing protein (FASTKD) family that includes FASTKD1-5. FAST is a sensor of mitochondrial stress that modulates protein translation to promote the survival of cells exposed to adverse conditions. Mutations in FASTKD2 have been linked to a mitochondrial encephalomyopathy that is associated with reduced cytochrome c oxidase activity, an essential component of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. We have confirmed the mitochondrial localization of FASTKD2 and shown that all FASTKD family members are found in mitochondria. Although human and mouse FASTKD1-5 genes are expressed ubiquitously, some of them are most abundantly expressed in mitochondria-enriched tissues. We have found that RNA interference-mediated knockdown of FASTKD3 severely blunts basal and stress-induced mitochondrial oxygen consumption without disrupting the assembly of respiratory chain complexes. Tandem affinity purification reveals that FASTKD3 interacts with components of mitochondrial respiratory and translation machineries. Our results introduce FASTKD3 as an essential component of mitochondrial respiration that may modulate energy balance in cells exposed to adverse conditions by functionally coupling mitochondrial protein synthesis to respiration.

  14. Absence of the Adaptor Protein PEA-15 Is Associated with Altered Pattern of Th Cytokines Production by Activated CD4+ T Lymphocytes In Vitro, and Defective Red Blood Cell Alloimmune Response In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kerbrat, Stéphane; Vingert, Benoit; Junier, Marie-Pierre; Castellano, Flavia; Renault-Mihara, François; Dos Reis Tavares, Silvina; Surenaud, Mathieu; Noizat-Pirenne, France; Boczkowski, Jorge; Guellaën, Georges; Chneiweiss, Hervé; Le Gouvello, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    TCR-dependent and costimulation signaling, cell division, and cytokine environment are major factors driving cytokines expression induced by CD4+ T cell activation. PEA-15 15 (Protein Enriched in Astrocyte / 15kDa) is an adaptor protein that regulates death receptor-induced apoptosis and proliferation signaling by binding to FADD and relocating ERK1/2 to the cytosol, respectively. By using PEA-15-deficient mice, we examined the role of PEA-15 in TCR-dependent cytokine production in CD4+ T cells. TCR-stimulated PEA-15-deficient CD4+ T cells exhibited defective progression through the cell cycle associated with impaired expression of cyclin E and phosphoRb, two ERK1/2-dependent proteins of the cell cycle. Accordingly, expression of the division cycle-dependent cytokines IL-2 and IFNγ, a Th1 cytokine, was reduced in stimulated PEA-15-deficient CD4+ T cells. This was associated with abnormal subcellular compartmentalization of activated ERK1/2 in PEA-15-deficient T cells. Furthermore, in vitro TCR-dependent differentiation of naive CD4+ CD62L+ PEA-15-deficient T cells was associated with a lower production of the Th2 cytokine, IL-4, whereas expression of the Th17-associated molecule IL4I1 was enhanced. Finally, a defective humoral response was shown in PEA-15-deficient mice in a model of red blood cell alloimmunization performed with Poly IC, a classical adjuvant of Th1 response in vivo. Collectively, our data suggest that PEA-15 contributes to the specification of the cytokine pattern of activated Th cells, thus highlighting a potential new target to interfere with T cell functional polarization and subsequent immune response. PMID:26317969

  15. Absence of the Adaptor Protein PEA-15 Is Associated with Altered Pattern of Th Cytokines Production by Activated CD4+ T Lymphocytes In Vitro, and Defective Red Blood Cell Alloimmune Response In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Kerbrat, Stéphane; Vingert, Benoit; Junier, Marie-Pierre; Castellano, Flavia; Renault-Mihara, François; Dos Reis Tavares, Silvina; Surenaud, Mathieu; Noizat-Pirenne, France; Boczkowski, Jorge; Guellaën, Georges; Chneiweiss, Hervé; Le Gouvello, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    TCR-dependent and costimulation signaling, cell division, and cytokine environment are major factors driving cytokines expression induced by CD4(+) T cell activation. PEA-15 15 (Protein Enriched in Astrocyte / 15 kDa) is an adaptor protein that regulates death receptor-induced apoptosis and proliferation signaling by binding to FADD and relocating ERK1/2 to the cytosol, respectively. By using PEA-15-deficient mice, we examined the role of PEA-15 in TCR-dependent cytokine production in CD4(+) T cells. TCR-stimulated PEA-15-deficient CD4(+) T cells exhibited defective progression through the cell cycle associated with impaired expression of cyclin E and phosphoRb, two ERK1/2-dependent proteins of the cell cycle. Accordingly, expression of the division cycle-dependent cytokines IL-2 and IFNγ, a Th1 cytokine, was reduced in stimulated PEA-15-deficient CD4(+) T cells. This was associated with abnormal subcellular compartmentalization of activated ERK1/2 in PEA-15-deficient T cells. Furthermore, in vitro TCR-dependent differentiation of naive CD4(+) CD62L(+) PEA-15-deficient T cells was associated with a lower production of the Th2 cytokine, IL-4, whereas expression of the Th17-associated molecule IL4I1 was enhanced. Finally, a defective humoral response was shown in PEA-15-deficient mice in a model of red blood cell alloimmunization performed with Poly IC, a classical adjuvant of Th1 response in vivo. Collectively, our data suggest that PEA-15 contributes to the specification of the cytokine pattern of activated Th cells, thus highlighting a potential new target to interfere with T cell functional polarization and subsequent immune response. PMID:26317969

  16. Linker for Activation of T-cell Family Member2 (LAT2) a Lipid Raft Adaptor Protein for AKT Signaling, Is an Early Mediator of Alkylphospholipid Anti-leukemic Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Thomé, Carolina H.; dos Santos, Guilherme A.; Ferreira, Germano A.; Scheucher, Priscila S.; Izumi, Clarice; Leopoldino, Andreia M.; Simão, Ana Maria; Ciancaglini, Pietro; de Oliveira, Kleber T.; Chin, Alice; Hanash, Samir M.; Falcão, Roberto P.; Rego, Eduardo M.; Greene, Lewis J.; Faça, Vitor M.

    2012-01-01

    Lipid rafts are highly ordered membrane domains rich in cholesterol and sphingolipids that provide a scaffold for signal transduction proteins; altered raft structure has also been implicated in cancer progression. We have shown that 25 μm 10-(octyloxy) decyl-2-(trimethylammonium) ethyl phosphate (ODPC), an alkylphospholipid, targets high cholesterol domains in model membranes and induces apoptosis in leukemia cells but spares normal hematopoietic and epithelial cells under the same conditions. We performed a quantitative (SILAC) proteomic screening of ODPC targets in a lipid-raft-enriched fraction of leukemic cells to identify early events prior to the initiation of apoptosis. Six proteins, three with demonstrated palmitoylation sites, were reduced in abundance. One, the linker for activation of T-cell family member 2 (LAT2), is an adaptor protein associated with lipid rafts in its palmitoylated form and is specifically expressed in B lymphocytes and myeloid cells. Interestingly, LAT2 is not expressed in K562, a cell line more resistant to ODPC-induced apoptosis. There was an early loss of LAT2 in the lipid-raft-enriched fraction of NB4 cells within 3 h following treatment with 25 μm ODPC. Subsequent degradation of LAT2 by proteasomes was observed. Twenty-five μm ODPC inhibited AKT activation via myeloid growth factors, and LAT2 knockdown in NB4 cells by shRNA reproduced this effect. LAT2 knockdown in NB4 cells also decreased cell proliferation and increased cell sensitivity to ODPC (7.5×), perifosine (3×), and arsenic trioxide (8.5×). Taken together, these data indicate that LAT2 is an early mediator of the anti-leukemic activity of alkylphospholipids and arsenic trioxide. Thus, LAT2 may be used as a target for the design of drugs for cancer therapy. PMID:23001822

  17. Linker for activation of T-cell family member2 (LAT2) a lipid raft adaptor protein for AKT signaling, is an early mediator of alkylphospholipid anti-leukemic activity.

    PubMed

    Thomé, Carolina H; dos Santos, Guilherme A; Ferreira, Germano A; Scheucher, Priscila S; Izumi, Clarice; Leopoldino, Andreia M; Simão, Ana Maria; Ciancaglini, Pietro; de Oliveira, Kleber T; Chin, Alice; Hanash, Samir M; Falcão, Roberto P; Rego, Eduardo M; Greene, Lewis J; Faça, Vitor M

    2012-12-01

    Lipid rafts are highly ordered membrane domains rich in cholesterol and sphingolipids that provide a scaffold for signal transduction proteins; altered raft structure has also been implicated in cancer progression. We have shown that 25 μm 10-(octyloxy) decyl-2-(trimethylammonium) ethyl phosphate (ODPC), an alkylphospholipid, targets high cholesterol domains in model membranes and induces apoptosis in leukemia cells but spares normal hematopoietic and epithelial cells under the same conditions. We performed a quantitative (SILAC) proteomic screening of ODPC targets in a lipid-raft-enriched fraction of leukemic cells to identify early events prior to the initiation of apoptosis. Six proteins, three with demonstrated palmitoylation sites, were reduced in abundance. One, the linker for activation of T-cell family member 2 (LAT2), is an adaptor protein associated with lipid rafts in its palmitoylated form and is specifically expressed in B lymphocytes and myeloid cells. Interestingly, LAT2 is not expressed in K562, a cell line more resistant to ODPC-induced apoptosis. There was an early loss of LAT2 in the lipid-raft-enriched fraction of NB4 cells within 3 h following treatment with 25 μm ODPC. Subsequent degradation of LAT2 by proteasomes was observed. Twenty-five μm ODPC inhibited AKT activation via myeloid growth factors, and LAT2 knockdown in NB4 cells by shRNA reproduced this effect. LAT2 knockdown in NB4 cells also decreased cell proliferation and increased cell sensitivity to ODPC (7.5×), perifosine (3×), and arsenic trioxide (8.5×). Taken together, these data indicate that LAT2 is an early mediator of the anti-leukemic activity of alkylphospholipids and arsenic trioxide. Thus, LAT2 may be used as a target for the design of drugs for cancer therapy. PMID:23001822

  18. Loss of PDZ-adaptor protein NHERF2 affects membrane localization and cGMP- and [Ca2+]- but not cAMP-dependent regulation of Na+/H+ exchanger 3 in murine intestine

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mingmin; Sultan, Ayesha; Cinar, Ayhan; Yeruva, Sunil; Riederer, Brigitte; Singh, Anurag Kumar; Li, Junhua; Bonhagen, Janina; Chen, Gang; Yun, Chris; Donowitz, Mark; Hogema, Boris; deJonge, Hugo; Seidler, Ursula

    2010-01-01

    Trafficking and regulation of the epithelial brush border membrane (BBM) Na+/H+ exchanger 3 (NHE3) in the intestine involves interaction with four different members of the NHERF family in a signal-dependent and possibly segment-specific fashion. The aim of this research was to study the role of NHERF2 (E3KARP) in intestinal NHE3 BBM localization and second messenger-mediated and receptor-mediated inhibition of NHE3. Immunolocalization of NHE3 in WT mice revealed predominant microvillar localization in jejunum and colon, a mixed distribution in the proximal ileum but localization near the terminal web in the distal ileum. The terminal web localization of NHE3 in the distal ileum correlated with reduced acid-activated NHE3 activity (fluorometrically assessed). NHERF2 ablation resulted in a shift of NHE3 to the microvilli and higher basal fluid absorption rates in the ileum, but no change in overall NHE3 protein or mRNA expression. Forskolin-induced NHE3 inhibition was preserved in the absence of NHERF2, whereas Ca2+ ionophore- or carbachol-mediated inhibition was abolished. Likewise, Escherichia coli heat stable enterotoxin peptide (STp) lost its inhibitory effect on intestinal NHE3. It is concluded that in native murine intestine, the NHE3 adaptor protein NHERF2 plays important roles in tethering NHE3 to a position near the terminal web and in second messenger inhibition of NHE3 in a signal- and segment-specific fashion, and is therefore an important regulator of intestinal fluid transport. PMID:20962002

  19. Arabidopsis BPM Proteins Function as Substrate Adaptors to a CULLIN3-Based E3 Ligase to Affect Fatty Acid Metabolism in Plants[W

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liyuan; Lee, Joo Hyun; Weber, Henriette; Tohge, Takayuki; Witt, Sandra; Roje, Sanja; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Hellmann, Hanjo

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of transcriptional processes is a critical mechanism that enables efficient coordination of the synthesis of required proteins in response to environmental and cellular changes. Transcription factors require accurate activity regulation because they play a critical role as key mediators assuring specific expression of target genes. In this work, we show that CULLIN3-based E3 ligases have the potential to interact with a broad range of ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (ERF)/APETALA2 (AP2) transcription factors, mediated by MATH-BTB/POZ (for Meprin and TRAF [tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor] homolog)-Broad complex, Tramtrack, Bric-a-brac/Pox virus and Zinc finger) proteins. The assembly with an E3 ligase causes degradation of their substrates via the 26S proteasome, as demonstrated for the WRINKLED1 ERF/AP2 protein. Furthermore, loss of MATH-BTB/POZ proteins widely affects plant development and causes altered fatty acid contents in mutant seeds. Overall, this work demonstrates a link between fatty acid metabolism and E3 ligase activities in plants and establishes CUL3-based E3 ligases as key regulators in transcriptional processes that involve ERF/AP2 family members. PMID:23792371

  20. Vitamin E (E) supplementation reverses the age associated decline in phosphorylation of the adaptor protein LAT in CD4+ T cells of old mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    T cell proliferation and interleukin (IL-2) production declines with age. Engagement of the T cell receptor (TCR) by antigen (Ag), known as the immune synapse (IS), in coordination with phosphorylation of key signaling proteins, leads to increased IL-2 synthesis and T cell proliferation. Defects in ...

  1. Effective identification of essential proteins based on priori knowledge, network topology and gene expressions.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Zheng, Ruiqing; Zhang, Hanhui; Wang, Jianxin; Pan, Yi

    2014-06-01

    Identification of essential proteins is very important for understanding the minimal requirements for cellular life and also necessary for a series of practical applications, such as drug design. With the advances in high throughput technologies, a large number of protein-protein interactions are available, which makes it possible to detect proteins' essentialities from the network level. Considering that most species already have a number of known essential proteins, we proposed a new priori knowledge-based scheme to discover new essential proteins from protein interaction networks. Based on the new scheme, two essential protein discovery algorithms, CPPK and CEPPK, were developed. CPPK predicts new essential proteins based on network topology and CEPPK detects new essential proteins by integrating network topology and gene expressions. The performances of CPPK and CEPPK were validated based on the protein interaction network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The experimental results showed that the priori knowledge of known essential proteins was effective for improving the predicted precision. The predicted precisions of CPPK and CEPPK clearly exceeded that of the other 10 previously proposed essential protein discovery methods: Degree Centrality (DC), Betweenness Centrality (BC), Closeness Centrality (CC), Subgraph Centrality (SC), Eigenvector Centrality (EC), Information Centrality (IC), Bottle Neck (BN), Density of Maximum Neighborhood Component (DMNC), Local Average Connectivity-based method (LAC), and Network Centrality (NC). Especially, CPPK achieved 40% improvement in precision over BC, CC, SC, EC, and BN, and CEPPK performed even better. CEPPK was also compared to four other methods (EPC, ORFL, PeC, and CoEWC) which were not node centralities and CEPPK was showed to achieve the best results. PMID:24565748

  2. Clathrin binding by the adaptor Ent5 promotes late stages of clathrin coat maturation

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Chao-Wei; Duncan, Mara C.

    2016-01-01

    Clathrin is a ubiquitous protein that mediates membrane traffic at many locations. To function, clathrin requires clathrin adaptors that link it to transmembrane protein cargo. In addition to this cargo selection function, many adaptors also play mechanistic roles in the formation of the transport carrier. However, the full spectrum of these mechanistic roles is poorly understood. Here we report that Ent5, an endosomal clathrin adaptor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, regulates the behavior of clathrin coats after the recruitment of clathrin. We show that loss of Ent5 disrupts clathrin-dependent traffic and prolongs the lifespan of endosomal structures that contain clathrin and other adaptors, suggesting a defect in coat maturation at a late stage. We find that the direct binding of Ent5 with clathrin is required for its role in coat behavior and cargo traffic. Surprisingly, the interaction of Ent5 with other adaptors is dispensable for coat behavior but not cargo traffic. These findings support a model in which Ent5 clathrin binding performs a mechanistic role in coat maturation, whereas Ent5 adaptor binding promotes cargo incorporation. PMID:26842894

  3. Predicting Essential Genes and Proteins Based on Machine Learning and Network Topological Features: A Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xue; Acencio, Marcio Luis; Lemke, Ney

    2016-01-01

    Essential proteins/genes are indispensable to the survival or reproduction of an organism, and the deletion of such essential proteins will result in lethality or infertility. The identification of essential genes is very important not only for understanding the minimal requirements for survival of an organism, but also for finding human disease genes and new drug targets. Experimental methods for identifying essential genes are costly, time-consuming, and laborious. With the accumulation of sequenced genomes data and high-throughput experimental data, many computational methods for identifying essential proteins are proposed, which are useful complements to experimental methods. In this review, we show the state-of-the-art methods for identifying essential genes and proteins based on machine learning and network topological features, point out the progress and limitations of current methods, and discuss the challenges and directions for further research. PMID:27014079

  4. Differential Association of the Na+/H+ Exchanger Regulatory Factor (NHERF) Family of Adaptor Proteins with the Raft-and the Non-Raft Brush Border Membrane Fractions of NHE3

    PubMed Central

    Sultan, Ayesha; Luo, Min; Yu, Qin; Riederer, Brigitte; Xia, Weiliang; Chen, Mingmin; Lissner, Simone; Gessner, Johannes E.; Donowitz, Mark; Yun, C. Chris; deJonge, Hugo; Lamprecht, Georg; Seidler, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Trafficking, brush border membrane (BBM) retention, and signal-specific regulation of the Na+/H+ exchanger NHE3 is regulated by the Na+/H+ Exchanger Regulatory Factor (NHERF) family of PDZ-adaptor proteins, which enable the formation of multiprotein complexes. It is unclear, however, what determines signal specificity of these NHERFs. Thus, we studied the association of NHE3, NHERF1 (EBP50), NHERF2 (E3KARP), and NHERF3 (PDZK1) with lipid rafts in murine small intestinal BBM. Methods Detergent resistant membranes (“lipid rafts”) were isolated by floatation of Triton X-incubated small intestinal BBM from a variety of knockout mouse strains in an Optiprep step gradient. Acid-activated NHE3 activity was measured fluorometrically in BCECF-loaded microdissected villi, or by assessment of CO2/HCO3− mediated increase in fluid absorption in perfused jejunal loops of anethetized mice. Results NHE3 was found to partially associate with lipid rafts in the native BBM, and NHE3 raft association had an impact on NHE3 transport activity and regulation in vivo. NHERF1, 2 and 3 were differentially distributed to rafts and non-rafts, with NHERF2 being most raft-associated and NHERF3 entirely non-raft associated. NHERF2 expression enhanced the localization of NHE3 to membrane rafts. The use of acid sphingomyelinase-deficient mice, which have altered membrane lipid as well as lipid raft composition, allowed us to test the validity of the lipid raft concept in vivo. Conclusions The differential association of the NHERFs with the raft-associated and the non-raft fraction of NHE3 in the brush border membrane is one component of the differential and signal-specific NHE3 regulation by the different NHERFs. PMID:24297041

  5. Abelson interactor-1 (ABI-1) interacts with MRL adaptor protein MIG-10 and is required in guided cell migrations and process outgrowth in C.elegans

    PubMed Central

    McShea, Molly A.; Schmidt, Kristopher L.; Dubuke, Michelle L.; Baldiga, Christina E.; Sullender, Meagan E.; Reis, Andrea L.; Zhang, Subaiou; O'Toole, Sean M.; Jeffers, Mary C.; Warden, Rachel M.; Kenney, Allison H.; Gosselin, Jennifer; Kuhlwein, Mark; Hashmi, Sana K.; Stringham, Eve G.; Ryder, Elizabeth F.

    2012-01-01

    Directed cell migration and process outgrowth are vital to proper development of many metazoan tissues. These processes are dependent on reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in response to external guidance cues. During development of the nervous system, the MIG-10/RIAM/Lamellipodin (MRL) signaling proteins are thought to transmit positional information from surface guidance cues to the actin polymerization machinery, and thus to promote polarized outgrowth of axons. In C. elegans, mutations in the MRL family member gene mig-10 result in animals that have defects in axon guidance, neuronal migration, and the outgrowth of the processes or ‘canals’ of the excretory cell, which is required for osmoregulation in the worm. In addition, mig-10 mutant animals have recently been shown to have defects in clustering of vesicles at the synapse. To determine additional molecular partners of MIG-10, we conducted a yeast two hybrid screen using isoform MIG-10A as bait and isolated Abelson-interactor protein-1 (ABI-1). ABI-1, a downstream target of Abl non-receptor tyrosine kinase, is a member of the WAVE regulatory complex (WRC) involved in the initiation of actin polymerization. Further analysis using a co-mmunoprecipitation system confirmed the interaction of MIG-10 and ABI-1 and showed that it requires the SH3 domain of ABI-1. Single mutants for mig-10 and abi-1 displayed similar phenotypes of incomplete migration of the ALM neurons and truncated outgrowth of the excretory cell canals, suggesting that the ABI-1/MIG-10 interaction is relevant in vivo. Cell autonomous expression of MIG-10 isoforms rescued both the neuronal migration and the canal outgrowth defects, showing that MIG-10 functions autonomously in the ALM neurons and the excretory cell. These results suggest that MIG-10 and ABI-1 interact physically to promote cell migration and process outgrowth in vivo. In the excretory canal, ABI-1 is thought to act downstream of UNC-53/NAV2, linking this large

  6. DNA-Binding Proteins Essential for Protein-Primed Bacteriophage Φ29 DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Margarita; Holguera, Isabel; Redrejo-Rodríguez, Modesto; de Vega, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis phage Φ29 has a linear, double-stranded DNA 19 kb long with an inverted terminal repeat of 6 nucleotides and a protein covalently linked to the 5′ ends of the DNA. This protein, called terminal protein (TP), is the primer for the initiation of replication, a reaction catalyzed by the viral DNA polymerase at the two DNA ends. The DNA polymerase further elongates the nascent DNA chain in a processive manner, coupling strand displacement with elongation. The viral protein p5 is a single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB) that binds to the single strands generated by strand displacement during the elongation process. Viral protein p6 is a double-stranded DNA binding protein (DBP) that preferentially binds to the origins of replication at the Φ29 DNA ends and is required for the initiation of replication. Both SSB and DBP are essential for Φ29 DNA amplification. This review focuses on the role of these phage DNA-binding proteins in Φ29 DNA replication both in vitro and in vivo, as well as on the implication of several B. subtilis DNA-binding proteins in different processes of the viral cycle. We will revise the enzymatic activities of the Φ29 DNA polymerase: TP-deoxynucleotidylation, processive DNA polymerization coupled to strand displacement, 3′–5′ exonucleolysis and pyrophosphorolysis. The resolution of the Φ29 DNA polymerase structure has shed light on the translocation mechanism and the determinants responsible for processivity and strand displacement. These two properties have made Φ29 DNA polymerase one of the main enzymes used in the current DNA amplification technologies. The determination of the structure of Φ29 TP revealed the existence of three domains: the priming domain, where the primer residue Ser232, as well as Phe230, involved in the determination of the initiating nucleotide, are located, the intermediate domain, involved in DNA polymerase binding, and the N-terminal domain, responsible for DNA binding and

  7. DNA-Binding Proteins Essential for Protein-Primed Bacteriophage Φ29 DNA Replication.

    PubMed

    Salas, Margarita; Holguera, Isabel; Redrejo-Rodríguez, Modesto; de Vega, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis phage Φ29 has a linear, double-stranded DNA 19 kb long with an inverted terminal repeat of 6 nucleotides and a protein covalently linked to the 5' ends of the DNA. This protein, called terminal protein (TP), is the primer for the initiation of replication, a reaction catalyzed by the viral DNA polymerase at the two DNA ends. The DNA polymerase further elongates the nascent DNA chain in a processive manner, coupling strand displacement with elongation. The viral protein p5 is a single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB) that binds to the single strands generated by strand displacement during the elongation process. Viral protein p6 is a double-stranded DNA binding protein (DBP) that preferentially binds to the origins of replication at the Φ29 DNA ends and is required for the initiation of replication. Both SSB and DBP are essential for Φ29 DNA amplification. This review focuses on the role of these phage DNA-binding proteins in Φ29 DNA replication both in vitro and in vivo, as well as on the implication of several B. subtilis DNA-binding proteins in different processes of the viral cycle. We will revise the enzymatic activities of the Φ29 DNA polymerase: TP-deoxynucleotidylation, processive DNA polymerization coupled to strand displacement, 3'-5' exonucleolysis and pyrophosphorolysis. The resolution of the Φ29 DNA polymerase structure has shed light on the translocation mechanism and the determinants responsible for processivity and strand displacement. These two properties have made Φ29 DNA polymerase one of the main enzymes used in the current DNA amplification technologies. The determination of the structure of Φ29 TP revealed the existence of three domains: the priming domain, where the primer residue Ser232, as well as Phe230, involved in the determination of the initiating nucleotide, are located, the intermediate domain, involved in DNA polymerase binding, and the N-terminal domain, responsible for DNA binding and localization of the

  8. MyD88 adaptor-like (Mal) functions in the epithelial barrier and contributes to intestinal integrity via protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Corr, S C; Palsson-McDermott, E M; Grishina, I; Barry, S P; Aviello, G; Bernard, N J; Casey, P G; Ward, J B J; Keely, S J; Dandekar, S; Fallon, P G; O'Neill, L A J

    2014-01-01

    MyD88 adapter-like (Mal)-deficient mice displayed increased susceptibility to oral but not intraperitoneal infection with Salmonella Typhimurium. Bone marrow chimeras demonstrated that mice with Mal-deficient non-hematopoietic cells were more susceptible to infection, indicating a role for Mal in non-myeloid cells. We observed perturbed barrier function in Mal(-/-) mice, as indicated by reduced electrical resistance and increased mucosa blood permeability following infection. Altered expression of occludin, Zonula occludens-1, and claudin-3 in intestinal epithelia from Mal(-/-) mice suggest that Mal regulates tight junction formation, which may in part contribute to intestinal integrity. Mal interacted with several protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms in a Caco-2 model of intestinal epithelia and inhibition of Mal or PKC increased permeability and bacterial invasion via a paracellular route, while a pan-PKC inhibitor increased susceptibility to oral infection in mice. Mal signaling is therefore beneficial to the integrity of the intestinal barrier during infection. PMID:23612054

  9. Palmitic acid increases pro-oxidant adaptor protein p66Shc expression and affects vascularization factors in angiogenic mononuclear cells: Action of resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Favre, Julie; Yildirim, Cansu; Leyen, Thomas A; Chen, Weena J Y; van Genugten, Renate E; van Golen, Larissa W; Garcia-Vallejo, Juan-Jesus; Musters, Rene; Baggen, Josefien; Fontijn, Ruud; van der Pouw Kraan, Tineke; Serné, Erik; Koolwijk, Pieter; Diamant, Michaela; Horrevoets, Anton J G

    2015-12-01

    A defect in neo-vascularization process involving circulating angiogenic mononuclear cells (CACs) dysfunction is associated with diabetes. We showed that oxidative stress was elevated in CACs cultured from blood of individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and diabetes. We then assessed the action of palmitic acid (PA), a deregulated and increased NEFA in metabolic disorders, focusing on its oxidant potential. We observed that the phyto-polyphenol resveratrol normalized oxidative stress both in CACs isolated from MetS patients or treated with PA. Resveratrol further decreased the deleterious action of PA on gene expression of vascularization factors (TNFα, VEGF-A, SDF1α, PECAM-1, VEGFR2, Tie2 and CXCR4) and improved CAC motility. Particularly, resveratrol abolished the PA-induced over-expression of the pro-oxidant protein p66Shc. Neither KLF2 nor SIRT1, previously shown in resveratrol and p66Shc action, was directly involved. Silencing p66Shc normalized PA action on VEGF-A and TNFα specifically, without abolishing the PA-induced oxidative stress, which suggests a deleterious role of p66Shc independently of any major modulation of the cellular oxidative status in a high NEFA levels context. Besides showing that resveratrol reverses PA-induced harmful effects on human CAC function, certainly through profound cellular modifications, we establish p66Shc as a major therapeutic target in metabolic disorders, independent from glycemic control. PMID:26254104

  10. The E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Adaptor Protein Skp1 Is Glycosylated by an Evolutionarily Conserved Pathway That Regulates Protist Growth and Development.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Kazi; Zhao, Peng; Mandalasi, Msano; van der Wel, Hanke; Wells, Lance; Blader, Ira J; West, Christopher M

    2016-02-26

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protist parasite of warm-blooded animals that causes disease by proliferating intracellularly in muscle and the central nervous system. Previous studies showed that a prolyl 4-hydroxylase related to animal HIFα prolyl hydroxylases is required for optimal parasite proliferation, especially at low O2. We also observed that Pro-154 of Skp1, a subunit of the Skp1/Cullin-1/F-box protein (SCF)-class of E3-ubiquitin ligases, is a natural substrate of this enzyme. In an unrelated protist, Dictyostelium discoideum, Skp1 hydroxyproline is modified by five sugars via the action of three glycosyltransferases, Gnt1, PgtA, and AgtA, which are required for optimal O2-dependent development. We show here that TgSkp1 hydroxyproline is modified by a similar pentasaccharide, based on mass spectrometry, and that assembly of the first three sugars is dependent on Toxoplasma homologs of Gnt1 and PgtA. Reconstitution of the glycosyltransferase reactions in extracts with radioactive sugar nucleotide substrates and appropriate Skp1 glycoforms, followed by chromatographic analysis of acid hydrolysates of the reaction products, confirmed the predicted sugar identities as GlcNAc, Gal, and Fuc. Disruptions of gnt1 or pgtA resulted in decreased parasite growth. Off target effects were excluded based on restoration of the normal glycan chain and growth upon genetic complementation. By analogy to Dictyostelium Skp1, the mechanism may involve regulation of assembly of the SCF complex. Understanding the mechanism of Toxoplasma Skp1 glycosylation is expected to help develop it as a drug target for control of the pathogen, as the glycosyltransferases are absent from mammalian hosts. PMID:26719340

  11. Identifying hierarchical and overlapping protein complexes based on essential protein-protein interactions and "seed-expanding" method.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jun; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    Many evidences have demonstrated that protein complexes are overlapping and hierarchically organized in PPI networks. Meanwhile, the large size of PPI network wants complex detection methods have low time complexity. Up to now, few methods can identify overlapping and hierarchical protein complexes in a PPI network quickly. In this paper, a novel method, called MCSE, is proposed based on λ-module and "seed-expanding." First, it chooses seeds as essential PPIs or edges with high edge clustering values. Then, it identifies protein complexes by expanding each seed to a λ-module. MCSE is suitable for large PPI networks because of its low time complexity. MCSE can identify overlapping protein complexes naturally because a protein can be visited by different seeds. MCSE uses the parameter λ_th to control the range of seed expanding and can detect a hierarchical organization of protein complexes by tuning the value of λ_th. Experimental results of S. cerevisiae show that this hierarchical organization is similar to that of known complexes in MIPS database. The experimental results also show that MCSE outperforms other previous competing algorithms, such as CPM, CMC, Core-Attachment, Dpclus, HC-PIN, MCL, and NFC, in terms of the functional enrichment and matching with known protein complexes. PMID:25143945

  12. Identifying Hierarchical and Overlapping Protein Complexes Based on Essential Protein-Protein Interactions and “Seed-Expanding” Method

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jun; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    Many evidences have demonstrated that protein complexes are overlapping and hierarchically organized in PPI networks. Meanwhile, the large size of PPI network wants complex detection methods have low time complexity. Up to now, few methods can identify overlapping and hierarchical protein complexes in a PPI network quickly. In this paper, a novel method, called MCSE, is proposed based on λ-module and “seed-expanding.” First, it chooses seeds as essential PPIs or edges with high edge clustering values. Then, it identifies protein complexes by expanding each seed to a λ-module. MCSE is suitable for large PPI networks because of its low time complexity. MCSE can identify overlapping protein complexes naturally because a protein can be visited by different seeds. MCSE uses the parameter λ_th to control the range of seed expanding and can detect a hierarchical organization of protein complexes by tuning the value of λ_th. Experimental results of S. cerevisiae show that this hierarchical organization is similar to that of known complexes in MIPS database. The experimental results also show that MCSE outperforms other previous competing algorithms, such as CPM, CMC, Core-Attachment, Dpclus, HC-PIN, MCL, and NFC, in terms of the functional enrichment and matching with known protein complexes. PMID:25143945

  13. Tau protein is essential for stress-induced brain pathology.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Sofia; Vaz-Silva, João; Pinto, Vitor; Dalla, Christina; Kokras, Nikolaos; Bedenk, Benedikt; Mack, Natalie; Czisch, Michael; Almeida, Osborne F X; Sousa, Nuno; Sotiropoulos, Ioannis

    2016-06-28

    Exposure to chronic stress is frequently accompanied by cognitive and affective disorders in association with neurostructural adaptations. Chronic stress was previously shown to trigger Alzheimer's-like neuropathology, which is characterized by Tau hyperphosphorylation and missorting into dendritic spines followed by memory deficits. Here, we demonstrate that stress-driven hippocampal deficits in wild-type mice are accompanied by synaptic missorting of Tau and enhanced Fyn/GluN2B-driven synaptic signaling. In contrast, mice lacking Tau [Tau knockout (Tau-KO) mice] do not exhibit stress-induced pathological behaviors and atrophy of hippocampal dendrites or deficits of hippocampal connectivity. These findings implicate Tau as an essential mediator of the adverse effects of stress on brain structure and function. PMID:27274066

  14. Structural Basis for Membrane Binding and Remodeling by the Exomer Secretory Vesicle Cargo Adaptor

    PubMed Central

    Paczkowski, Jon E.; Fromme, J. Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Summary Cargo adaptor subunits of vesicle coat protein complexes sort transmembrane proteins to distinct membrane compartments in eukaryotic cells. The exomer complex is the only cargo adaptor known to sort proteins at the trans-Golgi network into secretory vesicles. Exomer function is regulated by the Arf1 GTPase, a master regulator of trafficking at the Golgi. We report the structure of exomer bound to two copies of Arf1. Exomer interacts with each Arf1 molecule via two surfaces; one is a non-canonical interface that regulates GTP hydrolysis. The structure uncovers an unexpected membrane-proximal hydrophobic element that exomer uses in cooperation with Arf1 to remodel membranes. Given the constrained motion of the exomer hinge region, we envision that exomer dynamically positions multiple membrane insertion elements to drive membrane fission. In contrast to other known cargo adaptors, exomer therefore couples two functions, cargo sorting and membrane fission, into a single complex. PMID:25203211

  15. Adaptor assembly for coupling turbine blades to rotor disks

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose; Delvaux, John McConnell

    2014-09-23

    An adaptor assembly for coupling a blade root of a turbine blade to a root slot of a rotor disk is described. The adaptor assembly includes a turbine blade having a blade root and an adaptor body having an adaptor root. The adaptor body defines a slot having an open end configured to receive the blade root of the turbine blade such that the adaptor root of the adaptor body and the blade root of the turbine blade are adjacent to one another when the blade root of the turbine blade is positioned within the slot. Both the adaptor root of the adaptor body and the blade root of the turbine blade are configured to be received within the root slot of the rotor disk.

