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Sample records for adaptor protein lat

  1. The Transmembrane Adaptor Protein, Linker for Activation of T cells (LAT), Regulates RANKL-Induced Osteoclast Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kabsun; Kim, Jung Ha; Moon, Jang Bae; Lee, Jongwon; Kwak, Han bok; Park, Yong-Wook; Kim, Nacksung

    2012-01-01

    RANKL induces the formation of osteoclasts, which are responsible for bone resorption. Herein we investigate the role of the transmembrane adaptor proteins in RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. LAT positively regulates osteoclast differentiation and is up-regulated by RANKL via c-Fos and NFATc1, whereas LAB and LIME act as negative modulators of osteoclastogenesis. In addition, silencing of LAT by RNA interference or overexpression of a LAT dominant negative in bone marrow-derived macrophage cells attenuates RANKL-induced osteoclast formation. Furthermore, LAT is involved in RANKL-induced PLCγ activation and NFATc1 induction. Thus, our data suggest that LAT acts as a positive regulator of RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. PMID:22382685

  2. Serine residues in the LAT adaptor are essential for TCR-dependent signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Florensa, Mario; García-Blesa, Antonio; Yélamos, José; Muñoz-Suano, Alba; Domínguez-Villar, Margarita; Valdor, Rut; Alonso, Antonio; García-Cózar, Francisco; Aparicio, Pedro; Malissen, Bernard; Aguado, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    The adaptor protein LAT has a prominent role in the transduction of intracellular signals elicited by the TCR/CD3 complex. Upon TCR engagement, LAT becomes tyrosine-phosphorylated and thereby, recruits to the membrane several proteins implicated in the activation of downstream signaling pathways. However, little is known about the role of other conserved motifs present in the LAT sequence. Here, we report that the adaptor LAT contains several conserved serine-based motifs, which are essential for proper signal transduction through the TCR. Mutation of these serine motifs in the human T cell line Jurkat prevents proper calcium influx, MAPK activation, and IL-2 production in response to TCR/CD3 stimulation. Moreover, this mutant form of LAT has a reduced ability to bind to PLC-γ1 and SLP-76, although phosphorylation of tyrosine residues 132, 171, and 191 is not decreased, raising a possible role for the serine-based motifs of LAT for the binding of important partners. The functional role of LAT serine-based motifs in signal transduction could be mediated by an effect on tyrosine phosphorylation, as their mutation significantly diminishes the phosphorylation of tyrosine residue 226. In addition, these serine motifs seem to have a regulatory role, given that upon their mutation, ZAP-70 shows enhanced phosphorylation. Therefore, the LAT serine-based motifs likely regulate signaling pathways that are essential for T cell physiology.

  3. Linker for activation of T-cell family member2 (LAT2) a lipid raft adaptor protein for AKT signaling, is an early mediator of alkylphospholipid anti-leukemic activity.

    PubMed

    Thomé, Carolina H; dos Santos, Guilherme A; Ferreira, Germano A; Scheucher, Priscila S; Izumi, Clarice; Leopoldino, Andreia M; Simão, Ana Maria; Ciancaglini, Pietro; de Oliveira, Kleber T; Chin, Alice; Hanash, Samir M; Falcão, Roberto P; Rego, Eduardo M; Greene, Lewis J; Faça, Vitor M

    2012-12-01

    Lipid rafts are highly ordered membrane domains rich in cholesterol and sphingolipids that provide a scaffold for signal transduction proteins; altered raft structure has also been implicated in cancer progression. We have shown that 25 μm 10-(octyloxy) decyl-2-(trimethylammonium) ethyl phosphate (ODPC), an alkylphospholipid, targets high cholesterol domains in model membranes and induces apoptosis in leukemia cells but spares normal hematopoietic and epithelial cells under the same conditions. We performed a quantitative (SILAC) proteomic screening of ODPC targets in a lipid-raft-enriched fraction of leukemic cells to identify early events prior to the initiation of apoptosis. Six proteins, three with demonstrated palmitoylation sites, were reduced in abundance. One, the linker for activation of T-cell family member 2 (LAT2), is an adaptor protein associated with lipid rafts in its palmitoylated form and is specifically expressed in B lymphocytes and myeloid cells. Interestingly, LAT2 is not expressed in K562, a cell line more resistant to ODPC-induced apoptosis. There was an early loss of LAT2 in the lipid-raft-enriched fraction of NB4 cells within 3 h following treatment with 25 μm ODPC. Subsequent degradation of LAT2 by proteasomes was observed. Twenty-five μm ODPC inhibited AKT activation via myeloid growth factors, and LAT2 knockdown in NB4 cells by shRNA reproduced this effect. LAT2 knockdown in NB4 cells also decreased cell proliferation and increased cell sensitivity to ODPC (7.5×), perifosine (3×), and arsenic trioxide (8.5×). Taken together, these data indicate that LAT2 is an early mediator of the anti-leukemic activity of alkylphospholipids and arsenic trioxide. Thus, LAT2 may be used as a target for the design of drugs for cancer therapy.

  4. Linker for Activation of T-cell Family Member2 (LAT2) a Lipid Raft Adaptor Protein for AKT Signaling, Is an Early Mediator of Alkylphospholipid Anti-leukemic Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Thomé, Carolina H.; dos Santos, Guilherme A.; Ferreira, Germano A.; Scheucher, Priscila S.; Izumi, Clarice; Leopoldino, Andreia M.; Simão, Ana Maria; Ciancaglini, Pietro; de Oliveira, Kleber T.; Chin, Alice; Hanash, Samir M.; Falcão, Roberto P.; Rego, Eduardo M.; Greene, Lewis J.; Faça, Vitor M.

    2012-01-01

    Lipid rafts are highly ordered membrane domains rich in cholesterol and sphingolipids that provide a scaffold for signal transduction proteins; altered raft structure has also been implicated in cancer progression. We have shown that 25 μm 10-(octyloxy) decyl-2-(trimethylammonium) ethyl phosphate (ODPC), an alkylphospholipid, targets high cholesterol domains in model membranes and induces apoptosis in leukemia cells but spares normal hematopoietic and epithelial cells under the same conditions. We performed a quantitative (SILAC) proteomic screening of ODPC targets in a lipid-raft-enriched fraction of leukemic cells to identify early events prior to the initiation of apoptosis. Six proteins, three with demonstrated palmitoylation sites, were reduced in abundance. One, the linker for activation of T-cell family member 2 (LAT2), is an adaptor protein associated with lipid rafts in its palmitoylated form and is specifically expressed in B lymphocytes and myeloid cells. Interestingly, LAT2 is not expressed in K562, a cell line more resistant to ODPC-induced apoptosis. There was an early loss of LAT2 in the lipid-raft-enriched fraction of NB4 cells within 3 h following treatment with 25 μm ODPC. Subsequent degradation of LAT2 by proteasomes was observed. Twenty-five μm ODPC inhibited AKT activation via myeloid growth factors, and LAT2 knockdown in NB4 cells by shRNA reproduced this effect. LAT2 knockdown in NB4 cells also decreased cell proliferation and increased cell sensitivity to ODPC (7.5×), perifosine (3×), and arsenic trioxide (8.5×). Taken together, these data indicate that LAT2 is an early mediator of the anti-leukemic activity of alkylphospholipids and arsenic trioxide. Thus, LAT2 may be used as a target for the design of drugs for cancer therapy. PMID:23001822

  5. Loss of the LAT adaptor converts antigen-responsive T cells into pathogenic effectors that function independently of the T cell receptor.

    PubMed

    Mingueneau, Michael; Roncagalli, Romain; Grégoire, Claude; Kissenpfennig, Adrien; Miazek, Arkadiusz; Archambaud, Cristel; Wang, Ying; Perrin, Pierre; Bertosio, Elodie; Sansoni, Amandine; Richelme, Sylvie; Locksley, Richard M; Aguado, Enrique; Malissen, Marie; Malissen, Bernard

    2009-08-21

    Despite compromised T cell antigen receptor (TCR) signaling, mice in which tyrosine 136 of the adaptor linker for activation of T cells (LAT) was constitutively mutated (Lat(Y136F) mice) accumulate CD4(+) T cells that trigger autoimmunity and inflammation. Here we show that equipping postthymic CD4(+) T cells with LATY136F molecules or rendering them deficient in LAT molecules triggers a lymphoproliferative disorder dependent on prior TCR engagement. Therefore, such disorders required neither faulty thymic T cell maturation nor LATY136F molecules. Unexpectedly, in CD4(+) T cells recently deprived of LAT, the proximal triggering module of the TCR induced a spectrum of protein tyrosine phosphorylation that largely overlapped the one observed in the presence of LAT. The fact that such LAT-independent signals result in lymphoproliferative disorders with excessive cytokine production demonstrates that LAT constitutes a key negative regulator of the triggering module and of the LAT-independent branches of the TCR signaling cassette.

  6. Dephosphorylation of the adaptor LAT and phospholipase C-γ by SHP-1 inhibits natural killer cell cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Matalon, Omri; Fried, Sophia; Ben-Shmuel, Aviad; Pauker, Maor H; Joseph, Noah; Keizer, Danielle; Piterburg, Marina; Barda-Saad, Mira

    2016-05-24

    Natural killer (NK) cells discriminate between healthy cells and virally infected or transformed self-cells by tuning activating and inhibitory signals received through cell surface receptors. Inhibitory receptors inhibit NK cell function by recruiting and activating the tyrosine phosphatase Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-1 (SHP-1) to the plasma membrane. However, to date, the guanine nucleotide exchange factor VAV1 is the only direct SHP-1 substrate identified in NK cells. We reveal that the adaptor protein linker for activation of T cells (LAT) as well as phospholipase C-γ1 (PLC-γ1) and PLC-γ2 are SHP-1 substrates. Dephosphorylation of Tyr(132) in LAT by SHP-1 in NK cells abrogated the recruitment of PLC-γ1 and PLC-γ2 to the immunological synapse between the NK cell and a cancer cell target, which reduced NK cell degranulation and target cell killing. Furthermore, the ubiquitylation of LAT by the E3 ubiquitin ligases c-Cbl and Cbl-b, which was induced by LAT phosphorylation, led to the degradation of LAT in response to the engagement of inhibitory receptors on NK cells, which abrogated NK cell cytotoxicity. Knockdown of the Cbl proteins blocked LAT ubiquitylation, which promoted NK cell function. Expression of a ubiquitylation-resistant mutant LAT blocked inhibitory receptor signaling, enabling cells to become activated. Together, these data identify previously uncharacterized SHP-1 substrates and inhibitory mechanisms that determine the response of NK cells.

  7. Negative regulation of T cell activation and autoimmunity by the transmembrane adaptor protein LAB.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Minghua; Koonpaew, Surapong; Liu, Yan; Shen, Shudan; Denning, Timothy; Dzhagalov, Ivan; Rhee, Inmoo; Zhang, Weiguo

    2006-11-01

    LAB (linker for activation of B cells), also known as NTAL (non-T cell activation linker), is a LAT (linker for activation of T cells)-like adaptor protein that is expressed in B, NK, and mast cells. Its role in lymphocytes has not been clearly demonstrated. Here, we showed that aged LAB-deficient (Lat2(-/-)) mice developed an autoimmune syndrome. Lat2(-/-) T cells were hyperactivated and produced more cytokines than Lat2(+/+) T cells. Even though LAB was absent in naive T cells, LAB could be detected in activated Lat2(+/+) T cells. LAT-mediated signaling events were enhanced in Lat2(-/-) T cells; however, they were suppressed in T cells that overexpressed LAB. Mice with the Lat2 gene conditionally deleted from T cells also developed the autoimmune syndrome like Lat2(-/-) mice. Together, these data demonstrated an important role of LAB in limiting autoimmune response and exposed a mechanism regulating T cell activation.

  8. Structural basis for differential recognition of tyrosine-phosphorylated sites in the linker for activation of T cells (LAT) by the adaptor Gads

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sangwoo; Velikovsky, C Alejandro; Swaminathan, Chittoor P; Houtman, Jon C D; Samelson, Lawrence E; Mariuzza, Roy A

    2004-01-01

    The transmembrane protein, linker for activation of T cells (LAT), is essential for T-cell activation and development. Phosphorylation of LAT at multiple tyrosines creates binding sites for the adaptors Gads and Grb2, leading to nucleation of multiprotein signaling complexes. Human LAT contains five potential binding sites for Gads, of which only those at Tyr171 and Tyr191 appear necessary for T-cell function. We asked whether Gads binds preferentially to these sites, as differential recognition could assist in assembling defined LAT-based complexes. Measured calorimetrically, Gads-SH2 binds LAT tyrosine phosphorylation sites 171 and 191 with higher affinities than the other sites, with the differences ranging from only several fold weaker binding to no detectable interaction. Crystal structures of Gads-SH2 complexed with phosphopeptides representing sites 171, 191 and 226 were determined to 1.8−1.9 Å resolutions. The structures reveal the basis for preferential recognition of specific LAT sites by Gads, as well as for the relatively greater promiscuity of the related adaptor Grb2, whose binding also requires asparagine at position +2 C-terminal to the phosphorylated tyrosine. PMID:15029250

  9. The human adaptor SARM negatively regulates adaptor protein TRIF-dependent Toll-like receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Carty, Michael; Goodbody, Rory; Schröder, Martina; Stack, Julianne; Moynagh, Paul N; Bowie, Andrew G

    2006-10-01

    Toll-like receptors discriminate between different pathogen-associated molecules and activate signaling cascades that lead to immune responses. The specificity of Toll-like receptor signaling occurs by means of adaptor proteins containing Toll-interleukin 1 receptor (TIR) domains. Activating functions have been assigned to four TIR adaptors: MyD88, Mal, TRIF and TRAM. Here we characterize a fifth TIR adaptor, SARM, as a negative regulator of TRIF-dependent Toll-like receptor signaling. Expression of SARM blocked gene induction 'downstream' of TRIF but not of MyD88. SARM associated with TRIF, and 'knockdown' of endogenous SARM expression by interfering RNA led to enhanced TRIF-dependent cytokine and chemokine induction. Thus, the fifth mammalian TIR adaptor SARM is a negative regulator of Toll-like receptor signaling.

  10. SCIMP, a transmembrane adaptor protein involved in major histocompatibility complex class II signaling.

    PubMed

    Draber, Peter; Vonkova, Ivana; Stepanek, Ondrej; Hrdinka, Matous; Kucova, Marketa; Skopcova, Tereza; Otahal, Pavel; Angelisova, Pavla; Horejsi, Vaclav; Yeung, Mandy; Weiss, Arthur; Brdicka, Tomas

    2011-11-01

    Formation of the immunological synapse between an antigen-presenting cell (APC) and a T cell leads to signal generation in both cells involved. In T cells, the lipid raft-associated transmembrane adaptor protein LAT plays a central role. Its phosphorylation is a crucial step in signal propagation, including the calcium response and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, and largely depends on its association with the SLP76 adaptor protein. Here we report the discovery of a new palmitoylated transmembrane adaptor protein, termed SCIMP. SCIMP is expressed in B cells and other professional APCs and is localized in the immunological synapse due to its association with tetraspanin-enriched microdomains. In B cells, it is constitutively associated with Lyn kinase and becomes tyrosine phosphorylated after major histocompatibility complex type II (MHC-II) stimulation. When phosphorylated, SCIMP binds to the SLP65 adaptor protein and also to the inhibitory kinase Csk. While the association with SLP65 initiates the downstream signaling cascades, Csk binding functions as a negative regulatory loop. The results suggest that SCIMP is involved in signal transduction after MHC-II stimulation and therefore serves as a regulator of antigen presentation and other APC functions.

  11. Modeling and simulation of aggregation of membrane protein LAT with molecular variability in the number of binding sites for cytosolic Grb2-SOS1-Grb2.

    PubMed

    Nag, Ambarish; Monine, Michael; Perelson, Alan S; Goldstein, Byron

    2012-01-01

    The linker for activation of T cells (LAT), the linker for activation of B cells (LAB), and the linker for activation of X cells (LAX) form a family of transmembrane adaptor proteins widely expressed in lymphocytes. These scaffolding proteins have multiple binding motifs that, when phosphorylated, bind the SH2 domain of the cytosolic adaptor Grb2. Thus, the valence of LAT, LAB and LAX for Grb2 is variable, depending on the strength of receptor activation that initiates phosphorylation. During signaling, the LAT population will exhibit a time-varying distribution of Grb2 valences from zero to three. In the cytosol, Grb2 forms 1:1 and 2:1 complexes with the guanine nucleotide exchange factor SOS1. The 2:1 complex can bridge two LAT molecules when each Grb2, through their SH2 domains, binds to a phosphorylated site on a separate LAT. In T cells and mast cells, after receptor engagement, receptor phosphoyrlation is rapidly followed by LAT phosphorylation and aggregation. In mast cells, aggregates containing more than one hundred LAT molecules have been detected. Previously we considered a homogeneous population of trivalent LAT molecules and showed that for a range of Grb2, SOS1 and LAT concentrations, an equilibrium theory for LAT aggregation predicts the formation of a gel-like phase comprising a very large aggregate (superaggregate). We now extend this theory to investigate the effects of a distribution of Grb2 valence in the LAT population on the formation of LAT aggregates and superaggregate and use stochastic simulations to calculate the fraction of the total LAT population in the superaggregate.

  12. Modeling and Simulation of Aggregation of Membrane Protein LAT with Molecular Variability in the Number of Binding Sites for Cytosolic Grb2-SOS1-Grb2

    PubMed Central

    Nag, Ambarish; Monine, Michael; Perelson, Alan S.; Goldstein, Byron

    2012-01-01

    The linker for activation of T cells (LAT), the linker for activation of B cells (LAB), and the linker for activation of X cells (LAX) form a family of transmembrane adaptor proteins widely expressed in lymphocytes. These scaffolding proteins have multiple binding motifs that, when phosphorylated, bind the SH2 domain of the cytosolic adaptor Grb2. Thus, the valence of LAT, LAB and LAX for Grb2 is variable, depending on the strength of receptor activation that initiates phosphorylation. During signaling, the LAT population will exhibit a time-varying distribution of Grb2 valences from zero to three. In the cytosol, Grb2 forms 1∶1 and 2∶1 complexes with the guanine nucleotide exchange factor SOS1. The 2∶1 complex can bridge two LAT molecules when each Grb2, through their SH2 domains, binds to a phosphorylated site on a separate LAT. In T cells and mast cells, after receptor engagement, receptor phosphoyrlation is rapidly followed by LAT phosphorylation and aggregation. In mast cells, aggregates containing more than one hundred LAT molecules have been detected. Previously we considered a homogeneous population of trivalent LAT molecules and showed that for a range of Grb2, SOS1 and LAT concentrations, an equilibrium theory for LAT aggregation predicts the formation of a gel-like phase comprising a very large aggregate (superaggregate). We now extend this theory to investigate the effects of a distribution of Grb2 valence in the LAT population on the formation of LAT aggregates and superaggregate and use stochastic simulations to calculate the fraction of the total LAT population in the superaggregate. PMID:22396725

  13. Positive and negative regulation of FcepsilonRI-mediated signaling by the adaptor protein LAB/NTAL.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Minghua; Liu, Yan; Koonpaew, Surapong; Granillo, Olivia; Zhang, Weiguo

    2004-10-18

    Linker for activation of B cells (LAB, also called NTAL; a product of wbscr5 gene) is a newly identified transmembrane adaptor protein that is expressed in B cells, NK cells, and mast cells. Upon BCR activation, LAB is phosphorylated and interacts with Grb2. LAB is capable of rescuing thymocyte development in LAT-deficient mice. To study the in vivo function of LAB, LAB-deficient mice were generated. Although disruption of the Lab gene did not affect lymphocyte development, it caused mast cells to be hyperresponsive to stimulation via the FcepsilonRI, evidenced by enhanced Erk activation, calcium mobilization, degranulation, and cytokine production. These data suggested that LAB negatively regulates mast cell function. However, mast cells that lacked both linker for activation of T cells (LAT) and LAB proteins had a more severe block in FcepsilonRI-mediated signaling than LAT(-/-) mast cells, demonstrating that LAB also shares a redundant function with LAT to play a positive role in FcepsilonRI-mediated signaling.

  14. Tetraspanins and Transmembrane Adaptor Proteins As Plasma Membrane Organizers-Mast Cell Case.

    PubMed

    Halova, Ivana; Draber, Petr

    2016-01-01

    The plasma membrane contains diverse and specialized membrane domains, which include tetraspanin-enriched domains (TEMs) and transmembrane adaptor protein (TRAP)-enriched domains. Recent biophysical, microscopic, and functional studies indicated that TEMs and TRAP-enriched domains are involved in compartmentalization of physicochemical events of such important processes as immunoreceptor signal transduction and chemotaxis. Moreover, there is evidence of a cross-talk between TEMs and TRAP-enriched domains. In this review we discuss the presence and function of such domains and their crosstalk using mast cells as a model. The combined data based on analysis of selected mast cell-expressed tetraspanins [cluster of differentiation (CD)9, CD53, CD63, CD81, CD151)] or TRAPs [linker for activation of T cells (LAT), non-T cell activation linker (NTAL), and phosphoprotein associated with glycosphingolipid-enriched membrane microdomains (PAG)] using knockout mice or specific antibodies point to a diversity within these two families and bring evidence of the important roles of these molecules in signaling events. An example of this diversity is physical separation of two TRAPs, LAT and NTAL, which are in many aspects similar but show plasma membrane location in different microdomains in both non-activated and activated cells. Although our understanding of TEMs and TRAP-enriched domains is far from complete, pharmaceutical applications of the knowledge about these domains are under way.

  15. Tetraspanins and Transmembrane Adaptor Proteins As Plasma Membrane Organizers—Mast Cell Case

    PubMed Central

    Halova, Ivana; Draber, Petr

    2016-01-01

    The plasma membrane contains diverse and specialized membrane domains, which include tetraspanin-enriched domains (TEMs) and transmembrane adaptor protein (TRAP)-enriched domains. Recent biophysical, microscopic, and functional studies indicated that TEMs and TRAP-enriched domains are involved in compartmentalization of physicochemical events of such important processes as immunoreceptor signal transduction and chemotaxis. Moreover, there is evidence of a cross-talk between TEMs and TRAP-enriched domains. In this review we discuss the presence and function of such domains and their crosstalk using mast cells as a model. The combined data based on analysis of selected mast cell-expressed tetraspanins [cluster of differentiation (CD)9, CD53, CD63, CD81, CD151)] or TRAPs [linker for activation of T cells (LAT), non-T cell activation linker (NTAL), and phosphoprotein associated with glycosphingolipid-enriched membrane microdomains (PAG)] using knockout mice or specific antibodies point to a diversity within these two families and bring evidence of the important roles of these molecules in signaling events. An example of this diversity is physical separation of two TRAPs, LAT and NTAL, which are in many aspects similar but show plasma membrane location in different microdomains in both non-activated and activated cells. Although our understanding of TEMs and TRAP-enriched domains is far from complete, pharmaceutical applications of the knowledge about these domains are under way. PMID:27243007

  16. Modulation of lipoprotein receptor functions by intracellular adaptor proteins.

    PubMed

    Stolt, Peggy C; Bock, Hans H

    2006-10-01

    Members of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene family are critically involved in a wide range of physiological processes including lipid and vitamin homeostasis, cellular migration, neurodevelopment, and synaptic plasticity, to name a few. Lipoprotein receptors exert these diverse biological functions by acting as cellular uptake receptors or by inducing intracellular signaling cascades. It was discovered that a short sequence in the intracellular region of all lipoprotein receptors, Asn-Pro-X-Tyr (NPXY) is important for mediating either endocytosis or signal transduction events, and that this motif serves as a binding site for phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain containing scaffold proteins. These molecular adaptors connect the transmembrane receptors with the endocytosis machinery and regulate cellular trafficking, or function as assembly sites for dynamic multi-protein signaling complexes. Whereas the LDL receptor represents the archetype of an endocytic lipoprotein receptor, the structurally closely related apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (apoER2) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) receptor activate a kinase-dependent intracellular signaling cascade after binding to the neuronal signaling molecule Reelin. This review focuses on two related PTB domain containing adaptor proteins that mediate these divergent lipoprotein receptor responses, ARH (autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia protein) and Dab1 (disabled-1), and discusses the structural and molecular basis of this different behaviour.

  17. Enteroviral Infection in a Patient with BLNK Adaptor Protein Deficiency.

    PubMed

    NaserEddin, Adeeb; Shamriz, Oded; Keller, Baerbel; Alzyoud, Raed M; Unger, Susanne; Fisch, Paul; Prus, Evgenia; Berkun, Yakov; Averbuch, Diana; Shaag, Avraham; Wahadneh, Adel M; Conley, Mary Ellen; Warnatz, Klaus; Elpeleg, Orly; Stepensky, Polina

    2015-05-01

    B-cell linker (BLNK) protein is a non-redundant adaptor molecule in the signaling pathway activated by (pre) B-cell antigen receptor signals. We present two siblings with a homozygous deleterious frameshift mutation in BLNK, resulting in a block of B cell development in the bone marrow at the preB1 to preB2 stage, absence of circulating B cells and agammaglobulinemia. This is the first description of an enteroviral infection associated arthritis and dermatitis in a patient with BLNK deficiency.

  18. The Transmembrane Adaptor Protein SIT Inhibits TCR-Mediated Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Arndt, Börge; Krieger, Tina; Kalinski, Thomas; Thielitz, Anja; Reinhold, Dirk; Roessner, Albert; Schraven, Burkhart; Simeoni, Luca

    2011-01-01

    Transmembrane adaptor proteins (TRAPs) organize signaling complexes at the plasma membrane, and thus function as critical linkers and integrators of signaling cascades downstream of antigen receptors. We have previously shown that the transmembrane adaptor protein SIT regulates the threshold for thymocyte selection. Moreover, T cells from SIT-deficient mice are hyperresponsive to CD3 stimulation and undergo enhanced lymphopenia-induced homeostatic proliferation, thus indicating that SIT inhibits TCR-mediated signaling. Here, we have further addressed how SIT regulates signaling cascades in T cells. We demonstrate that the loss of SIT enhances TCR-mediated Akt activation and increased phosphorylation/inactivation of Foxo1, a transcription factor of the Forkhead family that inhibits cell cycle progression and regulates T-cell homeostasis. We have also shown that CD4+ T cells from SIT-deficient mice display increased CD69 and CD40L expression indicating an altered activation status. Additional biochemical analyses further revealed that suppression of SIT expression by RNAi in human T cells resulted in an enhanced proximal TCR signaling. In summary, the data identify SIT as an important modulator of TCR-mediated signaling that regulates T-cell activation, homeostasis and tolerance. PMID:21957439

  19. Adaptor protein is essential for insect cytokine signaling in hemocytes

    PubMed Central

    Oda, Yasunori; Matsumoto, Hitoshi; Kurakake, Maiko; Ochiai, Masanori; Ohnishi, Atsushi; Hayakawa, Yoichi

    2010-01-01

    Growth-blocking peptide (GBP) is an insect cytokine that stimulates a class of immune cells called plasmatocytes to adhere to one another and to foreign surfaces. Although extensive structure-activity studies have been performed on the GBP and its mutants in Lepidoptera Pseudaletia separata, the signaling pathway of GBP-dependent activation of plasmatocytes remains unknown. We identified an adaptor protein (P77) with a molecular mass of 77 kDa containing SH2/SH3 domain binding motifs and an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)–like domain in the cytoplasmic region of the C terminus. Although P77 showed no capacity for direct binding with GBP, its cytoplasmic tyrosine residues were specifically phosphorylated within seconds after GBP was added to a plasmatocyte suspension. Tyrosine phosphorylation of P77 also was observed when hemocytes were incubated with Enterobactor cloacae or Micrococcus luteus, but this phosphorylation was found to be induced by GBP released from hemocytes stimulated by the pathogens. Tyrosine phosphorylation of the integrin β subunit also was detected in plasmatocytes stimulated by GBP. Double-stranded RNAs targeting P77 not only decreased GBP-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of the integrin β subunit, but also abolished GBP-induced spreading of plasmatocytes on foreign surfaces. P77 RNAi larvae also showed significantly higher mortality than control larvae after infection with Serratia marcescens, indicating that P77 is essential for GBP to mediate a normal innate cellular immunity in insects. These results demonstrate that GBP signaling in plasmatocytes requires the adaptor protein P77, and that active P77-assisted tyrosine phosphorylation of integrins is critical for the activation of plasmatocytes. PMID:20798052

  20. Aggregation of Membrane Proteins by Cytosolic Cross-Linkers: Theory and Simulation of the LAT-Grb2-SOS1 System

    PubMed Central

    Nag, Ambarish; Monine, Michael I.; Faeder, James R.; Goldstein, Byron

    2009-01-01

    Ligand-induced receptor aggregation is a well-known mechanism for initiating intracellular signals but oligomerization of distal signaling molecules may also be required for signal propagation. Formation of complexes containing oligomers of the transmembrane adaptor protein, linker for the activation of T cells (LAT), has been identified as critical in mast cell and T cell activation mediated by immune response receptors. Cross-linking of LAT arises from the formation of a 2:1 complex between the adaptor Grb2 and the nucleotide exchange factor SOS1, which bridges two LAT molecules through the interaction of the Grb2 SH2 domain with a phosphotyrosine on LAT. We model this oligomerization and find that the valence of LAT for Grb2, which ranges from zero to three, is critical in determining the nature and extent of aggregation. A dramatic rise in oligomerization can occur when the valence switches from two to three. For valence three, an equilibrium theory predicts the possibility of forming a gel-like phase. This prediction is confirmed by stochastic simulations, which make additional predictions about the size of the gel and the kinetics of LAT oligomerization. We discuss the model predictions in light of recent experiments on RBL-2H3 and Jurkat E6.1 cells and suggest that the gel phase has been observed in activated mast cells. PMID:19348745

  1. Rab6 interacts with the mint3 adaptor protein.

    PubMed

    Teber, Iskender; Nagano, Fumiko; Kremerskothen, Joachim; Bilbilis, Konstantinos; Goud, Bruno; Barnekow, Angelika

    2005-07-01

    The Rab6 GTPase regulates a retrograde transport route connecting endosomes and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) via the Golgi apparatus. Recently it was shown that active (GTP-loaded) Rab6A regulates intracellular processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). To characterize the role of Rab6A in APP trafficking and to identify effector proteins of the active Rab6A protein, we screened a human placenta cDNA library using the yeast two-hybrid system. We isolated an interacting cDNA clone encoding part of the adaptor protein mint3. The interaction between Rab6A and mint3 is GTP-dependent and requires the complete phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain of the mint protein, which also mediates the association with APP. By confocal microscopy we show that Rab6A, mint3 and APP co-localize at Golgi membranes in HeLa cells. Density gradient centrifugation of cytosolic extracts confirms a common distribution of these three proteins. Our data suggest that mint3 links Rab6A to APP traffic.

  2. Structure of the periplasmic adaptor protein from a major facilitator superfamily (MFS) multidrug efflux pump

    PubMed Central

    Hinchliffe, Philip; Greene, Nicholas P.; Paterson, Neil G.; Crow, Allister; Hughes, Colin; Koronakis, Vassilis

    2014-01-01

    Periplasmic adaptor proteins are key components of bacterial tripartite efflux pumps. The 2.85 Å resolution structure of an MFS (major facilitator superfamily) pump adaptor, Aquifex aeolicus EmrA, shows linearly arranged α-helical coiled-coil, lipoyl, and β-barrel domains, but lacks the fourth membrane-proximal domain shown in other pumps to interact with the inner membrane transporter. The adaptor α-hairpin, which binds outer membrane TolC, is exceptionally long at 127 Å, and the β-barrel contains a conserved disordered loop. The structure extends the view of adaptors as flexible, modular components that mediate diverse pump assembly, and suggests that in MFS tripartite pumps a hexamer of adaptors could provide a periplasmic seal. PMID:24996185

  3. Alternative Splicing in CaV2.2 Regulates Neuronal Trafficking via Adaptor Protein Complex-1 Adaptor Protein Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Macabuag, Natsuko

    2015-01-01

    N-type voltage-gated calcium (CaV2.2) channels are expressed in neurons and targeted to the plasma membrane of presynaptic terminals, facilitating neurotransmitter release. Here, we find that the adaptor protein complex-1 (AP-1) mediates trafficking of CaV2.2 from the trans-Golgi network to the cell surface. Examination of splice variants of CaV2.2, containing either exon 37a (selectively expressed in nociceptors) or 37b in the proximal C terminus, reveal that canonical AP-1 binding motifs, YxxΦ and [DE]xxxL[LI], present only in exon 37a, enhance intracellular trafficking of exon 37a-containing CaV2.2 to the axons and plasma membrane of rat DRG neurons. Finally, we identify differential effects of dopamine-2 receptor (D2R) and its agonist-induced activation on trafficking of CaV2.2 isoforms. D2R slowed the endocytosis of CaV2.2 containing exon 37b, but not exon 37a, and activation by the agonist quinpirole reversed the effect of the D2R. Our work thus reveals key mechanisms involved in the trafficking of N-type calcium channels. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT CaV2.2 channels are important for neurotransmitter release, but how they are trafficked is still poorly understood. Here, we describe a novel mechanism for trafficking of CaV2.2 from the trans-Golgi network to the cell surface which is mediated by the adaptor protein AP-1. Alternative splicing of exon 37 produces CaV2.2-exon 37a, selectively expressed in nociceptors, or CaV2.2-exon 37b, which is the major splice isoform. Our study reveals that canonical AP-1 binding motifs (YxxΦ and [DE]xxxL[LI]), present in exon 37a, but not 37b, enhance intracellular trafficking of exon 37a-containing CaV2.2 to axons and plasma membrane of DRG neurons. Interaction of APs with CaV2.2 channels may also be key underlying mechanisms for differential effects of the dopamine D2 receptor on trafficking of CaV2.2 splice variants. PMID:26511252

  4. Cross-talk between Tetraspanin CD9 and Transmembrane Adaptor Protein Non-T Cell Activation Linker (NTAL) in Mast Cell Activation and Chemotaxis*

    PubMed Central

    Hálová, Ivana; Dráberová, Lubica; Bambousková, Monika; Machyna, Martin; Stegurová, Lucie; Smrž, Daniel; Dráber, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Chemotaxis, a process leading to movement of cells toward increasing concentrations of chemoattractants, is essential, among others, for recruitment of mast cells within target tissues where they play an important role in innate and adaptive immunity. Chemotaxis is driven by chemoattractants, produced by various cell types, as well as by intrinsic cellular regulators, which are poorly understood. In this study we prepared a new mAb specific for the tetraspanin CD9. Binding of the antibody to bone marrow-derived mast cells triggered activation events that included cell degranulation, Ca2+ response, dephosphorylation of ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) family proteins, and potent tyrosine phosphorylation of the non-T cell activation linker (NTAL) but only weak phosphorylation of the linker for activation of T cells (LAT). Phosphorylation of the NTAL was observed with whole antibody but not with its F(ab)2 or Fab fragments. This indicated involvement of the Fcγ receptors. As documented by electron microscopy of isolated plasma membrane sheets, CD9 colocalized with the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcϵRI) and NTAL but not with LAT. Further tests showed that both anti-CD9 antibody and its F(ab)2 fragment inhibited mast cell chemotaxis toward antigen. Experiments with bone marrow-derived mast cells deficient in NTAL and/or LAT revealed different roles of these two adaptors in antigen-driven chemotaxis. The combined data indicate that chemotaxis toward antigen is controlled in mast cells by a cross-talk among FcϵRI, tetraspanin CD9, transmembrane adaptor proteins NTAL and LAT, and cytoskeleton-regulatory proteins of the ERM family. PMID:23443658

  5. Effect of C-terminal protein tags on pentitol and L-arabinose transport by Ambrosiozyma monospora Lat1 and Lat2 transporters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Londesborough, John; Richard, Peter; Valkonen, Mari; Viljanen, Kaarina

    2014-05-01

    Functional expression in heterologous hosts is often less successful for integral membrane proteins than for soluble proteins. Here, two Ambrosiozyma monospora transporters were successfully expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as tagged proteins. Growth of A. monospora on l-arabinose instead of glucose caused transport activities of l-arabinose, l-arabitol, and ribitol, measured using l-[1-(3)H]arabinose, l-[(14)C]arabitol, and [(14)C]ribitol of demonstrated purity. A. monospora LAT1 and LAT2 genes were cloned earlier by using their ability to improve the growth of genetically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae on l-arabinose. However, the l-arabinose and pentitol transport activities of S. cerevisiae carrying LAT1 or LAT2 are only slightly greater than those of control strains. S. cerevisiae carrying the LAT1 or LAT2 gene fused in frame to the genes for green fluorescent protein (GFP) or red fluorescent protein (mCherry) or adenylate kinase (AK) exhibited large (>3-fold for LAT1; >20-fold for LAT2) increases in transport activities. Lat1-mCherry transported l-arabinose with high affinity (Km ≈ 0.03 mM) and l-arabitol and ribitol with very low affinity (Km ≥ 75 mM). The Lat2-GFP, Lat2-mCherry, and Lat2-AK fusion proteins could not transport l-arabinose but were high-affinity pentitol transporters (Kms ≈ 0.2 mM). The l-arabinose and pentitol transport activities of A. monospora could not be completely explained by any combination of the observed properties of tagged Lat1 and Lat2, suggesting either that tagging and expression in a foreign membrane alters the transport kinetics of Lat1 and/or Lat2 or that A. monospora contains at least one more l-arabinose transporter.

  6. Effect of C-Terminal Protein Tags on Pentitol and l-Arabinose Transport by Ambrosiozyma monospora Lat1 and Lat2 Transporters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Peter; Valkonen, Mari; Viljanen, Kaarina

    2014-01-01

    Functional expression in heterologous hosts is often less successful for integral membrane proteins than for soluble proteins. Here, two Ambrosiozyma monospora transporters were successfully expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as tagged proteins. Growth of A. monospora on l-arabinose instead of glucose caused transport activities of l-arabinose, l-arabitol, and ribitol, measured using l-[1-3H]arabinose, l-[14C]arabitol, and [14C]ribitol of demonstrated purity. A. monospora LAT1 and LAT2 genes were cloned earlier by using their ability to improve the growth of genetically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae on l-arabinose. However, the l-arabinose and pentitol transport activities of S. cerevisiae carrying LAT1 or LAT2 are only slightly greater than those of control strains. S. cerevisiae carrying the LAT1 or LAT2 gene fused in frame to the genes for green fluorescent protein (GFP) or red fluorescent protein (mCherry) or adenylate kinase (AK) exhibited large (>3-fold for LAT1; >20-fold for LAT2) increases in transport activities. Lat1-mCherry transported l-arabinose with high affinity (Km ≈ 0.03 mM) and l-arabitol and ribitol with very low affinity (Km ≥ 75 mM). The Lat2-GFP, Lat2-mCherry, and Lat2-AK fusion proteins could not transport l-arabinose but were high-affinity pentitol transporters (Kms ≈ 0.2 mM). The l-arabinose and pentitol transport activities of A. monospora could not be completely explained by any combination of the observed properties of tagged Lat1 and Lat2, suggesting either that tagging and expression in a foreign membrane alters the transport kinetics of Lat1 and/or Lat2 or that A. monospora contains at least one more l-arabinose transporter. PMID:24561586

  7. Cooperative immunoregulatory function of the transmembrane adaptor proteins SIT and LAX.

    PubMed

    Arndt, Börge; Kalinski, Thomas; Reinhold, Dirk; Thielitz, Anja; Roessner, Albert; Schraven, Burkhart; Simeoni, Luca

    2013-03-01

    Lymphocyte activation is crucial for the generation of immune responses. In vitro studies have demonstrated that TRAPs are critical regulators of lymphocyte activation. However, more recent in vivo studies have demonstrated that with the exception of LAT, TRAPs, such as SIT, NTAL, and LAX, only minimally affect immune cell functions. Additional studies have suggested that the mild or the apparent lack of a phenotype displayed by most TRAP KO mice may be explained by functional redundancy among this family of adaptors. In fact, it has been shown that the phenotype of NTAL/LAT or SIT/TRIM double-deficient mice is more severe than that of the single KOs. Here, we have evaluated whether SIT and the related transmembrane adaptor LAX have overlapping functions by generating SIT/LAX DKO mice. We show that DKO, in contrast to single KO mice, accumulate large numbers of activated CD4(+) T cells in the spleen. Moreover, conventional B cells from DKO mice are hyperproliferative upon CD40 stimulation. Additionally, we found that DKO mice displayed an expansion of the B1 cell pool in the peritoneal cavity, hypergammaglobulinaemia, and an enhanced immune response to the T1-independent antigen, TNP-LPS. Finally, we demonstrate that SIT/LAX double deficiency resulted in a more pronounced breakdown of peripheral tolerance and the development of autoimmunity characterized by ANAs and renal disease (glomerulonephritis and proteinuria). Collectively, our data indicate that SIT and LAX are important negative regulators of immune responses that functionally cooperate.

  8. Distinct adaptor proteins assist exit of Kre2-family proteins from the yeast ER

    PubMed Central

    Noda, Yoichi; Hara, Takehiro; Ishii, Minako; Yoda, Koji

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Svp26 protein of S. cerevisiae is an ER- and Golgi-localized integral membrane protein with 4 potential membrane-spanning domains. It functions as an adaptor protein that facilitates the ER exit of Ktr3, a mannosyltransferase required for biosynthesis of O-linked oligosaccharides, and the ER exit of Mnn2 and Mnn5, mannosyltransferases, which participate in the biosynthesis of N-linked oligosaccharides. Ktr3 belongs to the Kre2 family, which consists of 9 members of type-II membrane proteins sharing sequence similarities. In this report, we examined all Kre2 family members and found that the Golgi localizations of two others, Kre2 and Ktr1, were dependent on Svp26 by immunofluorescence microscopy and cell fractionations in sucrose density gradients. We show that Svp26 functions in facilitating the ER exit of Kre2 and Ktr1 by an in vitro COPII budding assay. Golgi localization of Ktr4 was not dependent on Svp26. Screening null mutants of the genes encoding abundant COPII membrane proteins for those showing mislocalization of Ktr4 in the ER revealed that Erv41 and Erv46 are required for the correct Golgi localization of Ktr4. We provide biochemical evidence that the Erv41-Erv46 complex functions as an adaptor protein for ER exit of Ktr4. This is the first demonstration of the molecular function of this evolutionally conserved protein complex. The domain switching experiments show that the lumenal domain of Ktr4 is responsible for recognition by the Erv41-Erv46 complex. Thus, ER exit of Kre2-family proteins is dependent on distinct adaptor proteins and our results provide new insights into the traffic of Kre2-family mannosyltransferases. PMID:24585773

  9. Phosphorylation of innate immune adaptor proteins MAVS, STING, and TRIF induces IRF3 activation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Siqi; Cai, Xin; Wu, Jiaxi; Cong, Qian; Chen, Xiang; Li, Tuo; Du, Fenghe; Ren, Junyao; Wu, You-Tong; Grishin, Nick V; Chen, Zhijian J

    2015-03-13

    During virus infection, the adaptor proteins MAVS and STING transduce signals from the cytosolic nucleic acid sensors RIG-I and cGAS, respectively, to induce type I interferons (IFNs) and other antiviral molecules. Here we show that MAVS and STING harbor two conserved serine and threonine clusters that are phosphorylated by the kinases IKK and/or TBK1 in response to stimulation. Phosphorylated MAVS and STING then bind to a positively charged surface of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and thereby recruit IRF3 for its phosphorylation and activation by TBK1. We further show that TRIF, an adaptor protein in Toll-like receptor signaling, activates IRF3 through a similar phosphorylation-dependent mechanism. These results reveal that phosphorylation of innate adaptor proteins is an essential and conserved mechanism that selectively recruits IRF3 to activate the type I IFN pathway. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. Interactions between hematopoietic progenitor kinase 1 and its adaptor proteins (Review).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Ding, Shu; Zhang, Huilin

    2017-09-13

    Hematopoietic progenitor kinase 1 (HPK1), also known as mitogen‑activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 1 is a serine/threonine protein kinase. It is involved in various cellular events, including mitogen‑activated protein kinase signaling, nuclear factor‑κB signaling, cytokine signaling, cellular proliferation and apoptosis, T cell receptor/B cell receptor signaling and T/B/dendritic cell‑mediated immune responses. Therefore, HPK1 has variety of roles in immunity, and is associated with the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, cancer, and the inflammatory response. In these cellular and immune events, HPK1 interacts with several adaptor proteins, including caspase recruitment domain family, member 11, hematopoietic cell‑specific protein 1, HPK1‑interacting protein of 55 kDa, the growth factor receptor‑bound protein 2 family, linker for activated T‑cells, the SH2 domain‑containing leukocyte protein of 76 kDa family, the v‑crk avian sarcoma virus CT10 oncogene homolog family, B‑cell adaptor molecule of 32 kDa and non‑catalytic region of tyrosine kinase adaptor protein. These adaptor proteins can couple HPK1 with various effector molecules, leading to the transmission of upstream signals to downstream targets. They are crucial in regulating the relocation, phosphorylation, activation and functions of HPK1. HPK1 can also phosphorylate certain proteins, consequently modulating their functions. This review aims to describe the adaptor proteins, which interact with HPK1, particularly focusing on their modes of interaction with HPK1, and the effects that these interactions cause.

  11. The Exosome Is Recruited to RNA Substrates through Specific Adaptor Proteins.

    PubMed

    Thoms, Matthias; Thomson, Emma; Baßler, Jochen; Gnädig, Marén; Griesel, Sabine; Hurt, Ed

    2015-08-27

    The exosome regulates the processing, degradation, and surveillance of a plethora of RNA species. However, little is known about how the exosome recognizes and is recruited to its diverse substrates. We report the identification of adaptor proteins that recruit the exosome-associated helicase, Mtr4, to unique RNA substrates. Nop53, the yeast homolog of the tumor suppressor PICT1, targets Mtr4 to pre-ribosomal particles for exosome-mediated processing, while a second adaptor Utp18 recruits Mtr4 to cleaved rRNA fragments destined for degradation by the exosome. Both Nop53 and Utp18 contain the same consensus motif, through which they dock to the "arch" domain of Mtr4 and target it to specific substrates. These findings show that the exosome employs a general mechanism of recruitment to defined substrates and that this process is regulated through adaptor proteins.

  12. Identification of Cargo for Adaptor Protein (AP) Complexes 3 and 4 by Sucrose Gradient Profiling.

    PubMed

    Pertl-Obermeyer, Heidi; Wu, Xu Na; Schrodt, Jens; Müdsam, Christina; Obermeyer, Gerhard; Schulze, Waltraud X

    2016-09-01

    Intracellular vesicle trafficking is a fundamental process in eukaryotic cells. It enables cellular polarity and exchange of proteins between subcellular compartments such as the plasma membrane or the vacuole. Adaptor protein complexes participate in the vesicle formation by specific selection of the transported cargo. We investigated the role of the adaptor protein complex 3 (AP-3) and adaptor protein complex 4 (AP-4) in this selection process by screening for AP-3 and AP-4 dependent cargo proteins. Specific cargo proteins are expected to be mis-targeted in knock-out mutants of adaptor protein complex components. Thus, we screened for altered distribution profiles across a density gradient of membrane proteins in wild type versus ap-3β and ap-4β knock-out mutants. In ap-3β mutants, especially proteins with transport functions, such as aquaporins and plasma membrane ATPase, as well as vesicle trafficking proteins showed differential protein distribution profiles across the density gradient. In the ap-4β mutant aquaporins but also proteins from lipid metabolism were differentially distributed. These proteins also showed differential phosphorylation patterns in ap-3β and ap-4β compared with wild type. Other proteins, such as receptor kinases were depleted from the AP-3 mutant membrane system, possibly because of degradation after mis-targeting. In AP-4 mutants, membrane fractions were depleted for cytochrome P450 proteins, cell wall proteins and receptor kinases. Analysis of water transport capacity in wild type and mutant mesophyll cells confirmed aquaporins as cargo proteins of AP-3 and AP-4. The combination of organelle density gradients with proteome analysis turned out as a suitable experimental strategy for large-scale analyses of protein trafficking.

  13. SR proteins are NXF1 adaptors that link alternative RNA processing to mRNA export.

    PubMed

    Müller-McNicoll, Michaela; Botti, Valentina; de Jesus Domingues, Antonio M; Brandl, Holger; Schwich, Oliver D; Steiner, Michaela C; Curk, Tomaz; Poser, Ina; Zarnack, Kathi; Neugebauer, Karla M

    2016-03-01

    Nuclear export factor 1 (NXF1) exports mRNA to the cytoplasm after recruitment to mRNA by specific adaptor proteins. How and why cells use numerous different export adaptors is poorly understood. Here we critically evaluate members of the SR protein family (SRSF1-7) for their potential to act as NXF1 adaptors that couple pre-mRNA processing to mRNA export. Consistent with this proposal, >1000 endogenous mRNAs required individual SR proteins for nuclear export in vivo. To address the mechanism, transcriptome-wide RNA-binding profiles of NXF1 and SRSF1-7 were determined in parallel by individual-nucleotide-resolution UV cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (iCLIP). Quantitative comparisons of RNA-binding sites showed that NXF1 and SR proteins bind mRNA targets at adjacent sites, indicative of cobinding. SRSF3 emerged as the most potent NXF1 adaptor, conferring sequence specificity to RNA binding by NXF1 in last exons. Interestingly, SRSF3 and SRSF7 were shown to bind different sites in last exons and regulate 3' untranslated region length in an opposing manner. Both SRSF3 and SRSF7 promoted NXF1 recruitment to mRNA. Thus, SRSF3 and SRSF7 couple alternative splicing and polyadenylation to NXF1-mediated mRNA export, thereby controlling the cytoplasmic abundance of transcripts with alternative 3' ends.

  14. SR proteins are NXF1 adaptors that link alternative RNA processing to mRNA export

    PubMed Central

    Müller-McNicoll, Michaela; Botti, Valentina; de Jesus Domingues, Antonio M.; Brandl, Holger; Schwich, Oliver D.; Steiner, Michaela C.; Curk, Tomaz; Poser, Ina; Zarnack, Kathi; Neugebauer, Karla M.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear export factor 1 (NXF1) exports mRNA to the cytoplasm after recruitment to mRNA by specific adaptor proteins. How and why cells use numerous different export adaptors is poorly understood. Here we critically evaluate members of the SR protein family (SRSF1–7) for their potential to act as NXF1 adaptors that couple pre-mRNA processing to mRNA export. Consistent with this proposal, >1000 endogenous mRNAs required individual SR proteins for nuclear export in vivo. To address the mechanism, transcriptome-wide RNA-binding profiles of NXF1 and SRSF1–7 were determined in parallel by individual-nucleotide-resolution UV cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (iCLIP). Quantitative comparisons of RNA-binding sites showed that NXF1 and SR proteins bind mRNA targets at adjacent sites, indicative of cobinding. SRSF3 emerged as the most potent NXF1 adaptor, conferring sequence specificity to RNA binding by NXF1 in last exons. Interestingly, SRSF3 and SRSF7 were shown to bind different sites in last exons and regulate 3′ untranslated region length in an opposing manner. Both SRSF3 and SRSF7 promoted NXF1 recruitment to mRNA. Thus, SRSF3 and SRSF7 couple alternative splicing and polyadenylation to NXF1-mediated mRNA export, thereby controlling the cytoplasmic abundance of transcripts with alternative 3′ ends. PMID:26944680

  15. Functions of adaptor protein (AP)-3 and AP-1 in tyrosinase sorting from endosomes to melanosomes.

    PubMed

    Theos, Alexander C; Tenza, Danièle; Martina, José A; Hurbain, Ilse; Peden, Andrew A; Sviderskaya, Elena V; Stewart, Abigail; Robinson, Margaret S; Bennett, Dorothy C; Cutler, Daniel F; Bonifacino, Juan S; Marks, Michael S; Raposo, Graça

    2005-11-01

    Specialized cells exploit adaptor protein complexes for unique post-Golgi sorting events, providing a unique model system to specify adaptor function. Here, we show that AP-3 and AP-1 function independently in sorting of the melanocyte-specific protein tyrosinase from endosomes to the melanosome, a specialized lysosome-related organelle distinguishable from lysosomes. AP-3 and AP-1 localize in melanocytes primarily to clathrin-coated buds on tubular early endosomes near melanosomes. Both adaptors recognize the tyrosinase dileucine-based melanosome sorting signal, and tyrosinase largely colocalizes with each adaptor on endosomes. In AP-3-deficient melanocytes, tyrosinase accumulates inappropriately in vacuolar and multivesicular endosomes. Nevertheless, a substantial fraction still accumulates on melanosomes, concomitant with increased association with endosomal AP-1. Our data indicate that AP-3 and AP-1 function in partially redundant pathways to transfer tyrosinase from distinct endosomal subdomains to melanosomes and that the AP-3 pathway ensures that tyrosinase averts entrapment on internal membranes of forming multivesicular bodies.

  16. Exploring structure and interactions of the bacterial adaptor protein YjbH by crosslinking mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Al-Eryani, Yusra; Ib Rasmussen, Morten; Kjellström, Sven; Højrup, Peter; Emanuelsson, Cecilia; von Wachenfeldt, Claes

    2016-09-01

    Adaptor proteins assist proteases in degrading specific proteins under appropriate conditions. The adaptor protein YjbH promotes the degradation of an important global transcriptional regulator Spx, which controls the expression of hundreds of genes and operons in response to thiol-specific oxidative stress in Bacillus subtilis. Under normal growth conditions, the transcription factor is bound to the adaptor protein and therefore degraded by the AAA+ protease ClpXP. If this binding is alleviated during stress, the transcription factor accumulates and turns on genes encoding stress-alleviating proteins. The adaptor protein YjbH is thus a key player involved in these interactions but its structure is unknown. To gain insight into its structure and interactions we have used chemical crosslinking mass spectrometry. Distance constraints obtained from the crosslinked monomer were used to select and validate a structure model of YjbH and then to probe its interactions with other proteins. The core structure of YjbH is reminiscent of DsbA family proteins. One lysine residue in YjbH (K177), located in one of the α-helices outside the thioredoxin fold, crosslinked to both Spx K99 and Spx K117, thereby suggesting one side of the YjbH for the interaction with Spx. Another lysine residue that crosslinked to Spx was YjbH K5, located in the long and presumably very flexible N-terminal arm of YjbH. Our crosslinking data lend support to a model proposed based on site-directed mutagenesis where the YjbH interaction with Spx can stabilize and present the C-terminal region of Spx for protease recognition and proteolysis. Proteins 2016; 84:1234-1245. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The role of Tks adaptor proteins in invadopodia formation, growth and metastasis of melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Iizuka, Shinji; Abdullah, Christopher; Buschman, Matthew D.; Diaz, Begoña; Courtneidge, Sara A.

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic cancer cells are characterized by their ability to degrade and invade through extracellular matrix. We previously showed that the Tks adaptor proteins, Tks4 and Tks5, are required for invadopodia formation and/or function in Src-transformed fibroblasts and a number of human cancer cell types. In this study, we investigated the role of Tks adaptor proteins in melanoma cell invasion and metastasis. Knockdown of either Tks4 or Tks5 in both mouse and human melanoma cell lines resulted in a decreased ability to form invadopodia and degrade extracellular matrix. In addition, Tks-knockdown melanoma cells had decreased proliferation in a 3-dimensional type l collagen matrix, but not in 2-dimensional culture conditions. We also investigated the role of Tks proteins in melanoma progression in vivo using xenografts and experimental metastasis assays. Consistent with our in vitro results, reduction of Tks proteins markedly reduced subcutaneous melanoma growth as well as metastatic growth in the lung. We explored the clinical relevance of Tks protein expression in human melanoma specimens using a tissue microarray. Compared to non-malignant nevi, both Tks proteins were highly expressed in melanoma tissues. Moreover, metastatic melanoma cases showed higher expression of Tks5 than primary melanoma cases. Taken together, these findings suggest the importance of Tks adaptor proteins in melanoma growth and metastasis in vivo, likely via functional invadopodia formation. PMID:27802184

  18. A perspective on non-catalytic Src homology (SH) adaptor signalling proteins.

    PubMed

    Reebye, Vikash; Frilling, Andrea; Hajitou, Amin; Nicholls, Joanna P; Habib, Nagy A; Mintz, Paul J

    2012-02-01

    Intracellular adaptor signalling proteins are members of a large family of mediators crucial for signal transduction pathways. Structurally, these molecules contain one Src Homology 2 (SH2) domain and one or more Src Homology 3 (SH3) domain(s); with either a catalytic subunit, or with other non-catalytic modular subunits. Cells depend on these regulatory signalling molecules to transmit information to the nucleus from both external and internal cues including growth factors, cytokines and steroids. Although there is a vast library of adaptor signalling proteins expressed ubiquitously in cells, the vital role these SH containing proteins play in regulating cellular signalling lacks the recognition they deserve. Their target selection method via the SH domains is simple yet highly effective. The SH3 domain(s) interact with proteins that contain proline-rich motifs, whereas the SH2 domain only binds to proteins containing phosphotyrosine residues. This unique characteristic physically enables proteins from a diverse range of networks to assemble for amplification of a signalling event. The biological consequence generated from these adaptor signalling proteins in a constantly changing microenvironment have profound regulatory effect on cell fate decision particularly when this is involved in the progression of a diseased state. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Nuclear Translocation of Crk Adaptor Proteins by the Influenza A Virus NS1 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Ylösmäki, Leena; Fagerlund, Riku; Kuisma, Inka; Julkunen, Ilkka; Saksela, Kalle

    2016-01-01

    The non-structural protein-1 (NS1) of many influenza A strains, especially those of avian origin, contains an SH3 ligand motif, which binds tightly to the cellular adaptor proteins Crk (Chicken tumor virus number 10 (CT10) regulator of kinase) and Crk-like adapter protein (CrkL). This interaction has been shown to potentiate NS1-induced activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), but additional effects on the host cell physiology may exist. Here we show that NS1 can induce an efficient translocation of Crk proteins from the cytoplasm into the nucleus, which results in an altered pattern of nuclear protein tyrosine phosphorylation. This was not observed using NS1 proteins deficient in SH3 binding or engineered to be exclusively cytoplasmic, indicating a physical role for NS1 as a carrier in the nuclear translocation of Crk. These data further emphasize the role of Crk proteins as host cell interaction partners of NS1, and highlight the potential for host cell manipulation gained by a viral protein simply via acquiring a short SH3 binding motif. PMID:27092521

  20. Science Signaling Podcast for 12 July 2016: Adaptor proteins limit signaling.

    PubMed

    Wiley, H Steven; VanHook, Annalisa M

    2016-07-12

    This Podcast features an interview with Steven Wiley, senior author of a Research Article that appears in the 12 July 2016 issue of Science Signaling, about how the abundance of adaptor proteins and feedback regulators affect the flow of information downstream of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Information flows through a signaling pathway by sequential interactions between core components of the pathway, many of which have enzymatic activity. Adaptor proteins do not directly participate in relaying the signal and do not have enzymatic activity, but are important for signaling because they facilitate interactions between the core components. Using quantitative methods, Shi et al demonstrated that core components of the EGFR pathway were highly abundant in both normal cells and cancer cells. However, adaptor proteins were present in much lower abundance in both cell types, indicating that it is the abundance of these proteins that limit signaling downstream of EGFR. The authors also found that differences in EGFR signaling between different cell types likely resulted from the variable abundance of feedback regulators.Listen to Podcast. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. The Lnk adaptor protein: a key regulator of normal and pathological hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Velazquez, Laura

    2012-12-01

    The development and function of blood cells are regulated by specific growth factors/cytokines and their receptors' signaling pathways. In this way, these factors influence cell survival, proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic cells. Central to this positive and/or negative control are the adaptor proteins. Since their identification 10 years ago, members of the Lnk adaptor protein family have proved to be important activators and/or inhibitors in the hematopoietic, immune and vascular system. In particular, the generation of animal and cellular models for the Lnk and APS proteins has helped establish the physiological role of these molecules through the identification of their specific signaling pathways and the characterization of their binding partners. Moreover, the recent identification of mutations in the LNK gene in myeloproliferative disorders, as well as the correlation of a single nucleotide polymorphism on LNK with hematological, immune and vascular diseases have suggested its involvement in the pathophysiology of these malignancies. The latter findings have thus raised the possibility of addressing Lnk signaling for the treatment of certain human diseases. This review therefore describes the pathophysiological role of this adaptor protein in hematological malignancies and the potential benefits of Lnk therapeutic targeting.

  2. Binding of AP-2 adaptor complex to brain membrane is regulated by phosphorylation of proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Alberdi, A. . E-mail: aalberdi@fcm.uncu.edu.ar; Sartor, T.; Sosa, M.A.

    2005-05-13

    Phosphorylation of proteins appears as a key process in early steps of clathrin coated vesicle formation. Here, we report that treatment of post-nuclear fraction with alkaline phosphatase induced redistribution of {alpha} subunits of AP-2 adaptor complex to cytosol and this effect was higher in the {alpha}2 subunit. A high serine phosphorylation status of {alpha} subunits correlated with the higher affinity of AP-2 to membranes. Using a simple binding assay, where membranes were incubated with either purified adaptors or cytosols, we observed an inhibitory effect of tyrphostin, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, on the binding of AP-2 to membranes, but also an unexpected decrease induced by the phosphatase inhibitor cyclosporine. We also show an inhibitory effect of ATP mediated by cytosolic proteins, although it could not be related to the phosphorylation of AP-2, suggesting an action upstream a cascade of phosphorylations that participate in the regulation of the assembly of AP-2 to membranes.

  3. Structural Basis for Inhibition of the Insulin Receptor by the Adaptor Protein Grb14

    SciTech Connect

    Depetris,R.; Hu, J.; Gimpelevich, I.; Holt, L.; Daly, R.; Hubbard, S.

    2005-01-01

    Grb14, a member of the Grb7 adaptor protein family, possesses a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, a C-terminal Src homology-2 (SH2) domain, and an intervening stretch of {approx}45 residues known as the BPS region, which is unique to this adaptor family. Previous studies have demonstrated that Grb14 is a tissue-specific negative regulator of insulin receptor signaling and that inhibition is mediated by the BPS region. We have determined the crystal structure of the Grb14 BPS region in complex with the tyrosine kinase domain of the insulin receptor. The structure reveals that the N-terminal portion of the BPS region binds as a pseudosubstrate inhibitor in the substrate peptide binding groove of the kinase. Together with the crystal structure of the SH2 domain, we present a model for the interaction of Grb14 with the insulin receptor, which indicates how Grb14 functions as a selective protein inhibitor of insulin signaling.

  4. 14-3-3 adaptor protein-protein interactions as therapeutic targets for CNS diseases.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Andrew; Ottmann, Christian; Fournier, Alyson E

    2017-09-14

    14-3-3s are a family of ubiquitously expressed adaptor proteins that regulate hundreds of functionally diverse 'client proteins.' In humans, there are seven isoforms with conserved structure and function. 14-3-3s typically bind to client proteins at phosphorylated serine/threonine motifs via a linear binding groove. Binding can have a variety of effects on the stability, activity and/or localization of the client protein. 14-3-3s are generating significant interest as potential drug targets for their involvement in cellular homeostasis and disease. They are especially abundant in the central nervous system (CNS) and are implicated in numerous CNS diseases, often through specific interactions with disease-relevant client proteins. Several tool compounds that can modulate 14-3-3 interactions with client proteins to elicit therapeutic effects have recently been described. Here we offer a perspective on the functions of 14-3-3s in neurons and the potential development of drugs to therapeutically target 14-3-3 PPIs for CNS diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Crk and CrkL adaptor proteins: networks for physiological and pathological signaling

    PubMed Central

    Birge, Raymond B; Kalodimos, Charalampos; Inagaki, Fuyuhiko; Tanaka, Shinya

    2009-01-01

    The Crk adaptor proteins (Crk and CrkL) constitute an integral part of a network of essential signal transduction pathways in humans and other organisms that act as major convergence points in tyrosine kinase signaling. Crk proteins integrate signals from a wide variety of sources, including growth factors, extracellular matrix molecules, bacterial pathogens, and apoptotic cells. Mounting evidence indicates that dysregulation of Crk proteins is associated with human diseases, including cancer and susceptibility to pathogen infections. Recent structural work has identified new and unusual insights into the regulation of Crk proteins, providing a rationale for how Crk can sense diverse signals and produce a myriad of biological responses. PMID:19426560

  6. Studying multisite binary and ternary protein interactions by global analysis of isothermal titration calorimetry data in SEDPHAT: application to adaptor protein complexes in cell signaling.

    PubMed

    Houtman, Jon C D; Brown, Patrick H; Bowden, Brent; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Appella, Ettore; Samelson, Lawrence E; Schuck, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Multisite interactions and the formation of ternary or higher-order protein complexes are ubiquitous features of protein interactions. Cooperativity between different ligands is a hallmark for information transfer, and is frequently critical for the biological function. We describe a new computational platform for the global analysis of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) data for the study of binary and ternary multisite interactions, implemented as part of the public domain multimethod analysis software SEDPHAT. The global analysis of titrations performed in different orientations was explored, and the potential for unraveling cooperativity parameters in multisite interactions was assessed in theory and experiment. To demonstrate the practical potential and limitations of global analyses of ITC titrations for the study of cooperative multiprotein interactions, we have examined the interactions of three proteins that are critical for signal transduction after T-cell activation, LAT, Grb2, and Sos1. We have shown previously that multivalent interactions between these three molecules promote the assembly of large multiprotein complexes important for T-cell receptor activation. By global analysis of the heats of binding observed in sets of ITC injections in different orientations, which allowed us to follow the formation of binary and ternary complexes, we observed negative and positive cooperativity that may be important to control the pathway of assembly and disassembly of adaptor protein particles.