  16. Specificity protein 7 is not essential for tooth morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, John C.; Bae, Ji-Myung; Adhami, Mitra; Rashid, Harunur; Chen, Haiyan; Napierala, Dobrawa; Gutierrez, Soraya E.; Sinha, Krishna; de Crombrugghe, Benoit; Javed, Amjad

    2014-01-01

    Tooth formation is a multifaceted process involving numerous interactions between oral epithelium and neural crest derived ecto-mesenchyme from morphogenesis to cytodifferentiation. The precise molecular regulator that drives the cyto-differentiation and dynamic cross-talk between the two cell types has yet to be fully understood. Runx2 along with its downstream target Sp7 are essential transcription factors for development of the mineralizing cell types. Global knockout of the Runx2 gene results in an arrest of tooth morphogenesis at the late bud stage. Like Runx2, Sp7-null mutants exhibit peri-natal lethality and are completely devoid of alveolar bone. However, the role of Sp7 in tooth development remains elusive. Here, we report the effects of Sp7 deletion on tooth formation. Surprisingly, tooth morphogenesis progresses normally until the mid bell stage in Sp7-homozygous mutants. Incisors and multi-cusped first and second molars were noted in both littermates. Thus, formation of alveolar bone is not a prerequisite for tooth morphogenesis. Tooth organs of Sp7-null however, were significantly smaller in size when compared to WT. Differentiation of both ameloblasts and odontoblasts was disrupted in Sp7-null mice. Only premature and disorganized ameloblasts and odontoblasts were noted in mutant mice. These data indicate that Sp7 is not required for tooth morphogenesis but is obligatory for the functional maturation of both ameloblasts and odontoblasts. PMID:25158188

  17. Survival protein A is essential for virulence in Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Southern, Stephanie J; Scott, Andrew E; Jenner, Dominic C; Ireland, Philip M; Norville, Isobel H; Sarkar-Tyson, Mitali

    2016-03-01

    Plague is a highly pathogenic disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. There is currently no vaccine available for prophylaxis and antibiotic resistant strains have been isolated, thus there is a need for the development of new countermeasures to treat this disease. Survival protein A (SurA) is a chaperone that has been linked to virulence in several species of bacteria, including the close relative Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the role of SurA in virulence of the highly pathogenic Y. pestis by creating an unmarked surA deletion mutant. The Y. pestis ΔsurA mutant was found to be more susceptible to membrane perturbing agents and was completely avirulent in a mouse infection model when delivered up to 2.1 × 10(5) CFU by the subcutaneous route. This provides strong evidence that SurA would make a promising antimicrobial target. PMID:26724738

  18. PTEX is an essential nexus for protein export in malaria parasites.

    PubMed

    Elsworth, Brendan; Matthews, Kathryn; Nie, Catherine Q; Kalanon, Ming; Charnaud, Sarah C; Sanders, Paul R; Chisholm, Scott A; Counihan, Natalie A; Shaw, Philip J; Pino, Paco; Chan, Jo-Anne; Azevedo, Mauro F; Rogerson, Stephen J; Beeson, James G; Crabb, Brendan S; Gilson, Paul R; de Koning-Ward, Tania F

    2014-07-31

    During the blood stages of malaria, several hundred parasite-encoded proteins are exported beyond the double-membrane barrier that separates the parasite from the host cell cytosol. These proteins have a variety of roles that are essential to virulence or parasite growth. There is keen interest in understanding how proteins are exported and whether common machineries are involved in trafficking the different classes of exported proteins. One potential trafficking machine is a protein complex known as the Plasmodium translocon of exported proteins (PTEX). Although PTEX has been linked to the export of one class of exported proteins, there has been no direct evidence for its role and scope in protein translocation. Here we show, through the generation of two parasite lines defective for essential PTEX components (HSP101 or PTEX150), and analysis of a line lacking the non-essential component TRX2 (ref. 12), greatly reduced trafficking of all classes of exported proteins beyond the double membrane barrier enveloping the parasite. This includes proteins containing the PEXEL motif (RxLxE/Q/D) and PEXEL-negative exported proteins (PNEPs). Moreover, the export of proteins destined for expression on the infected erythrocyte surface, including the major virulence factor PfEMP1 in Plasmodium falciparum, was significantly reduced in PTEX knockdown parasites. PTEX function was also essential for blood-stage growth, because even a modest knockdown of PTEX components had a strong effect on the parasite's capacity to complete the erythrocytic cycle both in vitro and in vivo. Hence, as the only known nexus for protein export in Plasmodium parasites, and an essential enzymic machine, PTEX is a prime drug target. PMID:25043043

  19. The exomer cargo adaptor structure reveals a novel GTPase-binding domain

    PubMed Central

    Paczkowski, Jon E; Richardson, Brian C; Strassner, Amanda M; Fromme, J Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Cargo adaptors control intracellular trafficking of transmembrane proteins by sorting them into membrane transport carriers. The COPI, COPII, and clathrin cargo adaptors are structurally well characterized, but other cargo adaptors remain poorly understood. Exomer is a specialized cargo adaptor that sorts specific proteins into trans-Golgi network (TGN)-derived vesicles in response to cellular signals. Exomer is recruited to the TGN by the Arf1 GTPase, a universally conserved trafficking regulator. Here, we report the crystal structure of a tetrameric exomer complex composed of two copies each of the Chs5 and Chs6 subunits. The structure reveals the FN3 and BRCT domains of Chs5, which together we refer to as the FBE domain (FN3–BRCT of exomer), project from the exomer core complex. The overall architecture of the FBE domain is reminiscent of the appendage domains of other cargo adaptors, although it exhibits a distinct topology. In contrast to appendage domains, which bind accessory factors, we show that the primary role of the FBE domain is to bind Arf1 for recruitment of exomer to membranes. PMID:23000721

  20. Yeast Golgi-localized, gamma-Ear-containing, ADP-ribosylation factor-binding proteins are but adaptor protein-1 is not required for cell-free transport of membrane proteins from the trans-Golgi network to the prevacuolar compartment.

    PubMed

    Abazeed, Mohamed E; Fuller, Robert S

    2008-11-01

    Golgi-localized, gamma-Ear-containing, ADP-ribosylation factor-binding proteins (GGAs) and adaptor protein-1 (AP-1) mediate clathrin-dependent trafficking of transmembrane proteins between the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and endosomes. In yeast, the vacuolar sorting receptor Vps10p follows a direct pathway from the TGN to the late endosome/prevacuolar compartment (PVC), whereas, the processing protease Kex2p partitions between the direct pathway and an indirect pathway through the early endosome. To examine the roles of the Ggas and AP-1 in TGN-PVC transport, we used a cell-free assay that measures delivery to the PVC of either Kex2p or a chimeric protein (K-V), in which the Vps10p cytosolic tail replaces the Kex2p tail. Either antibody inhibition or dominant-negative Gga2p completely blocked K-V transport but only partially blocked Kex2p transport. Deletion of APL2, encoding the beta subunit of AP-1, did not affect K-V transport but partially blocked Kex2p transport. Residual Kex2p transport seen with apl2Delta membranes was insensitive to dominant-negative Gga2p, suggesting that the apl2Delta mutation causes Kex2p to localize to a compartment that precludes Gga-dependent trafficking. These results suggest that yeast Ggas facilitate the specific and direct delivery of Vps10p and Kex2p from the TGN to the PVC and that AP-1 modulates Kex2p trafficking through a distinct pathway, presumably involving the early endosome. PMID:18784256

  1. Yeast Golgi-localized, γ-Ear–containing, ADP-Ribosylation Factor-binding Proteins Are but Adaptor Protein-1 Is Not Required for Cell-free Transport of Membrane Proteins from the Trans-Golgi Network to the Prevacuolar Compartment

    PubMed Central

    Abazeed, Mohamed E.

    2008-01-01

    Golgi-localized, γ-Ear–containing, ADP-ribosylation factor-binding proteins (GGAs) and adaptor protein-1 (AP-1) mediate clathrin-dependent trafficking of transmembrane proteins between the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and endosomes. In yeast, the vacuolar sorting receptor Vps10p follows a direct pathway from the TGN to the late endosome/prevacuolar compartment (PVC), whereas, the processing protease Kex2p partitions between the direct pathway and an indirect pathway through the early endosome. To examine the roles of the Ggas and AP-1 in TGN–PVC transport, we used a cell-free assay that measures delivery to the PVC of either Kex2p or a chimeric protein (K-V), in which the Vps10p cytosolic tail replaces the Kex2p tail. Either antibody inhibition or dominant-negative Gga2p completely blocked K-V transport but only partially blocked Kex2p transport. Deletion of APL2, encoding the β subunit of AP-1, did not affect K-V transport but partially blocked Kex2p transport. Residual Kex2p transport seen with apl2Δ membranes was insensitive to dominant-negative Gga2p, suggesting that the apl2Δ mutation causes Kex2p to localize to a compartment that precludes Gga-dependent trafficking. These results suggest that yeast Ggas facilitate the specific and direct delivery of Vps10p and Kex2p from the TGN to the PVC and that AP-1 modulates Kex2p trafficking through a distinct pathway, presumably involving the early endosome. PMID:18784256

  2. THREADED ADAPTOR FOR LUGGED PIPE ENDS

    DOEpatents

    Robb, J.E.

    1962-06-01

    An adaptor is designed for enabling a threaded part to be connected to a member at a region having lugs normally receiving bayonet slots of another part for attachment of the latter. It has been found desirable to replace a closure cap connected in a bayonet joint to the end of a coolant tube containing nuclear- reactor fuel elements, with a threaded valve. An adaptor is used which has J- slots receiving lugs on the end of the reactor tube, a thread for connection with the valve, and gear-tooth section enabling a gear-type of tool to rotate the adaptor to seal the valve to the end of the reactor tube. (AEC)

  3. Competitive and Cooperative Interactions Mediate RNA Transfer from Herpesvirus Saimiri ORF57 to the Mammalian Export Adaptor ALYREF

    PubMed Central

    Tunnicliffe, Richard B.; Hautbergue, Guillaume M.; Wilson, Stuart A.; Kalra, Priti; Golovanov, Alexander P.

    2014-01-01

    The essential herpesvirus adaptor protein HVS ORF57, which has homologs in all other herpesviruses, promotes viral mRNA export by utilizing the cellular mRNA export machinery. ORF57 protein specifically recognizes viral mRNA transcripts, and binds to proteins of the cellular transcription-export (TREX) complex, in particular ALYREF. This interaction introduces viral mRNA to the NXF1 pathway, subsequently directing it to the nuclear pore for export to the cytoplasm. Here we have used a range of techniques to reveal the sites for direct contact between RNA and ORF57 in the absence and presence of ALYREF. A binding site within ORF57 was characterized which recognizes specific viral mRNA motifs. When ALYREF is present, part of this ORF57 RNA binding site, composed of an α-helix, binds preferentially to ALYREF. This competitively displaces viral RNA from the α-helix, but contact with RNA is still maintained by a flanking region. At the same time, the flexible N-terminal domain of ALYREF comes into contact with the viral RNA, which becomes engaged in an extensive network of synergistic interactions with both ALYREF and ORF57. Transfer of RNA to ALYREF in the ternary complex, and involvement of individual ORF57 residues in RNA recognition, were confirmed by UV cross-linking and mutagenesis. The atomic-resolution structure of the ORF57-ALYREF interface was determined, which noticeably differed from the homologous ICP27-ALYREF structure. Together, the data provides the first site-specific description of how viral mRNA is locked by a herpes viral adaptor protein in complex with cellular ALYREF, giving herpesvirus access to the cellular mRNA export machinery. The NMR strategy used may be more generally applicable to the study of fuzzy protein-protein-RNA complexes which involve flexible polypeptide regions. PMID:24550725

  4. Identification and targeting of an interaction between a tyrosine motif within hepatitis C virus core protein and AP2M1 essential for viral assembly.

    PubMed

    Neveu, Gregory; Barouch-Bentov, Rina; Ziv-Av, Amotz; Gerber, Doron; Jacob, Yves; Einav, Shirit

    2012-01-01

    Novel therapies are urgently needed against hepatitis C virus infection (HCV), a major global health problem. The current model of infectious virus production suggests that HCV virions are assembled on or near the surface of lipid droplets, acquire their envelope at the ER, and egress through the secretory pathway. The mechanisms of HCV assembly and particularly the role of viral-host protein-protein interactions in mediating this process are, however, poorly understood. We identified a conserved heretofore unrecognized YXXΦ motif (Φ is a bulky hydrophobic residue) within the core protein. This motif is homologous to sorting signals within host cargo proteins known to mediate binding of AP2M1, the μ subunit of clathrin adaptor protein complex 2 (AP-2), and intracellular trafficking. Using microfluidics affinity analysis, protein-fragment complementation assays, and co-immunoprecipitations in infected cells, we show that this motif mediates core binding to AP2M1. YXXΦ mutations, silencing AP2M1 expression or overexpressing a dominant negative AP2M1 mutant had no effect on HCV RNA replication, however, they dramatically inhibited intra- and extracellular infectivity, consistent with a defect in viral assembly. Quantitative confocal immunofluorescence analysis revealed that core's YXXΦ motif mediates recruitment of AP2M1 to lipid droplets and that the observed defect in HCV assembly following disruption of core-AP2M1 binding correlates with accumulation of core on lipid droplets, reduced core colocalization with E2 and reduced core localization to trans-Golgi network (TGN), the presumed site of viral particles maturation. Furthermore, AAK1 and GAK, serine/threonine kinases known to stimulate binding of AP2M1 to host cargo proteins, regulate core-AP2M1 binding and are essential for HCV assembly. Last, approved anti-cancer drugs that inhibit AAK1 or GAK not only disrupt core-AP2M1 binding, but also significantly inhibit HCV assembly and infectious virus production

  5. 21 CFR 870.2350 - Electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor. 870... Electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor. (a) Identification. An electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor is a passive switching device to which electrocardiograph limb and chest leads may be attached. This device...

  6. 21 CFR 870.3620 - Pacemaker lead adaptor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pacemaker lead adaptor. 870.3620 Section 870.3620...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3620 Pacemaker lead adaptor. (a) Identification. A pacemaker lead adaptor is a device used to adapt a pacemaker lead so that...

  7. 21 CFR 870.2350 - Electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor. 870... Electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor. (a) Identification. An electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor is a passive switching device to which electrocardiograph limb and chest leads may be attached. This device...

  8. 21 CFR 870.2350 - Electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor. 870... Electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor. (a) Identification. An electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor is a passive switching device to which electrocardiograph limb and chest leads may be attached. This device...

  9. 21 CFR 870.2350 - Electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor. 870... Electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor. (a) Identification. An electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor is a passive switching device to which electrocardiograph limb and chest leads may be attached. This device...

  10. 21 CFR 870.2350 - Electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor. 870... Electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor. (a) Identification. An electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor is a passive switching device to which electrocardiograph limb and chest leads may be attached. This device...

  11. Styles of Creativity: Adaptors and Innovators in a Singapore Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ee, Jessie; Seng, Tan Oon; Kwang, Ng Aik

    2007-01-01

    Kirton (1976) described two creative styles, namely adaptors and innovators. Adaptors prefer to "do things better" whilst, innovators prefer to "do things differently". This study explored the relationship between two creative styles (adaptor and innovator) and the Big Five personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness,…

  12. 21 CFR 870.3620 - Pacemaker lead adaptor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pacemaker lead adaptor. 870.3620 Section 870.3620...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3620 Pacemaker lead adaptor. (a) Identification. A pacemaker lead adaptor is a device used to adapt a pacemaker lead so that...

  13. 21 CFR 870.3620 - Pacemaker lead adaptor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pacemaker lead adaptor. 870.3620 Section 870.3620...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3620 Pacemaker lead adaptor. (a) Identification. A pacemaker lead adaptor is a device used to adapt a pacemaker lead so that...

  14. 21 CFR 870.3620 - Pacemaker lead adaptor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pacemaker lead adaptor. 870.3620 Section 870.3620...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3620 Pacemaker lead adaptor. (a) Identification. A pacemaker lead adaptor is a device used to adapt a pacemaker lead so that...

  15. 21 CFR 870.3620 - Pacemaker lead adaptor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pacemaker lead adaptor. 870.3620 Section 870.3620...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3620 Pacemaker lead adaptor. (a) Identification. A pacemaker lead adaptor is a device used to adapt a pacemaker lead so that...

  16. Energy metabolism regulates clathrin adaptors at the trans-Golgi network and endosomes

    PubMed Central

    Aoh, Quyen L.; Hung, Chao-wei; Duncan, Mara C.

    2013-01-01

    Glucose is a master regulator of cell behavior in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It acts as both a metabolic substrate and a potent regulator of intracellular signaling cascades. Glucose starvation induces the transient delocalization and then partial relocalization of clathrin adaptors at the trans-Golgi network and endosomes. Although these localization responses are known to depend on the protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway, the molecular mechanism of this regulation is unknown. Here we demonstrate that PKA and the AMP-regulated kinase regulate adaptor localization through changes in energy metabolism. We show that genetic and chemical manipulation of intracellular ATP levels cause corresponding changes in adaptor localization. In permeabilized cells, exogenous ATP is sufficient to induce adaptor localization. Furthermore, we reveal distinct energy-dependent steps in adaptor localization: a step that requires the ADP-ribosylation factor ARF, an ATP-dependent step that requires the phosphatidyl-inositol-4 kinase Pik1, and third ATP-dependent step for which we provide evidence but for which the mechanism is unknown. We propose that these energy-dependent mechanisms precisely synchronize membrane traffic with overall proliferation rates and contribute a crucial aspect of energy conservation during acute glucose starvation. PMID:23345590

  17. Protein and Essential Amino Acids to Protect Musculoskeletal Health during Spaceflight: Evidence of a Paradox?

    PubMed

    Hackney, Kyle J; English, Kirk L

    2014-01-01

    Long-duration spaceflight results in muscle atrophy and a loss of bone mineral density. In skeletal muscle tissue, acute exercise and protein (e.g., essential amino acids) stimulate anabolic pathways (e.g., muscle protein synthesis) both independently and synergistically to maintain neutral or positive net muscle protein balance. Protein intake in space is recommended to be 12%-15% of total energy intake (≤1.4 g∙kg-1∙day-1) and spaceflight is associated with reduced energy intake (~20%), which enhances muscle catabolism. Increasing protein intake to 1.5-2.0 g∙kg-1∙day-1 may be beneficial for skeletal muscle tissue and could be accomplished with essential amino acid supplementation. However, increased consumption of sulfur-containing amino acids is associated with increased bone resorption, which creates a dilemma for musculoskeletal countermeasures, whereby optimizing skeletal muscle parameters via essential amino acid supplementation may worsen bone outcomes. To protect both muscle and bone health, future unloading studies should evaluate increased protein intake via non-sulfur containing essential amino acids or leucine in combination with exercise countermeasures and the concomitant influence of reduced energy intake. PMID:25370374

  18. Protein and Essential Amino Acids to Protect Musculoskeletal Health during Spaceflight: Evidence of a Paradox?

    PubMed Central

    Hackney, Kyle J.; English, Kirk L.

    2014-01-01

    Long-duration spaceflight results in muscle atrophy and a loss of bone mineral density. In skeletal muscle tissue, acute exercise and protein (e.g., essential amino acids) stimulate anabolic pathways (e.g., muscle protein synthesis) both independently and synergistically to maintain neutral or positive net muscle protein balance. Protein intake in space is recommended to be 12%–15% of total energy intake (≤1.4 g∙kg−1∙day−1) and spaceflight is associated with reduced energy intake (~20%), which enhances muscle catabolism. Increasing protein intake to 1.5–2.0 g∙kg−1∙day−1 may be beneficial for skeletal muscle tissue and could be accomplished with essential amino acid supplementation. However, increased consumption of sulfur-containing amino acids is associated with increased bone resorption, which creates a dilemma for musculoskeletal countermeasures, whereby optimizing skeletal muscle parameters via essential amino acid supplementation may worsen bone outcomes. To protect both muscle and bone health, future unloading studies should evaluate increased protein intake via non-sulfur containing essential amino acids or leucine in combination with exercise countermeasures and the concomitant influence of reduced energy intake. PMID:25370374

  19. Bringing Down Cancer Aircraft: Searching for Essential Hypomutated Proteins in Skin Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Pyatnitskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Dmitriy; Poverennaya, Ekaterina; Lisitsa, Andrey; Moshkovskii, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    We propose an approach to detection of essential genes/proteins required for cancer cell survival. A gene is considered essential if a mutation with high impact upon the function of encoded protein causes death of the cancer cell. We draw an analogy between essential cancer proteins and well-known Abraham Wald's work on estimating the plane critical areas using data on survivability of aircraft encountering enemy fire. Wald reasoned that parts with no bullet holes on the airplanes returned to the airbase from a combat flight are the most crucial ones for the airplane functioning: a hit in one of these parts downs an airplane, so it does not return back for the survey. We have envisaged that the airplane surface is a cancer genome and the bullets are somatic mutations with high impact upon protein function. Similarly we propose that genes specifically essential for tumor cell survival should carry less high-impact mutations in cancer cells compared to polymorphisms found in normal cells. We used data on mutations from the Cancer Genome Atlas and polymorphisms found in healthy humans (from 1000 Genomes Project) to predict 91 protein-coding genes essential for melanoma. These genes were selected according to several criteria, including negative selection, expression in melanocytes and decrease in the proportion of high-impact mutations in cancer compared with normal cells. The Gene Ontology analysis revealed enrichment of essential proteins related to membrane and cell periphery. We speculate that this could be a sign of immune system-driven negative selection of cancer neo-antigens. Another finding is the overrepresentation of semaphorin receptors, which can mediate distinctive signaling cascades and are involved in various aspects of tumor development. Cytokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR1 were also identified as cancer essential proteins and this is confirmed by other studies. Overall, our goal was to illustrate the idea of detecting proteins whose sequence integrity

  20. Bringing Down Cancer Aircraft: Searching for Essential Hypomutated Proteins in Skin Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Pyatnitskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Dmitriy; Poverennaya, Ekaterina; Lisitsa, Andrey; Moshkovskii, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    We propose an approach to detection of essential genes/proteins required for cancer cell survival. A gene is considered essential if a mutation with high impact upon the function of encoded protein causes death of the cancer cell. We draw an analogy between essential cancer proteins and well-known Abraham Wald’s work on estimating the plane critical areas using data on survivability of aircraft encountering enemy fire. Wald reasoned that parts with no bullet holes on the airplanes returned to the airbase from a combat flight are the most crucial ones for the airplane functioning: a hit in one of these parts downs an airplane, so it does not return back for the survey. We have envisaged that the airplane surface is a cancer genome and the bullets are somatic mutations with high impact upon protein function. Similarly we propose that genes specifically essential for tumor cell survival should carry less high-impact mutations in cancer cells compared to polymorphisms found in normal cells. We used data on mutations from the Cancer Genome Atlas and polymorphisms found in healthy humans (from 1000 Genomes Project) to predict 91 protein-coding genes essential for melanoma. These genes were selected according to several criteria, including negative selection, expression in melanocytes and decrease in the proportion of high-impact mutations in cancer compared with normal cells. The Gene Ontology analysis revealed enrichment of essential proteins related to membrane and cell periphery. We speculate that this could be a sign of immune system-driven negative selection of cancer neo-antigens. Another finding is the overrepresentation of semaphorin receptors, which can mediate distinctive signaling cascades and are involved in various aspects of tumor development. Cytokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR1 were also identified as cancer essential proteins and this is confirmed by other studies. Overall, our goal was to illustrate the idea of detecting proteins whose sequence integrity

  1. RIM-binding protein, a central part of the active zone, is essential for neurotransmitter release.

    PubMed

    Liu, Karen S Y; Siebert, Matthias; Mertel, Sara; Knoche, Elena; Wegener, Stephanie; Wichmann, Carolin; Matkovic, Tanja; Muhammad, Karzan; Depner, Harald; Mettke, Christoph; Bückers, Johanna; Hell, Stefan W; Müller, Martin; Davis, Graeme W; Schmitz, Dietmar; Sigrist, Stephan J

    2011-12-16

    The molecular machinery mediating the fusion of synaptic vesicles (SVs) at presynaptic active zone (AZ) membranes has been studied in detail, and several essential components have been identified. AZ-associated protein scaffolds are viewed as only modulatory for transmission. We discovered that Drosophila Rab3-interacting molecule (RIM)-binding protein (DRBP) is essential not only for the integrity of the AZ scaffold but also for exocytotic neurotransmitter release. Two-color stimulated emission depletion microscopy showed that DRBP surrounds the central Ca(2+) channel field. In drbp mutants, Ca(2+) channel clustering and Ca(2+) influx were impaired, and synaptic release probability was drastically reduced. Our data identify RBP family proteins as prime effectors of the AZ scaffold that are essential for the coupling of SVs, Ca(2+) channels, and the SV fusion machinery. PMID:22174254

  2. Expression of Heat Shock Protein 70 Gene and Its Correlation with Inflammatory Markers in Essential Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Kamna; Narang, Rajiv; Bhatia, Jagriti; Saluja, Daman

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Hypertension is characterized by systemic high blood pressure and is the most common and important risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases. Studies have shown that the circulating levels of certain inflammatory markers such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interlukin-6 (IL-6), c-reactive protein (CRP), and tumor suppressor protein-53 (p53) are upregulated and are independently associated with essential hypertension. However, mechanism of increase in the levels of HSP70 protein is not clear. No such studies are reported in the blood circulation of patients with essential hypertension. In the present study, we investigated the expression of circulating HSP70 at mRNA and protein levels and its relationship with other inflammatory markers in patients with essential hypertension. Materials and Methods We recruited 132 patients with essential hypertension and 132 normal controls from similar socio-economic-geographical background. The expression of HSP70 at mRNA levels was determined by Real Time PCR and at protein levels by indirect Elisa and Western Blot techniques. Results We found a significantly higher expression of HSP70 gene expression (approximately 6.45 fold, P < 0.0001) in hypertensive patients as compared to healthy controls. A significant difference (P < 0.0001) in the protein expression of HSP70 was also observed in plasma of patients as compared to that of controls. Conclusion Higher expression of HSP70 is positively correlated with inflammatory markers in patients with essential hypertension and this correlation could play an important role in essential hypertension. PMID:26989902

  3. Shugoshins: Tension-Sensitive Pericentromeric Adaptors Safeguarding Chromosome Segregation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The shugoshin/Mei-S332 family are proteins that associate with the chromosomal region surrounding the centromere (the pericentromere) and that play multiple and distinct roles in ensuring the accuracy of chromosome segregation during both mitosis and meiosis. The underlying role of shugoshins appears to be to serve as pericentromeric adaptor proteins that recruit several different effectors to this region of the chromosome to regulate processes critical for chromosome segregation. Crucially, shugoshins undergo changes in their localization in response to the tension that is exerted on sister chromosomes by the forces of the spindle that will pull them apart. This has led to the idea that shugoshins provide a platform for activities required at the pericentromere only when sister chromosomes lack tension. Conversely, disassembly of the shugoshin pericentromeric platform may provide a signal that sister chromosomes are under tension. Here the functions and regulation of these important tension-sensitive pericentromeric proteins are discussed. PMID:25452306

  4. Syp1 is a conserved endocytic adaptor that contains domains involved in cargo selection and membrane tubulation

    SciTech Connect

    Reider, Amanda; Barker, Sarah L.; Mishra, Sanjay K.; Im, Young Jun; Maldonado-Báez, Lymarie; Hurley, James H.; Traub, Linton M.; Wendland, Beverly

    2010-10-28

    Internalization of diverse transmembrane cargos from the plasma membrane requires a similarly diverse array of specialized adaptors, yet only a few adaptors have been characterized. We report the identification of the muniscin family of endocytic adaptors that is conserved from yeast to human beings. Solving the structures of yeast muniscin domains confirmed the unique combination of an N-terminal domain homologous to the crescent-shaped membrane-tubulating EFC/F-BAR domains and a C-terminal domain homologous to cargo-binding {mu} homology domains ({mu}HDs). In vitro and in vivo assays confirmed membrane-tubulation activity for muniscin EFC/F-BAR domains. The {mu}HD domain has conserved interactions with the endocytic adaptor/scaffold Ede1/eps15, which influences muniscin localization. The transmembrane protein Mid2, earlier implicated in polarized Rho1 signalling, was identified as a cargo of the yeast adaptor protein. These and other data suggest a model in which the muniscins provide a combined adaptor/membrane-tubulation activity that is important for regulating endocytosis.

  5. TIR domain-containing adaptor SARM is a late addition to the ongoing microbe–host dialog

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qing; Zmasek, Christian M.; Cai, Xiaohui; Godzik, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain-containing proteins play important roles in defense against pathogens in both animals and plants, connecting the immunity signaling pathways via a chain of specific protein–protein interactions. Among them is SARM, the only TIR domain-containing adaptor that can negatively regulate TLR signaling. By extensive phylogenetic analysis, we show here that SARM is closely related to bacterial proteins with TIR domains, suggesting that this family has a different evolutionary history from other animal TIR-containing adaptors, possibly emerging via a lateral gene transfer from bacteria to animals. We also show evidence of several similar, independent transfer events, none of which, however, survived in vertebrates. An evolutionary relationship between the animal SARM adaptor and bacterial proteins with TIR domains illustrates the possible role that bacterial TIR-containing proteins play in regulating eukaryotic immune responses and how this mechanism was possibly adapted by the eukaryotes themselves. PMID:21110998

  6. Lipoate-Protein Ligase and Octanoyltransferase Are Essential for Protein Lipoylation in Mitochondria of Arabidopsis1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Ewald, Ralph; Hoffmann, Christiane; Florian, Alexandra; Neuhaus, Ekkehard; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Bauwe, Hermann

    2014-01-01

    Prosthetic lipoyl groups are required for the function of several essential multienzyme complexes, such as pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (KGDH), and the glycine cleavage system (glycine decarboxylase [GDC]). How these proteins are lipoylated has been extensively studied in prokaryotes and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), but little is known for plants. We earlier reported that mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis by ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase is not vital for protein lipoylation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and does not play a significant role in roots. Here, we identify Arabidopsis lipoate-protein ligase (AtLPLA) as an essential mitochondrial enzyme that uses octanoyl-nucleoside monophosphate and possibly other donor substrates for the octanoylation of mitochondrial PDH-E2 and GDC H-protein; it shows no reactivity with bacterial and possibly plant KGDH-E2. The octanoate-activating enzyme is unknown, but we assume that it uses octanoyl moieties provided by mitochondrial β-oxidation. AtLPLA is essential for the octanoylation of PDH-E2, whereas GDC H-protein can optionally also be octanoylated by octanoyltransferase (LIP2) using octanoyl chains provided by mitochondrial ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase to meet the high lipoate requirement of leaf mesophyll mitochondria. Similar to protein lipoylation in yeast, LIP2 likely also transfers octanoyl groups attached to the H-protein to KGDH-E2 but not to PDH-E2, which is exclusively octanoylated by LPLA. We suggest that LPLA and LIP2 together provide a basal protein lipoylation network to plants that is similar to that in other eukaryotes. PMID:24872381

  7. Systematic Analysis of Essential Genes Reveals New Regulators of G protein Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Cappell, Steven D.; Baker, Rachael; Skowyra, Dorota; Dohlman, Henrik G.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The yeast pheromone pathway consists of a canonical heterotrimeric G protein and MAP kinase cascade. To identify new signaling components we systematically evaluated 870 essential genes using a library of repressible-promoter strains. Quantitative transcription-reporter and MAPK activity assays were used to identify strains that exhibit altered pheromone sensitivity. Of the 92 newly identified essential genes required for proper G protein signaling, those involved with protein degradation were most highly-represented. Included in this group are members of the SCF (Skp-Cullin-F-Box) ubiquitin ligase complex. Further genetic and biochemical analysis reveals that SCFCdc4 acts together with the Cdc34 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme at the level of the G protein, promotes degradation of the G protein α subunit, Gpa1, in vivo and catalyzes Gpa1 ubiquitination in vitro. These new insights to the G protein signaling network reveal the essential-genome as an untapped resource for identifying new components and regulators of signal transduction pathways. PMID:20542006

  8. Cerebral cavernous malformation proteins at a glance.

    PubMed

    Draheim, Kyle M; Fisher, Oriana S; Boggon, Titus J; Calderwood, David A

    2014-02-15

    Loss-of-function mutations in genes encoding KRIT1 (also known as CCM1), CCM2 (also known as OSM and malcavernin) or PDCD10 (also known as CCM3) cause cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs). These abnormalities are characterized by dilated leaky blood vessels, especially in the neurovasculature, that result in increased risk of stroke, focal neurological defects and seizures. The three CCM proteins can exist in a trimeric complex, and each of these essential multi-domain adaptor proteins also interacts with a range of signaling, cytoskeletal and adaptor proteins, presumably accounting for their roles in a range of basic cellular processes including cell adhesion, migration, polarity and apoptosis. In this Cell Science at a Glance article and the accompanying poster, we provide an overview of current models of CCM protein function focusing on how known protein-protein interactions might contribute to cellular phenotypes and highlighting gaps in our current understanding. PMID:24481819

  9. Preventing farnesylation of the dynein adaptor Spindly contributes to the mitotic defects caused by farnesyltransferase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Andrew J.; Reis, Rita M.; Niessen, Sherry; Pereira, Cláudia; Andres, Douglas A.; Spielmann, H. Peter; Cleveland, Don W.; Desai, Arshad; Gassmann, Reto

    2015-01-01

    The clinical interest in farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) makes it important to understand how these compounds affect cellular processes involving farnesylated proteins. Mitotic abnormalities observed after treatment with FTIs have so far been attributed to defects in the farnesylation of the outer kinetochore proteins CENP-E and CENP-F, which are involved in chromosome congression and spindle assembly checkpoint signaling. Here we identify the cytoplasmic dynein adaptor Spindly as an additional component of the outer kinetochore that is modified by farnesyltransferase (FTase). We show that farnesylation of Spindly is essential for its localization, and thus for the proper localization of dynein and its cofactor dynactin, to prometaphase kinetochores and that Spindly kinetochore recruitment is more severely affected by FTase inhibition than kinetochore recruitment of CENP-E and CENP-F. Molecular replacement experiments show that both Spindly and CENP-E farnesylation are required for efficient chromosome congression. The identification of Spindly as a new mitotic substrate of FTase provides insight into the causes of the mitotic phenotypes observed with FTase inhibitors. PMID:25808490

  10. In vitro and in vivo screening for novel essential cell-envelope proteins in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Piñar, Regina; Lo Sciuto, Alessandra; Rossi, Alice; Ranucci, Serena; Bragonzi, Alessandra; Imperi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa represents a prototype of multi-drug resistant opportunistic pathogens for which novel therapeutic options are urgently required. In order to identify new candidates as potential drug targets, we combined large-scale transposon mutagenesis data analysis and bioinformatics predictions to retrieve a set of putative essential genes which are conserved in P. aeruginosa and predicted to encode cell envelope or secreted proteins. By generating unmarked deletion or conditional mutants, we confirmed the in vitro essentiality of two periplasmic proteins, LptH and LolA, responsible for lipopolysaccharide and lipoproteins transport to the outer membrane respectively, and confirmed that they are important for cell envelope stability. LptH was also found to be essential for P. aeruginosa ability to cause infection in different animal models. Conversely, LolA-depleted cells appeared only partially impaired in pathogenicity, indicating that this protein likely plays a less relevant role during bacterial infection. Finally, we ruled out any involvement of the other six proteins under investigation in P. aeruginosa growth, cell envelope stability and virulence. Besides proposing LptH as a very promising drug target in P. aeruginosa, this study confirms the importance of in vitro and in vivo validation of potential essential genes identified through random transposon mutagenesis. PMID:26621210

  11. Bacteriophage-encoded cochaperonins can substitute for Escherichia coli’s essential GroES protein

    PubMed Central

    Keppel, France; Rychner, Monique; Georgopoulos, Costa

    2002-01-01

    The Escherichia coli chaperonin machine is composed of two members, GroEL and GroES. The GroEL chaperonin can bind 10–15% of E. coli’s unfolded proteins in one of its central cavities and help them fold in cooperation with the GroES cochaperonin. Both proteins are absolutely essential for bacterial growth. Several large, lytic bacteriophages, such as T4 and RB49, use the host-encoded GroEL in conjunction with their own bacteriophage-encoded cochaperonin for the correct assembly of their major capsid protein, suggesting a cochaperonin specificity for the in vivo folding of certain substrates. Here, we demonstrate that, when the cochaperonin of either bacteriophage T4 (Gp31) or RB49 (CocO) is expressed in E. coli, the otherwise essential groES gene can be deleted. Thus, it appears that, despite very little sequence identity with groES, the bacteriophage-encoded Gp31 and CocO proteins are capable of replacing GroES in the folding of E. coli’s essential, housekeeping proteins. PMID:12189177

  12. Essential functions for ID proteins at multiple checkpoints in natural killer T cell development

    PubMed Central

    Verykokakis, Mihalis; Krishnamoorthy, Veena; Iavarone, Antonio; Lasorella, Anna; Sigvardsson, Mikael; Kee, Barbara L.

    2013-01-01

    Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells display characteristics of both adaptive and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). Like other ILCs, iNKT cells constitutively express ID proteins, which antagonize the E protein transcription factors that are essential for adaptive lymphocyte development. However, unlike ILCs, ID2 is not essential for thymic iNKT cell development. Here we demonstrated that ID2 and ID3 redundantly promoted iNKT cell lineage specification involving the induction of the signature transcription factor PLZF and that ID3 was critical for development of TBET-dependent NKT1 cells. In contrast, both ID2 and ID3 limited iNKT cell numbers by enforcing the post-selection checkpoint in conventional thymocytes. Therefore, iNKT cells show both adaptive and innate-like requirements for ID proteins at distinct checkpoints during iNKT cell development. PMID:24244015

  13. A new algorithm for essential proteins identification based on the integration of protein complex co-expression information and edge clustering coefficient.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jiawei; Wu, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Essential proteins provide valuable information for the development of biology and medical research from the system level. The accuracy of topological centrality only based methods is deeply affected by noise in the network. Therefore, exploring efficient methods for identifying essential proteins would be of great value. Using biological features to identify essential proteins is efficient in reducing the noise in PPI network. In this paper, based on the consideration that essential proteins evolve slowly and play a central role within a network, a new algorithm, named CED, is proposed. CED mainly employs gene expression level, protein complex information and edge clustering coefficient to predict essential proteins. The performance of CED is validated based on the yeast Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) network obtained from DIP database and BioGRID database. The prediction accuracy of CED outperforms other seven algorithms when applied to the two databases. PMID:26510286

  14. A small mitochondrial protein present in myzozoans is essential for malaria transmission

    PubMed Central

    Klug, Dennis; Mair, Gunnar R.; Frischknecht, Friedrich; Douglas, Ross G.

    2016-01-01

    Myzozoans (which include dinoflagellates, chromerids and apicomplexans) display notable divergence from their ciliate sister group, including a reduced mitochondrial genome and divergent metabolic processes. The factors contributing to these divergent processes are still poorly understood and could serve as potential drug targets in disease-causing protists. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a small mitochondrial protein from the rodent-infecting apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium berghei that is essential for development in its mosquito host. Parasites lacking the gene mitochondrial protein ookinete developmental defect (mpodd) showed malformed parasites that were unable to transmit to mosquitoes. Knockout parasites displayed reduced mitochondrial mass without affecting organelle integrity, indicating no role of the protein in mitochondrial biogenesis or morphology maintenance but a likely role in mitochondrial import or metabolism. Using genetic complementation experiments, we identified a previously unrecognized Plasmodium falciparum homologue that can rescue the mpodd(−) phenotype, thereby showing that the gene is functionally conserved. As far as can be detected, mpodd is found in myzozoans, has homologues in the phylum Apicomplexa and appears to have arisen in free-living dinoflagellates. This suggests that the MPODD protein has a conserved mitochondrial role that is important for myzozoans. While previous studies identified a number of essential proteins which are generally highly conserved evolutionarily, our study identifies, for the first time, a non-canonical protein fulfilling a crucial function in the mitochondrion during parasite transmission. PMID:27053680

  15. A small mitochondrial protein present in myzozoans is essential for malaria transmission.

    PubMed

    Klug, Dennis; Mair, Gunnar R; Frischknecht, Friedrich; Douglas, Ross G

    2016-04-01

    Myzozoans (which include dinoflagellates, chromerids and apicomplexans) display notable divergence from their ciliate sister group, including a reduced mitochondrial genome and divergent metabolic processes. The factors contributing to these divergent processes are still poorly understood and could serve as potential drug targets in disease-causing protists. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a small mitochondrial protein from the rodent-infecting apicomplexan parasitePlasmodium bergheithat is essential for development in its mosquito host. Parasites lacking the gene mitochondrial protein ookinete developmental defect (mpodd) showed malformed parasites that were unable to transmit to mosquitoes. Knockout parasites displayed reduced mitochondrial mass without affecting organelle integrity, indicating no role of the protein in mitochondrial biogenesis or morphology maintenance but a likely role in mitochondrial import or metabolism. Using genetic complementation experiments, we identified a previously unrecognizedPlasmodium falciparumhomologue that can rescue thempodd(-)phenotype, thereby showing that the gene is functionally conserved. As far as can be detected,mpoddis found in myzozoans, has homologues in the phylumApicomplexaand appears to have arisen in free-living dinoflagellates. This suggests that the MPODD protein has a conserved mitochondrial role that is important for myzozoans. While previous studies identified a number of essential proteins which are generally highly conserved evolutionarily, our study identifies, for the first time, a non-canonical protein fulfilling a crucial function in the mitochondrion during parasite transmission. PMID:27053680

  16. Tau protein kinase I is essential for amyloid beta-protein-induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Takashima, A; Noguchi, K; Sato, K; Hoshino, T; Imahori, K

    1993-01-01

    Pathological changes of Alzheimer disease are characterized by cerebral cortical atrophy as a result of degeneration and loss of neurons. Typical histological lesions include numerous senile plaques composed of deposits of amyloid beta-protein and neurofibrillary tangles consisting predominantly of ubiquitin and highly phosphorylated tau proteins. Previously, tau protein kinase I (TPK I) was purified and its cDNA was cloned. To examine the biological role of this enzyme in neurons, we have studied the induction of its kinase activity in primary cultures of embryonic rat hippocampal neurons. Treatment of cultures with amyloid beta-protein significantly increased TPK I activity and induced the appearance of tau proteins recognized by the Alz-50 monoclonal antibody. In addition, though amyloid beta-protein was neurotoxic, either cycloheximide or actinomycin D prevented neuronal death. Death was also prevented by TPK I antisense oligonucleotides but not by sense oligonucleotides. These observations suggest that rat hippocampal neurons undergo programmed cell death in response to amyloid beta-protein and that TPK I is a key enzyme in this process. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 PMID:8356085

  17. YsxC, an essential protein in Staphylococcus aureus crucial for ribosome assembly/stability

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Bacterial growth and division requires a core set of essential proteins, several of which are still of unknown function. They are also attractive targets for the development of new antibiotics. YsxC is a member of a family of GTPases highly conserved across eubacteria with a possible ribosome associated function. Results Here, we demonstrate by the creation of a conditional lethal mutant that ysxC is apparently essential for growth in S. aureus. To begin to elucidate YsxC function, a translational fusion of YsxC to the CBP-ProteinA tag in the staphylococcal chromosome was made, enabling Tandem Affinity Purification (TAP) of YsxC-interacting partners. These included the ribosomal proteins S2, S10 and L17, as well as the β' subunit of the RNA polymerase. YsxC was then shown to copurify with ribosomes as an accessory protein specifically localizing to the 50 S subunit. YsxC depletion led to a decrease in the presence of mature ribosomes, indicating a role in ribosome assembly and/or stability in S. aureus. Conclusions In this study we demonstrate that YsxC of S. aureus localizes to the ribosomes, is crucial for ribosomal stability and is apparently essential for the life of S. aureus. PMID:20021644

  18. Metalloido-porins: Essentiality of Nodulin 26-like intrinsic proteins in metalloid transport.

    PubMed

    Pommerrenig, Benjamin; Diehn, Till Arvid; Bienert, Gerd Patrick

    2015-09-01

    Metalloids are a group of physiologically important elements ranging from the essential to the highly toxic. Arsenic, antimony, germanium, and tellurium are highly toxic to plants themselves and to consumers of metalloid-contaminated plants. Boron, silicon, and selenium fulfill essential or beneficial functions in plants. However, when present at high concentrations, boron and selenium cause toxicity symptoms that are detrimental to plant fitness and yield. Consequently, all plants require efficient membrane transport systems to control the uptake and extrusion of metalloids into or out of the plant and their distribution within the plant body. Several Nodulin 26-like intrinsic proteins (NIPs) that belong to the aquaporin plant water channel protein family facilitate the diffusion of uncharged metalloid species. Genetic, physiological, and molecular evidence is that NIPs from primitive to higher plants not only transport all environmentally important metalloids, but that these proteins have a major role in the uptake, translocation, and extrusion of metalloids in plants. As most of the metalloid-permeable NIP aquaporins are impermeable or are poorly permeable to water, these NIP channel proteins should be considered as physiologically essential metalloido-porins. PMID:26259189

  19. Adaptor assembly for coupling turbine blades to rotor disks

    SciTech Connect

    Delvaux, John McConnel; Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose; Joyce, Kilmer Joseph; Tindell, Allan Randall

    2014-06-03

    An adaptor assembly for coupling a blade root of a turbine blade to a root slot of a rotor disk is disclosed. The adaptor assembly may generally include an adaptor body having a root configured to be received within the root slot. The adaptor body may also define a slot having an open end configured to receive the blade root. The adaptor body may further define a channel. The adaptor assembly may also include a plate having an outwardly extending foot. The foot may be configured to be received within the channel. Additionally, the plate may be configured to cover at least a portion of the open end of the slot when the foot is received within the channel.

  20. The coat protein of beet curly top virus is essential for infectivity.

    PubMed

    Briddon, R W; Watts, J; Markham, P G; Stanley, J

    1989-10-01

    We have applied the procedure of Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation to develop a simple, efficient, and reproducible assay for the infectivity of the leafhopper-transmitted geminivirus, beet curly top virus (BCTV). This assay system was used to show that a coat protein mutant of BCTV is not infectious, but could be complemented by coagroinoculation with a second mutant bearing a lethal mutation in the complementary-sense open reading frame, C1. Furthermore, the coat protein mutant retained the ability to replicate and to produce both ssDNA and dsDNA when electroporated into Nicotiana tabacum protoplasts. We conclude that the coat protein of BCTV is essential for spread of the virus. The results are discussed in the light of results with coat protein mutants of other geminiviruses. PMID:2800340

  1. RGS14 is a mitotic spindle protein essential from the first division of the mammalian zygote.

    PubMed

    Martin-McCaffrey, Luke; Willard, Francis S; Oliveira-dos-Santos, Antonio J; Natale, David R C; Snow, Bryan E; Kimple, Randall J; Pajak, Agnieszka; Watson, Andrew J; Dagnino, Lina; Penninger, Josef M; Siderovski, David P; D'Souza, Sudhir J A

    2004-11-01

    Heterotrimeric G protein alpha subunits, RGS proteins, and GoLoco motif proteins have been recently implicated in the control of mitotic spindle dynamics in C. elegans and D. melanogaster. Here we show that "regulator of G protein signaling-14" (RGS14) is expressed by the mouse embryonic genome immediately prior to the first mitosis, where it colocalizes with the anastral mitotic apparatus of the mouse zygote. Loss of Rgs14 expression in the mouse zygote results in cytofragmentation and failure to progress to the 2-cell stage. RGS14 is found in all tissues and segregates to the nucleus in interphase and to the mitotic spindle and centrioles during mitosis. Alteration of RGS14 levels in exponentially proliferating cells leads to cell growth arrest. Our results indicate that RGS14 is one of the earliest essential product of the mammalian embryonic genome yet described and has a general role in mitosis. PMID:15525537

  2. Essential Strategies for Revealing Nanoscale Protein Dynamics by Neutron Spin Echo Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Callaway, David J E; Bu, Zimei

    2016-01-01

    Determining the internal motions of a protein on nanosecond-to-microsecond timescales and on nanometer length scales is challenging by experimental biophysical techniques. Neutron spin echo spectroscopy (NSE) offers a unique opportunity to determine such nanoscale protein domain motions. However, the major hurdle in applying NSE to determine nanoscale protein motion is that the time and length scales of internal protein motions tend to be comparable to that of the global motions of a protein. The signals detected by NSE tend to be dominated by rigid-body translational and rotational diffusion. Using theoretical analyses, our laboratory showed that selective deuteration of a protein domain or a subunit can enhance the capability of NSE to reveal the internal motions in a protein complex. Here, we discuss the essential theoretical analysis and experimental methodology in detail. Protein nanomachines are far more complex than any molecular motors that have been artificially constructed, and their skillful utilization likely represents the future of medicine. With selective deuteration, NSE will allow us to see these nanomachines in motion. PMID:26791982

  3. Male seminal fluid proteins are essential for sperm storage in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Tram, U; Wolfner, M F

    1999-01-01

    The seminal fluid that is transferred along with sperm during mating acts in many ways to maximize a male's reproductive success. Here, we use transgenic Drosophila melanogaster males deficient in the seminal fluid proteins derived from the accessory gland (Acps) to investigate the role of these proteins in the fate of sperm transferred to females during mating. Competitive PCR assays were used to show that while Acps contribute to the efficiency of sperm transfer, they are not essential for the transfer of sperm to the female. In contrast, we found that Acps are essential for storage of sperm by females. Direct counts of stored sperm showed that 10% of normal levels are stored by females whose mates transfer little or no Acps along with sperm. PMID:10511561

  4. The importance of bottlenecks in protein networks: correlation with gene essentiality and expression dynamics.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haiyuan; Kim, Philip M; Sprecher, Emmett; Trifonov, Valery; Gerstein, Mark

    2007-04-20

    It has been a long-standing goal in systems biology to find relations between the topological properties and functional features of protein networks. However, most of the focus in network studies has been on highly connected proteins ("hubs"). As a complementary notion, it is possible to define bottlenecks as proteins with a high betweenness centrality (i.e., network nodes that have many "shortest paths" going through them, analogous to major bridges and tunnels on a highway map). Bottlenecks are, in fact, key connector proteins with surprising functional and dynamic properties. In particular, they are more likely to be essential proteins. In fact, in regulatory and other directed networks, betweenness (i.e., "bottleneck-ness") is a much more significant indicator of essentiality than degree (i.e., "hub-ness"). Furthermore, bottlenecks correspond to the dynamic components of the interaction network-they are significantly less well coexpressed with their neighbors than non-bottlenecks, implying that expression dynamics is wired into the network topology. PMID:17447836

  5. Role of the clathrin adaptor PICALM in normal hematopoiesis and polycythemia vera pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Yuichi; Maeda, Manami; Pasham, Mithun; Aguet, Francois; Tacheva-Grigorova, Silvia K.; Masuda, Takeshi; Yi, Hai; Lee, Sung-Uk; Xu, Jian; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie; Ericsson, Maria; Mullally, Ann; Heuser, John; Kirchhausen, Tom; Maeda, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Clathrin-dependent endocytosis is an essential cellular process shared by all cell types. Despite this, precisely how endocytosis is regulated in a cell-type-specific manner and how this key pathway functions physiologically or pathophysiologically remain largely unknown. PICALM, which encodes the clathrin adaptor protein PICALM, was originally identified as a component of the CALM/AF10 leukemia oncogene. Here we show, by employing a series of conditional Picalm knockout mice, that PICALM critically regulates transferrin uptake in erythroid cells by functioning as a cell-type-specific regulator of transferrin receptor endocytosis. While transferrin receptor is essential for the development of all hematopoietic lineages, Picalm was dispensable for myeloid and B-lymphoid development. Furthermore, global Picalm inactivation in adult mice did not cause gross defects in mouse fitness, except for anemia and a coat color change. Freeze-etch electron microscopy of primary erythroblasts and live-cell imaging of murine embryonic fibroblasts revealed that Picalm function is required for efficient clathrin coat maturation. We showed that the PICALM PIP2 binding domain is necessary for transferrin receptor endocytosis in erythroblasts and absolutely essential for erythroid development from mouse hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in an erythroid culture system. We further showed that Picalm deletion entirely abrogated the disease phenotype in a Jak2V617F knock-in murine model of polycythemia vera. Our findings provide new insights into the regulation of cell-type-specific transferrin receptor endocytosis in vivo. They also suggest a new strategy to block cellular uptake of transferrin-bound iron, with therapeutic potential for disorders characterized by inappropriate red blood cell production, such as polycythemia vera. PMID:25552701

  6. Glucose regulates clathrin adaptors at the trans-Golgi network and endosomes

    PubMed Central

    Aoh, Quyen L.; Graves, Lee M.; Duncan, Mara C.

    2011-01-01

    Glucose is a rich source of energy and the raw material for biomass increase. Many eukaryotic cells remodel their physiology in the presence and absence of glucose. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae undergoes changes in transcription, translation, metabolism, and cell polarity in response to glucose availability. Upon glucose starvation, translation initiation and cell polarity are immediately inhibited, and then gradually recover. In this paper, we provide evidence that, as in cell polarity and translation, traffic at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and endosomes is regulated by glucose via an unknown mechanism that depends on protein kinase A (PKA). Upon glucose withdrawal, clathrin adaptors exhibit a biphasic change in localization: they initially delocalize from the membrane within minutes and later partially recover onto membranes. Additionally, the removal of glucose induces changes in posttranslational modifications of adaptors. Ras and Gpr1 signaling pathways, which converge on PKA, are required for changes in adaptor localization and changes in posttranslational modifications. Acute inhibition of PKA demonstrates that inhibition of PKA prior to glucose withdrawal prevents several adaptor responses to starvation. This study demonstrates that PKA activity prior to glucose starvation primes membrane traffic at the TGN and endosomes in response to glucose starvation. PMID:21832155

  7. Myosin VI and its cargo adaptors – linking endocytosis and autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Tumbarello, David A.; Kendrick-Jones, John; Buss, Folma

    2013-01-01

    Summary The coordinated trafficking and tethering of membrane cargo within cells relies on the function of distinct cytoskeletal motors that are targeted to specific subcellular compartments through interactions with protein adaptors and phospholipids. The unique actin motor myosin VI functions at distinct steps during clathrin-mediated endocytosis and the early endocytic pathway – both of which are involved in cargo trafficking and sorting – through interactions with Dab2, GIPC, Tom1 and LMTK2. This multifunctional ability of myosin VI can be attributed to its cargo-binding tail region that contains two protein–protein interaction interfaces, a ubiquitin-binding motif and a phospholipid binding domain. In addition, myosin VI has been shown to be a regulator of the autophagy pathway, because of its ability to link the endocytic and autophagic pathways through interactions with the ESCRT-0 protein Tom1 and the autophagy adaptor proteins T6BP, NDP52 and optineurin. This function has been attributed to facilitating autophagosome maturation and subsequent fusion with the lysosome. Therefore, in this Commentary, we discuss the relationship between myosin VI and the different myosin VI adaptor proteins, particularly with regards to the spatial and temporal regulation that is required for the sorting of cargo at the early endosome, and their impact on autophagy. PMID:23781020

  8. Sip1, a novel RS domain-containing protein essential for pre-mRNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W J; Wu, J Y

    1998-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that protein-protein interactions among splicing factors may play an important role in pre-mRNA splicing. We report here identification and functional characterization of a new splicing factor, Sip1 (SC35-interacting protein 1). Sip1 was initially identified by virtue of its interaction with SC35, a splicing factor of the SR family. Sip1 interacts with not only several SR proteins but also with U1-70K and U2AF65, proteins associated with 5' and 3' splice sites, respectively. The predicted Sip1 sequence contains an arginine-serine-rich (RS) domain but does not have any known RNA-binding motifs, indicating that it is not a member of the SR family. Sip1 also contains a region with weak sequence similarity to the Drosophila splicing regulator suppressor of white apricot (SWAP). An essential role for Sip1 in pre-mRNA splicing was suggested by the observation that anti-Sip1 antibodies depleted splicing activity from HeLa nuclear extract. Purified recombinant Sip1 protein, but not other RS domain-containing proteins such as SC35, ASF/SF2, and U2AF65, restored the splicing activity of the Sip1-immunodepleted extract. Addition of U2AF65 protein further enhanced the splicing reconstitution by the Sip1 protein. Deficiency in the formation of both A and B splicing complexes in the Sip1-depleted nuclear extract indicates an important role of Sip1 in spliceosome assembly. Together, these results demonstrate that Sip1 is a novel RS domain-containing protein required for pre-mRNA splicing and that the functional role of Sip1 in splicing is distinct from those of known RS domain-containing splicing factors. PMID:9447963

  9. S-Bacillithiolation Protects Conserved and Essential Proteins Against Hypochlorite Stress in Firmicutes Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Bui Khanh; Roberts, Alexandra A.; Huyen, Tran Thi Thanh; Bäsell, Katrin; Becher, Dörte; Albrecht, Dirk; Hamilton, Chris J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Protein S-bacillithiolations are mixed disulfides between protein thiols and the bacillithiol (BSH) redox buffer that occur in response to NaOCl in Bacillus subtilis. We used BSH-specific immunoblots, shotgun liquid chromatography (LC)–tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis and redox proteomics to characterize the S-bacillithiolomes of B. subtilis, B. megaterium, B. pumilus, B. amyloliquefaciens, and Staphylococcus carnosus and also measured the BSH/oxidized bacillithiol disulfide (BSSB) redox ratio after NaOCl stress. Results: In total, 54 proteins with characteristic S-bacillithiolation (SSB) sites were identified, including 29 unique proteins and eight proteins conserved in two or more of these bacteria. The methionine synthase MetE is the most abundant S-bacillithiolated protein in Bacillus species after NaOCl exposure. Further, S-bacillithiolated proteins include the translation elongation factor EF-Tu and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ThrS), the DnaK and GrpE chaperones, the two-Cys peroxiredoxin YkuU, the ferredoxin–NADP+ oxidoreductase YumC, the inorganic pyrophosphatase PpaC, the inosine-5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase GuaB, proteins involved in thiamine biosynthesis (ThiG and ThiM), queuosine biosynthesis (QueF), biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids (AroA and AroE), serine (SerA), branched-chain amino acids (YwaA), and homocysteine (LuxS and MetI). The thioredoxin-like proteins, YphP and YtxJ, are S-bacillithiolated at their active sites, suggesting a function in the de-bacillithiolation process. S-bacillithiolation is accompanied by a two-fold increase in the BSSB level and a decrease in the BSH/BSSB redox ratio in B. subtilis. Innovation: Many essential and conserved proteins, including the dominant MetE, were identified in the S-bacillithiolome of different Bacillus species and S. carnosus using shotgun-LC-MS/MS analyses. Conclusion: S-bacillithiolation is a widespread redox control mechanism among Firmicutes bacteria that protects

  10. Uniformly sup 13 C-labeled algal protein used to determine amino acid essentiality in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Berthold, H.K.; Hachey, D.L.; Reeds, P.J.; Klein, P.D. ); Thomas, O.P. ); Hoeksema, S. )

    1991-09-15

    The edible alga Spirulina platensis was uniformly labeled with {sup 13}C by growth in an atmosphere of pure {sup 13}CO{sub 2}. The labeled biomass was then incorporated into the diet of a laying hen for 27 days. The isotopic enrichment of individual amino acids in egg white and yolk proteins, as well as in various tissues of the hen at the end of the feeding period, was analyzed by negative chemical ionization gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The amino acids of successive eggs showed one of two exclusive enrichment patterns: complete preservation of the intact carbon skeleton or extensive degradation and resynthesis. The same observation was made in tissue proteins. These patterns were cleanly divided according to known nutritional amino acid essentiality/nonessentiality but revealed differences in labeling among the nonessential amino acids: most notable was that proline accretion was derived entirely from the diet. Feeding uniformly {sup 13}C-labeled algal protein and recovering and analyzing de novo-synthesized protein provides a useful method to examine amino acid metabolism and determine conditional amino acid essentially in vivo.

  11. Uniformly 13C-labeled algal protein used to determine amino acid essentiality in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Berthold, H K; Hachey, D L; Reeds, P J; Thomas, O P; Hoeksema, S; Klein, P D

    1991-01-01

    The edible alga Spirulina platensis was uniformly labeled with 13C by growth in an atmosphere of pure 13CO2. The labeled biomass was then incorporated into the diet of a laying hen for 27 days. The isotopic enrichment of individual amino acids in egg white and yolk proteins, as well as in various tissues of the hen at the end of the feeding period, was analyzed by negative chemical ionization gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The amino acids of successive eggs showed one of two exclusive enrichment patterns: complete preservation of the intact carbon skeleton or extensive degradation and resynthesis. The same observation was made in tissue proteins. These patterns were cleanly divided according to known nutritional amino acid essentiality/nonessentiality but revealed differences in labeling among the nonessential amino acids: most notable was that proline accretion was derived entirely from the diet. Feeding uniformly 13C-labeled algal protein and recovering and analyzing de novo-synthesized protein provides a useful method to examine amino acid metabolism and determine conditional amino acid essentially in vivo. Images PMID:11607211

  12. Chimeric proteins define variable and essential regions of Ha-ras-encoded protein

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, D.G.; Ricketts, M.; Levinson, A.D.; Goeddel, D.V.

    1988-02-01

    The biological role of amino acid differences between the human 21-kDa Ha-ras protein (p21) and the human 23-kDa R-ras protein (p23) was investigated by engineering mutant Ha-ras p21 molecules containing divergent amino acid sequences from R-ras p23. Variant amino acids from R-ras p23 regions 1-30, 52-57, 67-78, 1-30 and 67-78 together, and 112-124 were substituted for the corresponding Ha-ras p21 amino acid regions 1-4, 26-31, 41-52, 1-4 and 41-52 together, and 86-98, respectively. Rat fibroblasts transfected with genes encoding these position-12 valine-substituted chimeric Ha-ras proteins displayed the same properties of morphological transformation and anchorage-independent growth as Ha-ras T24 oncogene-transformed fibroblasts. However, substitution of variant amino acids from the 80 C-terminal residues (amino acids 138-218) of R-ras p23 for the corresponding p21 amino acids (residues 112-189) inactivated the transforming activity of position-12 valine-substituted p21. The converse substitution of Ha-ras p21 C-terminal residues into R-ras p23 did not result in transformation by position-38 valine-substituted p232. These data are discussed in terms of the structure of ras proteins and the nature of interactions determining the specificity of effector function.

  13. EF-P is essential for rapid synthesis of proteins containing consecutive proline residues.

    PubMed

    Doerfel, Lili K; Wohlgemuth, Ingo; Kothe, Christina; Peske, Frank; Urlaub, Henning; Rodnina, Marina V

    2013-01-01

    Elongation factor P (EF-P) is a translation factor of unknown function that has been implicated in a great variety of cellular processes. Here, we show that EF-P prevents ribosome from stalling during synthesis of proteins containing consecutive prolines, such as PPG, PPP, or longer proline strings, in natural and engineered model proteins. EF-P promotes peptide-bond formation and stabilizes the peptidyl-transfer RNA in the catalytic center of the ribosome. EF-P is posttranslationally modified by a hydroxylated β-lysine attached to a lysine residue. The modification enhances the catalytic proficiency of the factor mainly by increasing its affinity to the ribosome. We propose that EF-P and its eukaryotic homolog, eIF5A, are essential for the synthesis of a subset of proteins containing proline stretches in all cells. PMID:23239624

  14. Amino Acids of Conserved Kinase Motifs of Cytomegalovirus Protein UL97 Are Essential for Autophosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Detlef; Kramer, Silke; Höhn, Simone; Schaarschmidt, Peter; Wunderlich, Kirsten; Mertens, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Thirteen point mutations targeting predicted domains conserved in homologous protein kinases were introduced into the UL97 coding region of the human cytomegalovirus. All mutagenized proteins were expressed in cells infected with recombinant vaccinia viruses (rVV). Several mutations drastically reduced ganciclovir (GCV) phosphorylation. Mutations at amino acids G340, A442, L446, and F523 resulted in a complete loss of pUL97 phosphorylation, which was strictly associated with a loss of GCV phosphorylation. Our results confirm that in rVV-infected cells pUL97 phosphorylation is due to autophosphorylation and show that several amino acids conserved within domains of protein kinases are essential for this pUL97 phosphorylation. GCV phosphorylation is dependent on pUL97 phosphorylation. PMID:10482650

  15. WIPI proteins: essential PtdIns3P effectors at the nascent autophagosome.

    PubMed

    Proikas-Cezanne, Tassula; Takacs, Zsuzsanna; Dönnes, Pierre; Kohlbacher, Oliver

    2015-01-15

    Autophagy is a pivotal cytoprotective process that secures cellular homeostasis, fulfills essential roles in development, immunity and defence against pathogens, and determines the lifespan of eukaryotic organisms. However, autophagy also crucially contributes to the development of age-related human pathologies, including cancer and neurodegeneration. Macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy) clears the cytoplasm by stochastic or specific cargo recognition and destruction, and is initiated and executed by autophagy related (ATG) proteins functioning in dynamical hierarchies to form autophagosomes. Autophagosomes sequester cytoplasmic cargo material, including proteins, lipids and organelles, and acquire acidic hydrolases from the lysosomal compartment for cargo degradation. Prerequisite and essential for autophagosome formation is the production of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns3P) by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase class III (PI3KC3, also known as PIK3C3) in complex with beclin 1, p150 (also known as PIK3R4; Vps15 in yeast) and ATG14L. Members of the human WD-repeat protein interacting with phosphoinositides (WIPI) family play an important role in recognizing and decoding the PtdIns3P signal at the nascent autophagosome, and hence function as autophagy-specific PtdIns3P-binding effectors, similar to their ancestral yeast Atg18 homolog. The PtdIns3P effector function of human WIPI proteins appears to be compromised in cancer and neurodegeneration, and WIPI genes and proteins might present novel targets for rational therapies. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the roles of the four human WIPI proteins, WIPI1-4, in autophagy. This article is part of a Focus on Autophagosome biogenesis. For further reading, please see related articles: 'ERES: sites for autophagosome biogenesis and maturation?' by Jana Sanchez-Wandelmer et al. (J. Cell Sci. 128, 185-192) and 'Membrane dynamics in autophagosome biogenesis' by Sven R. Carlsson and Anne

  16. The Essentials of Protein Import in the Degenerate Mitochondrion of Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Dolezal, Pavel; Dagley, Michael J.; Kono, Maya; Wolynec, Peter; Likić, Vladimir A.; Foo, Jung Hock; Sedinová, Miroslava; Tachezy, Jan; Bachmann, Anna; Bruchhaus, Iris; Lithgow, Trevor

    2010-01-01

    Several essential biochemical processes are situated in mitochondria. The metabolic transformation of mitochondria in distinct lineages of eukaryotes created proteomes ranging from thousands of proteins to what appear to be a much simpler scenario. In the case of Entamoeba histolytica, tiny mitochondria known as mitosomes have undergone extreme reduction. Only recently a single complete metabolic pathway of sulfate activation has been identified in these organelles. The E. histolytica mitosomes do not produce ATP needed for the sulfate activation pathway and for three molecular chaperones, Cpn60, Cpn10 and mtHsp70. The already characterized ADP/ATP carrier would thus be essential to provide cytosolic ATP for these processes, but how the equilibrium of inorganic phosphate could be maintained was unknown. Finally, how the mitosomal proteins are translocated to the mitosomes had remained unclear. We used a hidden Markov model (HMM) based search of the E. histolytica genome sequence to discover candidate (i) mitosomal phosphate carrier complementing the activity of the ADP/ATP carrier and (ii) membrane-located components of the protein import machinery that includes the outer membrane translocation channel Tom40 and membrane assembly protein Sam50. Using in vitro and in vivo systems we show that E. histolytica contains a minimalist set up of the core import components in order to accommodate a handful of mitosomal proteins. The anaerobic and parasitic lifestyle of E. histolytica has produced one of the simplest known mitochondrial compartments of all eukaryotes. Comparisons with mitochondria of another amoeba, Dictystelium discoideum, emphasize just how dramatic the reduction of the protein import apparatus was after the loss of archetypal mitochondrial functions in the mitosomes of E. histolytica. PMID:20333239

  17. Gamma-zeins are essential for endosperm modification in quality protein maize.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yongrui; Holding, David R; Messing, Joachim

    2010-07-20

    Essential amino acids like lysine and tryptophan are deficient in corn meal because of the abundance of zein storage proteins that lack these amino acids. A natural mutant, opaque 2 (o2) causes reduction of zeins, an increase of nonzein proteins, and as a consequence, a doubling of lysine levels. However, o2's soft inferior kernels precluded its commercial use. Breeders subsequently overcame kernel softness, selecting several quantitative loci (QTLs), called o2 modifiers, without losing the high-lysine trait. These maize lines are known as "quality protein maize" (QPM). One of the QTLs is linked to the 27-kDa gamma-zein locus on chromosome 7S. Moreover, QPM lines have 2- to 3-fold higher levels of the 27-kDa gamma-zein, but the physiological significance of this increase is not known. Because the 27- and 16-kDa gamma-zein genes are highly conserved in DNA sequence, we introduced a dominant RNAi transgene into a QPM line (CM105Mo2) to eliminate expression of them both. Elimination of gamma-zeins disrupts endosperm modification by o2 modifiers, indicating their hypostatic action to gamma-zeins. Abnormalities in protein body structure and their interaction with starch granules in the F1 with Mo2/+; o2/o2; gammaRNAi/+ genotype suggests that gamma-zeins are essential for restoring protein body density and starch grain interaction in QPM. To eliminate pleiotropic effects caused by o2, the 22-kDa alpha-zein, gamma-zein, and beta-zein RNAis were stacked, resulting in protein bodies forming as honeycomb-like structures. We are unique in presenting clear demonstration that gamma-zeins play a mechanistic role in QPM, providing a previously unexplored rationale for molecular breeding. PMID:20615951

  18. The Direct Interaction between Two Morphogenetic Proteins Is Essential for Spore Coat Formation in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Isticato, Rachele; Sirec, Teja; Vecchione, Stefano; Crispino, Anna; Saggese, Anella; Baccigalupi, Loredana; Notomista, Eugenio; Driks, Adam; Ricca, Ezio

    2015-01-01

    In Bacillus subtilis the protective layers that surround the mature spore are formed by over seventy different proteins. Some of those proteins have a regulatory role on the assembly of other coat proteins and are referred to as morphogenetic factors. CotE is a major morphogenetic factor, known to form a ring around the forming spore and organize the deposition of the outer surface layers. CotH is a CotE-dependent protein known to control the assembly of at least nine other coat proteins. We report that CotH also controls the assembly of CotE and that this mutual dependency is due to a direct interaction between the two proteins. The C-terminal end of CotE is essential for this direct interaction and CotH cannot bind to mutant CotE deleted of six or nine C-terminal amino acids. However, addition of a negatively charged amino acid to those deleted versions of CotE rescues the interaction. PMID:26484546

  19. The Ser/Thr Protein Kinase PknB Is Essential for Sustaining Mycobacterial Growth▿

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Pablo; Saint-Joanis, Brigitte; Barilone, Nathalie; Jackson, Mary; Gicquel, Brigitte; Cole, Stewart T.; Alzari, Pedro M.

    2006-01-01

    The receptor-like protein kinase PknB from Mycobacterium tuberculosis is encoded by the distal gene in a highly conserved operon, present in all actinobacteria, that may control cell shape and cell division. Genes coding for a PknB-like protein kinase are also found in many more distantly related gram-positive bacteria. Here, we report that the pknB gene can be disrupted by allelic replacement in M. tuberculosis and the saprophyte Mycobacterium smegmatis only in the presence of a second functional copy of the gene. We also demonstrate that eukaryotic Ser/Thr protein kinase inhibitors, which inactivate PknB in vitro with a 50% inhibitory concentration in the submicromolar range, are able to kill M. tuberculosis H37Rv, M. smegmatis mc2155, and Mycobacterium aurum A+ with MICs in the micromolar range. Furthermore, significantly higher concentrations of these compounds are required to inhibit growth of M. smegmatis strains overexpressing PknB, suggesting that this protein kinase is the molecular target. These findings demonstrate that the Ser/Thr protein kinase PknB is essential for sustaining mycobacterial growth and support the development of protein kinase inhibitors as new potential antituberculosis drugs. PMID:16980473

  20. Parallel SCF Adaptor Capture Proteomics Reveals a Role for SCFFBXL17 in NRF2 Activation via BACH1 Repressor Turnover

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Meng-Kwang Marcus; Lim, Hui-Jun; Bennett, Eric J.; Shi, Yang; Harper, J. Wade

    2014-01-01

    Modular Cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligases (CRLs) use substrate binding adaptor proteins to specify target ubiquitylation. Many of the ~200 human CRL adaptor proteins remain poorly studied due to a shortage of efficient methods to identify biologically relevant substrates. Here, we report the development of Parallel Adaptor Capture (PAC) proteomics, and its use to systematically identify candidate targets for the leucine-rich repeat family of F-box proteins (FBXLs) that function with SKP1-CUL1-F-box protein (SCF) E3s. In validation experiments, we identify the unstudied F-box protein FBXL17 as a regulator of the NFR2 oxidative stress pathway. We demonstrate that FBXL17 controls the transcription of the NRF2 target HMOX1 via turnover of the transcriptional repressor BACH1 in the absence or presence of extrinsic oxidative stress. This work identifies a role for SCFFBXL17 in controlling the threshold for NRF2-dependent gene activation and provides a framework for elucidating the functions of CRL adaptor proteins. PMID:24035498

  1. Parallel SCF adaptor capture proteomics reveals a role for SCFFBXL17 in NRF2 activation via BACH1 repressor turnover.

    PubMed

    Tan, Meng-Kwang Marcus; Lim, Hui-Jun; Bennett, Eric J; Shi, Yang; Harper, J Wade

    2013-10-10

    Modular cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligases (CRLs) use substrate binding adaptor proteins to specify target ubiquitylation. Many of the ~200 human CRL adaptor proteins remain poorly studied due to a shortage of efficient methods to identify biologically relevant substrates. Here, we report the development of parallel adaptor capture (PAC) proteomics and its use to systematically identify candidate targets for the leucine-rich repeat family of F-box proteins (FBXLs) that function with SKP1-CUL1-F-box protein (SCF) E3s. In validation experiments, we identify the unstudied F-box protein FBXL17 as a regulator of the NFR2 oxidative stress pathway. We demonstrate that FBXL17 controls the transcription of the NRF2 target HMOX1 via turnover of the transcriptional repressor BACH1 in the absence or presence of extrinsic oxidative stress. This work identifies a role for SCF(FBXL17) in controlling the threshold for NRF2-dependent gene activation and provides a framework for elucidating the functions of CRL adaptor proteins. PMID:24035498

  2. Protein-protein interactions within the Fatty Acid Synthase-II system of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are essential for mycobacterial viability.

    PubMed

    Veyron-Churlet, Romain; Guerrini, Olivier; Mourey, Lionel; Daffé, Mamadou; Zerbib, Didier

    2004-12-01

    Despite the existence of efficient chemotherapy, tuberculosis remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide. New drugs are urgently needed to reduce the potential impact of the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains of the causative agent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). The front-line antibiotic isoniazid (INH), and several other drugs, target the biosynthesis of mycolic acids and especially the Fatty Acid Synthase-II (FAS-II) elongation system. This biosynthetic pathway is essential and specific for mycobacteria and still represents a valuable system for the search of new anti-tuberculous agents. Several data, in the literature, suggest the existence of protein-protein interactions within the FAS-II system. These interactions themselves might serve as targets for a new generation of drugs directed against Mtb. By using an extensive in vivo yeast two-hybrid approach and in vitro co-immunoprecipitation, we have demonstrated the existence of both homotypic and heterotypic interactions between the known components of FAS-II. The condensing enzymes KasA, KasB and mtFabH interact with each other and with the reductases MabA and InhA. Furthermore, we have designed and constructed point mutations of the FAS-II reductase MabA, able to disrupt its homotypic interactions and perturb the interaction pattern of this protein within FAS-II. Finally, we showed by a transdominant genetic approach that these mutants are dominant negative in both non-pathogenic and pathogenic mycobacteria. These data allowed us to draw a dynamic model of the organization of FAS-II. They also represent an important step towards the design of a new generation of anti-tuberculous agents, as being inhibitors of essential protein-protein interactions. PMID:15554959

  3. Drosophila Hook-Related Protein (Girdin) Is Essential for Sensory Dendrite Formation

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Andrew; Polyanovsky, Andrey; Avidor-Reiss, Tomer

    2015-01-01

    The dendrite of the sensory neuron is surrounded by support cells and is composed of two specialized compartments: the inner segment and the sensory cilium. How the sensory dendrite is formed and maintained is not well understood. Hook-related proteins (HkRP) like Girdin, DAPLE, and Gipie are actin-binding proteins, implicated in actin organization and in cell motility. Here, we show that the Drosophila melanogaster single member of the Hook-related protein family, Girdin, is essential for sensory dendrite formation and function. Mutations in girdin were identified during a screen for fly mutants with no mechanosensory function. Physiological, morphological, and ultrastructural studies of girdin mutant flies indicate that the mechanosensory neurons innervating external sensory organs (bristles) initially form a ciliated dendrite that degenerates shortly after, followed by the clustering of their cell bodies. Importantly, we observed that Girdin is expressed transiently during dendrite morphogenesis in three previously unidentified actin-based structures surrounding the inner segment tip and the sensory cilium. These actin structures are largely missing in girdin mutant. Defects in cilia are observed in other sensory organs such as those mediating olfaction and taste, suggesting that Girdin has a general role in forming sensory dendrites in Drosophila. These suggest that Girdin functions temporarily within the sensory organ and that this function is essential for the formation of the sensory dendrites via actin structures. PMID:26058848

  4. Septate Junction Proteins Play Essential Roles in Morphogenesis Throughout Embryonic Development in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Sonia; Ward, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    The septate junction (SJ) is the occluding junction found in the ectodermal epithelia of invertebrate organisms, and is essential to maintain chemically distinct compartments in epithelial organs, to provide the blood–brain barrier in the nervous system, and to provide an important line of defense against invading pathogens. More than 20 genes have been identified to function in the establishment or maintenance of SJs in Drosophila melanogaster. Numerous studies have demonstrated the cell biological function of these proteins in establishing the occluding junction, whereas very few studies have examined further developmental roles for them. Here we examined embryos with mutations in nine different core SJ genes and found that all nine result in defects in embryonic development as early as germ band retraction, with the most penetrant defect observed in head involution. SJ genes are also required for cell shape changes and cell rearrangements that drive the elongation of the salivary gland during midembryogenesis. Interestingly, these developmental events occur at a time prior to the formation of the occluding junction, when SJ proteins localize along the lateral membrane and have not yet coalesced into the region of the SJ. Together, these observations reveal an underappreciated role for a large group of SJ genes in essential developmental events during embryogenesis, and suggest that the function of these proteins in facilitating cell shape changes and rearrangements is independent of their role in the occluding junction. PMID:27261004

  5. Septate Junction Proteins Play Essential Roles in Morphogenesis Throughout Embryonic Development in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Hall, Sonia; Ward, Robert E

    2016-01-01

    The septate junction (SJ) is the occluding junction found in the ectodermal epithelia of invertebrate organisms, and is essential to maintain chemically distinct compartments in epithelial organs, to provide the blood-brain barrier in the nervous system, and to provide an important line of defense against invading pathogens. More than 20 genes have been identified to function in the establishment or maintenance of SJs in Drosophila melanogaster Numerous studies have demonstrated the cell biological function of these proteins in establishing the occluding junction, whereas very few studies have examined further developmental roles for them. Here we examined embryos with mutations in nine different core SJ genes and found that all nine result in defects in embryonic development as early as germ band retraction, with the most penetrant defect observed in head involution. SJ genes are also required for cell shape changes and cell rearrangements that drive the elongation of the salivary gland during midembryogenesis. Interestingly, these developmental events occur at a time prior to the formation of the occluding junction, when SJ proteins localize along the lateral membrane and have not yet coalesced into the region of the SJ. Together, these observations reveal an underappreciated role for a large group of SJ genes in essential developmental events during embryogenesis, and suggest that the function of these proteins in facilitating cell shape changes and rearrangements is independent of their role in the occluding junction. PMID:27261004

  6. Phosducin-like protein 1 is essential for G protein assembly and signaling in retinal rod photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Chun Wan J.; Kolesnikov, Alexander V.; Frederick, Jeanne M.; Blake, Devon R.; Jiang, Li; Stewart, Jubal S.; Chen, Ching-Kang; Barrow, Jeffery R.; Baehr, Wolfgang; Kefalov, Vladimir J.; Willardson, Barry M.