  7. Association of adaptor protein TRIP8b with clathrin.

    PubMed

    Popova, Nadezhda V; Deyev, Igor E; Petrenko, Alexander G

    2011-09-01

    TPR-containing Rab8b-interacting protein (TRIP8b) is a brain-specific hydrophilic cytosolic protein that contains tetratricopeptide repeats (TPRs). Previous studies revealed interaction of this protein via its TPR-containing domain with Rab8b small GTPase, hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-regulated channel (HCN) channels and G protein-coupled receptor calcium-independent receptor of α-latrotoxin. We identified clathrin as a major component of eluates from the TRIP8b affinity matrix. In the present study, by in vitro-binding analysis we demonstrate a direct interaction between clathrin and TRIP8b. The clathrin-binding site was localized in the N-terminal (non-TPR containing) part of the TRIP8b molecule that contains two short motifs involved in the clathrin binding. In transfected HEK293 cells, co-expression of HCN1 with TRIP8b resulted in translocation of the channels from the cell surface to large intracellular puncta where both TRIP8b and clathrin were concentrated. These puncta co-localized partially with an early endosome marker and strongly overlapped with lysosome staining reagent. When HCN1 was co-expressed with a clathrin-non-binding mutant of TRIP8b, clathrin did not translocate to HCN1 and TRIP8b-containing puncta, suggesting that TRIP8b interacts with HCN and clathrin independently. We found TRIP8b present in the fraction of clathrin-coated vesicles purified from brain tissues. Stripping the clathrin coat proteins from the vesicles with Tris alkaline buffer resulted in concomitant release of TRIP8b. Our data suggest complex regulatory functions of TRIP8b in neuronal endocytosis through independent interaction with membrane proteins and components of the clathrin coat. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2011 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  8. Tetraspan cargo adaptors usher GPI-anchored proteins into multivesicular bodies

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Chris; Stamnes, Mark A; Katzmann, David J; Piper, Robert C

    2015-01-01

    Ubiquitinated membrane proteins are sorted into intralumenal endosomal vesicles on their way for degradation in lysosomes. Here we summarize the discovery of the Cos proteins, which work to organize and segregate ubiquitinated cargo prior to its incorporation into intralumenal vesicles of the multivesicular body (MVB). Importantly, cargoes such as GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) that cannot undergo ubiquitination, rely entirely on Cos proteins for sorting into intralumenal vesicles using the same pathway that depends on ESCRTs and ubiquitin ligases that typical polytopic membrane proteins do. Here we show Cos proteins provide functions as not only adaptor proteins for ubiquitin ligases, but also as cargo carriers that can physically usher a variety of other proteins into the MVB pathway. We then discuss the significance of this new sorting model and the broader implications for this cargo adaptor mechanism, whereby yeast Cos proteins, and their likely animal analogs, provide a ubiquitin sorting signal in trans to enable sorting of a membrane protein network into intralumenal vesicles. PMID:26505929

  9. Dietary protein, energy and arginine affect LAT1 expression in forebrain white matter differently.

    PubMed

    Wu, X; Yin, Y L; Li, T J; Wang, L; Ruan, Z; Liu, Z Q; Hou, Y Q

    2010-09-01

    L-type amino acid transporter-1 (LAT1) transports large, branched-chain, aromatic and neutral amino acids. About 64 Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire pigs were used to study the effects of dietary crude protein (CP), energy and arginine on LAT1 expression in forebrain. The results showed that LAT1 expression in forebrain was sensitive to different levels of CP, energy and arginine. On the basis of Western blot analysis, a lower level of LAT1 presented in the brain tissues of pigs fed the low dietary CP diet (P < 0.05), a higher level were found in pigs fed the higher CP diet, with moderate to intense staining seen in pigs fed the diet plus 1% arginine. In contrast, pigs fed the control-energy diet had weak LAT1 expression, and those fed the diet supplemented with 1% arginine showed lowest LAT1 expression (P < 0.05). These results showed that LAT1 was highly expressed in the forebrain, and expression of LAT1 was affected by dietary protein, energy and arginine differently.

  10. Association of adaptor protein TRIP8b with clathrin

    PubMed Central

    Popova, Nadezhda V.; Deyev, Igor E.; Petrenko, Alexander G.

    2011-01-01

    TRIP8b is a brain-specific hydrophilic cytosolic protein that contains tetratricopeptide repeats (TPRs). Previous studies revealed interaction of this protein via its TPR-containing domain with Rab8b small GTPase, HCN channels and G protein-coupled receptor CIRL. We identified clathrin as a major component of eluates from the TRIP8b affinity matrix. In the present study, by in vitro binding analysis we demonstrate a direct interaction between clathrin and TRIP8b. The clathrin-binding site was localized in the N-terminal (non-TPR containing) part of the TRIP8b molecule that contains two short motifs involved in the clathrin binding. In transfected HEK293 cells, co-expression of HCN1 with TRIP8b resulted in translocation of the channels from the cell surface to large intracellular puncta where both TRIP8b and clathrin were concentrated. These puncta co-localized partially with an early endosome marker and strongly overlapped with lysosome staining reagent. When HCN1 was co-expressed with a clathrin-non-binding mutant of TRIP8b, clathrin did not translocate to HCN1 and TRIP8b-containing puncta, suggesting that TRIP8b interacts with HCN and clathrin independently. We found TRIP8b present in the fraction of clathrin-coated vesicles purified from brain tissues. Stripping the clathrin coat proteins from the vesicles with Tris alkaline buffer resulted in concomitant release of TRIP8b. Our data suggest complex regulatory functions of TRIP8b in neuronal endocytosis through independent interaction with membrane proteins and components of the clathrin coat. PMID:21749376

  11. Differential Regulation of Clathrin and Its Adaptor Proteins during Membrane Recruitment for Endocytosis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Hu, Tianwei; Yan, Xu; Meng, Tingting; Wang, Yutong; Wang, Qingmei; Zhang, Xiaoyue; Gu, Ying; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Clara; Gadeyne, Astrid; Lin, Jinxing

    2016-01-01

    In plants, clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is dependent on the function of clathrin and its accessory heterooligomeric adaptor protein complexes, ADAPTOR PROTEIN2 (AP-2) and the TPLATE complex (TPC), and is negatively regulated by the hormones auxin and salicylic acid (SA). The details for how clathrin and its adaptor complexes are recruited to the plasma membrane (PM) to regulate CME, however, are poorly understood. We found that SA and the pharmacological CME inhibitor tyrphostin A23 reduce the membrane association of clathrin and AP-2, but not that of the TPC, whereas auxin solely affected clathrin membrane association, in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Genetic and pharmacological experiments revealed that loss of AP2μ or AP2σ partially affected the membrane association of other AP-2 subunits and that the AP-2 subunit AP2σ, but not AP2μ, was required for SA- and tyrphostin A23-dependent inhibition of CME. Furthermore, we show that although AP-2 and the TPC are both required for the PM recruitment of clathrin in wild-type cells, the TPC is necessary for clathrin PM association in AP-2-deficient cells. These results indicate that developmental signals may differentially modulate the membrane recruitment of clathrin and its core accessory complexes to regulate the process of CME in plant cells. PMID:26945051

  12. The polarity protein Par3 regulates APP trafficking and processing through the endocytic adaptor protein Numb.

    PubMed

    Sun, Miao; Asghar, Suwaiba Z; Zhang, Huaye

    2016-09-01

    The processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) into β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) is a key step in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and trafficking dysregulations of APP and its secretases contribute significantly to altered APP processing. Here we show that the cell polarity protein Par3 plays an important role in APP processing and trafficking. We found that the expression of full length Par3 is significantly decreased in AD patients. Overexpression of Par3 promotes non-amyloidogenic APP processing, while depletion of Par3 induces intracellular accumulation of Aβ. We further show that Par3 functions by regulating APP trafficking. Loss of Par3 decreases surface expression of APP by targeting APP to the late endosome/lysosome pathway. Finally, we show that the effects of Par3 are mediated through the endocytic adaptor protein Numb, and Par3 functions by interfering with the interaction between Numb and APP. Together, our studies show a novel role for Par3 in regulating APP processing and trafficking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The polarity protein Par3 regulates APP trafficking and processing through the endocytic adaptor protein Numb

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Miao; Asghar, Suwaiba Z.; Zhang, Huaye

    2016-01-01

    The processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) into β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) is a key step in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and trafficking dysregulations of APP and its secretases contribute significantly to altered APP processing. Here we show that the cell polarity protein Par3 plays an important role in APP processing and trafficking. We found that the expression of full length Par3 is significantly decreased in AD patients. Overexpression of Par3 promotes non-amyloidogenic APP processing while depletion of Par3 induces intracellular accumulation of Aβ. We further show that Par3 functions by regulating APP trafficking. Loss of Par3 decreases surface expression of APP by targeting APP to the late endosome/lysosome pathway. Finally, we show that the effects of Par3 are mediated through the endocytic adaptor protein Numb, and Par3 functions by interfering with the interaction between Numb and APP. Together, our studies show a novel role for Par3 in regulating APP processing and trafficking. PMID:27072891

  14. Adaptor protein Nck1 interacts with p120 Ras GTPase-activating protein and regulates its activity.

    PubMed

    Ger, Marija; Zitkus, Zigmantas; Valius, Mindaugas

    2011-10-01

    Adaptor protein Nck1 binds a number of intracellular proteins and influences various signaling pathways. Here we show that Nck1 directly binds and activates the GTPase-activating protein of Ras (RasGAP), which is responsible for the down-regulation of Ras. The first and the third SH3 domains of Nck1 and the NH(2)-terminal proline-rich sequence of RasGAP contribute most to the complex formation causing direct molecular interaction between the two proteins. Cell adhesion to the substrate is obligatory for the Nck1 and RasGAP association, as cell detachment makes RasGAP incapable of associating with Nck1. This leads to the complex dissipation, decrease of RasGAP activity and the increase of H-Ras-GTP level in the detached cells. Our findings reveal unexpected feature of adaptor protein Nck1 as the regulator of RasGAP activity.

  15. A role for the adaptor proteins TRAM and TRIF in toll-like receptor 2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, Nadra J; Vladimer, Gregory I; Stenvik, Jørgen; Orning, M Pontus A; Zeid-Kilani, Maria V; Bugge, Marit; Bergstroem, Bjarte; Conlon, Joseph; Husebye, Harald; Hise, Amy G; Fitzgerald, Katherine A; Espevik, Terje; Lien, Egil

    2015-02-06

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are involved in sensing invading microbes by host innate immunity. TLR2 recognizes bacterial lipoproteins/lipopeptides, and lipopolysaccharide activates TLR4. TLR2 and TLR4 signal via the Toll/interleukin-1 receptor adaptors MyD88 and MAL, leading to NF-κB activation. TLR4 also utilizes the adaptors TRAM and TRIF, resulting in activation of interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 3. Here, we report a new role for TRAM and TRIF in TLR2 regulation and signaling. Interestingly, we observed that TLR2-mediated induction of the chemokine Ccl5 was impaired in TRAM or TRIF deficient macrophages. Inhibition of endocytosis reduced Ccl5 release, and the data also suggested that TRAM and TLR2 co-localize in early endosomes, supporting the hypothesis that signaling may occur from an intracellular compartment. Ccl5 release following lipoprotein challenge additionally involved the kinase Tbk-1 and Irf3, as well as MyD88 and Irf1. Induction of Interferon-β and Ccl4 by lipoproteins was also partially impaired in cells lacking TRIF cells. Our results show a novel function of TRAM and TRIF in TLR2-mediated signal transduction, and the findings broaden our understanding of how Toll/interleukin-1 receptor adaptor proteins may participate in signaling downstream from TLR2.

  16. Structural basis for concerted recruitment and activation of IRF-3 by innate immune adaptor proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Baoyu; Shu, Chang; Gao, Xinsheng; Sankaran, Banumathi; Du, Fenglei; Shelton, Catherine L.; Herr, Andrew B.; Ji, Jun-Yuan; Li, Pingwei

    2016-06-02

    Type I IFNs are key cytokines mediating innate antiviral immunity. cGMP-AMP synthase, ritinoic acid-inducible protein 1 (RIG-I)–like receptors, and Toll-like receptors recognize microbial double-stranded (ds)DNA, dsRNA, and LPS to induce the expression of type I IFNs. These signaling pathways converge at the recruitment and activation of the transcription factor IRF-3 (IFN regulatory factor 3). The adaptor proteins STING (stimulator of IFN genes), MAVS (mitochondrial antiviral signaling), and TRIF (TIR domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-β) mediate the recruitment of IRF-3 through a conserved pLxIS motif. Here in this paper, we show that the pLxIS motif of phosphorylated STING, MAVS, and TRIF binds to IRF-3 in a similar manner, whereas residues upstream of the motif confer specificity. The structure of the IRF-3 phosphomimetic mutant S386/396E bound to the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB)-binding protein reveals that the pLxIS motif also mediates IRF-3 dimerization and activation. Moreover, rotavirus NSP1 (nonstructural protein 1) employs a pLxIS motif to target IRF-3 for degradation, but phosphorylation of NSP1 is not required for its activity. These results suggest a concerted mechanism for the recruitment and activation of IRF-3 that can be subverted by viral proteins to evade innate immune responses.

  17. Structural basis for concerted recruitment and activation of IRF-3 by innate immune adaptor proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Baoyu; Shu, Chang; Gao, Xinsheng; Sankaran, Banumathi; Du, Fenglei; Shelton, Catherine L.; Herr, Andrew B.; Ji, Jun-Yuan; Li, Pingwei

    2016-01-01

    Type I IFNs are key cytokines mediating innate antiviral immunity. cGMP-AMP synthase, ritinoic acid-inducible protein 1 (RIG-I)–like receptors, and Toll-like receptors recognize microbial double-stranded (ds)DNA, dsRNA, and LPS to induce the expression of type I IFNs. These signaling pathways converge at the recruitment and activation of the transcription factor IRF-3 (IFN regulatory factor 3). The adaptor proteins STING (stimulator of IFN genes), MAVS (mitochondrial antiviral signaling), and TRIF (TIR domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-β) mediate the recruitment of IRF-3 through a conserved pLxIS motif. Here we show that the pLxIS motif of phosphorylated STING, MAVS, and TRIF binds to IRF-3 in a similar manner, whereas residues upstream of the motif confer specificity. The structure of the IRF-3 phosphomimetic mutant S386/396E bound to the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB)-binding protein reveals that the pLxIS motif also mediates IRF-3 dimerization and activation. Moreover, rotavirus NSP1 (nonstructural protein 1) employs a pLxIS motif to target IRF-3 for degradation, but phosphorylation of NSP1 is not required for its activity. These results suggest a concerted mechanism for the recruitment and activation of IRF-3 that can be subverted by viral proteins to evade innate immune responses. PMID:27302953

  18. Structural basis for concerted recruitment and activation of IRF-3 by innate immune adaptor proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Baoyu; Shu, Chang; Gao, Xinsheng; Sankaran, Banumathi; Du, Fenglei; Shelton, Catherine L; Herr, Andrew B; Ji, Jun-Yuan; Li, Pingwei

    2016-06-14

    Type I IFNs are key cytokines mediating innate antiviral immunity. cGMP-AMP synthase, ritinoic acid-inducible protein 1 (RIG-I)-like receptors, and Toll-like receptors recognize microbial double-stranded (ds)DNA, dsRNA, and LPS to induce the expression of type I IFNs. These signaling pathways converge at the recruitment and activation of the transcription factor IRF-3 (IFN regulatory factor 3). The adaptor proteins STING (stimulator of IFN genes), MAVS (mitochondrial antiviral signaling), and TRIF (TIR domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-β) mediate the recruitment of IRF-3 through a conserved pLxIS motif. Here we show that the pLxIS motif of phosphorylated STING, MAVS, and TRIF binds to IRF-3 in a similar manner, whereas residues upstream of the motif confer specificity. The structure of the IRF-3 phosphomimetic mutant S386/396E bound to the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB)-binding protein reveals that the pLxIS motif also mediates IRF-3 dimerization and activation. Moreover, rotavirus NSP1 (nonstructural protein 1) employs a pLxIS motif to target IRF-3 for degradation, but phosphorylation of NSP1 is not required for its activity. These results suggest a concerted mechanism for the recruitment and activation of IRF-3 that can be subverted by viral proteins to evade innate immune responses.

  19. Structural basis for concerted recruitment and activation of IRF-3 by innate immune adaptor proteins

    DOE PAGES

    Zhao, Baoyu; Shu, Chang; Gao, Xinsheng; ...

    2016-06-02

    Type I IFNs are key cytokines mediating innate antiviral immunity. cGMP-AMP synthase, ritinoic acid-inducible protein 1 (RIG-I)–like receptors, and Toll-like receptors recognize microbial double-stranded (ds)DNA, dsRNA, and LPS to induce the expression of type I IFNs. These signaling pathways converge at the recruitment and activation of the transcription factor IRF-3 (IFN regulatory factor 3). The adaptor proteins STING (stimulator of IFN genes), MAVS (mitochondrial antiviral signaling), and TRIF (TIR domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-β) mediate the recruitment of IRF-3 through a conserved pLxIS motif. Here in this paper, we show that the pLxIS motif of phosphorylated STING, MAVS, and TRIF bindsmore » to IRF-3 in a similar manner, whereas residues upstream of the motif confer specificity. The structure of the IRF-3 phosphomimetic mutant S386/396E bound to the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB)-binding protein reveals that the pLxIS motif also mediates IRF-3 dimerization and activation. Moreover, rotavirus NSP1 (nonstructural protein 1) employs a pLxIS motif to target IRF-3 for degradation, but phosphorylation of NSP1 is not required for its activity. These results suggest a concerted mechanism for the recruitment and activation of IRF-3 that can be subverted by viral proteins to evade innate immune responses.« less

  20. The interaction between the adaptor protein APS and Enigma is involved in actin organisation.

    PubMed

    Barrès, Romain; Gonzalez, Teresa; Le Marchand-Brustel, Yannick; Tanti, Jean-François

    2005-08-15

    APS (adaptor protein with PH and SH2 domains) is an adaptor protein phosphorylated by several tyrosine kinase receptors including the insulin receptor. To identify novel binding partners of APS, we performed yeast two-hybrid screening. We identified Enigma, a PDZ and LIM domain-containing protein that was previously shown to be associated with the actin cytoskeleton. In HEK 293 cells, Enigma interacted specifically with APS, but not with the APS-related protein SH2-B. This interaction required the NPTY motif of APS and the LIM domains of Enigma. In NIH-3T3 cells that express the insulin receptor, Enigma and APS were partially co-localised with F-actin in small ruffling structures. Insulin increased the complex formation between APS and Enigma and their co-localisation in large F-actin containing ruffles. While in NIH-3T3 and HeLa cells the co-expression of both Enigma and APS did not modify the actin cytoskeleton organisation, expression of Enigma alone led to the formation of F-actin clusters. Similar alteration in actin cytoskeleton organisation was observed in cells expressing both Enigma and APS with a mutation in the NPTY motif. These results identify Enigma as a novel APS-binding protein and suggest that the APS/Enigma complex plays a critical role in actin cytoskeleton organisation.

  1. Divergent retroviral late-budding domains recruit vacuolar protein sorting factors by using alternative adaptor proteins.

    PubMed

    Martin-Serrano, Juan; Yarovoy, Anton; Perez-Caballero, David; Bieniasz, Paul D; Yaravoy, Anton

    2003-10-14

    The release of enveloped viruses from infected cells often requires a virally encoded activity, termed a late-budding domain (L domain), encoded by essential PTAP, PPXY, or YPDL sequence motifs. PTAP-type L domains recruit one of three endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT-I). However, subsequent events in viral budding are poorly defined, and neither YPDL nor PPXY-type L domains require ESCRT-I. Here, we show that ESCRT-I and other class E vacuolar protein sorting (VPS) factors are linked by a complex series of protein-protein interactions. In particular, interactions between ESCRT-I and ESCRT-III are bridged by AIP-1/ALIX, a mammalian orthologue of the yeast class E VPS factor, Bro1. Expression of certain ESCRT-III components as fusion proteins induces a late budding defect that afflicts all three L-domain types, suggesting that ESCRT-III integrity is required in a general manner. Notably, the prototype YPDL-type L domain encoded by equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) acts by recruiting AIP-1/ALIX and expression of a truncated form of AIP-1/ALIX or small interfering RNA-induced AIP-1/ALIX depletion specifically inhibits EIAV YPDL-type L-domain function. Overall, these findings indicate that L domains subvert a subset of class E VPS factors to mediate viral budding, some of which are required for each of the L-domain types, whereas others apparently act as adaptors to physically link specific L-domain types to the class E VPS machinery.

  2. Control of B cell production by the adaptor protein lnk. Definition Of a conserved family of signal-modulating proteins.

    PubMed

    Takaki, S; Sauer, K; Iritani, B M; Chien, S; Ebihara, Y; Tsuji, K; Takatsu, K; Perlmutter, R M

    2000-11-01

    Lnk is an SH2 domain-containing adaptor protein expressed preferentially in lymphocytes. To illuminate the importance of Lnk, we generated lnk(-/-) mice. Whereas T cell development was unaffected, pre-B and immature B cells accumulated in the spleens. In the bone marrow, B-lineage cells were proportionately increased, reflecting enhanced production of pro-B cells that resulted in part from hypersensitivity of precursors to SCF, the ligand for c-kit. Hence, Lnk ordinarily acts to regulate B cell production. Further characterization of lnk(-/-) mice also revealed that full-length Lnk is a 68 kDa protein containing a conserved proline-rich region and a PH domain. Lnk is a representative of a multigene adaptor protein family whose members act, by analogy with Lnk, to modulate intracellular signaling.

  3. Nrf2 reduces levels of phosphorylated tau protein by inducing autophagy adaptor protein NDP52

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Chulman; Gundemir, Soner; Pritchard, Susanne; Jin, Youngnam N.; Rahman, Irfan; Johnson, Gail V. W.

    2014-03-01

    Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a pivotal transcription factor in the defence against oxidative stress. Here we provide evidence that activation of the Nrf2 pathway reduces the levels of phosphorylated tau by induction of an autophagy adaptor protein NDP52 (also known as CALCOCO2) in neurons. The expression of NDP52, which we show has three antioxidant response elements (AREs) in its promoter region, is strongly induced by Nrf2, and its overexpression facilitates clearance of phosphorylated tau in the presence of an autophagy stimulator. In Nrf2-knockout mice, phosphorylated and sarkosyl-insoluble tau accumulates in the brains concurrent with decreased levels of NDP52. Moreover, NDP52 associates with phosphorylated tau from brain cortical samples of Alzheimer disease cases, and the amount of phosphorylated tau in sarkosyl-insoluble fractions is inversely proportional to that of NDP52. These results suggest that NDP52 plays a key role in autophagy-mediated degradation of phosphorylated tau in vivo.

  4. The Cytoplasmic Adaptor Protein Dok7 Activates the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase MuSK via Dimerization

    SciTech Connect

    Bergamin, E.; Hallock, P; Burden, S; Hubbard, S

    2010-01-01

    Formation of the vertebrate neuromuscular junction requires, among others proteins, Agrin, a neuronally derived ligand, and the following muscle proteins: LRP4, the receptor for Agrin; MuSK, a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK); and Dok7 (or Dok-7), a cytoplasmic adaptor protein. Dok7 comprises a pleckstrin-homology (PH) domain, a phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain, and C-terminal sites of tyrosine phosphorylation. Unique among adaptor proteins recruited to RTKs, Dok7 is not only a substrate of MuSK, but also an activator of MuSK's kinase activity. Here, we present the crystal structure of the Dok7 PH-PTB domains in complex with a phosphopeptide representing the Dok7-binding site on MuSK. The structure and biochemical data reveal a dimeric arrangement of Dok7 PH-PTB that facilitates trans-autophosphorylation of the kinase activation loop. The structure provides the molecular basis for MuSK activation by Dok7 and for rationalizing several Dok7 loss-of-function mutations found in patients with congenital myasthenic syndromes.

  5. Chimeric adaptor proteins translocate diverse type VI secretion system effectors in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Unterweger, Daniel; Kostiuk, Benjamin; Ötjengerdes, Rina; Wilton, Ashley; Diaz-Satizabal, Laura; Pukatzki, Stefan

    2015-08-13

    Vibrio cholerae is a diverse species of Gram-negative bacteria, commonly found in the aquatic environment and the causative agent of the potentially deadly disease cholera. These bacteria employ a type VI secretion system (T6SS) when they encounter prokaryotic and eukaryotic competitors. This contractile puncturing device translocates a set of effector proteins into neighboring cells. Translocated effectors are toxic unless the targeted cell produces immunity proteins that bind and deactivate incoming effectors. Comparison of multiple V. cholerae strains indicates that effectors are encoded in T6SS effector modules on mobile genetic elements. We identified a diverse group of chimeric T6SS adaptor proteins required for the translocation of diverse effectors encoded in modules. An example for a T6SS effector that requires T6SS adaptor protein 1 (Tap-1) is TseL found in pandemic V. cholerae O1 serogroup strains and other clinical isolates. We propose a model in which Tap-1 is required for loading TseL onto the secretion apparatus. After T6SS-mediated TseL export is completed, Tap-1 is retained in the bacterial cell to load other T6SS machines. © 2015 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY NC ND 4.0 license.

  6. Single-Molecule Analyte Recognition with ClyA Nanopores Equipped with Internal Protein Adaptors.

    PubMed

    Soskine, Misha; Biesemans, Annemie; Maglia, Giovanni

    2015-05-06

    Nanopores have been used to detect molecules, to sequence DNA, or to investigate chemical reactions at the single-molecule level. Because they approach the absolute limit of sensor miniaturization, nanopores are amenable to parallelization and could be used in single-cell measurements. Here we show that single enzymes can be functionally and reversibly trapped inside the confined space of a ClyA nanopore. Remarkably, the binding of ligands to the internalized proteins is mirrored by specific changes to the nanopore conductance. Conveniently, the manipulation of the charge of the protein allowed increasing of the residence time of the protein inside the nanopore. Nanopores with internalized protein adaptors can be used to study proteins in real time or can be incorporated into inexpensive portable devices for the detection of analytes with high selectivity.

  7. The role of small adaptor proteins in the control of oncogenic signaling driven by tyrosine kinases in human cancer

    PubMed Central

    Naudin, Cécile; Chevalier, Clément; Roche, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation on tyrosine (Tyr) residues has evolved as an important mechanism to coordinate cell communication in multicellular organisms. The importance of this process has been revealed by the discovery of the prominent oncogenic properties of tyrosine kinases (TK) upon deregulation of their physiological activities, often due to protein overexpression and/or somatic mutation. Recent reports suggest that TK oncogenic signaling is also under the control of small adaptor proteins. These cytosolic proteins lack intrinsic catalytic activity and signal by linking two functional members of a catalytic pathway. While most adaptors display positive regulatory functions, a small group of this family exerts negative regulatory functions by targeting several components of the TK signaling cascade. Here, we review how these less studied adaptor proteins negatively control TK activities and how their loss of function induces abnormal TK signaling, promoting tumor formation. We also discuss the therapeutic consequences of this novel regulatory mechanism in human oncology. PMID:26788993

  8. The role of small adaptor proteins in the control of oncogenic signalingr driven by tyrosine kinases in human cancer.

    PubMed

    Naudin, Cécile; Chevalier, Clément; Roche, Serge

    2016-03-08

    Protein phosphorylation on tyrosine (Tyr) residues has evolved as an important mechanism to coordinate cell communication in multicellular organisms. The importance of this process has been revealed by the discovery of the prominent oncogenic properties of tyrosine kinases (TK) upon deregulation of their physiological activities, often due to protein overexpression and/or somatic mutation. Recent reports suggest that TK oncogenic signaling is also under the control of small adaptor proteins. These cytosolic proteins lack intrinsic catalytic activity and signal by linking two functional members of a catalytic pathway. While most adaptors display positive regulatory functions, a small group of this family exerts negative regulatory functions by targeting several components of the TK signaling cascade. Here, we review how these less studied adaptor proteins negatively control TK activities and how their loss of function induces abnormal TK signaling, promoting tumor formation. We also discuss the therapeutic consequences of this novel regulatory mechanism in human oncology.

  9. Adaptor protein complexes 1 and 3 are essential for generation of synaptic vesicles from activity-dependent bulk endosomes.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Giselle; Cousin, Michael A

    2012-04-25

    Activity-dependent bulk endocytosis is the dominant synaptic vesicle retrieval mode during high intensity stimulation in central nerve terminals. A key event in this endocytosis mode is the generation of new vesicles from bulk endosomes, which replenish the reserve vesicle pool. We have identified an essential requirement for both adaptor protein complexes 1 and 3 in this process by employing morphological and optical tracking of bulk endosome-derived synaptic vesicles in rat primary neuronal cultures. We show that brefeldin A inhibits synaptic vesicle generation from bulk endosomes and that both brefeldin A knockdown and shRNA knockdown of either adaptor protein 1 or 3 subunits inhibit reserve pool replenishment from bulk endosomes. Conversely, no plasma membrane function was found for adaptor protein 1 or 3 in either bulk endosome formation or clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Simultaneous knockdown of both adaptor proteins 1 and 3 indicated that they generated the same population of synaptic vesicles. Thus, adaptor protein complexes 1 and 3 play an essential dual role in generation of synaptic vesicles during activity-dependent bulk endocytosis.

  10. Adaptor protein complexes 1 and 3 are essential for generation of synaptic vesicles from activity-dependent bulk endosomes

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Giselle; Cousin, Michael Alan

    2012-01-01

    Activity-dependent bulk endocytosis is the dominant synaptic vesicle retrieval mode during high intensity stimulation in central nerve terminals. A key event in this endocytosis mode is the generation of new vesicles from bulk endosomes, which replenish the reserve vesicle pool. We have identified an essential requirement for both adaptor protein complexes 1 and 3 in this process by employing morphological and optical tracking of bulk endosome-derived synaptic vesicles in rat primary neuronal cultures. We show that brefeldin A inhibits synaptic vesicle generation from bulk endosomes, and that both brefeldin A and shRNA knockdown of either adaptor protein 1 or 3 subunits inhibit reserve pool replenishment from bulk endosomes. Conversely, no plasma membrane function was found for adaptor proteins 1 or 3 in either bulk endosome formation or clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Simultaneous knockdown of both adaptor protein 1 and 3 indicated that they generated the same population of SVs. Thus adaptor protein complex 1 and 3 play an essential dual role in generation of synaptic vesicles during activity-dependent bulk endocytosis. PMID:22539861

  11. A highly versatile adaptor protein for the tethering of growth factors to gelatin-based biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Addi, Cyril; Murschel, Frédéric; Liberelle, Benoît; Riahi, Nesrine; De Crescenzo, Gregory

    2017-03-01

    In the field of tissue engineering, the tethering of growth factors to tissue scaffolds in an oriented manner can enhance their activity and increase their half-life. We chose to investigate the capture of the basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF) and the Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) on a gelatin layer, as a model for the functionalization of collagen-based biomaterials. Our strategy relies on the use of two high affinity interactions, that is, the one between two distinct coil peptides as well as the one occurring between a collagen-binding domain (CBD) and gelatin. We expressed a chimeric protein to be used as an adaptor that comprises one of the coil peptides and a CBD derived from the human fibronectin. We proved that it has the ability to bind simultaneously to a gelatin substrate and to form a heterodimeric coiled-coil domain with recombinant growth factors being tagged with the complementary coil peptide. The tethering of the growth factors was characterized by ELISA and surface plasmon resonance-based biosensing. The bioactivity of the immobilized bFGF and EGF was evaluated by a human umbilical vein endothelial cell proliferation assay and a vascular smooth muscle cell survival assay. We found that the tethering of EGF preserved its mitogenic and anti-apoptotic activity. In the case of bFGF, when captured via our adaptor protein, changes in its natural mode of interaction with gelatin were observed.

  12. Synthetic Protein Scaffolds Based on Peptide Motifs and Cognate Adaptor Domains for Improving Metabolic Productivity

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Anselm H. C.; Sticht, Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of many cellular processes relies on the defined interaction among different proteins within the same metabolic or signaling pathway. Consequently, a spatial colocalization of functionally interacting proteins has frequently emerged during evolution. This concept has been adapted within the synthetic biology community for the purpose of creating artificial scaffolds. A recent advancement of this concept is the use of peptide motifs and their cognate adaptor domains. SH2, SH3, GBD, and PDZ domains have been used most often in research studies to date. The approach has been successfully applied to the synthesis of a variety of target molecules including catechin, D-glucaric acid, H2, hydrochinone, resveratrol, butyrate, gamma-aminobutyric acid, and mevalonate. Increased production levels of up to 77-fold have been observed compared to non-scaffolded systems. A recent extension of this concept is the creation of a covalent linkage between peptide motifs and adaptor domains, which leads to a more stable association of the scaffolded systems and thus bears the potential to further enhance metabolic productivity. PMID:26636078

  13. Association of autoimmune hepatitis with Src homology 2 adaptor protein 3 gene polymorphisms in Japanese patients.

    PubMed

    Umemura, Takeji; Joshita, Satoru; Hamano, Hideaki; Yoshizawa, Kaname; Kawa, Shigeyuki; Tanaka, Eiji; Ota, Masao

    2017-07-13

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic inflammatory liver disease characterized by an autoimmune reaction to hepatocytes. The Src homology 2 adaptor protein 3 (SH2B3) gene is a member of the SH2B family of adaptor proteins that has been implicated in the integration and regulation of multiple signaling events. SH2B3 is involved in cytokine signaling pathways and serves as a negative mediator of T-cell receptor signaling. Genome-wide association analyses in Caucasians have linked a missense mutation at rs3184504 in SH2B3 with AIH. Accordingly, four selected single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the SH2B3 gene were genotyped in 158 patients with AIH, 327 patients with primary biliary cholangitis, 160 patients with autoimmune pancreatitis, and 325 healthy subjects of Japanese descent. Although the functional rs3184504 was non-polymorphic in 952 subjects, the frequency of the minor rs11065904 T allele was significantly decreased in AIH patients compared with healthy controls (odds ratio (OR)=0.68; corrected P=0.025). Haplotype 2 (rs2238154 A, rs11065904 T and rs739496 G) was associated with resistance to AIH (OR 0.67, P=0.021) as well as to autoimmune pancreatitis (OR=0.70, P=0.035). Our findings suggest that an SNP and haplotype in SH2B3 are associated with AIH.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 13 July 2017; doi:10.1038/jhg.2017.74.

  14. Adaptor molecules expression in normal lymphopoiesis and in childhood leukemia.

    PubMed

    Svojgr, Karel; Burjanivova, Tatiana; Vaskova, Martina; Kalina, Tomas; Stary, Jan; Trka, Jan; Zuna, Jan

    2009-02-21

    Transmembrane adaptor proteins are key mediators of antigen receptor signaling in lymphocytes. By influencing proliferation and differentiation, these molecules might play a role in ethiopathogenesis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The aim of this study was to characterize expression of PAG, LAT, NTAL and LIME adaptors at the mRNA and protein levels in normal B- and T-precursors. Moreover, diagnostic samples of childhood ALL cases were analyzed. During normal lymphocyte development, some adaptors show significant dynamics (gradual decrease of NTAL and increase of LAT and LIME during the T-cell maturation, decrease of PAG in B-precursors, high levels of LIME in peripheral B-lymphocytes). Analysis of childhood ALL samples revealed that in B-cell precursor ALL, the TEL/AML1 subgroup have unique adaptor profile compared to other leukemias. Moreover, NTAL expression separates T lineage leukemias into two subgroups with good and poor response to initial prednisone therapy showing prognostic impact of this molecule in T-ALL.

  15. Adaptor protein complexes-1 and 3 are involved at distinct stages of flavivirus life-cycle.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Tanvi; Schu, Peter; Medigeshi, Guruprasad R

    2013-01-01

    Intracellular protein trafficking pathways are hijacked by viruses at various stages of viral life-cycle. Heterotetrameric adaptor protein complexes (APs) mediate vesicular trafficking at distinct intracellular sites and are essential for maintaining the organellar homeostasis. In the present study, we studied the effect of AP-1 and AP-3 deficiency on flavivirus infection in cells functionally lacking these proteins. We show that AP-1 and AP-3 participate in flavivirus life-cycle at distinct stages. AP-3-deficient cells showed delay in initiation of Japanese encephalitis virus and dengue virus RNA replication, which resulted in reduction of infectious virus production. AP-3 was found to colocalize with RNA replication compartments in infected wild-type cells. AP-1 deficiency affected later stages of dengue virus infection where increased intracellular accumulation of infectious virus was observed. Therefore, our results propose a novel role for AP-1 and AP-3 at distinct stages of infection of some of the RNA viruses.

  16. Adaptor protein complexes-1 and 3 are involved at distinct stages of flavivirus life-cycle

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Tanvi; Schu, Peter; Medigeshi, Guruprasad R.

    2013-01-01

    Intracellular protein trafficking pathways are hijacked by viruses at various stages of viral life-cycle. Heterotetrameric adaptor protein complexes (APs) mediate vesicular trafficking at distinct intracellular sites and are essential for maintaining the organellar homeostasis. In the present study, we studied the effect of AP-1 and AP-3 deficiency on flavivirus infection in cells functionally lacking these proteins. We show that AP-1 and AP-3 participate in flavivirus life-cycle at distinct stages. AP-3-deficient cells showed delay in initiation of Japanese encephalitis virus and dengue virus RNA replication, which resulted in reduction of infectious virus production. AP-3 was found to colocalize with RNA replication compartments in infected wild-type cells. AP-1 deficiency affected later stages of dengue virus infection where increased intracellular accumulation of infectious virus was observed. Therefore, our results propose a novel role for AP-1 and AP-3 at distinct stages of infection of some of the RNA viruses. PMID:23657274

  17. Adaptor protein-3: A key player in RBL-2H3 mast cell mediator release

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Elaine Zayas Marcelino; Freitas-Filho, Edismauro Garcia; de Souza-Júnior, Devandir Antonio; daSilva, Luis Lamberti Pinto; Jamur, Maria Celia

    2017-01-01

    Mast cell (MC) secretory granules are Lysosome-Related Organelles (LROs) whose biogenesis is associated with the post-Golgi secretory and endocytic pathways in which the sorting of proteins destined for a specific organelle relies on the recognition of sorting signals by adaptor proteins that direct their incorporation into transport vesicles. The adaptor protein 3 (AP-3) complex mediates protein trafficking between the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and late endosomes, lysosomes, and LROs. AP-3 has a recognized role in LROs biogenesis and regulated secretion in several cell types, including many immune cells such as neutrophils, natural killer cells, and cytotoxic T lymphocytes. However, the relevance of AP-3 for these processes in MCs has not been previously investigated. AP-3 was found to be expressed and distributed in a punctate fashion in rat peritoneal mast cells ex vivo. The rat MC line RBL-2H3 was used as a model system to investigate the role of AP-3 in mast cell secretory granule biogenesis and mediator release. By immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy, AP-3 was localized both to the TGN and early endosomes indicating that AP-3 dependent sorting of proteins to MC secretory granules originates in these organelles. ShRNA mediated depletion of the AP-3 δ subunit was shown to destabilize the AP-3 complex in RBL-2H3 MCs. AP-3 knockdown significantly affected MC regulated secretion of β-hexosaminidase without affecting total cellular enzyme levels. Morphometric evaluation of MC secretory granules by electron microscopy revealed that the area of MC secretory granules in AP-3 knockdown MCs was significantly increased, indicating that AP-3 is involved in MC secretory granule biogenesis. Furthermore, AP-3 knockdown had a selective impact on the secretion of newly formed and newly synthesized mediators. These results show for the first time that AP-3 plays a critical role in secretory granule biogenesis and mediator release in MCs. PMID:28273137

  18. Phosphorylation-Dependent Regulation of the DNA Damage Response of Adaptor Protein KIBRA in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mavuluri, Jayadev; Beesetti, Swarnalatha; Surabhi, Rohan; Kremerskothen, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Multifunctional adaptor proteins encompassing various protein-protein interaction domains play a central role in the DNA damage response pathway. In this report, we show that KIBRA is a physiologically interacting reversible substrate of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase. We identified the site of phosphorylation in KIBRA as threonine 1006, which is embedded within the serine/threonine (S/T) Q consensus motif, by site-directed mutagenesis, and we further confirmed the same with a phospho-(S/T) Q motif-specific antibody. Results from DNA repair functional assays such as the γ-H2AX assay, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), Comet assay, terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, and clonogenic cell survival assay using stable overexpression clones of wild-type (wt.) KIBRA and active (T1006E) and inactive (T1006A) KIBRA phosphorylation mutants showed that T1006 phosphorylation on KIBRA is essential for optimal DNA double-strand break repair in cancer cells. Further, results from stable retroviral short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown (KD) clones of KIBRA and KIBRA knockout (KO) model cells generated by a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas9 system showed that depleting KIBRA levels compromised the DNA repair functions in cancer cells upon inducing DNA damage. All these phenotypic events were reversed upon reconstitution of KIBRA into cells lacking KIBRA knock-in (KI) model cells. All these results point to the fact that phosphorylated KIBRA might be functioning as a scaffolding protein/adaptor protein facilitating the platform for further recruitment of other DNA damage response factors. In summary, these data demonstrate the imperative functional role of KIBRA per se (KIBRA phosphorylation at T1006 site as a molecular switch that regulates the DNA damage response, possibly via the nonhomologous end joining [NHEJ] pathway), suggesting that KIBRA could be a potential

  19. LAB/NTAL/Lat2: a force to be reckoned with in all leukocytes?

    PubMed Central

    Orr, Selinda J.; McVicar, Daniel W.

    2011-01-01

    LAB/NTAL/Lat2 is a transmembrane adaptor protein closely related to LAT. It is expressed in various myeloid and lymphoid cells, many of which also express LAT. Phosphorylation of LAB occurs following engagement of various ITAM- and non-ITAM-linked receptors and can play positive and negative roles following receptor engagement. LAT binds PLCγ directly, resulting in efficient Ca2+ flux and degranulation. However, LAB does not contain a PLCγ-binding motif and only binds PLCγ indirectly, possibly via Grb2, thereby resulting in suboptimal signaling. As LAT can signal more efficiently than LAB, competition between the 2 for space/substrates in the lipid rafts can attenuate signaling. This competition model requires coexpression of LAT; however, LAB is repressive, even in cells lacking substantial LAT expression such as macrophages and mature B cells. The reported interaction between LAB and the ubiquitin E3-ligase c-Cbl suggests 1 possible mechanism for LAT-independent inhibition by LAB, but such a model requires further investigation. Given the wide-reaching expression pattern of LAB, LAB has the ability to modulate signaling in virtually every type of leukocyte. Regardless of its ultimate mode of action, the potent regulatory capability of LAB proves this protein to be a complex adaptor that warrants continued, substantial scrutiny by biochemists and immunologists alike. PMID:20643813

  20. LAB/NTAL/Lat2: a force to be reckoned with in all leukocytes?

    PubMed

    Orr, Selinda J; McVicar, Daniel W

    2011-01-01

    LAB/NTAL/Lat2 is a transmembrane adaptor protein closely related to LAT. It is expressed in various myeloid and lymphoid cells, many of which also express LAT. Phosphorylation of LAB occurs following engagement of various ITAM- and non-ITAM-linked receptors and can play positive and negative roles following receptor engagement. LAT binds PLCγ directly, resulting in efficient Ca²+ flux and degranulation. However, LAB does not contain a PLCγ-binding motif and only binds PLCγ indirectly, possibly via Grb2, thereby resulting in suboptimal signaling. As LAT can signal more efficiently than LAB, competition between the 2 for space/substrates in the lipid rafts can attenuate signaling. This competition model requires coexpression of LAT; however, LAB is repressive, even in cells lacking substantial LAT expression such as macrophages and mature B cells. The reported interaction between LAB and the ubiquitin E3-ligase c-Cbl suggests 1 possible mechanism for LAT-independent inhibition by LAB, but such a model requires further investigation. Given the wide-reaching expression pattern of LAB, LAB has the ability to modulate signaling in virtually every type of leukocyte. Regardless of its ultimate mode of action, the potent regulatory capability of LAB proves this protein to be a complex adaptor that warrants continued, substantial scrutiny by biochemists and immunologists alike.

  1. Characterization of the adaptor protein ARH expression in the brain and ARH molecular interactions.

    PubMed

    Mameza, Marie Germaine; Lockard, Jon M; Zamora, Eduardo; Hillefors, Mi; Lavina, Zeno Scotto; Kaplan, Barry B

    2007-11-01

    Previously, pA134 was identified as one of the mRNAs present in the squid giant axon. Comparative sequence analyses revealed that the pA134 gene product manifested significant similarity to the mammalian lipoprotein receptor adaptor protein also known as ARH (autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia). ARH mRNA and protein displayed very similar pattern of expression throughout the mouse brain. Significant levels of expression were observed in cells with a predominantly neuronal profile in the cerebellum, brainstem, olfactory bulb, hippocampus, and cortex. A yeast two hybrid screen for ARH protein interactions in mouse brain identified the following binders: amyloid precursor-like protein 1, low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) 1, LRP8, and GABA receptor-associated protein-like 1. The interactions of ARH with LRP1 and GABA receptor-associated protein-like 1 were subsequently verified by co-immunoprecipitation of the protein complexes from transfected human embryonic kidney cells. The presence of ARH mRNA in axon of primary sympathetic neurons was established by RT-PCR analyses and confirmed by in situ hybridization. Taken together, our data suggest that ARH is a multifunctional protein whose spectrum of function in the brain goes beyond the traditionally known metabolism of lipoproteins, and that ARH may be locally synthesized in the axon.

  2. The role of palmitoylation and transmembrane domain in sorting of transmembrane adaptor proteins.

    PubMed

    Chum, Tomáš; Glatzová, Daniela; Kvíčalová, Zuzana; Malínský, Jan; Brdička, Tomáš; Cebecauer, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Plasma membrane proteins synthesised at the endoplasmic reticulum are delivered to the cell surface via sorting pathways. Hydrophobic mismatch theory based on the length of the transmembrane domain (TMD) dominates discussion about determinants required for protein sorting to the plasma membrane. Transmembrane adaptor proteins (TRAP) are involved in signalling events which take place at the plasma membrane. Members of this protein family have TMDs of varying length. We were interested in whether palmitoylation or other motifs contribute to the effective sorting of TRAP proteins. We found that palmitoylation is essential for some, but not all, TRAP proteins independent of their TMD length. We also provide evidence that palmitoylation and proximal sequences can modulate sorting of artificial proteins with TMDs of suboptimal length. Our observations point to a unique character of each TMD defined by its primary amino acid sequence and its impact on membrane protein localisation. We conclude that, in addition to the TMD length, secondary sorting determinants such as palmitoylation or flanking sequences have evolved for the localisation of membrane proteins. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Roles of BLOC-1 and Adaptor Protein-3 Complexes in Cargo Sorting to Synaptic Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Newell-Litwa, Karen; Salazar, Gloria; Smith, Yoland

    2009-01-01

    Neuronal lysosomes and their biogenesis mechanisms are primarily thought to clear metabolites and proteins whose abnormal accumulation leads to neurodegenerative disease pathology. However, it remains unknown whether lysosomal sorting mechanisms regulate the levels of membrane proteins within synaptic vesicles. Using high-resolution deconvolution microscopy, we identified early endosomal compartments where both selected synaptic vesicle and lysosomal membrane proteins coexist with the adaptor protein complex 3 (AP-3) in neuronal cells. From these early endosomes, both synaptic vesicle membrane proteins and characteristic AP-3 lysosomal cargoes can be similarly sorted to brain synaptic vesicles and PC12 synaptic-like microvesicles. Mouse knockouts for two Hermansky–Pudlak complexes involved in lysosomal biogenesis from early endosomes, the ubiquitous isoform of AP-3 (Ap3b1−/−) and muted, defective in the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex 1 (BLOC-1), increased the content of characteristic synaptic vesicle proteins and known AP-3 lysosomal proteins in isolated synaptic vesicle fractions. These phenotypes contrast with those of the mouse knockout for the neuronal AP-3 isoform involved in synaptic vesicle biogenesis (Ap3b2−/−), in which the content of select proteins was reduced in synaptic vesicles. Our results demonstrate that lysosomal and lysosome-related organelle biogenesis mechanisms regulate steady-state synaptic vesicle protein composition from shared early endosomes. PMID:19144828

  4. Molecular basis of substrate selection by the N-end rule adaptor protein ClpS

    SciTech Connect

    Román-Hernández, Giselle; Grant, Robert A.; Sauer, Robert T.; Baker, Tania A.

    2009-06-19

    The N-end rule is a conserved degradation pathway that relates the stability of a protein to its N-terminal amino acid. Here, we present crystal structures of ClpS, the bacterial N-end rule adaptor, alone and engaged with peptides containing N-terminal phenylalanine, leucine, and tryptophan. These structures, together with a previous structure of ClpS bound to an N-terminal tyrosine, illustrate the molecular basis of recognition of the complete set of primary N-end rule amino acids. In each case, the alpha-amino group and side chain of the N-terminal residue are the major determinants of recognition. The binding pocket for the N-end residue is preformed in the free adaptor, and only small adjustments are needed to accommodate N-end rule residues having substantially different sizes and shapes. M53A ClpS is known to mediate degradation of an expanded repertoire of substrates, including those with N-terminal valine or isoleucine. A structure of Met53A ClpS engaged with an N-end rule tryptophan reveals an essentially wild-type mechanism of recognition, indicating that the Met(53) side chain directly enforces specificity by clashing with and excluding beta-branched side chains. Finally, experimental and structural data suggest mechanisms that make proteins with N-terminal methionine bind very poorly to ClpS, explaining why these high-abundance proteins are not degraded via the N-end rule pathway in the cell.

  5. The Rai (Shc C) adaptor protein regulates the neuronal stress response and protects against cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Troglio, Flavia; Echart, Cinara; Gobbi, Alberto; Pawson, Tony; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe; De Simoni, Maria Grazia; Pelicci, Giuliana

    2004-01-01

    Rai (Shc C or N-Shc) is a neuron-specific member of the family of Shc-like adaptor proteins. Rai functions in the cytoplasmic propagation of Ret-dependent survival signals and regulates, in vivo, the number of sympathetic neurons. We report here a function of Rai, i.e., the regulation of the neuronal adaptive response to environmental stresses. We demonstrate that (i) primary cultures of cortical neurons from Rai-/- mice are more sensitive to apoptosis induced by hypoxia or oxidative stress; (ii) in Rai-/- mice, ischemia/reperfusion injury induces severe neurological deficits, increased apoptosis and size of the infarct area, and significantly higher mortality; and (iii) Rai functions as a stress-response gene that increases phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation and Akt phosphorylation after hypoxic or oxidation insults. These data suggest that Rai has a functional neuroprotective role in brain injury, with possible implications in the treatment of stroke. PMID:15494442

  6. Interaction with the adaptor protein Shc prevents aberrant Erk activation in the absence of extracellular stimulus

    PubMed Central

    Suen, Kin Man; Lin, Chi-Chuan; George, Roger; Melo, Fernando A.; Biggs, Eleanor R.; Ahmed, Zamal; Drake, Melanie N.; Arur, Swathi; Arold, Stefan T.; Ladbury, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Control mechanisms that prevent aberrant signaling are necessary to maintain cellular homeostasis. We describe a novel mechanism by which the adaptor protein Shc binds directly to the MAP-kinase Erk, preventing its activation in the absence of extracellular stimulus. The Shc–Erk complex restricts Erk nuclear translocation, restraining Erk-dependent transcription of genes, including those responsible for oncogenic growth. The complex is formed through unique binding sites on both the Shc PTB domain and N-terminal lobe of Erk. Upon receptor tyrosine kinase stimulation, a conformational change within Shc—induced through interaction with the phosphorylated receptor—releases Erk allowing it to fulfill its role in signaling. Thus, in addition to its established role in promoting MAP-kinase signaling in stimulated cells, Shc negatively regulates Erk activation in the absence of growth factors and thus could be considered as a tumor suppressor in human cells. PMID:23584453

  7. Unexpected diversity in Shisa-like proteins suggests the importance of their roles as transmembrane adaptors.

    PubMed

    Pei, Jimin; Grishin, Nick V

    2012-03-01

    The Shisa family of single-transmembrane proteins is characterized by an N-terminal cysteine-rich domain and a proline-rich C-terminal region. Its founding member, Xenopus Shisa, promotes head development by antagonizing Wnt and FGF signaling. Recently, a mouse brain-specific Shisa protein CKAMP44 (Shisa9) was shown to play an important role in AMPA receptor desensitization. We used sequence similarity searches against protein, genome and EST databases to study the evolutionary origin and phylogenetic distribution of Shisa homologs. In addition to nine Shisa subfamilies in vertebrates, we detected distantly related Shisa homologs that possess an N-terminal domain with six conserved cysteines. These Shisa-like proteins include FAM159 and KIAA1644 mainly from vertebrates, and members from various bilaterian invertebrates and Porifera, suggesting their presence in the last common ancestor of Metazoa. Shisa-like genes have undergone large expansions in Branchiostoma floridae and Saccoglossus kowalevskii, and appear to have been lost in certain insects. Pattern-based searches against eukaryotic proteomes also uncovered several other families of predicted single-transmembrane proteins with a similar cysteine-rich domain. We refer to these proteins (Shisa/Shisa-like, WBP1/VOPP1, CX, DUF2650, TMEM92, and CYYR1) as STMC6 proteins (single-transmembrane proteins with conserved 6 cysteines). STMC6 genes are widespread in Metazoa, with the human genome containing 17 members. Frequent occurrences of PY motifs in STMC6 proteins suggest that most of them could interact with WW-domain-containing proteins, such as the NEDD4 family E3 ubiquitin ligases, and could play critical roles in protein degradation and sorting. STMC6 proteins are likely transmembrane adaptors that regulate membrane proteins such as cell surface receptors.

  8. SH2B1 (SH2-B) and JAK2: a multifunctional adaptor protein and kinase made for each other.

    PubMed

    Maures, Travis J; Kurzer, Jason H; Carter-Su, Christin

    2007-01-01

    Src homology 2 (SH2) B adaptor protein 1 (SH2B1; originally named SH2-B) is a member of a family of adaptor proteins that influences a variety of signaling pathways mediated by Janus kinase (JAK) and receptor tyrosine kinases. Although SH2B1 performs classical adaptor functions, such as recruitment of specific proteins to activated receptors, it also demonstrates a unique ability to enhance the kinase activity of the cytokine receptor-associated tyrosine kinase JAK2, as well as that of several receptor tyrosine kinases. SH2B1 is also among a small number of adaptor proteins shown to undergo nucleocytoplasmic shuttling, although its exact role within the nucleus is not yet clear. Deletion of the SH2B1 gene results in severe obesity and both leptin and insulin resistance, as well as infertility, which might be a consequence of resistance to insulin-like growth factor I. Thus, knockout mice support a role for SH2B1 as a positive regulator of JAK2 signaling pathways initiated by leptin, as well as of pathways initiated by insulin and, potentially, by insulin-like growth factor I.

  9. Transcriptional repression of Kruppel like factor-2 by the adaptor protein p66shc

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ajay; Hoffman, Timothy A.; DeRicco, Jeremy; Naqvi, Asma; Jain, Mukesh K.; Irani, Kaikobad

    2009-01-01

    The adaptor protein p66shc promotes cellular oxidative stress and apoptosis. Here, we demonstrate a novel mechanistic relationship between p66shc and the kruppel like factor-2 (KLF2) transcription factor and show that this relationship has biological relevance to p66shc-regulated cellular oxidant level, as well as KLF2-induced target gene expression. Genetic knockout of p66shc in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) stimulates activity of the core KLF2 promoter and increases KLF2 mRNA and protein expression. Similarly, shRNA-induced knockdown of p66shc increases KLF2-promoter activity in HeLa cells. The increase in KLF2-promoter activity in p66shc-knockout MEFs is dependent on a myocyte enhancing factor-2A (MEF2A)-binding sequence in the core KLF2 promoter. Short-hairpin RNA-induced knockdown of p66shc in endothelial cells also stimulates KLF2 mRNA and protein expression, as well as expression of the endothelial KLF2 target gene thrombomodulin. MEF2A protein and mRNA are more abundant in p66shc-knockout MEFs, resulting in greater occupancy of the KLF2 promoter by MEF2A. In endothelial cells, the increase in KLF2 and thrombomodulin protein by shRNA-induced decrease in p66shc expression is partly abrogated by knockdown of MEF2A. Finally, knockdown of KLF2 abolishes the decrease in the cellular reactive oxygen species hydrogen peroxide observed with knockdown of p66shc, and KLF2 overexpression suppresses cellular hydrogen peroxide levels, independent of p66shc expression. These findings illustrate a novel mechanism by which p66shc promotes cellular oxidative stress, through suppression of MEF2A expression and consequent repression of KLF2 transcription.—Kumar, A., Hoffman, T. A., DeRicco, J., Naqvi, A., Jain, M. K., Irani, K. Transcriptional repression of Kruppel like factor-2 by the adaptor protein p66shc. PMID:19696221

  10. PHF6 Degrees of Separation: The Multifaceted Roles of a Chromatin Adaptor Protein

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Matthew A.M.; Ivanochko, Danton; Picketts, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of chromatin regulation to human disease is highlighted by the growing number of mutations identified in genes encoding chromatin remodeling proteins. While such mutations were first identified in severe developmental disorders, or in specific cancers, several genes have been implicated in both, including the plant homeodomain finger protein 6 (PHF6) gene. Indeed, germline mutations in PHF6 are the cause of the Börjeson–Forssman–Lehmann X-linked intellectual disability syndrome (BFLS), while somatic PHF6 mutations have been identified in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Studies from different groups over the last few years have made a significant impact towards a functional understanding of PHF6 protein function. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of PHF6 with particular emphasis on how it interfaces with a distinct set of interacting partners and its functional roles in the nucleoplasm and nucleolus. Overall, PHF6 is emerging as a key chromatin adaptor protein critical to the regulation of neurogenesis and hematopoiesis. PMID:26103525

  11. Phosphorylation-Dependent Regulation of the DNA Damage Response of Adaptor Protein KIBRA in Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Mavuluri, Jayadev; Beesetti, Swarnalatha; Surabhi, Rohan; Kremerskothen, Joachim; Venkatraman, Ganesh; Rayala, Suresh K

    2016-05-01

    Multifunctional adaptor proteins encompassing various protein-protein interaction domains play a central role in the DNA damage response pathway. In this report, we show that KIBRA is a physiologically interacting reversible substrate of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase. We identified the site of phosphorylation in KIBRA as threonine 1006, which is embedded within the serine/threonine (S/T) Q consensus motif, by site-directed mutagenesis, and we further confirmed the same with a phospho-(S/T) Q motif-specific antibody. Results from DNA repair functional assays such as the γ-H2AX assay, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), Comet assay, terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, and clonogenic cell survival assay using stable overexpression clones of wild-type (wt.) KIBRA and active (T1006E) and inactive (T1006A) KIBRA phosphorylation mutants showed that T1006 phosphorylation on KIBRA is essential for optimal DNA double-strand break repair in cancer cells. Further, results from stable retroviral short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown (KD) clones of KIBRA and KIBRA knockout (KO) model cells generated by a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas9 system showed that depleting KIBRA levels compromised the DNA repair functions in cancer cells upon inducing DNA damage. All these phenotypic events were reversed upon reconstitution of KIBRA into cells lacking KIBRA knock-in (KI) model cells. All these results point to the fact that phosphorylated KIBRA might be functioning as a scaffolding protein/adaptor protein facilitating the platform for further recruitment of other DNA damage response factors. In summary, these data demonstrate the imperative functional role of KIBRAper se(KIBRA phosphorylation at T1006 site as a molecular switch that regulates the DNA damage response, possibly via the nonhomologous end joining [NHEJ] pathway), suggesting that KIBRA could be a potential

  12. Functions of Adaptor Protein (AP)-3 and AP-1 in Tyrosinase Sorting from Endosomes to MelanosomesD⃞

    PubMed Central

    Theos, Alexander C.; Tenza, Danièle; Martina, José A.; Hurbain, Ilse; Peden, Andrew A.; Sviderskaya, Elena V.; Stewart, Abigail; Robinson, Margaret S.; Bennett, Dorothy C.; Cutler, Daniel F.; Bonifacino, Juan S.; Marks, Michael S.; Raposo, Graça

    2005-01-01

    Specialized cells exploit adaptor protein complexes for unique post-Golgi sorting events, providing a unique model system to specify adaptor function. Here, we show that AP-3 and AP-1 function independently in sorting of the melanocyte-specific protein tyrosinase from endosomes to the melanosome, a specialized lysosome-related organelle distinguishable from lysosomes. AP-3 and AP-1 localize in melanocytes primarily to clathrin-coated buds on tubular early endosomes near melanosomes. Both adaptors recognize the tyrosinase dileucine-based melanosome sorting signal, and tyrosinase largely colocalizes with each adaptor on endosomes. In AP-3-deficient melanocytes, tyrosinase accumulates inappropriately in vacuolar and multivesicular endosomes. Nevertheless, a substantial fraction still accumulates on melanosomes, concomitant with increased association with endosomal AP-1. Our data indicate that AP-3 and AP-1 function in partially redundant pathways to transfer tyrosinase from distinct endosomal subdomains to melanosomes and that the AP-3 pathway ensures that tyrosinase averts entrapment on internal membranes of forming multivesicular bodies. PMID:16162817

  13. Adaptor protein 1 complexes regulate intracellular trafficking of the kidney anion exchanger 1 in epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Almomani, Ensaf Y.; King, Jennifer C.; Netsawang, Janjuree; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-Thai; Malasit, Prida; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai; Alexander, R. Todd

    2012-01-01

    Distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) can be caused by mutations in the gene encoding the anion exchanger 1 (AE1) and is characterized by defective urinary acidification, metabolic acidosis, and renal stones. AE1 is expressed at the basolateral membrane of type A intercalated cells in the renal cortical collecting duct (kAE1). Two dRTA mutations result in the carboxyl-terminal truncation of kAE1; in one case, the protein trafficked in a nonpolarized way in epithelial cells. A recent yeast two-hybrid assay showed that the carboxyl-terminal cytosolic domain of AE1 interacts with adaptor protein complex 1 (AP-1A) subunit μ1A (mu-1A; Sawasdee N, Junking M, Ngaojanlar P, Sukomon N, Ungsupravate D, Limjindaporn T, Akkarapatumwong V, Noisakran S, Yenchitsomanus PT. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 401: 85–91, 2010). Here, we show the interaction between kAE1 and mu-1A and B in vitro by reciprocal coimmunoprecipitation in epithelial cells and in vivo by coimmunoprecipitation from mouse kidney extract. When endogenous mu-1A (and to a lesser extent mu-1B) was reduced, kAE1 protein was unable to traffic to the plasma membrane and was rapidly degraded via a lysosomal pathway. Expression of either small interfering RNA-resistant mu-1A or mu-1B stabilized kAE1 in these cells. We also show that newly synthesized kAE1 does not traffic through recycling endosomes to the plasma membrane, suggesting that AP-1B, located in recycling endosomes, is not primarily involved in trafficking of newly synthesized kAE1 when AP-1A is present in the cells. Our data demonstrate that AP-1A regulates processing of the basolateral, polytopic membrane protein kAE1 to the cell surface and that both AP-1A and B adaptor complexes are required for normal kAE1 trafficking. PMID:22744004

  14. The proteolysis adaptor, NblA, initiates protein pigment degradation by interacting with the cyanobacterial light-harvesting complexes.

    PubMed

    Sendersky, Eleonora; Kozer, Noga; Levi, Mali; Garini, Yuval; Shav-Tal, Yaron; Schwarz, Rakefet

    2014-07-01

    Degradation of the cyanobacterial protein pigment complexes, the phycobilisomes, is a central acclimation response that controls light energy capture. The small protein, NblA, is essential for proteolysis of these large complexes, which may reach a molecular mass of up to 4 MDa. Interactions of NblA in vitro supported the suggestion that NblA is a proteolysis adaptor that labels the pigment proteins for degradation. The mode of operation of NblA in situ, however, remained unresolved. Particularly, it was unclear whether NblA interacts with phycobilisome proteins while part of the large complex, or alternatively interaction with NblA, necessitates dissociation of pigment subunits from the assembly. Fluorescence intensity profiles demonstrated the preferential presence of NblA::GFP (green fluorescent protein) at the photosynthetic membranes, indicating co-localization with phycobilisomes. Furthermore, fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy provided in situ evidence for interaction of NblA with phycobilisome protein pigments. Additionally, we demonstrated the role of NblA in vivo as a proteolysis tag based on the rapid degradation of the fusion protein NblA::GFP compared with free GFP. Taken together, these observations demonstrated in vivo the role of NblA as a proteolysis adaptor. Additionally, the interaction of NblA with phycobilisomes indicates that the dissociation of protein pigment subunits from the large complex is not a prerequisite for interaction with this adaptor and, furthermore, implicates NblA in the disassembly of the protein pigment complex. Thus, we suggest that, in the case of proteolysis of the phycobilisome, the adaptor serves a dual function: undermining the complex stability and designating the dissociated pigments for degradation.

  15. Losses, Expansions, and Novel Subunit Discovery of Adaptor Protein Complexes in Haptophyte Algae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Laura J Y; Klute, Mary J; Herman, Emily K; Read, Betsy; Dacks, Joel B

    2015-11-01

    The phylum Haptophyta (Diaphoratickes) contains marine algae that perform biomineralization, extruding large, distinctive calcium carbonate scales (coccoliths) that completely cover the cell. Coccolith production is an important part of global carbon cycling; however, the membrane trafficking pathway by which they are secreted has not yet been elucidated. In most eukaryotes, post-Golgi membrane trafficking involves five heterotetrameric adaptor protein (AP) complexes, which impart cargo selection specificity. To better understand coccolith secretion, we performed comparative genomic, phylogenetic, and transcriptomic analyses of the AP complexes in Emiliania huxleyi strains 92A, Van556, EH2, and CCMP1516, and related haptophytes Gephyrocapsa oceanica and Isochrysis galbana; the latter has lost the ability to biomineralize. We show that haptophytes have a modified membrane trafficking system (MTS), as we found both AP subunit losses and duplications. Additionally, we identified a single conserved subunit of the AP-related TSET complex, whose expression suggests a functional role in membrane trafficking. Finally, we detected novel alpha adaptin ear and gamma adaptin ear proteins, the first of their kind to be described outside of opisthokonts. These novel ear proteins and the sculpting of the MTS may support the capacity for biomineralization in haptophytes, enhancing their ability to perform this highly specialized form of secretion.