    2013-01-01

    G protein β subunits perform essential neuronal functions as part of G protein βγ and Gβ5-RGS (Regulators of G protein Signaling) complexes. Both Gβγ and Gβ5-RGS are obligate dimers that are thought to require the assistance of the cytosolic chaperonin CCT and a co-chaperone, phosducin-like protein 1 (PhLP1) for dimer formation. To test this hypothesis in vivo, we deleted the Phlp1 gene in mouse (Mus musculus) retinal rod photoreceptor cells and measured the effects on G protein biogenesis and visual signal transduction. In the PhLP1-depleted rods, Gβγ dimer formation was decreased 50-fold, resulting in a more than 10-fold decrease in light sensitivity. Moreover, a 20-fold reduction in Gβ5 and RGS9-1 expression was also observed, causing a 15-fold delay in the shutoff of light responses. These findings conclusively demonstrate in vivo that PhLP1 is required for the folding and assembly of both Gβγ and Gβ5-RGS9. PMID:23637185

  7. Two CheW coupling proteins are essential in a chemosensory pathway of Borrelia burgdorferi

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kai; Liu, Jun; Tu, Youbin; Xu, Hongbin; Charon, Nyles W.; Li, Chunhao

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY In the model organism Escherichia coli, the coupling protein CheW, which bridges the chemoreceptors and histidine kinase CheA, is essential for chemotaxis. Unlike the situation in E. coli, Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, has three cheW homologues (cheW1, cheW2, and cheW3). Here, a comprehensive approach is utilized to investigate the roles of the three cheWs in chemotaxis of B. burgdorferi. First, genetic studies indicated that both the cheW1 and cheW3 genes are essential for chemotaxis, as the mutants had altered swimming behaviors and were non-chemotactic. Second, immunofluorescence and cryo-electron tomography studies suggested that both CheW1 and CheW3 are involved in the assembly of chemoreceptor arrays at the cell poles. In contrast to cheW1 and cheW3, cheW2 is dispensable for chemotaxis and assembly of the chemoreceptor arrays. Finally, immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that the three CheWs interact with different CheAs: CheW1 and CheW3 interact with CheA2 whereas CheW2 binds to CheA1. Collectively, our results indicate that CheW1 and CheW3 are incorporated into one chemosensory pathway that is essential for B. burgdorferi chemotaxis. Although many bacteria have more than one homologue of CheW, to our knowledge, this report provides the first experimental evidence that two CheW proteins co-exist in one chemosensory pathway and that both are essential for chemotaxis. PMID:22780444

  8. An essential yeast protein, CBF5p, binds in vitro to centromeres and microtubules.

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, W; Middleton, K; Yoon, H J; Fouquet, C; Carbon, J

    1993-01-01

    Yeast centromere DNA (CEN) affinity column chromatography has been used to purify several putative centromere and kinetochore proteins from yeast chromatin extracts. The single yeast gene (CBF5) specifying one of the major low-affinity centromere-binding proteins (p64'/CBF5p) has been cloned and shown to be essential for viability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. CBF5 specifies a 55-kDa highly charged protein that contains a repeating KKD/E sequence domain near the C terminus, similar to known microtubule-binding domains in microtubule-associated proteins 1A and 1B, CBF5p, obtained by overexpression in bacterial cells, binds microtubules in vitro, whereas C-terminal deleted proteins lacking the (KKD/E)n domain do not. Dividing yeast cells containing a C-terminal truncated CBF5 gene, producing CBF5p containing only three copies of the KKD/E repeat, delay with replicated genomes at the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, while depletion of CBF5p arrests most cells in G1/S. Overproduction of CBF5p in S. cerevisiae complements a temperature sensitivity mutation in the gene (CBF2) specifying the 110-kDa subunit of the high-affinity CEN DNA-binding factor CBF3, suggesting in vivo interaction of CBF5p and CBF3. A second low-affinity centromere-binding factor has been identified as topoisomerase II. Images PMID:8336724

  9. Prion-like domains in RNA binding proteins are essential for building subnuclear paraspeckles

    PubMed Central

    Hennig, Sven; Kong, Geraldine; Mannen, Taro; Sadowska, Agata; Kobelke, Simon; Blythe, Amanda; Knott, Gavin J.; Iyer, K. Swaminathan; Ho, Diwei; Newcombe, Estella A.; Hosoki, Kana; Goshima, Naoki; Kawaguchi, Tetsuya; Hatters, Danny; Trinkle-Mulcahy, Laura; Hirose, Tetsuro; Bond, Charles S.

    2015-01-01

    Prion-like domains (PLDs) are low complexity sequences found in RNA binding proteins associated with the neurodegenerative disorder amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Recently, PLDs have been implicated in mediating gene regulation via liquid-phase transitions that drive ribonucleoprotein granule assembly. In this paper, we report many PLDs in proteins associated with paraspeckles, subnuclear bodies that form around long noncoding RNA. We mapped the interactome network of paraspeckle proteins, finding enrichment of PLDs. We show that one protein, RBM14, connects key paraspeckle subcomplexes via interactions mediated by its PLD. We further show that the RBM14 PLD, as well as the PLD of another essential paraspeckle protein, FUS, is required to rescue paraspeckle formation in cells in which their endogenous counterpart has been knocked down. Similar to FUS, the RBM14 PLD also forms hydrogels with amyloid-like properties. These results suggest a role for PLD-mediated liquid-phase transitions in paraspeckle formation, highlighting this nuclear body as an excellent model system for understanding the perturbation of such processes in neurodegeneration. PMID:26283796

  10. ER Adaptor SCAP Translocates and Recruits IRF3 to Perinuclear Microsome Induced by Cytosolic Microbial DNAs

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Huansha; Liu, Xing; Huang, Lulu; Wang, Qiang; Liu, Heng; Cui, Ye; Tang, Yijun; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Stimulator of interferon genes (STING, also known as MITA, ERIS or MPYS) induces the activation of TBK1 kinase and IRF3 transcription factor, upon sensing of microbial DNAs. How IRF3 is recruited onto the STING signalosome remains unknown. We report here that silencing of the ER adaptor SCAP markedly impairs the IRF3-responsive gene expression induced by STING. Scap knockdown mice are more susceptible to HSV-1 infection. Interestingly, SCAP translocates from ER, via Golgi, to perinuclear microsome in a STING-dependent manner. Mechanistically, the N-terminal transmembrane domain of SCAP interacts with STING, and the C-terminal cytosolic domain of SCAP binds to IRF3, thus recruiting IRF3 onto STING signalosome. Mis-localization of SCAP abolishes its antiviral function. Collectively, this study characterizes SCAP as an essential adaptor in the STING signaling pathway, uncovering a critical missing link in DNAs-triggered host antiviral responses. PMID:26900919

  11. Sde2: A novel nuclear protein essential for telomeric silencing and genomic stability in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    SciTech Connect

    Sugioka-Sugiyama, Rie; Sugiyama, Tomoyasu

    2011-03-18

    Research highlights: {yields} Sde2 is essential for telomere silencing. {yields} Sde2 is involved in the maintenance of genomic stability. {yields} Sde2 promotes the recruitment of SHREC, a histone deacetylase complex, to telomeres. -- Abstract: Telomeres, specialized domains assembled at the ends of linear chromosomes, are essential for genomic stability in eukaryotes. The formation and maintenance of telomeres are governed by numerous factors such as telomeric repeats, telomere-binding proteins, heterochromatin proteins, and telomerase. Here, we report Sde2, a novel nuclear protein essential for telomeric silencing and genomic stability in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. A deficiency in sde2 results in the derepression of the ura4{sup +} gene inserted near telomeric repeats, and the noncoding transcripts from telomeric regions accumulate in sde2{Delta} cells. The loss of Sde2 function compromises transcriptional silencing at telomeres, and this silencing defect is accompanied by increased levels of acetylated histone H3K14 and RNA polymerase II occupancy at telomeres as well as reduced recruitment of the SNF2 ATPase/histone deacetylase-containing complex SHREC to telomeres. Deletion of sde2 also leads to a higher frequency of mitotic minichromosome loss, and sde2{Delta} cells often form asci that contain spores in abnormal numbers, shapes, or both. In addition, sde2{Delta} cells are highly sensitive to several stresses, including high/low temperatures, bleomycin, which induces DNA damage, and thiabendazole, a microtubule-destabilizing agent. Furthermore, Sde2 genetically interacts with the telomere regulators Taz1, Pof3, and Ccq1. These findings demonstrate that Sde2 cooperates with other telomere regulators to maintain functional telomeres, thereby preventing genomic instability.

  12. Hypothetical Protein BB0569 Is Essential for Chemotaxis of the Lyme Disease Spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kai; Liu, Jun; Charon, Nyles W.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi has five putative methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs). In this report, we provide evidence that a hypothetical protein, BB0569, is essential for the chemotaxis of B. burgdorferi. While BB0569 lacks significant homology to the canonical MCPs, it contains a conserved domain (spanning residues 110 to 170) that is often evident in membrane-bound MCPs such as Tar and Tsr of Escherichia coli. Unlike Tar and Tsr, BB0569 lacks transmembrane regions and recognizable HAMP and methylation domains and is similar to TlpC, a cytoplasmic chemoreceptor of Rhodobacter sphaeroides. An isogenic mutant of BB0569 constantly runs in one direction and fails to respond to attractants, indicating that BB0569 is essential for chemotaxis. Immunofluorescence, green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion, and cryo-electron tomography analyses demonstrate that BB0569 localizes at the cell poles and is required for chemoreceptor clustering at the cell poles. Protein cross-linking studies reveal that BB0569 forms large protein complexes with MCP3, indicative of its interactions with other MCPs. Interestingly, analysis of B. burgdorferi mcp mutants shows that inactivation of either mcp2 or mcp3 reduces the level of BB0569 substantially and that such a reduction is caused by protein turnover. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the domain composition and function of BB0569 are similar in some respects to those of TlpC but that these proteins are different in their cellular locations, further highlighting that the chemotaxis of B. burgdorferi is unique and different from the Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica paradigm. IMPORTANCE Spirochete chemotaxis differs substantially from the Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica paradigm, and the basis for controlling the rotation of the bundles of periplasmic flagella at each end of the cell is unknown. In recent years, Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, has

  13. Mitochondrial Protein Nfu1 Influences Homeostasis of Essential Metals in the Human Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeongmi; Park, Minji; Do, Eunsoo

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial protein Nfu1 plays an important role in the assembly of mitochondrial Fe-S clusters and intracellular iron homeostasis in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, we identified the Nfu1 ortholog in the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. Our data showed that C. neoformans Nfu1 localized in the mitochondria and influenced homeostasis of essential metals such as iron, copper and manganese. Marked growth defects were observed in the mutant lacking NFU1, which suggests a critical role of Nfu1 in Fe-S cluster biosynthesis and intracellular metal homeostasis in C. neoformans. PMID:25606020

  14. An essential GT motif in the lamin A promoter mediates activation by CREB-binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Janaki Ramaiah, M.; Parnaik, Veena K. . E-mail: veenap@ccmb.res.in

    2006-09-29

    Lamin A is an important component of nuclear architecture in mammalian cells. Mutations in the human lamin A gene lead to highly degenerative disorders that affect specific tissues. In studies directed towards understanding the mode of regulation of the lamin A promoter, we have identified an essential GT motif at -55 position by reporter gene assays and mutational analysis. Binding of this sequence to Sp transcription factors has been observed in electrophoretic mobility shift assays and by chromatin immunoprecipitation studies. Further functional analysis by co-expression of recombinant proteins and ChIP assays has shown an important regulatory role for CREB-binding protein in promoter activation, which is mediated by the GT motif.

  15. A DOC2 Protein Identified by Mutational Profiling is Essential for Apicomplexan Parasite Exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Andrew; Thirugnanam, Sivasakthivel; Lorestani, Alexander; Dvorin, Jeffrey D.; Eidell, Keith P.; Ferguson, David J.P.; Anderson-White, Brooke R.; Duraisingh, Manoj T.; Marth, Gabor T.; Gubbels, Marc-Jan

    2012-01-01

    Exocytosis is essential to the lytic cycle of apicomplexan parasites and required for the pathogenesis of toxoplasmosis and malaria. DOC2 proteins recruit the membrane fusion machinery required for exocytosis in a Ca2+-dependent fashion. Here, the phenotype of a Toxoplasma gondii conditional mutant impaired in host cell invasion and egress was pinpointed to a defect in secretion of the micronemes, an apicomplexan-specific organelle that contains adhesion proteins. Whole genome sequencing identified the etiological point mutation in TgDOC2.1. A conditional allele of the orthologous gene engineered into Plasmodium falciparum was also defective in microneme secretion. However, the major effect was on invasion, suggesting microneme secretion is dispensable for Plasmodium egress. PMID:22246776

  16. An essential malaria protein defines the architecture of blood-stage and transmission-stage parasites.

    PubMed

    Absalon, Sabrina; Robbins, Jonathan A; Dvorin, Jeffrey D

    2016-01-01

    Blood-stage replication of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum occurs via schizogony, wherein daughter parasites are formed by a specialized cytokinesis known as segmentation. Here we identify a parasite protein, which we name P. falciparum Merozoite Organizing Protein (PfMOP), as essential for cytokinesis of blood-stage parasites. We show that, following PfMOP knockdown, parasites undergo incomplete segmentation resulting in a residual agglomerate of partially divided cells. While organelles develop normally, the structural scaffold of daughter parasites, the inner membrane complex (IMC), fails to form in this agglomerate causing flawed segmentation. In PfMOP-deficient gametocytes, the IMC formation defect causes maturation arrest with aberrant morphology and death. Our results provide insight into the mechanisms of replication and maturation of malaria parasites. PMID:27121004

  17. An essential malaria protein defines the architecture of blood-stage and transmission-stage parasites

    PubMed Central

    Absalon, Sabrina; Robbins, Jonathan A.; Dvorin, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    Blood-stage replication of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum occurs via schizogony, wherein daughter parasites are formed by a specialized cytokinesis known as segmentation. Here we identify a parasite protein, which we name P. falciparum Merozoite Organizing Protein (PfMOP), as essential for cytokinesis of blood-stage parasites. We show that, following PfMOP knockdown, parasites undergo incomplete segmentation resulting in a residual agglomerate of partially divided cells. While organelles develop normally, the structural scaffold of daughter parasites, the inner membrane complex (IMC), fails to form in this agglomerate causing flawed segmentation. In PfMOP-deficient gametocytes, the IMC formation defect causes maturation arrest with aberrant morphology and death. Our results provide insight into the mechanisms of replication and maturation of malaria parasites. PMID:27121004

  18. Yeast and human Ysl2p/hMon2 interact with Gga adaptors and mediate their subcellular distribution

    PubMed Central

    Singer-Krüger, Birgit; Lasić, Maja; Bürger, Anna-Maria; Haußer, Angelika; Pipkorn, Rüdiger; Wang, Yi

    2008-01-01

    The Gga proteins represent a family of ubiquitously expressed clathrin adaptors engaged in vesicle budding at the tubular endosomal network/trans Golgi network. Their membrane recruitment is commonly thought to involve interactions with Arf and signals in cargo through the so-called VHS domain. For yeast Gga proteins, however, partners binding to its VHS domain have remained elusive and Gga localization does not absolutely depend on Arf. Here, we demonstrate that yeast Gga recruitment relies on a network of interactions between the scaffold Ysl2p/Mon2p, the small GTPase Arl1p, and the flippase Neo1p. Deletion of either YSL2 or ARL1 causes mislocalization of Gga2p, whereas a neo1-69 mutant accumulates Gga2p on aberrant structures. Remarkably, Ysl2p directly interacts with human and yeast Ggas through the VHS domain, and binding to Gga proteins is also found for the human Ysl2p orthologue hMon2. Thus, Ysl2p represents an essential, evolutionarily conserved member of a network controlling direct binding and membrane docking of Ggas. Because activated Arl1p is part of the network that binds Gga2p, Arf and Arf-like GTPases may interact in a regulatory cascade. PMID:18418388

  19. Novel Toll/IL-1 Receptor Homologous Region Adaptors Act as Negative Regulators in Amphioxus TLR Signaling.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jian; Tao, Xin; Li, Rui; Hu, Jingru; Ruan, Jie; Wang, Ruihua; Yang, Manyi; Yang, Rirong; Dong, Xiangru; Chen, Shangwu; Xu, Anlong; Yuan, Shaochun

    2015-10-01

    Studies have shown that the basal chordate amphioxus possesses an extraordinarily complex TLR system, including 39 TLRs and at least 40 Toll/IL-1R homologous region (TIR) adaptors. Besides homologs to MyD88 and TIR domain-containing adaptor molecule (TICAM), most amphioxus TIR adaptors exhibit domain architectures that are not observed in other species. To reveal how these novel TIR adaptors function in amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtauense (bbt), four representatives, bbtTIRA, bbtTIRB, bbtTIRC, and bbtTIRD, were selected for functional analyses. We found bbtTIRA to show a unique inhibitory role in amphioxus TICAM-mediated pathway by interacting with bbtTICAM and bbt receptor interacting protein 1b, whereas bbtTIRC specifically inhibits the amphioxus MyD88-dependent pathway by interacting with bbtMyD88 and depressing the polyubiquitination of bbt TNFR-associated factor 6. Although both bbtTIRB and bbtTIRD are located on endosomes, the TIR domain of bbtTIRB can interact with bbtMyD88 in the cytosol, whereas the TIR domain of bbtTIRD is enclosed in endosome, suggesting that bbtTIRD may be a redundant gene in amphioxus. This study indicated that most expanded TIR adaptors play nonredundant regulatory roles in amphioxus TLR signaling, adding a new layer to understanding the diversity and complexity of innate immunity at basal chordate. PMID:26324776

  20. Ouro proteins are not essential to tail regression during Xenopus tropicalis metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Yuya; Nakajima, Keisuke; Robert, Jacques; Yaoita, Yoshio

    2016-03-01

    Tail regression is one of the most prominent transformations observed during anuran metamorphosis. A tadpole tail that is twice as long as the tadpole trunk nearly disappears within 3 days in Xenopus tropicalis. Several years ago, it was proposed that this phenomenon is driven by an immunological rejection of larval-skin-specific antigens, Ouro proteins. We generated ouro-knockout tadpoles using the TALEN method to reexamine this immunological rejection model. Both the ouro1- and ouro2-knockout tadpoles expressed a very low level of mRNA transcribed from a targeted ouro gene, an undetectable level of Ouro protein encoded by a target gene and a scarcely detectable level of the other Ouro protein from the untargeted ouro gene in tail skin. Furthermore, congenital athymic frogs were produced by Foxn1 gene modification. Flow cytometry analysis showed that mutant frogs lacked splenic CD8(+) T cells, which play a major role in cytotoxic reaction. Furthermore, T-cell-dependent skin allograft rejection was dramatically impaired in mutant frogs. None of the knockout tadpoles showed any significant delay in the process of tail shortening during the climax of metamorphosis, which shows that Ouro proteins are not essential to tail regression at least in Xenopus tropicalis and argues against the immunological rejection model. PMID:26847415

  1. Misread protein creates membrane channels: an essential step in the bactericidal action of aminoglycosides.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, B D; Chen, L L; Tai, P C

    1986-01-01

    Among the pleiotropic effects of aminoglycosides, their irreversible uptake and their blockade of initiating ribosomes have appeared to explain their bactericidal action, while the contributions of translational misreading and membrane damage and the mechanism of that damage have remained uncertain. We now present evidence that incorporation of misread proteins into the membrane can account for the membrane damage. The bactericidal action thus appears to result from the following sequence, in which each step is essential: slight initial entry of the antibiotic; interaction with chain-elongating ribosomes, resulting in misreading; incorporation of misread protein into the membrane, creating abnormal channels; increased (and irreversible) entry through these channels, and hence increased misreading and formation of channels; and, finally, blockade of initiating ribosomes. This mechanism can account for several previously unexplained observations: that streptomycin uptake requires protein synthesis during, but not after, the lag before the membrane damage; that streptomycin-resistant cells, which fail to take up streptomycin, can do so after treatment by another aminoglycoside; and that puromycin at moderate concentrations accelerates streptomycin uptake, while high concentrations (which release shorter chains) prevent it. In addition, puromycin, prematurely releasing polypeptides of normal sequence, also evidently creates channels, since it is reported to promote streptomycin uptake even in streptomycin-resistant cells. These findings imply that normal membrane proteins must be selected not only for a hydrophobic anchoring surface, but also for a tight fit in the membrane. Images PMID:2426712

  2. Hypercortisolemia alters muscle protein anabolism following ingestion of essential amino acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paddon-Jones, Douglas; Sheffield-Moore, Melinda; Creson, Daniel L.; Sanford, Arthur P.; Wolf, Steven E.; Wolfe, Robert R.; Ferrando, Arny A.

    2003-01-01

    Debilitating injury is accompanied by hypercortisolemia, muscle wasting, and disruption of the normal anabolic response to food. We sought to determine whether acute hypercortisolemia alters muscle protein metabolism following ingestion of a potent anabolic stimulus: essential amino acids (EAA). A 27-h infusion (80 microg. kg(-1). h(-1)) of hydrocortisone sodium succinate mimicked cortisol (C) levels accompanying severe injury (>30 microg/dl), (C + AA; n = 6). The control group (AA) received intravenous saline (n = 6). Femoral arteriovenous blood samples and muscle biopsies were obtained during a primed (2.0 micromol/kg) constant infusion (0.05 micromol. kg(-1). min(-1)) of l-[ring-(2)H(5)]phenylalanine before and after ingestion of 15 g of EAA. Hypercortisolemia [36.5 +/- 2.1 (C + AA) vs. 9.0 +/- 1.0 microg/dl (AA)] increased postabsorptive arterial, venous, and muscle intracellular phenylalanine concentrations. Hypercortisolemia also increased postabsorptive and post-EAA insulin concentrations. Net protein balance was blunted (40% lower) following EAA ingestion but remained positive for a greater period of time (60 vs. 180 min) in the C + AA group. Thus, although differences in protein metabolism were evident, EAA ingestion improved muscle protein anabolism during acute hypercortisolemia and may help minimize muscle loss following debilitating injury.

  3. The α-Tocopherol Transfer Protein Is Essential for Vertebrate Embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Galen W.; Ulatowski, Lynn; Labut, Edwin M.; Lebold, Katie M.; Manor, Danny; Atkinson, Jeffrey; Barton, Carrie L.; Tanguay, Robert L.; Traber, Maret G.

    2012-01-01

    The hepatic α-tocopherol transfer protein (TTP) is required for optimal α-tocopherol bioavailability in humans; mutations in the human TTPA gene result in the heritable disorder ataxia with vitamin E deficiency (AVED, OMIM #277460). TTP is also expressed in mammalian uterine and placental cells and in the human embryonic yolk-sac, underscoring TTP’s significance during fetal development. TTP and vitamin E are essential for productive pregnancy in rodents, but their precise physiological role in embryogenesis is unknown. We hypothesize that TTP is required to regulate delivery of α-tocopherol to critical target sites in the developing embryo. We tested to find if TTP is essential for proper vertebrate development, utilizing the zebrafish as a non-placental model. We verify that TTP is expressed in the adult zebrafish and its amino acid sequence is homologous to the human ortholog. We show that embryonic transcription of TTP mRNA increases >7-fold during the first 24 hours following fertilization. In situ hybridization demonstrates that Ttpa transcripts are localized in the developing brain, eyes and tail bud at 1-day post fertilization. Inhibiting TTP expression using oligonucleotide morpholinos results in severe malformations of the head and eyes in nearly all morpholino-injected embryos (88% compared with 5.6% in those injected with control morpholinos or 1.7% in non-injected embryos). We conclude that TTP is essential for early development of the vertebrate central nervous system. PMID:23077608

  4. A multifunctional protein EWS is essential for early brown fat lineage determination

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jun Hong; Kang, Hong Jun; Kang, Soo Im; Lee, Ji Eun; Hur, Jamie; Ge, Kai; Mueller, Elisabetta; Li, Hongjie; Lee, Byeong-Chel; Lee, Sean Bong

    2013-01-01

    Summary A recent surge in obesity has given impetus to better understand the mechanisms of adipogenesis, particularly brown adipose tissue (BAT) due to its potential utilization for anti-obesity therapy. Postnatal brown adipocytes arise from early muscle-progenitors but how brown fat lineage is determined is not completely understood. Here, we show that a multifunctional protein EWS (Ewing Sarcoma) is essential for determining brown fat lineage during development. BATs from Ews-null embryos and newborns are developmentally arrested. Ews mutant brown preadipocytes fail to differentiate due to loss of Bmp7 expression, a critical early brown adipogenic factor. We demonstrate that EWS, along with its binding partner YBX1 (Y-box binding protein 1), activates Bmp7 transcription. Depletion of either Ews or Ybx1 leads to loss of Bmp7 expression and brown adipogenesis. Remarkably, Ews-null BATs and brown preadipocytes ectopically express myogenic genes. These results demonstrate that EWS is essential for early brown fat lineage determination. PMID:23987512

  5. A multifunctional protein, EWS, is essential for early brown fat lineage determination.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun Hong; Kang, Hong Jun; Kang, Soo Im; Lee, Ji Eun; Hur, Jamie; Ge, Kai; Mueller, Elisabetta; Li, Hongjie; Lee, Byeong-Chel; Lee, Sean Bong

    2013-08-26

    The recent surge in obesity has provided an impetus to better understand the mechanisms of adipogenesis, particularly in brown adipose tissue (BAT) because of its potential utilization for antiobesity therapy. Postnatal brown adipocytes arise from early muscle progenitors, but how brown fat lineage is determined is not completely understood. Here, we show that a multifunctional protein, Ewing Sarcoma (EWS), is essential for determining brown fat lineage during development. BATs from Ews null embryos and newborns are developmentally arrested. Ews mutant brown preadipocytes fail to differentiate due to loss of Bmp7 expression, a critical early brown adipogenic factor. We demonstrate that EWS, along with its binding partner Y-box binding protein 1 (YBX1), activates Bmp7 transcription. Depletion of either Ews or Ybx1 leads to loss of Bmp7 expression and brown adipogenesis. Remarkably, Ews null BATs and brown preadipocytes ectopically express myogenic genes. These results demonstrate that EWS is essential for early brown fat lineage determination. PMID:23987512

  6. A Zinc Finger Motif-Containing Protein Is Essential for Chloroplast RNA Editing

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Tao; Shi, Xiaowen; Friso, Giulia; Van Wijk, Klaas; Bentolila, Stephane; Hanson, Maureen R.

    2015-01-01

    C-to-U editing of transcripts in plant organelles is carried out by small (<400 kD) protein complexes called editosomes. Recognition of the proper C target for editing is mediated by pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) containing proteins that recognize cis-elements. Members of two additional gene families, the RIP/MORF and ORRM families, have each been found to be required for editing of particular sets of Cs in mitochondria and/or chloroplasts. By co-immunoprecipitation of the chloroplast editing factor ORRM1, followed by mass spectrometry, we have now identified a member of the RanBP2 type zinc fingers (pFAM00641) protein family that is required for editing of 14 sites in chloroplasts and affects editing efficiency of another 16 chloroplast C targets. In yeast two-hybrid assays, OZ1 (Organelle Zinc finger 1) interacts with PPR site recognition factors whose cognate sites are affected when OZ1 is mutated. No interaction of OZ1 with the chloroplast editing factors RIP2 and RIP9 was detected; however, OZ1 interacts with ORRM1, which binds to RIP proteins, allowing us to build a model for the chloroplast RNA editosome. The RNA editosomes that act upon most chloroplast C targets are likely to contain a PPR protein recognition factor, either RIP2 or RIP9, ORRM1, and OZ1. The organelle zinc finger editing factor family (OZ) contains 4 members in Arabidopsis, three that are predicted to be targeted to chloroplasts and one to mitochondria. With the identification of OZ1, there are now 4 nuclear-encoded protein families known to be essential for plant organelle RNA editing. PMID:25768119

  7. Nck adaptors are positive regulators of the size and sensitivity of the T-cell repertoire

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Edwige; Togbe, Dieudonnée; Holdorf, Amy D.; Trubetskoy, Dmitry; Nabti, Sabrina; Küblbeck, Günter; Klevenz, Alexandra; Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Leithäuser, Frank; Möller, Peter; Bladt, Friedhelm; Hämmerling, Günter; Arnold, Bernd; Pawson, Tony; Tafuri, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The size and sensitivity of the T-cell repertoire governs the effectiveness of immune responses against invading pathogens. Both are modulated by T-cell receptor (TCR) activity through molecular mechanisms, which remain unclear. Here, we provide genetic evidence that the SH2/SH3 domain containing proteins Nck lower the threshold of T-cell responsiveness. The hallmarks of Nck deletion were T-cell lymphopenia and hyporeactivity to TCR-mediated stimulation. In the absence of the Nck adaptors, peripheral T cells expressing a TCR with low avidity for self-antigens were strongly reduced, whereas an overall impairment of T-cell activation by weak antigenic stimulation was observed. Mechanistically, Nck deletion resulted in a significant decrease in calcium mobilization and ERK phosphorylation upon TCR engagement. Taken together, our findings unveil a crucial role for the Nck adaptors in shaping the T-cell repertoire to ensure maximal antigenic coverage and optimal T cell excitability. PMID:20709959

  8. Nck adaptors are positive regulators of the size and sensitivity of the T-cell repertoire.

    PubMed

    Roy, Edwige; Togbe, Dieudonnée; Holdorf, Amy D; Trubetskoy, Dmitry; Nabti, Sabrina; Küblbeck, Günter; Klevenz, Alexandra; Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Leithäuser, Frank; Möller, Peter; Bladt, Friedhelm; Hämmerling, Günter; Arnold, Bernd; Pawson, Tony; Tafuri, Anna

    2010-08-31

    The size and sensitivity of the T-cell repertoire governs the effectiveness of immune responses against invading pathogens. Both are modulated by T-cell receptor (TCR) activity through molecular mechanisms, which remain unclear. Here, we provide genetic evidence that the SH2/SH3 domain containing proteins Nck lower the threshold of T-cell responsiveness. The hallmarks of Nck deletion were T-cell lymphopenia and hyporeactivity to TCR-mediated stimulation. In the absence of the Nck adaptors, peripheral T cells expressing a TCR with low avidity for self-antigens were strongly reduced, whereas an overall impairment of T-cell activation by weak antigenic stimulation was observed. Mechanistically, Nck deletion resulted in a significant decrease in calcium mobilization and ERK phosphorylation upon TCR engagement. Taken together, our findings unveil a crucial role for the Nck adaptors in shaping the T-cell repertoire to ensure maximal antigenic coverage and optimal T cell excitability. PMID:20709959

  9. Regulation of ubiquitin-dependent cargo sorting by multiple endocytic adaptors at the plasma membrane

    PubMed Central

    Mayers, Jonathan R.; Wang, Lei; Pramanik, Jhuma; Johnson, Adam; Sarkeshik, Ali; Wang, Yueju; Saengsawang, Witchuda; Yates, John R.; Audhya, Anjon

    2013-01-01

    Endocytic protein trafficking is directed by sorting signals on cargo molecules that are recognized by cytosolic adaptor proteins. However, the steps necessary to segregate the variety of cargoes during endocytosis remain poorly defined. Using Caenorhabditis elegans, we demonstrate that multiple plasma membrane endocytic adaptors function redundantly to regulate clathrin-mediated endocytosis and to recruit components of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery to the cell surface to direct the sorting of ubiquitin-modified substrates. Moreover, our data suggest that preassembly of cargoes with the ESCRT-0 complex at the plasma membrane enhances the efficiency of downstream sorting events in the endolysosomal system. In the absence of a heterooligomeric adaptor complex composed of FCHO, Eps15, and intersectin, ESCRT-0 accumulation at the cell surface is diminished, and the degradation of a ubiquitin-modified cargo slows significantly without affecting the rate of its clathrin-mediated internalization. Consistent with a role for the ESCRT machinery during cargo endocytosis, we further show that the ESCRT-0 complex accumulates at a subset of clathrin-coated pits on the surface of human cells. Our findings suggest a unique mechanism by which ubiquitin-modified cargoes are sequestered into the endolysosomal pathway. PMID:23818590

  10. Hook Adaptors Induce Unidirectional Processive Motility by Enhancing the Dynein-Dynactin Interaction.

    PubMed

    Olenick, Mara A; Tokito, Mariko; Boczkowska, Malgorzata; Dominguez, Roberto; Holzbaur, Erika L F

    2016-08-26

    Cytoplasmic dynein drives the majority of minus end-directed vesicular and organelle motility in the cell. However, it remains unclear how dynein is spatially and temporally regulated given the variety of cargo that must be properly localized to maintain cellular function. Recent work has suggested that adaptor proteins provide a mechanism for cargo-specific regulation of motors. Of particular interest, studies in fungal systems have implicated Hook proteins in the regulation of microtubule motors. Here we investigate the role of mammalian Hook proteins, Hook1 and Hook3, as potential motor adaptors. We used optogenetic approaches to specifically recruit Hook proteins to organelles and observed rapid transport of peroxisomes to the perinuclear region of the cell. This rapid and efficient translocation of peroxisomes to microtubule minus ends indicates that mammalian Hook proteins activate dynein rather than kinesin motors. Biochemical studies indicate that Hook proteins interact with both dynein and dynactin, stabilizing the formation of a supramolecular complex. Complex formation requires the N-terminal domain of Hook proteins, which resembles the calponin-homology domain of end-binding (EB) proteins but cannot bind directly to microtubules. Single-molecule motility assays using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy indicate that both Hook1 and Hook3 effectively activate cytoplasmic dynein, inducing longer run lengths and higher velocities than the previously characterized dynein activator bicaudal D2 (BICD2). Together, these results suggest that dynein adaptors can differentially regulate dynein to allow for organelle-specific tuning of the motor for precise intracellular trafficking. PMID:27365401

  11. The redox/DNA repair protein, Ref-1, is essential for early embryonic development in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Xanthoudakis, S; Smeyne, R J; Wallace, J D; Curran, T

    1996-01-01

    The DNA-binding activity of AP-1 proteins is modulated, in vitro, by a posttranslational mechanism involving reduction oxidation. This mode of regulation has been proposed to control both the transcriptional activity and the oncogenic potential of Fos and Jun. Previous studies revealed that reduction of oxidized Fos and Jun by a cellular protein, Ref-1, stimulates sequence-specific AP-1 DNA-binding activity. Ref-1, a bifunctional protein, is also capable of initiating the repair of apurinic/apyrymidinic sites in damaged DNA. The relationship between the redox and DNA repair activities of Ref-1 is intriguing; both activities have been suggested to play an important role in the cellular response to oxidative stress. To investigate the physiological function of Ref-1, we used a gene targeting strategy to generate mice lacking a functional ref-1 gene. We report here that heterozygous mutant mice develop into adulthood without any apparent abnormalities. In contrast, homozygous mutant mice, lacking a functional ref-1 gene, die during embryonic development. Detailed analysis indicates that death occurs following blastocyst formation, shortly after the time of implantation. Degeneration of the mutant embryos is clearly evident at embryonic day 5.5. These findings demonstrate that Ref-1 is essential for early embryonic development. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8799128

  12. The Disease Protein Tulp1 Is Essential for Periactive Zone Endocytosis in Photoreceptor Ribbon Synapses.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Silke; Magupalli, Venkat Giri; Dembla, Mayur; Katiyar, Rashmi; Schwarz, Karin; Köblitz, Louise; Alpadi, Kannan; Krause, Elmar; Rettig, Jens; Sung, Ching-Hwa; Goldberg, Andrew F X; Schmitz, Frank

    2016-02-24

    Mutations in the Tulp1 gene cause severe, early-onset retinitis pigmentosa (RP14) in humans. In the retina, Tulp1 is mainly expressed in photoreceptors that use ribbon synapses to communicate with the inner retina. In the present study, we demonstrate that Tulp1 is highly enriched in the periactive zone of photoreceptor presynaptic terminals where Tulp1 colocalizes with major endocytic proteins close to the synaptic ribbon. Analyses of Tulp1 knock-out mice demonstrate that Tulp1 is essential to keep endocytic proteins enriched at the periactive zone and to maintain high levels of endocytic activity close to the synaptic ribbon. Moreover, we have discovered a novel interaction between Tulp1 and the synaptic ribbon protein RIBEYE, which is important to maintain synaptic ribbon integrity. The current findings suggest a new model for Tulp1-mediated localization of the endocytic machinery at the periactive zone of ribbon synapses and offer a new rationale and mechanism for vision loss associated with genetic defects in Tulp1. PMID:26911694

  13. Structure of BamA, an essential factor in outer membrane protein biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Reinhard; Schütz, Monika; Oberhettinger, Philipp; Faulstich, Michaela; Bermejo, Ivan; Rudel, Thomas; Diederichs, Kay; Zeth, Kornelius

    2014-06-01

    Outer membrane protein (OMP) biogenesis is an essential process for maintaining the bacterial cell envelope and involves the β-barrel assembly machinery (BAM) for OMP recognition, folding and assembly. In Escherichia coli this function is orchestrated by five proteins: the integral outer membrane protein BamA of the Omp85 superfamily and four associated lipoproteins. To unravel the mechanism underlying OMP folding and insertion, the structure of the E. coli BamA β-barrel and P5 domain was determined at 3 Å resolution. These data add information beyond that provided in the recently published crystal structures of BamA from Haemophilus ducreyi and Neisseria gonorrhoeae and are a valuable basis for the interpretation of pertinent functional studies. In an `open' conformation, E. coli BamA displays a significant degree of flexibility between P5 and the barrel domain, which is indicative of a multi-state function in substrate transfer. E. coli BamA is characterized by a discontinuous β-barrel with impaired β1-β16 strand interactions denoted by only two connecting hydrogen bonds and a disordered C-terminus. The 16-stranded barrel surrounds a large cavity which implies a function in OMP substrate binding and partial folding. These findings strongly support a mechanism of OMP biogenesis in which substrates are partially folded inside the barrel cavity and are subsequently released laterally into the lipid bilayer. PMID:24914988

  14. Extending the essential dynamics analysis to investigate molecular properties: application to the redox potential of proteins.