  16. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Nucleoprotein Interacts with TREX Complex Adaptor Protein Aly/REF

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramaniam, Vinod R. M. T.; Hong Wai, Tham; Ario Tejo, Bimo; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Syed Hassan, Sharifah

    2013-01-01

    We constructed a novel chicken (Gallus gallus) lung cDNA library fused inside yeast acting domain vector (pGADT7). Using yeast two-hybrid screening with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) nucleoprotein (NP) from the strain (A/chicken/Malaysia/5858/2004(H5N1)) as bait, and the Gallus gallus lung cDNA library as prey, a novel interaction between the Gallus gallus cellular RNA export adaptor protein Aly/REF and the viral NP was identified. This interaction was confirmed and validated with mammalian two hybrid studies and co-immunoprecipitation assay. Cellular localization studies using confocal microscopy showed that NP and Aly/REF co-localize primarily in the nucleus. Further investigations by mammalian two hybrid studies into the binding of NP of other subtypes of influenza virus such as the swine A/New Jersey/1976/H1N1 and pandemic A/Malaysia/854/2009(H1N1) to human Aly/REF, also showed that the NP of these viruses interacts with human Aly/REF. Our findings are also supported by docking studies which showed tight and favorable binding between H5N1 NP and human Aly/REF, using crystal structures from Protein Data Bank. siRNA knockdown of Aly/REF had little effect on the export of HPAI NP and other viral RNA as it showed no significant reduction in virus titer. However, UAP56, another component of the TREX complex, which recruits Aly/REF to mRNA was found to interact even better with H5N1 NP through molecular docking studies. Both these proteins also co-localizes in the nucleus at early infection similar to Aly/REF. Intriguingly, knockdown of UAP56 in A549 infected cells shows significant reduction in viral titer (close to 10 fold reduction). Conclusively, our study have opened new avenues for research of other cellular RNA export adaptors crucial in aiding viral RNA export such as the SRSF3, 9G8 and ASF/SF2 that may play role in influenza virus RNA nucleocytoplasmic transport. PMID:24073193

  17. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus nucleoprotein interacts with TREX complex adaptor protein Aly/REF.

    PubMed

    Balasubramaniam, Vinod R M T; Hong Wai, Tham; Ario Tejo, Bimo; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Syed Hassan, Sharifah

    2013-01-01

    We constructed a novel chicken (Gallus gallus) lung cDNA library fused inside yeast acting domain vector (pGADT7). Using yeast two-hybrid screening with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) nucleoprotein (NP) from the strain (A/chicken/Malaysia/5858/2004(H5N1)) as bait, and the Gallus gallus lung cDNA library as prey, a novel interaction between the Gallus gallus cellular RNA export adaptor protein Aly/REF and the viral NP was identified. This interaction was confirmed and validated with mammalian two hybrid studies and co-immunoprecipitation assay. Cellular localization studies using confocal microscopy showed that NP and Aly/REF co-localize primarily in the nucleus. Further investigations by mammalian two hybrid studies into the binding of NP of other subtypes of influenza virus such as the swine A/New Jersey/1976/H1N1 and pandemic A/Malaysia/854/2009(H1N1) to human Aly/REF, also showed that the NP of these viruses interacts with human Aly/REF. Our findings are also supported by docking studies which showed tight and favorable binding between H5N1 NP and human Aly/REF, using crystal structures from Protein Data Bank. siRNA knockdown of Aly/REF had little effect on the export of HPAI NP and other viral RNA as it showed no significant reduction in virus titer. However, UAP56, another component of the TREX complex, which recruits Aly/REF to mRNA was found to interact even better with H5N1 NP through molecular docking studies. Both these proteins also co-localizes in the nucleus at early infection similar to Aly/REF. Intriguingly, knockdown of UAP56 in A549 infected cells shows significant reduction in viral titer (close to 10 fold reduction). Conclusively, our study have opened new avenues for research of other cellular RNA export adaptors crucial in aiding viral RNA export such as the SRSF3, 9G8 and ASF/SF2 that may play role in influenza virus RNA nucleocytoplasmic transport.

  18. Activity-Regulated Cytoskeleton-Associated Protein Controls AMPAR Endocytosis through a Direct Interaction with Clathrin-Adaptor Protein 2123

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Mark J.; P. de Almeida, Luciana; Wauters, Sandrine C.; Januário, Yunan C.; Müller, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated (Arc) protein controls synaptic strength by facilitating AMPA receptor (AMPAR) endocytosis. Here we demonstrate that Arc targets AMPAR to be internalized through a direct interaction with the clathrin-adaptor protein 2 (AP-2). We show that Arc overexpression in dissociated hippocampal neurons obtained from C57BL/6 mouse reduces the density of AMPAR GluA1 subunits at the cell surface and reduces the amplitude and rectification of AMPAR-mediated miniature-EPSCs (mEPSCs). Mutations of Arc, that prevent the AP-2 interaction reduce Arc-mediated endocytosis of GluA1 and abolish the reduction in AMPAR-mediated mEPSC amplitude and rectification. Depletion of the AP-2 subunit µ2 blocks the Arc-mediated reduction in mEPSC amplitude, an effect that is restored by reintroducing µ2. The Arc–AP-2 interaction plays an important role in homeostatic synaptic scaling as the Arc-dependent decrease in mEPSC amplitude, induced by a chronic increase in neuronal activity, is inhibited by AP-2 depletion. These data provide a mechanism to explain how activity-dependent expression of Arc decisively controls the fate of AMPAR at the cell surface and modulates synaptic strength, via the direct interaction with the endocytic clathrin adaptor AP-2. PMID:27257628

  19. Architecture and roles of periplasmic adaptor proteins in tripartite efflux assemblies.

    PubMed

    Symmons, Martyn F; Marshall, Robert L; Bavro, Vassiliy N

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have seen major advances in the structural understanding of the different components of tripartite efflux assemblies, which encompass the multidrug efflux (MDR) pumps and type I secretion systems. The majority of these investigations have focused on the role played by the inner membrane transporters and the outer membrane factor (OMF), leaving the third component of the system - the Periplasmic Adaptor Proteins (PAPs) - relatively understudied. Here we review the current state of knowledge of these versatile proteins which, far from being passive linkers between the OMF and the transporter, emerge as active architects of tripartite assemblies, and play diverse roles in the transport process. Recognition between the PAPs and OMFs is essential for pump assembly and function, and targeting this interaction may provide a novel avenue for combating multidrug resistance. With the recent advances elucidating the drug efflux and energetics of the tripartite assemblies, the understanding of the interaction between the OMFs and PAPs is the last piece remaining in the complete structure of the tripartite pump assembly puzzle.

  20. Architecture and roles of periplasmic adaptor proteins in tripartite efflux assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Symmons, Martyn F.; Marshall, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have seen major advances in the structural understanding of the different components of tripartite efflux assemblies, which encompass the multidrug efflux (MDR) pumps and type I secretion systems. The majority of these investigations have focused on the role played by the inner membrane transporters and the outer membrane factor (OMF), leaving the third component of the system – the Periplasmic Adaptor Proteins (PAPs) – relatively understudied. Here we review the current state of knowledge of these versatile proteins which, far from being passive linkers between the OMF and the transporter, emerge as active architects of tripartite assemblies, and play diverse roles in the transport process. Recognition between the PAPs and OMFs is essential for pump assembly and function, and targeting this interaction may provide a novel avenue for combating multidrug resistance. With the recent advances elucidating the drug efflux and energetics of the tripartite assemblies, the understanding of the interaction between the OMFs and PAPs is the last piece remaining in the complete structure of the tripartite pump assembly puzzle. PMID:26074901

  1. Impairment of dendritic cell functions in patients with adaptor protein-3 complex deficiency.

    PubMed

    Prandini, Alberto; Salvi, Valentina; Colombo, Francesca; Moratto, Daniele; Lorenzi, Luisa; Vermi, William; De Francesco, Maria Antonia; Notarangelo, Lucia Dora; Porta, Fulvio; Plebani, Alessandro; Facchetti, Fabio; Sozzani, Silvano; Badolato, Raffaele

    2016-06-30

    Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 2 (HPS2) is a primary immunodeficiency due to adaptor protein-3 (AP-3) complex deficiency. HPS2 patients present neutropenia, partial albinism, and impaired lysosomal vesicles formation in hematopoietic cells. Given the role of dendritic cells (DCs) in the immune response, we studied monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs) and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) in two HPS2 siblings. Mature HPS2 moDCs showed impaired expression of CD83 and DC-lysosome-associated membrane protein (LAMP), low levels of MIP1-β/CCL4, MIG/CXCL9, and severe defect of interleukin-12 (IL-12) secretion. DCs in lymph-node biopsies from the same patients showed a diffuse cytoplasm reactivity in a large fraction of DC-LAMP(+) cells, instead of the classical dot-like stain. In addition, analysis of pDC-related functions of blood-circulating mononuclear cells revealed reduced interferon-α secretion in response to herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), whereas granzyme-B induction upon IL-3/IL-10 stimulation was normal. Finally, T-cell costimulatory activity, as measured by mixed lymphocyte reaction assay, was lower in patients, suggesting that function and maturation of DCs is abnormal in patients with HPS2.

  2. The signaling adaptor GAB1 regulates cell polarity by acting as a PAR protein scaffold.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ziqiang; Xue, Bin; Umitsu, Masataka; Ikura, Mitsuhiko; Muthuswamy, Senthil K; Neel, Benjamin G

    2012-08-10

    Cell polarity plays a key role in development and is disrupted in tumors, yet the molecules and mechanisms that regulate polarity remain poorly defined. We found that the scaffolding adaptor GAB1 interacts with two polarity proteins, PAR1 and PAR3. GAB1 binds PAR1 and enhances its kinase activity. GAB1 brings PAR1 and PAR3 into a transient complex, stimulating PAR3 phosphorylation by PAR1. GAB1 and PAR6 bind the PAR3 PDZ1 domain and thereby compete for PAR3 binding. Consequently, GAB1 depletion causes PAR3 hypophosphorylation and increases PAR3/PAR6 complex formation, resulting in accelerated and enhanced tight junction formation, increased transepithelial resistance, and lateral domain shortening. Conversely, GAB1 overexpression, in a PAR1/PAR3-dependent manner, disrupts epithelial apical-basal polarity, promotes multilumen cyst formation, and enhances growth factor-induced epithelial cell scattering. Our results identify GAB1 as a negative regulator of epithelial cell polarity that functions as a scaffold for modulating PAR protein complexes on the lateral membrane. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular protein adaptor with genetically encoded interaction sites guiding the hierarchical assembly of plasmonically active nanoparticle architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, Andreas; Huber, Matthias C.; Cölfen, Helmut; Schiller, Stefan M.

    2015-03-01

    The control over the defined assembly of nano-objects with nm-precision is important to create systems and materials with enhanced properties, for example, metamaterials. In nature, the precise assembly of inorganic nano-objects with unique features, for example, magnetosomes, is accomplished by efficient and reliable recognition schemes involving protein effectors. Here we present a molecular approach using protein-based ‘adaptors/connectors’ with genetically encoded interaction sites to guide the assembly and functionality of different plasmonically active gold nanoparticle architectures (AuNP). The interaction of the defined geometricaly shaped protein adaptors with the AuNP induces the self-assembly of nanoarchitectures ranging from AuNP encapsulation to one-dimensional chain-like structures, complex networks and stars. Synthetic biology and bionanotechnology are applied to co-translationally encode unnatural amino acids as additional site-specific modification sites to generate functionalized biohybrid nanoarchitectures. This protein adaptor-based nano-object assembly approach might be expanded to other inorganic nano-objects creating biohybrid materials with unique electronic, photonic, plasmonic and magnetic properties.

  4. The ARH adaptor protein regulates endocytosis of the ROMK potassium secretory channel in mouse kidney

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Liang; Garuti, Rita; Kim, Bo-Young; Wade, James B.; Welling, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    Renal outer medullary potassium (ROMK) channels are exquisitely regulated to adjust renal potassium excretion and maintain potassium balance. Clathrin-dependent endocytosis plays a critical role, limiting urinary potassium loss in potassium deficiency. In renal disease, aberrant ROMK endocytosis may contribute to potassium retention and hyperkalemia. Previous work has indicated that ROMK endocytosis is stimulated by with-no-lysine (WNK) kinases, but the endocytotic signal and the internalization machinery have not been defined. Here, we found that ROMK bound directly to the clathrin adaptor molecule autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia (ARH), and this interaction was mediated by what we believe to be a novel variant of the canonical “NPXY” endocytotic signal, YxNPxFV. ARH recruits ROMK to clathrin-coated pits for constitutive and WNK1-stimuated endocytosis, and ARH knockdown decreased basal rates of ROMK endocytosis, in a heterologous expression system, COS-7 cells. We found that ARH was predominantly expressed in the distal nephron where it coimmunoprecipitated and colocalized with ROMK. In mice, the abundance of kidney ARH protein was modulated by dietary potassium and inversely correlated with changes in ROMK. Furthermore, ARH-knockout mice exhibited an altered ROMK response to potassium intake. These data suggest that ARH marks ROMK for clathrin-dependent endocytosis, in concert with the demands of potassium homeostasis. PMID:19841541

  5. Adaptor proteins NUMB and NUMBL promote cell cycle withdrawal by targeting ERBB2 for degradation.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Maretoshi; Arita, Yoh; McGlade, C Jane; Lee, Kuo-Fen; Chen, Ju; Evans, Sylvia M

    2017-02-01

    Failure of trabecular myocytes to undergo appropriate cell cycle withdrawal leads to ventricular noncompaction and heart failure. Signaling of growth factor receptor ERBB2 is critical for myocyte proliferation and trabeculation. However, the mechanisms underlying appropriate downregulation of trabecular ERBB2 signaling are little understood. Here, we have found that the endocytic adaptor proteins NUMB and NUMBL were required for downregulation of ERBB2 signaling in maturing trabeculae. Loss of NUMB and NUMBL resulted in a partial block of late endosome formation, resulting in sustained ERBB2 signaling and STAT5 activation. Unexpectedly, activated STAT5 overrode Hippo-mediated inhibition and drove YAP1 to the nucleus. Consequent aberrant cardiomyocyte proliferation resulted in ventricular noncompaction that was markedly rescued by heterozygous loss of function of either ERBB2 or YAP1. Further investigations revealed that NUMB and NUMBL interacted with small GTPase Rab7 to transition ERBB2 from early to late endosome for degradation. Our studies provide insight into mechanisms by which NUMB and NUMBL promote cardiomyocyte cell cycle withdrawal and highlight previously unsuspected connections between pathways that are important for cardiomyocyte cell cycle reentry, with relevance to ventricular noncompaction cardiomyopathy and regenerative medicine.

  6. Adaptor protein Lnk binds to and inhibits normal and leukemic FLT3

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Tong; Koren-Michowitz, Maya; Ding, Ling-Wen; Gueller, Saskia; Gery, Sigal; Tabayashi, Takayuki; Bergholz, Ulla; Kazi, Julhash U.; Rönnstrand, Lars; Stocking, Carol; Koeffler, H. Phillip

    2012-01-01

    Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) is a receptor tyrosine kinase with important roles in hematopoietic progenitor cell survival and proliferation. It is mutated in approximately one-third of AML patients, mostly by internal tandem duplications (ITDs). Adaptor protein Lnk is a negative regulator of hematopoietic cytokine signaling. In the present study, we show that Lnk interacts physically with both wild-type FLT3 (FLT3-WT) and FLT3-ITD through the SH2 domains. We have identified the tyrosine residues 572, 591, and 919 of FLT3 as phosphorylation sites involved in direct binding to Lnk. Lnk itself was tyrosine phosphorylated by both FLT3 ligand (FL)–activated FLT3-WT and constitutively activated FLT3-ITD. Both shRNA-mediated depletion and forced overexpression of Lnk demonstrated that activation signals emanating from both forms of FLT3 are under negative regulation by Lnk. Moreover, Lnk inhibited 32D cell proliferation driven by different FLT3 variants. Analysis of primary BM cells from Lnk-knockout mice showed that Lnk suppresses the expansion of FL-stimulated hematopoietic progenitors, including lymphoid-primed multipotent progenitors. The results of the present study show that through direct binding to FLT3, Lnk suppresses FLT3-WT/ITD–dependent signaling pathways involved in the proliferation of hematopoietic cells. Therefore, modulation of Lnk expression levels may provide a unique therapeutic approach for FLT3-ITD–associated hematopoietic disease. PMID:22942183

  7. The small G-protein Arf6GTP recruits the AP-2 adaptor complex to membranes.

    PubMed

    Paleotti, Olivia; Macia, Eric; Luton, Frederic; Klein, Stephanie; Partisani, Mariagrazia; Chardin, Pierre; Kirchhausen, Tom; Franco, Michel

    2005-06-03

    The small GTP-binding protein ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) is involved in plasma membrane/endosomes trafficking. However, precisely how the activation of Arf6 regulates vesicular transport is still unclear. Here, we show that, in vitro, recombinant Arf6GTP recruits purified clathrin-adaptor complex AP-2 (but not AP-1) onto phospholipid liposomes in the absence of phosphoinositides. We also show that phosphoinositides and Arf6 tightly cooperate to translocate AP-2 to the membrane. In vivo, Arf6GTP (but not Arf6GDP) was found associated to AP-2. The expression of the GTP-locked mutant of Arf6 leads to the plasma membrane redistribution of AP-2 in Arf6GTP-enriched areas. Finally, we demonstrated that the expression of the GTP-locked mutant of Arf6 inhibits transferrin receptor internalization without affecting its recycling. Altogether, our results demonstrated that Arf6GTP interacts specifically with AP-2 and promotes its membrane recruitment. These findings strongly suggest that Arf6 plays a major role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis by directly controlling the assembly of the AP-2/clathrin coat.

  8. Expression of the adaptor protein m-Numb in mouse male germ cells.

    PubMed

    Corallini, Serena; Fera, Stefania; Grisanti, Laura; Falciatori, Ilaria; Muciaccia, Barbara; Stefanini, Mario; Vicini, Elena

    2006-12-01

    Numb is an adaptor protein that is asymmetrically inherited at mitosis and controls the fate of sibling cells in different species. The role of m-Numb (mammalian Numb) as an important cell fate-determining factor has extensively been described mostly in neural tissues, particularly in progenitor cells, in the mouse. Biochemical and genetic analyses have shown that Numb acts as an inhibitor of the Notch signaling pathway, an evolutionarily conserved pathway involved in the control of cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. In the present study, we sought to determine m-Numb distribution in germ cells in the postnatal mouse testis. We show that all four m-Numb isoforms are widely expressed during postnatal testis development. By reverse transcriptase-PCR and western blot analyses, we further identify p71 as the predominantly expressed isoform in germ cells. Moreover, we demonstrate through co-immunoprecipitation studies that m-Numb physically associates with Ap2a1, a component of the endocytotic clathrin-coated vesicles. Finally, we employed confocal immunofluorescence microscopy of whole mount seminiferous tubules and isolated germ cells to gain more insight into the subcellular localization of m-Numb. These morphological analyses confirmed m-Numb and Ap2a1 co-localization. However, we did not observe asymmetric localization of m-Numb neither in mitotic spermatogonial stem cells nor in more differentiated spermatogonial cells, suggesting that spermatogonial stem cell fate in the mouse does not rely on asymmetric partitioning of m-Numb.

  9. The adaptor protein GULP promotes Jedi-1-mediated phagocytosis through a clathrin-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Chelsea S; Scheib, Jami L; Ma, Zhong; Dang, Rajan P; Schafer, Johanna M; Hickman, Francis E; Brodsky, Frances M; Ravichandran, Kodi S; Carter, Bruce D

    2014-06-15

    During the development of the peripheral nervous system, the large number of apoptotic neurons generated are phagocytosed by glial precursor cells. This clearance is mediated, in part, through the mammalian engulfment receptor Jedi-1. However, the mechanisms by which Jedi-1 mediates phagocytosis are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that Jedi-1 associates with GULP, the mammalian homologue of CED-6, an adaptor protein required for phagocytosis mediated by the nematode engulfment receptor CED-1. Silencing GULP or mutating the NPXY motif in Jedi-1, which is required for GULP binding, prevents Jedi-1-mediated phagocytosis. How GULP promotes engulfment is not known. Of interest, we find that Jedi-1-induced phagocytosis requires GULP binding to clathrin heavy chain (CHC). During engulfment, CHC is tyrosine phosphorylated, which is required for Jedi-mediated engulfment. Both phosphoclathrin and actin accumulate around engulfed microspheres. Furthermore, knockdown of CHC in HeLa cells prevents Jedi-1-mediated engulfment of microspheres, and knockdown in glial precursors prevents the engulfment of apoptotic neurons. Taken together, these results reveal that Jedi-1 signals through recruitment of GULP, which promotes phagocytosis through a noncanonical phosphoclathrin-dependent mechanism. © 2014 Sullivan et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  10. The p66(Shc) adaptor protein controls oxidative stress response in early bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Betts, Dean H; Bain, Nathan T; Madan, Pavneesh

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro production of mammalian embryos suffers from high frequencies of developmental failure due to excessive levels of permanent embryo arrest and apoptosis caused by oxidative stress. The p66Shc stress adaptor protein controls oxidative stress response of somatic cells by regulating intracellular ROS levels through multiple pathways, including mitochondrial ROS generation and the repression of antioxidant gene expression. We have previously demonstrated a strong relationship with elevated p66Shc levels, reduced antioxidant levels and greater intracellular ROS generation with the high incidence of permanent cell cycle arrest of 2-4 cell embryos cultured under high oxygen tensions or after oxidant treatment. The main objective of this study was to establish a functional role for p66Shc in regulating the oxidative stress response during early embryo development. Using RNA interference in bovine zygotes we show that p66Shc knockdown embryos exhibited increased MnSOD levels, reduced intracellular ROS and DNA damage that resulted in a greater propensity for development to the blastocyst stage. P66Shc knockdown embryos were stress resistant exhibiting significantly reduced intracellular ROS levels, DNA damage, permanent 2-4 cell embryo arrest and diminished apoptosis frequencies after oxidant treatment. The results of this study demonstrate that p66Shc controls the oxidative stress response in early mammalian embryos. Small molecule inhibition of p66Shc may be a viable clinical therapy to increase the developmental potential of in vitro produced mammalian embryos.

  11. Adaptor Protein 2 (AP-2) complex is essential for functional axogenesis in hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Kyung, Jae Won; Cho, In Ha; Lee, Sukmook; Song, Woo Keun; Ryan, Timothy A.; Hoppa, Michael B.; Kim, Sung Hyun

    2017-01-01

    The complexity and diversity of a neural network requires regulated elongation and branching of axons, as well as the formation of synapses between neurons. In the present study we explore the role of AP-2, a key endocytic adaptor protein complex, in the development of rat hippocampal neurons. We found that the loss of AP-2 during the early stage of development resulted in impaired axon extension and failed maturation of the axon initial segment (AIS). Normally the AIS performs two tasks in concert, stabilizing neural polarity and generating action potentials. In AP-2 silenced axons polarity is established, however there is a failure to establish action potential firing. Consequently, this impairs activity-driven Ca2+ influx and exocytosis at nerve terminals. In contrast, removal of AP-2 from older neurons does not impair axonal growth or signaling and synaptic function. Our data reveal that AP-2 has important roles in functional axogenesis by proper extension of axon as well as the formation of AIS during the early step of neurodevelopment. PMID:28139716

  12. Cysteine-based regulation of the CUL3 adaptor protein Keap1

    SciTech Connect

    Sekhar, Konjeti R.; Rachakonda, Girish; Freeman, Michael L.

    2010-04-01

    Nrf2 (NF-E2-related factor 2) is a master transcription factor containing a powerful acidic transcriptional activation domain. Nrf2-dependent gene expression impacts cancer chemoprevention strategies, inflammatory responses, and progression of neurodegenerative diseases. Under basal conditions, association of Nrf2 with the CUL3 adaptor protein Keap1 results in the rapid Nrf2 ubiquitylation and proteasome-dependent degradation. Inhibition of Keap1 function blocks ubiquitylation of Nrf2, allowing newly synthesized Nrf2 to translocate into the nucleus, bind to ARE sites and direct target gene expression. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments coupled with proteomic analysis support a model in which Keap1 contains at least 2 distinct cysteine motifs. The first is located at Cys 151 in the BTB domain. The second is located in the intervening domain and centers around Cys 273 and 288. Adduction or oxidation at Cys151 has been shown to produce a conformational change in Keap1 that results in dissociation of Keap1 from CUL3, thereby inhibiting Nrf2 ubiquitylation. Thus, adduction captures specific chemical information and translates it into biochemical information via changes in structural conformation.

  13. Tyrosine Phosphorylation-independent Regulation of LPS-mediated Response by the Transmembrane Adaptor Protein LAB

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Minghua; Fuller, Deirdre M; Ou-Yang, Chih-wen; Sullivan, Sarah; Zhang, Weiguo

    2012-01-01

    LAB (linker for activation of B cells)/NTAL (non-T cell activation linker) is a transmembrane adaptor protein that functions in immunoreceptor-mediated signaling. Published studies have shown that LAB has both positive and negative roles in regulating T cell receptor and high-affinity Fc receptor-mediated signaling and cellular function. In this study, we showed that LAB was also expressed in dendritic cells and that LAB deficiency affected LPS-mediated signaling and cytokine production. LPS-mediated MAPK activation was enhanced in LAB−/− bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). These BMDCs also produced more TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 than WT cells. Moreover, LAB−/− mice were hyper responsive to LPS-induced septic shock. These data indicated that LAB has a negative role in LPS-mediated responses. By using LAB knock-in mice, which harbor mutations at five membrane-distal tyrosines, we further showed that, in contrast to its role in immunoreceptor-mediated signaling, LAB function in LPS-mediated signaling pathway did not depend on its tyrosine phosphorylation. Our study suggested a novel mechanism by which LAB functions in the regulation of innate immunity. PMID:22308309

  14. Tyrosine phosphorylation-independent regulation of lipopolysaccharide-mediated response by the transmembrane adaptor protein LAB.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Minghua; Fuller, Deirdre M; Ou-Yang, Chih-wen; Sullivan, Sarah A; Zhang, Weiguo

    2012-03-15

    Linker for activation of B cells (LAB)/non-T cell activation linker is a transmembrane adaptor protein that functions in immunoreceptor-mediated signaling. Published studies have shown that LAB has both positive and negative roles in regulating TCR and high-affinity Fc receptor-mediated signaling and cellular function. In this study, we showed that LAB was also expressed in dendritic cells and that LAB deficiency affected LPS-mediated signaling and cytokine production. LPS-mediated MAPK activation was enhanced in LAB(-/-) bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. These bone marrow-derived dendritic cells also produced more TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 than wild-type cells. Moreover, LAB(-/-) mice were hyperresponsive to LPS-induced septic shock. These data indicated that LAB has a negative role in LPS-mediated responses. By using LAB knockin mice, which harbor mutations at five membrane-distal tyrosines, we further showed that, in contrast to its role in immunoreceptor-mediated signaling, LAB function in LPS-mediated signaling pathway did not depend on its tyrosine phosphorylation. Our study suggested a novel mechanism by which LAB functions in the regulation of innate immunity.

  15. Recruitment of the Mint3 Adaptor Is Necessary for Export of the Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) from the Golgi Complex*

    PubMed Central

    Caster, Amanda H.; Kahn, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a ubiquitously expressed single-pass transmembrane protein that undergoes proteolytic processing by secretases to generate the pathogenic amyloid-β peptide, the major component in Alzheimer plaques. The traffic of APP through the cell determines its exposure to secretases and consequently the cleavages that generate the pathogenic or nonpathogenic peptide fragments. Despite the likely importance of APP traffic to Alzheimer disease, we still lack clear models for the routing and regulation of APP in cells. Like the traffic of most transmembrane proteins, the binding of adaptors to its cytoplasmic tail, which is 47 residues long and contains at least four distinct sorting motifs, regulates that of APP. We tested each of these for effects on the traffic of APP from the Golgi by mutating key residues within them and examining adaptor recruitment at the Golgi and traffic to post-Golgi site(s). We demonstrate strict specificity for recruitment of the Mint3 adaptor by APP at the Golgi, a critical role for Tyr-682 (within the YENPTY motif) in Mint3 recruitment and export of APP from the Golgi, and we identify LAMP1+ structures as the proximal destination of APP after leaving the Golgi. Together, these data provide a detailed view of the first sorting step in its route to the cell surface and processing by secretases and further highlight the critical role played by Mint3. PMID:23965993

  16. Molecular basis for the interaction between Adaptor Protein Complex 4 (AP4) β4 and its accessory protein, tepsin

    PubMed Central

    Frazier, Meredith N.; Davies, Alexandra K.; Voehler, Markus; Kendall, Amy K.; Borner, Georg H. H.; Chazin, Walter J.; Robinson, Margaret S.; Jackson, Lauren P.

    2016-01-01

    The adaptor protein 4 (AP4) complex (ε/β4/µ4/σ4 subunits) forms a non-clathrin coat on vesicles departing the trans-Golgi network (TGN). AP4 biology remains poorly understood, in stark contrast to the wealth of molecular data available for the related clathrin adaptors AP1 and AP2. AP4 is important for human health because mutations in any AP4 subunit cause severe neurological problems, including intellectual disability and progressive spastic para- or tetraplegia. We have used a range of structural, biochemical, and biophysical approaches to determine the molecular basis for how the AP4 β4 C-terminal appendage domain interacts with tepsin, the only known AP4 accessory protein. We show that tepsin harbors a hydrophobic sequence, LFxG[M/L]x[L/V], in its unstructured C-terminus, which binds directly and specifically to the C-terminal β4 appendage domain. Using NMR chemical shift mapping, we define the binding site on β4 appendage by identifying residues on the surface whose signals are perturbed upon titration with tepsin. Point mutations in either the tepsin LFxG[M/L]x[L/V] sequence or in its cognate binding site on β4 abolish binding in vitro. In cells, the same point mutations greatly reduce the amount of tepsin that interacts with AP4. However, they do not abolish the binding between tepsin and AP4 completely, suggesting the existence of additional interaction sites between AP4 and tepsin. These data provide one of the first detailed mechanistic glimpses at AP4 coat assembly and should provide an entry point for probing the role of AP4 coated vesicles in cell biology, and especially in neuronal function. PMID:26756312

  17. Role of LAT in the Granule-Mediated Cytotoxicity of CD8 T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ou-Yang, Chih-wen; Zhu, Minghua; Fuller, Deirdre M.; Sullivan, Sarah A.; Chuck, Mariana I.; Ogden, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Linker for activation of T cells (LAT) is a transmembrane adaptor protein that is essential to bridge T cell receptor (TCR) engagement to downstream signaling events. The indispensable role of LAT in thymocyte development and T cell activation has been well characterized; however, the function of LAT in cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte (CTL) cytotoxicity remains unknown. We show here that LAT-deficient CTLs failed to upregulate FasL and produce gamma interferon after engagement with target cells and had impaired granule-mediated killing. We further dissected the effect of the LAT deletion on each step of granule exocytosis. LAT deficiency led to altered synapse formation, subsequently causing unstable T cell–antigen-presenting cell (APC) conjugates. Microtubule organizing center polarization and granule reorientation were also impaired by LAT deficiency, leading to reduced granule delivery. Despite these defects, granule release was still observed in LAT-deficient CTLs due to residual calcium flux and phospholipase C (PLC) activity. Our data demonstrated that LAT-mediated signaling intricately regulates CTL cytotoxicity at multiple steps. PMID:22566687

  18. The SH2B1 adaptor protein associates with a proximal region of the erythropoietin receptor.

    PubMed

    Javadi, Mojib; Hofstätter, Edda; Stickle, Natalie; Beattie, Bryan K; Jaster, Robert; Carter-Su, Christin; Barber, Dwayne L

    2012-07-27

    Gene targeting experiments have shown that the cytokine erythropoietin (EPO), its cognate erythropoietin receptor (EPO-R), and associated Janus tyrosine kinase, JAK2, are all essential for erythropoiesis. Structural-functional and murine knock-in experiments have suggested that EPO-R Tyr-343 is important in EPO-mediated mitogenesis. Although Stat5 binds to EPO-R phosphotyrosine 343, the initial Stat5-deficient mice did not have profound erythroid abnormalities suggesting that additional Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing effectors may bind to EPO-R Tyr-343 and couple to downstream signaling pathways. We have utilized cloning of ligand target (COLT) screening to demonstrate that EPO-R Tyr(P)-343 and Tyr(P)-401 bind to the SH2 domain-containing adaptor protein SH2B1β. Immunoprecipitation and in vitro mixing experiments reveal that EPO-R binds to SH2B1 in an SH2 domain-dependent manner and that the sequence that confers SH2B1 binding to the EPO-R is pYXXL. Previous studies have shown that SH2B1 binds directly to JAK2, but we show that in hematopoietic cells, SH2B1β preferentially associates with the EPO-R. SH2B1 is capable of constitutive association with EPO-R, which is necessary for its optimal SH2-dependent recruitment to EPO-R-Tyr(P)-343/Tyr(P)-401. We also demonstrate that SH2B1 is responsive to EPO stimulation and becomes phosphorylated, most likely on serines/threonines, in an EPO dose- and time-dependent manner. In the absence of SH2B1, we observe enhanced activation of signaling pathways downstream of the EPO-R, indicating that SH2B1 is a negative regulator of EPO signaling.

  19. RIOK3 Is an Adaptor Protein Required for IRF3-Mediated Antiviral Type I Interferon Production

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jun; De Jesus, Paul D.; Su, Victoria; Han, Stephanie; Gong, Danyang; Wu, Nicholas C.; Tian, Yuan; Li, Xudong; Wu, Ting-Ting; Chanda, Sumit K.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Detection of cytosolic nucleic acids by pattern recognition receptors leads to the induction of type I interferons (IFNs) and elicits the innate immune response. We report here the identification of RIOK3 as a novel adaptor protein that is essential for the cytosolic nucleic acid-induced type I IFN production and for the antiviral response to gammaherpesvirus through two independent kinome-wide RNA interference screens. RIOK3 knockdown blocks both cytosolic double-stranded B-form DNA and double-stranded RNA-induced IRF3 activation and IFN-β production. In contrast, the overexpression of RIOK3 activates IRF3 and induces IFN-β. RIOK3 functions downstream of TBK1 and upstream of IRF3 activation. Furthermore, RIOK3 physically interacts with both IRF3 and TBK1 and is necessary for the interaction between TBK1 and IRF3. In addition, global transcriptome analysis shows that the expression of many gene involved antiviral responses is dependent on RIOK3. Thus, knockdown of RIOK3 inhibits cellular antiviral responses against both DNA and RNA viruses (herpesvirus and influenza A virus). Our data suggest that RIOK3 plays a critical role in the antiviral type I IFN pathway by bridging TBK1 and IRF3. IMPORTANCE The innate immune response, such as the production of type I interferons, acts as the first line of defense, limiting infectious pathogens directly and shaping the adaptive immune response. In this study, we identified RIOK3 as a novel regulator of the antiviral type I interferon pathway. Specifically, we found that RIOK3 physically interacts with TBK1 and IRF3 and bridges the functions between TBK1 and IRF3 in the activation of type I interferon pathway. The identification of a cellular kinase that plays a role the type I interferon pathway adds another level of complexity in the regulation of innate immunity and will have implications for developing novel strategies to combat viral infection. PMID:24807708

  20. LST1/A Is a Myeloid Leukocyte-specific Transmembrane Adaptor Protein Recruiting Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases SHP-1 and SHP-2 to the Plasma Membrane*

    PubMed Central

    Draber, Peter; Stepanek, Ondrej; Hrdinka, Matous; Drobek, Ales; Chmatal, Lukas; Mala, Linda; Ormsby, Tereza; Angelisova, Pavla; Horejsi, Vaclav; Brdicka, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    Transmembrane adaptor proteins are membrane-anchored proteins consisting of a short extracellular part, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic part with various protein-protein interaction motifs but lacking any enzymatic activity. They participate in the regulation of various signaling pathways by recruiting other proteins to the proximity of cellular membranes where the signaling is often initiated and propagated. In this work, we show that LST1/A, an incompletely characterized protein encoded by MHCIII locus, is a palmitoylated transmembrane adaptor protein. It is expressed specifically in leukocytes of the myeloid lineage, where it localizes to the tetraspanin-enriched microdomains. In addition, it binds SHP-1 and SHP-2 phosphatases in a phosphotyrosine-dependent manner, facilitating their recruitment to the plasma membrane. These data suggest a role for LST1/A in negative regulation of signal propagation. PMID:22589543

  1. Adaptor protein 2-mediated endocytosis of the β-secretase BACE1 is dispensable for amyloid precursor protein processing.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Yogikala; Burgos, Patricia V; Schindler, Christina; Farías, Ginny G; Magadán, Javier G; Bonifacino, Juan S

    2012-06-01

    The β-site amyloid precursor protein (APP)-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is a transmembrane aspartyl protease that catalyzes the proteolytic processing of APP and other plasma membrane protein precursors. BACE1 cycles between the trans-Golgi network (TGN), the plasma membrane, and endosomes by virtue of signals contained within its cytosolic C-terminal domain. One of these signals is the DXXLL-motif sequence DISLL, which controls transport between the TGN and endosomes via interaction with GGA proteins. Here we show that the DISLL sequence is embedded within a longer [DE]XXXL[LI]-motif sequence, DDISLL, which mediates internalization from the plasma membrane by interaction with the clathrin-associated, heterotetrameric adaptor protein 2 (AP-2) complex. Mutation of this signal or knockdown of either AP-2 or clathrin decreases endosomal localization and increases plasma membrane localization of BACE1. Remarkably, internalization-defective BACE1 is able to cleave an APP mutant that itself cannot be delivered to endosomes. The drug brefeldin A reversibly prevents BACE1-catalyzed APP cleavage, ruling out that this reaction occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or ER-Golgi intermediate compartment. Taken together, these observations support the notion that BACE1 is capable of cleaving APP in late compartments of the secretory pathway.

  2. The structure and polymerase-recognition mechanism of the crucial adaptor protein AND-1 in the human replisome.

    PubMed

    Guan, Chengcheng; Li, Jun; Sun, Dapeng; Liu, Yingfang; Liang, Huanhuan

    2017-04-05

    DNA replication in eukaryotic cells is performed by a multi-protein complex called the replisome, which consists of helicases, polymerases and adaptor molecules. Human acidic nucleoplasmic DNA-binding protein 1 (AND-1), also known as WD repeat and HMG-box DNA binding protein 1 (WDHD1), is an adaptor molecule crucial for DNA replication. While structural information for the AND-1 yeast ortholog is available, the mechanistic details for how human AND-1 protein anchors the lagging-strand DNA polymerase α (Pol α) to the DNA helicase complex (Cdc45-MCM2-7-GINS, CMG) await elucidation. Here, we report the structures of the N-terminal WD40 and SepB domains of human AND-1, as well as a biochemical analysis of the C-terminal HMG domain. We show that AND-1 exists as a homo-trimer mediated by the SepB domain. Mutant study results suggested that a positively charged groove within the SepB domain provides binding sites for Pol α. Different from its ortholog protein in budding yeast, human AND-1 is recruited to the CMG complex mediated by unknown participants other than GINS. In addition, we show that AND-1 binds to DNA in vitro, using its C-terminal HMG domain. In conclusion, our findings provide important insights into the mechanistic details of human AND-1 function, advancing our understanding of replisome formation during eukaryotic replication.

  3. Ste50 adaptor protein governs sexual differentiation of Cryptococcus neoformans via the pheromone response MAPK signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kwang-Woo; Kim, Seo-Young; Okagaki, Laura H.; Nielsen, Kirsten; Bahn, Yong-Sun

    2010-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways control diverse cellular functions in pathogenic fungi, including sexual differentiation, stress-response, and maintenance of cell wall integrity. Here we characterized a C. neoformans gene, which is homologous to the yeast Ste50 that is known to play an important role in mating pheromone response and stress response as an adaptor protein to the Ste11 MAPK kinase kinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The C. neoformans Ste50 was not involved in any of the stress responses or virulence factor production (capsule and melanin) that are controlled by the HOG and Ras/cAMP signaling pathways. However, Ste50 was required for mating in both serotype A and serotype D C. neoformans strains. The ste50Δ mutant was completely defective in cell-cell fusion and mating pheromone production. Double mutation of the STE50 gene blocked increased production of pheromone and the hyper-filamentation phenotype of cells deleted of the CRG1 gene, which encodes the RGS protein that negatively regulates pheromone responsive G-protein signaling via the MAPK pathway. Regardless of the presence of the basidiomycota-specific SH3 domains of Ste50 that are known to be required for full virulence of Ustilago maydis, Ste50 was dispensable for virulence of C. neoformans in a murine model of cryptococcosis. In conclusion, the Ste50 adaptor protein controls sexual differentiation of C. neoformans via the pheromone-responsive MAPK pathway but is not required for virulence. PMID:20971202

  4. The importance of three membrane-distal tyrosines in the adaptor protein NTAL/LAB.

    PubMed

    Koonpaew, Surapong; Janssen, Erin; Zhu, Minghua; Zhang, Weiguo

    2004-03-19

    NTAL (non-T cell activation linker)/LAB (linker for activation of B cells) is a LAT (linker for activation of T cells)-like molecule that is expressed in B cells, mast cells, natural killer cells, and monocytes. Upon engagement of the B cell receptor or Fc receptors, it is phosphorylated and interacts with Grb2. LAB is capable of rescuing thymocyte development in LAT(-/-) mice. In this study, we utilized various LAB Tyr to Phe mutants to map the phosphorylation and Grb2-binding sites of LAB. We also examined the function of these mutants by investigating their ability to rescue signaling defects in LAT-deficient Jurkat cells and thymocyte development in LAT(-/-) mice. Our results indicated that human LAB was primarily phosphorylated on three membrane-distal tyrosines, Tyr(136), Tyr(193), and Tyr(233). Mutation of these three tyrosines abolished Grb2 binding and LAB function. Our data suggested that these tyrosines are the most important tyrosines for LAB function.

  5. The Cellulosome System of Acetivibrio cellulolyticus Includes a Novel Type of Adaptor Protein and a Cell Surface Anchoring Protein

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qi; Gao, Wenchen; Ding, Shi-You; Kenig, Rina; Shoham, Yuval; Bayer, Edward A.; Lamed, Raphael

    2003-01-01

    designated ScaA. In addition, ScaB is thought to assume the role of an adaptor protein, which connects the primary scaffoldin (ScaA) to the cohesin-containing anchoring scaffoldin (ScaC). The cellulosome system of A. cellulolyticus thus appears to exhibit a special type of organization that reflects the function of the ScaB adaptor protein. The intercalation of three multiple cohesin-containing scaffoldins results in marked amplification of the number of enzyme subunits per cellulosome unit. At least 96 enzymes can apparently be incorporated into an individual A. cellulolyticus cellulosome. The role of such amplified enzyme incorporation and the resultant proximity of the enzymes within the cellulosome complex presumably contribute to the enhanced synergistic action and overall efficient digestion of recalcitrant forms of cellulose. Comparison of the emerging organization of the A. cellulolyticus cellulosome with the organizations in other cellulolytic bacteria revealed the diversity of the supramolecular architecture. PMID:12867464

  6. Dissecting nuclear Wingless signalling: recruitment of the transcriptional co-activator Pygopus by a chain of adaptor proteins.

    PubMed

    Städeli, Reto; Basler, Konrad

    2005-11-01

    Members of the Wingless (Wg)/Wnt family of secreted glycoproteins control cell fate during embryonic development and adult homeostasis. Wnt signals regulate the expression of target genes by activating a conserved signal transduction pathway. Upon receptor activation, the signal is transmitted intracellularly by stabilization of Armadillo (Arm)/beta-catenin. Arm/beta-catenin translocates to the nucleus, interacts with DNA-binding factors of the Pangolin (Pan)/TCF/LEF class and activates transcription of target genes in cooperation with the recently identified proteins Legless/BCL9 (Lgs) and Pygopus (Pygo). Here, we analyse the mode of action of Pan, Arm, Lgs, and Pygo in Drosophila cultured cells. We provide evidence that together these four proteins form a 'chain of adaptors' linking the NH2-terminal homology domain (NHD) of Pygo to the DNA-binding domain of Pan. We show that the NHD has potent transcriptional activation capacity, which differs from that of acidic activator domains and depends on a conserved NPF tripeptide. A single point mutation within this NPF motif abolishes the transcriptional activity of the Pygo NHD in vitro and strongly reduces Wg signalling in vivo. Together, our results suggest that the transcriptional output of Wg pathway activity largely relies on a 'chain of adaptors' design to direct the Pygo NHD to Wg target promoters in an Arm-dependent manner.

  7. The Grb2 adaptor.

    PubMed

    Chardin, P; Cussac, D; Maignan, S; Ducruix, A

    1995-08-01

    Grb2 is an 'adaptor' protein made of one SH2 and two SH3 domains. The SH3 domains bind to prolinerich motifs in the C-terminal part of the ras exchange factor Sos. Binding of the Grb2 SH2 domain to phosphotyrosine motifs on receptors, or other adaptor proteins such as Shc, recruits this Grb2/Sos complex at the plasma membrane where Sos stimulates nucleotide exchange on ras, then ras activates raf and leads to MAP kinase activation. The structure of Grb2, the precise motifs recognised by its SH2 and SH3 domains, the way Grb2 performs its function, a possible regulation of its association with Sos, and its ability to complex with other proteins in vivo, are discussed.

  8. Probing the Energetics of Dynactin Filament Assembly and the Binding of Cargo Adaptor Proteins Using Molecular Dynamics Simulation and Electrostatics-Based Structural Modeling.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wenjun

    2017-01-10

    Dynactin, a large multiprotein complex, binds with the cytoplasmic dynein-1 motor and various adaptor proteins to allow recruitment and transportation of cellular cargoes toward the minus end of microtubules. The structure of the dynactin complex is built around an actin-like minifilament with a defined length, which has been visualized in a high-resolution structure of the dynactin filament determined by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). To understand the energetic basis of dynactin filament assembly, we used molecular dynamics simulation to probe the intersubunit interactions among the actin-like proteins, various capping proteins, and four extended regions of the dynactin shoulder. Our simulations revealed stronger intersubunit interactions at the barbed and pointed ends of the filament and involving the extended regions (compared with the interactions within the filament), which may energetically drive filament termination by the capping proteins and recruitment of the actin-like proteins by the extended regions, two key features of the dynactin filament assembly process. Next, we modeled the unknown binding configuration among dynactin, dynein tails, and a number of coiled-coil adaptor proteins (including several Bicaudal-D and related proteins and three HOOK proteins), and predicted a key set of charged residues involved in their electrostatic interactions. Our modeling is consistent with previous findings of conserved regions, functional sites, and disease mutations in the adaptor proteins and will provide a structural framework for future functional and mutational studies of these adaptor proteins. In sum, this study yielded rich structural and energetic information about dynactin and associated adaptor proteins that cannot be directly obtained from the cryo-EM structures with limited resolutions.

  9. Multiple interactions drive adaptor-mediated recruitment of the ubiquitin ligase rsp5 to membrane proteins in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, James A; Lewis, Michael J; Nikko, Elina; Pelham, Hugh R B

    2007-07-01

    Recognition of membrane proteins by the Nedd4/Rsp5 ubiquitin ligase family is a critical step in their targeting to the multivesicular body pathway. Some substrates contain "PY" motifs (PPxY), which bind to WW domains in the ligase. Others lack PY motifs and instead rely on adaptors that recruit the ligase to them. To investigate the mechanism of adaptor-mediated ubiquitination, we have characterized the interactions between the adaptor Bsd2, the ubiquitin ligase Rsp5, and the membrane proteins Cps1, Tre1, and Smf1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have reconstituted adaptor-mediated modification of Cps1 and Tre1 in vitro, and we show that two PY motifs in Bsd2 and two WW domains (WW2 and WW3) in Rsp5 are crucial for this. The binding of a weak noncanonical DMAPSY motif in Bsd2 to WW3 is an absolute requirement for Bsd2 adaptor function. We show that sorting of the manganese transporter Smf1, which requires both Bsd2 and Tre1, depends upon two PY motifs in Bsd2 and one motif in Tre1 but only two WW domains in Rsp5. We suggest that sequential assembly of first a Bsd2/Rsp5 complex, then a Tre1/Bsd2/Rsp5 complex followed by a rearrangement of PY-WW interactions is required for the ubiquitination of Smf1.

  10. Deficiency of the adaptor protein SLy1 results in a natural killer cell ribosomopathy affecting tumor clearance.

    PubMed

    Arefanian, Saeed; Schäll, Daniel; Chang, Stephanie; Ghasemi, Reza; Higashikubo, Ryuji; Zheleznyak, Alex; Guo, Yizhan; Yu, Jinsheng; Asgharian, Hosseinali; Li, Wenjun; Gelman, Andrew E; Kreisel, Daniel; French, Anthony R; Zaher, Hani; Plougastel-Douglas, Beatrice; Maggi, Leonard; Yokoyama, Wayne; Beer-Hammer, Sandra; Krupnick, Alexander S

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with robust natural killer (NK) cell function incur lower rates of malignancies. To expand our understanding of genetic factors contributing to this phenomenon, we analyzed NK cells from cancer resistant and susceptible strains of mice. We identified a correlation between NK levels of the X-chromosome-located adaptor protein SLy1 and immunologic susceptibility to cancer. Unlike the case for T or B lymphocytes, where SLy1 shuttles between the cytoplasm and nucleus to facilitate signal transduction, in NK cells SLy1 functions as a ribosomal protein and is located solely in the cytoplasm. In its absence, ribosomal instability results in p53-mediated NK cell senescence and decreased clearance of malignancies. NK defects are reversible under inflammatory conditions and viral clearance is not impacted by SLy1 deficiency. Our work defines a previously unappreciated X-linked ribosomopathy that results in a specific and subtle NK cell dysfunction leading to immunologic susceptibility to cancer.

  11. Molecular basis for the specific recognition of the metazoan cyclic GMP-AMP by the innate immune adaptor protein STING

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Heping; Wu, Jiaxi; Chen, Zhijian J.; Chen, Chuo

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic GMP-AMP containing a unique combination of mixed phosphodiester linkages (2′3′-cGAMP) is an endogenous second messenger molecule that activates the type-I IFN pathway upon binding to the homodimer of the adaptor protein STING on the surface of endoplasmic reticulum membrane. However, the preferential binding of the asymmetric ligand 2′3′-cGAMP to the symmetric dimer of STING represents a physicochemical enigma. Here we show that 2′3′-cGAMP, but not its linkage isomers, adopts an organized free-ligand conformation that resembles the STING-bound conformation and pays low entropy and enthalpy costs in converting into the active conformation. Our results demonstrate that analyses of free-ligand conformations can be as important as analyses of protein conformations in understanding protein–ligand interactions. PMID:26150511

  12. Molecular basis for the specific recognition of the metazoan cyclic GMP-AMP by the innate immune adaptor protein STING

    DOE PAGES

    Shi, Heping; Wu, Jiaxi; Chen, Zhijian J.; ...

    2015-07-06

    Cyclic GMP-AMP containing a unique combination of mixed phosphodiester linkages (2'3'-cGAMP) is an endogenous second messenger molecule that activates the type-I IFN pathway upon binding to the homodimer of the adaptor protein STING on the surface of endoplasmic reticulum membrane. However, the preferential binding of the asymmetric ligand 2'3'-cGAMP to the symmetric dimer of STING represents a physicochemical enigma. In this paper, we show that 2'3'-cGAMP, but not its linkage isomers, adopts an organized free-ligand conformation that resembles the STING-bound conformation and pays low entropy and enthalpy costs in converting into the active conformation. Finally, our results demonstrate that analysesmore » of free-ligand conformations can be as important as analyses of protein conformations in understanding protein–ligand interactions.« less

  13. Molecular basis for the specific recognition of the metazoan cyclic GMP-AMP by the innate immune adaptor protein STING

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Heping; Wu, Jiaxi; Chen, Zhijian J.; Chen, Chuo

    2015-07-06

    Cyclic GMP-AMP containing a unique combination of mixed phosphodiester linkages (2'3'-cGAMP) is an endogenous second messenger molecule that activates the type-I IFN pathway upon binding to the homodimer of the adaptor protein STING on the surface of endoplasmic reticulum membrane. However, the preferential binding of the asymmetric ligand 2'3'-cGAMP to the symmetric dimer of STING represents a physicochemical enigma. In this paper, we show that 2'3'-cGAMP, but not its linkage isomers, adopts an organized free-ligand conformation that resembles the STING-bound conformation and pays low entropy and enthalpy costs in converting into the active conformation. Finally, our results demonstrate that analyses of free-ligand conformations can be as important as analyses of protein conformations in understanding protein–ligand interactions.

  14. Mapping the Zap-70 phosphorylation sites on LAT (linker for activation of T cells) required for recruitment and activation of signalling proteins in T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Paz, P E; Wang, S; Clarke, H; Lu, X; Stokoe, D; Abo, A

    2001-01-01

    T-cell-receptor (TCR)-mediated LAT (linker for activation of T cells) phosphorylation is critical for the membrane recruitment of signalling complexes required for T-cell activation. Although tyrosine phosphorylation of LAT is required for recruitment and activation of signalling proteins, the molecular mechanism associated with this event is unclear. In the present study we reconstituted the LAT signalling pathway by demonstrating that a direct tyrosine phosphorylation of LAT with activated protein-tyrosine kinase Zap70 is necessary and sufficient for the association and activation of signalling proteins. Zap-70 efficiently phosphorylates LAT on tyrosine residues at positions 226, 191, 171, 132 and 127. By substituting these tyrosine residues in LAT with phenylalanine and by utilizing phosphorylated peptides derived from these sites, we mapped the tyrosine residues in LAT required for the direct interaction and activation of Vav, p85/p110alpha and phospholipase Cgamma1 (PLCgamma1). Our results indicate that Tyr(226) and Tyr(191) are required for Vav binding, whereas Tyr(171) and Tyr(132) are necessary for association and activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase activity and PLCgamma1 respectively. Furthermore, by expression of LAT mutants in LAT-deficient T cells, we demonstrate that Tyr(191) and Tyr(171) are required for T-cell activation and Tyr(132) is required for the activation of PLCgamma1 and Ras signalling pathways. PMID:11368773

  15. Regulation of in vitro and in vivo immune functions by the cytosolic adaptor protein SKAP-HOM.

    PubMed

    Togni, M; Swanson, K D; Reimann, S; Kliche, S; Pearce, A C; Simeoni, L; Reinhold, D; Wienands, J; Neel, B G; Schraven, B; Gerber, A

    2005-09-01

    SKAP-HOM is a cytosolic adaptor protein representing a specific substrate for the Src family protein tyrosine kinase Fyn. Previously, several groups have provided experimental evidence that SKAP-HOM (most likely in cooperation with the cytosolic adaptor protein ADAP) is involved in regulating leukocyte adhesion. To further assess the physiological role of SKAP-HOM, we investigated the immune system of SKAP-HOM-deficient mice. Our data show that T-cell responses towards a variety of stimuli are unaffected in the absence of SKAP-HOM. Similarly, B-cell receptor (BCR)-mediated total tyrosine phosphorylation and phosphorylation of Erk, p38, and JNK, as well as immunoreceptor-mediated Ca(2+) responses, are normal in SKAP-HOM(-/-) animals. However, despite apparently normal membrane-proximal signaling events, BCR-mediated proliferation is strongly attenuated in the absence of SKAP-HOM(-/-). In addition, adhesion of activated B cells to fibronectin (a ligand for beta1 integrins) as well as to ICAM-1 (a ligand for beta2 integrins) is strongly reduced. In vivo, the loss of SKAP-HOM results in a less severe clinical course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis following immunization of mice with the encephalitogenic peptide of MOG (myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein). This is accompanied by strongly reduced serum levels of MOG-specific antibodies and lower MOG-specific T-cell responses. In summary, our data suggest that SKAP-HOM is required for proper activation of the immune system, likely by regulating the cross-talk between immunoreceptors and integrins.

  16. TIRAP, an Adaptor Protein for TLR2/4, Transduces a Signal from RAGE Phosphorylated upon Ligand Binding

    PubMed Central

    Sakaguchi, Masakiyo; Murata, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Ken-ichi; Ono, Tomoyuki; Sakaguchi, Yoshihiko; Motoyama, Akira; Hibino, Toshihiko; Kataoka, Ken; Huh, Nam-ho

    2011-01-01

    The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of a broad range of inflammatory, degenerative and hyperproliferative diseases. It binds to diverse ligands and activates multiple intracellular signaling pathways. Despite these pivotal functions, molecular events just downstream of ligand-activated RAGE have been surprisingly unknown. Here we show that the cytoplasmic domain of RAGE is phosphorylated at Ser391 by PKCζ upon binding of ligands. TIRAP and MyD88, which are known to be adaptor proteins for Toll-like receptor-2 and -4 (TLR2/4), bound to the phosphorylated RAGE and transduced a signal to downstream molecules. Blocking of the function of TIRAP and MyD88 largely abrogated intracellular signaling from ligand-activated RAGE. Our findings indicate that functional interaction between RAGE and TLRs coordinately regulates inflammation, immune response and other cellular functions. PMID:21829704

  17. Adaptor protein complex 4 deficiency causes severe autosomal-recessive intellectual disability, progressive spastic paraplegia, shy character, and short stature.

    PubMed

    Abou Jamra, Rami; Philippe, Orianne; Raas-Rothschild, Annick; Eck, Sebastian H; Graf, Elisabeth; Buchert, Rebecca; Borck, Guntram; Ekici, Arif; Brockschmidt, Felix F; Nöthen, Markus M; Munnich, Arnold; Strom, Tim M; Reis, Andre; Colleaux, Laurence

    2011-06-10

    Intellectual disability inherited in an autosomal-recessive fashion represents an important fraction of severe cognitive-dysfunction disorders. Yet, the extreme heterogeneity of these conditions markedly hampers gene identification. Here, we report on eight affected individuals who were from three consanguineous families and presented with severe intellectual disability, absent speech, shy character, stereotypic laughter, muscular hypotonia that progressed to spastic paraplegia, microcephaly, foot deformity, decreased muscle mass of the lower limbs, inability to walk, and growth retardation. Using a combination of autozygosity mapping and either Sanger sequencing of candidate genes or next-generation exome sequencing, we identified one mutation in each of three genes encoding adaptor protein complex 4 (AP4) subunits: a nonsense mutation in AP4S1 (NM_007077.3: c.124C>T, p.Arg42(∗)), a frameshift mutation in AP4B1 (NM_006594.2: c.487_488insTAT, p.Glu163_Ser739delinsVal), and a splice mutation in AP4E1 (NM_007347.3: c.542+1_542+4delGTAA, r.421_542del, p.Glu181Glyfs(∗)20). Adaptor protein complexes (AP1-4) are ubiquitously expressed, evolutionarily conserved heterotetrameric complexes that mediate different types of vesicle formation and the selection of cargo molecules for inclusion into these vesicles. Interestingly, two mutations affecting AP4M1 and AP4E1 have recently been found to cause cerebral palsy associated with severe intellectual disability. Combined with previous observations, these results support the hypothesis that AP4-complex-mediated trafficking plays a crucial role in brain development and functioning and demonstrate the existence of a clinically recognizable syndrome due to deficiency of the AP4 complex.

  18. Phosphatidylinositol-4-Kinase Type II α Is a Component of Adaptor Protein-3-derived VesiclesD⃞

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Gloria; Craige, Branch; Wainer, Bruce H.; Guo, Jun; De Camilli, Pietro; Faundez, Victor

    2005-01-01

    A membrane fraction enriched in vesicles containing the adaptor protein (AP) -3 cargo zinc transporter 3 was generated from PC12 cells and was used to identify new components of these organelles by mass spectrometry. Proteins prominently represented in the fraction included AP-3 subunits, synaptic vesicle proteins, and lysosomal proteins known to be sorted in an AP-3-dependent way or to interact genetically with AP-3. A protein enriched in this fraction was phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase type IIα (PI4KIIα). Biochemical, pharmacological, and morphological analyses supported the presence of PI4KIIα in AP-3-positive organelles. Furthermore, the subcellular localization of PI4KIIα was altered in cells from AP-3-deficient mocha mutant mice. The PI4KIIα normally present both in perinuclear and peripheral organelles was substantially decreased in the peripheral membranes of AP-3-deficient mocha fibroblasts. In addition, as is the case for other proteins sorted in an AP-3-dependent way, PI4KIIα content was strongly reduced in nerve terminals of mocha hippocampal mossy fibers. The functional relationship between AP-3 and PI4KIIα was further explored by PI4KIIα knockdown experiments. Reduction of the cellular content of PI4KIIα strongly decreased the punctate distribution of AP-3 observed in PC12 cells. These results indicate that PI4KIIα is present on AP-3 organelles where it regulates AP-3 function. PMID:15944223

  19. Adaptor protein complex 1 mediates the transport of lysosomal proteins from a Golgi-like organelle to peripheral vacuoles in the primitive eukaryote Giardia lamblia.

    PubMed

    Touz, María C; Kulakova, Liudmila; Nash, Theodore E

    2004-07-01

    Giardia lamblia is an early branching protist that possesses peripheral vacuoles (PVs) with characteristics of lysosome-like organelles, located underneath the plasma membrane. In more evolved cells, lysosomal protein trafficking is achieved by cargo recognition involving adaptor protein (AP) complexes that recognize specific amino acid sequences (tyrosine and/or dileucine motifs) within the cytoplasmic tail of membrane proteins. Previously, we reported that Giardia has a tyrosine-based sorting system, which mediates the targeting of a membrane-associated cysteine protease (encystation-specific cysteine protease, ESCP) to the PVs. Here, we show that Giardia AP1 mediates the transport of ESCP and the soluble acid phosphatase (AcPh) to the PVs. By using the yeast two-hybrid assay we found that the ESCP tyrosine-based motif interacts specifically with the medium subunit of AP1 (Gimicroa). Hemagglutinin-tagged Gimicroa colocalizes with ESCP and AcPh and coimmunoprecipitates with clathrin, suggesting that protein trafficking toward the PVs is clathrin-adaptin dependent. Targeted disruption of Gimicroa results in mislocalization of ESCP and AcPh but not of variant-specific surface proteins. Our results suggest that, unlike mammalian cells, only AP1 is involved in anterograde protein trafficking to the PVs in Giardia. Moreover, even though Giardia trophozoites lack a morphologically discernible Golgi apparatus, the presence of a clathrin-adaptor system suggests that this parasite possess a primitive secretory organelle capable of sorting proteins similar to that of more evolved cells.

  20. Brucella TIR-like protein TcpB/Btp1 specifically targets the host adaptor protein MAL/TIRAP to promote infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenna; Ke, Yuehua; Wang, Yufei; Yang, Mingjuan; Gao, Junguang; Zhan, Shaoxia; Xinying, Du; Huang, Liuyu; Li, Wenfeng; Chen, Zeliang; Li, Juan

    2016-08-26

    Brucella spp. are known to avoid host immune recognition and weaken the immune response to infection. Brucella like accomplish this by employing two clever strategies, called the stealth strategy and hijacking strategy. The TIR domain-containing protein (TcpB/Btp1) of Brucella melitensis is thought to be involved in inhibiting host NF-κB activation by binding to adaptors downstream of Toll-like receptors. However, of the five TIR domain-containing adaptors conserved in mammals, whether MyD88 or MAL, even other three adaptors, are specifically targeted by TcpB has not been identified. Here, we confirmed the effect of TcpB on B.melitensis virulence in mice and found that TcpB selectively targets MAL. By using siRNA against MAL, we found that TcpB from B.melitensis is involved in intracellular survival and that MAL affects intracellular replication of B.melitensis. Our results confirm that TcpB specifically targets MAL/TIRAP to disrupt downstream signaling pathways and promote intra-host survival of Brucella spp. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Tarp regulates early Chlamydia-induced host cell survival through interactions with the human adaptor protein SHC1.

    PubMed

    Mehlitz, Adrian; Banhart, Sebastian; Mäurer, André P; Kaushansky, Alexis; Gordus, Andrew G; Zielecki, Julia; Macbeath, Gavin; Meyer, Thomas F

    2010-07-12

    Many bacterial pathogens translocate effector proteins into host cells to manipulate host cell functions. Here, we used a protein microarray comprising virtually all human SRC homology 2 (SH2) and phosphotyrosine binding domains to comprehensively and quantitatively assess interactions between host cell proteins and the early phase Chlamydia trachomatis effector protein translocated actin-recruiting phosphoprotein (Tarp), which is rapidly tyrosine phosphorylated upon host cell entry. We discovered numerous novel interactions between human SH2 domains and phosphopeptides derived from Tarp. The adaptor protein SHC1 was among Tarp's strongest interaction partners. Transcriptome analysis of SHC1-dependent gene regulation during infection indicated that SHC1 regulates apoptosis- and growth-related genes. SHC1 knockdown sensitized infected host cells to tumor necrosis factor-induced apoptosis. Collectively, our findings reveal a critical role for SHC1 in early C. trachomatis-induced cell survival and suggest that Tarp functions as a multivalent phosphorylation-dependent signaling hub that is important during the early phase of chlamydial infection.

  2. Adaptor Protein Complexes AP-1 and AP-3 Are Required by the HHV-7 Immunoevasin U21 for Rerouting of Class I MHC Molecules to the Lysosomal Compartment

    PubMed Central

    Kimpler, Lisa A.; Glosson, Nicole L.; Downs, Deanna; Gonyo, Patrick; May, Nathan A.; Hudson, Amy W.