    PubMed

    Zanetti-Polzi, Laura; Corni, Stefano; Daidone, Isabella; Amadei, Andrea

    2016-07-21

    Here, a methodology is proposed to investigate the collective fluctuation modes of an arbitrary set of observables, maximally contributing to the fluctuation of another functionally relevant observable. The methodology, based on the analysis of fully classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, exploits the essential dynamics (ED) method, originally developed to analyse the collective motions in proteins. We apply this methodology to identify the residues that are more relevant for determining the reduction potential (E(0)) of a redox-active protein. To this aim, the fluctuation modes of the single-residue electrostatic potentials mostly contributing to the fluctuations of the total electrostatic potential (the main determinant of E(0)) are investigated for wild-type azurin and two of its mutants with a higher E(0). By comparing the results here obtained with a previous study on the same systems [Zanetti-Polzi et al., Org. Biomol. Chem., 2015, 13, 11003] we show that the proposed methodology is able to identify the key sites that determine E(0). This information can be used for a general deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms on the basis of the redox properties of the proteins under investigation, as well as for the rational design of mutants with a higher or lower E(0). From the results of the present analysis we propose a new azurin mutant that, according to our calculations, shows a further increase of E(0). PMID:27339768

  15. Mutational analyses of fs(1)Ya, an essential, developmentally regulated, nuclear envelope protein in Drosophila

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jun; Song, Kiwon; Wolfner, M.F.

    1995-12-01

    The fs(1)Ya protein (YA) is an essential, maternally encoded, nuclear lamina protein that is under both developmental and cell cycle control. A strong Ya mutation results in early arrest of embryos. To define the function of YA in the nuclear envelope during early embryonic development, we characterized the phenotypes of four Ya mutant alleles and determined their molecular lesions. Ya mutant embryos arrest with abnormal nuclear envelopes prior to the first mitotic division; a proportion of embryos from two leaky Ya mutants proceed beyond this but arrest after several abnormal divisions. Ya unfertilized eggs contain nuclei of different sizes and condensation states, apparently due to abnormal fusion of the meiotic products immediately after meiosis. Lamin is localized at the periphery of the uncondensed nuclei in these eggs. These results suggest that Ya function is required during and after egg maturation to facilitate proper chromatin condensation, rather than to allow a lamin-containing nuclear envelope to form. Two leaky Ya alleles that partially complement have lesions at opposite ends of the YA protein, suggesting that the N- and C-termini are important for YA function might interact with itself either directly or indirectly. 27 refs., 6 figs.

  16. The adaptor molecule Trif contributes to murine host defense during Leptospiral infection.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, Priya A; Devlin, Amy A; Miller, Jennifer C; Scholle, Frank

    2016-09-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease and is caused by pathogenic species of the Leptospira genus, including Leptospira interrogans (L. interrogans). Humans, domestic and wild animals are susceptible to acute or chronic infection. The innate immune response is a critical defense mechanism against Leptospira interrogans, and has been investigated in mouse models. Murine Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been shown to be key factors in sensing and responding to L. interrogans infection. Specifically, TLR2, TLR4 and the TLR adaptor molecule MyD88 are essential for host defense against L. interrogans; however, the role of the TLR adaptor molecule TIR-domain-containing adaptor-inducing interferon β (TRIF) in the response to L. interrogans has not been previously determined. In the present study, TRIF was found to play an important role during leptospiral infection. Following challenge with L. interrogans, Trif(-/-) mice exhibited delayed weight gain compared to wild-type mice. Moreover, Trif(-/-) mice exhibited an increase in L. interrogans burden in the kidneys, lungs, and blood at early time points (less than 7days post infection). Multiple components of the innate immune responses were dampened in response to leptospiral infection including transcription and production of cytokines, and the humoral response, which suggested that TRIF contributes to expression and production of cytokines important for the host defense against L. interrogans. PMID:27259371

  17. The pyruvate kinase of Stigmatella aurantiaca is an indole binding protein and essential for development.

    PubMed

    Stamm, Irmela; Lottspeich, Friedrich; Plaga, Wulf

    2005-06-01

    Myxospore formation of the myxobacterium Stigmatella aurantiaca can be uncoupled from the cooperative development i.e. fruiting body formation, by low concentrations of indole. Two putative indole receptor proteins were isolated by their capacity to bind indole and identified as pyruvate kinase (PK) and aldehyde dehydrogenase. The PK activity of Stigmatella crude extracts was stimulated by indole. Cloning of the PK gene (pykA) and the construction of a pykA disruption mutant strikingly revealed that PK is essential for multicellular development: Fruiting body formation was abolished in the mutant strain and indole-induced spore formation was delayed. The developmental defects could be complemented by insertion of the pykA gene at the mtaB locus of the Stigmatella genome excluding any polar effects of the pykA disruption. PMID:15882428

  18. Las1 Is an Essential Nuclear Protein Involved in Cell Morphogenesis and Cell Surface Growth

    PubMed Central

    Doseff, A. I.; Arndt, K. T.

    1995-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutations that cause a requirement for SSD1-v for viability were isolated, yielding one new gene, LAS1, and three previously identified genes, SIT4, BCK1/SLK1, and SMP3. Three of these genes, LAS1, SIT4, and BCK1/SLK1, encode proteins that have roles in bud formation or morphogenesis. LAS1 is essential and loss of LAS1 function causes the cells to arrest as 80% unbudded cells and 20% large budded cells that accumulate many vesicles at the mother-daughter neck. Overexpression of LAS1 results in extra cell surface projections in the mother cell, alterations in actin and SPA2 localization, and the accumulation of electron-dense structures along the periphery of both the mother cell and the bud. The nuclear localization of LAS1 suggests a role of LAS1 for regulating bud formation and morphogenesis via the expression of components that function directly in these processes. PMID:8582632

  19. Essential, Overlapping and Redundant Roles of the Drosophila Protein Phosphatase 1α and 1β Genes

    PubMed Central

    Kirchner, Jasmin; Gross, Sascha; Bennett, Daimark; Alphey, Luke

    2007-01-01

    Protein serine/threonine phosphatase type 1 (PP1) has been found in all eukaryotes examined to date and is involved in the regulation of many cellular functions, including glycogen metabolism, muscle contraction, and mitosis. In Drosophila, four genes code for the catalytic subunit of PP1 (PP1c), three of which belong to the PP1α subtype. PP1β9C (flapwing) encodes the fourth PP1c gene and has a specific and nonredundant function as a nonmuscle myosin phosphatase. PP1α87B is the major form and contributes ∼80% of the total PP1 activity. We describe the first mutant alleles of PP1α96A and show that PP1α96A is not an essential gene, but seems to have a function in the regulation of nonmuscle myosin. We show that overexpression of the PP1α isozymes does not rescue semilethal PP1β9C mutants, whereas overexpression of either PP1α96A or PP1β9C does rescue a lethal PP1α87B mutant combination, showing that the lethality is due to a quantitative reduction in the level of PP1c. Overexpression of PP1β9C does not rescue a PP1α87B, PP1α96A double mutant, suggesting an essential PP1α-specific function in Drosophila. PMID:17513890

  20. Inhibition of protein glycation by essential oils of branchlets and fruits of Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica.

    PubMed

    Asgary, S; Naderi, G A; Shams Ardekani, M R; Sahebkar, A; Airin, A; Aslani, S; Kasher, T; Emami, S A

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress and protein glycation play pivotal roles in the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus and its vascular complications. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-glycation properties of essential oils obtained from different parts of Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica. The branchlets of male tree (BMT) and branchlets of female (BFT) tree, and fruits of J. communis subsp. hemisphaerica were extracted using steam distillation method. The oils were phytochemically analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Anti-glycation properties were evaluated using hemoglobin and insulin glycation assays. Overall, 18 volatile components were identified in the J. communis subsp. hemisphaerica oils, amounting to 82.1%, 100.0% and 96.4% of the BMT, BFT and fruit oils, respectively. Promising inhibitory activity was observed from all concentrations of the tested oils in the hemoglobin and insulin glycation assays. The inhibitory activities peaked to 89.9% (BFT oil; 200 μg mL(-1)) and 81.0% (BFT oil; 600 μg mL(-1)) in the hemoglobin and insulin glycation assays, respectively. The evidence from this study suggests that essential oils obtained from the fruits and branchlets of J. communis subsp. hemisphaerica possess anti-glycation properties. These activities may find implication for the prevention and treatment of diabetic complications. PMID:25657787

  1. Drosophila SNAP-29 is an essential SNARE that binds multiple proteins involved in membrane traffic.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hao; Mohtashami, Mahmood; Stewart, Bryan; Boulianne, Gabrielle; Trimble, William S

    2014-01-01

    Each membrane fusion event along the secretory and endocytic pathways requires a specific set of SNAREs to assemble into a 4-helical coiled-coil, the so-called trans-SNARE complex. Although most SNAREs contribute one helix to the trans-SNARE complex, members of the SNAP-25 family contribute two helixes. We report the characterization of the Drosophila homologue of SNAP-29 (dSNAP-29), which is expressed throughout development. Unlike the other SNAP-25 like proteins in fruit fly (i.e., dSNAP-25 and dSNAP-24), which form SDS-resistant SNARE complexes with their cognate SNAREs, dSNAP-29 does not participate in any SDS-resistant complexes, despite its interaction with dsyntaxin1 and dsyntaxin16 in vitro. Immunofluorescence studies indicated that dSNAP-29 is distributed in various tissues, locating in small intracellular puncta and on the plasma membrane, where it associates with EH domain-containing proteins implicated in the endocytic pathway. Overexpression and RNAi studies suggested that dSNAP-29 mediates an essential process in Drosophila development. PMID:24626111

  2. Drosophila SNAP-29 Is an Essential SNARE That Binds Multiple Proteins Involved in Membrane Traffic

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hao; Mohtashami, Mahmood; Stewart, Bryan; Boulianne, Gabrielle; Trimble, William S.

    2014-01-01

    Each membrane fusion event along the secretory and endocytic pathways requires a specific set of SNAREs to assemble into a 4-helical coiled-coil, the so-called trans-SNARE complex. Although most SNAREs contribute one helix to the trans-SNARE complex, members of the SNAP-25 family contribute two helixes. We report the characterization of the Drosophila homologue of SNAP-29 (dSNAP-29), which is expressed throughout development. Unlike the other SNAP-25 like proteins in fruit fly (i.e., dSNAP-25 and dSNAP-24), which form SDS-resistant SNARE complexes with their cognate SNAREs, dSNAP-29 does not participate in any SDS-resistant complexes, despite its interaction with dsyntaxin1 and dsyntaxin16 in vitro. Immunofluorescence studies indicated that dSNAP-29 is distributed in various tissues, locating in small intracellular puncta and on the plasma membrane, where it associates with EH domain-containing proteins implicated in the endocytic pathway. Overexpression and RNAi studies suggested that dSNAP-29 mediates an essential process in Drosophila development. PMID:24626111

  3. Dimerization of elongator protein 1 is essential for Elongator complex assembly

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huisha; Lin, Zhijie; Li, Fengzhi; Diao, Wentao; Dong, Chunming; Zhou, Hao; Xie, Xingqiao; Wang, Zheng; Shen, Yuequan; Long, Jiafu

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved Elongator complex, which is composed of six subunits elongator protein 1 (Elp1 to -6), plays vital roles in gene regulation. The molecular hallmark of familial dysautonomia (FD) is the splicing mutation of Elp1 [also known as IκB kinase complex-associated protein (IKAP)] in the nervous system that is believed to be the primary cause of the devastating symptoms of this disease. Here, we demonstrate that disease-related mutations in Elp1 affect Elongator assembly, and we have determined the structure of the C-terminal portion of human Elp1 (Elp1-CT), which is sufficient for full-length Elp1 dimerization, as well as the structure of the cognate dimerization domain of yeast Elp1 (yElp1-DD). Our study reveals that the formation of the Elp1 dimer contributes to its stability in vitro and in vivo and is required for the assembly of both the human and yeast Elongator complexes. Functional studies suggest that Elp1 dimerization is essential for yeast viability. Collectively, our results identify the evolutionarily conserved dimerization domain of Elp1 and suggest that the pathological mechanisms underlying the onset and progression of Elp1 mutation-related disease may result from impaired Elongator activities. PMID:26261306

  4. RNase P Ribozymes Inhibit the Replication of Human Cytomegalovirus by Targeting Essential Viral Capsid Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhu; Reeves, Michael; Ye, Jun; Trang, Phong; Zhu, Li; Sheng, Jingxue; Wang, Yu; Zen, Ke; Wu, Jianguo; Liu, Fenyong

    2015-01-01

    An engineered RNase P-based ribozyme variant, which was generated using the in vitro selection procedure, was used to target the overlapping mRNA region of two proteins essential for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) replication: capsid assembly protein (AP) and protease (PR). In vitro studies showed that the generated variant, V718-A, cleaved the target AP mRNA sequence efficiently and its activity was about 60-fold higher than that of wild type ribozyme M1-A. Furthermore, we observed a reduction of 98%–99% in AP/PR expression and an inhibition of 50,000 fold in viral growth in cells with V718-A, while a 75% reduction in AP/PR expression and a 500-fold inhibition in viral growth was found in cells with M1-A. Examination of the antiviral effects of the generated ribozyme on the HCMV replication cycle suggested that viral DNA encapsidation was inhibited and as a consequence, viral capsid assembly was blocked when the expression of AP and PR was inhibited by the ribozyme. Thus, our study indicates that the generated ribozyme variant is highly effective in inhibiting HCMV gene expression and blocking viral replication, and suggests that engineered RNase P ribozyme can be potentially developed as a promising gene-targeting agent for anti-HCMV therapy. PMID:26114473

  5. Structural Analysis of Shu Proteins Reveals a DNA Binding Role Essential for Resisting Damage*

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Yuyong; Li, Xu; Liu, Yiwei; Ruan, Jianbin; Qi, Shali; Niu, Liwen; Teng, Maikun

    2012-01-01

    The yeast Shu complex, consisting of the proteins Shu1, Shu2, Psy3, and Csm2, maintains genomic stability by coupling post-replication repair to homologous recombination. However, a lack of biochemical and structural information on the Shu proteins precludes revealing their precise roles within the pathway. Here, we report on the 1.9-Å crystal structure of the Psy3-Csm2 complex. The crystal structure shows that Psy3 forms a heterodimer with Csm2 mainly through a hydrophobic core. Unexpectedly, Psy3 and Csm2 share a similar architecture that closely resembles the ATPase core domain of Rad51. The L2 loop present in Psy3 and Csm2 is similar to that of Rad51 and confers the DNA binding activity of the Shu complex. As with Rad51, the Shu complex appears to form a nucleoprotein filament by binding nonspecifically to DNA. Structure-based mutagenesis studies have demonstrated that the DNA binding activity of the Shu complex is essential for repair of the methyl methanesulfonate-induced DNA damage. Our findings provide good foundations for the understanding of the Srs2 regulation by the Shu complex. PMID:22465956

  6. Leucine-Enriched Essential Amino Acids Augment Mixed Protein Synthesis, But Not Collagen Protein Synthesis, in Rat Skeletal Muscle after Downhill Running.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hiromi; Inoue, Yoshiko; Suzuki, Katsuya; Kobayashi, Hisamine

    2016-01-01

    Mixed and collagen protein synthesis is elevated for as many as 3 days following exercise. Immediately after exercise, enhanced amino acid availability increases synthesis of mixed muscle protein, but not muscle collagen protein. However, the potential for synergic effects of amino acid ingestion with exercise on both mixed and collagen protein synthesis remains unclear. We investigated muscle collagen protein synthesis in rats following post-exercise ingestion of leucine-enriched essential amino acids. We determined fractional protein synthesis rates (FSR) at different time points following exercise. Mixed protein and collagen protein FSRs in skeletal muscle were determined by measuring protein-bound enrichments of hydroxyproline and proline, and by measuring the intracellular enrichment of proline, using injections of flooding d₃-proline doses. A leucine-enriched mixture of essential amino acids (or distilled water as a control) was administrated 30 min or 1 day post-exercise. The collagen protein synthesis in the vastus lateralis was elevated for 2 days after exercise. Although amino acid administration did not increase muscle collagen protein synthesis, it did lead to augmented mixed muscle protein synthesis 1 day following exercise. Thus, contrary to the regulation of mixed muscle protein synthesis, muscle collagen protein synthesis is not affected by amino acid availability after damage-inducing exercise. PMID:27367725

  7. Leucine-Enriched Essential Amino Acids Augment Mixed Protein Synthesis, But Not Collagen Protein Synthesis, in Rat Skeletal Muscle after Downhill Running

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hiromi; Inoue, Yoshiko; Suzuki, Katsuya; Kobayashi, Hisamine

    2016-01-01

    Mixed and collagen protein synthesis is elevated for as many as 3 days following exercise. Immediately after exercise, enhanced amino acid availability increases synthesis of mixed muscle protein, but not muscle collagen protein. However, the potential for synergic effects of amino acid ingestion with exercise on both mixed and collagen protein synthesis remains unclear. We investigated muscle collagen protein synthesis in rats following post-exercise ingestion of leucine-enriched essential amino acids. We determined fractional protein synthesis rates (FSR) at different time points following exercise. Mixed protein and collagen protein FSRs in skeletal muscle were determined by measuring protein-bound enrichments of hydroxyproline and proline, and by measuring the intracellular enrichment of proline, using injections of flooding d3-proline doses. A leucine-enriched mixture of essential amino acids (or distilled water as a control) was administrated 30 min or 1 day post-exercise. The collagen protein synthesis in the vastus lateralis was elevated for 2 days after exercise. Although amino acid administration did not increase muscle collagen protein synthesis, it did lead to augmented mixed muscle protein synthesis 1 day following exercise. Thus, contrary to the regulation of mixed muscle protein synthesis, muscle collagen protein synthesis is not affected by amino acid availability after damage-inducing exercise. PMID:27367725

  8. Nuclear actin and protein 4.1: essential interactions during nuclear assembly in vitro.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Sharon Wald; Chen, Cynthia; Penman, Sheldon; Heald, Rebecca

    2003-09-16

    Structural protein 4.1, which has crucial interactions within the spectrin-actin lattice of the human red cell membrane skeleton, also is widely distributed at diverse intracellular sites in nucleated cells. We previously showed that 4.1 is essential for assembly of functional nuclei in vitro and that the capacity of 4.1 to bind actin is required. Here we report that 4.1 and actin colocalize in mammalian cell nuclei using fluorescence microscopy and, by higher-resolution detergent-extracted cell whole-mount electron microscopy, are associated on nuclear filaments. We also devised a cell-free assay using Xenopus egg extract containing fluorescent actin to follow actin during nuclear assembly. By directly imaging actin under nonperturbing conditions, the total nuclear actin population is retained and visualized in situ relative to intact chromatin. We detected actin initially when chromatin and nuclear pores began assembling. As nuclear lamina assembled, but preceding DNA synthesis, actin distributed in a reticulated pattern throughout the nucleus. Protein 4.1 epitopes also were detected when actin began to accumulate in nuclei, producing a diffuse coincident pattern. As nuclei matured, actin was detected both coincident with and also independent of 4.1 epitopes. To test whether acquisition of nuclear actin is required for nuclear assembly, the actin inhibitor latrunculin A was added to Xenopus egg extracts during nuclear assembly. Latrunculin A strongly perturbed nuclear assembly and produced distorted nuclear structures containing neither actin nor protein 4.1. Our results suggest that actin as well as 4.1 is necessary for nuclear assembly and that 4.1-actin interactions may be critical. PMID:12960380

  9. Nuclear actin and protein 4.1: Essential interactions during nuclear assembly in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, Sharon Wald; Chen, Cynthia; Penman, Sheldon; Heald, Rebecca

    2003-01-01

    Structural protein 4.1, which has crucial interactions within the spectrin–actin lattice of the human red cell membrane skeleton, also is widely distributed at diverse intracellular sites in nucleated cells. We previously showed that 4.1 is essential for assembly of functional nuclei in vitro and that the capacity of 4.1 to bind actin is required. Here we report that 4.1 and actin colocalize in mammalian cell nuclei using fluorescence microscopy and, by higher-resolution detergent-extracted cell whole-mount electron microscopy, are associated on nuclear filaments. We also devised a cell-free assay using Xenopus egg extract containing fluorescent actin to follow actin during nuclear assembly. By directly imaging actin under nonperturbing conditions, the total nuclear actin population is retained and visualized in situ relative to intact chromatin. We detected actin initially when chromatin and nuclear pores began assembling. As nuclear lamina assembled, but preceding DNA synthesis, actin distributed in a reticulated pattern throughout the nucleus. Protein 4.1 epitopes also were detected when actin began to accumulate in nuclei, producing a diffuse coincident pattern. As nuclei matured, actin was detected both coincident with and also independent of 4.1 epitopes. To test whether acquisition of nuclear actin is required for nuclear assembly, the actin inhibitor latrunculin A was added to Xenopus egg extracts during nuclear assembly. Latrunculin A strongly perturbed nuclear assembly and produced distorted nuclear structures containing neither actin nor protein 4.1. Our results suggest that actin as well as 4.1 is necessary for nuclear assembly and that 4.1–actin interactions may be critical. PMID:12960380

  10. Nuclear actin and protein 4.1: Essential interactions during nuclear assembly in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, Sharon Wald; Chen, Cynthia; Penman, Sheldon; Heald, Rebecca

    2003-06-11

    Structural protein 4.1, which has crucial interactions within the spectin-actin lattice of the human red cell membrane skeleton, also is widely distributed at diverse intracellular sites in nucleated cells. We previously showed that 4.1 is essential for assembly of functional nuclei in vitro and that the capacity of 4.1 to bind actin is required. Here we report that 4.1 and actin colocalize in mammalian cell nuclei using fluorescence microscopy and, by higher resolution cell whole mount electron microscopy, are associated on nuclear filaments. We also devised a cell-free assay using Xenopus egg extract containing fluorescent actin to follow actin during nuclear assembly. By directly imaging actin under non-perturbing conditions, the total nuclear actin population is retained and is visualized in situ relative to intact chromatin. We detected actin initially when chromatin and nuclear pores began assembling. As the nuclear lamina assembled, but preceding DNA synthesis, a discrete actin network formed throughout the nucleus. Protein 4.1 epitopes also were detected when actin began to accumulate in nuclei, producing a diffuse coincident pattern. As nuclei matured, actin was detected both coincident with and also independent of 4.1 epitopes. To test whether acquisition of nuclear actin is required for nuclear assembly, the actin inhibitor latrunculin A was added to Xenopus egg extracts during nuclear assembly. Latrunculin A strongly perturbed nuclear assembly and produced distorted nuclear structures containing neither actin nor protein 4.1. Our results suggest that actin as well as 4.1 is necessary for nuclear assembly and that 4.1-actin interactions may be critical.

  11. The Varicella-Zoster Virus Portal Protein Is Essential for Cleavage and Packaging of Viral DNA

    PubMed Central

    Visalli, Melissa A.; House, Brittany L.; Selariu, Anca; Zhu, Hua

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The varicella-zoster virus (VZV) open reading frame 54 (ORF54) gene encodes an 87-kDa monomer that oligomerizes to form the VZV portal protein, pORF54. pORF54 was hypothesized to perform a function similar to that of a previously described herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) homolog, pUL6. pUL6 and the associated viral terminase are required for processing of concatemeric viral DNA and packaging of individual viral genomes into preformed capsids. In this report, we describe two VZV bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) constructs with ORF54 gene deletions, Δ54L (full ORF deletion) and Δ54S (partial internal deletion). The full deletion of ORF54 likely disrupted essential adjacent genes (ORF53 and ORF55) and therefore could not be complemented on an ORF54-expressing cell line (ARPE54). In contrast, Δ54S was successfully propagated in ARPE54 cells but failed to replicate in parental, noncomplementing ARPE19 cells. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the presence of only empty VZV capsids in Δ54S-infected ARPE19 cell nuclei. Similar to the HSV-1 genome, the VZV genome is composed of a unique long region (UL) and a unique short region (US) flanked by inverted repeats. DNA from cells infected with parental VZV (VZVLUC strain) contained the predicted UL and US termini, whereas cells infected with Δ54S contained neither. This result demonstrates that Δ54S is not able to process and package viral DNA, thus making pORF54 an excellent chemotherapeutic target. In addition, the utility of BAC constructs Δ54L and Δ54S as tools for the isolation of site-directed ORF54 mutants was demonstrated by recombineering single-nucleotide changes within ORF54 that conferred resistance to VZV-specific portal protein inhibitors. IMPORTANCE Antivirals with novel mechanisms of action would provide additional therapeutic options to treat human herpesvirus infections. Proteins involved in the herpesviral DNA encapsidation process have become promising antiviral targets

  12. Regulatory protein BBD18 of the lyme disease spirochete: essential role during tick acquisition?

    PubMed

    Hayes, Beth M; Dulebohn, Daniel P; Sarkar, Amit; Tilly, Kit; Bestor, Aaron; Ambroggio, Xavier; Rosa, Patricia A

    2014-01-01

    The Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi senses and responds to environmental cues as it transits between the tick vector and vertebrate host. Failure to properly adapt can block transmission of the spirochete and persistence in either vector or host. We previously identified BBD18, a novel plasmid-encoded protein of B. burgdorferi, as a putative repressor of the host-essential factor OspC. In this study, we investigate the in vivo role of BBD18 as a regulatory protein, using an experimental mouse-tick model system that closely resembles the natural infectious cycle of B. burgdorferi. We show that spirochetes that have been engineered to constitutively produce BBD18 can colonize and persist in ticks but do not infect mice when introduced by either tick bite or needle inoculation. Conversely, spirochetes lacking BBD18 can persistently infect mice but are not acquired by feeding ticks. Through site-directed mutagenesis, we have demonstrated that abrogation of spirochete infection in mice by overexpression of BBD18 occurs only with bbd18 alleles that can suppress OspC synthesis. Finally, we demonstrate that BBD18-mediated regulation does not utilize a previously described ospC operator sequence required by B. burgdorferi for persistence in immunocompetent mice. These data lead us to conclude that BBD18 does not represent the putative repressor utilized by B. burgdorferi for the specific downregulation of OspC in the mammalian host. Rather, we suggest that BBD18 exhibits features more consistent with those of a global regulatory protein whose critical role occurs during spirochete acquisition by feeding ticks. IMPORTANCE Lyme disease, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, is the most common arthropod-borne disease in North America. B. burgdorferi is transmitted to humans and other vertebrate hosts by ticks as they take a blood meal. Transmission between vectors and hosts requires the bacterium to sense changes in the environment and adapt. However, the mechanisms

  13. Evolution of Helicobacter: Acquisition by Gastric Species of Two Histidine-Rich Proteins Essential for Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Vorontsov, Egor; Gallaud, Julien; Malosse, Christian; Michel, Valérie; Cavazza, Christine; Robbe-Saule, Marie; Richaud, Pierre; Chamot-Rooke, Julia; Brochier-Armanet, Céline; De Reuse, Hilde

    2015-01-01

    Metal acquisition and intracellular trafficking are crucial for all cells and metal ions have been recognized as virulence determinants in bacterial pathogens. Virulence of the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori is dependent on nickel, cofactor of two enzymes essential for in vivo colonization, urease and [NiFe] hydrogenase. We found that two small paralogous nickel-binding proteins with high content in Histidine (Hpn and Hpn-2) play a central role in maintaining non-toxic intracellular nickel content and in controlling its intracellular trafficking. Measurements of metal resistance, intracellular nickel contents, urease activities and interactomic analysis were performed. We observed that Hpn acts as a nickel-sequestration protein, while Hpn-2 is not. In vivo, Hpn and Hpn-2 form homo-multimers, interact with each other, Hpn interacts with the UreA urease subunit while Hpn and Hpn-2 interact with the HypAB hydrogenase maturation proteins. In addition, Hpn-2 is directly or indirectly restricting urease activity while Hpn is required for full urease activation. Based on these data, we present a model where Hpn and Hpn-2 participate in a common pathway of controlled nickel transfer to urease. Using bioinformatics and top-down proteomics to identify the predicted proteins, we established that Hpn-2 is only expressed by H. pylori and its closely related species Helicobacter acinonychis. Hpn was detected in every gastric Helicobacter species tested and is absent from the enterohepatic Helicobacter species. Our phylogenomic analysis revealed that Hpn acquisition was concomitant with the specialization of Helicobacter to colonization of the gastric environment and the duplication at the origin of hpn-2 occurred in the common ancestor of H. pylori and H. acinonychis. Finally, Hpn and Hpn-2 were found to be required for colonization of the mouse model by H. pylori. Our data show that during evolution of the Helicobacter genus, acquisition of Hpn and Hpn-2 by gastric

  14. HOMER2, a Stereociliary Scaffolding Protein, Is Essential for Normal Hearing in Humans and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Azaiez, Hela; Shearer, A. Eliot; Huygen, Patrick L. M.; Bu, Fengxiao; Hildebrand, Michael S.; Ranum, Paul T.; Shibata, Seiji B.; Turner, Ann; Zhang, Yuzhou; Kimberling, William J.; Cornell, Robert A.; Smith, Richard J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary hearing loss is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder. More than 80 genes have been implicated to date, and with the advent of targeted genomic enrichment and massively parallel sequencing (TGE+MPS) the rate of novel deafness-gene identification has accelerated. Here we report a family segregating post-lingual progressive autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing loss (ADNSHL). After first excluding plausible variants in known deafness-causing genes using TGE+MPS, we completed whole exome sequencing in three hearing-impaired family members. Only a single variant, p.Arg185Pro in HOMER2, segregated with the hearing-loss phenotype in the extended family. This amino acid change alters a highly conserved residue in the coiled-coil domain of HOMER2 that is essential for protein multimerization and the HOMER2-CDC42 interaction. As a scaffolding protein, HOMER2 is involved in intracellular calcium homeostasis and cytoskeletal organization. Consistent with this function, we found robust expression in stereocilia of hair cells in the murine inner ear and observed that over-expression of mutant p.Pro185 HOMER2 mRNA causes anatomical changes of the inner ear and neuromasts in zebrafish embryos. Furthermore, mouse mutants homozygous for the targeted deletion of Homer2 present with early-onset rapidly progressive hearing loss. These data provide compelling evidence that HOMER2 is required for normal hearing and that its sequence alteration in humans leads to ADNSHL through a dominant-negative mode of action. PMID:25816005

  15. Daptomycin-mediated reorganization of membrane architecture causes mislocalization of essential cell division proteins.

    PubMed

    Pogliano, Joe; Pogliano, Nicolas; Silverman, Jared A

    2012-09-01

    Daptomycin is a lipopeptide antibiotic used clinically for the treatment of certain types of Gram-positive infections, including those caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Details of the mechanism of action of daptomycin continue to be elucidated, particularly the question of whether daptomycin acts on the cell membrane, the cell wall, or both. Here, we use fluorescence microscopy to directly visualize the interaction of daptomycin with the model Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. We show that the first observable cellular effects are the formation of membrane distortions (patches of membrane) that precede cell death by more than 30 min. Membrane patches are able to recruit the essential cell division protein DivIVA. Recruitment of DivIVA correlates with membrane defects and changes in cell morphology, suggesting a localized alteration in the activity of enzymes involved in cell wall synthesis that could account for previously described effects of daptomycin on cell wall morphology and septation. Membrane defects colocalize with fluorescently labeled daptomycin, DivIVA, and fluorescent reporters of peptidoglycan biogenesis (Bocillin FL and BODIPY FL-vancomycin), suggesting that daptomycin plays a direct role in these events. Our results support a mechanism for daptomycin with a primary effect on cell membranes that in turn redirects the localization of proteins involved in cell division and cell wall synthesis, causing dramatic cell wall and membrane defects, which may ultimately lead to a breach in the cell membrane and cell death. These results help resolve the longstanding questions regarding the mechanism of action of this important class of antibiotics. PMID:22661688

  16. Daptomycin-Mediated Reorganization of Membrane Architecture Causes Mislocalization of Essential Cell Division Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Pogliano, Nicolas; Silverman, Jared A.