    2014-01-01

    The human herpesvirus-7 (HHV-7) U21 gene product binds to class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules and reroutes them to a lysosomal compartment. Trafficking of integral membrane proteins to lysosomes is mediated through cytoplasmic sorting signals that recruit heterotetrameric clathrin adaptor protein (AP) complexes, which in turn mediate protein sorting in post-Golgi vesicular transport. Since U21 can mediate rerouting of class I molecules to lysosomes even when lacking its cytoplasmic tail, we hypothesize the existence of a cellular protein that contains the lysosomal sorting information required to escort class I molecules to the lysosomal compartment. If such a protein exists, we expect that it might recruit clathrin adaptor protein complexes as a means of lysosomal sorting. Here we describe experiments demonstrating that the μ adaptins from AP-1 and AP-3 are involved in U21-mediated trafficking of class I molecules to lysosomes. These experiments support the idea that a cellular protein(s) is necessary for U21-mediated lysosomal sorting of class I molecules. We also examine the impact of transient versus chronic knockdown of these adaptor protein complexes, and show that the few remaining μ subunits in the cells are eventually able to reroute class I molecules to lysosomes. PMID:24901711

  3. Adaptor Protein CD2AP and L-type Lectin LMAN2 Regulate Exosome Cargo Protein Trafficking through the Golgi Complex.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Sang-Ho; Oh, Sekyung; Nacke, Marisa; Mostov, Keith E; Lipschutz, Joshua H

    2016-12-02

    Exosomes, 40-150-nm extracellular vesicles, transport biological macromolecules that mediate intercellular communications. Although exosomes are known to originate from maturation of endosomes into multivesicular endosomes (also known as multivesicular bodies) with subsequent fusion of the multivesicular endosomes with the plasma membrane, it remains unclear how cargos are selected for exosomal release. Using an inducible expression system for the exosome cargo protein GPRC5B and following its trafficking trajectory, we show here that newly synthesized GPRC5B protein accumulates in the Golgi complex prior to its release into exosomes. The L-type lectin LMAN2 (also known as VIP36) appears to be specifically required for the accumulation of GPRC5B in the Golgi complex and restriction of GPRC5B transport along the exosomal pathway. This may occur due to interference with the adaptor protein GGA1-mediated trans Golgi network-to-endosome transport of GPRC5B. The adaptor protein CD2AP-mediated internalization following cell surface delivery appears to contribute to the Golgi accumulation of GPRC5B, possibly in parallel with biosynthetic/secretory trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum. Our data thus reveal a Golgi-traversing pathway for exosomal release of the cargo protein GPRC5B in which CD2AP facilitates the entry and LMAN2 impedes the exit of the flux, respectively. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Identification of an adaptor protein that facilitates Nrf2-Keap1 complex formation and modulates antioxidant response.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuxue; Hou, Yongfan; Liu, Chunchun; Li, Yinlong; Guo, Weiwei; Wu, Jiu-Lin; Xu, Daqian; You, Xue; Pan, Yi; Chen, Yan

    2016-08-01

    Nrf2 plays a key role in the protection of the body against environmental stress via inducible expression of detoxification and antioxidant enzymes. Keap1 functions as a sensor for oxidative and electrophilic stresses and promotes Nrf2 degradation via its E3 ligase activity. Modulation of the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway has been extensively explored as a strategy to combat against drug toxicity and stress-induced diseases. Here we report a new player that modulates the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway. PAQR3, a membrane protein specifically localized in the Golgi apparatus, negatively regulates the expression of an array of Nrf2 target genes and alters cellular level of reactive oxygen species. PAQR3 tethers Nrf2 and Keap1, but not small MAF proteins to the Golgi apparatus. PAQR3 interacts with both Nrf2 and Keap1 and facilitates the interaction of Nrf2 with Keap1. PAQR3 promotes ubiquitination and degradation of Nrf2. Disruption of PAQR3 interaction with Nrf2 and Keap1 by a synthetic peptide reduces Nrf2 ubiquitination and elevates expression of Nrf2 target genes. At the animal level, deletion of PAQR3 increases Nrf2 protein level and the expression of Nrf2 target genes. In conclusion, our study pinpoints that PAQR3 functions as an adaptor protein to promote Nrf2-Keap1 complex formation, thereby modulating the Nrf2-Keap2 pathway and playing an important role in controlling antioxidant response of the cell.

  5. Rap1-GTP-interacting Adaptor Molecule (RIAM) Protein Controls Invasion and Growth of Melanoma Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Varas, Pablo; Coló, Georgina P.; Bartolomé, Ruben A.; Paterson, Andrew; Medraño-Fernández, Iria; Arellano-Sánchez, Nohemí; Cabañas, Carlos; Sánchez-Mateos, Paloma; Lafuente, Esther M.; Boussiotis, Vassiliki A.; Strömblad, Staffan; Teixidó, Joaquin

    2011-01-01

    The Mig-10/RIAM/lamellipodin (MRL) family member Rap1-GTP-interacting adaptor molecule (RIAM) interacts with active Rap1, a small GTPase that is frequently activated in tumors such as melanoma and prostate cancer. We show here that RIAM is expressed in metastatic human melanoma cells and that both RIAM and Rap1 are required for BLM melanoma cell invasion. RIAM silencing in melanoma cells led to inhibition of tumor growth and to delayed metastasis in a severe combined immunodeficiency xenograft model. Defective invasion of RIAM-silenced melanoma cells arose from impairment in persistent cell migration directionality, which was associated with deficient activation of a Vav2-RhoA-ROCK-myosin light chain pathway. Expression of constitutively active Vav2 and RhoA in cells depleted for RIAM partially rescued their invasion, indicating that Vav2 and RhoA mediate RIAM function. These results suggest that inhibition of cell invasion in RIAM-silenced melanoma cells is likely based on altered cell contractility and cell polarization. Furthermore, we show that RIAM depletion reduces β1 integrin-dependent melanoma cell adhesion, which correlates with decreased activation of both Erk1/2 MAPK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, two central molecules controlling cell growth and cell survival. In addition to causing inhibition of cell proliferation, RIAM silencing led to higher susceptibility to cell apoptosis. Together, these data suggest that defective activation of these kinases in RIAM-silenced cells could account for inhibition of melanoma cell growth and that RIAM might contribute to the dissemination of melanoma cells. PMID:21454517

  6. The adaptor protein SLP-76 regulates HIV-1 release and cell-to-cell transmission in T cells.

    PubMed

    Nagaraja, Tirumuru; Anand, Appakkudal R; Zhao, Helong; Ganju, Ramesh K

    2012-03-15

    HIV-1 infection in T cells is regulated by TCR activation. However, the cellular proteins of the TCR pathway that regulate HIV-1 infection are poorly characterized. In this study, in HIV-1 infection, we observed a significant reduction of HIV-1 virus production in Src homology 2 domain-containing leukocyte protein of 76 kDa (SLP-76)-deficient Jurkat T cells compared with wild-type and SLP-76-reconstituted Jurkat T cells. We further confirmed the role of SLP-76 in HIV-1 infection by small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown in MT4 cells and PBMCs. Structural-functional analysis revealed that the N-terminal domain of SLP-76 was important for regulating HIV-1 infection. Further mechanistic studies revealed that lack of SLP-76 impaired virus release, but did not affect viral entry, integration, and transcription. We also showed that SLP-76 plays a critical role in cell-to-cell transmission of HIV-1. Signaling studies revealed that SLP-76 associated with viral negative regulatory factor protein and multiple signaling molecules during HIV-1 infection. Furthermore, SLP-76 facilitated the association of negative regulatory factor and F-actin, suggesting that SLP-76 mediates the formation of a signaling complex that may regulate viral release via cytoskeletal changes. Taken together, our studies demonstrate a novel role for the adaptor molecule SLP-76 in regulating HIV-1 infection in T cells with the potential to develop innovative strategies against HIV-1.

  7. The cytoskeleton adaptor protein ankyrin-1 is upregulated by p53 following DNA damage and alters cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Hall, A E; Lu, W-T; Godfrey, J D; Antonov, A V; Paicu, C; Moxon, S; Dalmay, T; Wilczynska, A; Muller, P A J; Bushell, M

    2016-01-01

    The integrity of the genome is maintained by a host of surveillance and repair mechanisms that are pivotal for cellular function. The tumour suppressor protein p53 is a major component of the DNA damage response pathway and plays a vital role in the maintenance of cell-cycle checkpoints. Here we show that a microRNA, miR-486, and its host gene ankyrin-1 (ANK1) are induced by p53 following DNA damage. Strikingly, the cytoskeleton adaptor protein ankyrin-1 was induced over 80-fold following DNA damage. ANK1 is upregulated in response to a variety of DNA damage agents in a range of cell types. We demonstrate that miR-486-5p is involved in controlling G1/S transition following DNA damage, whereas the induction of the ankyrin-1 protein alters the structure of the actin cytoskeleton and sustains limited cell migration during DNA damage. Importantly, we found that higher ANK1 expression correlates with decreased survival in cancer patients. Thus, these observations highlight ANK1 as an important effector downstream of the p53 pathway. PMID:27054339

  8. Interactions of y+LAT1 and 4F2hc in the y+l amino acid transporter complex: consequences of lysinuric protein intolerance-causing mutations.

    PubMed

    Toivonen, Minna; Tringham, Maaria; Kurko, Johanna; Terho, Perttu; Simell, Olli; Heiskanen, Kaisa M; Mykkänen, Juha

    2013-12-01

    Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) is an inherited aminoaciduria caused by recessive mutations in the SLC7A7 gene encoding y+L amino acid transporter 1 (y+LAT1), which combines with 4F2hc to generate an active transporter responsible for the system y+L amino acid transport. We have previously shown that the y+LAT1 proteins with point mutations are expressed in the plasma membrane, while those with frameshift mutations are retained in the cytoplasm. This finding has prompted us to study whether the difference in localization is due to the inability of the structurally altered mutant y+LAT1 proteins to heteromerize with 4F2hc. For this purpose, we utilized FACS technique to reveal fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) in cells expressing wild type or LPI-mutant CFP-tagged y+LAT1 and YFP-tagged 4F2hc. The heteromerization of y+LAT1 and 4F2hc within the cell is not disrupted by any of the tested LPI mutations. In addition, the expression rate of the LPI mutant y+LAT1 proteins was significantly lower and cellular mortality was markedly increased than that of the wild type y+LAT1 in transfected samples. Our results indicate that the FACS-FRET method provides an alternative approach for screening of potential protein associations.

  9. Modulation of TCR responsiveness by the Grb2-family adaptor, Gads.

    PubMed

    Lugassy, Jennie; Corso, Jasmin; Beach, Dvora; Petrik, Thomas; Oellerich, Thomas; Urlaub, Henning; Yablonski, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    T cell antigen receptor (TCR) signaling depends on three interacting adaptor proteins: SLP-76, Gads, and LAT. Their mechanisms of signaling have been extensively explored, with the aid of fortuitously isolated LAT- and SLP-76-deficient T cell lines, but no such tools were available for Gads, a Grb2-family adaptor that bridges the TCR-inducible interaction between SLP-76 and LAT. TALEN-directed genome editing was applied to disrupt the first coding exon of human Gads in the Jurkat T cell line. Gads was dispensable for TCR-induced phosphorylation of SLP-76, but was a dose-dependent amplifier of TCR-induced CD69 expression. Gads conferred responsiveness to weak TCR stimuli, leading to PLC-γ1 phosphorylation and calcium flux. TALEN-derived, Gads-deficient T cell lines provide a uniquely tractable genetic platform for exploring its regulatory features, such as Gads phosphorylation at T262, which we observed by mass spectrometry. Upon mutation of this site, TCR responsiveness and sensitivity to weak TCR stimuli were increased. This study demonstrates the feasibility of TALEN-based reverse genetics in Jurkat T cells, while enriching our understanding of Gads as a regulated modulator of TCR sensitivity.

  10. Distinct Involvement of the Gab1 and Grb2 Adaptor Proteins in Signal Transduction by the Related Receptor Tyrosine Kinases RON and MET

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, Amitabha; Xie, Ming-Hong; Yang, Becky; Mahapatra, Kaushiki; Liu, Jinfeng; Marsters, Scot; Bodepudi, Sweta; Ashkenazi, Avi

    2011-01-01

    Although the signal transduction mechanisms of the receptor tyrosine kinase MET are well defined, less is known about its close relative RON. MET initiates intracellular signaling by autophosphorylation on specific cytoplasmic tyrosines that form docking sites for the adaptor proteins Grb2 and Gab1. Grb2 binds directly and is essential for all of the biological activities of MET. Gab1 docks either directly or indirectly via Grb2 and controls only a subset of MET functions. Because MET and RON possess similar adaptor binding sites, it was anticipated that their adaptor interactions would be conserved. Here we show that in contrast to MET, RON relies primarily on Gab1 for signal transmission. Surprisingly, disruption of the Grb2 docking site of RON or Grb2 depletion augments activity, whereas enhancement of Grb2 binding attenuates Gab1 recruitment and signaling. Hence, RON and MET differ in their adaptor interactions; furthermore, Grb2 performs a novel antagonistic role in the context of RON signaling. PMID:21784853

  11. Signaling adaptor protein SH2B1 enhances neurite outgrowth and accelerates the maturation of human induced neurons.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yi-Chao; Chen, Su-Liang; Wang, Ya-Jean; Chen, Yun-Hsiang; Wang, Dan-Yen; Chen, Linyi; Chen, Chia-Hsiang; Chen, Hwei-Hsien; Chiu, Ing-Ming

    2014-06-01

    Recent advances in somatic cell reprogramming have highlighted the plasticity of the somatic epigenome, particularly through demonstrations of direct lineage reprogramming of adult mouse and human fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and induced neurons (iNs) under defined conditions. However, human cells appear to be less plastic and have a higher epigenetic hurdle for reprogramming to both iPSCs and iNs. Here, we show that SH2B adaptor protein 1β (SH2B1) can enhance neurite outgrowth of iNs reprogrammed from human fibroblasts as early as day 14, when combined with miR124 and transcription factors BRN2 and MYT1L (IBM) under defined conditions. These SH2B1-enhanced iNs (S-IBM) showed canonical neuronal morphology, and expressed multiple neuronal markers, such as TuJ1, NeuN, and synapsin, and functional proteins for neurotransmitter release, such as GABA, vGluT2, and tyrosine hydroxylase. Importantly, SH2B1 accelerated mature process of functional neurons and exhibited action potentials as early as day 14; without SH2B1, the IBM iNs do not exhibit action potentials until day 21. Our data demonstrate that SH2B1 can enhance neurite outgrowth and accelerate the maturation of human iNs under defined conditions. This approach will facilitate the application of iNs in regenerative medicine and in vitro disease modeling.

  12. Signaling Adaptor Protein SH2B1 Enhances Neurite Outgrowth and Accelerates the Maturation of Human Induced Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Yi-Chao; Chen, Su-Liang; Wang, Ya-Jean; Chen, Yun-Hsiang; Wang, Dan-Yen; Chen, Linyi; Chen, Chia-Hsiang; Chen, Hwei-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in somatic cell reprogramming have highlighted the plasticity of the somatic epigenome, particularly through demonstrations of direct lineage reprogramming of adult mouse and human fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and induced neurons (iNs) under defined conditions. However, human cells appear to be less plastic and have a higher epigenetic hurdle for reprogramming to both iPSCs and iNs. Here, we show that SH2B adaptor protein 1β (SH2B1) can enhance neurite outgrowth of iNs reprogrammed from human fibroblasts as early as day 14, when combined with miR124 and transcription factors BRN2 and MYT1L (IBM) under defined conditions. These SH2B1-enhanced iNs (S-IBM) showed canonical neuronal morphology, and expressed multiple neuronal markers, such as TuJ1, NeuN, and synapsin, and functional proteins for neurotransmitter release, such as GABA, vGluT2, and tyrosine hydroxylase. Importantly, SH2B1 accelerated mature process of functional neurons and exhibited action potentials as early as day 14; without SH2B1, the IBM iNs do not exhibit action potentials until day 21. Our data demonstrate that SH2B1 can enhance neurite outgrowth and accelerate the maturation of human iNs under defined conditions. This approach will facilitate the application of iNs in regenerative medicine and in vitro disease modeling. PMID:24736401

  13. Adaptor Protein Complex 2–Mediated Endocytosis Is Crucial for Male Reproductive Organ Development in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo Youn; Xu, Zheng-Yi; Song, Kyungyoung; Kim, Dae Heon; Kang, Hyangju; Reichardt, Ilka; Sohn, Eun Ju; Friml, Jiří; Juergens, Gerd; Hwang, Inhwan

    2013-01-01

    Fertilization in flowering plants requires the temporal and spatial coordination of many developmental processes, including pollen production, anther dehiscence, ovule production, and pollen tube elongation. However, it remains elusive as to how this coordination occurs during reproduction. Here, we present evidence that endocytosis, involving heterotetrameric adaptor protein complex 2 (AP-2), plays a crucial role in fertilization. An Arabidopsis thaliana mutant ap2m displays multiple defects in pollen production and viability, as well as elongation of staminal filaments and pollen tubes, all of which are pivotal processes needed for fertilization. Of these abnormalities, the defects in elongation of staminal filaments and pollen tubes were partially rescued by exogenous auxin. Moreover, DR5rev:GFP (for green fluorescent protein) expression was greatly reduced in filaments and anthers in ap2m mutant plants. At the cellular level, ap2m mutants displayed defects in both endocytosis of N-(3-triethylammonium-propyl)-4-(4-diethylaminophenylhexatrienyl) pyridinium dibromide, a lypophilic dye used as an endocytosis marker, and polar localization of auxin-efflux carrier PIN FORMED2 (PIN2) in the stamen filaments. Moreover, these defects were phenocopied by treatment with Tyrphostin A23, an inhibitor of endocytosis. Based on these results, we propose that AP-2–dependent endocytosis plays a crucial role in coordinating the multiple developmental aspects of male reproductive organs by modulating cellular auxin level through the regulation of the amount and polarity of PINs. PMID:23975898

  14. Bivalent Motif-Ear Interactions Mediate the Association of the Accessory Protein Tepsin with the AP-4 Adaptor Complex.

    PubMed

    Mattera, Rafael; Guardia, Carlos M; Sidhu, Sachdev S; Bonifacino, Juan S

    2015-12-25

    The heterotetrameric (ϵ-β4-μ4-σ4) complex adaptor protein 4 (AP-4) is a component of a non-clathrin coat involved in protein sorting at the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Considerable interest in this complex has arisen from the recent discovery that mutations in each of its four subunits are the cause of a congenital intellectual disability and movement disorder in humans. Despite its physiological importance, the structure and function of this coat remain poorly understood. To investigate the assembly of the AP-4 coat, we dissected the determinants of interaction of AP-4 with its only known accessory protein, the ENTH/VHS-domain-containing protein tepsin. Using a variety of protein interaction assays, we found that tepsin comprises two phylogenetically conserved peptide motifs, [GS]LFXG[ML]X[LV] and S[AV]F[SA]FLN, within its C-terminal unstructured region, which interact with the C-terminal ear (or appendage) domains of the β4 and ϵ subunits of AP-4, respectively. Structure-based mutational analyses mapped the binding site for the [GS]LFXG[ML]X[LV] motif to a conserved, hydrophobic surface on the β4-ear platform fold. Both peptide-ear interactions are required for efficient association of tepsin with AP-4, and for recruitment of tepsin to the TGN. The bivalency of the interactions increases the avidity of tepsin for AP-4 and may enable cross-linking of multiple AP-4 heterotetramers, thus contributing to the assembly of the AP-4 coat. In addition to revealing critical aspects of this coat, our findings extend the paradigm of peptide-ear interactions, previously established for clathrin-AP-1/AP-2 coats, to a non-clathrin coat.

  15. The requirement of LAT in the primary and memory responses of CD8 T cells

    PubMed Central

    Ou-Yang, Chih-wen; Zhu, Minghua; Sullivan, Sarah A; Fuller, Deirdre M.; Zhang, Weiguo

    2013-01-01

    Linker for activation of T cells (LAT) is a transmembrane adaptor protein that links T cell receptor (TCR) engagement to downstream signaling events. While it is clear that LAT is essential in thymocyte development and initiation of T cell activation, its function during T cell expansion, contraction, and memory formation remains unknown. To study the role of TCR-mediated signaling in CD8 T cells during the course of pathogen infection, we used an inducible mouse model to delete LAT in antigen-specific CD8 T cells at different stages of Listeria infection and analyzed the effect of deletion on T cell responses. Our data showed that LAT is important for maintaining CD8 T cell expansion during the priming phase; however, it is not required for CD8 T cell contraction and memory maintenance. Moreover, LAT deficiency accelerates memory differentiation during the effector-to-memory transition, leading to a higher frequency of KLRG1lowIL-7RhighCD62Lhigh memory T cells. Nonetheless, these LAT-deficient memory T cells were unable to proliferate or produce cytokines upon secondary infection. Our data demonstrated that, while it is dispensable for contraction and memory maintenance, TCR-mediated signaling regulates CD8 T cell memory differentiation and is essential for the memory response against pathogens. PMID:23401587

  16. GRB2 Nucleates T Cell Receptor-Mediated LAT Clusters That Control PLC-γ1 Activation and Cytokine Production.

    PubMed

    Bilal, Mahmood Yousif; Houtman, Jon C D

    2015-01-01

    GRB2 is a ubiquitously expressed adaptor protein required for signaling downstream of multiple receptors. To address the role of GRB2 in receptor-mediated signaling, the expression of GRB2 was suppressed in human CD4+ T cells and its role downstream of the T cell receptor (TCR) was examined. Interestingly, GRB2 deficient T cells had enhanced signaling from complexes containing the TCR. However, GRB2 deficient T cells had substantially reduced production of IL-2 and IFN-γ. This defect was attributed to diminished formation of linker for activation of T cells (LAT) signaling clusters, which resulted in reduced MAP kinase activation, calcium flux, and PLC-γ1 recruitment to LAT signaling clusters. Add back of wild-type GRB2, but not a novel N-terminal SH3 domain mutant, rescued LAT microcluster formation, calcium mobilization, and cytokine release, providing the first direct evidence that GRB2, and its ability to bind to SH3 domain ligands, is required for establishing LAT microclusters. Our data demonstrate that the ability of GRB2 to facilitate protein clusters is equally important in regulating TCR-mediated functions as its capacity to recruit effector proteins. This highlights that GRB2 regulates signaling downstream of adaptors and receptors by both recruiting effector proteins and regulating the formation of signaling complexes.

  17. GRB2 Nucleates T Cell Receptor-Mediated LAT Clusters That Control PLC-γ1 Activation and Cytokine Production

    PubMed Central

    Bilal, Mahmood Yousif; Houtman, Jon C. D.

    2015-01-01

    GRB2 is a ubiquitously expressed adaptor protein required for signaling downstream of multiple receptors. To address the role of GRB2 in receptor-mediated signaling, the expression of GRB2 was suppressed in human CD4+ T cells and its role downstream of the T cell receptor (TCR) was examined. Interestingly, GRB2 deficient T cells had enhanced signaling from complexes containing the TCR. However, GRB2 deficient T cells had substantially reduced production of IL-2 and IFN-γ. This defect was attributed to diminished formation of linker for activation of T cells (LAT) signaling clusters, which resulted in reduced MAP kinase activation, calcium flux, and PLC-γ1 recruitment to LAT signaling clusters. Add back of wild-type GRB2, but not a novel N-terminal SH3 domain mutant, rescued LAT microcluster formation, calcium mobilization, and cytokine release, providing the first direct evidence that GRB2, and its ability to bind to SH3 domain ligands, is required for establishing LAT microclusters. Our data demonstrate that the ability of GRB2 to facilitate protein clusters is equally important in regulating TCR-mediated functions as its capacity to recruit effector proteins. This highlights that GRB2 regulates signaling downstream of adaptors and receptors by both recruiting effector proteins and regulating the formation of signaling complexes. PMID:25870599

  18. The Adaptor Protein SAP Directly Associates with CD3ζ Chain and Regulates T Cell Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Proust, Richard; Bertoglio, Jacques; Gesbert, Franck

    2012-01-01

    Mutations altering the gene encoding the SLAM associated protein (SAP) are responsible for the X-linked lymphoproliferative disease or XLP1. Its absence is correlated with a defective NKT cells development, a decrease in B cell functions and a reduced T cells and NK cells cytotoxic activities, thus leading to an immunodeficiency syndrome. SAP is a small 128 amino-acid long protein that is almost exclusively composed of an SH2 domain. It has been shown to interact with the CD150/SLAM family of receptors, and in a non-canonical manner with SH3 containing proteins such as Fyn, βPIX, PKCθ and Nck1. It would thus play the role of a minimal adaptor protein. It has been shown that SAP plays an important function in the activation of T cells through its interaction with the SLAM family of receptors. Therefore SAP defective T cells display a reduced activation of signaling events downstream of the TCR-CD3 complex triggering. In the present work, we evidence that SAP is a direct interactor of the CD3ζ chain. This direct interaction occurs through the first ITAM of CD3ζ, proximal to the membrane. Additionally, we show that, in the context of the TCR-CD3 signaling, an Sh-RNA mediated silencing of SAP is responsible for a decrease of several canonical T cell signaling pathways including Erk, Akt and PLCγ1 and to a reduced induction of IL-2 and IL-4 mRNA. Altogether, we show that SAP plays a central function in the T cell activation processes through a direct association with the CD3 complex. PMID:22912825

  19. New insight into the functions of the interleukin-17 receptor adaptor protein Act1 in psoriatic arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies have implicated the tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 3-interacting protein 2 (TRAF3IP2) gene and its product, nuclear factor-kappa-B activator 1 (Act1), in the development of psoriatic arthritis (PsA). The high level of sequence homology of the TRAF3IP2 (Act1) gene across the animal kingdom and the presence of the Act1 protein in multiple cell types strongly suggest that the protein is of importance in normal cellular function. Act1 is an adaptor protein for the interleukin-17 (IL-17) receptor, and recent observations have highlighted the significance of IL-17 signaling and localized inflammation in autoimmune diseases. This review summarizes data from recent genome-wide association studies as well as immunological and molecular investigations of Act1. Together, these studies provide new insight into the role of IL-17 signaling in PsA. It is well established that IL-17 activation of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) signaling pathways normally leads to nuclear factor-kappa-B-mediated inflammation. However, the dominant PsA-associated TRAF3IP2 (Act1) gene single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs33980500) results in decreased binding of Act1 to TRAF6. This key mutation in Act1 could lead to a greater association of the IL-17 receptor with TRAF2/TRAF5 and this in turn suggests an alternative function for IL-17 in PsA. The recent observations described and discussed in this review raise the clinically significant possibility of redefining the immunological role of IL-17 in PsA and provide a basis for defining future studies to elucidate the molecular and cellular functions of Act1. PMID:23116200

  20. New insight into the functions of the interleukin-17 receptor adaptor protein Act1 in psoriatic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Matthew S; Collins, Emily S; FitzGerald, Oliver M; Pennington, Stephen R

    2012-10-31

    Recent genome-wide association studies have implicated the tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 3-interacting protein 2 (TRAF3IP2) gene and its product, nuclear factor-kappa-B activator 1 (Act1), in the development of psoriatic arthritis (PsA). The high level of sequence homology of the TRAF3IP2 (Act1) gene across the animal kingdom and the presence of the Act1 protein in multiple cell types strongly suggest that the protein is of importance in normal cellular function. Act1 is an adaptor protein for the interleukin-17 (IL-17) receptor, and recent observations have highlighted the significance of IL-17 signaling and localized inflammation in autoimmune diseases. This review summarizes data from recent genome-wide association studies as well as immunological and molecular investigations of Act1. Together, these studies provide new insight into the role of IL-17 signaling in PsA. It is well established that IL-17 activation of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) signaling pathways normally leads to nuclear factor-kappa-B-mediated inflammation. However, the dominant PsA-associated TRAF3IP2 (Act1) gene single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs33980500) results in decreased binding of Act1 to TRAF6. This key mutation in Act1 could lead to a greater association of the IL-17 receptor with TRAF2/TRAF5 and this in turn suggests an alternative function for IL-17 in PsA. The recent observations described and discussed in this review raise the clinically significant possibility of redefining the immunological role of IL-17 in PsA and provide a basis for defining future studies to elucidate the molecular and cellular functions of Act1.

  1. Early Loss of Telomerase Action in Yeast Creates a Dependence on the DNA Damage Response Adaptor Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Jay, Kyle A.; Smith, Dana L.

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres cap the ends of chromosomes, protecting them from degradation and inappropriate DNA repair processes that can lead to genomic instability. A short telomere elicits increased telomerase action on itself that replenishes telomere length, thereby stabilizing the telomere. In the prolonged absence of telomerase activity in dividing cells, telomeres eventually become critically short, inducing a permanent cell cycle arrest (senescence). We recently showed that even early after telomerase inactivation (ETI), yeast cells have accelerated mother cell aging and mildly perturbed cell cycles. Here, we show that the complete disruption of DNA damage response (DDR) adaptor proteins in ETI cells causes severe growth defects. This synthetic-lethality phenotype was as pronounced as that caused by extensive DNA damage in wild-type cells but showed genetic dependencies distinct from such damage and was completely alleviated by SML1 deletion, which increases deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) pools. Our results indicated that these deleterious effects in ETI cells cannot be accounted for solely by the slow erosion of telomeres due to incomplete replication that leads to senescence. We propose that normally occurring telomeric DNA replication stress is resolved by telomerase activity and the DDR in two parallel pathways and that deletion of Sml1 prevents this stress. PMID:27161319

  2. Early Loss of Telomerase Action in Yeast Creates a Dependence on the DNA Damage Response Adaptor Proteins.

    PubMed

    Jay, Kyle A; Smith, Dana L; Blackburn, Elizabeth H

    2016-07-15

    Telomeres cap the ends of chromosomes, protecting them from degradation and inappropriate DNA repair processes that can lead to genomic instability. A short telomere elicits increased telomerase action on itself that replenishes telomere length, thereby stabilizing the telomere. In the prolonged absence of telomerase activity in dividing cells, telomeres eventually become critically short, inducing a permanent cell cycle arrest (senescence). We recently showed that even early after telomerase inactivation (ETI), yeast cells have accelerated mother cell aging and mildly perturbed cell cycles. Here, we show that the complete disruption of DNA damage response (DDR) adaptor proteins in ETI cells causes severe growth defects. This synthetic-lethality phenotype was as pronounced as that caused by extensive DNA damage in wild-type cells but showed genetic dependencies distinct from such damage and was completely alleviated by SML1 deletion, which increases deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) pools. Our results indicated that these deleterious effects in ETI cells cannot be accounted for solely by the slow erosion of telomeres due to incomplete replication that leads to senescence. We propose that normally occurring telomeric DNA replication stress is resolved by telomerase activity and the DDR in two parallel pathways and that deletion of Sml1 prevents this stress. Copyright © 2016 Jay et al.

  3. The Adaptor Protein-1 μ1B Subunit Expands the Repertoire of Basolateral Sorting Signal Recognition in Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiaoli; Mattera, Rafael; Ren, Xuefeng; Chen, Yu; Retamal, Claudio; González, Alfonso; Bonifacino, Juan S.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY An outstanding question in protein sorting is why polarized epithelial cells express two isoforms of the μ1 subunit of the AP-1 clathrin adaptor complex: the ubiquitous μ1A and the epithelial-specific μ1B. Previous studies led to the notion that μ1A and μ1B mediate basolateral sorting predominantly from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and recycling endosomes, respectively. Using improved analytical tools, however, we find that μ1A and μ1B largely colocalize with each other. They also colocalize to similar extents with TGN and recycling endosome markers, as well as with basolateral cargoes transiting biosynthetic and endocytic-recycling routes. Instead, the two isoforms differ in their signal-recognition specificity. In particular, μ1B preferentially binds a subset of signals from cargoes that are sorted basolaterally in a μ1B-dependent manner. We conclude that expression of distinct μ1 isoforms in epithelial cells expands the repertoire of signals recognized by AP-1 for sorting of a broader range of cargoes to the basolateral surface. PMID:24229647

  4. Allelic Variation in the Toll-Like Receptor Adaptor Protein Ticam2 Contributes to SARS-Coronavirus Pathogenesis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Gralinski, Lisa E; Menachery, Vineet D; Morgan, Andrew P; Totura, Allison L; Beall, Anne; Kocher, Jacob; Plante, Jessica; Harrison-Shostak, D Corinne; Schäfer, Alexandra; Pardo-Manuel de Villena, Fernando; Ferris, Martin T; Baric, Ralph S

    2017-06-07

    Host genetic variation is known to contribute to differential pathogenesis following infection. Mouse models allow direct assessment of host genetic factors responsible for susceptibility to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Based on an assessment of early stage lines from the Collaborative Cross mouse multi-parent population, we identified two lines showing highly divergent susceptibilities to SARS-CoV: the resistant CC003/Unc and the susceptible CC053/Unc. We generated 264 F2 mice between these strains, and infected them with SARS-CoV. Weight loss, pulmonary hemorrhage, and viral load were all highly correlated disease phenotypes. We identified a quantitative trait locus of major effect on chromosome 18 (27.1-58.6 Mb) which affected weight loss, viral titer and hemorrhage. Additionally, each of these three phenotypes had distinct quantitative trait loci [Chr 9 (weight loss), Chrs 7 and 12 (virus titer), and Chr 15 (hemorrhage)]. We identified Ticam2, an adaptor protein in the TLR signaling pathways, as a candidate driving differential disease at the Chr 18 locus. Ticam2(-/-) mice were highly susceptible to SARS-CoV infection, exhibiting increased weight loss and more pulmonary hemorrhage than control mice. These results indicate a critical role for Ticam2 in SARS-CoV disease, and highlight the importance of host genetic variation in disease responses. Copyright © 2017 Gralinski et al.

  5. Neural-specific deletion of the focal adhesion adaptor protein paxillin slows migration speed and delays cortical layer formation.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Mamunur; Belmont, Judson; Carpenter, David; Turner, Christopher E; Olson, Eric C

    2017-09-21

    Paxillin and Hic-5 are homologous focal adhesion adaptor proteins that coordinate cytoskeletal rearrangements in response to integrin-signaling, but their role(s) in cortical development are unknown. Here, we find that Hic-5 deficient mice are postnatal viable with normal cortical layering. Mice with a neural-specific deletion of paxillin are also postnatal viable, but show evidence of a cortical neuron migration delay that is evident pre and perinatally, but is not detected at postnatal day 35 (P35). This phenotype is not modified by Hic-5 deficiency (double knockout). Specific deletion of paxillin in postmitotic neurons by Nex-Cre mediated recombination as well as in utero electroporation of a Cre-expression construct identified a cell-autonomous requirement for paxillin in migrating neurons. Paxillin-deficient neurons have shorter leading processes that exhibited multiple swellings in comparison to control. Multiphoton imaging revealed that paxillin-deficient neurons migrate ∼30% slower than control neurons. This phenotype is similar to that produced by deletion of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a signaling partner of paxillin and suggests paxillin and FAK function cell autonomously to control migrating neuron morphology and speed during cortical development. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. PTPN14 Forms a Complex with Kibra and LATS1 Proteins and Negatively Regulates the YAP Oncogenic Function*

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Kayla E.; Li, Ying-Wei; Yang, Nuo; Shen, He; Orillion, Ashley R.; Zhang, Jianmin

    2014-01-01

    The Hippo signaling pathway regulates cellular proliferation and survival, thus exerting profound effects on normal cell fate and tumorigenesis. Pivotal effectors of this pathway are YAP/TAZ, transcriptional co-activators whose dysfunction contributes to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and malignant transformation. Therefore, it is of great importance to decipher the mechanisms underlying the regulations of YAP/TAZ at various levels. Here we report that non-receptor tyrosine phosphatase 14 (PTPN14) interacts with the Kibra protein. The interaction between PTPN14 and Kibra is through the PPXY domain of PTPN14 and WW domain of Kibra. PTPN14 and Kibra can induce the LATS1 activation independently and cooperatively. Interestingly, activation of LATS1 by PTPN14 is dependent on the C terminus of PTPN14 and independent of the upstream mammalian STE20-like kinase (MST) proteins. Furthermore, we demonstrate that PTPN14 increases the LAST1 protein stability. Last, overexpression of Kibra rescues the increased cell migration and aberrant three-dimensional morphogenesis induced by knockdown of PTPN14, and this rescue is mediated through the activation of the upstream LATS1 kinase and subsequent cytoplasmic sequestration of YAP. In summary, our results indicate a potential regulatory role of PTPN14 in the Hippo pathway and demonstrate another layer of regulation in the YAP oncogenic function. PMID:25023289

  7. Dual Activation of TRIF and MyD88 Adaptor Proteins by Angiotensin II Evokes Opposing Effects on Pressure, Cardiac Hypertrophy and Inflammatory Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Madhu V.; Cicha, Michael Z.; Meyerholz, David K.; Chapleau, Mark W.; Abboud, François M.

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is recognized as an immune disorder whereby immune cells play a defining role in the genesis and progression of the disease. The innate immune system and its component toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key determinants of the immunological outcome through their pro-inflammatory response. TLR activated signaling pathways utilize several adaptor proteins of which adaptor proteins MyD88 and TRIF define two major inflammatory pathways. In this study, we compared the contributions of MyD88 and TRIF adaptor proteins to angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy in mice. Deletion of MyD88 did not prevent cardiac hypertrophy and the pressor response to Ang II tended to increase. Moreover, the increase in inflammatory gene expression (Tnfa, Nox4 and Agtr1a) was significantly greater in the heart and kidney of MyD88-deficient mice compared with wild type mice. Thus, pathways involving MyD88 may actually restrain the inflammatory responses. On the other hand, in mice with non-functional TRIF (Trifmut mice), Ang II induced hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy were abrogated, and pro-inflammatory gene expression in heart and kidneys was unchanged or decreased. Our results indicate that Ang II induces activation of a pro-inflammatory innate immune response, causing hypertension, and cardiac hypertrophy. These effects require functional adaptor protein TRIF-mediated pathways. However, the common MyD88 dependent signaling pathway, which is also activated simultaneously by Ang II, paradoxically exerts a negative regulatory influence on these responses. PMID:26195481

  8. Nuclear IKKbeta is an adaptor protein for IkappaBalpha ubiquitination and degradation in UV-induced NF-kappaB activation.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Yoshihiro; Asano, Tomoichiro; Nakayama, Keiko; Kato, Tomohisa; Karin, Michael; Kamata, Hideaki

    2010-08-27

    Proinflammatory cytokines activate NF-kappaB using the IkappaB kinase (IKK) complex that phosphorylates inhibitory proteins (IkappaBs) at N-terminal sites resulting in their ubiquitination and degradation in the cytoplasm. Although ultraviolet (UV) irradiation does not lead to IKK activity, it activates NF-kappaB by an unknown mechanism through IkappaBalpha degradation without N-terminal phosphorylation. Here, we describe an adaptor function of nuclear IKKbeta in UV-induced IkappaBalpha degradation. UV irradiation induces the nuclear translocation of IkappaBalpha and association with IKKbeta, which constitutively interacts with beta-TrCP through heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein-U (hnRNP-U) leading to IkappaBalpha ubiquitination and degradation. Furthermore, casein kinase 2 (CK2) and p38 associate with IKKbeta and promote IkappaBalpha degradation by phosphorylation at C-terminal sites. Thus, nuclear IKKbeta acts as an adaptor protein for IkappaBalpha degradation in UV-induced NF-kappaB activation. NF-kappaB activated by the nuclear IKKbeta adaptor protein suppresses anti-apoptotic gene expression and promotes UV-induced cell death.

  9. Comparative analysis of adaptor-mediated clathrin assembly reveals general principles for adaptor clustering.

    PubMed

    Pucadyil, Thomas J; Holkar, Sachin S

    2016-10-15

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) manages the sorting and uptake of the bulk of membrane proteins (or cargo) from the plasma membrane. CME is initiated by the formation of clathrin-coated pits (CCPs), in which adaptors nucleate clathrin assembly. Clathrin adaptors display diversity in both the type and number of evolutionarily conserved clathrin-binding boxes. How this diversity relates to the process of adaptor clustering as clathrin assembles around a growing pit remains unclear. Using real-time, fluorescence microscopy-based assays, we compare the formation kinetics and distribution of clathrin assemblies on membranes that display five unique clathrin adaptors. Correlations between equilibrium and kinetic parameters of clathrin assembly to the eventual adaptor distribution indicate that adaptor clustering is determined not by the amount of clathrin recruited or the degree of clathrin clustered but instead by the rate of clathrin assembly. Together our results emphasize the need to analyze kinetics of protein interactions to better understand mechanisms that regulate CME.

  10. [Drosophila melanogaster gene Merlin interacts with the clathrin adaptor protein gene lap].

    PubMed

    Kopyl, S A; Dorogova, N V; Akhmamet'eva, E M; Omel'ianchuk, L V; Chang, L -S

    2010-03-01

    The protein Merlin is involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation in the eyes and wings of Drosophila and is a homolog of the human protein encoded by the Neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) gene whose mutations cause auricular nerve tumors. Recent studies show that Merlin and Expanded cooperatively regulate the recycling of membrane receptors, such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). By performing a search for potential genetic interactions between Merlin (Mer) and the genes important for vesicular trafficking, we found that ectopic expression in the wing pouch of the clathrin adapter protein Lap involved in clathrin-mediated receptor endocytosis resulted in the formation of extra vein materials. On the one hand, coexpression of wild-type Merlin and lap in the wing pouch restored normal venation, while overexpression of a dominant-negative mutant Mer(DBB) together with lap enhanced ectopic vein formation. Using various constructs with Merlin truncated copies, we showed the C-terminal portion of the Merlin protein to be responsible for the Merlin-lap genetic interaction. Furthermore, we showed that the Merlin and Lap proteins colocalized at the cortex of the wing imaginal disc cells.

  11. Adaptor Protein-1 Complex Affects the Endocytic Trafficking and Function of Peptidylglycine α-Amidating Monooxygenase, a Luminal Cuproenzyme.

    PubMed

    Bonnemaison, Mathilde L; Bäck, Nils; Duffy, Megan E; Ralle, Martina; Mains, Richard E; Eipper, Betty A

    2015-08-28

    The adaptor protein-1 complex (AP-1), which transports cargo between the trans-Golgi network and endosomes, plays a role in the trafficking of Atp7a, a copper-transporting P-type ATPase, and peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), a copper-dependent membrane enzyme. Lack of any of the four AP-1 subunits impairs function, and patients with MEDNIK syndrome, a rare genetic disorder caused by lack of expression of the σ1A subunit, exhibit clinical and biochemical signs of impaired copper homeostasis. To explore the role of AP-1 in copper homeostasis in neuroendocrine cells, we used corticotrope tumor cells in which AP-1 function was diminished by reducing expression of its μ1A subunit. Copper levels were unchanged when AP-1 function was impaired, but cellular levels of Atp7a declined slightly. The ability of PAM to function was assessed by monitoring 18-kDa fragment-NH2 production from proopiomelanocortin. Reduced AP-1 function made 18-kDa fragment amidation more sensitive to inhibition by bathocuproine disulfonate, a cell-impermeant Cu(I) chelator. The endocytic trafficking of PAM was altered, and PAM-1 accumulated on the cell surface when AP-1 levels were reduced. Reduced AP-1 function increased the Atp7a presence in early/recycling endosomes but did not alter the ability of copper to stimulate its appearance on the plasma membrane. Co-immunoprecipitation of a small fraction of PAM and Atp7a supports the suggestion that copper can be transferred directly from Atp7a to PAM, a process that can occur only when both proteins are present in the same subcellular compartment. Altered luminal cuproenzyme function may contribute to deficits observed when the AP-1 function is compromised.

  12. Adaptor Protein-1 Complex Affects the Endocytic Trafficking and Function of Peptidylglycine α-Amidating Monooxygenase, a Luminal Cuproenzyme*

    PubMed Central

    Bonnemaison, Mathilde L.; Bäck, Nils; Duffy, Megan E.; Ralle, Martina; Mains, Richard E.; Eipper, Betty A.

    2015-01-01

    The adaptor protein-1 complex (AP-1), which transports cargo between the trans-Golgi network and endosomes, plays a role in the trafficking of Atp7a, a copper-transporting P-type ATPase, and peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), a copper-dependent membrane enzyme. Lack of any of the four AP-1 subunits impairs function, and patients with MEDNIK syndrome, a rare genetic disorder caused by lack of expression of the σ1A subunit, exhibit clinical and biochemical signs of impaired copper homeostasis. To explore the role of AP-1 in copper homeostasis in neuroendocrine cells, we used corticotrope tumor cells in which AP-1 function was diminished by reducing expression of its μ1A subunit. Copper levels were unchanged when AP-1 function was impaired, but cellular levels of Atp7a declined slightly. The ability of PAM to function was assessed by monitoring 18-kDa fragment-NH2 production from proopiomelanocortin. Reduced AP-1 function made 18-kDa fragment amidation more sensitive to inhibition by bathocuproine disulfonate, a cell-impermeant Cu(I) chelator. The endocytic trafficking of PAM was altered, and PAM-1 accumulated on the cell surface when AP-1 levels were reduced. Reduced AP-1 function increased the Atp7a presence in early/recycling endosomes but did not alter the ability of copper to stimulate its appearance on the plasma membrane. Co-immunoprecipitation of a small fraction of PAM and Atp7a supports the suggestion that copper can be transferred directly from Atp7a to PAM, a process that can occur only when both proteins are present in the same subcellular compartment. Altered luminal cuproenzyme function may contribute to deficits observed when the AP-1 function is compromised. PMID:26170456

  13. Depletion of the Adaptor Protein NCK Increases UV-Induced p53 Phosphorylation and Promotes Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Errington, Timothy M.; Macara, Ian G.

    2013-01-01

    The cellular response to DNA damage requires the coordination of many proteins involved in diverse molecular processes. Discrete molecular pathways are becoming increasingly well understood, but the interconnectivity and coordination of multiple pathways remains less clear. We now show that NCK, an adapter protein involved in cytoskeletal responses to tyrosine kinase receptor signaling, accumulates in the nucleus in response to DNA damage and this translocation can be blocked by specific inhibition of the ATR protein kinase. Strikingly, HeLa cells depleted of NCK undergo apoptosis shortly after UV irradiation, as monitored by caspase-3 cleavage and PARP cleavage. This rapid, hyperactive apoptosis in NCK depleted cells might be p53 dependent, because loss of NCK also increased UV-induced p53 phosphorylation. Importantly, depletion of SOCS7, which is necessary for NCK nuclear translocation, phenocopies NCK depletion, indicating the nuclear accumulation of NCK is responsible for these molecular events. There are two NCK isoforms that have mostly redundant functions, and although NCK2 appears to have a greater contribution, depletion of NCK1 or NCK2, led to increased p53 phosphorylation and early apoptosis after UV exposure. These data reveal a novel function for NCK in regulating p53 phosphorylation and apoptosis, and provide evidence for interconnectedness of growth factor signaling proteins and the DNA damage response. PMID:24086708

  14. CD2v Interacts with Adaptor Protein AP-1 during African Swine Fever Infection

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Núñez, Daniel; García-Urdiales, Eduardo; Martínez-Bonet, Marta; Nogal, María L.; Barroso, Susana; Revilla, Yolanda; Madrid, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) CD2v protein is believed to be involved in virulence enhancement, viral hemadsorption, and pathogenesis, although the molecular mechanisms of the function of this viral protein are still not fully understood. Here we describe that CD2v localized around viral factories during ASFV infection, suggesting a role in the generation and/or dynamics of these viral structures and hence in disturbing cellular traffic. We show that CD2v targeted the regulatory trans-Golgi network (TGN) protein complex AP-1, a key element in cellular traffic. This interaction was disrupted by brefeldin A even though the location of CD2v around the viral factory remained unchanged. CD2v-AP-1 binding was independent of CD2v glycosylation and occurred on the carboxy-terminal part of CD2v, where a canonical di-Leu motif previously reported to mediate AP-1 binding in eukaryotic cells, was identified. This motif was shown to be functionally interchangeable with the di-Leu motif present in HIV-Nef protein in an AP-1 binding assay. However, we demonstrated that it was not involved either in CD2v cellular distribution or in CD2v-AP-1 binding. Taken together, these findings shed light on CD2v function during ASFV infection by identifying AP-1 as a cellular factor targeted by CD2v and hence elucidate the cellular pathways used by the virus to enhance infectivity. PMID:25915900

  15. CD2v Interacts with Adaptor Protein AP-1 during African Swine Fever Infection.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Núñez, Daniel; García-Urdiales, Eduardo; Martínez-Bonet, Marta; Nogal, María L; Barroso, Susana; Revilla, Yolanda; Madrid, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) CD2v protein is believed to be involved in virulence enhancement, viral hemadsorption, and pathogenesis, although the molecular mechanisms of the function of this viral protein are still not fully understood. Here we describe that CD2v localized around viral factories during ASFV infection, suggesting a role in the generation and/or dynamics of these viral structures and hence in disturbing cellular traffic. We show that CD2v targeted the regulatory trans-Golgi network (TGN) protein complex AP-1, a key element in cellular traffic. This interaction was disrupted by brefeldin A even though the location of CD2v around the viral factory remained unchanged. CD2v-AP-1 binding was independent of CD2v glycosylation and occurred on the carboxy-terminal part of CD2v, where a canonical di-Leu motif previously reported to mediate AP-1 binding in eukaryotic cells, was identified. This motif was shown to be functionally interchangeable with the di-Leu motif present in HIV-Nef protein in an AP-1 binding assay. However, we demonstrated that it was not involved either in CD2v cellular distribution or in CD2v-AP-1 binding. Taken together, these findings shed light on CD2v function during ASFV infection by identifying AP-1 as a cellular factor targeted by CD2v and hence elucidate the cellular pathways used by the virus to enhance infectivity.

  16. Hypertension-causing Mutations in Cullin3 Protein Impair RhoA Protein Ubiquitination and Augment the Association with Substrate Adaptors*

    PubMed Central

    Ibeawuchi, Stella-Rita C.; Agbor, Larry N.; Quelle, Frederick W.; Sigmund, Curt D.

    2015-01-01

    Cullin-Ring ubiquitin ligases regulate protein turnover by promoting the ubiquitination of substrate proteins, targeting them for proteasomal degradation. It has been shown previously that mutations in Cullin3 (Cul3) causing deletion of 57 amino acids encoded by exon 9 (Cul3Δ9) cause hypertension. Moreover, RhoA activity contributes to vascular constriction and hypertension. We show that ubiquitination and degradation of RhoA is dependent on Cul3 in HEK293T cells in which Cul3 expression is ablated by either siRNA or by CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing. The latter was used to generate a Cul3-null cell line (HEK293TCul3KO). When expressed in these cells, Cul3Δ9 supported reduced ubiquitin ligase activity toward RhoA compared with equivalent levels of wild-type Cul3 (Cul3WT). Consistent with its reduced activity, binding of Cul3Δ9 to the E3 ubiquitin ligase Rbx1 and neddylation of Cul3Δ9 were impaired significantly compared with Cul3WT. Conversely, Cul3Δ9 bound to substrate adaptor proteins more efficiently than Cul3WT. Cul3Δ9 also forms unstable dimers with Cul3WT, disrupting dimers of Cul3WT complexes that are required for efficient ubiquitination of some substrates. Indeed, coexpression of Cul3WT and Cul3Δ9 in HEK293TCul3KO cells resulted in a decrease in the active form of Cul3WT. We conclude that Cul3Δ9-associated ubiquitin ligase activity toward RhoA is impaired and suggest that Cul3Δ9 mutations may act dominantly by sequestering substrate adaptors and disrupting Cul3WT complexes. PMID:26100637

  17. Crystal structures of the Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domains from the Brucella protein TcpB and host adaptor TIRAP reveal mechanisms of molecular mimicry.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Greg A; Deredge, Daniel; Waldhuber, Anna; Fresquez, Theresa; Wilkins, David Z; Smith, Patrick T; Durr, Susi; Cirl, Christine; Jiang, Jiansheng; Jennings, William; Luchetti, Timothy; Snyder, Nathaniel; Sundberg, Eric J; Wintrode, Patrick; Miethke, Thomas; Xiao, T Sam

    2014-01-10

    The Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domains are crucial innate immune signaling modules. Microbial TIR domain-containing proteins inhibit Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling through molecular mimicry. The TIR domain-containing protein TcpB from Brucella inhibits TLR signaling through interaction with host adaptor proteins TIRAP/Mal and MyD88. To characterize the microbial mimicry of host proteins, we have determined the X-ray crystal structures of the TIR domains from the Brucella protein TcpB and the host adaptor protein TIRAP. We have further characterized homotypic interactions of TcpB using hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry and heterotypic TcpB and TIRAP interaction by co-immunoprecipitation and NF-κB reporter assays. The crystal structure of the TcpB TIR domain reveals the microtubule-binding site encompassing the BB loop as well as a symmetrical dimer mediated by the DD and EE loops. This dimerization interface is validated by peptide mapping through hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry. The human TIRAP TIR domain crystal structure reveals a unique N-terminal TIR domain fold containing a disulfide bond formed by Cys(89) and Cys(134). A comparison between the TcpB and TIRAP crystal structures reveals substantial conformational differences in the region that encompasses the BB loop. These findings underscore the similarities and differences in the molecular features found in the microbial and host TIR domains, which suggests mechanisms of bacterial mimicry of host signaling adaptor proteins, such as TIRAP.

  18. Crystal Structures and Thermodynamic Analysis Reveal Distinct Mechanisms of CD28 Phosphopeptide Binding to the Src Homology 2 (SH2) Domains of Three Adaptor Proteins.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Satomi; Numoto, Nobutaka; Ogawa, Shuhei; Morii, Hisayuki; Ikura, Teikichi; Abe, Ryo; Ito, Nobutoshi; Oda, Masayuki

    2017-01-20

    Full activation of T cells and differentiation into effector T cells are essential for many immune responses and require co-stimulatory signaling via the CD28 receptor. Extracellular ligand binding to CD28 recruits protein-tyrosine kinases to its cytoplasmic tail, which contains a YMNM motif. Following phosphorylation of the tyrosine, the proteins growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2), Grb2-related adaptor downstream of Shc (Gads), and p85 subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase may bind to pYMNM (where pY is phosphotyrosine) via their Src homology 2 (SH2) domains, leading to downstream signaling to distinct immune pathways. These three adaptor proteins bind to the same site on CD28 with variable affinity, and all are important for CD28-mediated co-stimulatory function. However, the mechanism of how these proteins recognize and compete for CD28 is unclear. To visualize their interactions with CD28, we have determined the crystal structures of Gads SH2 and two p85 SH2 domains in complex with a CD28-derived phosphopeptide. The high resolution structures obtained revealed that, whereas the CD28 phosphopeptide bound to Gads SH2 is in a bent conformation similar to that when bound to Grb2 SH2, it adopts a more extended conformation when bound to the N- and C-terminal SH2 domains of p85. These differences observed in the peptide-protein interactions correlated well with the affinity and other thermodynamic parameters for each interaction determined by isothermal titration calorimetry. The detailed insight into these interactions reported here may inform the development of compounds that specifically inhibit the association of CD28 with these adaptor proteins to suppress excessive T cell responses, such as in allergies and autoimmune diseases. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Crystal Structures of the Toll/Interleukin-1 Receptor (TIR) Domains from the Brucella Protein TcpB and Host Adaptor TIRAP Reveal Mechanisms of Molecular Mimicry*

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Greg A.; Deredge, Daniel; Waldhuber, Anna; Fresquez, Theresa; Wilkins, David Z.; Smith, Patrick T.; Durr, Susi; Cirl, Christine; Jiang, Jiansheng; Jennings, William; Luchetti, Timothy; Snyder, Nathaniel; Sundberg, Eric J.; Wintrode, Patrick; Miethke, Thomas; Xiao, T. Sam

    2014-01-01

    The Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domains are crucial innate immune signaling modules. Microbial TIR domain-containing proteins inhibit Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling through molecular mimicry. The TIR domain-containing protein TcpB from Brucella inhibits TLR signaling through interaction with host adaptor proteins TIRAP/Mal and MyD88. To characterize the microbial mimicry of host proteins, we have determined the X-ray crystal structures of the TIR domains from the Brucella protein TcpB and the host adaptor protein TIRAP. We have further characterized homotypic interactions of TcpB using hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry and heterotypic TcpB and TIRAP interaction by co-immunoprecipitation and NF-κB reporter assays. The crystal structure of the TcpB TIR domain reveals the microtubule-binding site encompassing the BB loop as well as a symmetrical dimer mediated by the DD and EE loops. This dimerization interface is validated by peptide mapping through hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry. The human TIRAP TIR domain crystal structure reveals a unique N-terminal TIR domain fold containing a disulfide bond formed by Cys89 and Cys134. A comparison between the TcpB and TIRAP crystal structures reveals substantial conformational differences in the region that encompasses the BB loop. These findings underscore the similarities and differences in the molecular features found in the microbial and host TIR domains, which suggests mechanisms of bacterial mimicry of host signaling adaptor proteins, such as TIRAP. PMID:24275656

  20. New function of the adaptor protein SH2B1 in brain-derived neurotrophic factor-induced neurite outgrowth.

    PubMed

    Shih, Chien-Hung; Chen, Chien-Jen; Chen, Linyi

    2013-01-01

    Neurite outgrowth is an essential process for the establishment of the nervous system. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) binds to its receptor TrkB and regulates axonal and dendritic morphology of neurons through signal transduction and gene expression. SH2B1 is a signaling adaptor protein that regulates cellular signaling in various physiological processes. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of SH2B1 in the development of the central nervous system. In this study, we show that knocking down SH2B1 reduces neurite formation of cortical neurons whereas overexpression of SH2B1β promotes the development of hippocampal neurons. We further demonstrate that SH2B1β promotes BDNF-induced neurite outgrowth and signaling using the established PC12 cells stably expressing TrkB, SH2B1β or SH2B1β mutants. Our data indicate that overexpressing SH2B1β enhances BDNF-induced MEK-ERK1/2, and PI3K-AKT signaling pathways. Inhibition of MEK-ERK1/2 and PI3K-AKT pathways by specific inhibitors suggest that these two pathways are required for SH2B1β-promoted BDNF-induced neurite outgrowth. Moreover, SH2B1β enhances BDNF-stimulated phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 at serine 727. Finally, our data indicate that the SH2 domain and tyrosine phosphorylation of SH2B1β contribute to BDNF-induced signaling pathways and neurite outgrowth. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that SH2B1β promotes BDNF-induced neurite outgrowth through enhancing pathways involved MEK-ERK1/2 and PI3K-AKT.

  1. The adaptor protein SH2B3 (Lnk) negatively regulates neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells and cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tien-Cheng; Chiu, Hsun; Chang, Yu-Jung; Hsu, Tai-Yu; Chiu, Ing-Ming; Chen, Linyi

    2011-01-01

    SH2B adaptor protein family members (SH2B1-3) regulate various physiological responses through affecting signaling, gene expression, and cell adhesion. SH2B1 and SH2B2 were reported to enhance nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced neuronal differentiation in PC12 cells, a well-established neuronal model system. In contrast, SH2B3 was reported to inhibit cell proliferation during the development of immune system. No study so far addresses the role of SH2B3 in the nervous system. In this study, we provide evidence suggesting that SH2B3 is expressed in the cortex of embryonic rat brain. Overexpression of SH2B3 not only inhibits NGF-induced differentiation of PC12 cells but also reduces neurite outgrowth of primary cortical neurons. SH2B3 does so by repressing NGF-induced activation of PLCγ, MEK-ERK1/2 and PI3K-AKT pathways and the expression of Egr-1. SH2B3 is capable of binding to phosphorylated NGF receptor, TrkA, as well as SH2B1β. Our data further demonstrate that overexpression of SH2B3 reduces the interaction between SH2B1β and TrkA. Consistent with this finding, overexpressing the SH2 domain of SH2B3 is sufficient to inhibit NGF-induced neurite outgrowth. Together, our data demonstrate that SH2B3, unlike the other two family members, inhibits neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells and primary cortical neurons. Its inhibitory mechanism is likely through the competition of TrkA binding with the positive-acting SH2B1 and SH2B2.

  2. The c-Myc-interacting adaptor protein Bin1 activates a caspase-independent cell death program.

    PubMed

    Elliott, K; Ge, K; Du, W; Prendergast, G C

    2000-09-28

    Cell death processes are progressively inactivated during malignant development, in part by loss of tumor suppressors that can promote cell death. The Bin1 gene encodes a nucleocytosolic adaptor protein with tumor suppressor properties, initially identified through its ability to interact with and inhibit malignant transformation by c-Myc and other oncogenes. Bin1 is frequently missing or functionally inactivated in breast and prostate cancers and in melanoma. In this study, we show that Bin1 engages a caspase-independent cell death process similar to type II apoptosis, characterized by cell shrinkage, substratum detachment, vacuolated cytoplasm, and DNA degradation. Cell death induction was relieved by mutation of the BAR domain, a putative effector domain, or by a missplicing event that occurs in melanoma and inactivates suppressor activity. Cells in all phases of the cell cycle were susceptible to death and p53 and Rb were dispensable. Notably, Bin1 did not activate caspases and the broad spectrum caspase inhibitor ZVAD.fmk did not block cell death. Consistent with the lack of caspase involvement, dying cells lacked nucleosomal DNA cleavage and nuclear lamina degradation. Moreover, neither Bcl-2 or dominant inhibition of the Fas pathway had any effect. In previous work, we showed that Bin1 could not suppress cell transformation by SV40 large T antigen. Consistent with this finding, we observed that T antigen suppressed the death program engaged by Bin1. This observation was interesting in light of emerging evidence that T antigen has roles in cell immortalization and human cell transformation beyond Rb and p53 inactivation. In support of a link to c-Myc-induced death processes, AEBSF, a serine protease inhibitor that inhibits apoptosis by c-Myc, potently suppressed DNA degradation by Bin1. Our findings suggest that the tumor suppressor activity of Bin1 reflects engagement of a unique cell death program. We propose that loss of Bin1 may promote malignancy by

  3. Downregulation of adaptor protein MyD88 compromises the angiogenic potential of B16 murine melanoma.

    PubMed

    Trucco, Lucas Daniel; Roselli, Emiliano; Araya, Paula; Nuñez, Nicolás Gonzalo; Mena, Hebe Agustina; Bocco, José Luis; Negrotto, Soledad; Maccioni, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    The mechanisms that link inflammatory responses to cancer development remain a subject of intense investigation, emphasizing the need to better understand the cellular and molecular pathways that create a tumor promoting microenvironment. The myeloid differentiation primary response protein MyD88 acts as a main adaptor molecule for the signaling cascades initiated from Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and the interleukin 1 receptor (IL-1R). MyD88 has been shown to contribute to tumorigenesis in many inflammation-associated cancer models. In this study, we sought to better define the role of MyD88 in neoplastic cells using a murine melanoma model. Herein, we have demonstrated that MyD88 expression is required to maintain the angiogenic switch that supports B16 melanoma growth. By knocking down MyD88 we reduced TLR-mediated NF-κB activation with no evident effects over cell proliferation and survival. In addition, MyD88 downregulation was associated with a decrease of HIF1α levels and its target gene VEGF, in correlation with an impaired capability to induce capillary sprouting and tube formation of endothelial cells. Melanomas developed from cells lacking MyD88 showed an enhanced secretion of chemoattractant ligands such as CCL2, CXCL10 and CXCL1 and have an improved infiltration of macrophages to the tumor site. Our results imply that cell-autonomous signaling through MyD88 is required to sustain tumor growth and underscore its function as an important positive modulator of tumor angiogenesis.

  4. Recycling of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Is Mediated by a Novel Form of the Clathrin Adaptor Protein Eps15*

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Susan; Cao, Hong; Wang, Yu; McNiven, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Levels of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) at the cell surface are tightly regulated by a complex endocytic machinery. Following internalization, EGFR is either recycled back to the cell surface or transported to the late endosome/lysosome for degradation. Currently, the molecular machinery that regulates this sorting pathway is only partially defined. Eps15 (EGFR pathway substrate 15) is an endocytic adaptor protein that is well known to support clathrin-mediated internalization of EGFR at the plasma membrane. Using RT-PCR, we have identified a novel short form of Eps15 (Eps15S) from rat liver that lacks the 111 C-terminal amino acids present in the traditional Eps15 form. The goal of this study was to define the functional role of the novel Eps15S form in EGFR trafficking. Overexpression of a mutant form of Eps15S (Eps15S ΔEH2/EH3) did not block EGFR internalization but reduced its recycling to the cell surface. After knockdown of all Eps15 forms, re-expression of Eps15S significantly reduced EGFR degradation while promoting recycling back to the cell surface. In contrast, re-expression of Eps15 did not potentiate receptor recycling. Furthermore, overexpression of the mutant Eps15S substantially reduced cell proliferation, linking EGFR recycling to downstream mitogenic effects. Finally, we found that Eps15S is localized to the Rab11-positive recycling endosome that is disrupted in cells expressing the Eps15S mutant, leading to an accumulation of the EGFR in early endosomes. These findings suggest that distinct forms of Eps15 direct EGFR to either the late endosome/lysosome for degradation (Eps15) or to the recycling endosome for transit back to the cell surface (Eps15S). PMID:21832070

  5. Structural and functional characterization of cargo-binding sites on the μ4-subunit of adaptor protein complex 4.

    PubMed

    Ross, Breyan H; Lin, Yimo; Corales, Esteban A; Burgos, Patricia V; Mardones, Gonzalo A

    2014-01-01

    Adaptor protein (AP) complexes facilitate protein trafficking by playing key roles in the selection of cargo molecules to be sorted in post-Golgi compartments. Four AP complexes (AP-1 to AP-4) contain a medium-sized subunit (μ1-μ4) that recognizes YXXØ-sequences (Ø is a bulky hydrophobic residue), which are sorting signals in transmembrane proteins. A conserved, canonical region in μ subunits mediates recognition of YXXØ-signals by means of a critical aspartic acid. Recently we found that a non-canonical YXXØ-signal on the cytosolic tail of the Alzheimer's disease amyloid precursor protein (APP) binds to a distinct region of the μ4 subunit of the AP-4 complex. In this study we aimed to determine the functionality of both binding sites of μ4 on the recognition of the non-canonical YXXØ-signal of APP. We found that substitutions in either binding site abrogated the interaction with the APP-tail in yeast-two hybrid experiments. Further characterization by isothermal titration calorimetry showed instead loss of binding to the APP signal with only the substitution R283D at the non-canonical site, in contrast to a decrease in binding affinity with the substitution D190A at the canonical site. We solved the crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of the D190A mutant bound to this non-canonical YXXØ-signal. This structure showed no significant difference compared to that of wild-type μ4. Both differential scanning fluorimetry and limited proteolysis analyses demonstrated that the D190A substitution rendered μ4 less stable, suggesting an explanation for its lower binding affinity to the APP signal. Finally, in contrast to overexpression of the D190A mutant, and acting in a dominant-negative manner, overexpression of μ4 with either a F255A or a R283D substitution at the non-canonical site halted APP transport at the Golgi apparatus. Together, our analyses support that the functional recognition of the non-canonical YXXØ-signal of APP is limited to the non

  6. Structural and Functional Characterization of Cargo-Binding Sites on the μ4-Subunit of Adaptor Protein Complex 4

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Breyan H.; Lin, Yimo; Corales, Esteban A.; Burgos, Patricia V.; Mardones, Gonzalo A.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptor protein (AP) complexes facilitate protein trafficking by playing key roles in the selection of cargo molecules to be sorted in post-Golgi compartments. Four AP complexes (AP-1 to AP-4) contain a medium-sized subunit (μ1-μ4) that recognizes YXXØ-sequences (Ø is a bulky hydrophobic residue), which are sorting signals in transmembrane proteins. A conserved, canonical region in μ subunits mediates recognition of YXXØ-signals by means of a critical aspartic acid. Recently we found that a non-canonical YXXØ-signal on the cytosolic tail of the Alzheimer's disease amyloid precursor protein (APP) binds to a distinct region of the μ4 subunit of the AP-4 complex. In this study we aimed to determine the functionality of both binding sites of μ4 on the recognition of the non-canonical YXXØ-signal of APP. We found that substitutions in either binding site abrogated the interaction with the APP-tail in yeast-two hybrid experiments. Further characterization by isothermal titration calorimetry showed instead loss of binding to the APP signal with only the substitution R283D at the non-canonical site, in contrast to a decrease in binding affinity with the substitution D190A at the canonical site. We solved the crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of the D190A mutant bound to this non-canonical YXXØ-signal. This structure showed no significant difference compared to that of wild-type μ4. Both differential scanning fluorimetry and limited proteolysis analyses demonstrated that the D190A substitution rendered μ4 less stable, suggesting an explanation for its lower binding affinity to the APP signal. Finally, in contrast to overexpression of the D190A mutant, and acting in a dominant-negative manner, overexpression of μ4 with either a F255A or a R283D substitution at the non-canonical site halted APP transport at the Golgi apparatus. Together, our analyses support that the functional recognition of the non-canonical YXXØ-signal of APP is limited to the non

  7. The adaptor protein Cindr regulates JNK activity to maintain epithelial sheet integrity.

    PubMed

    Yasin, Hannah W R; van Rensburg, Samuel H; Feiler, Christina E; Johnson, Ruth I

    2016-02-15

    Epithelia are essential barrier tissues that must be appropriately maintained for their correct function. To achieve this a plethora of protein interactions regulate epithelial cell number, structure and adhesion, and differentiation. Here we show that Cindr (the Drosophila Cin85 and Cd2ap ortholog) is required to maintain epithelial integrity. Reducing Cindr triggered cell delamination and movement. Most delaminating cells died. These behaviors were consistent with JNK activation previously associated with loss of epithelial integrity in response to ectopic oncogene activity. We confirmed a novel interaction between Cindr and Drosophila JNK (dJNK), which when perturbed caused inappropriate JNK signaling. Genetically reducing JNK signaling activity suppressed the effects of reducing Cindr. Furthermore, ectopic JNK signaling phenocopied loss of Cindr and was partially rescued by concomitant cindr over-expression. Thus, correct Cindr-dJNK stoichiometry is essential to maintain epithelial integrity and disturbing this balance may contribute to the pathogenesis of disease states, including cancer.

  8. Dengue Virus Subverts Host Innate Immunity by Targeting Adaptor Protein MAVS

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhenjian; Zhu, Xun; Wen, Weitao; Yuan, Jie; Hu, Yiwen; Chen, Jiahui; An, Shu; Dong, Xinhuai; Lin, Cuiji; Yu, Jianchen; Wu, Jueheng; Yang, Yi; Cai, Junchao; Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dengue virus (DENV) is the most common mosquito-borne virus infecting humans and is currently a serious global health challenge. To establish infection in its host cells, DENV must subvert the production and/or antiviral effects of interferon (IFN). The aim of this study was to understand the mechanisms by which DENV suppresses IFN production. We determined that DENV NS4A interacts with mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS), which was previously found to activate NF-κB and IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), thus inducing type I IFN in the mitochondrion-associated endoplasmic reticulum membranes (MAMs). We further demonstrated that NS4A is associated with the N-terminal CARD-like (CL) domain and the C-terminal transmembrane (TM) domain of MAVS. This association prevented the binding of MAVS to RIG-I, resulting in the repression of RIG-I-induced IRF3 activation and, consequently, the abrogation of IFN production. Collectively, our findings illustrate a new molecular mechanism by which DENV evades the host immune system and suggest new targets for anti-DENV strategies. IMPORTANCE Type I interferon (IFN) constitutes the first line of host defense against invading viruses. To successfully establish infection, dengue virus (DENV) must counteract either the production or the function of IFN. The mechanism by which DENV suppresses IFN production is poorly understood and characterized. In this study, we demonstrate that the DENV NS4A protein plays an important role in suppressing interferon production through binding MAVS and disrupting the RIG-I–MAVS interaction in mitochondrion-associated endoplasmic reticulum membranes (MAMs). Our study reveals that MAVS is a novel host target of NS4A and provides a molecular mechanism for DENV evasion of the host innate immune response. These findings have important implications for understanding the pathogenesis of DENV and may provide new insights into using NS4A as a therapeutic and/or prevention target. PMID

  9. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein levels and endocytic function are reduced by overexpression of the FE65 adaptor protein, FE65L1.

    PubMed

    Guénette, Suzanne Y; Chang, Yang; Hyman, Bradley T; Tanzi, Rudolph E; Rebeck, G William

    2002-08-01

    The FE65 adaptor protein family was identified in two-hybrid screens as proteins that bind the cytoplasmic domain of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Studies have shown that FE65 binding to APP modulates APP processing. Increased levels of alpha-secretase derived secreted APP (APPsalpha) and beta-amyloid (Abeta) were recovered from conditioned media upon FE65L1 or FE65 overexpression. These effects were associated with an increase in the ratio of mature/immature APP and increased cell-surface APP. FE65 has also been reported to bind low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP). Here we show that FE65L1 overexpression results in decreased LRP steady state levels, LRPs, and LRP endocytic receptor function. These changes in LRP protein levels are not due to decreased transcription of LRP. Furthermore, pulse/chase experiments demonstrate that changes in LRP protein only occurred 12-18 h after translation. We conclude that the decreases in LRP levels likely reflect routing of LRP away from the cell surface into a degradative pathway. Previous studies suggested that LRP plays an important role for Abeta production of Kunitz protease inhibitor forms of APP in the endocytic pathway. These data show that FE65L1 can differentially affect the metabolic fate of APP and LRP. In addition, these data suggest that the LRP decrease observed in FE65L1 overexpressing cells may in part contribute to altered APP processing.

  10. The deca-GX3 proteins Yae1-Lto1 function as adaptors recruiting the ABC protein Rli1 for iron-sulfur cluster insertion.

    PubMed

    Paul, Viktoria Désirée; Mühlenhoff, Ulrich; Stümpfig, Martin; Seebacher, Jan; Kugler, Karl G; Renicke, Christian; Taxis, Christof; Gavin, Anne-Claude; Pierik, Antonio J; Lill, Roland

    2015-07-16

    Cytosolic and nuclear iron-sulfur (Fe-S) proteins are involved in many essential pathways including translation and DNA maintenance. Their maturation requires the cytosolic Fe-S protein assembly (CIA) machinery. To identify new CIA proteins we employed systematic protein interaction approaches and discovered the essential proteins Yae1 and Lto1 as binding partners of the CIA targeting complex. Depletion of Yae1 or Lto1 results in defective Fe-S maturation of the ribosome-associated ABC protein Rli1, but surprisingly no other tested targets. Yae1 and Lto1 facilitate Fe-S cluster assembly on Rli1 in a chain of binding events. Lto1 uses its conserved C-terminal tryptophan for binding the CIA targeting complex, the deca-GX3 motifs in both Yae1 and Lto1 facilitate their complex formation, and Yae1 recruits Rli1. Human YAE1D1 and the cancer-related ORAOV1 can replace their yeast counterparts demonstrating evolutionary conservation. Collectively, the Yae1-Lto1 complex functions as a target-specific adaptor that recruits apo-Rli1 to the generic CIA machinery.

  11. The deca-GX3 proteins Yae1-Lto1 function as adaptors recruiting the ABC protein Rli1 for iron-sulfur cluster insertion

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Viktoria Désirée; Mühlenhoff, Ulrich; Stümpfig, Martin; Seebacher, Jan; Kugler, Karl G; Renicke, Christian; Taxis, Christof; Gavin, Anne-Claude; Pierik, Antonio J; Lill, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Cytosolic and nuclear iron-sulfur (Fe-S) proteins are involved in many essential pathways including translation and DNA maintenance. Their maturation requires the cytosolic Fe-S protein assembly (CIA) machinery. To identify new CIA proteins we employed systematic protein interaction approaches and discovered the essential proteins Yae1 and Lto1 as binding partners of the CIA targeting complex. Depletion of Yae1 or Lto1 results in defective Fe-S maturation of the ribosome-associated ABC protein Rli1, but surprisingly no other tested targets. Yae1 and Lto1 facilitate Fe-S cluster assembly on Rli1 in a chain of binding events. Lto1 uses its conserved C-terminal tryptophan for binding the CIA targeting complex, the deca-GX3 motifs in both Yae1 and Lto1 facilitate their complex formation, and Yae1 recruits Rli1. Human YAE1D1 and the cancer-related ORAOV1 can replace their yeast counterparts demonstrating evolutionary conservation. Collectively, the Yae1-Lto1 complex functions as a target-specific adaptor that recruits apo-Rli1 to the generic CIA machinery. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08231.001 PMID:26182403

  12. The Adaptor Protein TRADD is Essential for TL1A/DR3 Signaling1

    PubMed Central

    Pobezinskaya, Yelena L.; Choksi, Swati; Morgan, Michael J.; Liu, Zheng-gang

    2011-01-01

    TRADD is a key effector protein of Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-1 (TNFR1) signaling. However, the role of TRADD in other death receptor signaling pathways, including Death Receptor-3 (DR3), has not been completely characterized. Previous studies utilizing overexpression systems suggested that TRADD is recruited to the DR3 complex in response to the DR3 ligand, TL1A, indicating a possible role in DR3 signaling. Using T cells from TRADD knockout mice, we here demonstrate that the response of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to TL1A is dependent upon the presence of TRADD. TRADD knockout T cells therefore lack the appropriate proliferative response to TL1A. Moreover, in the absence of TRADD, both the stimulation of MAP kinase signaling and activation of NF-κB in response to TL1A are dramatically reduced. Unsurprisingly, TRADD is required for recruitment of RIP1 and TRAF2 to the DR3 signaling complex and for the ubiquitination of RIP1. Thus, our findings definitively establish an essential role of TRADD in DR3 signaling. PMID:21421854

  13. Adaptor protein p62 promotes skin tumor growth and metastasis and is induced by UVA radiation.

    PubMed

    Sample, Ashley; Zhao, Baozhong; Qiang, Lei; He, Yu-Ying

    2017-09-08

    Skin cancer is the most common cancer, and exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, namely UVA and UVB, is the major risk factor for skin cancer development. UVA is significantly less effective in causing direct DNA damage than UVB, but UVA has been shown to increase skin cancer risk. The mechanism by which UVA contributes to skin cancer remains unclear. Here, using RNA-Seq, we show that UVA induces autophagy and lysosomal gene expression, including the autophagy receptor and substrate p62. We found that UVA activates transcription factor EB (TFEB), a known regulator of autophagy and lysosomal gene expression, which, in turn, induces p62 transcription. Next, we identified a novel relationship between p62 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a prostaglandin synthase critical for skin cancer development. COX-2 expression was up-regulated by UVA-induced p62, suggesting that p62 plays a role in UVA-induced skin cancer. Moreover, we found that p62 stabilizes COX-2 protein through the p62 ubiquitin-associated domain and that p62 regulates prostaglandin E2 production in vitro In a syngeneic squamous cell carcinoma mouse model, p62 knockdown inhibited tumor growth and metastasis. Furthermore, p62-deficient tumors exhibited reduced immune cell infiltration and increased cell differentiation. Because prostaglandin E2 is known to promote pro-tumorigenic immune cell infiltration, increase proliferation, and inhibit keratinocyte differentiation in vivo, this work suggests that UVA-induced p62 acts through COX-2 to promote skin tumor growth and progression. These findings expand our understanding of UVA-induced skin tumorigenesis and tumor progression and suggest that targeting p62 can help prevent or treat UVA-associated skin cancer. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Oriented Cell Division in the C. elegans Embryo Is Coordinated by G-Protein Signaling Dependent on the Adhesion GPCR LAT-1

    PubMed Central

    Fiedler, Franziska; Sastradihardja, Tania; Binder, Claudia; Schnabel, Ralf; Kungel, Jana; Rothemund, Sven; Hennig, Christian; Schöneberg, Torsten; Prömel, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Orientation of spindles and cell division planes during development of many species ensures that correct cell-cell contacts are established, which is vital for proper tissue formation. This is a tightly regulated process involving a complex interplay of various signals. The molecular mechanisms underlying several of these pathways are still incompletely understood. Here, we identify the signaling cascade of the C. elegans latrophilin homolog LAT-1, an essential player in the coordination of anterior-posterior spindle orientation during the fourth round of embryonic cell division. We show that the receptor mediates a G protein-signaling pathway revealing that G-protein signaling in oriented cell division is not solely GPCR-independent. Genetic analyses showed that through the interaction with a Gs protein LAT-1 elevates intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels in the C. elegans embryo. Stimulation of this G-protein cascade in lat-1 null mutant nematodes is sufficient to orient spindles and cell division planes in the embryo in the correct direction. Finally, we demonstrate that LAT-1 is activated by an intramolecular agonist to trigger this cascade. Our data support a model in which a novel, GPCR-dependent G protein-signaling cascade mediated by LAT-1 controls alignment of cell division planes in an anterior-posterior direction via a metabotropic Gs-protein/adenylyl cyclase pathway by regulating intracellular cAMP levels. PMID:26505631

  15. The adaptor protein 3BP2 associates with VAV guanine nucleotide exchange factors to regulate NFAT activation by the B-cell antigen receptor.

    PubMed

    Foucault, Isabelle; Le Bras, Séverine; Charvet, Céline; Moon, Chéol; Altman, Amnon; Deckert, Marcel

    2005-02-01

    Engagement of the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) activates kinases of the Src and Syk families and signaling complexes assembled by adaptor proteins, which dictate B-cell fate and function. The adaptor 3BP2/SH3BP2, an Abl Src homology domain 3 (SH3)-binding and Syk-kinases interacting protein, exhibits positive regulatory roles in T, natural killer (NK), and basophilic cells. However, its involvement in BCR signaling is completely unknown. Here we show that 3BP2 is tyrosine phosphorylated following BCR aggregation on B lymphoma cells, and that 3BP2 is a substrate for Syk and Fyn, but not Btk. To further explore the function of 3BP2 in B cells, we screened a yeast 2-hybrid B-lymphocyte library and found 3BP2 as a binding partner of Vav proteins. The interaction between 3BP2 and Vav proteins involved both constitutive and inducible mechanisms. 3BP2 also interacted with other components of the BCR signaling pathway, including Syk and phospholipase C gamma (PLC-gamma). Furthermore, overexpression and RNAi blocking experiments showed that 3BP2 regulated BCR-mediated activation of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFATs). Finally, evidence was provided that 3BP2 functionally cooperates with Vav proteins and Rho GTPases to activate NFATs. Our results show that 3BP2 may regulate BCR-mediated gene activation through Vav proteins.

  16. Adaptors for radiation detectors

    DOEpatents

    Livesay, Ronald Jason

    2015-07-28

    Described herein are adaptors and other devices for radiation detectors that can be used to make accurate spectral measurements of both small and large bulk sources of radioactivity, such as building structures, soils, vessels, large equipment, and liquid bodies. Some exemplary devices comprise an adaptor for a radiation detector, wherein the adaptor can be configured to collimate radiation passing through the adapter from an external radiation source to the radiation detector and the adaptor can be configured to enclose a radiation source within the adapter to allow the radiation detector to measure radiation emitted from the enclosed radiation source.

  17. Adaptors for radiation detectors

    DOEpatents

    Livesay, Ronald Jason

    2014-04-22

    Described herein are adaptors and other devices for radiation detectors that can be used to make accurate spectral measurements of both small and large bulk sources of radioactivity, such as building structures, soils, vessels, large equipment, and liquid bodies. Some exemplary devices comprise an adaptor for a radiation detector, wherein the adaptor can be configured to collimate radiation passing through the adapter from an external radiation source to the radiation detector and the adaptor can be configured to enclose a radiation source within the adapter to allow the radiation detector to measure radiation emitted from the enclosed radiation source.

  18. Palmitoylation of protease-activated receptor-1 regulates adaptor protein complex-2 and -3 interaction with tyrosine-based motifs and endocytic sorting.

    PubMed

    Canto, Isabel; Trejo, JoAnn

    2013-05-31

    Protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) is a G protein-coupled receptor for the coagulant protease thrombin. Thrombin binds to and cleaves the N terminus of PAR1, generating a new N terminus that functions as a tethered ligand that cannot diffuse away. In addition to rapid desensitization, PAR1 trafficking is critical for the regulation of cellular responses. PAR1 displays constitutive and agonist-induced internalization. Constitutive internalization of unactivated PAR1 is mediated by the clathrin adaptor protein complex-2 (AP-2), which binds to a distal tyrosine-based motif localized within the C-terminal tail (C-tail) domain. Once internalized, PAR1 is sorted from endosomes to lysosomes via AP-3 interaction with a second C-tail tyrosine motif proximal to the transmembrane domain. However, the regulatory processes that control adaptor protein recognition of PAR1 C-tail tyrosine-based motifs are not known. Here, we report that palmitoylation of PAR1 is critical for regulating proper utilization of tyrosine-based motifs and endocytic sorting. We show that PAR1 is basally palmitoylated at highly conserved C-tail cysteines. A palmitoylation-deficient PAR1 mutant is competent to signal and exhibits a marked increase in constitutive internalization and lysosomal degradation compared with wild type receptor. Intriguingly, enhanced constitutive internalization of PAR1 is mediated by AP-2 and requires the proximal tyrosine-based motif rather than the distal tyrosine motif used by wild type receptor. Moreover, palmitoylation-deficient PAR1 displays increased degradation that is mediated by AP-3. These findings suggest that palmitoylation of PAR1 regulates appropriate utilization of tyrosine-based motifs by adaptor proteins and endocytic trafficking, processes that are critical for maintaining appropriate expression of PAR1 at the cell surface.

  19. Phosphorylation of APP-CTF-AICD domains and interaction with adaptor proteins: signal transduction and/or transcriptional role--relevance for Alzheimer pathology.

    PubMed

    Schettini, Gennaro; Govoni, Stefano; Racchi, Marco; Rodriguez, Guido

    2010-12-01

    In recent decades, the study of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and of its proteolytic products carboxy terminal fragment (CTF), APP intracellular C-terminal domain (AICD) and amyloid beta has been mostly focussed on the role of APP as a producer of the toxic amyloid beta peptide. Here, we reconsider the role of APP suggesting, in a provocative way, the protein as a central player in a putative signalling pathway. We highlight the presence in the cytosolic tail of APP of the YENPTY motif which is typical of tyrosine kinase receptors, the phosphorylation of the tyrosine, serine and threonine residues, the kinases involved and the interaction with intracellular adaptor proteins. In particular, we examine the interaction with Shc and Grb2 regulators, which through the activation of Ras proteins elicit downstream signalling events such as the MAPK pathway. The review also addresses the interaction of APP, CTFs and AICD with other adaptor proteins and in particular with Fe65 for nuclear transcriptional activity and the importance of phosphorylation for sorting the secretases involved in the amyloidogenic or non-amyloidogenic pathways. We provide a novel perspective on Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis, focussing on the perturbation of the physiological activities of APP-CTFs and AICD as an alternative perspective from that which normally focuses on the accumulation of neurotoxic proteolytic fragments.

  20. The adaptor protein DCAF7 mediates the interaction of the adenovirus E1A oncoprotein with the protein kinases DYRK1A and HIPK2

    PubMed Central

    Glenewinkel, Florian; Cohen, Michael J.; King, Cason R.; Kaspar, Sophie; Bamberg-Lemper, Simone; Mymryk, Joe S.; Becker, Walter

    2016-01-01

    DYRK1A is a constitutively active protein kinase that has a critical role in growth and development which functions by regulating cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. DCAF7 (also termed WDR68 or HAN11) is a cellular binding partner of DYRK1A and also regulates signalling by the protein kinase HIPK2. DCAF7 is an evolutionarily conserved protein with a single WD40 repeat domain and has no catalytic activity. We have defined a DCAF7 binding motif of 12 amino acids in the N-terminal domain of class 1 DYRKs that is functionally conserved in DYRK1 orthologs from Xenopus, Danio rerio and the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. A similar sequence was essential for DCAF7 binding to HIPK2, whereas the closely related HIPK1 family member did not bind DCAF7. Immunoprecipitation and pulldown experiments identified DCAF7 as an adaptor for the association of the adenovirus E1A protein with DYRK1A and HIPK2. Furthermore, DCAF7 was required for the hyperphosphorylation of E1A in DYRK1A or HIPK2 overexpressing cells. Our results characterize DCAF7 as a substrate recruiting subunit of DYRK1A and HIPK2 and suggest that it is required for the negative effect of DYRK1A on E1A-induced oncogenic transformation. PMID:27307198

  1. Adaptor protein 2–mediated endocytosis of the β-secretase BACE1 is dispensable for amyloid precursor protein processing

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, Yogikala; Burgos, Patricia V.; Schindler, Christina; Farías, Ginny G.; Magadár, Javier G.; Bonifacino, Juan S.

    2012-01-01

    The β-site amyloid precursor protein (APP)–cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is a transmembrane aspartyl protease that catalyzes the proteolytic processing of APP and other plasma membrane protein precursors. BACE1 cycles between the trans-Golgi network (TGN), the plasma membrane, and endosomes by virtue of signals contained within its cytosolic C-terminal domain. One of these signals is the DXXLL-motif sequence DISLL, which controls transport between the TGN and endosomes via interaction with GGA proteins. Here we show that the DISLL sequence is embedded within a longer [DE]XXXL[LI]-motif sequence, DDISLL, which mediates internalization from the plasma membrane by interaction with the clathrin-associated, heterotetrameric adaptor protein 2 (AP-2) complex. Mutation of this signal or knockdown of either AP-2 or clathrin decreases endosomal localization and increases plasma membrane localization of BACE1. Remarkably, internalization-defective BACE1 is able to cleave an APP mutant that itself cannot be delivered to endosomes. The drug brefeldin A reversibly prevents BACE1-catalyzed APP cleavage, ruling out that this reaction occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or ER–Golgi intermediate compartment. Taken together, these observations support the notion that BACE1 is capable of cleaving APP in late compartments of the secretory pathway. PMID:22553349

  2. Cargo adaptors: structures illuminate mechanisms regulating vesicle biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Paczkowski, Jon E; Richardson, Brian C; Fromme, J Christopher

    2015-07-01

    Cargo adaptors sort transmembrane protein cargos into nascent vesicles by binding directly to their cytosolic domains. Recent studies have revealed previously unappreciated roles for cargo adaptors and regulatory mechanisms governing their function. The adaptor protein (AP)-1 and AP-2 clathrin adaptors switch between open and closed conformations that ensure they function at the right place at the right time. The exomer cargo adaptor has a direct role in remodeling the membrane for vesicle fission. Several different cargo adaptors functioning in distinct trafficking pathways at the Golgi are similarly regulated through bivalent binding to the ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (Arf1) GTPase, potentially enabling regulation by a threshold concentration of Arf1. Taken together, these studies highlight that cargo adaptors do more than just adapt cargos.

  3. Characterization of the liver kinase B1-mouse protein-25 -Ste-20-related adaptor protein complex in adult mouse skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Cody D.; Compton, Richard A.; Bowler, Joshua S.; Kemp, Jonathan T.; Sudweeks, Sterling N.; Thomson, David M.

    2011-01-01

    In liver, the AMP-activated protein kinase kinase (AMPKK) complex was identified as the association of liver kinase B1 (LKB1), mouse protein 25 (MO25α/β), and Ste-20-related adaptor protein (STRADα/β); however, this complex has yet to be characterized in skeletal muscle. We demonstrate the expression of the LKB1-MO25-STRAD complex in skeletal muscle, confirm the absence of mRNA splice variants, and report the relative mRNA expression levels of these proteins in control and muscle-specific LKB1 knockout (LKB1−/−) mouse muscle. LKB1 detection in untreated control and LKB1−/− muscle lysates revealed two protein bands (50 and 60 kDa), although only the heavier band was diminished in LKB1−/− samples [55 ± 2.5 and 13 ± 1.5 arbitrary units (AU) in control and LKB1−/−, respectively, P < 0.01], suggesting that LKB1 is not represented at 50 kDa, as previously cited. The 60-kDa LKB1 band was further confirmed following purification using polyethylene glycol (43 ± 5 and 8.4 ± 4 AU in control and LKB1−/−, respectively, P < 0.01) and ion-exchange fast protein liquid chromatography. Mass spectrometry confirmed LKB1 protein detection in the 60-kDa protein band, while none was detected in the 50-kDa band. Coimmunoprecipitation assays demonstrated LKB1-MO25-STRAD complex formation. Quantitative PCR revealed significantly reduced LKB1, MO25α, and STRADβ mRNA in LKB1−/− muscle. These findings demonstrate that the LKB1-MO25-STRAD complex is the principal AMPKK in skeletal muscle. PMID:21903876

  4. The Adaptor Protein Myd88 Is a Key Signaling Molecule in the Pathogenesis of Irinotecan-Induced Intestinal Mucositis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Deysi V T; Lima-Júnior, Roberto C P; Carvalho, Cibele B M; Borges, Vanessa F; Wanderley, Carlos W S; Bem, Amanda X C; Leite, Caio A V G; Teixeira, Maraiza A; Batista, Gabriela L P; Silva, Rangel L; Cunha, Thiago M; Brito, Gerly A C; Almeida, Paulo R C; Cunha, Fernando Q; Ribeiro, Ronaldo A

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal mucositis is a common side effect of irinotecan-based anticancer regimens. Mucositis causes cell damage, bacterial/endotoxin translocation and production of cytokines including IL-1 and IL-18. These molecules and toll-like receptors (TLRs) activate a common signaling pathway that involves the Myeloid Differentiation adaptor protein, MyD88, whose role in intestinal mucositis is unknown. Then, we evaluated the involvement of TLRs and MyD88 in the pathogenesis of irinotecan-induced intestinal mucositis. MyD88-, TLR2- or TLR9-knockout mice and C57BL/6 (WT) mice were given either saline or irinotecan (75 mg/kg, i.p. for 4 days). On day 7, animal survival, diarrhea and bacteremia were assessed, and following euthanasia, samples of the ileum were obtained for morphometric analysis, myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay and measurement of pro-inflammatory markers. Irinotecan reduced the animal survival (50%) and induced a pronounced diarrhea, increased bacteremia, neutrophil accumulation in the intestinal tissue, intestinal damage and more than twofold increased expression of MyD88 (200%), TLR9 (400%), TRAF6 (236%), IL-1β (405%), IL-18 (365%), COX-2 (2,777%) and NF-κB (245%) in the WT animals when compared with saline-injected group (P<0.05). Genetic deletion of MyD88, TLR2 or TLR9 effectively controlled the signs of intestinal injury when compared with irinotecan-administered WT controls (P<0.05). In contrast to the MyD88-/- and TLR2-/- mice, the irinotecan-injected TLR9-/- mice showed a reduced survival, a marked diarrhea and an enhanced expression of IL-18 versus irinotecan-injected WT controls. Additionally, the expression of MyD88 was reduced in the TLR2-/- or TLR9-/- mice. This study shows a critical role of the MyD88-mediated TLR2 and TLR9 signaling in the pathogenesis of irinotecan-induced intestinal mucositis.

  5. The Adaptor Protein Myd88 Is a Key Signaling Molecule in the Pathogenesis of Irinotecan-Induced Intestinal Mucositis

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Deysi V. T.; Lima-Júnior, Roberto C. P.; Carvalho, Cibele B. M.; Borges, Vanessa F.; Wanderley, Carlos W. S.; Bem, Amanda X. C.; Leite, Caio A. V. G.; Teixeira, Maraiza A.; Batista, Gabriela L. P.; Silva, Rangel L.; Cunha, Thiago M.; Brito, Gerly A. C.; Almeida, Paulo R. C.; Cunha, Fernando Q.; Ribeiro, Ronaldo A.

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal mucositis is a common side effect of irinotecan-based anticancer regimens. Mucositis causes cell damage, bacterial/endotoxin translocation and production of cytokines including IL–1 and IL–18. These molecules and toll-like receptors (TLRs) activate a common signaling pathway that involves the Myeloid Differentiation adaptor protein, MyD88, whose role in intestinal mucositis is unknown. Then, we evaluated the involvement of TLRs and MyD88 in the pathogenesis of irinotecan-induced intestinal mucositis. MyD88-, TLR2- or TLR9-knockout mice and C57BL/6 (WT) mice were given either saline or irinotecan (75 mg/kg, i.p. for 4 days). On day 7, animal survival, diarrhea and bacteremia were assessed, and following euthanasia, samples of the ileum were obtained for morphometric analysis, myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay and measurement of pro-inflammatory markers. Irinotecan reduced the animal survival (50%) and induced a pronounced diarrhea, increased bacteremia, neutrophil accumulation in the intestinal tissue, intestinal damage and more than twofold increased expression of MyD88 (200%), TLR9 (400%), TRAF6 (236%), IL–1β (405%), IL–18 (365%), COX–2 (2,777%) and NF-κB (245%) in the WT animals when compared with saline-injected group (P<0.05). Genetic deletion of MyD88, TLR2 or TLR9 effectively controlled the signs of intestinal injury when compared with irinotecan-administered WT controls (P<0.05). In contrast to the MyD88-/- and TLR2-/- mice, the irinotecan-injected TLR9-/- mice showed a reduced survival, a marked diarrhea and an enhanced expression of IL–18 versus irinotecan-injected WT controls. Additionally, the expression of MyD88 was reduced in the TLR2-/- or TLR9-/- mice. This study shows a critical role of the MyD88-mediated TLR2 and TLR9 signaling in the pathogenesis of irinotecan-induced intestinal mucositis. PMID:26440613

  6. Structural determinants for binding of sorting nexin 17 (SNX17) to the cytoplasmic adaptor protein Krev interaction trapped 1 (KRIT1).

    PubMed

    Stiegler, Amy L; Zhang, Rong; Liu, Weizhi; Boggon, Titus J

    2014-09-05

    Sorting nexin 17 (SNX17) is a member of the family of cytoplasmic sorting nexin adaptor proteins that regulate endosomal trafficking of cell surface proteins. SNX17 localizes to early endosomes where it directly binds NPX(Y/F) motifs in the cytoplasmic tails of its target receptors to mediate their rates of endocytic internalization, recycling, and/or degradation. SNX17 has also been implicated in mediating cell signaling and can interact with cytoplasmic proteins. KRIT1 (Krev interaction trapped 1), a cytoplasmic adaptor protein associated with cerebral cavernous malformations, has previously been shown to interact with SNX17. Here, we demonstrate that SNX17 indeed binds directly to KRIT1 and map the binding to the second Asn-Pro-Xaa-Tyr/Phe (NPX(Y/F)) motif in KRIT1. We further characterize the interaction as being mediated by the FERM domain of SNX17. We present the co-crystal structure of SNX17-FERM with the KRIT1-NPXF2 peptide to 3.0 Å resolution and demonstrate that the interaction is highly similar in structure and binding affinity to that between SNX17 and P-selectin. We verify the molecular details of the interaction by site-directed mutagenesis and pulldown assay and thereby confirm that the major binding site for SNX17 is confined to the NPXF2 motif in KRIT1. Taken together, our results verify a direct interaction between SNX17 and KRIT1 and classify KRIT1 as a SNX17 binding partner.

  7. Mitochondrial antiviral signaling adaptor mediated apoptosis in H3N2 swine influenza virus infection is inhibited by viral protein NS1 in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinqiu; Miao, Jinfeng; Hou, Jibo; Lu, Chengping

    2015-05-15

    We investigated the in vitro role of mitochondrial antiviral signaling adaptor (MAVS) in apoptosis induced by H3N2 swine influenza virus infection and the influence of viral NS1 (nonstructural protein 1) protein on this process. H3N2 swine influenza virus (SIV, A/Swine/Shandong/3/2005) was co-cultured with human lung epithelial A549 cells. The relationship of MAVS expression to SIV replication and apoptosis, and the influence of viral proteins on MAVS functions were studied. The data indicate that in response to SIV infection, MAVS was significantly upregulated at both the transcriptional and protein levels in the early stages of infection. Its expression and localization to mitochondria are necessary for apoptosis of epithelial cells induced by H3N2 swine influenza virus. Viral protein NS1 can antagonize MAVS-mediated apoptosis. These findings indicate that MAVS have a role in regulating innate mitochondrial responses to viral infection.

  8. Impaired Lysosomal Integral Membrane Protein 2-dependent Peroxiredoxin 6 Delivery to Lamellar Bodies Accounts for Altered Alveolar Phospholipid Content in Adaptor Protein-3-deficient pearl Mice.

    PubMed

    Kook, Seunghyi; Wang, Ping; Young, Lisa R; Schwake, Michael; Saftig, Paul; Weng, Xialian; Meng, Ying; Neculai, Dante; Marks, Michael S; Gonzales, Linda; Beers, Michael F; Guttentag, Susan

    2016-04-15

    The Hermansky Pudlak syndromes (HPS) constitute a family of disorders characterized by oculocutaneous albinism and bleeding diathesis, often associated with lethal lung fibrosis. HPS results from mutations in genes of membrane trafficking complexes that facilitate delivery of cargo to lysosome-related organelles. Among the affected lysosome-related organelles are lamellar bodies (LB) within alveolar type 2 cells (AT2) in which surfactant components are assembled, modified, and stored. AT2 from HPS patients and mouse models of HPS exhibit enlarged LB with increased phospholipid content, but the mechanism underlying these defects is unknown. We now show that AT2 in the pearl mouse model of HPS type 2 lacking the adaptor protein 3 complex (AP-3) fails to accumulate the soluble enzyme peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6) in LB. This defect reflects impaired AP-3-dependent trafficking of PRDX6 to LB, because pearl mouse AT2 cells harbor a normal total PRDX6 content. AP-3-dependent targeting of PRDX6 to LB requires the transmembrane protein LIMP-2/SCARB2, a known AP-3-dependent cargo protein that functions as a carrier for lysosomal proteins in other cell types. Depletion of LB PRDX6 in AP-3- or LIMP-2/SCARB2-deficient mice correlates with phospholipid accumulation in lamellar bodies and with defective intraluminal degradation of LB disaturated phosphatidylcholine. Furthermore, AP-3-dependent LB targeting is facilitated by protein/protein interaction between LIMP-2/SCARB2 and PRDX6 in vitro and in vivo Our data provide the first evidence for an AP-3-dependent cargo protein required for the maturation of LB in AT2 and suggest that the loss of PRDX6 activity contributes to the pathogenic changes in LB phospholipid homeostasis found HPS2 patients.

  9. Identification of SLC7A7, encoding y+LAT-1, as the lysinuric protein intolerance gene.

    PubMed

    Torrents, D; Mykkänen, J; Pineda, M; Feliubadaló, L; Estévez, R; de Cid, R; Sanjurjo, P; Zorzano, A; Nunes, V; Huoponen, K; Reinikainen, A; Simell, O; Savontaus, M L; Aula, P; Palacín, M

    1999-03-01

    Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI; OMIM 222700) is a rare, recessive disorder with a worldwide distribution, but with a high prevalence in the Finnish population; symptoms include failure to thrive, growth retardation, muscle hypotonia and hepatosplenomegaly. A defect in the plasma membrane transport of dibasic amino acids has been demonstrated at the baso-lateral membrane of epithelial cells in small intestine and in renal tubules and in plasma membrane of cultured skin fibroblasts from LPI patients. The gene causing LPI has been assigned by linkage analysis to 14q11-13. Here we report mutations in SLC7A7 cDNA (encoding y+L amino acid transporter-1, y+LAT-1), which expresses dibasic amino-acid transport activity and is located in the LPI region, in 31 Finnish LPI patients and 1 Spanish patient. The Finnish patients are homozygous for a founder missense mutation leading to a premature stop codon. The Spanish patient is a compound heterozygote with a missense mutation in one allele and a frameshift mutation in the other. The frameshift mutation generates a premature stop codon, eliminating the last one-third of the protein. The missense mutation abolishes y+LAT-1 amino-acid transport activity when co-expressed with the heavy chain of the cell-surface antigen 4F2 (4F2hc, also known as CD98) in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Our data establish that mutations in SLC7A7 cause LPI.

  10. DUB3 Deubiquitylating Enzymes Regulate Hippo Pathway Activity by Regulating the Stability of ITCH, LATS and AMOT Proteins.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hung Thanh; Kugler, Jan-Michael; Cohen, Stephen M

    2017-01-01

    The YAP and TAZ transcriptional coactivators promote oncogenic transformation. Elevated YAP/TAZ activity has been documented in human tumors. YAP and TAZ are negatively regulated by the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway. The activity and stability of several Hippo pathway components, including YAP/TAZ, is regulated by ubiquitin mediated protein turnover and several ubiquitin ligase complexes have been implicated in human cancer. However, little is known about the deubiquitylating enzymes that counteract these ubiquitin ligases in regulation of the Hippo pathway. Here we identify the DUB3 family deubiquitylating enzymes as regulators of Hippo pathway activity. We provide evidence that DUB3 proteins regulate YAP/TAZ activity by controlling the stability of the E3 ligase ITCH, the LATS kinases and the AMOT family proteins. As a novel Hippo pathway regulator, DUB3 has the potential to act a tumor suppressor by limiting YAP activity.

  11. DUB3 Deubiquitylating Enzymes Regulate Hippo Pathway Activity by Regulating the Stability of ITCH, LATS and AMOT Proteins

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The YAP and TAZ transcriptional coactivators promote oncogenic transformation. Elevated YAP/TAZ activity has been documented in human tumors. YAP and TAZ are negatively regulated by the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway. The activity and stability of several Hippo pathway components, including YAP/TAZ, is regulated by ubiquitin mediated protein turnover and several ubiquitin ligase complexes have been implicated in human cancer. However, little is known about the deubiquitylating enzymes that counteract these ubiquitin ligases in regulation of the Hippo pathway. Here we identify the DUB3 family deubiquitylating enzymes as regulators of Hippo pathway activity. We provide evidence that DUB3 proteins regulate YAP/TAZ activity by controlling the stability of the E3 ligase ITCH, the LATS kinases and the AMOT family proteins. As a novel Hippo pathway regulator, DUB3 has the potential to act a tumor suppressor by limiting YAP activity. PMID:28061504

  12. Internalization of LDL-receptor superfamily yolk-protein receptors during mosquito oogenesis involves transcriptional regulation of PTB-domain adaptors.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sanjay K; Jha, Anupma; Steinhauser, Amie L; Kokoza, Vladimir A; Washabaugh, Charles H; Raikhel, Alexander S; Foster, Woodbridge A; Traub, Linton M

    2008-04-15

    In the anautogenous disease vector mosquitoes Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti, egg development is nutritionally controlled. A blood meal permits further maturation of developmentally repressed previtellogenic egg chambers. This entails massive storage of extraovarian yolk precursors by the oocyte, which occurs through a burst of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Yolk precursors are concentrated at clathrin-coated structures on the oolemma by two endocytic receptors, the vitellogenin and lipophorin receptors. Both these mosquito receptors are members of the low-density-lipoprotein-receptor superfamily that contain FxNPxY-type internalization signals. In mammals, this tyrosine-based signal is not decoded by the endocytic AP-2 adaptor complex directly. Instead, two functionally redundant phosphotyrosine-binding domain adaptors, Disabled 2 and the autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia protein (ARH) manage the internalization of the FxNPxY sorting signal. Here, we report that a mosquito ARH-like protein, which we designate trephin, possess similar functional properties to the orthologous vertebrate proteins despite engaging AP-2 in an atypical manner, and that mRNA expression in the egg chamber is strongly upregulated shortly following a blood meal. Temporally regulated trephin transcription and translation suggests a mechanism for controlling yolk uptake when vitellogenin and lipophorin receptors are expressed and clathrin coats operate in previtellogenic ovaries.

  13. High Fat Diet Enhances β-Site Cleavage of Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) via Promoting β-Site APP Cleaving Enzyme 1/Adaptor Protein 2/Clathrin Complex Formation

    PubMed Central

    Maesako, Masato; Uemura, Maiko; Tashiro, Yoshitaka; Sasaki, Kazuki; Watanabe, Kiwamu; Noda, Yasuha; Ueda, Karin; Asada-Utsugi, Megumi; Kubota, Masakazu; Okawa, Katsuya; Ihara, Masafumi; Shimohama, Shun; Uemura, Kengo; Kinoshita, Ayae

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes are risk factors of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We reported that a high fat diet (HFD) promotes amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleavage by β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) without increasing BACE1 levels in APP transgenic mice. However, the detailed mechanism had remained unclear. Here we demonstrate that HFD promotes BACE1/Adaptor protein-2 (AP-2)/clathrin complex formation by increasing AP-2 levels in APP transgenic mice. In Swedish APP overexpressing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells as well as in SH-SY5Y cells, overexpression of AP-2 promoted the formation of BACE1/AP-2/clathrin complex, increasing the level of the soluble form of APP β (sAPPβ). On the other hand, mutant D495R BACE1, which inhibits formation of this trimeric complex, was shown to decrease the level of sAPPβ. Overexpression of AP-2 promoted the internalization of BACE1 from the cell surface, thus reducing the cell surface BACE1 level. As such, we concluded that HFD may induce the formation of the BACE1/AP-2/clathrin complex, which is followed by its transport of BACE1 from the cell surface to the intracellular compartments. These events might be associated with the enhancement of β-site cleavage of APP in APP transgenic mice. Here we present evidence that HFD, by regulation of subcellular trafficking of BACE1, promotes APP cleavage. PMID:26414661

  14. Adaptor protein containing PH domain, PTB domain and leucine zipper (APPL1) regulates the protein level of EGFR by modulating its trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jae-Rin; Hahn, Hwa-Sun; Kim, Young-Hoon; Nguyen, Hong-Hoa; Yang, Jun-Mo; Kang, Jong-Sun; Hahn, Myong-Joon

    2011-11-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer APPL1 regulates the protein level of EGFR in response to EGF stimulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Depletion of APPL1 accelerates the movement of EGF/EGFR from the cell surface to the perinuclear region in response to EGF. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knockdown of APPL1 enhances the activity of Rab5. -- Abstract: The EGFR-mediated signaling pathway regulates multiple biological processes such as cell proliferation, survival and differentiation. Previously APPL1 (adaptor protein containing PH domain, PTB domain and leucine zipper 1) has been reported to function as a downstream effector of EGF-initiated signaling. Here we demonstrate that APPL1 regulates EGFR protein levels in response to EGF stimulation. Overexpression of APPL1 enhances EGFR stabilization while APPL1 depletion by siRNA reduces EGFR protein levels. APPL1 depletion accelerates EGFR internalization and movement of EGF/EGFR from cell surface to the perinuclear region in response to EGF treatment. Conversely, overexpression of APPL1 decelerates EGFR internalization and translocation of EGF/EGFR to the perinuclear region. Furthermore, APPL1 depletion enhances the activity of Rab5 which is involved in internalization and trafficking of EGFR and inhibition of Rab5 in APPL1-depleted cells restored EGFR levels. Consistently, APPL1 depletion reduced activation of Akt, the downstream signaling effector of EGFR and this is restored by inhibition of Rab5. These findings suggest that APPL1 is required for EGFR signaling by regulation of EGFR stabilities through inhibition of Rab5.

  15. The Cell Signaling Adaptor Protein EPS-8 Is Essential for C. elegans Epidermal Elongation and Interacts with the Ankyrin Repeat Protein VAB-19

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Mei; King, Ryan S.; Berry, Emily C.; Wang, Ying; Hardin, Jeff; Chisholm, Andrew D.

    2008-01-01

    Background The epidermal cells of the C. elegans embryo undergo coordinated cell shape changes that result in the morphogenetic process of elongation. The cytoskeletal ankyrin repeat protein VAB-19 is required for cell shape changes and localizes to cell-matrix attachment structures. The molecular functions of VAB-19 in this process are obscure, as no previous interactors for VAB-19 have been described. Methodology/Principal Findings In screens for VAB-19 binding proteins we identified the signaling adaptor EPS-8. Within C. elegans epidermal cells, EPS-8 and VAB-19 colocalize at cell-matrix attachment structures. The central domain of EPS-8 is necessary and sufficient for its interaction with VAB-19. eps-8 null mutants, like vab-19 mutants, are defective in epidermal elongation and in epidermal-muscle attachment. The eps-8 locus encodes two isoforms, EPS-8A and EPS-8B, that appear to act redundantly in epidermal elongation. The function of EPS-8 in epidermal development involves its N-terminal PTB and central domains, and is independent of its C-terminal SH3 and actin-binding domains. VAB-19 appears to act earlier in the biogenesis of attachment structures and may recruit EPS-8 to these structures. Conclusions/Significance EPS-8 and VAB-19 define a novel pathway acting at cell-matrix attachments to regulate epithelial cell shape. This is the first report of a role for EPS-8 proteins in cell-matrix attachments. The existence of EPS-8B-like isoforms in Drosophila suggests this function of EPS-8 proteins could be conserved among other organisms. PMID:18833327

  16. Alterations in the NF2/LATS1/LATS2/YAP Pathway in Schwannomas.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ji-Eun; Ohta, Takashi; Satomi, Kaishi; Foll, Matthieu; Durand, Geoffroy; McKay, James; Le Calvez-Kelm, Florence; Mittelbronn, Michel; Brokinkel, Benjamin; Paulus, Werner; Ohgaki, Hiroko

    2015-10-01

    Schwannomas are benign nerve sheath tumors composed of well-differentiated Schwann cells. Other than frequent NF2 (neurofibromatosis type 2) mutations (50%-60%), their molecular pathogenesis is not fully understood. LATS1 and LATS2 are downstream molecules of NF2 and are negative regulators of the yes-associated protein (YAP) oncogene in the Hippo signaling pathway. We assessed mutations of the NF2, LATS1, and LATS2 genes, promoter methylation of LATS1 and LATS2, and expression of YAP and phosphorylated YAP in 82 cases of sporadic schwannomas. Targeted sequencing using the Ion Torrent Proton instrument revealed NF2 mutations in 45 cases (55%), LATS1 mutations in 2 cases (2%), and LATS2 mutations in 1 case (1%) of schwannoma. Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction showed promoter methylation of LATS1 and LATS2 in 14 cases (17%) and 25 cases (30%), respectively. Overall, 62 cases (76%) had at least 1 alteration in the NF2, LATS1, and/or LATS2 genes. Immunohistochemistry revealed nuclear YAP expression in 18 of 42 cases of schwannoma (43%) and reduced cytoplasmic phosphorylated YAP expression in 15 of 49 cases of schwannoma (31%), all of which had at least 1 alteration in the NF2, LATS1, and/or LATS2 genes. These results suggest that an abnormal Hippo signaling pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of most sporadic schwannomas.

  17. The Adaptor Protein and Arf GTPase-activating Protein Cat-1/Git-1 Is Required for Cellular Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Sungsoo M.; Antonyak, Marc A.; Cerione, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Cat-1/Git-1 is a multifunctional protein that acts as a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) for Arf GTPases, as well as serves as a scaffold for a number of different signaling proteins. Cat-1 is best known for its role in regulating cell shape and promoting cell migration. However, whether Cat-1 might also contribute to cellular transformation is currently unknown. Here we show that ∼95% of cervical tumor samples examined overexpress Cat-1, suggesting that the up-regulation of Cat-1 expression is a frequent occurrence in this type of cancer. We demonstrate further that knocking down Cat-1 from NIH3T3 fibroblasts expressing an activated form of Cdc42 (Cdc42 F28L), or from the human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cell line, inhibits the ability of these cells to form colonies in soft agar, an in vitro measure of tumorgenicity. The requirement for Cat-1 when assaying the anchorage-independent growth of transformed fibroblasts and HeLa cells is dependent on its ability to bind paxillin, while being negatively impacted by its Arf-GAP activity. Moreover, the co-expression of Cat-1 and an activated form of Arf6 in fibroblasts was sufficient to induce their transformation. These findings highlight novel roles for Cat-1 and its interactions with the Arf GTPases and paxillin in oncogenic transformation. PMID:22807447

  18. The Yeast Adaptor Protein Complex, AP-3, Is Essential for the Efficient Delivery of Alkaline Phosphatase by the Alternate Pathway to the Vacuole

    PubMed Central

    Stepp, J. David; Huang, Kristen; Lemmon, Sandra K.

    1997-01-01

    A novel clathrin adaptor-like complex, adaptor protein (AP)-3, has recently been described in yeast and in animals. To gain insight into the role of yeast AP-3, a genetic strategy was devised to isolate gene products that are required in the absence of the AP-3 μ chain encoded by APM3. One gene identified by this synthetic lethal screen was VPS45. The Vps pathway defines the route that several proteins, including carboxypeptidase Y, take from the late Golgi to the vacuole. However, vacuolar alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is transported via an alternate, intracellular route. This suggested that the apm3-Δ vps45 synthetic phenotype could be caused by a block in both the alternate and the Vps pathways. Here we demonstrate that loss of function of the AP-3 complex results in slowed processing and missorting of ALP. ALP is no longer localized to the vacuole membrane by immunofluorescence, but is found in small punctate structures throughout the cell. This pattern is distinct from the Golgi marker Kex2p, which is unaffected in AP-3 mutants. We also show that in the apm3-Δ mutant some ALP is delivered to the vacuole by diversion into the Vps pathway. Class E vps mutants accumulate an exaggerated prevacuolar compartment containing membrane proteins on their way to the vacuole or destined for recycling to the Golgi. Surprisingly, in AP-3 class E vps double mutants these proteins reappear on the vacuole. We suggest that some AP-3–dependent cargo proteins that regulate late steps in Golgi to vacuole transport are diverted into the Vps pathway allowing completion of transfer to the vacuole in the class E vps mutant. PMID:9412470

  19. Recruitment of the adaptor protein 2 complex by the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 envelope protein is necessary for high levels of virus release.

    PubMed

    Noble, Beth; Abada, Paolo; Nunez-Iglesias, Juan; Cannon, Paula M

    2006-03-01

    The envelope (Env) protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) and the HIV-1 Vpu protein stimulate the release of retroviral particles from human cells that restrict virus production, an activity that we call the enhancement of virus release (EVR). We have previously shown that two separate domains in the HIV-2 envelope protein are required for this activity: a glycine-tyrosine-x-x-hydrophobic (GYxxtheta) motif in the cytoplasmic tail and an unmapped region in the ectodomain of the protein. We here report that the cellular partner of the GYxxtheta motif is the adaptor protein complex AP-2. The mutation of this motif or the depletion of AP-2 by RNA interference abrogated EVR activity and changed the cellular distribution of the Env from a predominantly punctate pattern to a more diffuse distribution. Since the L domain of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) contains a Yxxtheta motif that interacts with AP-2, we used both wild-type and L domain-defective particles of HIV-1 and EIAV to examine whether the HIV-2 Env EVR function was analogous to L domain activity. We observed that the production of all particles was stimulated by HIV-2 Env or Vpu, suggesting that the L domain and EVR activities play independent roles in the release of retroviruses. Interestingly, we found that the cytoplasmic tail of the murine leukemia virus (MLV) Env could functionally substitute for the HIV-2 Env tail, but it did so in a manner that did not require a Yxxtheta motif or AP-2. The cellular distribution of the chimeric HIV-2/MLV Env was significantly less punctate than the wild-type Env, although confocal analysis revealed an overlap in the steady-state locations of the two proteins. Taken together, these data suggest that the essential GYxxtheta motif in the HIV-2 Env tail recruits AP-2 in order to direct Env to a cellular pathway or location that is necessary for its ability to enhance virus release but that an alternate mechanism provided by the MLV Env tail can

  20. Recruitment of the Adaptor Protein 2 Complex by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2 Envelope Protein Is Necessary for High Levels of Virus Release†

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Beth; Abada, Paolo; Nunez-Iglesias, Juan; Cannon, Paula M.

    2006-01-01

    The envelope (Env) protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) and the HIV-1 Vpu protein stimulate the release of retroviral particles from human cells that restrict virus production, an activity that we call the enhancement of virus release (EVR). We have previously shown that two separate domains in the HIV-2 envelope protein are required for this activity: a glycine-tyrosine-x-x-hydrophobic (GYxxθ) motif in the cytoplasmic tail and an unmapped region in the ectodomain of the protein. We here report that the cellular partner of the GYxxθ motif is the adaptor protein complex AP-2. The mutation of this motif or the depletion of AP-2 by RNA interference abrogated EVR activity and changed the cellular distribution of the Env from a predominantly punctate pattern to a more diffuse distribution. Since the L domain of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) contains a Yxxθ motif that interacts with AP-2, we used both wild-type and L domain-defective particles of HIV-1 and EIAV to examine whether the HIV-2 Env EVR function was analogous to L domain activity. We observed that the production of all particles was stimulated by HIV-2 Env or Vpu, suggesting that the L domain and EVR activities play independent roles in the release of retroviruses. Interestingly, we found that the cytoplasmic tail of the murine leukemia virus (MLV) Env could functionally substitute for the HIV-2 Env tail, but it did so in a manner that did not require a Yxxθ motif or AP-2. The cellular distribution of the chimeric HIV-2/MLV Env was significantly less punctate than the wild-type Env, although confocal analysis revealed an overlap in the steady-state locations of the two proteins. Taken together, these data suggest that the essential GYxxθ motif in the HIV-2 Env tail recruits AP-2 in order to direct Env to a cellular pathway or location that is necessary for its ability to enhance virus release but that an alternate mechanism provided by the MLV Env tail can functionally substitute

  1. Structural basis for Mob1-dependent activation of the core Mst–Lats kinase cascade in Hippo signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Ni, Lisheng; Zheng, Yonggang; Hara, Mayuko; Pan, Duojia; Luo, Xuelian

    2015-06-24

    The Mst–Lats kinase cascade is central to the Hippo tumor-suppressive pathway that controls organ size and tissue homeostasis. The adaptor protein Mob1 promotes Lats activation by Mst, but the mechanism remains unknown. Here, we show that human Mob1 binds to autophosphorylated docking motifs in active Mst2. This binding enables Mob1 phosphorylation by Mst2. Phosphorylated Mob1 undergoes conformational activation and binds to Lats1. We determine the crystal structures of phospho-Mst2–Mob1 and phospho-Mob1–Lats1 complexes, revealing the structural basis of both phosphorylation-dependent binding events. Further biochemical and functional analyses demonstrate that Mob1 mediates Lats1 activation through dynamic scaffolding and allosteric mechanisms. Thus, Mob1 acts as a phosphorylation-regulated coupler of kinase activation by virtue of its ability to engage multiple ligands. We propose that stepwise, phosphorylation-triggered docking interactions of nonkinase elements enhance the specificity and robustness of kinase signaling cascades.

  2. Structural basis for Mob1-dependent activation of the core Mst–Lats kinase cascade in Hippo signaling

    DOE PAGES

    Ni, Lisheng; Zheng, Yonggang; Hara, Mayuko; ...

    2015-06-24

    The Mst–Lats kinase cascade is central to the Hippo tumor-suppressive pathway that controls organ size and tissue homeostasis. The adaptor protein Mob1 promotes Lats activation by Mst, but the mechanism remains unknown. Here, we show that human Mob1 binds to autophosphorylated docking motifs in active Mst2. This binding enables Mob1 phosphorylation by Mst2. Phosphorylated Mob1 undergoes conformational activation and binds to Lats1. We determine the crystal structures of phospho-Mst2–Mob1 and phospho-Mob1–Lats1 complexes, revealing the structural basis of both phosphorylation-dependent binding events. Further biochemical and functional analyses demonstrate that Mob1 mediates Lats1 activation through dynamic scaffolding and allosteric mechanisms. Thus, Mob1more » acts as a phosphorylation-regulated coupler of kinase activation by virtue of its ability to engage multiple ligands. We propose that stepwise, phosphorylation-triggered docking interactions of nonkinase elements enhance the specificity and robustness of kinase signaling cascades.« less

  3. Interactions of the Cytoplasmic Domains of Human and Simian Retroviral Transmembrane Proteins with Components of the Clathrin Adaptor Complexes Modulate Intracellular and Cell Surface Expression of Envelope Glycoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Berlioz-Torrent, Clarisse; Shacklett, Barbara L.; Erdtmann, Lars; Delamarre, Lelia; Bouchaert, Isabelle; Sonigo, Pierre; Dokhelar, Marie Christine; Benarous, Richard

    1999-01-01

    The cytoplasmic domains of the transmembrane (TM) envelope proteins (TM-CDs) of most retroviruses have a Tyr-based motif, YXXØ, in their membrane-proximal regions. This signal is involved in the trafficking and endocytosis of membrane receptors via clathrin-associated AP-1 and AP-2 adaptor complexes. We have used CD8-TM-CD chimeras to investigate the role of the Tyr-based motif of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), and human T-leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) TM-CDs in the cell surface expression of the envelope glycoprotein. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy studies showed that this motif is a major determinant of the cell surface expression of the CD8-HTLV chimera. The YXXØ motif also plays a key role in subcellular distribution of the envelope of lentiviruses HIV-1 and SIV. However, these viruses, which encode TM proteins with a long cytoplasmic domain, have additional determinants distal to the YXXØ motif that participate in regulating cell surface expression. We have also used the yeast two-hybrid system and in vitro binding assays to demonstrate that all three retroviral YXXØ motifs interact with the μ1 and μ2 subunits of AP complexes and that the C-terminal regions of HIV-1 and SIV TM proteins interact with the β2 adaptin subunit. The TM-CDs of HTLV-1, HIV-1, and SIV also interact with the whole AP complexes. These results clearly demonstrate that the cell surface expression of retroviral envelope glycoproteins is governed by interactions with adaptor complexes. The YXXØ-based signal is the major determinant of this interaction for the HTLV-1 TM, which contains a short cytoplasmic domain, whereas the lentiviruses HIV-1 and SIV have additional determinants distal to this signal that are also involved. PMID:9882340

  4. A New Function for LAT and CD8 During CD8-Mediated Apoptosis that is Independent of T Cell Receptor Signal Transduction

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Raedun L; Thiemann, Sandra; Refaeli, Yosef; Werlen, Guy; Potter, Terry A

    2011-01-01

    The majority (>95%) of thymocytes undergo apoptosis during selection in the thymus. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain how apoptosis of thymocytes that are not positively selected occurs, however it is unknown whether thymocytes die purely by “neglect” or whether signaling through a cell surface receptor initiates an apoptotic pathway. We have previously demonstrated that on double positive (DP) thymocytes the ligation of CD8 in the absence of TCR engagement results in apoptosis and have postulated this is a mechanism to remove thymocytes that have failed positive selection. On mature single positive (SP) T cells CD8 acts as a co-receptor to augment signaling through the T cell receptor (TCR) that is dependent on the phosphorylation of the adaptor protein, Linker for Activation of T cells (LAT). Here we show that during CD8-mediated apoptosis of DP thymocytes there is an increase in the association of CD8 with LAT and an increase in LAT tyrosine phosphorylation. Decreasing LAT expression and mutation of tyrosine residues of LAT reduced apoptosis upon crosslinking of CD8. Our results identify novel functions for both CD8 and LAT that are independent of TCR signal transduction and suggest a mechanism for signal transduction leading to apoptosis upon CD8 crosslinking. PMID:19449311

  5. Inflammasome adaptor protein Apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD (ASC) is critical for the immune response and survival in west Nile virus encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mukesh; Roe, Kelsey; Orillo, Beverly; Muruve, Daniel A; Nerurkar, Vivek R; Gale, Michael; Verma, Saguna

    2013-04-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurotropic flavivirus that has emerged globally as a significant cause of viral encephalitis in humans. The WNV-induced innate immune response, including production of antiviral cytokines, is critical for controlling virus infection. The adaptor protein ASC mediates a critical step in innate immune signaling by bridging the interaction between the pathogen recognition receptors and caspase 1 in inflammasome complexes, but its role in WNV immunopathogenesis is not defined. Here, we demonstrate that ASC is essential for interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production and development of effective host immunity against WNV. ASC-deficient mice exhibited increased susceptibility to WNV infection, and reduced survival was associated with enhanced virus replication in the peripheral tissues and central nervous system (CNS). Infection of cultured bone marrow-derived dendritic cells showed that ASC was essential for the activation of caspase 1, a key component of inflammasome assembly. ASC(-/-) mice exhibited attenuated levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the serum. Intriguingly, infected ASC(-/-) mice also displayed reduced levels of alpha interferon (IFN-α) and IgM in the serum, indicating the overall protective role of ASC in restricting WNV infection. However, brains from ASC(-/-) mice displayed unrestrained inflammation, including elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, such as IFN-γ, CCL2, and CCL5, which correlated with more pronounced activation of the astrocytes, enhanced infiltration of peripheral immune cells in the CNS, and increased neuronal cell death. Collectively, our data provide new insights into the role of ASC as an essential modulator of inflammasome-dependent and -independent immune responses to effectively control WNV infection.

  6. Structure of D-63 from Sulfolobus Spindle-Shaped Virus 1: Surface Properties of the Dimeric Four-Helix Bundle Suggest an Adaptor Protein Function

    PubMed Central

    Kraft, Paul; Kümmel, Daniel; Oeckinghaus, Andrea; Gauss, George H.; Wiedenheft, Blake; Young, Mark; Lawrence, C. Martin

    2004-01-01

    Sulfolobus spindle-shaped virus 1 (SSV1) and its fusellovirus homologues can be found in many acidic (pH ≤ 4.0) hot springs (≥70°C) around the world. SSV1 contains a 15.5-kb double-stranded DNA genome that encodes 34 proteins with greater than 50 amino acids. A site-specific integrase and a DnaA-like protein have been previously identified by sequence homology, and three structural proteins have been isolated from purified virus and identified by N-terminal sequencing (VP1, VP2, and VP3). The functions of the remaining 29 proteins are currently unknown. To assign functions to these proteins, we have initiated biochemical and structural studies on the SSV1 proteome. Here we report the structure of SSV1 D-63. The structure reveals a helix-turn-helix motif that dimerizes to form an antiparallel four-helix bundle. Mapping residues conserved among three fusellovirus isolates onto the structure shows that one face of the rod-shaped molecule is highly conserved. This conserved surface spans the dimer axis and thus exhibits 2-fold symmetry. Two smaller conserved patches, also related by 2-fold symmetry, are found on the opposite face of the molecule. All of these conserved surfaces are devoid of clefts or pockets typically used to bind small molecules, suggesting that D-63 may function as an adaptor protein in macromolecular assembly. PMID:15220417

  7. Cargo adaptors: structures illuminate mechanisms regulating vesicle biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Paczkowski, Jon E.; Richardson, Brian C.; Fromme, J. Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Cargo adaptors sort transmembrane protein cargos into nascent vesicles by binding directly to their cytosolic domains. Recent studies have revealed previously unappreciated roles for cargo adaptors and regulatory mechanisms governing their function. The AP-1 and AP-2 clathrin adaptors switch between open and closed conformations that ensure they function at the right place at the right time. The exomer cargo adaptor plays a direct role in remodeling the membrane for vesicle fission. Several different cargo adaptors functioning in distinct trafficking pathways at the Golgi are similarly regulated through bivalent binding to the Arf1 GTPase, potentially enabling regulation by a threshold concentration of Arf1. Taken together, these studies highlight that cargo adaptors do more than just adapt cargos. PMID:25795254

  8. Crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of the N-terminal domain of the Toll-like receptor signalling adaptor protein TRIF/TICAM-1.

    PubMed

    Ullah, M Obayed; Ve, Thomas; Dkhar, Jameris; Alaidarous, Mohammed; Ericsson, Daniel J; Sweet, Matthew J; Mansell, Ashley; Kobe, Bostjan

    2013-07-01

    As part of the mammalian innate immune response, Toll-like receptors 3 and 4 can signal via the adaptor protein TRIF/TICAM-1 to elicit the production of type-I interferons and cytokines. Recent studies have suggested an auto-inhibitory role for the N-terminal domain (NTD) of TRIF. This domain has no significant sequence similarity to proteins of known structure. In this paper, the crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of TRIF-NTD and its selenomethionine-labelled mutant TRIF-NTD(A66M/L113M) are reported. Thin plate-like crystals of native TRIF-NTD obtained using polyethylene glycol 3350 as precipitant diffracted X-rays to 1.9 Å resolution. To facilitate phase determination, two additional methionines were incorporated into the protein at positions chosen based on the occurrence of methionines in TRIF homologues in different species. Crystals of the selenomethionine-labelled protein were obtained under conditions similar to the wild-type protein; these crystals diffracted X-rays to 2.5 Å resolution. The TRIF-NTD and TRIF-NTD(A66M/L113M) crystals have the symmetry of space groups P212121 and P1, and most likely contain two and four molecules in the asymmetric unit, respectively. These results provide a sound foundation for the future structure determination of this novel domain.

  9. A putative TIR domain protein from Helicobacter pylori is dimeric in solution and interacts with human TLR adaptor Myeloid Differentiation Primary Response 88.

    PubMed

    Türköz, Burcu Kaplan

    2017-03-06

    Helicobacter pylori is an important human pathogen capable of causing persistent infection with minimal immune response. The first line of defense during H. pylori infection is through gastric epithelial cells that present Toll like receptors (TLR), a family of bacterial proteins which share homology with the Toll/IL1 receptor (TIR) domain. Bacterial TIR proteins (BTP) mimic human TIR domain proteins and act on MyD88 signaling pathways to suppress TLR signaling. H. pylori might also produce a similar protein. A putative H. pylori BTP was found based on sequence homology and the corresponding gene hp1437 was inserted into an expression vector in fusion with an N-terminal cleavable 6his-tag. The recombinant protein, 6his-HP1437 was purified using nickel affinity chromatography with a yield of 8 mg/ L culture. Oligomerization of HP1437 was investigated by size-exclusion chromatography. Our results show that HP1437 forms dimers in solution similar to other BTPs. Furthermore, GST pull down assays identify an interaction between HP1437 and human TIR domain adaptor MyD88. This study suggests that HP1437 has the characteristic features of BTPs and may play a direct role in reduced immune response against H. pylori by binding to MyD88 and pave the way for an in-depth characterization of this putative novel H. pylori virulence factor.

  10. Endocytic adaptors – social networking at the plasma membrane

    PubMed Central

    Reider, Amanda; Wendland, Beverly

    2011-01-01

    Receptor-mediated endocytosis is a dynamic process that is crucial for maintaining plasma membrane composition and controlling cell-signaling pathways. A variety of entry routes have evolved to ensure that the vast array of molecules on the cell surface can be differentially internalized by endocytosis. This diversity has extended to include a growing list of endocytic adaptor proteins, which are thought to initiate the internalization process. The key function of adaptors is to select the proteins that should be removed from the cell surface. Thus, they have a central role in defining the physiology of a cell. This has made the study of adaptor proteins a very active area of research that is ripe for exciting future discoveries. Here, we review recent work on how adaptors mediate endocytosis and address the following questions: what characteristics define an endocytic adaptor protein? What roles do these proteins fulfill in addition to selecting cargo and how might adaptors function in clathrin-independent endocytic pathways? Through the findings discussed in this Commentary, we hope to stimulate further characterization of known adaptors and expansion of the known repertoire by identification of new adaptors. PMID:21536832

  11. The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) latency-associated transcript (LAT) protects cells against cold-shock-induced apoptosis by maintaining phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT).