    2012-01-01

    Daptomycin is a lipopeptide antibiotic used clinically for the treatment of certain types of Gram-positive infections, including those caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Details of the mechanism of action of daptomycin continue to be elucidated, particularly the question of whether daptomycin acts on the cell membrane, the cell wall, or both. Here, we use fluorescence microscopy to directly visualize the interaction of daptomycin with the model Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. We show that the first observable cellular effects are the formation of membrane distortions (patches of membrane) that precede cell death by more than 30 min. Membrane patches are able to recruit the essential cell division protein DivIVA. Recruitment of DivIVA correlates with membrane defects and changes in cell morphology, suggesting a localized alteration in the activity of enzymes involved in cell wall synthesis that could account for previously described effects of daptomycin on cell wall morphology and septation. Membrane defects colocalize with fluorescently labeled daptomycin, DivIVA, and fluorescent reporters of peptidoglycan biogenesis (Bocillin FL and BODIPY FL-vancomycin), suggesting that daptomycin plays a direct role in these events. Our results support a mechanism for daptomycin with a primary effect on cell membranes that in turn redirects the localization of proteins involved in cell division and cell wall synthesis, causing dramatic cell wall and membrane defects, which may ultimately lead to a breach in the cell membrane and cell death. These results help resolve the longstanding questions regarding the mechanism of action of this important class of antibiotics. PMID:22661688

  17. Cooperative and independent roles of the Drp1 adaptors Mff, MiD49 and MiD51 in mitochondrial fission.

    PubMed

    Osellame, Laura D; Singh, Abeer P; Stroud, David A; Palmer, Catherine S; Stojanovski, Diana; Ramachandran, Rajesh; Ryan, Michael T

    2016-06-01

    Cytosolic dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1, also known as DNM1L) is required for both mitochondrial and peroxisomal fission. Drp1-dependent division of these organelles is facilitated by a number of adaptor proteins at mitochondrial and peroxisomal surfaces. To investigate the interplay of these adaptor proteins, we used gene-editing technology to create a suite of cell lines lacking the adaptors MiD49 (also known as MIEF2), MiD51 (also known as MIEF1), Mff and Fis1. Increased mitochondrial connectivity was observed following loss of individual adaptors, and this was further enhanced following the combined loss of MiD51 and Mff. Moreover, loss of adaptors also conferred increased resistance of cells to intrinsic apoptotic stimuli, with MiD49 and MiD51 showing the more prominent role. Using a proximity-based biotin labeling approach, we found close associations between MiD51, Mff and Drp1, but not Fis1. Furthermore, we found that MiD51 can suppress Mff-dependent enhancement of Drp1 GTPase activity. Our data indicates that Mff and MiD51 regulate Drp1 in specific ways to promote mitochondrial fission. PMID:27076521

  18. Systematic VCP-UBXD Adaptor Network Proteomics Identifies a Role for UBXN10 in Regulating Ciliogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Malavika; Sergeev, Mikhail; Garnaas, Maija; Lydeard, John R.; Huttlin, Edward L.; Goessling, Wolfram; Shah, Jagesh V.; Harper, J. Wade

    2015-01-01

    The AAA-ATPase VCP (also known as p97 or CDC48) uses ATP hydrolysis to “segregate” ubiquitinated proteins from their binding partners. VCP acts via UBX-domain containing adaptors that provide target specificity, but targets and functions of UBXD proteins remain poorly understood. Through systematic proteomic analysis of UBXD proteins in human cells, we reveal a network of over 195 interacting proteins, implicating VCP in diverse cellular pathways. We have explored one such complex between an unstudied adaptor UBXN10 and the intraflagellar transport B (IFT-B) complex, which regulates anterograde transport into cilia. UBXN10 localizes to cilia in a VCP-dependent manner and both VCP and UBXN10 are required for ciliogenesis. Pharmacological inhibition of VCP destabilized the IFT-B complex and increased trafficking rates. Depletion of UBXN10 in zebrafish embryos causes defects in left-right asymmetry, which depends on functional cilia. This study provides a resource for exploring the landscape of UBXD proteins in biology and identifies an unexpected requirement for VCP-UBXN10 in ciliogenesis. PMID:26389662

  19. An intein-mediated modulation of protein stability system and its application to study human cytomegalovirus essential gene function

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Deng; Xuan, Baoqin; Sun, Yamei; Huang, Shaowu; Xie, Maorong; Bai, Yadan; Xu, Wenjia; Qian, Zhikang

    2016-01-01

    Functional analysis of the essential proteins encoded by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is hindered by the lack of complementing systems. To overcome this difficulty, we have established a novel approach, termed the intein-mediated modulation of protein stability (imPS), in which a destabilizing domain and part of a split intein are fused to the essential protein. The growth of the mutant virus can then be regulated by the degradation and splicing of the protein. We found that an ultrafast gp41-1 split intein was able to rescue or degrade the protein of interest (POI) by removing or adding a strong degron through protein splicing. As a result, the function of the POI was turned on or off during the process. Using HCMV essential gene IE1/IE2, we confirmed that imPS worked remarkably well in conditionally regulating protein stability during viral infection. This conditional approach is likely to be applicable for dissecting the gene functions of HCMV or other viruses. PMID:27188239

  20. An essential role for the baseplate protein Gp45 in phage adsorption to Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuehua; Koç, Cengiz; Kühner, Petra; Stierhof, York-Dieter; Krismer, Bernhard; Enright, Mark C.; Penadés, José R.; Wolz, Christiane; Stehle, Thilo; Cambillau, Christian; Peschel, Andreas; Xia, Guoqing

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of phages in driving horizontal gene transfer (HGT) among pathogenic bacteria, the underlying molecular mechanisms mediating phage adsorption to S. aureus are still unclear. Phage ϕ11 is a siphovirus with a high transducing efficiency. Here, we show that the tail protein Gp45 localized within the ϕ11 baseplate. Phage ϕ11 was efficiently neutralized by anti-Gp45 serum, and its adsorption to host cells was inhibited by recombinant Gp45 in a dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that biotin-labelled Gp45 efficiently stained the wild-type S. aureus cell but not the double knockout mutant ΔtarM/S, which lacks both α- and β-O-GlcNAc residues on its wall teichoic acids (WTAs). Additionally, adsorption assays indicate that GlcNAc residues on WTAs and O-acetyl groups at the 6-position of muramic acid residues in peptidoglycan are essential components of the ϕ11 receptor. The elucidation of Gp45-involved molecular interactions not only broadens our understanding of siphovirus-mediated HGT, but also lays the groundwork for the development of sensitive affinity-based diagnostics and therapeutics for S. aureus infection. PMID:27212064

  1. Ribosome Protein L4 is essential for Epstein–Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 1 function

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Chih-Lung; Liu, Cheng-Der; You, Ren-In; Ching, Yung-Hao; Liang, Jun; Ke, Liangru; Chen, Ya-Lin; Chen, Hong-Chi; Hsu, Hao-Jen; Liou, Je-Wen; Kieff, Elliott; Peng, Chih-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV) Nuclear Antigen 1 (EBNA1)-mediated origin of plasmid replication (oriP) DNA episome maintenance is essential for EBV-mediated tumorigenesis. We have now found that EBNA1 binds to Ribosome Protein L4 (RPL4). RPL4 shRNA knockdown decreased EBNA1 activation of an oriP luciferase reporter, EBNA1 DNA binding in lymphoblastoid cell lines, and EBV genome number per lymphoblastoid cell line. EBV infection increased RPL4 expression and redistributed RPL4 to cell nuclei. RPL4 and Nucleolin (NCL) were a scaffold for an EBNA1-induced oriP complex. The RPL4 N terminus cooperated with NCL-K429 to support EBNA1 and oriP-mediated episome binding and maintenance, whereas the NCL C-terminal K380 and K393 induced oriP DNA H3K4me2 modification and promoted EBNA1 activation of oriP-dependent transcription. These observations provide new insights into the mechanisms by which EBV uses NCL and RPL4 to establish persistent B-lymphoblastoid cell infection. PMID:26858444

  2. Surfactant Protein-D Is Essential for Immunity to Helminth Infection.

    PubMed

    Thawer, Sumaiyya; Auret, Jennifer; Schnoeller, Corinna; Chetty, Alisha; Smith, Katherine; Darby, Matthew; Roberts, Luke; Mackay, Rosie-Marie; Whitwell, Harry J; Timms, John F; Madsen, Jens; Selkirk, Murray E; Brombacher, Frank; Clark, Howard William; Horsnell, William G C

    2016-02-01

    Pulmonary epithelial cell responses can enhance type 2 immunity and contribute to control of nematode infections. An important epithelial product is the collectin Surfactant Protein D (SP-D). We found that SP-D concentrations increased in the lung following Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection; this increase was dependent on key components of the type 2 immune response. We carried out loss and gain of function studies of SP-D to establish if SP-D was required for optimal immunity to the parasite. N. brasiliensis infection of SP-D-/- mice resulted in profound impairment of host innate immunity and ability to resolve infection. Raising pulmonary SP-D levels prior to infection enhanced parasite expulsion and type 2 immune responses, including increased numbers of IL-13 producing type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), elevated expression of markers of alternative activation by alveolar macrophages (alvM) and increased production of the type 2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13. Adoptive transfer of alvM from SP-D-treated parasite infected mice into naïve recipients enhanced immunity to N. brasiliensis. Protection was associated with selective binding by the SP-D carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) to L4 parasites to enhance their killing by alvM. These findings are the first demonstration that the collectin SP-D is an essential component of host innate immunity to helminths. PMID:26900854

  3. An essential role for the baseplate protein Gp45 in phage adsorption to Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuehua; Koç, Cengiz; Kühner, Petra; Stierhof, York-Dieter; Krismer, Bernhard; Enright, Mark C; Penadés, José R; Wolz, Christiane; Stehle, Thilo; Cambillau, Christian; Peschel, Andreas; Xia, Guoqing

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of phages in driving horizontal gene transfer (HGT) among pathogenic bacteria, the underlying molecular mechanisms mediating phage adsorption to S. aureus are still unclear. Phage ϕ11 is a siphovirus with a high transducing efficiency. Here, we show that the tail protein Gp45 localized within the ϕ11 baseplate. Phage ϕ11 was efficiently neutralized by anti-Gp45 serum, and its adsorption to host cells was inhibited by recombinant Gp45 in a dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that biotin-labelled Gp45 efficiently stained the wild-type S. aureus cell but not the double knockout mutant ΔtarM/S, which lacks both α- and β-O-GlcNAc residues on its wall teichoic acids (WTAs). Additionally, adsorption assays indicate that GlcNAc residues on WTAs and O-acetyl groups at the 6-position of muramic acid residues in peptidoglycan are essential components of the ϕ11 receptor. The elucidation of Gp45-involved molecular interactions not only broadens our understanding of siphovirus-mediated HGT, but also lays the groundwork for the development of sensitive affinity-based diagnostics and therapeutics for S. aureus infection. PMID:27212064

  4. The kinesin related motor protein, Eg5, is essential for maintenance of pre-implantation embryogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Castillo, Andrew; Justice, Monica J. . E-mail: mjustice@bcm.tmc.edu

    2007-06-08

    Eg5 is a plus end directed kinesin related motor protein (KRP) previously shown to be involved in the assembly and maintenance of the mitotic spindle. KRPs are molecular motors capable of generating forces upon microtubules (MTs) in dividing cells and driving structural rearrangements necessary in the developing spindle. In vitro experiments demonstrate that loss of Eg5 results in cell cycle arrest and defective centrosome separation resulting in the development of monopolar spindles. Here we describe mice with a genetrap insertion in Eg5. Heterozygous mutant mice appear phenotypically normal. In contrast, embryos homozygous for the Eg5 null allele recovered at embryonic days 2.5-3.5 display signs of a proliferation defect as reduced cell numbers and failure of compaction and progression to the blastocyst stage was observed. These data, in conjunction with previous in vitro data, suggest that loss of Eg5 results in abnormal spindle structure, cell cycle arrest and thereby reduced cell proliferation of early cleavage pre-implantation embryos. These observations further support the conclusion that Eg5 is essential for cell division early in mouse development, and that maternal contribution may sustain the embryo through the maternal to zygotic transition at which point supplies of functional Eg5 are exhausted, preventing further cell cleavage.

  5. Surfactant Protein-D Is Essential for Immunity to Helminth Infection

    PubMed Central

    Schnoeller, Corinna; Chetty, Alisha; Smith, Katherine; Darby, Matthew; Roberts, Luke; Mackay, Rosie-Marie; Whitwell, Harry J.; Timms, John F.; Madsen, Jens; Selkirk, Murray E.; Brombacher, Frank; Clark, Howard William; Horsnell, William G. C.

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary epithelial cell responses can enhance type 2 immunity and contribute to control of nematode infections. An important epithelial product is the collectin Surfactant Protein D (SP-D). We found that SP-D concentrations increased in the lung following Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection; this increase was dependent on key components of the type 2 immune response. We carried out loss and gain of function studies of SP-D to establish if SP-D was required for optimal immunity to the parasite. N. brasiliensis infection of SP-D-/- mice resulted in profound impairment of host innate immunity and ability to resolve infection. Raising pulmonary SP-D levels prior to infection enhanced parasite expulsion and type 2 immune responses, including increased numbers of IL-13 producing type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), elevated expression of markers of alternative activation by alveolar macrophages (alvM) and increased production of the type 2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13. Adoptive transfer of alvM from SP-D-treated parasite infected mice into naïve recipients enhanced immunity to N. brasiliensis. Protection was associated with selective binding by the SP-D carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) to L4 parasites to enhance their killing by alvM. These findings are the first demonstration that the collectin SP-D is an essential component of host innate immunity to helminths. PMID:26900854

  6. Retinoblastoma Protein Plays Multiple Essential Roles in the Terminal Differentiation of Sertoli Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nalam, Roopa L.; Andreu-Vieyra, Claudia; Braun, Robert E.; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2009-01-01

    Retinoblastoma protein (RB) plays crucial roles in cell cycle control and cellular differentiation. Specifically, RB impairs the G1 to S phase transition by acting as a repressor of the E2F family of transcriptional activators while also contributing towards terminal differentiation by modulating the activity of tissue-specific transcription factors. To examine the role of RB in Sertoli cells, the androgen-dependant somatic support cell of the testis, we created a Sertoli cell-specific conditional knockout of Rb. Initially, loss of RB has no gross effect on Sertoli cell function because the mice are fertile with normal testis weights at 6 wk of age. However, by 10–14 wk of age, mutant mice demonstrate severe Sertoli cell dysfunction and infertility. We show that mutant mature Sertoli cells continue cycling with defective regulation of multiple E2F1- and androgen-regulated genes and concurrent activation of apoptotic and p53-regulated genes. The most striking defects in mature Sertoli cell function are increased permeability of the blood-testis barrier, impaired tissue remodeling, and defective germ cell-Sertoli cell interactions. Our results demonstrate that RB is essential for proper terminal differentiation of Sertoli cells. PMID:19819985

  7. The essential role of the CopN protein in Chlamydia pneumoniae intracellular growth.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jin; Lesser, Cammie F; Lory, Stephen

    2008-11-01

    Bacterial virulence determinants can be identified, according to the molecular Koch's postulates, if inactivation of a gene associated with a suspected virulence trait results in a loss in pathogenicity. This approach is commonly used with genetically tractable organisms. However, the current lack of tools for targeted gene disruptions in obligate intracellular microbial pathogens seriously hampers the identification of their virulence factors. Here we demonstrate an approach to studying potential virulence factors of genetically intractable organisms, such as Chlamydia. Heterologous expression of Chlamydia pneumoniae CopN in yeast and mammalian cells resulted in a cell cycle arrest, presumably owing to alterations in the microtubule cytoskeleton. A screen of a small molecule library identified two compounds that alleviated CopN-induced growth inhibition in yeast. These compounds interfered with C. pneumoniae replication in mammalian cells, presumably by 'knocking out' CopN function, revealing an essential role of CopN in the support of C. pneumoniae growth during infection. This work demonstrates the role of a specific chlamydial protein in virulence. The chemical biology approach described here can be used to identify virulence factors, and the reverse chemical genetic strategy can result in the identification of lead compounds for the development of novel therapeutics. PMID:18830244

  8. Ribosome Protein L4 is essential for Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 1 function.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chih-Lung; Liu, Cheng-Der; You, Ren-In; Ching, Yung-Hao; Liang, Jun; Ke, Liangru; Chen, Ya-Lin; Chen, Hong-Chi; Hsu, Hao-Jen; Liou, Je-Wen; Kieff, Elliott; Peng, Chih-Wen

    2016-02-23

    Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Nuclear Antigen 1 (EBNA1)-mediated origin of plasmid replication (oriP) DNA episome maintenance is essential for EBV-mediated tumorigenesis. We have now found that EBNA1 binds to Ribosome Protein L4 (RPL4). RPL4 shRNA knockdown decreased EBNA1 activation of an oriP luciferase reporter, EBNA1 DNA binding in lymphoblastoid cell lines, and EBV genome number per lymphoblastoid cell line. EBV infection increased RPL4 expression and redistributed RPL4 to cell nuclei. RPL4 and Nucleolin (NCL) were a scaffold for an EBNA1-induced oriP complex. The RPL4 N terminus cooperated with NCL-K429 to support EBNA1 and oriP-mediated episome binding and maintenance, whereas the NCL C-terminal K380 and K393 induced oriP DNA H3K4me2 modification and promoted EBNA1 activation of oriP-dependent transcription. These observations provide new insights into the mechanisms by which EBV uses NCL and RPL4 to establish persistent B-lymphoblastoid cell infection. PMID:26858444

  9. The histone-like protein Hlp is essential for growth of Streptococcus pyogenes: comparison of genetic approaches to study essential genes.

    PubMed

    Bugrysheva, Julia V; Froehlich, Barbara J; Freiberg, Jeffrey A; Scott, June R

    2011-07-01

    Selection of possible targets for vaccine and drug development requires an understanding of the physiology of bacterial pathogens, for which the ability to manipulate expression of essential genes is critical. For Streptococcus pyogenes (the group A streptococcus [GAS]), an important human pathogen, the lack of genetic tools for such studies has seriously hampered research. To address this problem, we characterized variants of the inducible Ptet cassette, in both sense and antisense contexts, as tools to regulate transcription from GAS genes. We found that although the three-operator Ptet construct [Ptet(O)3] had low uninduced expression, its induction level was low, while the two-operator construct [Ptet(O)2] was inducible to a high level but showed significant constitutive expression. Use of Ptet(O)3 in the chromosome allowed us to demonstrate previously that RNases J1 and J2 are required for growth of GAS. Here we report that the uninduced level from the chromosomally inserted Ptet(O)2 construct was too high for us to observe differential growth. For the highly expressed histone-like protein (Hlp) of GAS, neither chromosomal insertion of Ptet(O)2 or Ptet(O)3 nor their use on a high-copy-number plasmid to produce antisense RNA specific to hlp resulted in adequate differential expression. However, by replacing the ribosome binding site of hlp with an engineered riboswitch to control translation of Hlp, we demonstrated for the first time that this protein is essential for GAS growth. PMID:21531823

  10. Bluetongue Virus Nonstructural Protein NS3/NS3a Is Not Essential for Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    van Gennip, René G. P.; van de Water, Sandra G. P.; van Rijn, Piet A.

    2014-01-01

    Orbiviruses form the largest genus of the family Reoviridae consisting of at least 23 different virus species. One of these is the bluetongue virus (BTV) and causes severe hemorrhagic disease in ruminants, and is transmitted by bites of Culicoides midges. BTV is a non-enveloped virus which is released from infected cells by cell lysis and/or a unique budding process induced by nonstructural protein NS3/NS3a encoded by genome segment 10 (Seg-10). Presence of both NS3 and NS3a is highly conserved in Culicoides borne orbiviruses which is suggesting an essential role in virus replication. We used reverse genetics to generate BTV mutants to study the function of NS3/NS3a in virus replication. Initially, BTV with small insertions in Seg-10 showed no CPE but after several passages these BTV mutants reverted to CPE phenotype comparable to wtBTV, and NS3/NS3a expression returned by repair of the ORF. These results show that there is a strong selection for functional NS3/NS3a. To abolish NS3 and/or NS3a expression, Seg-10 with one or two mutated start codons (mutAUG1, mutAUG2 and mutAUG1+2) were used to generate BTV mutants. Surprisingly, all three BTV mutants were generated and the respective AUGMet→GCCAla mutations were maintained. The lack of expression of NS3, NS3a, or both proteins was confirmed by westernblot analysis and immunostaining of infected cells with NS3/NS3a Mabs. Growth of mutAUG1 and mutAUG1+2 virus in BSR cells was retarded in both insect and mammalian cells, and particularly virus release from insect cells was strongly reduced. Our findings now enable research on the role of RNA sequences of Seg-10 independent of known gene products, and on the function of NS3/NS3a proteins in both types of cells as well as in the host and insect vector. PMID:24465709

  11. Identification of an essential Caulobacter crescentus gene encoding a member of the Obg family of GTP-binding proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Maddock, J; Bhatt, A; Koch, M; Skidmore, J

    1997-01-01

    We have identified an essential Caulobacter crescentus gene (cgtA) that encodes a member of a recently identified subfamily of GTPases (the Obg family) conserved from Bacteria to Archaea to humans. This evolutionary conservation between distantly related species suggests that this family of GTP-binding proteins possesses a fundamental, yet unknown, cellular role. In this report, we describe the isolation and sequence of the cgtA gene. The predicted CgtA protein displays striking similarity to the Obg family of small, monomeric GTP-binding proteins, both in the conserved guanine nucleotide-binding domains and throughout the N-terminal glycine-rich domain that is found in many members of the Obg family. Disruption of the cgtA gene was lethal, demonstrating that this gene is essential for cell growth. Immunoblot analysis revealed that CgtA protein levels remained constant throughout the C. crescentus cell cycle. PMID:9335292

  12. Frog virus 3 ORF 53R, a putative myristoylated membrane protein, is essential for virus replication in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Whitley, Dexter S.; Yu, Kwang; Sample, Robert C.; Sinning, Allan; Henegar, Jeffrey; Norcross, Erin; Chinchar, V. Gregory

    2010-09-30

    Although previous work identified 12 complementation groups with possible roles in virus assembly, currently only one frog virus 3 protein, the major capsid protein (MCP), has been linked with virion formation. To identify other proteins required for assembly, we used an antisense morpholino oligonucleotide to target 53R, a putative myristoylated membrane protein, and showed that treatment resulted in marked reductions in 53R levels and a 60% drop in virus titers. Immunofluorescence assays confirmed knock down and showed that 53R was found primarily within viral assembly sites, whereas transmission electron microscopy detected fewer mature virions and, in some cells, dense granular bodies that may represent unencapsidated DNA-protein complexes. Treatment with a myristoylation inhibitor (2-hydroxymyristic acid) resulted in an 80% reduction in viral titers. Collectively, these data indicate that 53R is an essential viral protein that is required for replication in vitro and suggest it plays a critical role in virion formation.

  13. Rising atmospheric CO2 is reducing the protein concentration of a floral pollen source essential for North American bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Qualitative changes in floral pollen protein have been shown to be an important aspect of pollinator health. Flowering late in the season, goldenrod (Solidago spp.), provides an essential autumnal source of floral pollen for wild bee and honeybee populations prior to winter, with tall or Canada gol...

  14. Leucine-enriched essential amino acid supplementation during moderate steady state exercise enhances postexercise muscle protein synthesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: The effects of essential amino acid (EAA) supplementation during moderate steady state (ie, endurance) exercise on postexercise skeletal muscle metabolism are not well described, and the potential role of supplemental leucine on muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and associated molecular re...

  15. C‐reactive protein is elevated in the offspring of parents with essential hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Juan Jose; Arguelles, Juan; Málaga, Ignacio; Perillán, Carmen; Diéguez, Angeles; Vijande, Manuel; Málaga, Serafín

    2007-01-01

    Background Hypertension is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies in adults have shown that high sensitivity C‐reactive protein (CRP) levels are associated with increased risk of CVD and essential hypertension (EHT). Genetic background is widely accepted as a risk factor for CVD. The aim of the present study was to analyse the association of high sensitivity CRP levels with other cardiovascular risk factors in children and young adults with at least one parent with EHT. Methods Fifty one healthy children and young adults (28 boys) with at least one parent with hypertension and 69 (41 boys) whose parents did not have hypertension were recruited prospectively from primary care centres. High sensitivity CRP, fasting lipid profile, blood pressure (BP) and anthropometric variables were obtained for all participants. Results CRP values were higher in the study group than in controls (logCRP mean difference: −0.69; 95% confidence interval: −1.05 to −0.33), even when differences were adjusted for age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and triglyceride levels (p = 0.01). No differences were observed in BP values between groups. In the study group, 35.3% of the participants had a CRP level ⩾1 mg/l compared to 14.5% in the control group (p = 0.009). CRP showed a significant correlation with body weight (rho = 0.28, p = 0.04), BMI (rho = 0.32; p = 0.02) and ponderosity index (rho = 0.28; p<0.05). Conclusions CRP is significantly higher in the offspring of parents with EHT. A significant positive relationship exists between BMI and serum CRP levels in this high risk group of children and young adults. PMID:17158147

  16. The Ribosome Biogenesis Protein Nol9 Is Essential for Definitive Hematopoiesis and Pancreas Morphogenesis in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Bielczyk-Maczyńska, Ewa; Lam Hung, Laure; Ferreira, Lauren; Fleischmann, Tobias; Weis, Félix; Fernández-Pevida, Antonio; Harvey, Steven A; Wali, Neha; Warren, Alan J; Barroso, Inês; Stemple, Derek L; Cvejic, Ana

    2015-12-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is a ubiquitous and essential process in cells. Defects in ribosome biogenesis and function result in a group of human disorders, collectively known as ribosomopathies. In this study, we describe a zebrafish mutant with a loss-of-function mutation in nol9, a gene that encodes a non-ribosomal protein involved in rRNA processing. nol9sa1022/sa1022 mutants have a defect in 28S rRNA processing. The nol9sa1022/sa1022 larvae display hypoplastic pancreas, liver and intestine and have decreased numbers of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), as well as definitive erythrocytes and lymphocytes. In addition, ultrastructural analysis revealed signs of pathological processes occurring in endothelial cells of the caudal vein, emphasizing the complexity of the phenotype observed in nol9sa1022/sa1022 larvae. We further show that both the pancreatic and hematopoietic deficiencies in nol9sa1022/sa1022 embryos were due to impaired cell proliferation of respective progenitor cells. Interestingly, genetic loss of Tp53 rescued the HSPCs but not the pancreatic defects. In contrast, activation of mRNA translation via the mTOR pathway by L-Leucine treatment did not revert the erythroid or pancreatic defects. Together, we present the nol9sa1022/sa1022 mutant, a novel zebrafish ribosomopathy model, which recapitulates key human disease characteristics. The use of this genetically tractable model will enhance our understanding of the tissue-specific mechanisms following impaired ribosome biogenesis in the context of an intact vertebrate. PMID:26624285

  17. The Ribosome Biogenesis Protein Nol9 Is Essential for Definitive Hematopoiesis and Pancreas Morphogenesis in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Lauren; Fleischmann, Tobias; Weis, Félix; Fernández-Pevida, Antonio; Harvey, Steven A.; Wali, Neha; Warren, Alan J.; Barroso, Inês; Stemple, Derek L.; Cvejic, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is a ubiquitous and essential process in cells. Defects in ribosome biogenesis and function result in a group of human disorders, collectively known as ribosomopathies. In this study, we describe a zebrafish mutant with a loss-of-function mutation in nol9, a gene that encodes a non-ribosomal protein involved in rRNA processing. nol9 sa1022/sa1022 mutants have a defect in 28S rRNA processing. The nol9 sa1022/sa1022 larvae display hypoplastic pancreas, liver and intestine and have decreased numbers of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), as well as definitive erythrocytes and lymphocytes. In addition, ultrastructural analysis revealed signs of pathological processes occurring in endothelial cells of the caudal vein, emphasizing the complexity of the phenotype observed in nol9 sa1022/sa1022 larvae. We further show that both the pancreatic and hematopoietic deficiencies in nol9 sa1022/sa1022 embryos were due to impaired cell proliferation of respective progenitor cells. Interestingly, genetic loss of Tp53 rescued the HSPCs but not the pancreatic defects. In contrast, activation of mRNA translation via the mTOR pathway by L-Leucine treatment did not revert the erythroid or pancreatic defects. Together, we present the nol9 sa1022/sa1022 mutant, a novel zebrafish ribosomopathy model, which recapitulates key human disease characteristics. The use of this genetically tractable model will enhance our understanding of the tissue-specific mechanisms following impaired ribosome biogenesis in the context of an intact vertebrate. PMID:26624285

  18. Nucleophosmin protein expression level, but not threonine 198 phosphorylation, is essential in growth and proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Brady, SN; Maggi, LB; Winkeler, CL; Toso, EA; Gwinn, AS; Pelletier, CL; Weber, JD

    2010-01-01

    Nucleophosmin (NPM), an oligomeric phosphoprotein and nucleolar target of the ARF tumor suppressor, contributes to several critical cellular processes. Previous studies have shown that the human NPM’s phosphorylation by cyclin E–cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (cdk2) on threonine (Thr) 199 regulates its translocation from the centrosome during cell cycle progression. Given our previous finding that ARF directly binds NPM, impeding its transit to the cytoplasm and arresting cells before S-phase entry, we hypothesized that ARF might also inhibit NPM phosphorylation. However, ARF induction did not impair phosphorylation of the cdk2 target residue in murine NPM, Thr198. Furthermore, phosphorylation of Thr198 occurred throughout the cell cycle and was concomitant with increases in overall NPM expression. To investigate the cell’s presumed requirement for NPM-Thr198 phosphorylation in promoting the processes of growth and proliferation, we examined the effects of a non-phosphorylatable NPM mutant, T198A, in a clean cell system in which endogenous NPM had been removed by RNA interference. Here, we show that the T198A mutant is fully capable of executing NPM’s described roles in nucleocytoplasmic shuttling, ribosome export and cell cycle progression. Moreover, the proliferative defects observed with stable NPM knockdown were restored by mutant NPM-T198A expression. Thus, we demonstrate that the reduction in NPM protein expression blocks cellular growth and proliferation, whereas phosphorylation of NPM-Thr198 is not essential for NPM’s capacity to drive cell cycle progression and proliferation. PMID:19561638

  19. Selenophosphate synthetase 1 is an essential protein with roles in regulation of redox homoeostasis in mammals.

    PubMed

    Tobe, Ryuta; Carlson, Bradley A; Huh, Jang Hoe; Castro, Nadia P; Xu, Xue-Ming; Tsuji, Petra A; Lee, Sang-Goo; Bang, Jeyoung; Na, Ji-Woon; Kong, Young-Yun; Beaglehole, Daniel; Southon, Eileen; Seifried, Harold; Tessarollo, Lino; Salomon, David S; Schweizer, Ulrich; Gladyshev, Vadim N; Hatfield, Dolph L; Lee, Byeong Jae

    2016-07-15

    Selenophosphate synthetase (SPS) was initially detected in bacteria and was shown to synthesize selenophosphate, the active selenium donor. However, mammals have two SPS paralogues, which are designated SPS1 and SPS2. Although it is known that SPS2 catalyses the synthesis of selenophosphate, the function of SPS1 remains largely unclear. To examine the role of SPS1 in mammals, we generated a Sps1-knockout mouse and found that systemic SPS1 deficiency led to embryos that were clearly underdeveloped by embryonic day (E)8.5 and virtually resorbed by E14.5. The knockout of Sps1 in the liver preserved viability, but significantly affected the expression of a large number of mRNAs involved in cancer, embryonic development and the glutathione system. Particularly notable was the extreme deficiency of glutaredoxin 1 (GLRX1) and glutathione transferase Omega 1 (GSTO1). To assess these phenotypes at the cellular level, we targeted the removal of SPS1 in F9 cells, a mouse embryonal carcinoma (EC) cell line, which affected the glutathione system proteins and accordingly led to the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in the cell. Furthermore, we found that several malignant characteristics of SPS1-deficient F9 cells were reversed, suggesting that SPS1 played a role in supporting and/or sustaining cancer. In addition, the overexpression of mouse or human GLRX1 led to a reversal of observed increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the F9 SPS1/GLRX1-deficient cells and resulted in levels that were similar to those in F9 SPS1-sufficient cells. The results suggested that SPS1 is an essential mammalian enzyme with roles in regulating redox homoeostasis and controlling cell growth. PMID:27208177

  20. Protein unfolding is an essential requirement for transport across the parasitophorous vacuolar membrane of Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Gehde, Nina; Hinrichs, Corinna; Montilla, Irine; Charpian, Stefan; Lingelbach, Klaus; Przyborski, Jude M

    2009-02-01

    Plasmodium falciparum traffics a large number of proteins to its host cell, the mature human erythrocyte. How exactly these proteins gain access to the red blood cell is poorly understood. Here we have investigated the effect of protein folding on the transport of model substrate proteins to the host cell. We find that proteins must pass into the erythrocyte cytoplasm in an unfolded state. Our data strongly support the presence of a protein-conducting channel in the parasitophorous vacuolar membrane, and additionally imply an important role for molecular chaperones in keeping parasite proteins in a 'translocation competent' state prior to membrane passage. PMID:19040635

  1. The Poly(C) Binding Protein Pcbp2 and Its Retrotransposed Derivative Pcbp1 Are Independently Essential to Mouse Development

    PubMed Central

    Ghanem, Louis R.; Kromer, Andrew; Silverman, Ian M.; Chatterji, Priya; Traxler, Elizabeth; Penzo-Mendez, Alfredo; Weiss, Mitchell J.; Stanger, Ben Z.

    2015-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins participate in a complex array of posttranscriptional controls essential to cell type specification and somatic development. Despite their detailed biochemical characterizations, the degree to which each RNA-binding protein impacts mammalian embryonic development remains incompletely defined, and the level of functional redundancy among subsets of these proteins remains open to question. The poly(C) binding proteins, PCBPs (αCPs and hnRNP E proteins), are encoded by a highly conserved and broadly expressed gene family. The two major Pcbp isoforms, Pcbp2 and Pcbp1, are robustly expressed in a wide range of tissues and exert both nuclear and cytoplasmic controls over gene expression. Here, we report that Pcbp1-null embryos are rendered nonviable in the peri-implantation stage. In contrast, Pcbp2-null embryos undergo normal development until midgestation (12.5 to 13.5 days postcoitum), at which time they undergo a dramatic loss in viability associated with combined cardiovascular and hematopoietic abnormalities. Mice heterozygous for either Pcbp1 or Pcbp2 null alleles display a mild and nondisruptive defect in initial postpartum weight gain. These data reveal that Pcbp1 and Pcbp2 are individually essential for mouse embryonic development and have distinct impacts on embryonic viability and that Pcpb2 has a nonredundant in vivo role in hematopoiesis. These data further provide direct evidence that Pcbp1, a retrotransposed derivative of Pcpb2, has evolved an essential function(s) in the mammalian genome. PMID:26527618

  2. Regulation of ITAM adaptor molecules and their receptors by inhibition of calcineurin-NFAT signalling during late stage osteoclast differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Zawawi, M.S.F.; Dharmapatni, A.A.S.S.K.; Cantley, M.D.; McHugh, K.P.; Haynes, D.R.; Crotti, T.N.

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calcineurin/NFAT inhibitors FK506 and VIVIT treated human PBMC derived osteoclasts in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differential regulation of ITAM receptors and adaptor molecules by calcineurin/NFAT inhibitors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FK506 and VIVIT suppress ITAM factors during late phase osteoclast differentiation. -- Abstract: Osteoclasts are specialised bone resorptive cells responsible for both physiological and pathological bone loss. Osteoclast differentiation and activity is dependent upon receptor activator NF-kappa-B ligand (RANKL) interacting with its receptor RANK to induce the transcription factor, nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 1 (NFATc1). The immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-dependent pathway has been identified as a co-stimulatory pathway in osteoclasts. Osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR) and triggering receptor expressed in myeloid cells (TREM2) are essential receptors that pair with adaptor molecules Fc receptor common gamma chain (FcR{gamma}) and DNAX-activating protein 12 kDa (DAP12) respectively to induce calcium signalling. Treatment with calcineurin-NFAT inhibitors, Tacrolimus (FK506) and the 11R-VIVIT (VIVIT) peptide, reduces NFATc1 expression consistent with a reduction in osteoclast differentiation and activity. This study aimed to investigate the effects of inhibiting calcineurin-NFAT signalling on the expression of ITAM factors and late stage osteoclast genes including cathepsin K (CathK), Beta 3 integrin ({beta}3) and Annexin VIII (AnnVIII). Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were differentiated with RANKL and macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) over 10 days in the presence or absence of FK506 or VIVIT. Osteoclast formation (as assessed by tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)) and activity (assessed by dentine pit resorption) were significantly reduced with treatment. Quantitative real

  3. Stochastic Detection of MPSA-Gold Nanoparticles Using a α-Hemolysin Nanopore Equipped with a Noncovalent Molecular Adaptor.

    PubMed

    Campos, Elisa J; McVey, Colin E; Astier, Yann

    2016-06-21

    We present the first study of a novel, more sensitive method for the characterization of nanoparticles (NPs). This approach combines detection via a protein nanopore with modification of its interaction behavior using a molecular adaptor. We identify different populations of 3-mercapto-1-propanesulfonate (MPSA)-modified-gold NPs using the biological nanopores α-hemolysin (αHL) and its M113N mutant equipped with a noncovalently bound γ-cyclodextrin molecule as a stochastic sensor. Identification takes place on the basis of the extent of current blockades and residence times. Here, we demonstrate that noncovalently attached adaptors can be used to change the sensing properties of αHL nanopores, allowing the detection and characterization of different populations of MPSA NPs. This is an advance in sensitivity and diversity of NP sensing, as well as a promising and reliable technology to characterize NPs by using protein nanopores. PMID:27238076

  4. On the analysis and comparison of conformer-specific essential dynamics upon ligand binding to a protein

    SciTech Connect

    Grosso, Marcos; Kalstein, Adrian; Parisi, Gustavo; Fernandez-Alberti, Sebastian; Roitberg, Adrian E.

    2015-06-28

    The native state of a protein consists of an equilibrium of conformational states on an energy landscape rather than existing as a single static state. The co-existence of conformers with different ligand-affinities in a dynamical equilibrium is the basis for the conformational selection model for ligand binding. In this context, the development of theoretical methods that allow us to analyze not only the structural changes but also changes in the fluctuation patterns between conformers will contribute to elucidate the differential properties acquired upon ligand binding. Molecular dynamics simulations can provide the required information to explore these features. Its use in combination with subsequent essential dynamics analysis allows separating large concerted conformational rearrangements from irrelevant fluctuations. We present a novel procedure to define the size and composition of essential dynamics subspaces associated with ligand-bound and ligand-free conformations. These definitions allow us to compare essential dynamics subspaces between different conformers. Our procedure attempts to emphasize the main similarities and differences between the different essential dynamics in an unbiased way. Essential dynamics subspaces associated to conformational transitions can also be analyzed. As a test case, we study the glutaminase interacting protein (GIP), composed of a single PDZ domain. Both GIP ligand-free state and glutaminase L peptide-bound states are analyzed. Our findings concerning the relative changes in the flexibility pattern upon binding are in good agreement with experimental Nuclear Magnetic Resonance data.

  5. Structure of Mth11/Mth Rpp29, an essential protein subunit of archaeal and eukaryotic RNase P.

    PubMed

    Boomershine, William P; McElroy, Craig A; Tsai, Hsin-Yue; Wilson, Ross C; Gopalan, Venkat; Foster, Mark P

    2003-12-23

    We have determined the solution structure of Mth11 (Mth Rpp29), an essential subunit of the RNase P enzyme from the archaebacterium Methanothermobacter thermoautotrophicus (Mth). RNase P is a ubiquitous ribonucleoprotein enzyme primarily responsible for cleaving the 5' leader sequence during maturation of tRNAs in all three domains of life. In eubacteria, this enzyme is made up of two subunits: a large RNA ( approximately 120 kDa) responsible for mediating catalysis, and a small protein cofactor ( approximately 15 kDa) that modulates substrate recognition and is required for efficient in vivo catalysis. In contrast, multiple proteins are associated with eukaryotic and archaeal RNase P, and these proteins exhibit no recognizable homology to the conserved bacterial protein subunit. In reconstitution experiments with recombinantly expressed and purified protein subunits, we found that Mth Rpp29, a homolog of the Rpp29 protein subunit from eukaryotic RNase P, is an essential protein component of the archaeal holoenzyme. Consistent with its role in mediating protein-RNA interactions, we report that Mth Rpp29 is a member of the oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding fold family. In addition to a structured beta-barrel core, it possesses unstructured N- and C-terminal extensions bearing several highly conserved amino acid residues. To identify possible RNA contacts in the protein-RNA complex, we examined the interaction of the 11-kDa protein with the full 100-kDa Mth RNA subunit by using NMR chemical shift perturbation. Our findings represent a critical step toward a structural model of the RNase P holoenzyme from archaebacteria and higher organisms. PMID:14673079

  6. The mitochondrial monothiol glutaredoxin S15 is essential for iron-sulfur protein maturation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Moseler, Anna; Aller, Isabel; Wagner, Stephan; Nietzel, Thomas; Przybyla-Toscano, Jonathan; Mühlenhoff, Ulrich; Lill, Roland; Berndt, Carsten; Rouhier, Nicolas; Schwarzländer, Markus; Meyer, Andreas J.