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Dale; Hsiang, Chinhui; Jiang, Xianzhi; Osorio, Nelson; BenMohamed, Lbachir; Jones, Clinton; Wechsler, Steven L

    2015-10-01

    The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) latency-associated transcript (LAT) blocks apoptosis and inhibits caspase-3 activation. We previously showed that serum starvation (removal of serum from tissue culture media), which takes several days to induce apoptosis, results in decreased levels of both AKT (protein kinase B) and phosphorylated AKT (pAKT) in cells not expressing LAT. In contrast in mouse neuroblastoma cells expressing LAT, AKT, and pAKT levels remained high. AKT is a serine/threonine protein kinase that promotes cell survival. To examine the effect of LAT on AKT-pAKT using a different and more rapid method of inducing apoptosis, a stable cell line expressing LAT was compared to non-LAT expressing cells as soon as 15 min following recovery from cold-shock-induced apoptosis. Expression of LAT appeared to inhibit dephosphorylation of pAKT. This protection correlated with blocking numerous pro-apoptotic events that are inhibited by pAKT. These results support the hypothesis that inhibiting dephosphorylation of pAKT may be one of the pathways by which LAT protects cells against apoptosis.

  12. The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) latency-associated transcript (LAT) protects cells against cold-shock-induced apoptosis by maintaining phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT)

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Dale; Hsiang, Chinhui; Jiang, Xianzhi; Osorio, Nelson; BenMohamed, Lbachir; Jones, Clinton

    2017-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) latency-associated transcript (LAT) blocks apoptosis and inhibits caspase-3 activation. We previously showed that serum starvation (removal of serum from tissue culture media), which takes several days to induce apoptosis, results in decreased levels of both AKT (protein kinase B) and phosphorylated AKT (pAKT) in cells not expressing LAT. In contrast in mouse neuroblastoma cells expressing LAT, AKT, and pAKT levels remained high. AKT is a serine/threonine protein kinase that promotes cell survival. To examine the effect of LAT on AKT-pAKT using a different and more rapid method of inducing apoptosis, a stable cell line expressing LAT was compared to non-LAT expressing cells as soon as 15 min following recovery from cold-shock-induced apoptosis. Expression of LAT appeared to inhibit dephosphorylation of pAKT. This protection correlated with blocking numerous pro-apoptotic events that are inhibited by pAKT. These results support the hypothesis that inhibiting dephosphorylation of pAKT may be one of the pathways by which LAT protects cells against apoptosis. PMID:26071090

  13. The Adaptor Complex AP-4 Regulates Vacuolar Protein Sorting at the trans-Golgi Network by Interacting with VACUOLAR SORTING RECEPTOR1.

    PubMed

    Fuji, Kentaro; Shirakawa, Makoto; Shimono, Yuki; Kunieda, Tadashi; Fukao, Yoichiro; Koumoto, Yasuko; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko; Shimada, Tomoo

    2016-01-01

    Adaptor protein (AP) complexes play critical roles in protein sorting among different post-Golgi pathways by recognizing specific cargo protein motifs. Among the five AP complexes (AP-1-AP-5) in plants, AP-4 is one of the most poorly understood; the AP-4 components, AP-4 cargo motifs, and AP-4 functional mechanism are not known. Here, we identify the AP-4 components and show that the AP-4 complex regulates receptor-mediated vacuolar protein sorting by recognizing VACUOLAR SORTING RECEPTOR1 (VSR1), which was originally identified as a sorting receptor for seed storage proteins to target protein storage vacuoles in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). From the vacuolar sorting mutant library GREEN FLUORESCENT SEED (GFS), we isolated three gfs mutants that accumulate abnormally high levels of VSR1 in seeds and designated them as gfs4, gfs5, and gfs6. Their responsible genes encode three (AP4B, AP4M, and AP4S) of the four subunits of the AP-4 complex, respectively, and an Arabidopsis mutant (ap4e) lacking the fourth subunit, AP4E, also had the same phenotype. Mass spectrometry demonstrated that these four proteins form a complex in vivo. The four mutants showed defects in the vacuolar sorting of the major storage protein 12S globulins, indicating a role for the AP-4 complex in vacuolar protein transport. AP4M bound to the tyrosine-based motif of VSR1. AP4M localized at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) subdomain that is distinct from the AP-1-localized TGN subdomain. This study provides a novel function for the AP-4 complex in VSR1-mediated vacuolar protein sorting at the specialized domain of the TGN.

  14. AP-1/σ1A and AP-1/σ1B adaptor-proteins differentially regulate neuronal early endosome maturation via the Rab5/Vps34-pathway

    PubMed Central

    Candiello, Ermes; Kratzke, Manuel; Wenzel, Dirk; Cassel, Dan; Schu, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The σ1 subunit of the AP-1 clathrin-coated-vesicle adaptor-protein complex is expressed as three isoforms. Tissues express σ1A and one of the σ1B and σ1C isoforms. Brain is the tissue with the highest σ1A and σ1B expression. σ1B-deficiency leads to severe mental retardation, accumulation of early endosomes in synapses and fewer synaptic vesicles, whose recycling is slowed down. AP-1/σ1A and AP-1/σ1B regulate maturation of these early endosomes into multivesicular body late endosomes, thereby controlling synaptic vesicle protein transport into a degradative pathway. σ1A binds ArfGAP1, and with higher affinity brain-specific ArfGAP1, which bind Rabex-5. AP-1/σ1A-ArfGAP1-Rabex-5 complex formation leads to more endosomal Rabex-5 and enhanced, Rab5GTP-stimulated Vps34 PI3-kinase activity, which is essential for multivesicular body endosome formation. Formation of AP-1/σ1A-ArfGAP1-Rabex-5 complexes is prevented by σ1B binding of Rabex-5 and the amount of endosomal Rabex-5 is reduced. AP-1 complexes differentially regulate endosome maturation and coordinate protein recycling and degradation, revealing a novel molecular mechanism by which they regulate protein transport besides their established function in clathrin-coated-vesicle formation. PMID:27411398

  15. Interaction with 14-3-3 adaptors regulates the sorting of hMex-3B RNA-binding protein to distinct classes of RNA granules.

    PubMed

    Courchet, Julien; Buchet-Poyau, Karine; Potemski, Auriane; Brès, Aurélie; Jariel-Encontre, Isabelle; Billaud, Marc

    2008-11-14

    Stress granules (SG) and processing bodies (PBs) are cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein particles whose assembly is induced by different stimuli. SG are the site of storage of untranslated transcripts formed in response to environmental stress, whereas PBs are involved in mRNA turnover. We recently characterized a novel family of four human proteins related to the Caenorhabditis elegans Mex-3, a RNA binding protein involved in the establishment of the anterior-posterior embryonic asymmetry and in the maintenance of germline pluripotency. We now report that the adaptor proteins 14-3-3 bind to hMex-3B but not to the three other hMex-3 family members. Serine 462, when phosphorylated, is the major 14-3-3 docking site on hMex-3B, and manipulation of this interaction reveals that 14-3-3 both stabilizes hMex-3B and modulates its ability to bind RNA. Furthermore, the complex formed between hMex-3B and Argonaute proteins is excluded from PBs when the interaction with 14-3-3 is disrupted, whereas the recruitment to SG is not affected. Thus, 14-3-3 exerts combined effects on hMex-3B and acts as a major regulator of the sorting between distinct classes of RNA granules.

  16. Crystal structure of human programmed cell death 10 complexed with inositol-(1,3,4,5)-tetrakisphosphate: a novel adaptor protein involved in human cerebral cavernous malformation.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jingjin; Wang, Xiaoyan; Li, De-Feng; Hu, Yonglin; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Da-Cheng

    2010-09-03

    Programmed cell death 10 (PDCD10) is a novel adaptor protein involved in human cerebral cavernous malformation, a common vascular lesion mostly occurring in the central nervous system. By interacting with different signal proteins, PDCD10 could regulate various physiological processes in the cell. The crystal structure of human PDCD10 complexed with inositol-(1,3,4,5)-tetrakisphosphate has been determined at 2.3A resolution. The structure reveals an integrated dimer via a unique assembly that has never been observed before. Each PDCD10 monomer contains two independent domains: an N-terminal domain with a new fold involved in the tight dimer assembly and a C-terminal four-helix bundle domain that closely resembles the focal adhesion targeting domain of focal adhesion kinase. An eight-residue flexible linker connects the two domains, potentially conferring mobility onto the C-terminal domain, resulting in the conformational variability of PDCD10. A variable basic cleft on the top of the dimer interface binds to phosphatidylinositide and regulates the intracellular localization of PDCD10. Two potential sites, respectively located on the two domains, are critical for recruiting different binding partners, such as germinal center kinase III proteins and the focal adhesion protein paxillin.

  17. AP-1/σ1A and AP-1/σ1B adaptor-proteins differentially regulate neuronal early endosome maturation via the Rab5/Vps34-pathway.

    PubMed

    Candiello, Ermes; Kratzke, Manuel; Wenzel, Dirk; Cassel, Dan; Schu, Peter

    2016-07-14

    The σ1 subunit of the AP-1 clathrin-coated-vesicle adaptor-protein complex is expressed as three isoforms. Tissues express σ1A and one of the σ1B and σ1C isoforms. Brain is the tissue with the highest σ1A and σ1B expression. σ1B-deficiency leads to severe mental retardation, accumulation of early endosomes in synapses and fewer synaptic vesicles, whose recycling is slowed down. AP-1/σ1A and AP-1/σ1B regulate maturation of these early endosomes into multivesicular body late endosomes, thereby controlling synaptic vesicle protein transport into a degradative pathway. σ1A binds ArfGAP1, and with higher affinity brain-specific ArfGAP1, which bind Rabex-5. AP-1/σ1A-ArfGAP1-Rabex-5 complex formation leads to more endosomal Rabex-5 and enhanced, Rab5(GTP)-stimulated Vps34 PI3-kinase activity, which is essential for multivesicular body endosome formation. Formation of AP-1/σ1A-ArfGAP1-Rabex-5 complexes is prevented by σ1B binding of Rabex-5 and the amount of endosomal Rabex-5 is reduced. AP-1 complexes differentially regulate endosome maturation and coordinate protein recycling and degradation, revealing a novel molecular mechanism by which they regulate protein transport besides their established function in clathrin-coated-vesicle formation.

  18. Human kidney anion exchanger 1 interacts with adaptor-related protein complex 1 {mu}1A (AP-1 mu1A)

    SciTech Connect

    Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Junking, Mutita; Ngaojanlar, Piengpaga; Sukomon, Nattakan; Ungsupravate, Duangporn; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai; Akkarapatumwong, Varaporn; Noisakran, Sansanee; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

    2010-10-08

    Research highlights: {yields} Trafficking defect of kAE1 is a cause of dRTA but trafficking pathway of kAE1 has not been clearly described. {yields} Adaptor-related protein complex 1 {mu}1A (AP-1 mu1A) was firstly reported to interact with kAE1. {yields} The interacting site for AP-1 mu1A on Ct-kAE1 was found to be Y904DEV907, a subset of YXXO motif. {yields} AP-1 mu1A knockdown showed a marked reduction of kAE1 on the cell membrane and its accumulation in endoplasmic reticulum. {yields} AP-1 mu1A has a critical role in kAE1 trafficking to the plasma membrane. -- Abstract: Kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) mediates chloride (Cl{sup -}) and bicarbonate (HCO{sub 3}{sup -}) exchange at the basolateral membrane of kidney {alpha}-intercalated cells. Impaired trafficking of kAE1 leads to defect of the Cl{sup -}/HCO{sub 3}{sup -} exchange at the basolateral membrane and failure of proton (H{sup +}) secretion at the apical membrane, causing a kidney disease - distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). To gain a better insight into kAE1 trafficking, we searched for proteins physically interacting with the C-terminal region of kAE1 (Ct-kAE1), which contains motifs crucial for intracellular trafficking, by a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system. An adaptor-related protein complex 1 {mu}1A (AP-1 mu1A) subunit was found to interact with Ct-kAE1. The interaction between either Ct-kAE1 or full-length kAE1 and AP-1 mu1A were confirmed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T by co-immunoprecipitation, affinity co-purification, co-localization, yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-based protein fragment complementation assay (PCA) and GST pull-down assay. The interacting site for AP-1 mu1A on Ct-kAE1 was found to be Y904DEV907, a subset of YXXO motif. Interestingly, suppression of endogenous AP-1 mu1A in HEK 293T by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreased membrane localization of kAE1 and increased its intracellular accumulation, suggesting for the first time that AP-1 mu1A is involved in the kAE1

  19. Comparative analysis of adaptor-mediated clathrin assembly reveals general principles for adaptor clustering

    PubMed Central

    Pucadyil, Thomas J.; Holkar, Sachin S.

    2016-01-01

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) manages the sorting and uptake of the bulk of membrane proteins (or cargo) from the plasma membrane. CME is initiated by the formation of clathrin-coated pits (CCPs), in which adaptors nucleate clathrin assembly. Clathrin adaptors display diversity in both the type and number of evolutionarily conserved clathrin-binding boxes. How this diversity relates to the process of adaptor clustering as clathrin assembles around a growing pit remains unclear. Using real-time, fluorescence microscopy–based assays, we compare the formation kinetics and distribution of clathrin assemblies on membranes that display five unique clathrin adaptors. Correlations between equilibrium and kinetic parameters of clathrin assembly to the eventual adaptor distribution indicate that adaptor clustering is determined not by the amount of clathrin recruited or the degree of clathrin clustered but instead by the rate of clathrin assembly. Together our results emphasize the need to analyze kinetics of protein interactions to better understand mechanisms that regulate CME. PMID:27559129

  20. Induction of Androgen Formation in the Male by a TAT-VDAC1 Fusion Peptide Blocking 14-3-3ɛ Protein Adaptor and Mitochondrial VDAC1 Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Aghazadeh, Yasaman; Martinez-Arguelles, Daniel B; Fan, Jinjiang; Culty, Martine; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2014-01-01

    Low testosterone (T), a major cause of male hypogonadism and infertility, is linked to mood changes, fatigue, osteoporosis, reduced bone-mass index, and aging. The treatment of choice, T replacement therapy, has been linked with increased risk for prostate cancer and luteinizing hormone (LH) suppression, and shown to lead to infertility, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity. Alternate methods to induce T with lower side effects are desirable. In search of the mechanisms regulating T synthesis in the testes, we identified the 14-3-3ɛ protein adaptor as a negative regulator of steroidogenesis. Steroidogenesis begins in mitochondria. 14-3-3ɛ interacts with the outer mitochondrial membrane voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC1) protein, forming a scaffold that limits the availability of cholesterol for steroidogenesis. We report the development of a tool able to induce endogenous T formation. Peptides able to penetrate testes conjugated to 14-3-3ɛ site of interaction with VDAC1 blocked 14-3-3ɛ-VDAC1 interactions while at the same time increased VDAC1-translocator protein (18 kDa) interactions that induced steroid formation in rat testes, leading to increased serum T levels. These peptides rescued intratesticular and serum T formation in adult male rats treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist, which dampened LH and T production. PMID:24947306

  1. Induction of androgen formation in the male by a TAT-VDAC1 fusion peptide blocking 14-3-3ɛ protein adaptor and mitochondrial VDAC1 interactions.

    PubMed

    Aghazadeh, Yasaman; Martinez-Arguelles, Daniel B; Fan, Jinjiang; Culty, Martine; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2014-10-01

    Low testosterone (T), a major cause of male hypogonadism and infertility, is linked to mood changes, fatigue, osteoporosis, reduced bone-mass index, and aging. The treatment of choice, T replacement therapy, has been linked with increased risk for prostate cancer and luteinizing hormone (LH) suppression, and shown to lead to infertility, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity. Alternate methods to induce T with lower side effects are desirable. In search of the mechanisms regulating T synthesis in the testes, we identified the 14-3-3ɛ protein adaptor as a negative regulator of steroidogenesis. Steroidogenesis begins in mitochondria. 14-3-3ɛ interacts with the outer mitochondrial membrane voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC1) protein, forming a scaffold that limits the availability of cholesterol for steroidogenesis. We report the development of a tool able to induce endogenous T formation. Peptides able to penetrate testes conjugated to 14-3-3ɛ site of interaction with VDAC1 blocked 14-3-3ɛ-VDAC1 interactions while at the same time increased VDAC1-translocator protein (18 kDa) interactions that induced steroid formation in rat testes, leading to increased serum T levels. These peptides rescued intratesticular and serum T formation in adult male rats treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist, which dampened LH and T production.

  2. PRR7 Is a Transmembrane Adaptor Protein Expressed in Activated T Cells Involved in Regulation of T Cell Receptor Signaling and Apoptosis*

    PubMed Central

    Hrdinka, Matouš; Dráber, Peter; Štěpánek, Ondřej; Ormsby, Tereza; Otáhal, Pavel; Angelisová, Pavla; Brdička, Tomáš; Pačes, Jan; Hořejší, Václav; Drbal, Karel

    2011-01-01

    Transmembrane adaptor proteins (TRAPs) are important organizers and regulators of immunoreceptor-mediated signaling. A bioinformatic search revealed several potential novel TRAPs, including a highly conserved protein, proline rich 7 (PRR7), previously described as a component of the PSD-95/N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor protein complex in postsynaptic densities (PSD) of rat neurons. Our data demonstrate that PRR7 is weakly expressed in other tissues but is readily up-regulated in activated human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Transient overexpression of PRR7 in Jurkat T cell line led to gradual apoptotic death dependent on the WW domain binding motif surrounding Tyr-166 in the intracellular part of PRR7. To circumvent the pro-apoptotic effect of PRR7, we generated Jurkat clones with inducible expression of PRR7 (J-iPRR7). In these cells acute induction of PRR7 expression had a dual effect. It resulted in up-regulation of the transcription factor c-Jun and the activation marker CD69 as well as enhanced production of IL-2 after phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and ionomycin treatment. On the other hand, expression of PRR7 inhibited general tyrosine phosphorylation and calcium influx after T cell receptor cross-linking by antibodies. Moreover, we found PRR7 constitutively tyrosine-phosphorylated and associated with Src. Collectively, these data indicate that PRR7 is a potential regulator of signaling and apoptosis in activated T cells. PMID:21460222

  3. Regulation of insulin and type 1 insulin-like growth factor signaling and action by the Grb10/14 and SH2B1/B2 adaptor proteins.

    PubMed

    Desbuquois, Bernard; Carré, Nadège; Burnol, Anne-Françoise

    2013-02-01

    The effects of insulin and type 1 insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) on metabolism, growth and survival are mediated by their association with specific receptor tyrosine kinases, which results in both receptor and substrate phosphorylation. Phosphotyrosine residues on receptors and substrates provide docking sites for signaling proteins containing SH2 (Src homology 2) domains, including molecular adaptors. This review focuses on the regulation of insulin/IGF-1 signaling and action by two adaptor families with a similar domain organization: the growth factor receptor-bound proteins Grb7/10/14 and the SH2B proteins. Both Grb10/14 and SH2B1/B2 associate with the activation loop of insulin/IGF-1 receptors through their SH2 domains, but association of Grb10/14 also involves their unique BPS domain. Consistent with Grb14 binding as a pseudosubstrate to the kinase active site, insulin/IGF-induced activation of receptors and downstream signaling pathways in cultured cells is inhibited by Grb10/14 adaptors, but is potentiated by SH2B1/B2 adaptors. Accordingly, Grb10 and Grb14 knockout mice show improved insulin/IGF sensitivity in vivo, and, for Grb10, overgrowth and increased skeketal muscle and pancreatic β-cell mass. Conversely, SH2B1-depleted mice display insulin and IGF-1 resistance, with peripheral depletion leading to reduced adiposity and neuronal depletion leading to obesity through associated leptin resistance. Grb10/14 and SH2B1 adaptors also modulate insulin/IGF-1 action by interacting with signaling components downstream of receptors and exert several tissue-specific effects. The identification of Grb10/14 and SH2B1 as physiological regulators of insulin signaling and action, together with observations that variants at their gene loci are associated with obesity and/or insulin resistance, highlight them as potential therapeutic targets for these conditions.

  4. The association between the SH2-containing inositol polyphosphate 5-Phosphatase 2 (SHIP2) and the adaptor protein APS has an impact on biochemical properties of both partners.

    PubMed

    Onnockx, Sheela; De Schutter, Julie; Blockmans, Marianne; Xie, Jingwei; Jacobs, Christine; Vanderwinden, Jean-Marie; Erneux, Christophe; Pirson, Isabelle

    2008-01-01

    SHIP2 (SH2-containing inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase 2) is a phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3)) 5-phosphatase containing various motifs susceptible to mediate protein-protein interaction. In cell models, SHIP2 negatively regulates insulin signalling through its catalytic PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) 5-phosphatase activity. We have previously reported that SHIP2 interacts with the c-Cbl associated protein (CAP) and c-Cbl, proteins implicated in the insulin cellular response regulating the small G protein TC10. The first steps of the TC10 pathway are the recruitment and tyrosine phosphorylation by the insulin receptor of the adaptor protein with Pleckstrin Homology and Src Homology 2 domains (APS). Herein, we show that SHIP2 can directly interact with APS in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and in transfected CHO-IR cells (Chinese hamster ovary cells stably transfected with the insulin receptor). Upon insulin stimulation, APS and SHIP2 are recruited to cell membranes as seen by immunofluorescence studies, which is consistent with their interaction. We also observed that SHIP2 negatively regulates APS insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation and consequently inhibits APS association with c-Cbl. APS, which specifically interacts with SHIP2, but not PTEN, in turn, increases the PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) 5-phosphatase activity of SHIP2 in an inositol phosphatase assay. Co-transfection of SHIP2 and APS in CHO-IR cells further increases the inhibitory effect of SHIP2 on Akt insulin-induced phosphorylation. Therefore, the interaction between APS and SHIP2 provides to both proteins potential negative regulatory mechanisms to act on the insulin cascade. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Molecular cloning of the mouse grb2 gene: differential interaction of the Grb2 adaptor protein with epidermal growth factor and nerve growth factor receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Suen, K L; Bustelo, X R; Pawson, T; Barbacid, M

    1993-01-01

    We report the isolation and molecular characterization of the mouse grb2 gene. The product of this gene, the Grb2 protein, is highly related to the Caenorhabditis elegans sem-5 gene product and the human GRB2 protein and displays the same SH3-SH2-SH3 structural motifs. In situ hybridization studies revealed that the mouse grb2 gene is widely expressed throughout embryonic development (E9.5 to P0). However, grb2 transcripts are not uniformly distributed, and in certain tissues (e.g., thymus) they appear to be regulated during development. Recent genetic and biochemical evidence has implicated the Grb2 protein in the signaling pathways that link cell surface tyrosine kinase receptors with Ras. We have investigated the association of the Grb2 protein with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) receptors in PC12 pheochromocytoma cells. EGF treatment of PC12 cells results in the rapid association of Grb2 with the activated EGF receptors, an interaction mediated by the Grb2 SH2 domain. However, Grb2 does not bind to NGF-activated Trk receptors. Mitogenic signaling of NGF in NIH 3T3 cells ectopically expressing Trk receptors also takes place without detectable association between Grb2 and Trk. These results suggest that whereas EGF and NGF can activate the Ras signaling pathway in PC12 cells, only the EGF receptor is likely to do so through a direct interaction with Grb2. Finally, binding studies with glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins indicate that Grb2 binds two distinct subsets of proteins which are individually recognized by its SH2 and SH3 domains. These observations add further support to the concept that Grb2 is a modular adaptor protein. Images PMID:7689150

  6. The Ras suppressor Rsu-1 binds to the LIM 5 domain of the adaptor protein PINCH1 and participates in adhesion-related functions.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Gerard W; Chopp, Treasa; Qi, Sheng-Mei; Cutler, Mary Lou

    2005-05-15

    Rsu-1 is a highly conserved leucine rich repeat (LRR) protein that is expressed ubiquitously in mammalian cells. Rsu-1 was identified based on its ability to inhibit transformation by Ras, and previous studies demonstrated that ectopic expression of Rsu-1 inhibited anchorage-independent growth of Ras-transformed cells and human tumor cell lines. Using GAL4-based yeast two-hybrid screening, the LIM domain protein, PINCH1, was identified as the binding partner of Rsu-1. PINCH1 is an adaptor protein that localizes to focal adhesions and it has been implicated in the regulation of adhesion functions. Subdomain mapping in yeast revealed that Rsu-1 binds to the LIM 5 domain of PINCH1, a region not previously identified as a specific binding domain for any other protein. Additional testing demonstrated that PINCH2, which is highly homologous to PINCH1, except in the LIM 5 domain, does not interact with Rsu-1. Glutathione transferase fusion protein binding studies determined that the LRR region of Rsu-1 interacts with PINCH1. Transient expression studies using epitope-tagged Rsu-1 and PINCH1 revealed that Rsu-1 co-immunoprecipitated with PINCH1 and colocalized with vinculin at sites of focal adhesions in mammalian cells. In addition, endogenous P33 Rsu-1 from 293T cells co-immunoprecipitated with transiently expressed myc-tagged PINCH1. Furthermore, RNAi-induced reduction in Rsu-1 RNA and protein inhibited cell attachment, and while previous studies demonstrated that ectopic expression of Rsu-1 inhibited Jun kinase activation, the depletion of Rsu-1 resulted in activation of Jun and p38 stress kinases. These studies demonstrate that Rsu-1 interacts with PINCH1 in mammalian cells and functions, in part, by altering cell adhesion.

  7. Role of adaptor proteins and clathrin in the trafficking of human kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) to the cell surface.

    PubMed

    Junking, Mutita; Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Duangtum, Natapol; Cheunsuchon, Boonyarit; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

    2014-07-01

    Kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) plays an important role in acid-base homeostasis by mediating chloride/bicarbornate (Cl-/HCO3-) exchange at the basolateral membrane of α-intercalated cells in the distal nephron. Impaired intracellular trafficking of kAE1 caused by mutations of SLC4A1 encoding kAE1 results in kidney disease - distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). However, it is not known how the intracellular sorting and trafficking of kAE1 from trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the basolateral membrane occurs. Here, we studied the role of basolateral-related sorting proteins, including the mu1 subunit of adaptor protein (AP) complexes, clathrin and protein kinase D, on kAE1 trafficking in polarized and non-polarized kidney cells. By using RNA interference, co-immunoprecipitation, yellow fluorescent protein-based protein fragment complementation assays and immunofluorescence staining, we demonstrated that AP-1 mu1A, AP-3 mu1, AP-4 mu1 and clathrin (but not AP-1 mu1B, PKD1 or PKD2) play crucial roles in intracellular sorting and trafficking of kAE1. We also demonstrated colocalization of kAE1 and basolateral-related sorting proteins in human kidney tissues by double immunofluorescence staining. These findings indicate that AP-1 mu1A, AP-3 mu1, AP-4 mu1 and clathrin are required for kAE1 sorting and trafficking from TGN to the basolateral membrane of acid-secreting α-intercalated cells.

  8. The Ras suppressor Rsu-1 binds to the LIM 5 domain of the adaptor protein PINCH1 and participates in adhesion-related functions

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, Gerard W.; Chopp, Treasa; Qi Shengmei; Cutler, Mary Lou . E-mail: mcutler@usuhs.mil

    2005-05-15

    Rsu-1 is a highly conserved leucine rich repeat (LRR) protein that is expressed ubiquitously in mammalian cells. Rsu-1 was identified based on its ability to inhibit transformation by Ras, and previous studies demonstrated that ectopic expression of Rsu-1 inhibited anchorage-independent growth of Ras-transformed cells and human tumor cell lines. Using GAL4-based yeast two-hybrid screening, the LIM domain protein, PINCH1, was identified as the binding partner of Rsu-1. PINCH1 is an adaptor protein that localizes to focal adhesions and it has been implicated in the regulation of adhesion functions. Subdomain mapping in yeast revealed that Rsu-1 binds to the LIM 5 domain of PINCH1, a region not previously identified as a specific binding domain for any other protein. Additional testing demonstrated that PINCH2, which is highly homologous to PINCH1, except in the LIM 5 domain, does not interact with Rsu-1. Glutathione transferase fusion protein binding studies determined that the LRR region of Rsu-1 interacts with PINCH1. Transient expression studies using epitope-tagged Rsu-1 and PINCH1 revealed that Rsu-1 co-immunoprecipitated with PINCH1 and colocalized with vinculin at sites of focal adhesions in mammalian cells. In addition, endogenous P33 Rsu-1 from 293T cells co-immunoprecipitated with transiently expressed myc-tagged PINCH1. Furthermore, RNAi-induced reduction in Rsu-1 RNA and protein inhibited cell attachment, and while previous studies demonstrated that ectopic expression of Rsu-1 inhibited Jun kinase activation, the depletion of Rsu-1 resulted in activation of Jun and p38 stress kinases. These studies demonstrate that Rsu-1 interacts with PINCH1 in mammalian cells and functions, in part, by altering cell adhesion.

  9. Protein Interaction Profiling of the p97 Adaptor UBXD1 Points to a Role for the Complex in Modulating ERGIC-53 Trafficking*

    PubMed Central

    Haines, Dale S.; Lee, J. Eugene; Beauparlant, Stephen L.; Kyle, Dane B.; den Besten, Willem; Sweredoski, Michael J.; Graham, Robert L. J.; Hess, Sonja; Deshaies, Raymond J.

    2012-01-01

    UBXD1 is a member of the poorly understood subfamily of p97 adaptors that do not harbor a ubiquitin association domain or bind ubiquitin-modified proteins. Of clinical importance, p97 mutants found in familial neurodegenerative conditions Inclusion Body Myopathy Paget's disease of the bone and/or Frontotemporal Dementia and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis are defective at interacting with UBXD1, indicating that functions regulated by a p97-UBXD1 complex are altered in these diseases. We have performed liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of UBXD1-interacting proteins to identify pathways in which UBXD1 functions. UBXD1 displays prominent association with ERGIC-53, a hexameric type I integral membrane protein that functions in protein trafficking. The UBXD1-ERGIC-53 interaction requires the N-terminal 10 residues of UBXD1 and the C-terminal cytoplasmic 12 amino acid tail of ERGIC-53. Use of p97 and E1 enzyme inhibitors indicate that complex formation between UBXD1 and ERGIC-53 requires the ATPase activity of p97, but not ubiquitin modification. We also performed SILAC-based quantitative proteomic profiling to identify ERGIC-53 interacting proteins. This analysis identified known (e.g. COPI subunits) and novel (Rab3GAP1/2 complex involved in the fusion of vesicles at the cell membrane) interactions that are also mediated through the C terminus of the protein. Immunoprecipitation and Western blotting analysis confirmed the proteomic interaction data and it also revealed that an UBXD1-Rab3GAP association requires the ERGIC-53 binding domain of UBXD1. Localization studies indicate that UBXD1 modules the sub-cellular trafficking of ERGIC-53, including promoting movement to the cell membrane. We propose that p97-UBXD1 modulates the trafficking of ERGIC-53-containing vesicles by controlling the interaction of transport factors with the cytoplasmic tail of ERGIC-53. PMID:22337587

  10. Structure, Function and On-Off Switching of a Core Unit Contact between CheA Kinase and CheW Adaptor Protein in the Bacterial Chemosensory Array: A Disulfide Mapping and TAM-IDS Study

    PubMed Central

    Natale, Andrew M.; Duplantis, Jane L.; Piasta, Kene N.; Falke, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    The ultrasensitive, ultrastable bacterial chemosensory array of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium is representative of the large, conserved family of sensory arrays that control the cellular chemotaxis of motile bacteria and Archaea. The core framework of the membrane-bound array is a lattice assembled from three components: a transmembrane receptor, a cytoplasmic His kinase (CheA), and a cytoplasmic adaptor protein (CheW). Structural studies in the field have revealed the global architecture of the array and complexes between specific components, but much remains to be learned about the essential protein-protein interfaces that define array structure and transmit signals between components. This study has focused on the structure, function and on-off switching of a key contact between the kinase and adaptor proteins in the working, membrane-bound array. Specifically, the study addressed interface 1 in the putative kinase-adaptor ring where subdomain 1 of the kinase regulatory domain contacts subdomain 2 of the adaptor protein. Two independent approaches – disulfide mapping and site-directed Trp and Ala mutagenesis – were employed to (i) test the structural model of interface 1 and (ii) investigate its functional roles in both stable kinase incorporation and receptor-regulated kinase on-off switching. Studies were carried out in functional, membrane-bound arrays or in live cells. The findings reveal that crystal structures of binary and ternary complexes accurately depict the native interface in its kinase-activating on state. Furthermore, the findings indicate that at least part of the interface becomes less closely packed in its kinase-inhibiting off state. Together, the evidence shows the interface has a dual structural and signaling function that is crucial for stable kinase incorporation into the array, for kinase activation in the array on state, and likely for attractant-triggered kinase on-off switching. A model is presented that describes the

  11. BTB domain-containing speckle-type POZ protein (SPOP) serves as an adaptor of Daxx for ubiquitination by Cul3-based ubiquitin ligase.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jeong Eun; La, Muhnho; Oh, Kyu Hee; Oh, Young Mi; Kim, Gi Ryang; Seol, Jae Hong; Baek, Sung Hee; Chiba, Tomoki; Tanaka, Keiji; Bang, Ok Sun; Joe, Cheol O; Chung, Chin Ha

    2006-05-05

    Daxx is a multifunctional protein that regulates a variety of cellular processes, including transcription, cell cycle, and apoptosis. SPOP is a BTB (Bric-a-brac/Tramtrack/Broad complex) protein that constitutes Cul3-based ubiquitin ligases. Here we show that SPOP serves as an adaptor of Daxx for the ubiquitination by Cul3-based ubiquitin ligase and subsequent degradation by the proteasome. Expression of SPOP with Cul3 markedly reduced Daxx level, and this degradation was blocked by SPOP-specific short hairpin RNAs. Inhibition of the proteasome by MG132 caused the prevention of Daxx degradation in parallel with the accumulation of ubiquitinated Daxx. Expression of SPOP with Cul3 reversed Daxx-mediated repression of ETS1- and p53-dependent transcription, and short hairpin RNA-mediated knock down of SPOP blocked the recovery of their transcriptional activation. Furthermore, Daxx degradation led to the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and the increase in the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-fluorescein nick end-labeling-positive apoptotic cells. These results suggest that SPOP/Cul3-ubiquitin ligase plays an essential role in the control of Daxx level and, thus, in the regulation of Daxx-mediated cellular processes, including transcriptional regulation and apoptosis.

  12. The adaptor-like protein ROG-1 is required for activation of the Ras-MAP kinase pathway and meiotic cell cycle progression in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Yosuke; Kawasaki, Ichiro; Urushiyama, Seiichi; Yasuda, Tomoharu; Shirakata, Masaki; Iino, Yuichi; Shibuya, Hiroshi; Yamanashi, Yuji

    2007-03-01

    The Ras-MAP kinase pathway regulates varieties of fundamental cellular events. In Caenorhabditis elegans, this pathway is required for oocyte development; however, the nature of its up-stream regulators has remained elusive. Here, we identified a C. elegans gene, rog-1, which encodes the only protein having the IRS-type phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain in the worms. ROG-1 has no obvious domain structure aside from the PTB domain, suggesting that it could serve as an adaptor down-stream of protein-tyrosine kinases (PTKs). RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated down-regulation of rog-1 mRNA significantly decreased brood size. rog-1(tm1031) truncation mutants showed a severe disruption in progression of developing oocytes from pachytene to diakinesis, as was seen in worms carrying a loss-of-function mutation in the let-60 Ras or mpk-1 MAP kinase gene. Furthermore, let-60 Ras-regulated activation of MPK-1 in the gonad is undetectable in rog-1(tm1031) mutants. Conversely, a gain-of-function mutation in the let-60 Ras gene rescues the brood size reduction and germ cell abnormality in rog-1(tm1031) worms. Consistently, rog-1 is preferentially expressed in the germ cells and its expression in the gonad is essential for oocyte development. Thus, ROG-1 is a key positive regulator of the Ras-MAP kinase pathway that permits germ cells to exit from pachytene.

  13. Mutation of the phospholipase C-γ1–binding site of LAT affects both positive and negative thymocyte selection

    PubMed Central

    Sommers, Connie L.; Lee, Jan; Steiner, Kevin L.; Gurson, Jordan M.; DePersis, Corinne L.; El-Khoury, Dalal; Fuller, Claudette L.; Shores, Elizabeth W.; Love, Paul E.; Samelson, Lawrence E.

    2005-01-01

    Linker for activation of T cells (LAT) is a scaffolding adaptor protein that is critical for T cell development and function. A mutation of LAT (Y136F) that disrupts phospholipase C-γ1 activation and subsequent calcium influx causes a partial block in T cell development and leads to a severe lymphoproliferative disease in homozygous knock-in mice. One possible contribution to the fatal disease of LAT Y136F knock-in mice could be from autoreactive T cells generated in these mice because of altered thymocyte selection. To examine the impact of the LAT Y136F mutation on thymocyte positive and negative selection, we bred this mutation onto the HY T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic, recombination activating gene-2 knockout background. Female mice with this genotype showed a severe defect in positive selection, whereas male mice exhibited a phenotype resembling positive selection (i.e., development and survival of CD8hi HY TCR-specific T cells) instead of negative selection. These results support the hypothesis that in non-TCR transgenic, LAT Y136F knock-in mice, altered thymocyte selection leads to the survival and proliferation of autoreactive T cells that would otherwise be negatively selected in the thymus. PMID:15795236

  14. The role of Drp1 adaptor proteins MiD49 and MiD51 in mitochondrial fission: implications for human disease.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Kathleen; Dasgupta, Asish; Chen, Kuang-Hueih; Mewburn, Jeff; Archer, Stephen L

    2016-11-01

    Mitochondrial morphology is governed by the balance of mitochondrial fusion, mediated by mitofusins and optic atrophy 1 (OPA1), and fission, mediated by dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1). Disordered mitochondrial dynamics alters metabolism, proliferation, apoptosis and mitophagy, contributing to human diseases, including neurodegenerative syndromes, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), cancer and ischemia/reperfusion injury. Post-translational regulation of Drp1 (by phosphorylation and SUMOylation) is an established means of modulating Drp1 activation and translocation to the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM). This review focuses on Drp1 adaptor proteins that also regulate fission. The proteins include fission 1 (Fis1), mitochondrial fission factor (Mff) and mitochondrial dynamics proteins of 49 kDa and 51 kDa (MiD49, MiD51). Heterologous MiD overexpression sequesters inactive Drp1 on the OMM, promoting fusion; conversely, increased endogenous MiD creates focused Drp1 multimers that optimize OMM scission. The triggers that activate MiD-bound Drp1 in disease states are unknown; however, MiD51 has a unique capacity for ADP binding at its nucleotidyltransferase domain. Without ADP, MiD51 inhibits Drp1, whereas ADP promotes MiD51-mediated fission, suggesting a link between metabolism and fission. Confusion over whether MiDs mediate fusion (by sequestering inactive Drp1) or fission (by guiding Drp1 assembly) relates to a failure to consider cell types used and to distinguish endogenous compared with heterologous changes in expression. We speculate that endogenous MiDs serve as Drp1-binding partners that are dysregulated in disease states and may be important targets for inhibiting cell proliferation and ischemia/reperfusion injury. Moreover, it appears that the composition of the fission apparatus varies between disease states and amongst individuals. MiDs may be important targets for inhibiting cell proliferation and attenuating ischemia/reperfusion injury.

  15. Dual role of the Toxoplasma gondii clathrin adaptor AP1 in the sorting of rhoptry and microneme proteins and in parasite division

    PubMed Central

    Werkmeister, Elisabeth; Saliou, Jean-Michel; Huot, Ludovic; Sindikubwabo, Fabien; Hakimi, Mohamed Ali; Langsley, Gordon

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii possesses a highly polarized secretory system, which efficiently assembles de novo micronemes and rhoptries during parasite replication. These apical secretory organelles release their contents into host cells promoting parasite invasion and survival. Using a CreLox-based inducible knock-out strategy and the ddFKBP over-expression system, we unraveled novel functions of the clathrin adaptor complex TgAP1. First, our data indicate that AP1 in T. gondii likely functions as a conserved heterotetrameric complex composed of the four subunits γ, β, μ1, σ1 and interacts with known regulators of clathrin-mediated vesicular budding such as the unique ENTH-domain containing protein, which we named Epsin-like protein (TgEpsL). Disruption of the μ1 subunit resulted in the mis-sorting of microneme proteins at the level of the Trans-Golgi-Network (TGN). Furthermore, we demonstrated that TgAP1 regulates rhoptry biogenesis by activating rhoptry protein exit from the TGN, but also participates in the post-Golgi maturation process of preROP compartments into apically anchored club-shaped mature organelles. For this latter activity, our data indicate a specific functional relationship between TgAP1 and the Rab5A-positive endosome-like compartment. In addition, we unraveled an original role for TgAP1 in the regulation of parasite division. APμ1-depleted parasites undergo normal daughter cell budding and basal complex assembly but fail to segregate at the end of cytokinesis. PMID:28430827

  16. Human kidney anion exchanger 1 interacts with adaptor-related protein complex 1 μ1A (AP-1 mu1A).

    PubMed

    Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Junking, Mutita; Ngaojanlar, Piengpaga; Sukomon, Nattakan; Ungsupravate, Duangporn; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai; Akkarapatumwong, Varaporn; Noisakran, Sansanee; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-Thai

    2010-10-08

    Kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) mediates chloride (Cl⁻) and bicarbonate (HCO₃⁻) exchange at the basolateral membrane of kidney α-intercalated cells. Impaired trafficking of kAE1 leads to defect of the Cl⁻/HCO₃⁻ exchange at the basolateral membrane and failure of proton (H+) secretion at the apical membrane, causing a kidney disease--distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). To gain a better insight into kAE1 trafficking, we searched for proteins physically interacting with the C-terminal region of kAE1 (Ct-kAE1), which contains motifs crucial for intracellular trafficking, by a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system. An adaptor-related protein complex 1 μ1A (AP-1 mu1A) subunit was found to interact with Ct-kAE1. The interaction between either Ct-kAE1 or full-length kAE1 and AP-1 mu1A were confirmed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T by co-immunoprecipitation, affinity co-purification, co-localization, yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-based protein fragment complementation assay (PCA) and GST pull-down assay. The interacting site for AP-1 mu1A on Ct-kAE1 was found to be Y904DEV907, a subset of YXXØ motif. Interestingly, suppression of endogenous AP-1 mu1A in HEK 293T by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreased membrane localization of kAE1 and increased its intracellular accumulation, suggesting for the first time that AP-1 mu1A is involved in the kAE1 trafficking of kidney α-intercalated cells. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification of Atg2 and ArfGAP1 as Candidate Genetic Modifiers of the Eye Pigmentation Phenotype of Adaptor Protein-3 (AP-3) Mutants in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Fernandez, Imilce A; Dell'Angelica, Esteban C

    2015-01-01

    The Adaptor Protein (AP)-3 complex is an evolutionary conserved, molecular sorting device that mediates the intracellular trafficking of proteins to lysosomes and related organelles. Genetic defects in AP-3 subunits lead to impaired biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles (LROs) such as mammalian melanosomes and insect eye pigment granules. In this work, we have performed a forward screening for genetic modifiers of AP-3 function in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Specifically, we have tested collections of large multi-gene deletions--which together covered most of the autosomal chromosomes-to identify chromosomal regions that, when deleted in single copy, enhanced or ameliorated the eye pigmentation phenotype of two independent AP-3 subunit mutants. Fine-mapping led us to define two non-overlapping, relatively small critical regions within fly chromosome 3. The first critical region included the Atg2 gene, which encodes a conserved protein involved in autophagy. Loss of one functional copy of Atg2 ameliorated the pigmentation defects of mutants in AP-3 subunits as well as in two other genes previously implicated in LRO biogenesis, namely Blos1 and lightoid, and even increased the eye pigment content of wild-type flies. The second critical region included the ArfGAP1 gene, which encodes a conserved GTPase-activating protein with specificity towards GTPases of the Arf family. Loss of a single functional copy of the ArfGAP1 gene ameliorated the pigmentation phenotype of AP-3 mutants but did not to modify the eye pigmentation of wild-type flies or mutants in Blos1 or lightoid. Strikingly, loss of the second functional copy of the gene did not modify the phenotype of AP-3 mutants any further but elicited early lethality in males and abnormal eye morphology when combined with mutations in Blos1 and lightoid, respectively. These results provide genetic evidence for new functional links connecting the machinery for biogenesis of LROs with molecules implicated in

  18. Adaptor protein cerebral cavernous malformation 3 (CCM3) mediates phosphorylation of the cytoskeletal proteins ezrin/radixin/moesin by mammalian Ste20-4 to protect cells from oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Fidalgo, Miguel; Guerrero, Ana; Fraile, María; Iglesias, Cristina; Pombo, Celia M; Zalvide, Juan

    2012-03-30

    While studying the functions of CCM3/PDCD10, a gene encoding an adaptor protein whose mutation results in vascular malformations, we have found that it is involved in a novel response to oxidative stress that results in phosphorylation and activation of the ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) family of proteins. This phosphorylation protects cells from accidental cell death induced by oxidative stress. We also present evidence that ERM phosphorylation is performed by the GCKIII kinase Mst4, which is activated and relocated to the cell periphery after oxidative stress. The cellular levels of Mst4 and its activation after oxidative stress depend on the presence of CCM3, as absence of the latter impairs the phosphorylation of ERM proteins and enhances death of cells exposed to reactive oxygen species. These findings shed new light on the response of cells to oxidative stress and identify an important pathophysiological situation in which ERM proteins and their phosphorylation play a significant role.

  19. Adjuvanticity of the oil-in-water emulsion MF59 is independent of Nlrp3 inflammasome but requires the adaptor protein MyD88

    PubMed Central

    Seubert, Anja; Calabro, Samuele; Santini, Laura; Galli, Barbara; Genovese, Alessia; Valentini, Sara; Aprea, Susanna; Colaprico, Annalisa; D'Oro, Ugo; Giuliani, Marzia M.; Pallaoro, Michele; Pizza, Mariagrazia; O'Hagan, Derek T.; Wack, Andreas; Rappuoli, Rino; De Gregorio, Ennio

    2011-01-01

    Oil-in-water emulsions have been successfully used to increase the efficacy, immunogenicity, and cross-protection of human vaccines; however, their mechanism of action is still largely unknown. Nlrp3 inflammasome has been previously associated to the activity of alum, another adjuvant broadly used in human vaccines, and MyD88 adaptor protein is required for the adjuvanticity of most Toll-like receptor agonists. We compared the contribution of Nlrp3 and MyD88 to the adjuvanticity of alum, the oil-in-water emulsion MF59, and complete Freund's adjuvant in mice using a three-component vaccine against serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis (rMenB). Although the basal antibody responses to the nonadjuvanted rMenB vaccine were largely dependent on Nlrp3, the high-level antibody responses induced by alum, MF59, or complete Freund's adjuvant did not require Nlrp3. Surprisingly, we found that MF59 requires MyD88 to enhance bactericidal antibody responses to the rMenB vaccine. Because MF59 did not activate any of the Toll-like receptors in vitro, we propose that MF59 requires MyD88 for a Toll-like receptor-independent signaling pathway. PMID:21690334

  20. The adaptor protein SAP directly associates with PECAM-1 and regulates PECAM-1-mediated-cell adhesion in T-like cell lines.

    PubMed

    Proust, Richard; Crouin, Catherine; Gandji, Leslie Yewakon; Bertoglio, Jacques; Gesbert, Franck

    2014-04-01

    SAP is a small cytosolic adaptor protein expressed in hematopoietic lineages whose main function is to regulate intracellular signaling pathways induced by the triggering of members of the SLAM receptor family. In this paper, we have identified the adhesion molecule PECAM-1 as a new partner for SAP in a conditional yeast two-hybrid screen. PECAM-1 is an immunoglobulin-like molecule expressed by endothelial cells and leukocytes, which possesses both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties. However, little is known about PECAM-1 functions in T cells. We show that SAP directly and specifically interacts with the cytosolic tyrosine 686 of PECAM-1. We generated different T-like cell lines in which SAP or PECAM-1 are expressed or down modulated and we demonstrate that a diminished SAP expression correlates with a diminished PECAM-1-mediated adhesion. Although SAP has mainly been shown to associate with SLAM receptors, we evidence here that SAP is a new actor downstream of PECAM-1.

  1. Transforming growth factor-beta suppresses nonmetastatic colon cancer through Smad4 and adaptor protein ELF at an early stage of tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yi; Katuri, Varalakshmi; Srinivasan, Radhika; Fogt, Franz; Redman, Robert; Anand, Girish; Said, Anan; Fishbein, Thomas; Zasloff, Michael; Reddy, E Premkumar; Mishra, Bibhuti; Mishra, Lopa

    2005-05-15

    Although transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is both a suppressor and promoter of tumorigenesis, its contribution to early tumor suppression and staging remains largely unknown. In search of the mechanism of early tumor suppression, we identified the adaptor protein ELF, a beta-spectrin from stem/progenitor cells committed to foregut lineage. ELF activates and modulates Smad4 activation of TGF-beta to confer cell polarity, to maintain cell architecture, and to inhibit epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Analysis of development of colon cancer in (adult) elf+/-/Smad4+/-, elf+/-, Smad4+/-, and gut epithelial cells from elf-/- mutant mouse embryos pinpoints the defect to hyperplasia/adenoma transition. Further analysis of the role of ELF in human colorectal cancer confirms reduced expression of ELF in Dukes' B1 stage tissues (P < 0.05) and of Smad4 in advanced colon cancers (P < 0.05). This study indicates that by modulating Smad 4, ELF has a key role in TGF-beta signaling in the suppression of early colon cancer.

  2. Disruption of adaptor protein 2μ (AP-2μ) in cochlear hair cells impairs vesicle reloading of synaptic release sites and hearing.

    PubMed

    Jung, SangYong; Maritzen, Tanja; Wichmann, Carolin; Jing, Zhizi; Neef, Andreas; Revelo, Natalia H; Al-Moyed, Hanan; Meese, Sandra; Wojcik, Sonja M; Panou, Iliana; Bulut, Haydar; Schu, Peter; Ficner, Ralf; Reisinger, Ellen; Rizzoli, Silvio O; Neef, Jakob; Strenzke, Nicola; Haucke, Volker; Moser, Tobias

    2015-11-03

    Active zones (AZs) of inner hair cells (IHCs) indefatigably release hundreds of vesicles per second, requiring each release site to reload vesicles at tens per second. Here, we report that the endocytic adaptor protein 2μ (AP-2μ) is required for release site replenishment and hearing. We show that hair cell-specific disruption of AP-2μ slows IHC exocytosis immediately after fusion of the readily releasable pool of vesicles, despite normal abundance of membrane-proximal vesicles and intact endocytic membrane retrieval. Sound-driven postsynaptic spiking was reduced in a use-dependent manner, and the altered interspike interval statistics suggested a slowed reloading of release sites. Sustained strong stimulation led to accumulation of endosome-like vacuoles, fewer clathrin-coated endocytic intermediates, and vesicle depletion of the membrane-distal synaptic ribbon in AP-2μ-deficient IHCs, indicating a further role of AP-2μ in clathrin-dependent vesicle reformation on a timescale of many seconds. Finally, we show that AP-2 sorts its IHC-cargo otoferlin. We propose that binding of AP-2 to otoferlin facilitates replenishment of release sites, for example, via speeding AZ clearance of exocytosed material, in addition to a role of AP-2 in synaptic vesicle reformation.

  3. Nck-2, a Novel Src Homology2/3-containing Adaptor Protein That Interacts with the LIM-only Protein PINCH and Components of Growth Factor Receptor Kinase-signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Yizeng; Li, Fugang; Wu, Chuanyue

    1998-01-01

    Many of the protein–protein interactions that are essential for eukaryotic intracellular signal transduction are mediated by protein binding modules including SH2, SH3, and LIM domains. Nck is a SH3- and SH2-containing adaptor protein implicated in coordinating various signaling pathways, including those of growth factor receptors and cell adhesion receptors. We report here the identification, cloning, and characterization of a widely expressed, Nck-related adaptor protein termed Nck-2. Nck-2 comprises primarily three N-terminal SH3 domains and one C-terminal SH2 domain. We show that Nck-2 interacts with PINCH, a LIM-only protein implicated in integrin-linked kinase signaling. The PINCH-Nck-2 interaction is mediated by the fourth LIM domain of PINCH and the third SH3 domain of Nck-2. Furthermore, we show that Nck-2 is capable of recognizing several key components of growth factor receptor kinase-signaling pathways including EGF receptors, PDGF receptor-β, and IRS-1. The association of Nck-2 with EGF receptors was regulated by EGF stimulation and involved largely the SH2 domain of Nck-2, although the SH3 domains of Nck-2 also contributed to the complex formation. The association of Nck-2 with PDGF receptor-β was dependent on PDGF activation and was mediated solely by the SH2 domain of Nck-2. Additionally, we have detected a stable association between Nck-2 and IRS-1 that was mediated primarily via the second and third SH3 domain of Nck-2. Thus, Nck-2 associates with PINCH and components of different growth factor receptor-signaling pathways via distinct mechanisms. Finally, we provide evidence indicating that a fraction of the Nck-2 and/or Nck-1 proteins are associated with the cytoskeleton. These results identify a novel Nck-related SH2- and SH3-domain–containing protein and suggest that it may function as an adaptor protein connecting the growth factor receptor-signaling pathways with the integrin-signaling pathways. PMID:9843575

  4. The Sho1 Adaptor Protein Links Oxidative Stress to Morphogenesis and Cell Wall Biosynthesis in the Fungal Pathogen Candida albicans† ‡

    PubMed Central

    Román, Elvira; Nombela, César; Pla, Jesús

    2005-01-01

    The Sho1 adaptor protein is an important element of one of the two upstream branches of the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a signal transduction cascade involved in adaptation to stress. In the present work, we describe its role in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans by the construction of mutants altered in this gene. We report here that sho1 mutants are sensitive to oxidative stress but that Sho1 has a minor role in the transmission of the phosphorylation signal to the Hog1 MAP kinase in response to oxidative stress, which mainly occurs through a putative Sln1-Ssk1 branch of the HOG pathway. Genetic analysis revealed that double ssk1 sho1 mutants were still able to grow on high-osmolarity media and activate Hog1 in response to this stress, indicating the existence of alternative inputs of the pathway. We also demonstrate that the Cek1 MAP kinase is constitutively active in hog1 and ssk1 mutants, a phenotypic trait that correlates with their resistance to the cell wall inhibitor Congo red, and that Sho1 is essential for the activation of the Cek1 MAP kinase under different conditions that require active cell growth and/or cell wall remodeling, such as the resumption of growth upon exit from the stationary phase. sho1 mutants are also sensitive to certain cell wall interfering compounds (Congo red, calcofluor white), presenting an altered cell wall structure (as shown by the ability to aggregate), and are defective in morphogenesis on different media, such as SLAD and Spider, that stimulate hyphal growth. These results reveal a role for the Sho1 protein in linking oxidative stress, cell wall biogenesis, and morphogenesis in this important human fungal pathogen. PMID:16287872

  5. The interaction of the cellular export adaptor protein Aly/REF with ICP27 contributes to the efficiency of herpes simplex virus 1 mRNA export.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiaochen; Devi-Rao, Gayathri; Golovanov, Alexander P; Sandri-Goldin, Rozanne M

    2013-07-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) protein ICP27 enables viral mRNA export by accessing the cellular mRNA export receptor TAP/NXF, which guides mRNA through the nuclear pore complex. ICP27 binds viral mRNAs and interacts with TAP/NXF, providing a link to the cellular mRNA export pathway. ICP27 also interacts with the mRNA export adaptor protein Aly/REF, which binds cellular mRNAs and also interacts with TAP/NXF. Studies using small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown indicated that Aly/REF is not required for cellular mRNA export, and similar knockdown studies during HSV-1 infection led us to conclude that Aly/REF may be dispensable for viral RNA export. Recently, the structural basis of the interaction of ICP27 with Aly/REF was elucidated at atomic resolution, and it was shown that three ICP27 residues, W105, R107, and L108, interface with the RNA recognition motif (RRM) domain of Aly/REF. Here, to determine the role the interaction of ICP27 and Aly/REF plays during infection, these residues were mutated to alanine, and a recombinant virus, WRL-A, was constructed. Virus production was reduced about 10-fold during WRL-A infection, and export of ICP27 protein and most viral mRNAs was less efficient. We conclude that interaction of ICP27 with Aly/REF contributes to efficient viral mRNA export.

  6. Enigma interacts with adaptor protein with PH and SH2 domains to control insulin-induced actin cytoskeleton remodeling and glucose transporter 4 translocation.

    PubMed

    Barrès, Romain; Grémeaux, Thierry; Gual, Philippe; Gonzalez, Teresa; Gugenheim, Jean; Tran, Albert; Le Marchand-Brustel, Yannick; Tanti, Jean-François

    2006-11-01

    APS (adaptor protein with PH and SH2 domains) initiates a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-independent pathway involved in insulin-stimulated glucose transport. We recently identified Enigma, a PDZ and LIM domain-containing protein, as a partner of APS and showed that APS-Enigma complex plays a critical role in actin cytoskeleton organization in fibroblastic cells. Because actin rearrangement is important for insulin-induced glucose transporter 4 (Glut 4) translocation, we studied the potential involvement of Enigma in insulin-induced glucose transport in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Enigma mRNA was expressed in differentiated adipocytes and APS and Enigma were colocalized with cortical actin. Expression of an APS mutant unable to bind Enigma increased the insulin-induced Glut 4 translocation to the plasma membrane. By contrast, overexpression of Enigma inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose transport and Glut 4 translocation without alterations in proximal insulin signaling. This inhibitory effect was prevented with the deletion of the LIM domains of Enigma. Using time-lapse fluorescent microscopy of green fluorescent protein-actin, we demonstrated that the overexpression of Enigma altered insulin-induced actin rearrangements, whereas the expression of Enigma without its LIM domains was without effect. A physiological link between increased expression of Enigma and an alteration in insulin-induced glucose uptake was suggested by the increase in Enigma mRNA expression in adipose tissue of diabetic obese patients. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that the interaction between APS and Enigma is involved in insulin-induced Glut 4 translocation by regulating cortical actin remodeling and raise the possibility that modification of APS/Enigma ratio could participate in the alteration of insulin-induced glucose uptake in adipose tissue.

  7. CD93 interacts with the PDZ domain-containing adaptor protein GIPC: implications in the modulation of phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Bohlson, Suzanne S; Zhang, Mingyu; Ortiz, Christopher E; Tenner, Andrea J

    2005-01-01

    CD93 was originally identified as a myeloid cell-surface marker and subsequently associated with an ability to modulate phagocytosis of suboptimally opsonized immunoglobulin G and complement particles in vitro. Recent studies using mice deficient in CD93 have demonstrated that this molecule modulates phagocytosis of apoptotic cells in vivo. To investigate signal transduction mechanisms mediated by CD93, CD93 cytoplasmic tail (CYTO)-binding proteins were identified in a yeast two-hybrid screen. Fifteen of 34 positive clones contained a splice variant or a partial cDNA encoding GIPC, a PSD-95/Dlg/ZO-1 (PDZ) domain-containing protein, shown previously to regulate cytoskeletal dynamics. A single clone of the N-terminal kinase-like protein p105 and an uncharacterized stem cell transcript also showed specificity for binding to the CYTO by yeast two-hybrid. Using the yeast two-hybrid system and an in vitro glutathione S-transferase fusion protein-binding assay, the binding of GIPC to the CYTO was shown to involve a newly identified class I PDZ-binding domain in the CD93 carboxyl terminus. Four positively charged amino acids in the juxtamembrane domain of CD93 were shown to be critical in stabilizing these interactions. Treatment of human monocytes with a cell-permeable peptide encoding the C-terminal 11 amino acids of CD93 resulted in an enhancement of phagocytosis, supporting the hypothesis that this protein-protein interaction domain is involved in the modulation of phagocytosis. These protein interactions may participate as molecular switches in modulating cellular phagocytic activity.

  8. Mutational analysis of the adaptor protein 2 sigma subunit (AP2S1) gene: search for autosomal dominant hypocalcemia type 3 (ADH3).

    PubMed

    Rogers, Angela; Nesbit, M Andrew; Hannan, Fadil M; Howles, Sarah A; Gorvin, Caroline M; Cranston, Treena; Allgrove, Jeremy; Bevan, John S; Bano, Gul; Brain, Caroline; Datta, Vipan; Grossman, Ashley B; Hodgson, Shirley V; Izatt, Louise; Millar-Jones, Lynne; Pearce, Simon H; Robertson, Lisa; Selby, Peter L; Shine, Brian; Snape, Katie; Warner, Justin; Thakker, Rajesh V

    2014-07-01

    Autosomal dominant hypocalcemia (ADH) types 1 and 2 are due to calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) and G-protein subunit-α11 (GNA11) gain-of-function mutations, respectively, whereas CASR and GNA11 loss-of-function mutations result in familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) types 1 and 2, respectively. Loss-of-function mutations of adaptor protein-2 sigma subunit (AP2σ 2), encoded by AP2S1, cause FHH3, and we therefore sought for gain-of-function AP2S1 mutations that may cause an additional form of ADH, which we designated ADH3. The objective of the study was to investigate the hypothesis that gain-of-function AP2S1 mutations may cause ADH3. The sample size required for the detection of at least one mutation with a greater than 95% likelihood was determined by binomial probability analysis. Nineteen patients (including six familial cases) with hypocalcemia in association with low or normal serum PTH concentrations, consistent with ADH, but who did not have CASR or GNA11 mutations, were ascertained. Leukocyte DNA was used for sequence and copy number variation analysis of AP2S1. Binomial probability analysis, using the assumption that AP2S1 mutations would occur in hypocalcemic patients at a prevalence of 20%, which is observed in FHH patients without CASR or GNA11 mutations, indicated that the likelihood of detecting at least one AP2S1 mutation was greater than 95% and greater than 98% in sample sizes of 14 and 19 hypocalcemic patients, respectively. AP2S1 mutations and copy number variations were not detected in the 19 hypocalcemic patients. The absence of AP2S1 abnormalities in hypocalcemic patients, suggests that ADH3 may not occur or otherwise represents a rare hypocalcemic disorder.

  9. Cell-based Fluorescence Complementation Reveals a Role for HIV-1 Nef Protein Dimerization in AP-2 Adaptor Recruitment and CD4 Co-receptor Down-regulation.

    PubMed

    Shu, Sherry T; Emert-Sedlak, Lori A; Smithgall, Thomas E

    2017-02-17

    The HIV-1 Nef accessory factor enhances viral infectivity, immune evasion, and AIDS progression. Nef triggers rapid down-regulation of CD4 via the endocytic adaptor protein 2 (AP-2) complex, a process linked to enhanced viral infectivity and immune escape. Here, we describe a bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay to visualize the interaction of Nef with AP-2 and CD4 in living cells. Interacting protein pairs were fused to complementary non-fluorescent fragments of YFP and co-expressed in 293T cells. Nef interactions with both CD4 and AP-2 resulted in complementation of YFP and a bright fluorescent signal by confocal microcopy that localized to the cell periphery. Co-expression of the AP-2 α subunit enhanced the Nef·AP-2 σ2 subunit BiFC signal and vice versa, suggesting that the AP-2 α-σ2 hemicomplex interacts cooperatively with Nef. Mutagenesis of Nef amino acids Arg-134, Glu-174, and Asp-175, which stabilize Nef for AP-2 α-σ2 binding in a recent co-crystal structure, substantially reduced AP-2 interaction without affecting CD4 binding. A dimerization-defective mutant of Nef failed to interact with either CD4 or AP-2 in the BiFC assay, indicating that Nef quaternary structure is required for CD4 and AP-2 recruitment as well as CD4 down-regulation. A small molecule previously shown to bind the Nef dimerization interface also reduced Nef interactions with AP-2 and CD4 and restored CD4 expression to the surface of HIV-infected cells. Our findings provide a mechanistic explanation for previous observations that dimerization-defective Nef mutants fail to down-regulate CD4 and validate the Nef dimerization interface as a target site for antiretroviral drug development.

  10. Adaptor protein CRK induces epithelial–mesenchymal transition and metastasis of bladder cancer cells through HGF/c-Met feedback loop

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Ryuji; Tsuda, Masumi; Wang, Lei; Maishi, Nako; Abe, Takashige; Kimura, Taichi; Tanino, Mishie; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Hida, Kyoko; Ohba, Yusuke; Shinohara, Nobuo; Nonomura, Katsuya; Tanaka, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    We have previously reported that an adaptor protein CRK, including CRK-I and CRK-II, plays essential roles in the malignant potential of various aggressive human cancers, suggesting the validity of targeting CRK in molecular targeted therapy of a wide range of cancers. Nevertheless, the role of CRK in human bladder cancer with marked invasion, characterized by distant metastasis and poor prognosis, remains obscure. In the present study, immunohistochemistry indicated a striking enhancement of CRK-I/-II, but not CRK-like, in human bladder cancer tissues compared to normal urothelium. We established CRK-knockdown bladder cancer cells using 5637 and UM-UC-3, which showed a significant decline in cell migration, invasion, and proliferation. It is noteworthy that an elimination of CRK conferred suppressed phosphorylation of c-Met and the downstream scaffold protein Gab1 in a hepatocyte growth factor-dependent and -independent manner. In epithelial–mesenchymal transition-related molecules, E-cadherin was upregulated by CRK elimination, whereas N-cadherin, vimentin, and Zeb1 were downregulated. A similar effect was observed following treatment with c-Met inhibitor SU11274. Depletion of CRK significantly decreased cell proliferation of 5637 and UM-UC-3, consistent with reduced activity of ERK. An orthotopic xenograft model with bioluminescent imaging revealed that CRK knockdown significantly attenuated not only tumor volume but also the number of circulating tumor cells, resulted in a complete abrogation of metastasis. Taken together, this evidence uncovered essential roles of CRK in invasive bladder cancer through the hepatocyte growth factor/c-Met/CRK feedback loop for epithelial–mesenchymal transition induction. Thus, CRK might be a potent molecular target in bladder cancer, particularly for preventing metastasis, leading to the resolution of clinically longstanding critical issues. PMID:25816892

  11. Calcyon, a mammalian specific NEEP21 family member, interacts with adaptor protein complex 3 (AP-3) and regulates targeting of AP-3 cargoes.

    PubMed

    Muthusamy, Nagendran; Faundez, Victor; Bergson, Clare

    2012-10-01

    Calcyon is a neural enriched, single transmembrane protein that interacts with clathrin light chain and stimulates clathrin assembly and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. A similar property is shared by the heterotetrameric adaptor protein (AP) complexes AP-1, AP-2, and AP-3 which recruit cargoes for insertion into clathrin coated transport vesicles. Here we report that AP medium (μ) subunits interact with a YXXØ-type tyrosine motif located at residues 133-136 in the cytoplasmic domain of calcyon. Site specific mutagenesis of the critical tyrosine and bulky hydrophobic residues tyrosine 133 and methionine 136 preferentially abrogated binding of the ubiquitous and neuronal isoforms of μ3, and also impacted μ1 and μ2 binding to a lesser degree. The relevance of these interactions was explored in vivo using mice harboring null alleles of calcyon. As seen in the mutagenesis studies, calcyon deletion in mice preferentially altered the subcellular distribution of AP-3 suggesting that calcyon could regulate membrane-bound pools of AP-3 and AP-3 function. To test this hypothesis, we focused on the hilar region of hippocampus, where levels of calcyon, AP-3, and AP-3 cargoes are abundant. We analyzed brain cryosections from control and calcyon null mice for zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3), and phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase type II alpha (PI4KIIα), two well-defined AP-3 cargoes. Confocal microscopy indicated that ZnT3 and PI4KIIα are significantly reduced in the hippocampal mossy fibers of calcyon knock-out brain, a phenotype previously described in AP-3 deficiencies. Altogether, our data suggest that calcyon directly interacts with μ3A and μ3B, and regulates the subcellular distribution of AP-3 and the targeting of AP-3 cargoes.

  12. CALCYON, A MAMMALIAN SPECIFIC NEEP21 FAMILY MEMBER, INTERACTS WITH ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 3 (AP-3) AND REGULATES TARGETING OF AP-3 CARGOES

    PubMed Central

    Muthusamy, Nagendran; Faundez, Victor; Bergson, Clare

    2013-01-01

    Calcyon is a neural enriched, single transmembrane protein that interacts with clathrin light chain (CLC) and stimulates clathrin assembly and clathrin mediated endocytosis (CME). A similar property is shared by the heterotetrameric adaptor protein (AP) complexes AP-1, AP-2, and AP-3 which recruit cargoes for insertion into clathrin coated transport vesicles. Here we report that AP medium (µ) subunits interact with a YXXØ-type tyrosine motif located at residues 133–136 in the cytoplasmic domain of calcyon. Site specific mutagenesis of the critical tyrosine and bulky hydrophobic residues tyrosine 133 and methionine 136 preferentially abrogated binding of the ubiquitous and neuronal isoforms of µ3, and also impacted µ1 and µ2 binding but to a lesser degree. The relevance of these interactions was explored in vivo using mice harboring null-alleles of calcyon. As seen in the mutagenesis studies, calcyon deletion in mice preferentially altered the subcellular distribution of AP-3 suggesting that calcyon could regulate membrane-bound pools of AP-3 and AP-3 function. To test this hypothesis, we focused on the hilar region of hippocampus, where levels of calcyon, AP-3, and AP-3 cargoes are abundant. We analyzed brain cryosections from control and calcyon null mice for zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3), and phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase type II alpha (PI4KIIα), two well-defined AP-3 cargoes. Confocal microscopy indicated that ZnT3 and PI4KIIα are significantly reduced in the hippocampal mossy fibers of calcyon knock-out brain, a phenotype previously described in AP-3 deficiencies. Altogether, our data suggest that calcyon directly interacts with µ3A and µ3B, and regulates the subcellular distribution of AP-3 and the targeting of AP-3 cargoes. PMID:22650988

  13. SH2 domain–containing adaptor protein B expressed in dendritic cells is involved in T-cell homeostasis by regulating dendritic cell–mediated Th2 immunity

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The Src homology 2 domain–containing adaptor protein B (SHB) is widely expressed in immune cells and acts as an important regulator for hematopoietic cell function. SHB silencing induces Th2 immunity in mice. SHB is also involved in T-cell homeostasis in vivo. However, SHB has not yet been studied and addressed in association with dendritic cells (DCs). Materials and Methods The effects of SHB expression on the immunogenicity of DCs were assessed by Shb gene silencing in mouse bone marrow–derived DCs (BMDCs). After silencing, surface phenotype, cytokine expression profile, and T-cell stimulation capacity of BMDCs were examined. We investigated the signaling pathways involved in SHB expression during BMDC development. We also examined the immunogenicity of SHB-knockdown (SHBKD) BMDCs in a mouse atopic dermatitis model. Results SHB was steadily expressed in mouse splenic DCs and in in vitro–generated BMDCs in both immature and mature stages. SHB expression was contingent on activation of the mitogen- activated protein kinase/Foxa2 signaling pathway during DC development. SHBKD increased the expression of MHC class II and costimulatory molecules without affecting the cytokine expression of BMDCs. When co-cultured with T cells, SHBKD in BMDCs significantly induced CD4+ T-cell proliferation and the expression of Th2 cytokines, while the regulatory T cell (Treg) population was downregulated. In mouse atopic dermatitis model, mice inoculated with SHBKD DCs developed more severe symptoms of atopic dermatitis compared with mice injected with control DCs. Conclusion SHB expression in DCs plays an important role in T-cell homeostasis in vivo by regulating DC-mediated Th2 polarization. PMID:28168174

  14. Enigma interacts with adaptor protein with PH and SH2 domains to control insulin-induced actin cytoskeleton remodeling and glucose transporter 4 translocation

    PubMed Central

    Barrès, Romain; Grémeaux, Thierry; Gual, Philippe; Gonzalez, Teresa; Gugenheim, Jean; Tran, Albert; Le Marchand-Brustel, Yannick; Tanti, Jean-François

    2006-01-01

    APS (Adaptor protein with PH and SH2 domains) initiates a PI 3-kinase independent pathway involved in insulin-stimulated glucose transport. We recently identified Enigma, a PDZ and LIM domain-containing protein, as a partner of APS and showed that APS/Enigma complex plays a critical role in actin cytoskeleton organization in fibroblastic cells. Since actin rearrangement is important for insulin-induced Glut 4 translocation, we studied the potential involvement of Enigma in insulin-induced glucose transport in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Enigma mRNA was expressed in differentiated adipocytes and APS and Enigma were co-localized with cortical actin. Expression of an APS mutant unable to bind Enigma increased the insulin-induced Glut 4 translocation to the plasma membrane. By contrast, overexpression of Enigma inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose transport and Glut 4 translocation without alterations in proximal insulin signaling. This inhibitory effect was prevented with the deletion of the LIM domains of Enigma. Using time-lapse fluorescent microscopy of GFP-actin, we demonstrated that the overexpression of Enigma altered insulin-induced actin rearrangements, whereas the expression of Enigma without its LIM domains was without effect. A physiological link between increased expression of Enigma and an alteration in insulin-induced glucose uptake was suggested by the increase in Enigma mRNA expression in adipose tissue of diabetic obese patients. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that the interaction between APS and Enigma is involved in insulin-induced Glut 4 translocation by regulating cortical actin remodelling and raise the possibility that modification of APS/Enigma ratio could participate in the alteration of insulin-induced glucose uptake in adipose tissue. PMID:16803868

  15. An adaptor hierarchy regulates proteolysis during a bacterial cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Kamal Kishore; Bergé, Matthieu; Radhakrishnan, Sunish Kumar; Viollier, Patrick Henri; Chien, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Summary Regulated protein degradation is essential. The timed destruction of crucial proteins by the ClpXP protease drives cell-cycle progression in the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus. Although ClpXP is active alone, additional factors are inexplicably required for cell-cycle dependent proteolysis. Here, we show that these factors constitute an adaptor hierarchy where different substrates are destroyed based on the degree of adaptor assembly. The hierarchy builds upon priming of ClpXP by the adaptor CpdR, which promotes degradation of one class of substrates and also recruits the adaptor RcdA to degrade a second class of substrates. Adding the PopA adaptor promotes destruction of a third class of substrates, while inhibiting degradation of the second class. We dissect RcdA to generate bespoke adaptors, identifying critical substrate elements needed for RcdA recognition and uncovering additional cell-cycle dependent ClpXP substrates. Our work reveals how hierarchical adaptors and primed proteases orchestrate regulated proteolysis during bacterial cell-cycle progression. PMID:26451486

  16. SmShb, the SH2-Containing Adaptor Protein B of Schistosoma mansoni Regulates Venus Kinase Receptor Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Morel, Marion; Vanderstraete, Mathieu; Cailliau, Katia; Hahnel, Steffen; Grevelding, Christoph G.; Dissous, Colette

    2016-01-01

    Venus kinase receptors (VKRs) are invertebrate receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) formed by an extracellular Venus Fly Trap (VFT) ligand binding domain associated via a transmembrane domain with an intracellular tyrosine kinase (TK) domain. Schistosoma mansoni VKRs, SmVKR1 and SmVKR2, are both implicated in reproductive activities of the parasite. In this work, we show that the SH2 domain-containing protein SmShb is a partner of the phosphorylated form of SmVKR1. Expression of these proteins in Xenopus oocytes allowed us to demonstrate that the SH2 domain of SmShb interacts with the phosphotyrosine residue (pY979) located in the juxtamembrane region of SmVKR1. This interaction leads to phosphorylation of SmShb on tyrosines and promotes SmVKR1 signaling towards the JNK pathway. SmShb transcripts are expressed in all parasite stages and they were found in ovary and testes of adult worms, suggesting a possible colocalization of SmShb and SmVKR1 proteins. Silencing of SmShb in adult S. mansoni resulted in an accumulation of mature sperm in testes, indicating a possible role of SmShb in gametogenesis. PMID:27636711

  17. The interaction between HIV-1 Nef and adaptor protein-2 reduces Nef-mediated CD4(+) T cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Rajesh Abraham; Johnson, Aaron L; Pawlak, Emily N; Dirk, Brennan S; Van Nynatten, Logan R; Haeryfar, S M Mansour; Dikeakos, Jimmy D

    2017-09-01

    Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome is characterized by a decline in CD4(+) T cells. Here, we elucidated the mechanism underlying apoptosis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) infection by examining host apoptotic pathways hijacked by the HIV-1 Nef protein in the CD4(+) T-cell line Sup-T1. Using a panel of Nef mutants unable to bind specific host proteins we uncovered that Nef generates pro- and anti-apoptotic signals. Apoptosis increased upon mutating the motifs involved in the interaction of Nef:AP-1 (NefM20A or NefEEEE62-65AAAA) or Nef:AP-2 (NefLL164/165AA), implying these interactions limit Nef-mediated apoptosis. In contrast, disrupting the Nef:PAK2 interaction motifs (NefH89A or NefF191A) reduced apoptosis. To validate further, apoptosis was measured after short-hairpin RNA knock-down of AP-1, AP-2 and PAK2. AP-2α depletion enhanced apoptosis, demonstrating that disrupting the Nef:AP-2α interaction limits Nef-mediated apoptosis. Collectively, we describe a mechanism by which HIV-1 regulates cell survival and demonstrate the consequence of interfering with Nef:host protein interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. SmShb, the SH2-Containing Adaptor Protein B of Schistosoma mansoni Regulates Venus Kinase Receptor Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Morel, Marion; Vanderstraete, Mathieu; Cailliau, Katia; Hahnel, Steffen; Grevelding, Christoph G; Dissous, Colette

    2016-01-01

    Venus kinase receptors (VKRs) are invertebrate receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) formed by an extracellular Venus Fly Trap (VFT) ligand binding domain associated via a transmembrane domain with an intracellular tyrosine kinase (TK) domain. Schistosoma mansoni VKRs, SmVKR1 and SmVKR2, are both implicated in reproductive activities of the parasite. In this work, we show that the SH2 domain-containing protein SmShb is a partner of the phosphorylated form of SmVKR1. Expression of these proteins in Xenopus oocytes allowed us to demonstrate that the SH2 domain of SmShb interacts with the phosphotyrosine residue (pY979) located in the juxtamembrane region of SmVKR1. This interaction leads to phosphorylation of SmShb on tyrosines and promotes SmVKR1 signaling towards the JNK pathway. SmShb transcripts are expressed in all parasite stages and they were found in ovary and testes of adult worms, suggesting a possible colocalization of SmShb and SmVKR1 proteins. Silencing of SmShb in adult S. mansoni resulted in an accumulation of mature sperm in testes, indicating a possible role of SmShb in gametogenesis.

  19. ScaC, an Adaptor Protein Carrying a Novel Cohesin That Expands the Dockerin-Binding Repertoire of the Ruminococcus flavefaciens 17 Cellulosome

    PubMed Central

    Rincón, Marco T.; Martin, Jennifer C.; Aurilia, Vincenzo; McCrae, Sheila I.; Rucklidge, Garry J.; Reid, Martin D.; Bayer, Edward A.; Lamed, Raphael; Flint, Harry J.

    2004-01-01

    A new gene, designated scaC and encoding a protein carrying a single cohesin, was identified in the cellulolytic rumen anaerobe Ruminococcus flavefaciens 17 as part of a gene cluster that also codes for the cellulosome structural components ScaA and ScaB. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the sequence of the ScaC cohesin is distinct from the sequences of other cohesins, including the sequences of R. flavefaciens ScaA and ScaB. The scaC gene product also includes at its C terminus a dockerin module that closely resembles those found in R. flavefaciens enzymes that bind to the cohesins of the primary ScaA scaffoldin. The putative cohesin domain and the C-terminal dockerin module were cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli as His6-tagged products (ScaC-Coh and ScaC-Doc, respectively). Affinity probing of protein extracts of R. flavefaciens 17 separated in one-dimensional and two-dimensional gels with recombinant cohesins from ScaC and ScaA revealed that two distinct subsets of native proteins interact with ScaC-Coh and ScaA-Coh. Furthermore, ScaC-Coh failed to interact with the recombinant dockerin module from the enzyme EndB that is recognized by ScaA cohesins. On the other hand, ScaC-Doc was shown to interact specifically with the recombinant cohesin domain from ScaA, and the ScaA-Coh probe was shown to interact with a native 29-kDa protein spot identified as ScaC by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization—time of flight mass spectrometry. These results suggest that ScaC plays the role of an adaptor scaffoldin that is bound to ScaA via the ScaC dockerin module, which, via the distinctive ScaC cohesin, expands the range of proteins that can bind to the ScaA-based enzyme complex. PMID:15090497

  20. The adaptor protein SAP regulates type II NKT-cell development, cytokine production, and cytotoxicity against lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Weng, Xiufang; Liao, Chia-Min; Bagchi, Sreya; Cardell, Susanna L; Stein, Paul L; Wang, Chyung-Ru

    2014-12-01

    CD1d-restricted NKT cells represent a unique lineage of immunoregulatory T cells that are divided into two groups, type I and type II, based on their TCR usage. Because there are no specific tools to identify type II NKT cells, little is known about their developmental requirements and functional regulation. In our previous study, we showed that signaling lymphocytic activation molecule associated protein (SAP) is essential for the development of type II NKT cells. Here, using a type II NKT-cell TCR transgenic mouse model, we demonstrated that CD1d-expressing hematopoietic cells, but not thymic epithelial cells, meditate efficient selection of type II NKT cells. Furthermore, we showed that SAP regulates type II NKT-cell development by controlling early growth response 2 protein and promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger expression. SAP-deficient 24αβ transgenic T cells (24αβ T cells) exhibited an immature phenotype with reduced Th2 cytokine-producing capacity and diminished cytotoxicity to CD1d-expressing lymphoma cells. The impaired IL-4 production by SAP-deficient 24αβ T cells was associated with reduced IFN regulatory factor 4 and GATA-3 induction following TCR stimulation. Collectively, these data suggest that SAP is critical for regulating type II NKT cell responses. Aberrant responses of these T cells may contribute to the immune dysregulation observed in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease caused by mutations in SAP.

  1. Cigarette smoke induces mucin hypersecretion and inflammatory response through the p66shc adaptor protein-mediated mechanism in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, J; Yu, H M; Zhou, X D; Huang, H P; Han, Zh; Kolosov, V P; Perelman, J M

    2016-01-01

    The p66Shc adaptor protein is a newly recognized mediator of mitochondrial dysfunction and might play a role in cigarette smoke (CS)-induced airway epithelial cell injury. CS can induce an excessive amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which can cause mitochondrial depolarization and injury through the oxidative stress-mediated Serine36 phosphorylation of p66Shc. The excessive production of ROS can trigger an inflammatory response and mucin hypersecretion by enhancing the transcriptional activity of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mucin genes. Therefore, we speculate that p66Shc plays an essential role in airway epithelial cell injury and the process of mucin generation in CS-induced chronic inflammatory airway diseases. Our present study focuses on the role of p66Shc in ROS generation, and on the resulting mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammatory response and mucus hypersecretion in CS-stimulated human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE). We found that CS disturbed the mitochondrial function by increasing the level of phosphorylated p66Shc in these cells and that the effects were significantly reduced by silencing p66Shc. Conversely, the ectopic overexpression of wild-type p66Shc enhanced these effects. We also found that high levels of ROS inhibited FOXO3a transcriptional activity, which led to NF-κB activation. Subsequently, activated NF-κB promoted pro-inflammatory cytokine production and mucin hypersecretion. Thus, manipulating p66Shc might offer a new therapeutic modality with which to treat chronic inflammatory airway diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Direct interactions of adaptor protein complexes 1 and 2 with the copper transporter ATP7A mediate its anterograde and retrograde trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Ling; Kaler, Stephen G.

    2015-01-01

    ATP7A is a P-type ATPase in which diverse mutations lead to X-linked recessive Menkes disease or occipital horn syndrome. Recently, two previously unknown ATP7A missense mutations, T994I and P1386S, were shown to cause an isolated distal motor neuropathy without clinical or biochemical features of other ATP7A disorders. These mutant alleles cause subtle defects in ATP7A intracellular trafficking, resulting in preferential plasma membrane localization compared with wild-type ATP7A. We reported previously that ATP7AP1386S causes unstable insertion of the eighth and final transmembrane segment, preventing proper position of the carboxyl-terminal tail in a proportion of mutant molecules. Here, we utilize this and other naturally occurring and engineered mutant ATP7A alleles to identify mechanisms of normal ATP7A trafficking. We show that adaptor protein (AP) complexes 1 and 2 physically interact with ATP7A and that binding is mediated in part by a carboxyl-terminal di-leucine motif. In contrast to other ATP7A missense mutations, ATP7AP1386S partially disturbs interactions with both APs, leading to abnormal axonal localization in transfected NSC-34 motor neurons and altered calcium-signaling following glutamate stimulation. Our results imply that AP-1 normally tethers ATP7A at the trans-Golgi network in the somatodendritic segments of motor neurons and that alterations affecting the ATP7A carboxyl-terminal tail induce release of the copper transporter to the axons or axonal membranes. The latter effects are intensified by diminished interaction with AP-2, impeding ATP7A retrograde trafficking. Taken together, these findings further illuminate the normal molecular mechanisms of ATP7A trafficking and suggest a pathophysiological basis for ATP7A-related distal motor neuropathy. PMID:25574028

  3. Cellular heterogeneity during embryonic stem cell differentiation to epiblast stem cells is revealed by the ShcD/RaLP adaptor protein.

    PubMed

    Turco, Margherita Y; Furia, Laura; Dietze, Anja; Fernandez Diaz, Luis; Ronzoni, Simona; Sciullo, Anna; Simeone, Antonio; Constam, Daniel; Faretta, Mario; Lanfrancone, Luisa

    2012-11-01

    The Shc family of adaptor proteins are crucial mediators of a plethora of receptors such as the tyrosine kinase receptors, cytokine receptors, and integrins that drive signaling pathways governing proliferation, differentiation, and migration. Here, we report the role of the newly identified family member, ShcD/RaLP, whose expression in vitro and in vivo suggests a function in embryonic stem cell (ESC) to epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs) transition. The transition from the naïve (ESC) to the primed (EpiSC) pluripotent state is the initial important step for ESCs to commit to differentiation and the mechanisms underlying this process are still largely unknown. Using a novel approach to simultaneously assess pluripotency, apoptosis, and proliferation by multiparameter flow cytometry, we show that ESC to EpiSC transition is a process involving a tight coordination between the modulation of the Oct4 expression, cell cycle progression, and cell death. We also describe, by high-content immunofluorescence analysis and time-lapse microscopy, the emergence of cells expressing caudal-related homeobox 2 (Cdx2) transcription factor during ESC to EpiSC transition. The use of the ShcD knockout ESCs allowed the unmasking of this process as they presented deregulated Oct4 modulation and an enrichment in Oct4-negative Cdx2-positive cells with increased MAPK/extracellular-regulated kinases 1/2 activation, within the differentiating population. Collectively, our data reveal ShcD as an important modulator in the switch of key pathway(s) involved in determining EpiSC identity. Copyright © 2012 AlphaMed Press.

  4. The Mu Subunit of Plasmodium falciparum Clathrin-Associated Adaptor Protein 2 Modulates In Vitro Parasite Response to Artemisinin and Quinine

    PubMed Central

    Henriques, Gisela; van Schalkwyk, Donelly A.; Burrow, Rebekah; Warhurst, David C.; Thompson, Eloise; Baker, David A.; Fidock, David A.; Hallett, Rachel; Flueck, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of drug-resistant parasites is a serious threat faced by malaria control programs. Understanding the genetic basis of resistance is critical to the success of treatment and intervention strategies. A novel locus associated with antimalarial resistance, ap2-mu (encoding the mu chain of the adaptor protein 2 [AP2] complex), was recently identified in studies on the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi (pcap2-mu). Furthermore, analysis in Kenyan malaria patients of polymorphisms in the Plasmodium falciparum ap2-mu homologue, pfap2-mu, found evidence that differences in the amino acid encoded by codon 160 are associated with enhanced parasite survival in vivo following combination treatments which included artemisinin derivatives. Here, we characterize the role of pfap2-mu in mediating the in vitro antimalarial drug response of P. falciparum by generating transgenic parasites constitutively expressing codon 160 encoding either the wild-type Ser (Ser160) or the Asn mutant (160Asn) form of pfap2-mu. Transgenic parasites carrying the pfap2-mu 160Asn allele were significantly less sensitive to dihydroartemisinin using a standard 48-h in vitro test, providing direct evidence of an altered parasite response to artemisinin. Our data also provide evidence that pfap2-mu variants can modulate parasite sensitivity to quinine. No evidence was found that pfap2-mu variants contribute to the slow-clearance phenotype exhibited by P. falciparum in Cambodian patients treated with artesunate monotherapy. These findings provide compelling evidence that pfap2-mu can modulate P. falciparum responses to multiple drugs. We propose that this gene should be evaluated further as a potential molecular marker of antimalarial resistance. PMID:25691625

  5. The Mu subunit of Plasmodium falciparum clathrin-associated adaptor protein 2 modulates in vitro parasite response to artemisinin and quinine.

    PubMed

    Henriques, Gisela; van Schalkwyk, Donelly A; Burrow, Rebekah; Warhurst, David C; Thompson, Eloise; Baker, David A; Fidock, David A; Hallett, Rachel; Flueck, Christian; Sutherland, Colin J

    2015-05-01

    The emergence of drug-resistant parasites is a serious threat faced by malaria control programs. Understanding the genetic basis of resistance is critical to the success of treatment and intervention strategies. A novel locus associated with antimalarial resistance, ap2-mu (encoding the mu chain of the adaptor protein 2 [AP2] complex), was recently identified in studies on the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi (pcap2-mu). Furthermore, analysis in Kenyan malaria patients of polymorphisms in the Plasmodium falciparum ap2-mu homologue, pfap2-mu, found evidence that differences in the amino acid encoded by codon 160 are associated with enhanced parasite survival in vivo following combination treatments which included artemisinin derivatives. Here, we characterize the role of pfap2-mu in mediating the in vitro antimalarial drug response of P. falciparum by generating transgenic parasites constitutively expressing codon 160 encoding either the wild-type Ser (Ser160) or the Asn mutant (160Asn) form of pfap2-mu. Transgenic parasites carrying the pfap2-mu 160Asn allele were significantly less sensitive to dihydroartemisinin using a standard 48-h in vitro test, providing direct evidence of an altered parasite response to artemisinin. Our data also provide evidence that pfap2-mu variants can modulate parasite sensitivity to quinine. No evidence was found that pfap2-mu variants contribute to the slow-clearance phenotype exhibited by P. falciparum in Cambodian patients treated with artesunate monotherapy. These findings provide compelling evidence that pfap2-mu can modulate P. falciparum responses to multiple drugs. We propose that this gene should be evaluated further as a potential molecular marker of antimalarial resistance.

  6. Identification of Atg2 and ArfGAP1 as Candidate Genetic Modifiers of the Eye Pigmentation Phenotype of Adaptor Protein-3 (AP-3) Mutants in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Fernandez, Imilce A.; Dell’Angelica, Esteban C.

    2015-01-01

    The Adaptor Protein (AP)-3 complex is an evolutionary conserved, molecular sorting device that mediates the intracellular trafficking of proteins to lysosomes and related organelles. Genetic defects in AP-3 subunits lead to impaired biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles (LROs) such as mammalian melanosomes and insect eye pigment granules. In this work, we have performed a forward screening for genetic modifiers of AP-3 function in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Specifically, we have tested collections of large multi-gene deletions–which together covered most of the autosomal chromosomes–to identify chromosomal regions that, when deleted in single copy, enhanced or ameliorated the eye pigmentation phenotype of two independent AP-3 subunit mutants. Fine-mapping led us to define two non-overlapping, relatively small critical regions within fly chromosome 3. The first critical region included the Atg2 gene, which encodes a conserved protein involved in autophagy. Loss of one functional copy of Atg2 ameliorated the pigmentation defects of mutants in AP-3 subunits as well as in two other genes previously implicated in LRO biogenesis, namely Blos1 and lightoid, and even increased the eye pigment content of wild-type flies. The second critical region included the ArfGAP1 gene, which encodes a conserved GTPase-activating protein with specificity towards GTPases of the Arf family. Loss of a single functional copy of the ArfGAP1 gene ameliorated the pigmentation phenotype of AP-3 mutants but did not to modify the eye pigmentation of wild-type flies or mutants in Blos1 or lightoid. Strikingly, loss of the second functional copy of the gene did not modify the phenotype of AP-3 mutants any further but elicited early lethality in males and abnormal eye morphology when combined with mutations in Blos1 and lightoid, respectively. These results provide genetic evidence for new functional links connecting the machinery for biogenesis of LROs with molecules implicated

  7. A conserved motif in the ITK PH-domain is required for phosphoinositide binding and TCR signaling but dispensable for adaptor protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Hirve, Nupura; Levytskyy, Roman M; Rigaud, Stephanie; Guimond, David M; Zal, Tomasz; Sauer, Karsten; Tsoukas, Constantine D

    2012-01-01

    Binding of the membrane phospholipid phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP(3)) to the Pleckstrin Homology (PH) domain of the Tec family protein tyrosine kinase, Inducible T cell Kinase (ITK), is critical for the recruitment of the kinase to the plasma membrane and its co-localization with the TCR-CD3 molecular complex. Three aromatic residues, termed the FYF motif, located in the inner walls of the phospholipid-binding pocket of the ITK PH domain, are conserved in the PH domains of all Tec kinases, but not in other PH-domain containing proteins, suggesting an important function of the FYF motif in the Tec kinase family. However, the biological significance of the FYF amino acid motif in the ITK-PH domain is unknown. To elucidate it, we have tested the effects of a FYF triple mutant (F26S, Y90F, F92S), henceforth termed FYF-ITK mutant, on ITK function. We found that FYF triple mutation inhibits the TCR-induced production of IL-4 by impairing ITK binding to PIP(3), reducing ITK membrane recruitment, inducing conformational changes at the T cell-APC contact site, and compromising phosphorylation of ITK and subsequent phosphorylation of PLCγ(1). Interestingly, however, the FYF motif is dispensable for the interaction of ITK with two of its signaling partners, SLP-76 and LAT. Thus, the FYF mutation uncouples PIP(3)-mediated ITK membrane recruitment from the interactions of the kinase with key components of the TCR signalosome and abrogates ITK function in T cells.

  8. A Conserved Motif in the ITK PH-Domain Is Required for Phosphoinositide Binding and TCR Signaling but Dispensable for Adaptor Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Rigaud, Stephanie; Guimond, David M.; Zal, Tomasz; Sauer, Karsten; Tsoukas, Constantine D.

    2012-01-01

    Binding of the membrane phospholipid phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) to the Pleckstrin Homology (PH) domain of the Tec family protein tyrosine kinase, Inducible T cell Kinase (ITK), is critical for the recruitment of the kinase to the plasma membrane and its co-localization with the TCR-CD3 molecular complex. Three aromatic residues, termed the FYF motif, located in the inner walls of the phospholipid-binding pocket of the ITK PH domain, are conserved in the PH domains of all Tec kinases, but not in other PH-domain containing proteins, suggesting an important function of the FYF motif in the Tec kinase family. However, the biological significance of the FYF amino acid motif in the ITK-PH domain is unknown. To elucidate it, we have tested the effects of a FYF triple mutant (F26S, Y90F, F92S), henceforth termed FYF-ITK mutant, on ITK function. We found that FYF triple mutation inhibits the TCR-induced production of IL-4 by impairing ITK binding to PIP3, reducing ITK membrane recruitment, inducing conformational changes at the T cell-APC contact site, and compromising phosphorylation of ITK and subsequent phosphorylation of PLCγ1. Interestingly, however, the FYF motif is dispensable for the interaction of ITK with two of its signaling partners, SLP-76 and LAT. Thus, the FYF mutation uncouples PIP3-mediated ITK membrane recruitment from the interactions of the kinase with key components of the TCR signalosome and abrogates ITK function in T cells. PMID:23028816

  9. Role of an adaptor protein Lin-7B in brain development: possible involvement in autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Makoto; Matsumoto, Ayumi; Hamada, Nanako; Ito, Hidenori; Miyauchi, Akihiko; Jimbo, Eriko F; Momoi, Mariko Y; Tabata, Hidenori; Yamagata, Takanori; Nagata, Koh-Ichi

    2015-01-01

    Using comparative genomic hybridization analysis for an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patient, a 73-Kb duplication at 19q13.33 (nt. 49 562 755-49 635 956) including LIN7B and 5 other genes was detected. We then identified a novel frameshift mutation in LIN7B in another ASD patient. Since LIN7B encodes a scaffold protein essential for neuronal function, we analyzed the role of Lin-7B in the development of cerebral cortex. Acute knockdown of Lin-7B with in utero electroporation caused a delay in neuronal migration during corticogenesis. When Lin-7B was knocked down in cortical neurons in one hemisphere, their axons failed to extend efficiently into the contralateral hemisphere after leaving the corpus callosum. Meanwhile, enhanced expression of Lin-7B had no effects on both cortical neuron migration and axon growth. Notably, silencing of Lin-7B did not affect the proliferation of neuronal progenitors and stem cells. Taken together, Lin-7B was found to play a pivotal role in corticogenesis through the regulation of excitatory neuron migration and interhemispheric axon growth, while further analyses are required to directly link functional defects of Lin-7B to ASD pathophysiology. Lin-7 plays a pivotal role as a scaffold protein in synaptic development and plasticity. Based on genetic analyses we identified mutations in LIN-7B gene in some ASD (autism-spectrum disorder) patients. Functional defects in Lin-7B caused abnormal neuronal migration and interhemispheric axon growth during mouse brain development. Thus, functional deficiency in Lin-7B could be implicated in clinical phenotypes in some ASD patients through bringing about abnormal cortical architecture.

  10. In vivo phosphorylation of adaptors regulates their interaction with clathrin.

    PubMed

    Wilde, A; Brodsky, F M

    1996-11-01

    The coat proteins of clathrin-coated vesicles (CCV) spontaneously self-assemble in vitro, but, in vivo, their self-assembly must be regulated. To determine whether phosphorylation might influence coat formation in the cell, the in vivo phosphorylation state of CCV coat proteins was analyzed. Individual components of the CCV coat were isolated by immunoprecipitation from Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells, labeled with [32P]orthophosphate under normal culture conditions. The predominant phosphoproteins identified were subunits of the AP1 and AP2 adaptors. These included three of the four 100-kD adaptor subunits, alpha and beta 2 of AP2 and beta 1 of AP1, but not the gamma subunit of AP1. In addition, the mu 1 and mu 2 subunits of AP1 and AP2 were phosphorylated under these conditions. Lower levels of in vivo phosphorylation were detected for the clathrin heavy and light chains. Analysis of phosphorylation sites of the 100-kD adaptor subunits indicated they were phosphorylated on serines in their hinge regions, domains that have been implicated in clathrin binding. In vitro clathrin-binding assays revealed that, upon phosphorylation, adaptors no longer bind to clathrin. In vivo analysis further revealed that adaptors with phosphorylated 100-kD subunits predominated in the cytosol, in comparison with adaptors associated with cellular membranes, and that phosphorylated beta 2 subunits of AP2 were exclusively cytosolic. Kinase activity, which converts adaptors to a phosphorylated state in which they no longer bind clathrin, was found associated with the CCV coat. These results suggest that adaptor phosphorylation influences adaptor-clathrin interactions in vivo and could have a role in controlling coat disassembly and reassembly.

  11. The Adaptor Protein SAP Regulates Type II NKT Cell Development, Cytokine Production and Cytotoxicity Against Lymphoma1

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Xiufang; Liao, Chia-Min; Bagchi, Sreya; Cardell, Susanna L.; Stein, Paul L.; Wang, Chyung-Ru

    2014-01-01

    CD1d-restricted NKT cells represent a unique lineage of immunoregulatory T cells that are divided into two groups, type I and type II, based on their TCR usage. Because there are no specific tools to identify type II NKT cells, little is known about their developmental requirements and functional regulation. In our previous study, we showed that signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein (SAP) is essential for the development of type II NKT cells. Here, using a type II NKT cell TCR transgenic mouse model (24αβTg), we demonstrated that CD1d-expressing hematopoietic cells but not thymic epithelial cells meditate efficient selection of type II NKT cells. Further, we showed that SAP regulates type II NKT cell development by controlling Egr2 and PLZF expression. SAP-deficient 24αβ transgenic T cells (24αβ T cells) exhibited an immature phenotype with reduced Th2 cytokine-producing capacity and diminished cytotoxicity to CD1d-expressing lymphoma cells. The impaired IL-4 production by SAP-deficient 24αβ T cells was associated with reduced IRF4 and GATA-3 induction following TCR stimulation. Collectively, these data suggest that SAP is critical for regulating type II NKT cell responses. Aberrant responses of these T cells may contribute to the immune dysregulation observed in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease caused by mutations in SAP. PMID:25236978

  12. Stac adaptor proteins regulate trafficking and function of muscle and neuronal L-type Ca2+ channels.

    PubMed

    Polster, Alexander; Perni, Stefano; Bichraoui, Hicham; Beam, Kurt G

    2015-01-13

    Excitation-contraction (EC) coupling in skeletal muscle depends upon trafficking of CaV1.1, the principal subunit of the dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR) (L-type Ca(2+) channel), to plasma membrane regions at which the DHPRs interact with type 1 ryanodine receptors (RyR1) in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. A distinctive feature of this trafficking is that CaV1.1 expresses poorly or not at all in mammalian cells that are not of muscle origin (e.g., tsA201 cells), in which all of the other nine CaV isoforms have been successfully expressed. Here, we tested whether plasma membrane trafficking of CaV1.1 in tsA201 cells is promoted by the adapter protein Stac3, because recent work has shown that genetic deletion of Stac3 in skeletal muscle causes the loss of EC coupling. Using fluorescently tagged constructs, we found that Stac3 and CaV1.1 traffic together to the tsA201 plasma membrane, whereas CaV1.1 is retained intracellularly when Stac3 is absent. Moreover, L-type Ca(2+) channel function in tsA201 cells coexpressing Stac3 and CaV1.1 is quantitatively similar to that in myotubes, despite the absence of RyR1. Although Stac3 is not required for surface expression of CaV1.2, the principle subunit of the cardiac/brain L-type Ca(2+) channel, Stac3 does bind to CaV1.2 and, as a result, greatly slows the rate of current inactivation, with Stac2 acting similarly. Overall, these results indicate that Stac3 is an essential chaperone of CaV1.1 in skeletal muscle and that in the brain, Stac2 and Stac3 may significantly modulate CaV1.2 function.

  13. LATS2 Positively Regulates Polycomb Repressive Complex 2

    PubMed Central

    Torigata, Kosuke; Daisuke, Okuzaki; Mukai, Satomi; Hatanaka, Akira; Ohka, Fumiharu; Motooka, Daisuke; Nakamura, Shota; Ohkawa, Yasuyuki; Yabuta, Norikazu; Kondo, Yutaka; Nojima, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    LATS2, a pivotal Ser/Thr kinase of the Hippo pathway, plays important roles in many biological processes. LATS2 also function in Hippo-independent pathway, including mitosis, DNA damage response and epithelial to mesenchymal transition. However, the physiological relevance and molecular basis of these LATS2 functions remain obscure. To understand novel functions of LATS2, we constructed a LATS2 knockout HeLa-S3 cell line using TAL-effector nuclease (TALEN). Integrated omics profiling of this cell line revealed that LATS2 knockout caused genome-wide downregulation of Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) and H3K27me3. Cell-cycle analysis revealed that downregulation of PRC2 was not due to cell cycle aberrations caused by LATS2 knockout. Not LATS1, a homolog of LATS2, but LATS2 bound PRC2 on chromatin and phosphorylated it. LATS2 positively regulates histone methyltransferase activity of PRC2 and their expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. Our findings reveal a novel signal upstream of PRC2, and provide insight into the crucial role of LATS2 in coordinating the epigenome through regulation of PRC2. PMID:27434182

  14. Targeting of the adaptor protein Tab2 as a novel approach to revert tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cutrupi, S; Reineri, S; Panetto, A; Grosso, E; Caizzi, L; Ricci, L; Friard, O; Agati, S; Scatolini, M; Chiorino, G; Lykkesfeldt, A E; De Bortoli, M

    2012-10-04

    Pharmacological resistance is a serious threat to the clinical success of hormone therapy for breast cancer. The antiproliferative response to antagonistic drugs such as tamoxifen (Tam) critically depends on the recruitment of NCoR/SMRT corepressors to estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) bound to estrogen target genes. Under certain circumstances, as demonstrated in the case of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) treatment, the protein Tab2 interacts with ERα/NCoR and causes dismissal of NCoR from these genes, leading to loss of the antiproliferative response. In Tam-resistant (TamR) ER-positive breast cancer cells, we observed that Tab2 presents a shift in mobility on sodium dodecyl sulfate--PAGE (SDS-PAGE) similar to that seen in MCF7 wt upon stimulation with IL-1β, suggesting constitutive activation. Accordingly, TamR treatment with Tab2-specific short interfering RNA, restored the antiproliferative response to Tam in these cells. As Tab2 is known to directly interact with the N-terminal domain of ERα, we synthesized a peptide composed of a 14-aa motif of this domain, which effectively competes with ERα/Tab2 interaction in pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation experiments, fused to the carrier TAT peptide to allow internalization. Treatment of TamR cells with this peptide resulted in partial recovery of the antiproliferative response to Tam, suggesting a strategy to revert pharmacological resistance in breast cancer. Silencing of Tab2 in TamR cells by siRNA caused modulation of a gene set related to the control of cell cycle and extensively connected to BRCA1 in a functional network. These genes were able to discern two groups of patients, from a published data set of Tam-treated breast cancer profiles, with significantly different disease-free survival. Altogether, our data implicate Tab2 as a mediator of resistance to endocrine therapy and as a potential new target to reverse pharmacological resistance and potentiate antiestrogen action.

  15. Enhancement of Cell Surface Expression and Receptor Functions of Membrane Progestin Receptor α (mPRα) by Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1 (PGRMC1): Evidence for a Role of PGRMC1 as an Adaptor Protein for Steroid Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Yefei; Dong, Jing

    2014-01-01

    A variety of functions have been proposed for progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1), including acting as a component of a membrane progestin receptor and as an adaptor protein. Here we show that stable overexpression of human PGRMC1 in nuclear progesterone receptor (PR)-negative breast cancer cell lines causes increased expression of PGRMC1 and membrane progesterone receptor α (mPRα) on cell membranes that is associated with increased specific [3H]progesterone binding. The membrane progestin binding affinity and specificity were characteristic of mPRα, with a Kd of 4.7 nM and high affinity for the mPR-specific agonist, Org OD 02–0, and low affinity for corticosteroids. Progestin treatment caused activation of G proteins, further evidence for increased expression of functional mPRs on PGRMC1-transfected cell membranes. Immunocytochemical and coimmunoprecipitation studies showed a close association of PGRMC1 with mPRα in cell membranes. Transfection of PGRMC1 into spontaneously immortalized rat granulosa cells was associated with membrane expression of PGRMC1 and mPRα as well as antiapoptotic effects of progestins that were abolished after cotransfection with small interfering RNA for mPRα. These data demonstrate that PGRMC1 can act as an adaptor protein, transporting mPRα to the cell surface, and that the progestin binding and apoptotic functions previously ascribed to PGRMC1 are dependent on cell surface expression of mPRα. Collectively, the results suggest PGRMC1 and mPRα are components of a membrane progesterone receptor protein complex. Increased expression of estrogen receptor β was also observed in the membranes of PGRMC1-transfected cells, suggesting that PGRMC1 can act as an adaptor protein for multiple classes of steroid receptors. PMID:24424068

  16. Activation-induced endocytosis of the raft-associated transmembrane adaptor protein LAB/NTAL in B lymphocytes: evidence for a role in internalization of the B cell receptor.

    PubMed

    Mutch, Cathlin M; Sanyal, Ratna; Unruh, Tammy L; Grigoriou, Lana; Zhu, Minghua; Zhang, Weiguo; Deans, Julie P

    2007-01-01

    Linker for activation of B cell (LAB)/non-T cell activation linker (NTAL) and phosphoprotein associated with glycophospholipid-enriched membrane microdomain (PAG)/Csk-binding protein (Cbp) are raft-associated transmembrane adaptor proteins with distinct functions in immediate/early phases of receptor signaling pathways. Heterogeneous rafts are thought to compartmentalize membrane-associated signaling events. In order to investigate the subcellular localization of LAB/NTAL and PAG/Cbp, they were expressed as fluorescent chimeric fusion proteins in a human B cell line and their distribution was examined, along with the corresponding endogenous proteins, before and after B cell receptor (BCR) stimulation. Both adaptors were distributed predominantly at the plasma membrane in resting cells and co-clustered with other raft-associated proteins; however, they distributed differently in buoyant membranes isolated by either detergent resistance or non-detergent methods, indicating that they might localize to distinct rafts. After activation, LAB/NTAL was internalized and co-localized with the BCR while PAG/Cbp remained on the cell surface. BCR internalization was reduced in LAB/NTAL-deficient murine B cells, suggesting a regulatory role for LAB/NTAL in activation-induced internalization of the BCR. The cytoplasmic domain of LAB/NTAL, and not the transmembrane/juxtamembrane region, was found to be essential for its internalization.

  17. Structural Basis for Small G Protein Effector Interaction of Ras-related Protein 1 (Rap1) and Adaptor Protein Krev Interaction Trapped 1 (KRIT1)

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Rong; Draheim, Kyle M.; Liu, Weizhi; Calderwood, David A.; Boggon, Titus J.

    2012-09-17

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) affect 0.1-0.5% of the population resulting in leaky vasculature and severe neurological defects. KRIT1 (Krev interaction trapped-1) mutations associate with {approx}40% of familial CCMs. KRIT1 is an effector of Ras-related protein 1 (Rap1) GTPase. Rap1 relocalizes KRIT1 from microtubules to cell membranes to impact integrin activation, potentially important for CCM pathology. We report the 1.95 {angstrom} co-crystal structure of KRIT1 FERM domain in complex with Rap1. Rap1-KRIT1 interaction encompasses an extended surface, including Rap1 Switch I and II and KRIT1 FERM F1 and F2 lobes. Rap1 binds KRIT1-F1 lobe using a GTPase-ubiquitin-like fold interaction but binds KRIT1-F2 lobe by a novel interaction. Point mutagenesis confirms the interaction. High similarity between KRIT1-F2/F3 and talin is revealed. Additionally, the mechanism for FERM domains acting as GTPase effectors is suggested. Finally, structure-based alignment of each lobe suggests classification of FERM domains as ERM-like and TMFK-like (talin-myosin-FAK-KRIT-like) and that FERM lobes resemble domain 'modules.'

  18. Adaptor protein-2 sigma subunit mutations causing familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia type 3 (FHH3) demonstrate genotype–phenotype correlations, codon bias and dominant-negative effects

    PubMed Central

    Hannan, Fadil M.; Howles, Sarah A.; Rogers, Angela; Cranston, Treena; Gorvin, Caroline M.; Babinsky, Valerie N.; Reed, Anita A.; Thakker, Clare E.; Bockenhauer, Detlef; Brown, Rosalind S.; Connell, John M.; Cook, Jacqueline; Darzy, Ken; Ehtisham, Sarah; Graham, Una; Hulse, Tony; Hunter, Steven J.; Izatt, Louise; Kumar, Dhavendra; McKenna, Malachi J.; McKnight, John A.; Morrison, Patrick J.; Mughal, M. Zulf; O'Halloran, Domhnall; Pearce, Simon H.; Porteous, Mary E.; Rahman, Mushtaqur; Richardson, Tristan; Robinson, Robert; Scheers, Isabelle; Siddique, Haroon; van't Hoff, William G.; Wang, Timothy; Whyte, Michael P.; Nesbit, M. Andrew; Thakker, Rajesh V.

    2015-01-01

    The adaptor protein-2 sigma subunit (AP2σ2) is pivotal for clathrin-mediated endocytosis of plasma membrane constituents such as the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR). Mutations of the AP2σ2 Arg15 residue result in familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia type 3 (FHH3), a disorder of extracellular calcium (Ca2+o) homeostasis. To elucidate the role of AP2σ2 in Ca2+o regulation, we investigated 65 FHH probands, without other FHH-associated mutations, for AP2σ2 mutations, characterized their functional consequences and investigated the genetic mechanisms leading to FHH3. AP2σ2 mutations were identified in 17 probands, comprising 5 Arg15Cys, 4 Arg15His and 8 Arg15Leu mutations. A genotype–phenotype correlation was observed with the Arg15Leu mutation leading to marked hypercalcaemia. FHH3 probands harboured additional phenotypes such as cognitive dysfunction. All three FHH3-causing AP2σ2 mutations impaired CaSR signal transduction in a dominant-negative manner. Mutational bias was observed at the AP2σ2 Arg15 residue as other predicted missense substitutions (Arg15Gly, Arg15Pro and Arg15Ser), which also caused CaSR loss-of-function, were not detected in FHH probands, and these mutations were found to reduce the numbers of CaSR-expressing cells. FHH3 probands had significantly greater serum calcium (sCa) and magnesium (sMg) concentrations with reduced urinary calcium to creatinine clearance ratios (CCCR) in comparison with FHH1 probands with CaSR mutations, and a calculated index of sCa × sMg/100 × CCCR, which was ≥ 5.0, had a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 83 and 86%, respectively, for FHH3. Thus, our studies demonstrate AP2σ2 mutations to result in a more severe FHH phenotype with genotype–phenotype correlations, and a dominant-negative mechanism of action with mutational bias at the Arg15 residue. PMID:26082470

  19. Adaptor protein-2 sigma subunit mutations causing familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia type 3 (FHH3) demonstrate genotype-phenotype correlations, codon bias and dominant-negative effects.

    PubMed

    Hannan, Fadil M; Howles, Sarah A; Rogers, Angela; Cranston, Treena; Gorvin, Caroline M; Babinsky, Valerie N; Reed, Anita A; Thakker, Clare E; Bockenhauer, Detlef; Brown, Rosalind S; Connell, John M; Cook, Jacqueline; Darzy, Ken; Ehtisham, Sarah; Graham, Una; Hulse, Tony; Hunter, Steven J; Izatt, Louise; Kumar, Dhavendra; McKenna, Malachi J; McKnight, John A; Morrison, Patrick J; Mughal, M Zulf; O'Halloran, Domhnall; Pearce, Simon H; Porteous, Mary E; Rahman, Mushtaqur; Richardson, Tristan; Robinson, Robert; Scheers, Isabelle; Siddique, Haroon; Van't Hoff, William G; Wang, Timothy; Whyte, Michael P; Nesbit, M Andrew; Thakker, Rajesh V

    2015-09-15

    The adaptor protein-2 sigma subunit (AP2σ2) is pivotal for clathrin-mediated endocytosis of plasma membrane constituents such as the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR). Mutations of the AP2σ2 Arg15 residue result in familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia type 3 (FHH3), a disorder of extracellular calcium (Ca(2+) o) homeostasis. To elucidate the role of AP2σ2 in Ca(2+) o regulation, we investigated 65 FHH probands, without other FHH-associated mutations, for AP2σ2 mutations, characterized their functional consequences and investigated the genetic mechanisms leading to FHH3. AP2σ2 mutations were identified in 17 probands, comprising 5 Arg15Cys, 4 Arg15His and 8 Arg15Leu mutations. A genotype-phenotype correlation was observed with the Arg15Leu mutation leading to marked hypercalcaemia. FHH3 probands harboured additional phenotypes such as cognitive dysfunction. All three FHH3-causing AP2σ2 mutations impaired CaSR signal transduction in a dominant-negative manner. Mutational bias was observed at the AP2σ2 Arg15 residue as other predicted missense substitutions (Arg15Gly, Arg15Pro and Arg15Ser), which also caused CaSR loss-of-function, were not detected in FHH probands, and these mutations were found to reduce the numbers of CaSR-expressing cells. FHH3 probands had significantly greater serum calcium (sCa) and magnesium (sMg) concentrations with reduced urinary calcium to creatinine clearance ratios (CCCR) in comparison with FHH1 probands with CaSR mutations, and a calculated index of sCa × sMg/100 × CCCR, which was ≥ 5.0, had a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 83 and 86%, respectively, for FHH3. Thus, our studies demonstrate AP2σ2 mutations to result in a more severe FHH phenotype with genotype-phenotype correlations, and a dominant-negative mechanism of action with mutational bias at the Arg15 residue. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  20. The Clathrin Adaptor Proteins ARH, Dab2, and Numb Play Distinct Roles in Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 Versus Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-mediated Cholesterol Uptake*

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jian; Fu, Zhen-Yan; Li, Pei-Shan; Miao, Hong-Hua; Li, Bo-Liang; Ma, Yi-Tong; Song, Bao-Liang

    2014-01-01

    The uptake of circulating low density lipoproteins (LDL) is mediated by LDL receptor (LDLR) through clathrin-dependent endocytosis. At the early stage of this process, adaptor proteins ARH and Dab2 specifically bind the endocytic signal motif in LDLR and recruit clathrin/AP2 to initiate internalization. On the other hand, intestinal cholesterol is absorbed by Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1) through clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Another adaptor protein, Numb recognizes the endocytic motif in NPC1L1 C terminus and couples NPC1L1 to endocytic machinery. The ARH, Dab2, and Numb proteins contain a homogeneous phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domain that directly binds endocytic motifs. Because ARH, Dab2, and Numb are all PTB domain family members, the emerging mystery is whether these adaptors act complementally in LDLR and NPC1L1 endocytosis. Here, we found that ARH and Dab2 did not bind NPC1L1 and were not required for NPC1L1 internalization. Similarly, Numb lacked the ability to interact with the LDLR C terminus and was dispensable for LDL uptake. Only the Numb isoforms with shorter PTB domain could facilitate NPC1L1 endocytosis. Besides the reported function in intestinal cholesterol absorption, Numb also mediated cholesterol reabsorption from bile in liver. We further identified a Numb variant with G595D substitution in humans of low blood LDL-cholesterol. The G595D substitution impaired NPC1L1 internalization and cholesterol reabsorption, due to attenuating affinity of Numb to clathrin/AP2. These results demonstrate that Numb specifically regulates NPC1L1-mediated cholesterol absorption both in human intestine and liver, distinct from ARH and Dab2, which selectively participate in LDLR-mediated LDL uptake. PMID:25331956

  1. Noncanonical Role of the PDZ4 Domain of the Adaptor Protein PDZK1 in the Regulation of the Hepatic High Density Lipoprotein Receptor Scavenger Receptor Class B, Type I (SR-BI)*

    PubMed Central

    Tsukamoto, Kosuke; Wales, Thomas E.; Daniels, Kathleen; Pal, Rinku; Sheng, Ren; Cho, Wonhwa; Stafford, Walter; Engen, John R.; Krieger, Monty; Kocher, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    The four PDZ (PDZ1 to PDZ4) domain-containing adaptor protein PDZK1 controls the expression, localization, and function of the HDL receptor scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI), in hepatocytes in vivo. This control depends on both the PDZ4 domain and the binding of SR-BI's cytoplasmic C terminus to the canonical peptide-binding sites of either the PDZ1 or PDZ3 domain (no binding to PDZ2 or PDZ4). Using transgenic mice expressing in the liver domain deletion (ΔPDZ2 or ΔPDZ3), domain replacement (PDZ2→1), or target peptide binding-negative (PDZ4(G389P)) mutants of PDZK1, we found that neither PDZ2 nor PDZ3 nor the canonical target peptide binding activity of PDZ4 were necessary for hepatic SR-BI regulatory activity. Immunohistochemical studies established that the localization of PDZK1 on hepatocyte cell surface membranes in vivo is dependent on its PDZ4 domain and the presence of SR-BI. Analytical ultracentrifugation and hydrogen deuterium exchange mass spectrometry suggested that the requirement of PDZ4 for localization and SR-BI regulation is not due to PDZ4-mediated oligomerization or induction of conformational changes in the PDZ123 portion of PDZK1. However, surface plasmon resonance analysis showed that PDZ4, but not the other PDZ domains, can bind vesicles that mimic the plasma membrane. Thus, PDZ4 may potentiate PDZK1's regulation of SR-BI by promoting its lipid-mediated attachment to the cytoplasmic membrane. Our results show that not all of the PDZ domains of a multi-PDZ domain-containing adaptor protein are required for its biological activities and that both canonical target peptide binding and noncanonical (peptide binding-independent) capacities of PDZ domains may be employed by a single such adaptor for optimal in vivo activity. PMID:23720744

  2. Association of 4F2hc with light chains LAT1, LAT2 or y+LAT2 requires different domains.

    PubMed

    Bröer, A; Friedrich, B; Wagner, C A; Fillon, S; Ganapathy, V; Lang, F; Bröer, S

    2001-05-01

    Heterodimeric amino acid transporters are comprised of a type-II membrane protein named the heavy chain (4F2hc or rBAT) that may associate with a number of different polytopic membrane proteins, called light chains. It is thought that the heavy chain is mainly involved in the trafficking of the complex to the plasma membrane, whereas the transport process itself is catalysed by the light chain. The 4F2 heavy chain (4F2hc) associates with at least six different light chains to induce distinct amino acid-transport activites. To test if the light chains are specifically recognized and to identify domains involved in the recognition of light chains, C-terminally truncated mutants of 4F2hc were constructed and co-expressed with the light chains LAT1, LAT2 and y(+)LAT2. The truncated isoform T1, comprised of only 133 amino acids that form the cytosolic N-terminus and the transmembrane helix, displayed only a slight reduction in its ability to promote LAT1 expression at the membrane surface compared with the 529 amino acid wild-type 4F2hc protein. Co-expression of increasingly larger 4F2hc mutants caused a delayed translocation of LAT1. In contrast to the weak effects of 4F2hc truncations on LAT1 expression, surface expression of LAT2 and y(+)LAT2 was almost completely lost with all truncated heavy chains. Co-expression of LAT1 together with the other light chains did not result in displacement of LAT2 and y(+)LAT2. The results suggest that extracellular domains of the heavy chain are responsible mainly for recognition of light chains other than LAT1 and that the extracellular domain ensures proper translocation to the plasma membrane.

  3. Association of 4F2hc with light chains LAT1, LAT2 or y+LAT2 requires different domains.

    PubMed Central

    Bröer, A; Friedrich, B; Wagner, C A; Fillon, S; Ganapathy, V; Lang, F; Bröer, S

    2001-01-01

    Heterodimeric amino acid transporters are comprised of a type-II membrane protein named the heavy chain (4F2hc or rBAT) that may associate with a number of different polytopic membrane proteins, called light chains. It is thought that the heavy chain is mainly involved in the trafficking of the complex to the plasma membrane, whereas the transport process itself is catalysed by the light chain. The 4F2 heavy chain (4F2hc) associates with at least six different light chains to induce distinct amino acid-transport activites. To test if the light chains are specifically recognized and to identify domains involved in the recognition of light chains, C-terminally truncated mutants of 4F2hc were constructed and co-expressed with the light chains LAT1, LAT2 and y(+)LAT2. The truncated isoform T1, comprised of only 133 amino acids that form the cytosolic N-terminus and the transmembrane helix, displayed only a slight reduction in its ability to promote LAT1 expression at the membrane surface compared with the 529 amino acid wild-type 4F2hc protein. Co-expression of increasingly larger 4F2hc mutants caused a delayed translocation of LAT1. In contrast to the weak effects of 4F2hc truncations on LAT1 expression, surface expression of LAT2 and y(+)LAT2 was almost completely lost with all truncated heavy chains. Co-expression of LAT1 together with the other light chains did not result in displacement of LAT2 and y(+)LAT2. The results suggest that extracellular domains of the heavy chain are responsible mainly for recognition of light chains other than LAT1 and that the extracellular domain ensures proper translocation to the plasma membrane. PMID:11311135

  4. The adaptor protein CIKS/Act1 is necessary to induce collagen-induced arthritis pathology and it contributes to collagen-specific antibody production

    PubMed Central

    Pisitkun, Prapaporn; Claudio, Estefania; Ren, Nina; Wang, Hongshan; Siebenlist, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Objective CIKS/Act1 is an adaptor molecule necessary for signaling by members of the IL-17 cytokine family. Here we aim to determine whether this adaptor is required for collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). If required, CIKS-mediated signaling could be a potential target for therapeutic intervention in rheumatoid arthritis. Methods CIA model studies were performed with CIKS deficient and sufficient mice on an otherwise wild-type C57BL/6 background or on a background lacking FcγRIIb. In addition, wild-type and CIKS deficient mice were subjected to collagen-antibody induced arthritis (CAIA) studies. Arthritis pathology was determined by visual inspection of the paws, by histochemical analysis of tissue sections and by measurements of collagen-specific antibodies. Results Arthritis pathology could be readily induced with the CIA model in wild-type mice and pathology was exacerbated in FcγRIIb-deficient mice. In contrast, CIKS deficient mice were protected from all aspects of CIA pathology, even in FcγRIIb deficient mice. The absence of CIKS completely prevented neutrophil infiltration into joints, bone erosion and cartilage damage; furthermore, production of collagen type 2-specific antibodies (CII-Abs) was reduced. In contrast to the CIA model, CIKS deficient mice remained susceptible to arthritis induced with the CAIA model. Conclusion CIKS-mediated signaling is necessary for the pathogenesis in the CIA model, but not in the CAIA model. These findings suggest critical functions of CIKS during the development of arthritis in the CIA model, including in the formation of CII-Abs, and they mark the CIKS adaptor as a potential therapeutic target in RA. PMID:20662069

  5. Structural analysis of intermolecular interactions in the kinesin adaptor complex fasciculation and elongation protein zeta 1/ short coiled-coil protein (FEZ1/SCOCO).

    PubMed

    Alborghetti, Marcos Rodrigo; Furlan, Ariane da Silva; da Silva, Júlio César; Sforça, Maurício Luís; Honorato, Rodrigo Vargas; Granato, Daniela Campos; dos Santos Migueleti, Deivid Lucas; Neves, Jorge L; de Oliveira, Paulo Sergio Lopes; Paes-Leme, Adriana Franco; Zeri, Ana Carolina de Mattos; de Torriani, Iris Concepcion Linares; Kobarg, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Cytoskeleton and protein trafficking processes, including vesicle transport to synapses, are key processes in neuronal differentiation and axon outgrowth. The human protein FEZ1 (fasciculation and elongation protein zeta 1 / UNC-76, in C. elegans), SCOCO (short coiled-coil protein / UNC-69) and kinesins (e.g. kinesin heavy chain / UNC116) are involved in these processes. Exploiting the feature of FEZ1 protein as a bivalent adapter of transport mediated by kinesins and FEZ1 protein interaction with SCOCO (proteins involved in the same path of axonal growth), we investigated the structural aspects of intermolecular interactions involved in this complex formation by NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance), cross-linking coupled with mass spectrometry (MS), SAXS (Small Angle X-ray Scattering) and molecular modelling. The topology of homodimerization was accessed through NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) studies of the region involved in this process, corresponding to FEZ1 (92-194). Through studies involving the protein in its monomeric configuration (reduced) and dimeric state, we propose that homodimerization occurs with FEZ1 chains oriented in an anti-parallel topology. We demonstrate that the interaction interface of FEZ1 and SCOCO defined by MS and computational modelling is in accordance with that previously demonstrated for UNC-76 and UNC-69. SAXS and literature data support a heterotetrameric complex model. These data provide details about the interaction interfaces probably involved in the transport machinery assembly and open perspectives to understand and interfere in this assembly and its involvement in neuronal differentiation and axon outgrowth.

  6. Structural Analysis of Intermolecular Interactions in the Kinesin Adaptor Complex Fasciculation and Elongation Protein Zeta 1/ Short Coiled-Coil Protein (FEZ1/SCOCO)

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Júlio César; Sforça, Maurício Luís; Honorato, Rodrigo Vargas; Granato, Daniela Campos; dos Santos Migueleti, Deivid Lucas; Neves, Jorge L.; de Oliveira, Paulo Sergio Lopes; Paes-Leme, Adriana Franco; Zeri, Ana Carolina de Mattos; de Torriani, Iris Concepcion Linares; Kobarg, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Cytoskeleton and protein trafficking processes, including vesicle transport to synapses, are key processes in neuronal differentiation and axon outgrowth. The human protein FEZ1 (fasciculation and elongation protein zeta 1 / UNC-76, in C. elegans), SCOCO (short coiled-coil protein / UNC-69) and kinesins (e.g. kinesin heavy chain / UNC116) are involved in these processes. Exploiting the feature of FEZ1 protein as a bivalent adapter of transport mediated by kinesins and FEZ1 protein interaction with SCOCO (proteins involved in the same path of axonal growth), we investigated the structural aspects of intermolecular interactions involved in this complex formation by NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance), cross-linking coupled with mass spectrometry (MS), SAXS (Small Angle X-ray Scattering) and molecular modelling. The topology of homodimerization was accessed through NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) studies of the region involved in this process, corresponding to FEZ1 (92-194). Through studies involving the protein in its monomeric configuration (reduced) and dimeric state, we propose that homodimerization occurs with FEZ1 chains oriented in an anti-parallel topology. We demonstrate that the interaction interface of FEZ1 and SCOCO defined by MS and computational modelling is in accordance with that previously demonstrated for UNC-76 and UNC-69. SAXS and literature data support a heterotetrameric complex model. These data provide details about the interaction interfaces probably involved in the transport machinery assembly and open perspectives to understand and interfere in this assembly and its involvement in neuronal differentiation and axon outgrowth. PMID:24116125

  7. Hormone-induced 14-3-3γ Adaptor Protein Regulates Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory Protein Activity and Steroid Biosynthesis in MA-10 Leydig Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Aghazadeh, Yasaman; Rone, Malena B.; Blonder, Josip; Ye, Xiaoying; Veenstra, Timothy D.; Hales, D. Buck; Culty, Martine; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2012-01-01

    Cholesterol is the sole precursor of steroid hormones in the body. The import of cholesterol to the inner mitochondrial membrane, the rate-limiting step in steroid biosynthesis, relies on the formation of a protein complex that assembles at the outer mitochondrial membrane called the transduceosome. The transduceosome contains several mitochondrial and cytosolic components, including the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR). Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) induces de novo synthesis of STAR, a process shown to parallel maximal steroid production. In the hCG-dependent steroidogenic MA-10 mouse Leydig cell line, the 14-3-3γ protein was identified in native mitochondrial complexes by mass spectrometry and immunoblotting, and its levels increased in response to hCG treatment. The 14-3-3 proteins bind and regulate the activity of many proteins, acting via target protein activation, modification and localization. In MA-10 cells, cAMP induces 14-3-3γ expression parallel to STAR expression. Silencing of 14-3-3γ expression potentiates hormone-induced steroidogenesis. Binding motifs of 14-3-3γ were identified in components of the transduceosome, including STAR. Immunoprecipitation studies demonstrate a hormone-dependent interaction between 14-3-3γ and STAR that coincides with reduced 14-3-3γ homodimerization. The binding site of 14-3-3γ on STAR was identified to be Ser-194 in the STAR-related sterol binding lipid transfer (START) domain, the site phosphorylated in response to hCG. Taken together, these results demonstrate that 14-3-3γ negatively regulates steroidogenesis by binding to Ser-194 of STAR, thus keeping STAR in an unfolded state, unable to induce maximal steroidogenesis. Over time 14-3-3γ homodimerizes and dissociates from STAR, allowing this protein to induce maximal mitochondrial steroid formation. PMID:22427666

  8. The SH2/SH3 adaptor protein dock interacts with the Ste20-like kinase misshapen in controlling growth cone motility.

    PubMed

    Ruan, W; Pang, P; Rao, Y

    1999-11-01

    Recent studies suggest that the SH2/SH3 adaptor Dock/Nck transduces tyrosine phosphorylation signals to the actin cytoskeleton in regulating growth cone motility. The signaling cascade linking the action of Dock/Nck to the reorganization of cytoskeleton is poorly understood. We now demonstrate that Dock interacts with the Ste20-like kinase Misshapen (Msn) in the Drosophila photoreceptor (R cell) growth cones. Loss of msn causes a failure of growth cones to stop at the target, a phenotype similar to loss of dock, whereas overexpression of msn induces pretarget growth cone termination. Physical and genetic interactions between Msn and Dock indicate a role for Msn in the Dock signaling pathway. We propose that Msn functions as a key controller of growth cone cytoskeleton in response to Dock-mediated signals.

  9. CD150 association with either the SH2-containing inositol phosphatase or the SH2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase is regulated by the adaptor protein SH2D1A.