    2015-01-01

    The iron-sulfur cluster (ISC) is an ancient and essential cofactor of many proteins involved in electron transfer and metabolic reactions. In Arabidopsis, three pathways exist for the maturation of iron-sulfur proteins in the cytosol, plastids, and mitochondria. We functionally characterized the role of mitochondrial glutaredoxin S15 (GRXS15) in biogenesis of ISC containing aconitase through a combination of genetic, physiological, and biochemical approaches. Two Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion mutants were identified as null mutants with early embryonic lethal phenotypes that could be rescued by GRXS15. Furthermore, we showed that recombinant GRXS15 is able to coordinate and transfer an ISC and that this coordination depends on reduced glutathione (GSH). We found the Arabidopsis GRXS15 able to complement growth defects based on disturbed ISC protein assembly of a yeast Δgrx5 mutant. Modeling of GRXS15 onto the crystal structures of related nonplant proteins highlighted amino acid residues that after mutation diminished GSH and subsequently ISC coordination, as well as the ability to rescue the yeast mutant. When used for plant complementation, one of these mutant variants, GRXS15K83/A, led to severe developmental delay and a pronounced decrease in aconitase activity by approximately 65%. These results indicate that mitochondrial GRXS15 is an essential protein in Arabidopsis, required for full activity of iron-sulfur proteins. PMID:26483494

  7. A liquid crystal of ascorbyl palmitate, used as vaccine platform, provides sustained release of antigen and has intrinsic pro-inflammatory and adjuvant activities which are dependent on MyD88 adaptor protein.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Vallecillo, María F; Minguito de la Escalera, María M; Aguirre, María V; Ullio Gamboa, Gabriela V; Palma, Santiago D; González-Cintado, Leticia; Chiodetti, Ana L; Soldano, Germán; Morón, Gabriel; Allemandi, Daniel A; Ardavín, Carlos; Pistoresi-Palencia, María C; Maletto, Belkys A

    2015-09-28

    Modern subunit vaccines require the development of new adjuvant strategies. Recently, we showed that CpG-ODN formulated with a liquid crystal nanostructure formed by self-assembly of 6-O-ascorbyl palmitate (Coa-ASC16) is an attractive system for promoting an antigen-specific immune response to weak antigens. Here, we showed that after subcutaneous injection of mice with near-infrared fluorescent dye-labeled OVA antigen formulated with Coa-ASC16, the dye-OVA was retained at the injection site for a longer period than when soluble dye-OVA was administered. Coa-ASC16 alone elicited a local inflammation, but how this material triggers this response has not been described yet. Although it is known that some materials used as a platform are not immunologically inert, very few studies have directly focused on this topic. In this study, we explored the underlying mechanisms concerning the interaction between Coa-ASC16 and the immune system and we found that the whole inflammatory response elicited by Coa-ASC16 (leukocyte recruitment and IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12 production) was dependent on the MyD88 protein. TLR2, TLR4, TLR7 and NLRP3-inflammasome signaling were not required for induction of this inflammatory response. Coa-ASC16 induced local release of self-DNA, and in TLR9-deficient mice IL-6 production was absent. In addition, Coa-ASC16 revealed an intrinsic adjuvant activity which was affected by MyD88 and IL-6 absence. Taken together these results indicate that Coa-ASC16 used as a vaccine platform is effective due to the combination of the controlled release of antigen and its intrinsic pro-inflammatory activity. Understanding how Coa-ASC16 works might have significant implications for rational vaccine design. PMID:26188153

  8. Sumoylation of the Core Protein in Classical Swine Fever Virus is Essential for Virulence in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The classical swine fever virus core protein makes up the nucleocapsid of the virus, and is serves both as a protective function for the viral RNA and a transcriptional regulator in the host cell. To identify host proteins that interact with the viral Core protein we utilized the yeast two-hybrid to...

  9. The Bucentaur (BCNT) protein family: a long-neglected class of essential proteins required for chromatin/chromosome organization and function.

    PubMed

    Messina, Giovanni; Celauro, Emanuele; Atterrato, Maria Teresa; Giordano, Ennio; Iwashita, Shintaro; Dimitri, Patrizio

    2015-06-01

    The evolutionarily conserved Bucentaur (BCNT) protein superfamily was identified about two decades ago in bovines, but its biological role has long remained largely unknown. Sparse studies in the literature suggest that BCNT proteins perform important functions during development. Only recently, a functional analysis of the Drosophila BCNT ortholog, called YETI, has provided evidence that it is essential for proper fly development and plays roles in chromatin organization. Here, we introduce the BCNT proteins and comprehensively review data that contribute to clarify their function and mechanistic clues on how they may control development in multicellular organisms. PMID:25547403

  10. Structure of Mth11/Mth Rpp29, an essential protein subunit of archaeal and eukaryotic RNase P

    PubMed Central

    Boomershine, William P.; McElroy, Craig A.; Tsai, Hsin-Yue; Wilson, Ross C.; Gopalan, Venkat; Foster, Mark P.

    2003-01-01

    We have determined the solution structure of Mth11 (Mth Rpp29), an essential subunit of the RNase P enzyme from the archaebacterium Methanothermobacter thermoautotrophicus (Mth). RNase P is a ubiquitous ribonucleoprotein enzyme primarily responsible for cleaving the 5′ leader sequence during maturation of tRNAs in all three domains of life. In eubacteria, this enzyme is made up of two subunits: a large RNA (≈120 kDa) responsible for mediating catalysis, and a small protein cofactor (≈15 kDa) that modulates substrate recognition and is required for efficient in vivo catalysis. In contrast, multiple proteins are associated with eukaryotic and archaeal RNase P, and these proteins exhibit no recognizable homology to the conserved bacterial protein subunit. In reconstitution experiments with recombinantly expressed and purified protein subunits, we found that Mth Rpp29, a homolog of the Rpp29 protein subunit from eukaryotic RNase P, is an essential protein component of the archaeal holoenzyme. Consistent with its role in mediating protein–RNA interactions, we report that Mth Rpp29 is a member of the oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding fold family. In addition to a structured β-barrel core, it possesses unstructured N- and C-terminal extensions bearing several highly conserved amino acid residues. To identify possible RNA contacts in the protein–RNA complex, we examined the interaction of the 11-kDa protein with the full 100-kDa Mth RNA subunit by using NMR chemical shift perturbation. Our findings represent a critical step toward a structural model of the RNase P holoenzyme from archaebacteria and higher organisms. PMID:14673079

  11. Distinct Roles for TGN/Endosome Epsin-like Adaptors Ent3p and Ent5p

    PubMed Central

    Costaguta, Giancarlo; Duncan, Mara C.; Fernández, G. Esteban; Huang, Grace H.

    2006-01-01

    Clathrin adaptors are key factors in clathrin-coated vesicle formation, coupling clathrin to cargo and/or the lipid bilayer. A physically interacting network of three classes of adaptors participate in clathrin-mediated traffic between the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and endosomes: AP-1, Gga proteins, and epsin-like proteins. Here we investigate functional relationships within this network through transport assays and protein localization analysis in living yeast cells. We observed that epsin-like protein Ent3p preferentially localized with Gga2p, whereas Ent5p distributed equally between AP-1 and Gga2p. Ent3p was mislocalized in Gga-deficient but not in AP-1–deficient cells. In contrast, Ent5p retained localization in cells lacking either or both AP-1 and Gga proteins. The Ent proteins were dispensable for AP-1 or Gga localization. Synthetic genetic growth and α-factor maturation defects were observed when ent5Δ but not ent3Δ was introduced together with deletions of the GGA genes. In AP-1–deficient cells, ent3Δ and to a lesser extent ent5Δ caused minor α-factor maturation defects, but together resulted in a near-lethal phenotype. Deletions of ENT3 and ENT5 also displayed synthetic defects similar to, but less severe than, synthetic effects of AP-1 and Gga inactivation. These results differentiate Ent3p and Ent5p function in vivo, suggesting that Ent3p acts primarily with Gga proteins, whereas Ent5p acts with both AP-1 and Gga proteins but is more critical for AP-1–mediated transport. The data also support a model in which the Ent adaptors provide important accessory functions to AP-1 and Gga proteins in TGN/endosome traffic. PMID:16790491

  12. Alginate-whey protein dry powder optimized for target delivery of essential oils to the intestine of chickens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Gong, J; Yu, H; Guo, Q; Defelice, C; Hernandez, M; Yin, Y; Wang, Q

    2014-10-01

    In poultry production, there is a lack of effective and convenient approaches to deliver bioactive compounds such as some essential oils, which have been proposed as alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters. The objective of this research was to develop a method for target delivery of essential oils in feed to the lower intestines of chickens. Carvacrol was used as a model essential oil, and 2 food-grade biopolymers, alginate and whey protein, were selected to encapsulate carvacrol in microparticles. The effects of a medium molecular weight alginate, a low molecular weight alginate (LBA), and whey protein concentrations on the properties of carvacrol-loaded microparticles were investigated using response surface methodology. The encapsulation efficiencies for all the tested formulations were ≥ 98% and carvacrol content in the dry microparticles was 72 ± 2% (wt/wt). The microparticles showed good gastric resistance and rapid intestinal release under simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Alginate concentrations had the strongest influence on the gastric resistance of microparticles, whereas whey protein was the dominant parameter in controlling the intestinal release. The concentration of LBA was found to be the critical factor affecting the mechanical strength of the microparticles. A predicted optimum formulation from in vitro optimization was tested in chickens. It was found that a negligible amount of carvacrol was detected in the intestines of chickens fed with unencapsulated carvacrol. Microparticles of predicted optimum formulation delivered a remarkably higher concentration of carvacrol to the jejunum and ileum regions. The high concentration was sustained for more than 3 h after oral administration. The in vivo release of carvacrol from the microparticles appeared faster than release from in vitro simulation. Nonetheless, the in vitro simulation provided good indications of the in vivo performance, and thus may serve as a useful tool for formula

  13. The Marek’s disease virus (MDV) protein encoded by the UL17 ortholog is essential for virus growth

    PubMed Central

    Chbab, Najat; Chabanne-Vautherot, Danièle; Francineau, Annick; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Denesvre, Caroline; Vautherot, Jean-François

    2009-01-01

    Marek’s disease virus type 1 (MDV-1) shows a strict dependency on the direct cell-to-cell spread for its propagation in cell culture. As MDV-1 shows an impaired nuclear egress in cell culture, we wished to address the characterization of capsid/tegument genes which may intervene in the maturation of intranuclear capsids. Orthologs of UL17 are present in all herpesviruses and, in all reported case, were shown to be essential for viral growth, playing a role in capsid maturation and DNA packaging. As only HSV-1 and PrV UL17 proteins have been characterized so far, we wished to examine the role of MDV-1 pUL17 in virus replication. To analyze MDV-1 UL17 gene function, we created deletion mutants or point mutated the open reading frame (ORF) to interrupt its coding phase. We established that a functional ORF UL17 is indispensable for MDV-1 growth. We chose to characterize the virally encoded protein by tagging the 729 amino-acid long protein with a repeat of the HA peptide that was fused to its C-terminus. Protein pUL17 was identified in infected cell extracts as an 82 kDa protein which localized to the nucleus, colocalizing with VP5, the major capsid protein, and VP13/14, a major tegument protein. By using green fluorescent protein fusion and HA tagged proteins expressed under the cytomegalovirus IE gene enhancer/promoter (PCMV IE), we showed that MDV-1 pUL17 nuclear distribution in infected cells is not an intrinsic property. Although our results strongly suggest that another viral protein retains (or relocate) pUL17 to the nucleus, we report that none of the tegument protein tested so far were able to mediate pUL17 relocation to the nucleus. PMID:19284966

  14. Identification of a Conserved Non-Protein-Coding Genomic Element that Plays an Essential Role in Alphabaculovirus Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kikhno, Irina

    2014-01-01

    Highly homologous sequences 154–157 bp in length grouped under the name of “conserved non-protein-coding element” (CNE) were revealed in all of the sequenced genomes of baculoviruses belonging to the genus Alphabaculovirus. A CNE alignment led to the detection of a set of highly conserved nucleotide clusters that occupy strictly conserved positions in the CNE sequence. The significant length of the CNE and conservation of both its length and cluster architecture were identified as a combination of characteristics that make this CNE different from known viral non-coding functional sequences. The essential role of the CNE in the Alphabaculovirus life cycle was demonstrated through the use of a CNE-knockout Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) bacmid. It was shown that the essential function of the CNE was not mediated by the presumed expression activities of the protein- and non-protein-coding genes that overlap the AcMNPV CNE. On the basis of the presented data, the AcMNPV CNE was categorized as a complex-structured, polyfunctional genomic element involved in an essential DNA transaction that is associated with an undefined function of the baculovirus genome. PMID:24740153

  15. Spiral biasing adaptor for use in Si drift detectors and Si drift detector arrays

    DOEpatents

    Li, Zheng; Chen, Wei

    2016-07-05

    A drift detector array, preferably a silicon drift detector (SDD) array, that uses a low current biasing adaptor is disclosed. The biasing adaptor is customizable for any desired geometry of the drift detector single cell with minimum drift time of carriers. The biasing adaptor has spiral shaped ion-implants that generate the desired voltage profile. The biasing adaptor can be processed on the same wafer as the drift detector array and only one biasing adaptor chip/side is needed for one drift detector array to generate the voltage profiles on the front side and back side of the detector array.

  16. Stability of HIB-Cul3 E3 ligase adaptor HIB Is Regulated by Self-degradation and Availability of Its Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zizhang; Xu, Congyu; Chen, Ping; Liu, Chen; Pang, Shu; Yao, Xia; Zhang, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The HIB-Cul3 complex E3 ligase regulates physiological homeostasis through regulating its substrate stability and its activity can be modulated by changing HIB abundance. However, regulation of HIB remains elusive. Here we provide evidence that HIB is degraded through the proteasome by Cul3-mediated polyubiquitination in K48 manner in Drosophila. Strikingly, HIB is targeted for degradation by itself. We further identify that three degrons (52LKSS56T, 76LDEE80S and 117MESQ121R) and K185 and K198 of HIB are essential for its auto-degradation. Finally, we demonstrate that HIB-Cul3 substrates, Ci and Puc, can effectively protect HIB from HIB-Cul3-mediated degradation. Taken together, our study indicates that there is an exquisite equilibrium between the adaptor and targets to achieve the tight control of the HIB, which is essential for maintaining suitable Hh and JNK signaling. And the mechanism of adaptor self-degradation and reciprocal control of the abundance between adaptor and its substrates is also applied to BTB-Cul3 E3 ligase adaptor dKeap1, dDiablo and dKLHL18. PMID:26263855

  17. Solid state NMR: The essential technology for helical membrane protein structural characterization

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Timothy A.; Ekanayake, Vindana; Paulino, Joana; Wright, Anna

    2014-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy of helical membrane proteins has been very challenging on multiple fronts. The expression and purification of these proteins while maintaining functionality has consumed countless graduate student hours. Sample preparations have depended on whether solution or solid-state NMR spectroscopy was to be performed – neither have been easy. In recent years it has become increasingly apparent that membrane mimic environments influence the structural result. Indeed, in these recent years we have rediscovered that Nobel laureate, Christian Anfinsen, did not say that protein structure was exclusively dictated by the amino acid sequence, but rather by the sequence in a given environment (Anfinsen, 1973) [106]. The environment matters, molecular interactions with the membrane environment are significant and many examples of distorted, non-native membrane protein structures have recently been documented in the literature. However, solid-state NMR structures of helical membrane proteins in proteoliposomes and bilayers are proving to be native structures that permit a high resolution characterization of their functional states. Indeed, solid-state NMR is uniquely able to characterize helical membrane protein structures in lipid environments without detergents. Recent progress in expression, purification, reconstitution, sample preparation and in the solid-state NMR spectroscopy of both oriented samples and magic angle spinning samples has demonstrated that helical membrane protein structures can be achieved in a timely fashion. Indeed, this is a spectacular opportunity for the NMR community to have a major impact on biomedical research through the solid-state NMR spectroscopy of these proteins. PMID:24412099

  18. Solid state NMR: The essential technology for helical membrane protein structural characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Timothy A.; Ekanayake, Vindana; Paulino, Joana; Wright, Anna

    2014-02-01

    NMR spectroscopy of helical membrane proteins has been very challenging on multiple fronts. The expression and purification of these proteins while maintaining functionality has consumed countless graduate student hours. Sample preparations have depended on whether solution or solid-state NMR spectroscopy was to be performed - neither have been easy. In recent years it has become increasingly apparent that membrane mimic environments influence the structural result. Indeed, in these recent years we have rediscovered that Nobel laureate, Christian Anfinsen, did not say that protein structure was exclusively dictated by the amino acid sequence, but rather by the sequence in a given environment (Anfinsen, 1973) [106]. The environment matters, molecular interactions with the membrane environment are significant and many examples of distorted, non-native membrane protein structures have recently been documented in the literature. However, solid-state NMR structures of helical membrane proteins in proteoliposomes and bilayers are proving to be native structures that permit a high resolution characterization of their functional states. Indeed, solid-state NMR is uniquely able to characterize helical membrane protein structures in lipid environments without detergents. Recent progress in expression, purification, reconstitution, sample preparation and in the solid-state NMR spectroscopy of both oriented samples and magic angle spinning samples has demonstrated that helical membrane protein structures can be achieved in a timely fashion. Indeed, this is a spectacular opportunity for the NMR community to have a major impact on biomedical research through the solid-state NMR spectroscopy of these proteins.

  19. Solid state NMR: The essential technology for helical membrane protein structural characterization.

    PubMed

    Cross, Timothy A; Ekanayake, Vindana; Paulino, Joana; Wright, Anna

    2014-02-01

    NMR spectroscopy of helical membrane proteins has been very challenging on multiple fronts. The expression and purification of these proteins while maintaining functionality has consumed countless graduate student hours. Sample preparations have depended on whether solution or solid-state NMR spectroscopy was to be performed - neither have been easy. In recent years it has become increasingly apparent that membrane mimic environments influence the structural result. Indeed, in these recent years we have rediscovered that Nobel laureate, Christian Anfinsen, did not say that protein structure was exclusively dictated by the amino acid sequence, but rather by the sequence in a given environment (Anfinsen, 1973) [106]. The environment matters, molecular interactions with the membrane environment are significant and many examples of distorted, non-native membrane protein structures have recently been documented in the literature. However, solid-state NMR structures of helical membrane proteins in proteoliposomes and bilayers are proving to be native structures that permit a high resolution characterization of their functional states. Indeed, solid-state NMR is uniquely able to characterize helical membrane protein structures in lipid environments without detergents. Recent progress in expression, purification, reconstitution, sample preparation and in the solid-state NMR spectroscopy of both oriented samples and magic angle spinning samples has demonstrated that helical membrane protein structures can be achieved in a timely fashion. Indeed, this is a spectacular opportunity for the NMR community to have a major impact on biomedical research through the solid-state NMR spectroscopy of these proteins. PMID:24412099

  20. Processing of coriander fruits for the production of essential oil, triglyceride, and high protein seed meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a summer annual traditionally grown for use as a fresh green herb or as a spice. The essential oil extracted from coriander fruit is also widely used as flavoring in a variety of food products. The fatty oil (triglyceride) fraction in the seed is rich in petrosel...

  1. Supplementation of a suboptimal protein dose with leucine or essential amino acids: effects on myofibrillar protein synthesis at rest and following resistance exercise in men

    PubMed Central

    Churchward-Venne, Tyler A; Burd, Nicholas A; Mitchell, Cameron J; West, Daniel W D; Philp, Andrew; Marcotte, George R; Baker, Steven K; Baar, Keith; Phillips, Stuart M

    2012-01-01

    Leucine is a nutrient regulator of muscle protein synthesis by activating mTOR and possibly other proteins in this pathway. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of leucine in the regulation of human myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS). Twenty-four males completed an acute bout of unilateral resistance exercise prior to consuming either: a dose (25 g) of whey protein (WHEY); 6.25 g whey protein with total leucine equivalent to WHEY (LEU); or 6.25 g whey protein with total essential amino acids (EAAs) equivalent to WHEY for all EAAs except leucine (EAA-LEU). Measures of MPS, signalling through mTOR, and amino acid transporter (AAT) mRNA abundance were made while fasted (FAST), and following feeding under rested (FED) and post-exercise (EX-FED) conditions. Leucinaemia was equivalent between WHEY and LEU and elevated compared to EAA-LEU (P = 0.001). MPS was increased above FAST at 1–3 h post-exercise in both FED (P < 0.001) and EX-FED (P < 0.001) conditions with no treatment effect. At 3–5 h, only WHEY remained significantly elevated above FAST in EX-FED (WHEY 184%vs. LEU 55% and EAA-LEU 35%; P = 0.036). AAT mRNA abundance was increased above FAST after feeding and exercise with no effect of leucinaemia. In summary, a low dose of whey protein supplemented with leucine or all other essential amino acids was as effective as a complete protein (WHEY) in stimulating postprandial MPS; however only WHEY was able to sustain increased rates of MPS post-exercise and may therefore be most suited to increase exercise-induced muscle protein accretion. PMID:22451437

  2. Essential roles of class E Vps proteins for sorting into multivesicular bodies in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    PubMed Central

    Iwaki, Tomoko; Onishi, Masayuki; Ikeuchi, Masaru; Kita, Ayako; Sugiura, Reiko; Giga-Hama, Yuko; Fukui, Yasuhisa; Takegawa, Kaoru

    2007-01-01

    The multivesicular body (MVB) sorting pathway is required for a number of biological processes, including downregulation of cell-surface proteins and protein sorting into the vacuolar lumen. The function of this pathway requires endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) composed of class E vacuolar protein sorting (Vps) proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, many of which are conserved in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Of these, sst4/vps27 (homologous to VPS27) and sst6 (similar to VPS23) have been identified as suppressors of sterility in ste12Δ (sst), although their functions have not been uncovered to date. In this report, these two sst genes are shown to be required for vacuolar sorting of carboxypeptidase Y (CPY) and an MVB marker, the ubiquitin–GFP–carboxypeptidase S (Ub–GFP–CPS) fusion protein, despite the lack of the ubiquitin E2 variant domain in Sst6p. Disruption mutants of a variety of other class E vps homologues also had defects in sorting of CPY and Ub–GFP–CPS. Sch. pombe has a mammalian AMSH homologue, sst2. Phenotypic analyses suggested that Sst2p is a class E Vps protein. Taken together, these results suggest that sorting into multivesicular bodies is dependent on class E Vps proteins, including Sst2p, in Sch. pombe. PMID:17660439

  3. Singapore Grouper Iridovirus ORF75R is a Scaffold Protein Essential for Viral Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fan; Liu, Yang; Zhu, Yi; Ngoc Tran, Bich; Wu, Jinlu; Leong Hew, Choy

    2015-01-01

    Singapore Grouper Iridovirus (SGIV) is a member of nucleo cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV). This paper reports the functional analysis of ORF75R, a major structural protein of SGIV. Immuno fluorescence studies showed that the protein was accumulated in the viral assembly site. Immunogold-labelling indicated that it was localized between the viral capsid shell and DNA core. Knockdown of ORF75R by morpholinos resulted in the reduction of coreshell thickness, the failure of DNA encapsidation, and the low yield of infectious particles. Comparative proteomics further identified the structural proteins affected by ORF75R knockdown. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with proteomics demonstrated that ORF75R was phosphorylated at multiple sites in SGIV-infected cell lysate and virions, but the vast majority of ORF75R in virions was the dephosphorylated isoform. A kinase assay showed that ORF75R could be phosphorylated in vitro by the SGIV structural protein ORF39L. Addition of ATP and Mg2+ into purified virions prompted extensive phosphorylation of structural proteins and release of ORF75R from virions. These data suggest that ORF75R is a novel scaffold protein important for viral assembly and DNA encapsidation, but its phosphorylation facilitates virion disassembly. Compared to proteins from other viruses, we found that ORF75R shares common features with herpes simplex virus VP22. PMID:26286371

  4. Interaction of Tim23 with Tim50 Is essential for protein translocation by the mitochondrial TIM23 complex.

    PubMed

    Gevorkyan-Airapetov, Lada; Zohary, Keren; Popov-Celeketic, Dusan; Mapa, Koyeli; Hell, Kai; Neupert, Walter; Azem, Abdussalam; Mokranjac, Dejana

    2009-02-20

    The TIM23 complex is the major translocase of the mitochondrial inner membrane responsible for the import of essentially all matrix proteins and a number of inner membrane proteins. Tim23 and Tim50, two essential proteins of the complex, expose conserved domains into the intermembrane space that interact with each other. Here, we describe in vitro reconstitution of this interaction using recombinantly expressed and purified intermembrane space domains of Tim50 and Tim23. We established two independent methods, chemical cross-linking and surface plasmon resonance, to track their interaction. In addition, we identified mutations in Tim23 that abolish its interaction with Tim50 in vitro. These mutations also destabilized the interaction between the two proteins in vivo, leading to defective import of preproteins via the TIM23 complex and to cell death at higher temperatures. This is the first study to describe the reconstitution of the Tim50-Tim23 interaction in vitro and to identify specific residues of Tim23 that are vital for the interaction with Tim50. PMID:19017642

  5. Genome-Wide Analysis of Arabidopsis Pentatricopeptide Repeat Proteins Reveals Their Essential Role in Organelle BiogenesisW⃞

    PubMed Central

    Lurin, Claire; Andrés, Charles; Aubourg, Sébastien; Bellaoui, Mohammed; Bitton, Frédérique; Bruyère, Clémence; Caboche, Michel; Debast, Cédrig; Gualberto, José; Hoffmann, Beate; Lecharny, Alain; Le Ret, Monique; Martin-Magniette, Marie-Laure; Mireau, Hakim; Peeters, Nemo; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Szurek, Boris; Taconnat, Ludivine; Small, Ian

    2004-01-01

    The complete sequence of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome revealed thousands of previously unsuspected genes, many of which cannot be ascribed even putative functions. One of the largest and most enigmatic gene families discovered in this way is characterized by tandem arrays of pentatricopeptide repeats (PPRs). We describe a detailed bioinformatic analysis of 441 members of the Arabidopsis PPR family plus genomic and genetic data on the expression (microarray data), localization (green fluorescent protein and red fluorescent protein fusions), and general function (insertion mutants and RNA binding assays) of many family members. The basic picture that arises from these studies is that PPR proteins play constitutive, often essential roles in mitochondria and chloroplasts, probably via binding to organellar transcripts. These results confirm, but massively extend, the very sparse observations previously obtained from detailed characterization of individual mutants in other organisms. PMID:15269332

  6. Glycosylation is essential for translocation of carp retinol-binding protein across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Devirgiliis, Chiara; Gaetani, Sancia; Apreda, Marianna; Bellovino, Diana . E-mail: bellovino@inran.it

    2005-07-01

    Retinoid transport is well characterized in many vertebrates, while it is still largely unexplored in fish. To study the transport and utilization of vitamin A in these organisms, we have isolated from a carp liver cDNA library retinol-binding protein, its plasma carrier. The primary structure of carp retinol-binding protein is very conserved, but presents unique features compared to those of the correspondent proteins isolated and characterized so far in other species: it has an uncleavable signal peptide and two N-glycosylation sites in the NH{sub 2}-terminal region of the protein that are glycosylated in vivo. In this paper, we have investigated the function of the carbohydrate chains, by constructing three mutants deprived of the first, the second or both carbohydrates. The results of transient transfection of wild type and mutant retinol-binding protein in Cos cells followed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis have shown that the absence of both carbohydrate moieties blocks secretion, while the presence of one carbohydrate group leads to an inefficient secretion. Experiments of carp RBP mRNA in vitro translation in a reticulocyte cell-free system in the presence of microsomes have demonstrated that N-glycosylation is necessary for efficient translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Moreover, when Cos cells were transiently transfected with wild type and mutant retinol-binding protein (aa 1-67)-green fluorescent protein fusion constructs and semi-permeabilized with streptolysin O, immunofluorescence analysis with anti-green fluorescent protein antibody revealed that the double mutant is exposed to the cytosol, thus confirming the importance of glycan moieties in the translocation process.

  7. Nipah Virus Matrix Protein Influences Fusogenicity and Is Essential for Particle Infectivity and Stability

    PubMed Central

    Dietzel, Erik; Kolesnikova, Larissa; Sawatsky, Bevan; Heiner, Anja; Weis, Michael; Kobinger, Gary P.; Becker, Stephan; von Messling, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nipah virus (NiV) causes fatal encephalitic infections in humans. To characterize the role of the matrix (M) protein in the viral life cycle, we generated a reverse genetics system based on NiV strain Malaysia. Using an enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP)-expressing M protein-deleted NiV, we observed a slightly increased cell-cell fusion, slow replication kinetics, and significantly reduced peak titers compared to the parental virus. While increased amounts of viral proteins were found in the supernatant of cells infected with M-deleted NiV, the infectivity-to-particle ratio was more than 100-fold reduced, and the particles were less thermostable and of more irregular morphology. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the M protein is not absolutely required for the production of cell-free NiV but is necessary for proper assembly and release of stable infectious NiV particles. IMPORTANCE Henipaviruses cause a severe disease with high mortality in human patients. Therefore, these viruses can be studied only in biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) laboratories, making it more challenging to characterize their life cycle. Here we investigated the role of the Nipah virus matrix protein in virus-mediated cell-cell fusion and in the formation and release of newly produced particles. We found that even though low levels of infectious viruses are produced in the absence of the matrix protein, it is required for the release of highly infectious and stable particles. Fusogenicity of matrixless viruses was slightly enhanced, further demonstrating the critical role of this protein in different steps of Nipah virus spread. PMID:26676785

  8. Positive selection neighboring functionally essential sites and disease-implicated regions of mammalian reproductive proteins

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Reproductive proteins are central to the continuation of all mammalian species. The evolution of these proteins has been greatly influenced by environmental pressures induced by pathogens, rival sperm, sexual selection and sexual conflict. Positive selection has been demonstrated in many of these proteins with particular focus on primate lineages. However, the mammalia are a diverse group in terms of mating habits, population sizes and germ line generation times. We have examined the selective pressures at work on a number of novel reproductive proteins across a wide variety of mammalia. Results We show that selective pressures on reproductive proteins are highly varied. Of the 10 genes analyzed in detail, all contain signatures of positive selection either across specific sites or in specific lineages or a combination of both. Our analysis of SP56 and Col1a1 are entirely novel and the results show positively selected sites present in each gene. Our findings for the Col1a1 gene are suggestive of a link between positive selection and severe disease type. We find evidence in our dataset to suggest that interacting proteins are evolving in symphony: most likely to maintain interacting functionality. Conclusion Our in silico analyses show positively selected sites are occurring near catalytically important regions suggesting selective pressure to maximize efficient fertilization. In those cases where a mechanism of protein function is not fully understood, the sites presented here represent ideal candidates for mutational study. This work has highlighted the widespread rate heterogeneity in mutational rates across the mammalia and specifically has shown that the evolution of reproductive proteins is highly varied depending on the species and interacting partners. We have shown that positive selection and disease are closely linked in the Col1a1 gene. PMID:20149245

  9. The fission yeast dis3+ gene encodes a 110-kDa essential protein implicated in mitotic control.

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, N; Goebl, M; Yanagida, M

    1991-01-01

    The fission yeast mutant dis3-54 is defective in mitosis and fails in chromosome disjunction. Its phenotype is similar to that of dis2-11, a mutant with a mutation in the type 1 protein phosphatase gene. We cloned the dis3+ gene by transformation. Nucleotide sequencing predicts a coding region of 970 amino acids interrupted by a 164-bp intron at the 65th codon. The predicted dis3+ protein shares a weak but significant similarity with the budding yeast SSD1 or SRK1 gene product, the gene for which is a suppressor for the absence of a protein phosphatase SIT4 gene or the BCY1 regulatory subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. Anti-dis3 antibodies recognized the 110-kDa dis3+ gene product, which is part of a 250- to 350-kDa oligomer and is enriched in the nucleus. The cellular localization of the dis3+ protein is reminiscent of that of the dis2+ protein, but these two proteins do not form a complex. A type 1 protein phosphatase activity in the dis3-54 mutant extracts is apparently not affected. The dis3+ gene is essential for growth; gene disruptant cells do not germinate and fail in cell division. Increased dis3+ gene dosage reverses the Ts+ phenotype of a cdc25 wee1 strain, as does increased type 1 protein phosphatase gene dosage. Double mutant dis3 dis2 is lethal even at the permissive temperature, suggesting that the dis2+ and dis3+ genes may be functionally overlapped. The role of the dis3+ gene product in mitosis is unknown, but this gene product may be directly or indirectly involved in the regulation of mitosis. Images PMID:1944266

  10. Drosophila Uri, a PP1α binding protein, is essential for viability, maintenance of DNA integrity and normal transcriptional activity

    PubMed Central

    Kirchner, Jasmin; Vissi, Emese; Gross, Sascha; Szoor, Balazs; Rudenko, Andrey; Alphey, Luke; White-Cooper, Helen

    2008-01-01

    Background Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) is involved in diverse cellular processes, and is targeted to substrates via interaction with many different protein binding partners. PP1 catalytic subunits (PP1c) fall into PP1α and PP1β subfamilies based on sequence analysis, however very few PP1c binding proteins have been demonstrated to discriminate between PP1α and PP1β. Results URI (unconventional prefoldin RPB5 interactor) is a conserved molecular chaperone implicated in a variety of cellular processes, including the transcriptional response to nutrient signalling and maintenance of DNA integrity. We show that Drosophila Uri binds PP1α with much higher affinity than PP1β, and that this ability to discriminate between PP1c forms is conserved to humans. Most Uri is cytoplasmic, however we found some protein associated with active RNAPII on chromatin. We generated a uri loss of function allele, and show that uri is essential for viability in Drosophila. uri mutants have transcriptional defects, reduced cell viability and differentiation in the germline, and accumulate DNA damage in their nuclei. Conclusion Uri is the first PP1α specific binding protein to be described in Drosophila. Uri protein plays a role in transcriptional regulation. Activity of uri is required to maintain DNA integrity and cell survival in normal development. PMID:18412953

  11. The autophagy protein Atg7 is essential for hematopoietic stem cell maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, Monika; Soilleux, Elizabeth J.; Djordjevic, Gordana; Tripp, Rebecca; Lutteropp, Michael; Sadighi-Akha, Elham; Stranks, Amanda J.; Glanville, Julie; Knight, Samantha; W. Jacobsen, Sten-Eirik; Kranc, Kamil R.

    2011-01-01

    The role of autophagy, a lysosomal degradation pathway which prevents cellular damage, in the maintenance of adult mouse hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) remains unknown. Although normal HSCs sustain life-long hematopoiesis, malignant transformation of HSCs leads to leukemia. Therefore, mechanisms protecting HSCs from cellular damage are essential to prevent hematopoietic malignancies. In this study, we crippled autophagy in HSCs by conditionally deleting the essential autophagy gene Atg7 in the hematopoietic system. This resulted in the loss of normal HSC functions, a severe myeloproliferation, and death of the mice within weeks. The hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell compartment displayed an accumulation of mitochondria and reactive oxygen species, as well as increased proliferation and DNA damage. HSCs within the Lin−Sca-1+c-Kit+ (LSK) compartment were significantly reduced. Although the overall LSK compartment was expanded, Atg7-deficient LSK cells failed to reconstitute the hematopoietic system of lethally irradiated mice. Consistent with loss of HSC functions, the production of both lymphoid and myeloid progenitors was impaired in the absence of Atg7. Collectively, these data show that Atg7 is an essential regulator of adult HSC maintenance. PMID:21339326

  12. Stepping stone: a cytohesin adaptor for membrane cytoskeleton restraint in the syncytial Drosophila embryo

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiangshu; Lee, Donghoon M.; Yu, Cao Guo; Angers, Stephane; Harris, Tony J. C.

    2015-01-01

    Cytohesin Arf-GEFs are conserved plasma membrane regulators. The sole Drosophila cytohesin, Steppke, restrains Rho1-dependent membrane cytoskeleton activity at the base of plasma membrane furrows of the syncytial embryo. By mass spectrometry, we identified a single major Steppke-interacting protein from syncytial embryos, which we named Stepping stone (Sstn). By sequence, Sstn seems to be a divergent homologue of the mammalian cytohesin adaptor FRMD4A. Our experiments supported this relationship. Specifically, heterophilic coiled-coil interactions linked Sstn and Steppke in vivo and in vitro, whereas a separate C-terminal region was required for Sstn localization to furrows. Sstn mutant and RNAi embryos displayed abnormal, Rho1-dependent membrane cytoskeleton expansion from the base of pseudocleavage and cellularization furrows, closely mimicking Steppke loss-of-function embryos. Elevating Sstn furrow levels had no effect on the steppke phenotype, but elevating Steppke furrow levels reversed the sstn phenotype, suggesting that Steppke acts downstream of Sstn and that additional mechanisms can recruit Steppke to furrows. Finally, the coiled-coil domain of Steppke was required for Sstn binding and in addition homodimerization, and its removal disrupted Steppke furrow localization and activity in vivo. Overall we propose that Sstn acts as a cytohesin adaptor that promotes Steppke activity for localized membrane cytoskeleton restraint in the syncytial Drosophila embryo. PMID:25540427

  13. Protein synthesis and degradation are essential to regulate germline stem cell homeostasis in Drosophila testes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jun; Lan, Xiang; Chen, Xia; Yu, Chao; Xu, Yiwen; Liu, Yujuan; Xu, Lingna; Fan, Heng-Yu; Tong, Chao

    2016-08-15

    The homeostasis of self-renewal and differentiation in stem cells is controlled by intrinsic signals and their niche. We conducted a large-scale RNA interference (RNAi) screen in Drosophila testes and identified 221 genes required for germline stem cell (GSC) maintenance or differentiation. Knockdown of these genes in transit-amplifying spermatogonia and cyst cells further revealed various phenotypes. Complex analysis uncovered that many of the identified genes are involved in key steps of protein synthesis and degradation. A group of genes that are required for mRNA splicing and protein translation contributes to both GSC self-renewal and early germ cell differentiation. Loss of genes in the protein degradation pathway in cyst cells leads to testis tumors consisting of overproliferated germ cells. Importantly, in the Cullin 4-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase (CRL4) complex, we identified multiple proteins that are crucial to GSC self-renewal: pic/DDB1, a CRL4 linker protein, is not only required for GSC self-renewal in flies but also for maintenance of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) in mice. PMID:27471256

  14. Abba is an essential TRIM/RBCC protein to maintain the integrity of sarcomeric cytoarchitecture.

    PubMed

    Domsch, Katrin; Ezzeddine, Nader; Nguyen, Hanh T

    2013-08-01

    Organized sarcomeric striations are an evolutionarily conserved hallmark of functional skeletal muscles. Here, we demonstrate that the Drosophila Abba protein, a member of the TRIM/RBCC superfamily, has a pivotal regulatory role in maintaining proper sarcomeric cytoarchitecture during development and muscle usage. abba mutant embryos initially form muscles, but F-actin and Myosin striations become progressively disrupted when the muscles undergo growth and endure increased contractile forces during larval development. Abnormal Myosin aggregates and myofiber atrophy are also notable in the abba mutants. The larval defects result in compromised muscle function, and hence important morphogenetic events do not occur properly during pupation, leading to lethality. Abba is localized at larval Z-discs, and genetic evidence indicates that abba interacts with α-actinin, kettin/D-titin and mlp84B, genes that encode important Z-disc proteins for stable myofibrillar organization and optimal muscle function. RNAi experiments and ultrastructural analysis reveal that Abba has an additional crucial role in sarcomere maintenance in adult muscles. Abba is required to ensure the integrity and function of Z-discs and M-lines. Rescue experiments further show that Abba function is dependent upon its B-box/coiled-coil domain, NHL repeats and RING finger domain. The importance of these presumed protein-protein interactions and ubiquitin ligase-associated domains supports our hypothesis that Abba is needed for specific protein complex formation and stabilization at Z-discs and M-lines. PMID:23729735

  15. C-terminal amino acids are essential for human heat shock protein 70 dimerization.

    PubMed

    Marcion, Guillaume; Seigneuric, Renaud; Chavanne, Evelyne; Artur, Yves; Briand, Loïc; Hadi, Tarik; Gobbo, Jessica; Garrido, Carmen; Neiers, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    The human inducible heat shock protein 70 (hHsp70), which is involved in several major pathologies, including neurodegenerative disorders and cancer, is a key molecular chaperone and contributes to the proper protein folding and maintenance of a large number of protein structures. Despite its role in disease, the current structural knowledge of hHsp70 is almost exclusively based on its Escherichia coli homolog, DnaK, even though these two proteins only share ~50 % amino acid identity. For the first time, we describe a complete heterologous production and purification strategy that allowed us to obtain a large amount of soluble, full-length, and non-tagged hHsp70. The protein displayed both an ATPase and a refolding activity when combined to the human Hsp40. Multi-angle light scattering and bio-layer interferometry analyses demonstrated the ability of hHsp70 to homodimerize. The role of the C-terminal part of hHsp70 was identified and confirmed by a study of a truncated version of hHsp70 that could neither dimerize nor present refolding activity. PMID:25030382

  16. The Arabidopsis HUELLENLOS Gene, Which Is Essential for Normal Ovule Development, Encodes a Mitochondrial Ribosomal Protein

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Debra J.; Baker, Shawn C.; Meister, Robert J.; Broadhvest, Jean; Schneitz, Kay; Gasser, Charles S.

    2001-01-01

    The HUELLENLOS (HLL) gene participates in patterning and growth of the Arabidopsis ovule. We have isolated the HLL gene and shown that it encodes a protein homologous to the L14 proteins of eubacterial ribosomes. The Arabidopsis genome also includes a highly similar gene, HUELLENLOS PARALOG (HLP), and genes for both cytosolic (L23) and chloroplast ribosome L14 proteins. Phylogenetic analysis shows that HLL and HLP differ significantly from these other two classes of such proteins. HLL and HLP fusions to green fluorescent protein were localized to mitochondria. Ectopic expression of HLP complemented the hll mutant, indicating that HLP and HLL share redundant functions. We conclude that HLL and HLP encode L14 subunits of mitochondrial ribosomes. HLL mRNA was at significantly higher levels than HLP mRNA in pistils, with the opposite pattern in leaves. This differential expression can explain the confinement of effects of hll mutations to gynoecia and ovules. Our elucidation of the nature of HLL shows that metabolic defects can have specific effects on developmental patterning. PMID:11752383

  17. The Hypoxic Regulator of Sterol Synthesis Nro1 Is a Nuclear Import Adaptor

    SciTech Connect

    T Yeh; C Lee; L Amzel; P Espenshade; M Bianchet

    2011-12-31

    Fission yeast protein Sre1, the homolog of the mammalian sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP), is a hypoxic transcription factor required for sterol homeostasis and low-oxygen growth. Nro1 regulates the stability of the N-terminal transcription factor domain of Sre1 (Sre1N) by inhibiting the action of the prolyl 4-hydroxylase-like Ofd1 in an oxygen-dependent manner. The crystal structure of Nro1 determined at 2.2 {angstrom} resolution shows an all-{alpha}-helical fold that can be divided into two domains: a small N-terminal domain, and a larger C-terminal HEAT-repeat domain. Follow-up studies showed that Nro1 defines a new class of nuclear import adaptor that functions both in Ofd1 nuclear localization and in the oxygen-dependent inhibition of Ofd1 to control the hypoxic response.

  18. A FUSCA gene of Arabidopsis encodes a novel protein essential for plant development.

    PubMed Central

    Castle, L A; Meinke, D W

    1994-01-01

    Arabidopsis fusca mutants display striking purple coloration due to anthocyanin accumulation in their cotyledons. We describe six recessive fusca mutants isolated from Agrobacterium-transformed Arabidopsis families. These mutants first become defective during embryogenesis and exhibit limited seedling development. Double mutant constructs revealed that developmental defects were not simply a consequence of anthocyanin accumulation. fusca seedlings showed altered responses to several environmental and endogenous factors. Allelism tests established that three fusca loci are represented by mutants previously described as defective in light-regulated responses. To study the molecular basis of the fusca phenotype, we cloned the FUS6 gene. FUS6 encodes a novel protein that is hydrophilic, alpha-helical, and contains potential protein kinase C phosphorylation sites. The FUSCA proteins appear to act in a network of signal transduction pathways critical for plant development. PMID:8130643

  19. The Bromodomain protein BRD4 controls HOTAIR, a long noncoding RNA essential for glioblastoma proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Pastori, Chiara; Kapranov, Philipp; Penas, Clara; Peschansky, Veronica; Volmar, Claude-Henry; Sarkaria, Jann N.; Bregy, Amade; Komotar, Ricardo; St. Laurent, Georges; Ayad, Nagi G.; Wahlestedt, Claes

    2015-01-01

    Bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) domain proteins have emerged as promising therapeutic targets in glioblastoma and many other cancers. Small molecule inhibitors of BET bromodomain proteins reduce expression of several oncogenes required for Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) progression. However, the mechanism through which BET protein inhibition reduces GBM growth is not completely understood. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important epigenetic regulators with critical roles in cancer initiation and malignant progression, but mechanistic insight into their expression and regulation by BET bromodomain inhibitors remains elusive. In this study, we used Helicos single molecule sequencing to comprehensively profile lncRNAs differentially expressed in GBM, and we identified a subset of GBM-specific lncRNAs whose expression is regulated by BET proteins. Treatment of GBM cells with the BET bromdomain inhibitor I-BET151 reduced levels of the tumor-promoting lncRNA HOX transcript antisense RNA (HOTAIR) and restored the expression of several other GBM down-regulated lncRNAs. Conversely, overexpression of HOTAIR in conjunction with I-BET151 treatment abrogates the antiproliferative activity of the BET bromodomain inhibitor. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated binding of Bromodomain Containing 4 (BRD4) to the HOTAIR promoter, suggesting that BET proteins can directly regulate lncRNA expression. Our data unravel a previously unappreciated mechanism through which BET proteins control tumor growth of glioblastoma cells and suggest that modulation of lncRNA networks may, in part, mediate the antiproliferative effects of many epigenetic inhibitors currently in clinical trials for cancer and other diseases. PMID:26111795

  20. Comparative analysis of essential collective dynamics and NMR-derived flexibility profiles in evolutionarily diverse prion proteins.

    PubMed

    Santo, Kolattukudy P; Berjanskii, Mark; Wishart, David S; Stepanova, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Collective motions on ns-μs time scales are known to have a major impact on protein folding, stability, binding and enzymatic efficiency. It is also believed that these motions may have an important role in the early stages of prion protein misfolding and prion disease. In an effort to accurately characterize these motions and their potential influence on the misfolding and prion disease transmissibility we have conducted a combined analysis of molecular dynamic simulations and NMR-derived flexibility measurements over a diverse range of prion proteins. Using a recently developed numerical formalism, we have analyzed the essential collective dynamics (ECD) for prion proteins from 8 different species including human, cow, elk, cat, hamster, chicken, turtle and frog. We also compared the numerical results with flexibility profiles generated by the random coil index (RCI) from NMR chemical shifts. Prion protein backbone flexibility derived from experimental NMR data and from theoretical computations show strong agreement with each other, demonstrating that it is possible to predict the observed RCI profiles employing the numerical ECD formalism. Interestingly, flexibility differences in the loop between second beta strand (S2) and the second alpha helix (HB) appear to distinguish prion proteins from species that are susceptible to prion disease and those that are resistant. Our results show that the different levels of flexibility in the S2-HB loop in various species are predictable via the ECD method, indicating that ECD may be used to identify disease resistant variants of prion proteins, as well as the influence of prion proteins mutations on disease susceptibility or misfolding propensity. PMID:21869604

  1. Proteomic identification of novel cytoskeletal proteins associated with TbPLK, an essential regulator of cell morphogenesis in Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    McAllaster, Michael R.; Ikeda, Kyojiro N.; Lozano-Núñez, Ana; Anrather, Dorothea; Unterwurzacher, Verena; Gossenreiter, Thomas; Perry, Jenna A.; Crickley, Robbie; Mercadante, Courtney J.; Vaughan, Sue; de Graffenried, Christopher L.

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei is the causative agent of African sleeping sickness, a devastating disease endemic to sub-Saharan Africa with few effective treatment options. The parasite is highly polarized, including a single flagellum that is nucleated at the posterior of the cell and adhered along the cell surface. These features are essential and must be transmitted to the daughter cells during division. Recently we identified the T. brucei homologue of polo-like kinase (TbPLK) as an essential morphogenic regulator. In the present work, we conduct proteomic screens to identify potential TbPLK binding partners and substrates to better understand the molecular mechanisms of kinase function. These screens identify a cohort of proteins, most of which are completely uncharacterized, which localize to key cytoskeletal organelles involved in establishing cell morphology, including the flagella connector, flagellum attachment zone, and bilobe structure. Depletion of these proteins causes substantial changes in cell division, including mispositioning of the kinetoplast, loss of flagellar connection, and prevention of cytokinesis. The proteins identified in these screens provide the foundation for establishing the molecular networks through which TbPLK directs cell morphogenesis in T. brucei. PMID:26133384

  2. Characterization of STIP, a multi-domain nuclear protein, highly conserved in metazoans, and essential for embryogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans

    SciTech Connect

    Ji Qiongmei; Huang, C.-H. . E-mail: chuang@nybloodcenter.org; Peng Jianbin; Hashmi, Sarwar; Ye Tianzhang; Chen Ying

    2007-04-15

    We report here the identification and characterization of STIP, a multi-domain nuclear protein that contains a G-patch, a coiled-coil, and several short tryptophan-tryptophan repeats highly conserved in metazoan species. To analyze their functional role in vivo, we cloned nematode stip-1 genes and determined the spatiotemporal pattern of Caenorhabditis elegans STIP-1 protein. RNA analyses and Western blots revealed that stip-1 mRNA was produced via trans-splicing and translated as a 95-kDa protein. Using reporter constructs, we found STIP-1 to be expressed at all developmental stages and in many tissue/cell types including worm oocyte nuclei. We found that STIP-1 is targeted to the nucleus and forms large polymers with a rod-like shape when expressed in mammalian cells. Using deletion mutants, we mapped the regions of STIP-1 involved in nuclear import and polymer assembly. We further showed that knockdown of C. elegans stip-1 by RNA interference arrested development and resulted in morphologic abnormalities around the 16-cell stage followed by 100% lethality, suggesting its essential role in worm embryogenesis. Importantly, the embryonic lethal phenotype could be faithfully rescued with Drosophila and human genes via transgenic expression. Our data provide the first direct evidence that STIP have a conserved essential nuclear function across metazoans from worms to humans.

  3. Proteomic identification of novel cytoskeletal proteins associated with TbPLK, an essential regulator of cell morphogenesis in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    McAllaster, Michael R; Ikeda, Kyojiro N; Lozano-Núñez, Ana; Anrather, Dorothea; Unterwurzacher, Verena; Gossenreiter, Thomas; Perry, Jenna A; Crickley, Robbie; Mercadante, Courtney J; Vaughan, Sue; de Graffenried, Christopher L

    2015-09-01

    Trypanosoma brucei is the causative agent of African sleeping sickness, a devastating disease endemic to sub-Saharan Africa with few effective treatment options. The parasite is highly polarized, including a single flagellum that is nucleated at the posterior of the cell and adhered along the cell surface. These features are essential and must be transmitted to the daughter cells during division. Recently we identified the T. brucei homologue of polo-like kinase (TbPLK) as an essential morphogenic regulator. In the present work, we conduct proteomic screens to identify potential TbPLK binding partners and substrates to better understand the molecular mechanisms of kinase function. These screens identify a cohort of proteins, most of which are completely uncharacterized, which localize to key cytoskeletal organelles involved in establishing cell morphology, including the flagella connector, flagellum attachment zone, and bilobe structure. Depletion of these proteins causes substantial changes in cell division, including mispositioning of the kinetoplast, loss of flagellar connection, and prevention of cytokinesis. The proteins identified in these screens provide the foundation for establishing the molecular networks through which TbPLK directs cell morphogenesis in T. brucei. PMID:26133384

  4. Essential role of PR-domain protein MDS1-EVI1 in MLL-AF9 leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Kristina; Hatem, Layla; Glass, Carolyn H.; Karuppaiah, Kannan; Camargo, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    A subgroup of leukemogenic mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) fusion proteins (MFPs) including MLL-AF9 activates the Mecom locus and exhibits extremely poor clinical prognosis. Mecom encodes EVI1 and MDS1-EVI1 (ME) proteins via alternative transcription start sites; these differ by the presence of a PRDI-BF1-RIZ1 (PR) domain with histone methyltransferase activity in the ME isoform. Using an ME-deficient mouse, we show that ME is required for MLL-AF9–induced transformation both in vitro and in vivo. And, although Nup98-HOXA9, MEIS1-HOXA9, and E2A-Hlf could transform ME-deficient cells, both MLL-AF9 and MLL-ENL were ineffective, indicating that the ME requirement is specific to MLL fusion leukemia. Further, we show that the PR domain is essential for MFP-induced transformation. These studies clearly indicate an essential role of PR-domain protein ME in MFP leukemia, suggesting that ME may be a novel target for therapeutic intervention for this group of leukemias. PMID:24021671

  5. The AP-2 Adaptor β2 Appendage Scaffolds Alternate Cargo Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Keyel, Peter A.; Thieman, James R.; Roth, Robyn; Erkan, Elif; Everett, Eric T.; Watkins, Simon C.; Heuser, John E.

    2008-01-01

    The independently folded appendages of the large α and β2 subunits of the endocytic adaptor protein (AP)-2 complex coordinate proper assembly and operation of endocytic components during clathrin-mediated endocytosis. The β2 subunit appendage contains a common binding site for β-arrestin or the autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia (ARH) protein. To determine the importance of this interaction surface in living cells, we used small interfering RNA-based gene silencing. The effect of extinguishing β2 subunit expression on the internalization of transferrin is considerably weaker than an AP-2 α subunit knockdown. We show the mild sorting defect is due to fortuitous substitution of the β2 chain with the closely related endogenous β1 subunit of the AP-1 adaptor complex. Simultaneous silencing of both β1 and β2 subunit transcripts recapitulates the strong α subunit RNA interference (RNAi) phenotype and results in loss of ARH from endocytic clathrin coats. An RNAi-insensitive β2-yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) expressed in the β1 + β2-silenced background restores cellular AP-2 levels, robust transferrin internalization, and ARH colocalization with cell surface clathrin. The importance of the β appendage platform subdomain over clathrin for precise deposition of ARH at clathrin assembly zones is revealed by a β2-YFP with a disrupted ARH binding interface, which does not restore ARH colocalization with clathrin. We also show a β-arrestin 1 mutant, which engages coated structures in the absence of any G protein-coupled receptor stimulation, colocalizes with β2-YFP and clathrin even in the absence of an operational clathrin binding sequence. These findings argue against ARH and β-arrestin binding to a site upon the β2 appendage platform that is later obstructed by polymerized clathrin. We conclude that ARH and β-arrestin depend on a privileged β2 appendage site for proper cargo recruitment to clathrin bud sites. PMID:18843039

  6. The sterol regulatory element binding proteins are essential for the metabolic programming of effector T cells and adaptive immunity

    PubMed Central

    Kidani, Yoko; Elsaesser, Heidi; Hock, M Benjamin; Vergnes, Laurent; Williams, Kevin J; Argus, Joseph P; Marbois, Beth N; Komisopoulou, Evangelia; Wilson, Elizabeth B; Osborne, Timothy F; Graeber, Thomas G; Reue, Karen; Brooks, David G; Bensinger, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Newly activated CD8+ T cells reprogram their metabolism to meet the extraordinary biosynthetic demands of clonal expansion; however, the signals mediating metabolic reprogramming remain poorly defined. Herein, we demonstrate an essential role for sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) in the acquisition of effector cell metabolism. Without SREBP signaling, CD8+ T cells are unable to blast, resulting in markedly attenuated clonal expansion during viral infection. Mechanistic studies indicate that SREBPs are essential to meet the heightened lipid requirements of membrane synthesis during blastogenesis. SREBPs are dispensable for homeostatic proliferation, indicating a context-specific requirement for SREBPs in effector responses. These studies provide insights into the molecular signals underlying metabolic reprogramming of CD8+ T cells during the transition from quiescence to activation. PMID:23563690

  7. A holin and an endopeptidase are essential for chitinolytic protein secretion in Serratia marcescens

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Jaeger J.; Marlow, Victoria L.; Owen, Richard A.; Costa, Marília de Assis Alcoforado; Guo, Manman; Buchanan, Grant; Chandra, Govind; Trost, Matthias; Coulthurst, Sarah J.; Palmer, Tracy; Stanley-Wall, Nicola R.

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria adapt to their environment and manipulate the biochemistry of hosts by secretion of effector molecules. Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic pathogen associated with healthcare-acquired infections and is a prolific secretor of proteins, including three chitinases (ChiA, ChiB, and ChiC) and a chitin binding protein (Cbp21). In this work, genetic, biochemical, and proteomic approaches identified genes that were required for secretion of all three chitinases and Cbp21. A genetic screen identified a holin-like protein (ChiW) and a putative l-alanyl-d-glutamate endopeptidase (ChiX), and subsequent biochemical analyses established that both were required for nonlytic secretion of the entire chitinolytic machinery, with chitinase secretion being blocked at a late stage in the mutants. In addition, live-cell imaging experiments demonstrated bimodal and coordinated expression of chiX and chiA and revealed that cells expressing chiA remained viable. It is proposed that ChiW and ChiX operate in tandem as components of a protein secretion system used by gram-negative bacteria. PMID:25488919

  8. A Wd Repeat Protein, Rec14, Essential for Meiotic Recombination in Schizosaccharomyces Pombe

    PubMed Central

    Evans, D. H.; Li, Y. F.; Fox, M. E.; Smith, C. R.

    1997-01-01

    Mutations in the Schizosaccharomyces pombe rec14 gene reduce meiotic recombination by as much as a factor of 1000 in the three intervals tested on chromosomes I and III. A DNA clone complementing the rec14 mutation was shown by genetic and physical analysis to contain the rec14 gene, which was functional in plasmid-borne inserts as small as 1.4 kb. The rec14 gene contains two exons separated by a 53-bp intron, which was confirmed by analysis of rec14 transcripts. The spliced transcript encodes a protein product of 302 amino acids, which contains six WD repeat motifs found in the G-beta transducin family of proteins and other proteins, including the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ski8 (Rec103) protein. Although the rec14 transcripts were present in mitotically dividing cells, rec14 mutations had no detectable effect on mitotic recombination. The pattern of expression of rec14 differs from that of previously analyzed S. pombe rec genes. Based upon mutant phenotypes and amino acid sequence similarities, we propose that S. pombe Rec14 is a functional homologue of S. cerevisiae Rec103. PMID:9258671

  9. Upregulation of Heat Shock Proteins is Essential for Cold Survival during Insect Diapause

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diapause, the dormancy common to overwintering insects, evokes a unique pattern of gene expression. In the flesh fly most, but not all, of the fly’s heat shock proteins (Hsps) are upregulated. The diapause upregulated Hsps include two members of the Hsp70 family, one member of the Hsp60 family (TC...

  10. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa universal stress protein PA4352 is essential for surviving anaerobic energy stress.

    PubMed

    Boes, Nelli; Schreiber, Kerstin; Härtig, Elisabeth; Jaensch, Lothar; Schobert, Max

    2006-09-01

    During infection of the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung, Pseudomonas aeruginosa microcolonies are embedded in the anaerobic CF mucus. This anaerobic environment seems to contribute to the formation of more robust P. aeruginosa biofilms and to an increased antibiotic tolerance and therefore promotes persistent infection. This study characterizes the P. aeruginosa protein PA4352, which is important for survival under anaerobic energy stress conditions. PA4352 belongs to the universal stress protein (Usp) superfamily and harbors two Usp domains in tandem. In Escherichia coli, Usp-type stress proteins are involved in survival during aerobic growth arrest and under various other stresses. A P. aeruginosa PA4352 knockout mutant was tested for survival under several stress conditions. We found a decrease in viability of this mutant compared to the P. aeruginosa wild type during anaerobic energy starvation caused by the missing electron acceptors oxygen and nitrate. Consistent with this phenotype under anaerobic conditions, the PA4352 knockout mutant was also highly sensitive to carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, the chemical uncoupler of the electron transport chain. Primer extension experiments identified two promoters upstream of the PA4352 gene. One promoter is activated in response to oxygen limitation by the oxygen-sensing regulatory protein Anr. The center of a putative Anr binding site was identified 41.5 bp upstream of the transcriptional start site. The second promoter is active only in the stationary phase, however, independently of RpoS, RelA, or quorum sensing. This is the second P. aeruginosa Usp-type stress protein that we have identified as important for survival under anaerobic conditions, which resembles the environment during persistent infection. PMID:16952944

  11. The beta-amyloid domain is essential for axonal sorting of amyloid precursor protein.

    PubMed Central

    Tienari, P J; De Strooper, B; Ikonen, E; Simons, M; Weidemann, A; Czech, C; Hartmann, T; Ida, N; Multhaup, G; Masters, C L; Van Leuven, F; Beyreuther, K; Dotti, C G

    1996-01-01

    We have analysed the axonal sorting signals of amyloid precursor protein (APP). Wild-type and mutant versions of human APP were expressed in hippocampal neurons using the Semliki forest virus system. We show that wild-type APP and mutations implicated in Alzheimer's disease and another brain beta-amyloidosis are sorted to the axon. By analysis of deletion mutants we found that the membrane-inserted APP ectodomain but not the cytoplasmic tail is required for axonal sorting. Systematic deletions of the APP ectodomain identified two regions required for axonal delivery: one encoded by exons 11-15 in the carbohydrate domain, the other encoded by exons 16-17 in the juxtamembraneous beta-amyloid domain. Treatment of the cells with the N-glycosylation inhibitor tunicamycin induced missorting of wild-type APP, supporting the importance of glycosylation in axonal sorting of APP. The data revealed a hierarchy of sorting signals on APP: the beta-amyloid-dependent membrane proximal signal was the major contributor to axonal sorting, while N-glycosylation had a weaker effect. Furthermore, recessive somatodendritic signals, most likely in the cytoplasmic tail, directed the protein to the dendrites when the ectodomain was deleted. Analysis of detergent solubility of APP and another axonally delivered protein, hemagglutinin, demonstrated that only hemagglutinin formed CHAPS-insoluble complexes, suggesting distinct mechanisms of axonal sorting for these two proteins. This study is the first delineation of sorting requirements of an axonally targeted protein in polarized neurons and indicates that the beta-amyloid domain plays a major role in axonal delivery of APP. Images PMID:8895567

  12. An Essential Role for RGS Protein/Gαi2 Interactions in B Lymphocyte Directed Cell Migration and Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Il-Young; Park, Chung; Harrison, Kathleen; Boularan, Cedric; Galés, Céline; Kehrl, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Chemokines engage B lymphocyte surface receptors triggering heterotrimeric G-protein Gαi subunit guanine nucleotide exchange. RGS proteins limit the duration that Gαi subunits remain GTP bound, and the loss of an individual RGS protein typically enhances chemokine receptor signaling. Here, we show that B cells carrying a Gαi2G184S/G184S mutation that disables all RGS protein/Gαi2 interactions exhibit an unexpectedly severe reduction in chemokine receptor signaling. The Gαi2G184S/G184S B cells have markedly elevated basal calcium levels, but poor chemokine induced increases; enhanced non-specific migration, but extremely poor chemotaxis. In striking contrast, the Gαi2G184S/G184S B cells exhibited enhanced sensitivity to Sphingosine 1-Phosphate (S1P). S1P elicited heightened intracellular calcium responses and enhanced S1P-triggered cell migration. Mice with the Gαi2G184S/G184S mutation displayed excessive numbers of germinal center-like structures; abnormal serum immunoglobulin profiles; and aberrant B lymphocyte trafficking. These findings establish an essential role for RGS proteins in B cell chemoattractant signaling and for the proper position of B lymphocytes in lymphoid organs. PMID:25617475

  13. Toxoplasma sortilin-like receptor regulates protein transport and is essential for apical secretory organelle biogenesis and host infection.

    PubMed

    Sloves, Pierre-Julien; Delhaye, Stephane; Mouveaux, Thomas; Werkmeister, Elisabeth; Slomianny, Christian; Hovasse, Agnes; Dilezitoko Alayi, Tchilabalo; Callebaut, Isabelle; Gaji, Rajshekhar Y; Schaeffer-Reiss, Christine; Van Dorsselear, Alain; Carruthers, Vern B; Tomavo, Stanislas

    2012-05-17

    Apicomplexan parasites have an assortment of unique apical secretory organelles (rhoptries and micronemes), which have crucial functions in host infection. Here, we show that a Toxoplasma gondii sortilin-like receptor (TgSORTLR) is required for the subcellular localization and formation of apical secretory organelles. TgSORTLR is a transmembrane protein that resides within Golgi-endosomal related compartments. The lumenal domain specifically interacts with rhoptry and microneme proteins, while the cytoplasmic tail of TgSORTLR recruits cytosolic sorting machinery involved in anterograde and retrograde protein transport. Ectopic expression of the N-terminal TgSORTLR lumenal domain results in dominant negative effects with the mislocalization of both endogenous TgSORTLR as well as rhoptry and microneme proteins. Conditional ablation of TgSORTLR disrupts rhoptry and microneme biogenesis, inhibits parasite motility, and blocks both invasion into and egress from host cells. Thus, the sortilin-like receptor is essential for protein trafficking and the biogenesis of key secretory organelles in Toxoplasma. PMID:22607804

  14. Structural Analysis of the Interaction between Dishevelled2 and Clathrin AP-2 Adaptor, A Critical Step in Noncanonical Wnt Signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Anan; Xing, Yi; Harrison, Stephen C.; Kirchhausen, Tomas

    2010-10-14

    Wnt association with its receptor, Frizzled (Fz), and recruitment by the latter of an adaptor, Dishevelled (Dvl), initiates signaling through at least two distinct pathways (canonical and noncanonical). Endocytosis and compartmentalization help determine the signaling outcome. Our previous work has shown that Dvl2 links at least one Frizzled family member (Fz4) to clathrin-mediated endocytosis by interacting with the {mu}2 subunit of the AP-2 clathrin adaptor, through both a classical endocytic tyrosine motif and a so-called DEP domain. We report here the crystal structure of a chimeric protein that mimics the Dvl2-{mu}2 complex. The DEP domain binds at one end of the elongated, C-terminal domain of {mu}2. This domain:domain interface shows that parts of the {mu}2 surface distinct from the tyrosine-motif site can help recruit specific receptors or adaptors into a clathrin coated pit. Mutation of residues at the DEP-{mu}2 contact or in the tyrosine motif reduce affinity of Dvl2 for {mu}2 and block efficient internalization of Fz4 in response to ligation by Wnt5a. The crystal structure has thus allowed us to identify the specific interaction that leads to Frizzled uptake and to downstream, noncanonical signaling events.

  15. Mitsugumin 56 (hedgehog acyltransferase-like) is a sarcoplasmic reticulum-resident protein essential for postnatal muscle maturation.

    PubMed

    Van, Bo; Nishi, Miyuki; Komazaki, Shinji; Ichimura, Atsuhiko; Kakizawa, Sho; Nakanaga, Keita; Aoki, Junken; Park, Ki-Ho; Ma, Jianjie; Ueyama, Tomomi; Ogata, Takehiro; Maruyama, Naoki; Takeshima, Hiroshi

    2015-04-28

    Mitsugumin 56 (MG56), also known as the membrane-bound O-acyl-transferase family member hedgehog acyltransferase-like, was identified as a new sarcoplasmic reticulum component in striated muscle. Mg56-knockout mice grew normally for a week after birth, but shortly thereafter exhibited a suckling defect and died under starvation conditions. In the knockout skeletal muscle, regular contractile features were largely preserved, but sarcoplasmic reticulum elements swelled and further developed enormous vacuoles. In parallel, the unfolded protein response was severely activated in the knockout muscle, and presumably disrupted muscle development leading to the suckling failure. Therefore, MG56 seems essential for postnatal skeletal muscle maturation. PMID:25841338

  16. The transmembrane inner ear (Tmie) protein is essential for normal hearing and balance in the zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Gleason, Michelle R; Nagiel, Aaron; Jamet, Sophie; Vologodskaia, Maria; López-Schier, Hernán; Hudspeth, A J

    2009-12-15

    Little is known about the proteins that mediate mechanoelectrical transduction, the process by which acoustic and accelerational stimuli are transformed by hair cells of the inner ear into electrical signals. In our search for molecules involved in mechanotransduction, we discovered a line of deaf and uncoordinated zebrafish with defective hair-cell function. The hair cells of mutant larvae fail to incorporate fluorophores that normally traverse the transduction channels and their ears lack microphonic potentials in response to vibratory stimuli. Hair cells in the posterior lateral lines of mutants contain numerous lysosomes and have short, disordered hair bundles. Their stereocilia lack two components of the transduction apparatus, tip links and insertional plaques. Positional cloning revealed an early frameshift mutation in tmie, the zebrafish ortholog of the mammalian gene transmembrane inner ear. The mutant line therefore affords us an opportunity to investigate the role of the corresponding protein in mechanoelectrical transduction. PMID:19934034

  17. Arabidopsis mitochondrial protein slow embryo development1 is essential for embryo development.

    PubMed

    Ju, Yan; Liu, Chunying; Lu, Wenwen; Zhang, Quan; Sodmergen

    2016-05-27

    The plant seeds formation are crucial parts in reproductive process in seed plants as well as food source for humans. Proper embryo development ensure viable seed formation. Here, we showed an Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion mutant slow embryo development1 (sed1) which exhibited retarded embryogenesis, led to aborted seeds. Embryo without SED1 developed slower compared to normal one and could be recognized at early globular stage by its white appearance. In later development stage, storage accumulated poorly with less protein and lipid body production. In vitro culture did not rescue albino embryo. SED1 encoded a protein targeted to mitochondria. Transmission electron microscopic analysis revealed that mitochondria developed abnormally, and more strikingly plastid failed to construct grana in time in sed1/sed1 embryo. These data indicated that SED1 is indispensable for embryogenesis in Arabidopsis, and the mitochondria may be involved in the regulation of many aspects of seed development. PMID:27109472

  18. Glucan-Binding Proteins are Essential for Shaping Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, David J.; Fountain, Tracey L.; Mazurkiewicz, Joseph E.

    2006-01-01

    Glucan plays a central role in sucrose-dependent biofilm formation by the dental pathogen Streptococcus mutans. This organism synthesizes several proteins capable of binding glucan. These are divided into the glucosyltransferases (Gtfs) that catalyze the synthesis of glucan and the non-Gtf glucan-binding proteins (Gbps). The biological significance of the Gbps has not been thoroughly defined, but studies suggest these proteins influence virulence and play a role in maintaining biofilm architecture by linking bacteria and extracellular molecules of glucan. We engineered a panel of Gbp mutants, targeting GbpA, GbpC, and GbpD, in which each gene encoding a Gbp was deleted individually and in combination. These strains were then analyzed by confocal microscopy and the biofilm properties quantified by the biofilm quantification software COMSTAT. All biofilms produced by mutant strains lost significant depth, but the basis for the reduction in height depended on which particular Gbp was missing. The loss of the cell-bound GbpC appeared dominant as might be expected based on losing the principal receptor for glucan. The loss of an extracellular Gbp, either GbpA or GbpD, also profoundly changed the biofilm architecture, each in a unique manner. PMID:17214736

  19. ARC3 is a stromal Z-ring accessory protein essential for plastid division

    PubMed Central

    Maple, Jodi; Vojta, Lea; Soll, Jurgen; Møller, Simon G

    2007-01-01

    In plants, chloroplast division is an integral part of development, and these vital organelles arise by binary fission from pre-existing cytosolic plastids. Chloroplasts arose by endosymbiosis and although they have retained elements of the bacterial cell division machinery to execute plastid division, they have evolved to require two functionally distinct forms of the FtsZ protein and have lost elements of the Min machinery required for Z-ring placement. Here, we analyse the plastid division component accumulation and replication of chloroplasts 3 (ARC3) and show that ARC3 forms part of the stromal plastid division machinery. ARC3 interacts specifically with AtFtsZ1, acting as a Z-ring accessory protein and defining a unique function for this family of FtsZ proteins. ARC3 is involved in division site placement, suggesting that it might functionally replace MinC, representing an important advance in our understanding of the mechanism of chloroplast division and the evolution of the chloroplast division machinery. PMID:17304239

  20. Haploinsufficiency screen highlights two distinct groups of ribosomal protein genes essential for embryonic stem cell fate

    PubMed Central

    Fortier, Simon; MacRae, Tara; Bilodeau, Mélanie; Sargeant, Tobias; Sauvageau, Guy

    2015-01-01

    In a functional genomics screen of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) with nested hemizygous chromosomal deletions, we reveal that ribosomal protein (RP) genes are the most significant haploinsufficient determinants for embryoid body (EB) formation. Hemizygocity for three RP genes (Rps5, Rps14, or Rps28), distinguished by the proximity of their corresponding protein to the ribosome's mRNA exit site, is associated with the most profound phenotype. This EB phenotype was fully rescued by BAC or cDNA complementation but not by the reduction of p53 levels, although such reduction was effective with most other RP-deleted clones corresponding to non-mRNA exit-site proteins. RNA-sequencing studies further revealed that undifferentiated ESCs hemizygous for Rps5 showed reduced expression levels of several mesoderm-specific genes as compared with wild-type counterparts. Together, these results reveal that RP gene dosage limits the differentiation, not the self-renewal, of mouse ESCs. They also highlight two separate mechanisms underlying this process, one of which is p53 independent. PMID:25646475

  1. The Dictyostelium LIM Domain-containing Protein LIM2 Is Essential for Proper Chemotaxis and Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Sharon; Chung, Chang Y.; Sukumaran, Sujatha; Osborne, Nicholas; Lee, Susan; Ellsworth, Charlene; McNally, James G.; Firtel, Richard A.

    2000-01-01

    We have identified limB, a gene encoding a novel LIM domain-containing protein, LIM2, in a screen for genes required for morphogenesis. limB null cells aggregate, although poorly, but they are unable to undergo morphogenesis, and the aggregates arrest at the mound stage. limB null cells exhibit an aberrant actin cytoskeleton and have numerous F-actin–enriched microspikes. The cells exhibit poor adhesion to a substratum and do not form tight cell–cell agglomerates in suspension. Furthermore, limB null cells are unable to properly polarize in chemoattractant gradients and move very poorly. Expression of limB from a prestalk-specific but not a prespore-specific promoter complements the morphogenetic defects of the limB null strain, suggesting that the limB null cell developmental defect results from an inability to properly sort prestalk cells. LIM2 protein is enriched in the cortex of wild-type cells, although it does not colocalize with the actin cytoskeleton. Our analysis indicates that LIM2 is a new regulatory protein that functions to control rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton and is required for cell motility and chemotaxis. Our findings may be generally applicable to understanding pathways that control cell movement and morphogenesis in all multicellular organisms. Structure function studies on the LIM domains are presented. PMID:10749929

  2. Popeye domain containing proteins are essential for stress-mediated modulation of cardiac pacemaking in mice

    PubMed Central

    Froese, Alexander; Breher, Stephanie S.; Waldeyer, Christoph; Schindler, Roland F.R.; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O.; Rinné, Susanne; Wischmeyer, Erhard; Schlueter, Jan; Becher, Jan; Simrick, Subreena; Vauti, Franz; Kuhtz, Juliane; Meister, Patrick; Kreissl, Sonja; Torlopp, Angela; Liebig, Sonja K.; Laakmann, Sandra; Müller, Thomas D.; Neumann, Joachim; Stieber, Juliane; Ludwig, Andreas; Maier, Sebastian K.; Decher, Niels; Arnold, Hans-Henning; Kirchhof, Paulus; Fabritz, Larissa; Brand, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac pacemaker cells create rhythmic pulses that control heart rate; pacemaker dysfunction is a prevalent disorder in the elderly, but little is known about the underlying molecular causes. Popeye domain containing