    PubMed

    Shlapatska, L M; Mikhalap, S V; Berdova, A G; Zelensky, O M; Yun, T J; Nichols, K E; Clark, E A; Sidorenko, S P

    2001-05-01

    CD150 (SLAM/IPO-3) is a cell surface receptor that, like the B cell receptor, CD40, and CD95, can transmit positive or negative signals. CD150 can associate with the SH2-containing inositol phosphatase (SHIP), the SH2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP-2), and the adaptor protein SH2 domain protein 1A (SH2D1A/DSHP/SAP, also called Duncan's disease SH2-protein (DSHP) or SLAM-associated protein (SAP)). Mutations in SH2D1A are found in X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Here we report that SH2D1A is expressed in tonsillar B cells and in some B lymphoblastoid cell lines, where CD150 coprecipitates with SH2D1A and SHIP. However, in SH2D1A-negative B cell lines, including B cell lines from X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome patients, CD150 associates only with SHP-2. SH2D1A protein levels are up-regulated by CD40 cross-linking and down-regulated by B cell receptor ligation. Using GST-fusion proteins with single replacements of tyrosine at Y269F, Y281F, Y307F, or Y327F in the CD150 cytoplasmic tail, we found that the same phosphorylated Y281 and Y327 are essential for both SHP-2 and SHIP binding. The presence of SH2D1A facilitates binding of SHIP to CD150. Apparently, SH2D1A may function as a regulator of alternative interactions of CD150 with SHP-2 or SHIP via a novel TxYxxV/I motif (immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motif (ITSM)). Multiple sequence alignments revealed the presence of this TxYxxV/I motif not only in CD2 subfamily members but also in the cytoplasmic domains of the members of the SHP-2 substrate 1, sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin, carcinoembryonic Ag, and leukocyte-inhibitory receptor families.

  10. Involvement of suppressor of cytokine signalling-1-mediated degradation of MyD88-adaptor-like protein in the suppression of Toll-like receptor 2-mediated signalling by the murine C-type lectin SIGNR1-mediated signalling.

    PubMed

    Ohtani, Makoto; Iyori, Mitsuhiro; Saeki, Ayumi; Tanizume, Naoho; Into, Takeshi; Hasebe, Akira; Totsuka, Yasunori; Shibata, Ken-ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic cells recognize pathogens through pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptors and phagocytose and digest them by phagocytic receptors for antigen presentation. This study was designed to clarify the cross-talk between recognition and phagocytosis of microbes in dendritic cells. The murine dendritic cell line XS106 cells were stimulated with the murine C-type lectin SIGNR1 ligand lipoarabinomannan and the Toll-like receptor 2 ligand FSL-1. The co-stimulation significantly suppressed FSL-1-mediated activation of NF-κB as well as production of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-12p40 in a dose-dependent manner. The suppression was significantly but not completely recovered by knock-down of SIGNR1. SIGNR1 was associated with Toll-like receptor 2 in XS106 cells. The co-stimulation upregulated the expression of suppressor of cytokine signalling-1 in XS106 cells, the knock-down of which almost completely recovered the suppression of the FSL-1-mediated cytokine production by lipoarabinomannan. In addition, it was found that the MyD88-adaptor-like protein in XS106 cells was degraded by co-stimulation with FSL-1 and lipoarabinomannan in the absence, but not the presence, of the proteasome inhibitor MG132 and the degradation was inhibited by knock-down of suppressor of cytokine signalling-1. This study suggests that Toll-like receptor 2-mediated signalling is negatively regulated by SIGNR1-mediated signalling in dendritic cells, possibly through suppressor of cytokine signalling-1-mediated degradation of the MyD88-adaptor-like protein. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Molecular cloning and characterization of GhAPm, a gene encoding the μ subunit of the clathrin-associated adaptor protein complex that is associated with cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber development.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tao; Zhang, Rui; Yang, Dawei; Guo, Sandui

    2011-06-01

    The clathrin-associated adaptor protein (AP) complexes are the primary clathrin adaptors that contribute to the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs). The GhAPm gene (GenBank accession number: GU359054), which encodes the medium subunit of the AP complexes, was cloned from cotton by rapid amplification of cDNA ends-polymerase chain reaction (RACE-PCR). The full-length cDNA was 1590 bp in size and encoded an open reading frame (ORF) of 416 amino acids with a molecular weight of 46 kDa. The GhAPm protein shared 81-85% identity at the amino acid level with the AP complex μ subunits isolated from Vitis vinifera, Glycine max, Populus trichocarpa, Ricinus communis and Arabidopsis thaliana, respectively. The corresponding genomic DNA, containing eight exons and seven introns, was isolated and analyzed. Also, a 5'-flanking region was analyzed, and a group of putative cis-acting elements were identified. DNA gel blot analysis showed that there is only one GhAPm gene in the cotton genome. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that GhAPm is expressed in the root, stem, leaf, petal, ovule, and fiber. However, the interesting finding is that GhAPm expression level was shown to increase steadily as the cotton fiber develops. In 30 DPA fibers, expression increases sharply and arrives at a peak then the expression levels decrease rapidly. Based on these data, we propose that GhAPm has a critical role in cotton membrane trafficking and fiber development.

  12. Distinct Phosphotyrosine-dependent Functions of the ShcA Adaptor Protein Are Required for Transforming Growth Factor β (TGFβ)-induced Breast Cancer Cell Migration, Invasion, and Metastasis*

    PubMed Central

    Northey, Jason J.; Dong, Zhifeng; Ngan, Elaine; Kaplan, Andrew; Hardy, W. Rod; Pawson, Tony; Siegel, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    The ErbB2 and TGFβ signaling pathways cooperate to promote the migratory, invasive, and metastatic behavior of breast cancer cells. We previously demonstrated that ShcA is necessary for these synergistic interactions. Through a structure/function approach, we now show that the phosphotyrosine-binding, but not the Src homology 2, domain of ShcA is required for TGFβ-induced migration and invasion of ErbB2-expressing breast cancer cells. We further demonstrate that the tyrosine phosphorylation sites within ShcA (Tyr239/Tyr240 and Tyr313) transduce distinct and non-redundant signals that promote these TGFβ-mediated effects. We demonstrate that Grb2 is required specifically downstream of Tyr313, whereas the Tyr239/Tyr240 phosphorylation sites require the Crk adaptor proteins to augment TGFβ-induced migration and invasion. Furthermore, ShcA Tyr313 phosphorylation enhances tumor cell survival, and ShcA Tyr239/Tyr240 signaling promotes endothelial cell recruitment into ErbB2-expressing breast tumors in vivo, whereas all three ShcA tyrosine residues are required for efficient breast cancer metastasis to the lungs. Our data uncover a novel ShcA-dependent signaling axis downstream of TGFβ and ErbB2 that requires both the Grb2 and Crk adaptor proteins to increase the migratory and invasive properties of breast cancer cells. In addition, signaling downstream of specific ShcA tyrosine residues facilitates the survival, vascularization, and metastatic spread of breast tumors. PMID:23277357

  13. Interchangeable adaptors regulate mitochondrial dynamin assembly for membrane scission

    PubMed Central

    Koirala, Sajjan; Guo, Qian; Kalia, Raghav; Bui, Huyen T.; Eckert, Debra M.; Frost, Adam; Shaw, Janet M.

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial fission is mediated by the dynamin-related GTPases Dnm1/Drp1 (yeast/mammals), which form spirals around constricted sites on mitochondria. Additional membrane-associated adaptor proteins (Fis1, Mdv1, Mff, and MiDs) are required to recruit these GTPases from the cytoplasm to the mitochondrial surface. Whether these adaptors participate in both GTPase recruitment and membrane scission is not known. Here we use a yeast strain lacking all fission proteins to identify the minimal combinations of GTPases and adaptors sufficient for mitochondrial fission. Although Fis1 is dispensable for fission, membrane-anchored Mdv1, Mff, or MiDs paired individually with their respective GTPases are sufficient to divide mitochondria. In addition to their role in Drp1 membrane recruitment, MiDs coassemble with Drp1 in vitro. The resulting heteropolymer adopts a dramatically different structure with a narrower diameter than Drp1 homopolymers assembled in isolation. This result demonstrates that an adaptor protein alters the architecture of a mitochondrial dynamin GTPase polymer in a manner that could facilitate membrane constriction and severing activity. PMID:23530241

  14. Interchangeable adaptors regulate mitochondrial dynamin assembly for membrane scission.

    PubMed

    Koirala, Sajjan; Guo, Qian; Kalia, Raghav; Bui, Huyen T; Eckert, Debra M; Frost, Adam; Shaw, Janet M

    2013-04-09

    Mitochondrial fission is mediated by the dynamin-related GTPases Dnm1/Drp1 (yeast/mammals), which form spirals around constricted sites on mitochondria. Additional membrane-associated adaptor proteins (Fis1, Mdv1, Mff, and MiDs) are required to recruit these GTPases from the cytoplasm to the mitochondrial surface. Whether these adaptors participate in both GTPase recruitment and membrane scission is not known. Here we use a yeast strain lacking all fission proteins to identify the minimal combinations of GTPases and adaptors sufficient for mitochondrial fission. Although Fis1 is dispensable for fission, membrane-anchored Mdv1, Mff, or MiDs paired individually with their respective GTPases are sufficient to divide mitochondria. In addition to their role in Drp1 membrane recruitment, MiDs coassemble with Drp1 in vitro. The resulting heteropolymer adopts a dramatically different structure with a narrower diameter than Drp1 homopolymers assembled in isolation. This result demonstrates that an adaptor protein alters the architecture of a mitochondrial dynamin GTPase polymer in a manner that could facilitate membrane constriction and severing activity.

  15. Targeting signals and subunit interactions in coated vesicle adaptor complexes

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    There are two clathrin-coated vesicle adaptor complexes in the cell, one associated with the plasma membrane and one associated with the TGN. The subunit composition of the plasma membrane adaptor complex is alpha-adaptin, beta-adaptin, AP50, and AP17; while that of the TGN adaptor complex is gamma-adaptin, beta'-adaptin, AP47, and AP19. To search for adaptor targeting signals, we have constructed chimeras between alpha-adaptin and gamma-adaptin within their NH2-terminal domains. We have identified stretches of sequence in the two proteins between amino acids approximately 130 and 330-350 that are essential for targeting. Immunoprecipitation reveals that this region determines whether a construct coassemblies with AP50 and AP17, or with AP47 and AP19. These observations suggest that these other subunits may play an important role in targeting. In contrast, beta- and beta'-adaptins are clearly not involved in this event. Chimeras between the alpha- and gamma-adaptin COOH-terminal domains reveal the presence of a second targeting signal. We have further investigated the interactions between the adaptor subunits using the yeast two-hybrid system. Interactions can be detected between the beta/beta'-adaptins and the alpha/gamma- adaptins, between the beta/beta'-adaptins and the AP50/AP47 subunits, between alpha-adaptin and AP17, and between gamma-adaptin and AP19. These results indicate that the adaptor subunits act in concert to target the complex to the appropriate membrane. PMID:7593184

  16. The MicroRNA mir-71 Inhibits Calcium Signaling by Targeting the TIR-1/Sarm1 Adaptor Protein to Control Stochastic L/R Neuronal Asymmetry in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Yi-Wen

    2012-01-01

    The Caenorhabditis elegans left and right AWC olfactory neurons communicate to establish stochastic asymmetric identities, AWCON and AWCOFF, by inhibiting a calcium-mediated signaling pathway in the future AWCON cell. NSY-4/claudin-like protein and NSY-5/innexin gap junction protein are the two parallel signals that antagonize the calcium signaling pathway to induce the AWCON fate. However, it is not known how the calcium signaling pathway is downregulated by nsy-4 and nsy-5 in the AWCON cell. Here we identify a microRNA, mir-71, that represses the TIR-1/Sarm1 adaptor protein in the calcium signaling pathway to promote the AWCON identity. Similar to tir-1 loss-of-function mutants, overexpression of mir-71 generates two AWCON neurons. tir-1 expression is downregulated through its 3′ UTR in AWCON, in which mir-71 is expressed at a higher level than in AWCOFF. In addition, mir-71 is sufficient to inhibit tir-1 expression in AWC through the mir-71 complementary site in the tir-1 3′ UTR. Our genetic studies suggest that mir-71 acts downstream of nsy-4 and nsy-5 to promote the AWCON identity in a cell autonomous manner. Furthermore, the stability of mature mir-71 is dependent on nsy-4 and nsy-5. Together, these results provide insight into the mechanism by which nsy-4 and nsy-5 inhibit calcium signaling to establish stochastic asymmetric AWC differentiation. PMID:22876200

  17. Differential Recognition Preferences of the Three Src Homology 3 (SH3) Domains from the Adaptor CD2-associated Protein (CD2AP) and Direct Association with Ras and Rab Interactor 3 (RIN3)*

    PubMed Central

    Rouka, Evgenia; Simister, Philip C.; Janning, Melanie; Kumbrink, Joerg; Konstantinou, Tassos; Muniz, João R. C.; Joshi, Dhira; O'Reilly, Nicola; Volkmer, Rudolf; Ritter, Brigitte; Knapp, Stefan; von Delft, Frank; Kirsch, Kathrin H.; Feller, Stephan M.

    2015-01-01

    CD2AP is an adaptor protein involved in membrane trafficking, with essential roles in maintaining podocyte function within the kidney glomerulus. CD2AP contains three Src homology 3 (SH3) domains that mediate multiple protein-protein interactions. However, a detailed comparison of the molecular binding preferences of each SH3 remained unexplored, as well as the discovery of novel interactors. Thus, we studied the binding properties of each SH3 domain to the known interactor Casitas B-lineage lymphoma protein (c-CBL), conducted a peptide array screen based on the recognition motif PxPxPR and identified 40 known or novel candidate binding proteins, such as RIN3, a RAB5-activating guanine nucleotide exchange factor. CD2AP SH3 domains 1 and 2 generally bound with similar characteristics and specificities, whereas the SH3-3 domain bound more weakly to most peptide ligands tested yet recognized an unusually extended sequence in ALG-2-interacting protein X (ALIX). RIN3 peptide scanning arrays revealed two CD2AP binding sites, recognized by all three SH3 domains, but SH3-3 appeared non-functional in precipitation experiments. RIN3 recruited CD2AP to RAB5a-positive early endosomes via these interaction sites. Permutation arrays and isothermal titration calorimetry data showed that the preferred binding motif is Px(P/A)xPR. Two high-resolution crystal structures (1.65 and 1.11 Å) of CD2AP SH3-1 and SH3-2 solved in complex with RIN3 epitopes 1 and 2, respectively, indicated that another extended motif is relevant in epitope 2. In conclusion, we have discovered novel interaction candidates for CD2AP and characterized subtle yet significant differences in the recognition preferences of its three SH3 domains for c-CBL, ALIX, and RIN3. PMID:26296892

  18. Differential Recognition Preferences of the Three Src Homology 3 (SH3) Domains from the Adaptor CD2-associated Protein (CD2AP) and Direct Association with Ras and Rab Interactor 3 (RIN3).

    PubMed

    Rouka, Evgenia; Simister, Philip C; Janning, Melanie; Kumbrink, Joerg; Konstantinou, Tassos; Muniz, João R C; Joshi, Dhira; O'Reilly, Nicola; Volkmer, Rudolf; Ritter, Brigitte; Knapp, Stefan; von Delft, Frank; Kirsch, Kathrin H; Feller, Stephan M

    2015-10-16

    CD2AP is an adaptor protein involved in membrane trafficking, with essential roles in maintaining podocyte function within the kidney glomerulus. CD2AP contains three Src homology 3 (SH3) domains that mediate multiple protein-protein interactions. However, a detailed comparison of the molecular binding preferences of each SH3 remained unexplored, as well as the discovery of novel interactors. Thus, we studied the binding properties of each SH3 domain to the known interactor Casitas B-lineage lymphoma protein (c-CBL), conducted a peptide array screen based on the recognition motif PxPxPR and identified 40 known or novel candidate binding proteins, such as RIN3, a RAB5-activating guanine nucleotide exchange factor. CD2AP SH3 domains 1 and 2 generally bound with similar characteristics and specificities, whereas the SH3-3 domain bound more weakly to most peptide ligands tested yet recognized an unusually extended sequence in ALG-2-interacting protein X (ALIX). RIN3 peptide scanning arrays revealed two CD2AP binding sites, recognized by all three SH3 domains, but SH3-3 appeared non-functional in precipitation experiments. RIN3 recruited CD2AP to RAB5a-positive early endosomes via these interaction sites. Permutation arrays and isothermal titration calorimetry data showed that the preferred binding motif is Px(P/A)xPR. Two high-resolution crystal structures (1.65 and 1.11 Å) of CD2AP SH3-1 and SH3-2 solved in complex with RIN3 epitopes 1 and 2, respectively, indicated that another extended motif is relevant in epitope 2. In conclusion, we have discovered novel interaction candidates for CD2AP and characterized subtle yet significant differences in the recognition preferences of its three SH3 domains for c-CBL, ALIX, and RIN3.

  19. Myosin VI and its cargo adaptors - linking endocytosis and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Tumbarello, David A; Kendrick-Jones, John; Buss, Folma

    2013-06-15

    The coordinated trafficking and tethering of membrane cargo within cells relies on the function of distinct cytoskeletal motors that are targeted to specific subcellular compartments through interactions with protein adaptors and phospholipids. The unique actin motor myosin VI functions at distinct steps during clathrin-mediated endocytosis and the early endocytic pathway - both of which are involved in cargo trafficking and sorting - through interactions with Dab2, GIPC, Tom1 and LMTK2. This multifunctional ability of myosin VI can be attributed to its cargo-binding tail region that contains two protein-protein interaction interfaces, a ubiquitin-binding motif and a phospholipid binding domain. In addition, myosin VI has been shown to be a regulator of the autophagy pathway, because of its ability to link the endocytic and autophagic pathways through interactions with the ESCRT-0 protein Tom1 and the autophagy adaptor proteins T6BP, NDP52 and optineurin. This function has been attributed to facilitating autophagosome maturation and subsequent fusion with the lysosome. Therefore, in this Commentary, we discuss the relationship between myosin VI and the different myosin VI adaptor proteins, particularly with regards to the spatial and temporal regulation that is required for the sorting of cargo at the early endosome, and their impact on autophagy.

  20. Non-redundant and complementary functions of adaptor proteins TRAF2 and TRAF3 in a ubiquitination cascade that activates NIK-dependent alternative NF-κB signaling

    PubMed Central

    Vallabhapurapu, Sivakumar; Matsuzawa, Atsushi; Zhang, WeiZhou; Tseng, Ping-Hui; Keats, Jonathan J.; Wang, Haopeng; Vignali, Dario A. A.; Bergsagel, P. Leif; Karin, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The adaptor and signaling proteins TRAF2, TRAF3 and cIAP1 and cIAP2 were suggested to inhibit alternative nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling in resting cells by targeting NF-κB inducing kinase (NIK) to ubiquitin-dependent degradation, thus preventing processing of the NF-κB2 precursor protein p100 to release p52. However, the respective functions of TRAF2 and TRAF3 in NIK degradation and activation of alternative NF-κB signaling has remained elusive. We now show that CD40 or BAFF receptor activation resulted in TRAF3 degradation in a cIAP1-cIAP2- and TRAF2- dependent way due to enhanced cIAP1, cIAP2 TRAF3-directed ubiquitin ligase activity. Receptor-induced activation of cIAP1 and cIAP2 correlated with their K63-linked ubiquitination by TRAF2. Degradation of TRAF3 prevented association of NIK with the cIAP1-cIAP2-TRAF2 ubiquitin ligase complex, which resulted in NIK stabilization and NF-κB2-p100 processing. Constitutive activation of this pathway causes perinatal lethality and lymphoid defects. PMID:18997792

  1. Ubiquitylation of Fe65 adaptor protein by neuronal precursor cell expressed developmentally down regulated 4-2 (Nedd4-2) via the WW domain interaction with Fe65

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Jeoung; Hyun, Sunghee; Shin, Sung Hwa

    2009-01-01

    Fe65 has been characterized as an adaptor protein, originally identified as an expressed sequence tag (EST) corresponding to an mRNA expressed at high levels in the rat brain. It contains one WW domain and two phosphotyrosine interaction/phosphotyrosine binding domains (PID1/PID2). As the neuronal precursor cell expressed developmentally down regulated 4-2 (Nedd4-2) has a putative WW domain binding motif (72PPLP75) in the N-terminal domain, we hypothesized that Fe65 associates with Nedd4-2 through a WW domain interaction, which has the characteristics of E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase. In this paper, we present evidence for the interaction between Fe65 WW domain and Nedd4-2 through its specific motif, using a pull down approach and co-immunoprecipitation. Additionally, the co-localization of Fe65 and Nedd4-2 were observed via confocal microscopy. Co-localization of Fe65 and Nedd4-2 was disrupted by either the mutation of Fe65 WW domain or its putative binding motif of Nedd4-2. When the ubiquitin assay was performed, the interaction of Nedd4-2 (wt) with Fe65 is required for the cell apoptosis and the ubiquitylation of Fe65. We also observed that the ubiquitylation of Fe65 (wt) was augmented depending on Nedd4-2 expression levels, whereas the Fe65 WW domain mutant (W243KP245K) or the Nedd4-2 AL mutant (72PPLP75 was changed to 72APLA75) was under-ubiquitinated significantly. Thus, our observations implicated that the protein-protein interaction between the WW domain of Fe65 and the putative binding motif of Nedd4-2 down-regulates Fe65 protein stability and subcellular localization through its ubiquitylation, to contribute cell apoptosis. PMID:19381069

  2. Ubiquitylation of Fe65 adaptor protein by neuronal precursor cell expressed developmentally down regulated 4-2 (Nedd4-2) via the WW domain interaction with Fe65.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Jeoung; Hyun, Sunghee; Chun, Jaesun; Shin, Sung Hwa; Kang, Sang Sun

    2009-08-31

    Fe65 has been characterized as an adaptor protein, originally identified as an expressed sequence tag (EST) corresponding to an mRNA expressed at high levels in the rat brain. It contains one WW domain and two phosphotyrosine interaction/phosphotyrosine binding domains (PID1/PID2). As the neuronal precursor cell expressed developmentally down regulated 4-2 (Nedd4-2) has a putative WW domain binding motif ((72)PPLP(75)) in the N-terminal domain, we hypothesized that Fe65 associates with Nedd4-2 through a WW domain interaction, which has the characteristics of E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase. In this paper, we present evidence for the interaction between Fe65 WW domain and Nedd4-2 through its specific motif, using a pull down approach and co-immunoprecipitation. Additionally, the co-localization of Fe65 and Nedd4-2 were observed via confocal microscopy. Co-localization of Fe65 and Nedd4-2 was disrupted by either the mutation of Fe65 WW domain or its putative binding motif of Nedd4-2. When the ubiquitin assay was performed, the interaction of Nedd4-2 (wt) with Fe65 is required for the cell apoptosis and the ubiquitylation of Fe65. We also observed that the ubiquitylation of Fe65 (wt) was augmented depending on Nedd4-2 expression levels, whereas the Fe65 WW domain mutant (W243KP245K) or the Nedd4-2 AL mutant ((72)PPLP(75) was changed to (72)APLA(75)) was under-ubiquitinated significantly. Thus, our observations implicated that the protein-protein interaction between the WW domain of Fe65 and the putative binding motif of Nedd4-2 down-regulates Fe65 protein stability and subcellular localization through its ubiquitylation, to contribute cell apoptosis.

  3. Evidence against roles for phorbol binding protein Munc13-1, ADAM adaptor Eve-1, or vesicle trafficking phosphoproteins Munc18 or NSF as phospho-state-sensitive modulators of phorbol/PKC-activated Alzheimer APP ectodomain shedding.

    PubMed

    Ikin, Annat F; Causevic, Mirsada; Pedrini, Steve; Benson, Lyndsey S; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Suzuki, Toshiharu; Lovestone, Simon; Higashiyama, Shigeki; Mustelin, Tomas; Burgoyne, Robert D; Gandy, Sam

    2007-12-09

    Shedding of the Alzheimer amyloid precursor protein (APP) ectodomain can be accelerated by phorbol esters, compounds that act via protein kinase C (PKC) or through unconventional phorbol-binding proteins such as Munc13-1. We have previously demonstrated that application of phorbol esters or purified PKC potentiates budding of APP-bearing secretory vesicles at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and toward the plasma membrane where APP becomes a substrate for enzymes responsible for shedding, known collectively as alpha-secretase(s). However, molecular identification of the presumptive "phospho-state-sensitive modulators of ectodomain shedding" (PMES) responsible for regulated shedding has been challenging. Here, we examined the effects on APP ectodomain shedding of four phorbol-sensitive proteins involved in regulation of vesicular membrane trafficking of APP: Munc13-1, Munc18, NSF, and Eve-1. Overexpression of either phorbol-sensitive wildtype Munc13-1 or phorbol-insensitive Munc13-1 H567K resulted in increased basal APP ectodomain shedding. However, in contrast to the report of Rossner et al (2004), phorbol ester-dependent APP ectodomain shedding from cells overexpressing APP and Munc13-1 wildtype was indistinguishable from that observed following application of phorbol to cells overexpressing APP and Munc13-1 H567K mutant. This pattern of similar effects on basal and stimulated APP shedding was also observed for Munc18 and NSF. Eve-1, an ADAM adaptor protein reported to be essential for PKC-regulated shedding of pro-EGF, was found to play no obvious role in regulated shedding of sAPPalpha. Our results indicate that, in the HEK293 system, Munc13-1, Munc18, NSF, and EVE-1 fail to meet essential criteria for identity as PMES for APP.

  4. Evidence against roles for phorbol binding protein Munc13-1, ADAM adaptor Eve-1, or vesicle trafficking phosphoproteins Munc18 or NSF as phospho-state-sensitive modulators of phorbol/PKC-activated Alzheimer APP ectodomain shedding

    PubMed Central

    Ikin, Annat F; Causevic, Mirsada; Pedrini, Steve; Benson, Lyndsey S; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Suzuki, Toshiharu; Lovestone, Simon; Higashiyama, Shigeki; Mustelin, Tomas; Burgoyne, Robert D; Gandy, Sam

    2007-01-01

    Background Shedding of the Alzheimer amyloid precursor protein (APP) ectodomain can be accelerated by phorbol esters, compounds that act via protein kinase C (PKC) or through unconventional phorbol-binding proteins such as Munc13-1. We have previously demonstrated that application of phorbol esters or purified PKC potentiates budding of APP-bearing secretory vesicles at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and toward the plasma membrane where APP becomes a substrate for enzymes responsible for shedding, known collectively as α-secretase(s). However, molecular identification of the presumptive "phospho-state-sensitive modulators of ectodomain shedding" (PMES) responsible for regulated shedding has been challenging. Here, we examined the effects on APP ectodomain shedding of four phorbol-sensitive proteins involved in regulation of vesicular membrane trafficking of APP: Munc13-1, Munc18, NSF, and Eve-1. Results Overexpression of either phorbol-sensitive wildtype Munc13-1 or phorbol-insensitive Munc13-1 H567K resulted in increased basal APP ectodomain shedding. However, in contrast to the report of Roßner et al (2004), phorbol ester-dependent APP ectodomain shedding from cells overexpressing APP and Munc13-1 wildtype was indistinguishable from that observed following application of phorbol to cells overexpressing APP and Munc13-1 H567K mutant. This pattern of similar effects on basal and stimulated APP shedding was also observed for Munc18 and NSF. Eve-1, an ADAM adaptor protein reported to be essential for PKC-regulated shedding of pro-EGF, was found to play no obvious role in regulated shedding of sAPPα. Conclusion Our results indicate that, in the HEK293 system, Munc13-1, Munc18, NSF, and EVE-1 fail to meet essential criteria for identity as PMES for APP. PMID:18067682

  5. The toll-like receptor 2/1 (TLR2/1) complex initiates human platelet activation via the src/Syk/LAT/PLCγ2 signalling cascade.

    PubMed

    Fälker, Knut; Klarström-Engström, Kristin; Bengtsson, Torbjörn; Lindahl, Tomas L; Grenegård, Magnus

    2014-02-01

    The specific TLR2/1 complex activator Pam3CSK4 has been shown to provoke prominent activation and aggregation of human non-nucleated platelets. As Pam3CSK4-evoked platelet activation does not employ the major signalling pathway established in nucleated immune cells, we investigated if the TLR2/1 complex on platelets may initiate signalling pathways known to be induced by physiological agonists such as collagen via GPVI or thrombin via PARs. We found that triggering TLR2/1 complex-signalling with Pam3CSK4, in common with that induced via GPVI, and in contrast to that provoked by PARs, involves tyrosine phosphorylation of the adaptor protein LAT as well as of PLCγ2 in a src- and Syk-dependent manner. In this respect, we provide evidence that Pam3CSK4 does not cross-activate GPVI. Further, by the use of platelets from a Glanzmann's thrombasthenia patient lacking β(3), in contrast to findings in nucleated immune cells, we show that the initiation of platelet activation by Pam3CSK4 does not involve integrin β(3) signalling; whereas the latter, subsequent to intermediate TXA2 synthesis and signalling, was found to be indispensable for proper dense granule secretion and full platelet aggregation. Together, our findings reveal that triggering the TLR2/1 complex with Pam3CSK4 initiates human platelet activation by engaging tyrosine kinases of the src family and Syk, the adaptor protein LAT, as well as the key mediator PLCγ2. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A novel motif in the yeast mitochondrial dynamin Dnm1 is essential for adaptor binding and membrane recruitment.

    PubMed

    Bui, Huyen T; Karren, Mary A; Bhar, Debjani; Shaw, Janet M

    2012-11-12

    To initiate mitochondrial fission, dynamin-related proteins (DRPs) must bind specific adaptors on the outer mitochondrial membrane. The structural features underlying this interaction are poorly understood. Using yeast as a model, we show that the Insert B domain of the Dnm1 guanosine triphosphatase (a DRP) contains a novel motif required for association with the mitochondrial adaptor Mdv1. Mutation of this conserved motif specifically disrupted Dnm1-Mdv1 interactions, blocking Dnm1 recruitment and mitochondrial fission. Suppressor mutations in Mdv1 that restored Dnm1-Mdv1 interactions and fission identified potential protein-binding interfaces on the Mdv1 β-propeller domain. These results define the first known function for Insert B in DRP-adaptor interactions. Based on the variability of Insert B sequences and adaptor proteins, we propose that Insert B domains and mitochondrial adaptors have coevolved to meet the unique requirements for mitochondrial fission of different organisms.

  7. A novel motif in the yeast mitochondrial dynamin Dnm1 is essential for adaptor binding and membrane recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Huyen T.; Karren, Mary A.; Bhar, Debjani

    2012-01-01

    To initiate mitochondrial fission, dynamin-related proteins (DRPs) must bind specific adaptors on the outer mitochondrial membrane. The structural features underlying this interaction are poorly understood. Using yeast as a model, we show that the Insert B domain of the Dnm1 guanosine triphosphatase (a DRP) contains a novel motif required for association with the mitochondrial adaptor Mdv1. Mutation of this conserved motif specifically disrupted Dnm1–Mdv1 interactions, blocking Dnm1 recruitment and mitochondrial fission. Suppressor mutations in Mdv1 that restored Dnm1–Mdv1 interactions and fission identified potential protein-binding interfaces on the Mdv1 β-propeller domain. These results define the first known function for Insert B in DRP–adaptor interactions. Based on the variability of Insert B sequences and adaptor proteins, we propose that Insert B domains and mitochondrial adaptors have coevolved to meet the unique requirements for mitochondrial fission of different organisms. PMID:23148233

  8. Herpes simplex virus type 1 serum neutralizing antibody titers increase during latency in rabbits latently infected with latency-associated transcript (LAT)-positive but not LAT-negative viruses.

    PubMed

    Perng, G C; Slanina, S M; Yukht, A; Ghiasi, H; Nesburn, A B; Wechsler, S L

    1999-11-01

    The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) latency-associated transcript (LAT) gene is essential for efficient spontaneous reactivation in the rabbit ocular model of HSV-1 latency and reactivation. LAT is also the only viral gene abundantly expressed during latency. Rabbits were ocularly infected with the wild-type HSV-1 strain McKrae or the McKrae-derived LAT null mutant dLAT2903. Serum neutralizing antibody titers were determined at various times during acute and latent infection. The neutralizing antibody titers induced by both viruses increased and were similar throughout the first 45 days after infection (P > 0.05). However, by day 59 postinfection (approximately 31 to 45 days after latency had been established), the neutralizing antibody titers induced by wild-type virus and dLAT2903 diverged significantly (P = 0.0005). The dLAT2903-induced neutralizing antibody titers decreased, while the wild-type virus-induced neutralizing antibody titers continued to increase. A rescuant of dLAT2903, in which spontaneous reactivation was fully restored, induced wild-type neutralizing antibody levels on day 59 postinfection. A second LAT mutant with impaired spontaneous reactivation had neutralizing antibody levels comparable to those of dLAT2903. In contrast to the results obtained in rabbits, in mice, neutralizing antibody titers did not increase over time during latency with any of the viruses. Since LAT is expressed in both rabbits and mice during latency, the difference in neutralizing antibody titers between these animals is unlikely to be due to expression of a LAT protein during latency. In contrast, LAT-positive (LAT(+)), but not LAT-negative (LAT(-)), viruses undergo efficient spontaneous reactivation in rabbits, while neither LAT(+) nor LAT(-) viruses undergo efficient spontaneous reactivation in mice. Thus, the increase in neutralizing antibody titers in rabbits latently infected with LAT(+) viruses may have been due to continued restimulation of the immune system

  9. The microRNA mir-71 inhibits calcium signaling by targeting the TIR-1/Sarm1 adaptor protein to control stochastic L/R neuronal asymmetry in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yi-Wen; Chang, Chieh; Chuang, Chiou-Fen

    2012-01-01

    The Caenorhabditis elegans left and right AWC olfactory neurons communicate to establish stochastic asymmetric identities, AWC(ON) and AWC(OFF), by inhibiting a calcium-mediated signaling pathway in the future AWC(ON) cell. NSY-4/claudin-like protein and NSY-5/innexin gap junction protein are the two parallel signals that antagonize the calcium signaling pathway to induce the AWC(ON) fate. However, it is not known how the calcium signaling pathway is downregulated by nsy-4 and nsy-5 in the AWC(ON) cell. Here we identify a microRNA, mir-71, that represses the TIR-1/Sarm1 adaptor protein in the calcium signaling pathway to promote the AWC(ON) identity. Similar to tir-1 loss-of-function mutants, overexpression of mir-71 generates two AWC(ON) neurons. tir-1 expression is downregulated through its 3' UTR in AWC(ON), in which mir-71 is expressed at a higher level than in AWC(OFF). In addition, mir-71 is sufficient to inhibit tir-1 expression in AWC through the mir-71 complementary site in the tir-1 3' UTR. Our genetic studies suggest that mir-71 acts downstream of nsy-4 and nsy-5 to promote the AWC(ON) identity in a cell autonomous manner. Furthermore, the stability of mature mir-71 is dependent on nsy-4 and nsy-5. Together, these results provide insight into the mechanism by which nsy-4 and nsy-5 inhibit calcium signaling to establish stochastic asymmetric AWC differentiation.

  10. The Fe65 adaptor protein interacts through its PID1 domain with the transcription factor CP2/LSF/LBP1.

    PubMed

    Zambrano, N; Minopoli, G; de Candia, P; Russo, T

    1998-08-07

    The neural protein Fe65 possesses three putative protein-protein interaction domains: one WW domain and two phosphotyrosine interaction/phosphotyrosine binding domains (PID1 and PID2); the most C-terminal of these domains (PID2) interacts in vivo with the Alzheimer's beta-amyloid precursor protein, whereas the WW domain binds to Mena, the mammalian homolog of Drosophila-enabled protein. By the interaction trap procedure, we isolated a cDNA clone encoding a possible ligand of the N-terminal PID/PTB domain of Fe65 (PID1). Sequence analysis of this clone revealed that this ligand corresponded to the previously identified transcription factor CP2/LSF/LBP1. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that the interaction between Fe65 and CP2/LSF/LBP1 also takes place in vivo between the native molecules. The localization of both proteins was studied using fractionated cellular extracts. These experiments demonstrated that the various isoforms of CP2/LSF/LBP1 are differently distributed among subcellular fractions. At least one isoform, derived from alternative splicing (LSF-ID), is present outside the nucleus; Fe65 was found in both fractions. Furthermore, transfection experiments with an HA-tagged CP2/LSF/LBP1 cDNA demonstrated that Fe65 interacts also with the nuclear form of CP2/LSF/LBP1. Considering that the analysis of Fe65 distribution in fractionated cell extracts demonstrated that this protein is present both in nuclear and non-nuclear fractions, we examined the expression of Fe65 deletion mutants in the two fractions. This analysis allowed us to observe that a small region N-terminal to the WW domain is phosphorylated and is necessary for the presence of Fe65 in the nuclear fraction.

  11. The adaptor molecule signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP) is essential in mechanisms involving the Fyn tyrosine kinase for induction and progression of collagen-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Ming-Chao; Veillette, André

    2013-11-01

    Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein (SAP) is an Src homology 2 domain-only adaptor involved in multiple immune cell functions. It has also been linked to immunodeficiencies and autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus. Here, we examined the role and mechanism of action of SAP in autoimmunity using a mouse model of autoimmune arthritis, collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). We found that SAP was essential for development of CIA in response to collagen immunization. It was also required for production of collagen-specific antibodies, which play a key role in disease pathogenesis. These effects required SAP expression in T cells, not in B cells. In mice immunized with a high dose of collagen, the activity of SAP was nearly independent of its ability to bind the protein tyrosine kinase Fyn and correlated with the capacity of SAP to promote full differentiation of follicular T helper (TFH) cells. However, with a lower dose of collagen, the role of SAP was more dependent on Fyn binding, suggesting that additional mechanisms other than TFH cell differentiation were involved. Further studies suggested that this might be due to a role of the SAP-Fyn interaction in natural killer T cell development through the ability of SAP-Fyn to promote Vav-1 activation. We also found that removal of SAP expression during progression of CIA attenuated disease severity. However, it had no effect on disease when CIA was clinically established. Together, these results indicate that SAP plays an essential role in CIA because of Fyn-independent and Fyn-dependent effects on TFH cells and, possibly, other T cell types.

  12. The Adaptor Molecule Signaling Lymphocytic Activation Molecule (SLAM)-associated Protein (SAP) Is Essential in Mechanisms Involving the Fyn Tyrosine Kinase for Induction and Progression of Collagen-induced Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Ming-Chao; Veillette, André

    2013-01-01

    Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein (SAP) is an Src homology 2 domain-only adaptor involved in multiple immune cell functions. It has also been linked to immunodeficiencies and autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus. Here, we examined the role and mechanism of action of SAP in autoimmunity using a mouse model of autoimmune arthritis, collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). We found that SAP was essential for development of CIA in response to collagen immunization. It was also required for production of collagen-specific antibodies, which play a key role in disease pathogenesis. These effects required SAP expression in T cells, not in B cells. In mice immunized with a high dose of collagen, the activity of SAP was nearly independent of its ability to bind the protein tyrosine kinase Fyn and correlated with the capacity of SAP to promote full differentiation of follicular T helper (TFH) cells. However, with a lower dose of collagen, the role of SAP was more dependent on Fyn binding, suggesting that additional mechanisms other than TFH cell differentiation were involved. Further studies suggested that this might be due to a role of the SAP-Fyn interaction in natural killer T cell development through the ability of SAP-Fyn to promote Vav-1 activation. We also found that removal of SAP expression during progression of CIA attenuated disease severity. However, it had no effect on disease when CIA was clinically established. Together, these results indicate that SAP plays an essential role in CIA because of Fyn-independent and Fyn-dependent effects on TFH cells and, possibly, other T cell types. PMID:24045941

  13. DNAX-activating Protein 10 (DAP10) Membrane Adaptor Associates with Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) and Modulates the RAGE-triggered Signaling Pathway in Human Keratinocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Sakaguchi, Masakiyo; Murata, Hitoshi; Aoyama, Yumi; Hibino, Toshihiko; Putranto, Endy Widya; Ruma, I. Made Winarsa; Inoue, Yusuke; Sakaguchi, Yoshihiko; Yamamoto, Ken-ichi; Kinoshita, Rie; Futami, Junichiro; Kataoka, Ken; Iwatsuki, Keiji; Huh, Nam-ho

    2014-01-01

    The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is involved in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory, degenerative, and hyperproliferative diseases, including cancer. Previously, we revealed mechanisms of downstream signaling from ligand-activated RAGE, which recruits TIRAP/MyD88. Here, we showed that DNAX-activating protein 10 (DAP10), a transmembrane adaptor protein, also binds to RAGE. By artificial oligomerization of RAGE alone or RAGE-DAP10, we found that RAGE-DAP10 heterodimer formation resulted in a marked enhancement of Akt activation, whereas homomultimeric interaction of RAGE led to activation of caspase 8. Normal human epidermal keratinocytes exposed to S100A8/A9, a ligand for RAGE, at a nanomolar concentration mimicked the pro-survival response of RAGE-DAP10 interaction, although at a micromolar concentration, the cells mimicked the pro-apoptotic response of RAGE-RAGE. In transformed epithelial cell lines, A431 and HaCaT, in which endogenous DAP10 was overexpressed, and S100A8/A9, even at a micromolar concentration, led to cell growth and survival due to RAGE-DAP10 interaction. Functional blocking of DAP10 in the cell lines abrogated the Akt phosphorylation from S100A8/A9-activated RAGE, eventually leading to an increase in apoptosis. Finally, S100A8/A9, RAGE, and DAP10 were overexpressed in the psoriatic epidermis. Our findings indicate that the functional interaction between RAGE and DAP10 coordinately regulates S100A8/A9-mediated survival and/or apoptotic response of keratinocytes. PMID:25002577

  14. Fermi's Large Area Telescope (LAT)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Fermi’s Large Area Telescope (LAT) is the spacecraft’s main scientificinstrument. This animation shows a gamma ray (purple) entering the LAT,where it is converted into an electron (red) and a...

  15. Arabidopsis BPM proteins function as substrate adaptors to a cullin3-based E3 ligase to affect fatty acid metabolism in plants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liyuan; Lee, Joo Hyun; Weber, Henriette; Tohge, Takayuki; Witt, Sandra; Roje, Sanja; Fernie, Alisdair R; Hellmann, Hanjo

    2013-06-01

    Regulation of transcriptional processes is a critical mechanism that enables efficient coordination of the synthesis of required proteins in response to environmental and cellular changes. Transcription factors require accurate activity regulation because they play a critical role as key mediators assuring specific expression of target genes. In this work, we show that cullin3-based E3 ligases have the potential to interact with a broad range of ethylene response factor (ERF)/APETALA2 (AP2) transcription factors, mediated by Math-BTB/POZ (for Meprin and TRAF [tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor] homolog)-Broad complex, Tramtrack, Bric-a-brac/Pox virus and Zinc finger) proteins. The assembly with an E3 ligase causes degradation of their substrates via the 26S proteasome, as demonstrated for the wrinkled1 ERF/AP2 protein. Furthermore, loss of Math-BTB/POZ proteins widely affects plant development and causes altered fatty acid contents in mutant seeds. Overall, this work demonstrates a link between fatty acid metabolism and E3 ligase activities in plants and establishes CUL3-based E3 ligases as key regulators in transcriptional processes that involve ERF/AP2 family members.

  16. Arabidopsis BPM Proteins Function as Substrate Adaptors to a CULLIN3-Based E3 Ligase to Affect Fatty Acid Metabolism in Plants[W

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liyuan; Lee, Joo Hyun; Weber, Henriette; Tohge, Takayuki; Witt, Sandra; Roje, Sanja; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Hellmann, Hanjo

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of transcriptional processes is a critical mechanism that enables efficient coordination of the synthesis of required proteins in response to environmental and cellular changes. Transcription factors require accurate activity regulation because they play a critical role as key mediators assuring specific expression of target genes. In this work, we show that CULLIN3-based E3 ligases have the potential to interact with a broad range of ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (ERF)/APETALA2 (AP2) transcription factors, mediated by MATH-BTB/POZ (for Meprin and TRAF [tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor] homolog)-Broad complex, Tramtrack, Bric-a-brac/Pox virus and Zinc finger) proteins. The assembly with an E3 ligase causes degradation of their substrates via the 26S proteasome, as demonstrated for the WRINKLED1 ERF/AP2 protein. Furthermore, loss of MATH-BTB/POZ proteins widely affects plant development and causes altered fatty acid contents in mutant seeds. Overall, this work demonstrates a link between fatty acid metabolism and E3 ligase activities in plants and establishes CUL3-based E3 ligases as key regulators in transcriptional processes that involve ERF/AP2 family members. PMID:23792371

  17. TLR-independent control of innate immunity in Caenorhabditis elegans by the TIR domain adaptor protein TIR-1, an ortholog of human SARM.

    PubMed

    Couillault, Carole; Pujol, Nathalie; Reboul, Jérôme; Sabatier, Laurence; Guichou, Jean-François; Kohara, Yuji; Ewbank, Jonathan J

    2004-05-01

    Both plants and animals respond to infection by synthesizing compounds that directly inhibit or kill invading pathogens. We report here the identification of infection-inducible antimicrobial peptides in Caenorhabditis elegans. Expression of two of these peptides, NLP-29 and NLP-31, was differentially regulated by fungal and bacterial infection and was controlled in part by tir-1, which encodes an ortholog of SARM, a Toll-interleukin 1 receptor (TIR) domain protein. Inactivation of tir-1 by RNA interference caused increased susceptibility to infection. We identify protein partners for TIR-1 and show that the small GTPase Rab1 and the f subunit of ATP synthase participate specifically in the control of antimicrobial peptide gene expression. As the activity of tir-1 was independent of the single nematode Toll-like receptor, TIR-1 may represent a component of a previously uncharacterized, but conserved, innate immune signaling pathway.

  18. The Neuron-Specific Rai (ShcC) Adaptor Protein Inhibits Apoptosis by Coupling Ret to the Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/Akt Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Pelicci, Giuliana; Troglio, Flavia; Bodini, Alessandra; Melillo, Rosa Marina; Pettirossi, Valentina; Coda, Laura; De Giuseppe, Antonio; Santoro, Massimo; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe

    2002-01-01

    Rai is a recently identified member of the family of Shc-like proteins, which are cytoplasmic signal transducers characterized by the unique PTB-CH1-SH2 modular organization. Rai expression is restricted to neuronal cells and regulates in vivo the number of postmitotic sympathetic neurons. We report here that Rai is not a common substrate of receptor tyrosine kinases under physiological conditions and that among the analyzed receptors (Ret, epidermal growth factor receptor, and TrkA) it is activated specifically by Ret. Overexpression of Rai in neuronal cell lines promoted survival by reducing apoptosis both under conditions of limited availability of the Ret ligand glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and in the absence of Ret activation. Overexpressed Rai resulted in the potentiation of the Ret-dependent activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt. Notably, increased Akt phosphorylation and PI3K activity were also found under basal conditions, e.g., in serum-starved neuronal cells. Phosphorylated and hypophosphorylated Rai proteins form a constitutive complex with the p85 subunit of PI3K: upon Ret triggering, the Rai-PI3K complex is recruited to the tyrosine-phosphorylated Ret receptor through the binding of the Rai PTB domain to tyrosine 1062 of Ret. In neurons treated with low concentrations of GDNF, the prosurvival effect of Rai depends on Rai phosphorylation and Ret activation. In the absence of Ret activation, the prosurvival effect of Rai is, instead, phosphorylation independent. Finally, we showed that overexpression of Rai, at variance with Shc, had no effects on the early peak of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation, whereas it increased its activation at later time points. Phosphorylated Rai, however, was not found in complexes with Grb2. We propose that Rai potentiates the MAPK and PI3K signaling pathways and regulates Ret-dependent and -independent survival signals. PMID:12242309

  19. Abelson interactor-1 (ABI-1) interacts with MRL adaptor protein MIG-10 and is required in guided cell migrations and process outgrowth in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    McShea, Molly A; Schmidt, Kristopher L; Dubuke, Michelle L; Baldiga, Christina E; Sullender, Meagan E; Reis, Andrea L; Zhang, Subaiou; O'Toole, Sean M; Jeffers, Mary C; Warden, Rachel M; Kenney, Allison H; Gosselin, Jennifer; Kuhlwein, Mark; Hashmi, Sana K; Stringham, Eve G; Ryder, Elizabeth F

    2013-01-01

    Directed cell migration and process outgrowth are vital to proper development of many metazoan tissues. These processes are dependent on reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in response to external guidance cues. During development of the nervous system, the MIG-10/RIAM/Lamellipodin (MRL) signaling proteins are thought to transmit positional information from surface guidance cues to the actin polymerization machinery, and thus to promote polarized outgrowth of axons. In C. elegans, mutations in the MRL family member gene mig-10 result in animals that have defects in axon guidance, neuronal migration, and the outgrowth of the processes or 'canals' of the excretory cell, which is required for osmoregulation in the worm. In addition, mig-10 mutant animals have recently been shown to have defects in clustering of vesicles at the synapse. To determine additional molecular partners of MIG-10, we conducted a yeast two-hybrid screen using isoform MIG-10A as bait and isolated Abelson-interactor protein-1 (ABI-1). ABI-1, a downstream target of Abl non-receptor tyrosine kinase, is a member of the WAVE regulatory complex (WRC) involved in the initiation of actin polymerization. Further analysis using a co-immunoprecipitation system confirmed the interaction of MIG-10 and ABI-1 and showed that it requires the SH3 domain of ABI-1. Single mutants for mig-10 and abi-1 displayed similar phenotypes of incomplete migration of the ALM neurons and truncated outgrowth of the excretory cell canals, suggesting that the ABI-1/MIG-10 interaction is relevant in vivo. Cell autonomous expression of MIG-10 isoforms rescued both the neuronal migration and the canal outgrowth defects, showing that MIG-10 functions autonomously in the ALM neurons and the excretory cell. These results suggest that MIG-10 and ABI-1 interact physically to promote cell migration and process outgrowth in vivo. In the excretory canal, ABI-1 is thought to act downstream of UNC-53/NAV2, linking this large scaffolding

  20. Abelson interactor-1 (ABI-1) interacts with MRL adaptor protein MIG-10 and is required in guided cell migrations and process outgrowth in C.elegans

    PubMed Central

    McShea, Molly A.; Schmidt, Kristopher L.; Dubuke, Michelle L.; Baldiga, Christina E.; Sullender, Meagan E.; Reis, Andrea L.; Zhang, Subaiou; O'Toole, Sean M.; Jeffers, Mary C.; Warden, Rachel M.; Kenney, Allison H.; Gosselin, Jennifer; Kuhlwein, Mark; Hashmi, Sana K.; Stringham, Eve G.; Ryder, Elizabeth F.

    2012-01-01

    Directed cell migration and process outgrowth are vital to proper development of many metazoan tissues. These processes are dependent on reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in response to external guidance cues. During development of the nervous system, the MIG-10/RIAM/Lamellipodin (MRL) signaling proteins are thought to transmit positional information from surface guidance cues to the actin polymerization machinery, and thus to promote polarized outgrowth of axons. In C. elegans, mutations in the MRL family member gene mig-10 result in animals that have defects in axon guidance, neuronal migration, and the outgrowth of the processes or ‘canals’ of the excretory cell, which is required for osmoregulation in the worm. In addition, mig-10 mutant animals have recently been shown to have defects in clustering of vesicles at the synapse. To determine additional molecular partners of MIG-10, we conducted a yeast two hybrid screen using isoform MIG-10A as bait and isolated Abelson-interactor protein-1 (ABI-1). ABI-1, a downstream target of Abl non-receptor tyrosine kinase, is a member of the WAVE regulatory complex (WRC) involved in the initiation of actin polymerization. Further analysis using a co-mmunoprecipitation system confirmed the interaction of MIG-10 and ABI-1 and showed that it requires the SH3 domain of ABI-1. Single mutants for mig-10 and abi-1 displayed similar phenotypes of incomplete migration of the ALM neurons and truncated outgrowth of the excretory cell canals, suggesting that the ABI-1/MIG-10 interaction is relevant in vivo. Cell autonomous expression of MIG-10 isoforms rescued both the neuronal migration and the canal outgrowth defects, showing that MIG-10 functions autonomously in the ALM neurons and the excretory cell. These results suggest that MIG-10 and ABI-1 interact physically to promote cell migration and process outgrowth in vivo. In the excretory canal, ABI-1 is thought to act downstream of UNC-53/NAV2, linking this large

  1. Palmitic acid increases pro-oxidant adaptor protein p66Shc expression and affects vascularization factors in angiogenic mononuclear cells: Action of resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Favre, Julie; Yildirim, Cansu; Leyen, Thomas A; Chen, Weena J Y; van Genugten, Renate E; van Golen, Larissa W; Garcia-Vallejo, Juan-Jesus; Musters, Rene; Baggen, Josefien; Fontijn, Ruud; van der Pouw Kraan, Tineke; Serné, Erik; Koolwijk, Pieter; Diamant, Michaela; Horrevoets, Anton J G

    2015-12-01

    A defect in neo-vascularization process involving circulating angiogenic mononuclear cells (CACs) dysfunction is associated with diabetes. We showed that oxidative stress was elevated in CACs cultured from blood of individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and diabetes. We then assessed the action of palmitic acid (PA), a deregulated and increased NEFA in metabolic disorders, focusing on its oxidant potential. We observed that the phyto-polyphenol resveratrol normalized oxidative stress both in CACs isolated from MetS patients or treated with PA. Resveratrol further decreased the deleterious action of PA on gene expression of vascularization factors (TNFα, VEGF-A, SDF1α, PECAM-1, VEGFR2, Tie2 and CXCR4) and improved CAC motility. Particularly, resveratrol abolished the PA-induced over-expression of the pro-oxidant protein p66Shc. Neither KLF2 nor SIRT1, previously shown in resveratrol and p66Shc action, was directly involved. Silencing p66Shc normalized PA action on VEGF-A and TNFα specifically, without abolishing the PA-induced oxidative stress, which suggests a deleterious role of p66Shc independently of any major modulation of the cellular oxidative status in a high NEFA levels context. Besides showing that resveratrol reverses PA-induced harmful effects on human CAC function, certainly through profound cellular modifications, we establish p66Shc as a major therapeutic target in metabolic disorders, independent from glycemic control.

  2. Evidence of LAT as a dual substrate for Lck and Syk in T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yixing; Cheng, Hua

    2007-04-01

    LAT is a linker protein essential for activation of T lymphocytes. Its rapid tyrosine-phosphorylation upon T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation recruits downstream signaling molecules for membrane targeting and activation. LAT is physically concentrated in cholesterol-enriched membrane microdomains and is known a substrate for Syk/Zap70 kinase. In this study, we demonstrate that LAT serves as a dual substrate for both Lck and Syk kinases. LAT phosphorylation is absent in Lck-deficient J.CaM1.6 cells and Lck is co-precipitated with LAT in pervanadate-activated Jurkat cells. Further, the in vitro kinase assay using purified Lck and LAT shows that Lck directly phosphorylates LAT. Both Lck and Syk, phosphorylate the ITAM-like motifs on LAT at Y171Y191, which is essential for induction of the interaction of LAT with downstream signaling molecules such as Grb2, PLC-gamma1 and c-Cbl, and for activation of MAPK-ERK. Collectively, our data indicate that LAT is an immediate substrate for Lck in one of the earliest events of T cell activation.

  3. The E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Adaptor Protein Skp1 Is Glycosylated by an Evolutionarily Conserved Pathway That Regulates Protist Growth and Development*♦

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Kazi; Zhao, Peng; Mandalasi, Msano; van der Wel, Hanke; Wells, Lance; Blader, Ira J.; West, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protist parasite of warm-blooded animals that causes disease by proliferating intracellularly in muscle and the central nervous system. Previous studies showed that a prolyl 4-hydroxylase related to animal HIFα prolyl hydroxylases is required for optimal parasite proliferation, especially at low O2. We also observed that Pro-154 of Skp1, a subunit of the Skp1/Cullin-1/F-box protein (SCF)-class of E3-ubiquitin ligases, is a natural substrate of this enzyme. In an unrelated protist, Dictyostelium discoideum, Skp1 hydroxyproline is modified by five sugars via the action of three glycosyltransferases, Gnt1, PgtA, and AgtA, which are required for optimal O2-dependent development. We show here that TgSkp1 hydroxyproline is modified by a similar pentasaccharide, based on mass spectrometry, and that assembly of the first three sugars is dependent on Toxoplasma homologs of Gnt1 and PgtA. Reconstitution of the glycosyltransferase reactions in extracts with radioactive sugar nucleotide substrates and appropriate Skp1 glycoforms, followed by chromatographic analysis of acid hydrolysates of the reaction products, confirmed the predicted sugar identities as GlcNAc, Gal, and Fuc. Disruptions of gnt1 or pgtA resulted in decreased parasite growth. Off target effects were excluded based on restoration of the normal glycan chain and growth upon genetic complementation. By analogy to Dictyostelium Skp1, the mechanism may involve regulation of assembly of the SCF complex. Understanding the mechanism of Toxoplasma Skp1 glycosylation is expected to help develop it as a drug target for control of the pathogen, as the glycosyltransferases are absent from mammalian hosts. PMID:26719340

  4. The E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Adaptor Protein Skp1 Is Glycosylated by an Evolutionarily Conserved Pathway That Regulates Protist Growth and Development.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Kazi; Zhao, Peng; Mandalasi, Msano; van der Wel, Hanke; Wells, Lance; Blader, Ira J; West, Christopher M

    2016-02-26

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protist parasite of warm-blooded animals that causes disease by proliferating intracellularly in muscle and the central nervous system. Previous studies showed that a prolyl 4-hydroxylase related to animal HIFα prolyl hydroxylases is required for optimal parasite proliferation, especially at low O2. We also observed that Pro-154 of Skp1, a subunit of the Skp1/Cullin-1/F-box protein (SCF)-class of E3-ubiquitin ligases, is a natural substrate of this enzyme. In an unrelated protist, Dictyostelium discoideum, Skp1 hydroxyproline is modified by five sugars via the action of three glycosyltransferases, Gnt1, PgtA, and AgtA, which are required for optimal O2-dependent development. We show here that TgSkp1 hydroxyproline is modified by a similar pentasaccharide, based on mass spectrometry, and that assembly of the first three sugars is dependent on Toxoplasma homologs of Gnt1 and PgtA. Reconstitution of the glycosyltransferase reactions in extracts with radioactive sugar nucleotide substrates and appropriate Skp1 glycoforms, followed by chromatographic analysis of acid hydrolysates of the reaction products, confirmed the predicted sugar identities as GlcNAc, Gal, and Fuc. Disruptions of gnt1 or pgtA resulted in decreased parasite growth. Off target effects were excluded based on restoration of the normal glycan chain and growth upon genetic complementation. By analogy to Dictyostelium Skp1, the mechanism may involve regulation of assembly of the SCF complex. Understanding the mechanism of Toxoplasma Skp1 glycosylation is expected to help develop it as a drug target for control of the pathogen, as the glycosyltransferases are absent from mammalian hosts. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Serum Neutralizing Antibody Titers Increase during Latency in Rabbits Latently Infected with Latency-Associated Transcript (LAT)-Positive but Not LAT-Negative Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Perng, Guey-Chuen; Slanina, Susan M.; Yukht, Ada; Ghiasi, Homayon; Nesburn, Anthony B.; Wechsler, Steven L.

    1999-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) latency-associated transcript (LAT) gene is essential for efficient spontaneous reactivation in the rabbit ocular model of HSV-1 latency and reactivation. LAT is also the only viral gene abundantly expressed during latency. Rabbits were ocularly infected with the wild-type HSV-1 strain McKrae or the McKrae-derived LAT null mutant dLAT2903. Serum neutralizing antibody titers were determined at various times during acute and latent infection. The neutralizing antibody titers induced by both viruses increased and were similar throughout the first 45 days after infection (P > 0.05). However, by day 59 postinfection (approximately 31 to 45 days after latency had been established), the neutralizing antibody titers induced by wild-type virus and dLAT2903 diverged significantly (P = 0.0005). The dLAT2903-induced neutralizing antibody titers decreased, while the wild-type virus-induced neutralizing antibody titers continued to increase. A rescuant of dLAT2903, in which spontaneous reactivation was fully restored, induced wild-type neutralizing antibody levels on day 59 postinfection. A second LAT mutant with impaired spontaneous reactivation had neutralizing antibody levels comparable to those of dLAT2903. In contrast to the results obtained in rabbits, in mice, neutralizing antibody titers did not increase over time during latency with any of the viruses. Since LAT is expressed in both rabbits and mice during latency, the difference in neutralizing antibody titers between these animals is unlikely to be due to expression of a LAT protein during latency. In contrast, LAT-positive (LAT+), but not LAT-negative (LAT−), viruses undergo efficient spontaneous reactivation in rabbits, while neither LAT+ nor LAT− viruses undergo efficient spontaneous reactivation in mice. Thus, the increase in neutralizing antibody titers in rabbits latently infected with LAT+ viruses may have been due to continued restimulation of the immune system by

  6. Phosphorylation of the adaptor protein SH2B1β regulates its ability to enhance growth hormone-dependent macrophage motility.

    PubMed

    Su, Hsiao-Wen; Lanning, Nathan J; Morris, David L; Argetsinger, Lawrence S; Lumeng, Carey N; Carter-Su, Christin

    2013-04-15

    Previous studies have shown that growth hormone (GH) recruits the adapter protein SH2B1β to the GH-activated, GH receptor-associated tyrosine kinase JAK2, implicating SH2B1β in GH-dependent actin cytoskeleton remodeling, and suggesting that phosphorylation at serines 161 and 165 in SH2B1β releases SH2B1β from the plasma membrane. Here, we examined the role of SH2B1β in GH regulation of macrophage migration. We show that GH stimulates migration of cultured RAW264.7 macrophages, and primary cultures of peritoneal and bone marrow-derived macrophages. SH2B1β overexpression enhances, whereas SH2B1 knockdown inhibits, GH-dependent motility of RAW macrophages. At least two independent mechanisms regulate the SH2B1β-mediated changes in motility. In response to GH, tyrosines 439 and 494 in SH2B1β are phosphorylated. Mutating these tyrosines in SH2B1β decreases both basal and GH-stimulated macrophage migration. In addition, mutating the polybasic nuclear localization sequence (NLS) in SH2B1β or creating the phosphomimetics SH2B1β(S161E) or SH2B1β(S165E), all of which release SH2B1β from the plasma membrane, enhances macrophage motility. Conversely, SH2B1β(S161/165A) exhibits increased localization at the plasma membrane and decreased macrophage migration. Mutating the NLS or the nearby serine residues does not alter GH-dependent phosphorylation on tyrosines 439 and 494 in SH2B1β. Mutating tyrosines 439 and 494 does not affect localization of SH2B1β at the plasma membrane or movement of SH2B1β into focal adhesions. Taken together, these results suggest that SH2B1β enhances GH-stimulated macrophage motility via mechanisms involving phosphorylation of SH2B1β on tyrosines 439 and 494 and movement of SH2B1β out of the plasma membrane (e.g. as a result of phosphorylation of serines 161 and 165).

  7. Heterozygosity for the S180L variant of MAL/TIRAP, a gene expressing an adaptor protein in the Toll-like receptor pathway, is associated with lower risk of developing chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Ramasawmy, Rajendranath; Cunha-Neto, Edecio; Fae, Kellen C; Borba, Susan C P; Teixeira, Priscila C; Ferreira, Susanne C P; Goldberg, Anna C; Ianni, Barbara; Mady, Charles; Kalil, Jorge

    2009-06-15

    Chagas disease is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Among T. cruzi-infected individuals, only a subgroup develops severe chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC); the majority remain asymptomatic. T. cruzi displays numerous ligands for the Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which are an important component of innate immunity that lead to the transcription of proinflammatory cytokines by nuclear factor-kappaB. Because proinflammatory cytokines play an important role in CCC, we hypothesized that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes that encode proteins in the TLR pathway could explain differential susceptibility to CCC among T. cruzi-infected individuals. For 169 patients with CCC and 76 T. cruzi-infected, asymptomatic individuals, we analyzed SNPs by use of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for the genes TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, TLR9, and MAL/TIRAP, which encodes an adaptor protein. Heterozygous carriers of the MAL/TIRAP variant S180L were more prevalent in the asymptomatic group (24 [32%] of 76 subjects) than in the CCC group (21 [12%] of 169) (chi2=12.6; P=.0004 [adjusted P (Pc)=.0084]; odds ratio [OR], 0.31 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.16-0.60]). Subgroup analysis showed a stronger association when asymptomatic patients were compared with patients who had severe CCC (i.e., patients with left-ventricular ejection fraction40%) (chi2=7.7; P=.005 [Pc=.11]; OR, 0.33 [95% CI, 0.15-0.73]). T. cruzi-infected individuals who are heterozygous for the MAL/TIRAP S180L variant that leads to a decrease in signal transduction upon ligation of TLR2 or TLR4 to their respective ligand may have a lower risk of developing CCC.

  8. Adaptor assembly for coupling turbine blades to rotor disks

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose; Delvaux, John McConnell

    2014-09-23

    An adaptor assembly for coupling a blade root of a turbine blade to a root slot of a rotor disk is described. The adaptor assembly includes a turbine blade having a blade root and an adaptor body having an adaptor root. The adaptor body defines a slot having an open end configured to receive the blade root of the turbine blade such that the adaptor root of the adaptor body and the blade root of the turbine blade are adjacent to one another when the blade root of the turbine blade is positioned within the slot. Both the adaptor root of the adaptor body and the blade root of the turbine blade are configured to be received within the root slot of the rotor disk.

  9. Role of the L-amino acid transporter-1 (LAT-1) in mouse trophoblast cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Chrostowski, M K; McGonnigal, B G; Stabila, J P; Padbury, J F

    2010-06-01

    LAT-1 (L-type amino acid transporter 1) is a system L, Na(+)-independent amino acid transporter responsible for transport of large neutral amino acids. Dysregulated expression of LAT-1 is characteristic of many primary human cancers and it's over expression is related to tumor invasion. LAT-1 is highly expressed in the trophoblast giant cells (TGCs) at the time of implantation. Since trophoblast giant cells are highly invasive during the process of endometrial implantation and placentation, LAT-1 may play a role in the invasive phenotype. Our objectives were to identify the effects of increased and decreased LAT-1 expression on mouse trophoblast invasion. We therefore examined the role of amino acid deprivation, pharmacologic blockade specific to leucine transport and gene silencing (siRNA) on LAT-1 expression and trophoblast cell invasion. We utilized mouse primary trophoblast stem (TS) cells. LAT-1 mRNA expression was quantified by real time qPCR, protein by Western blotting and cell invasion was measured in Transwell plates through Matrigel. Amino acid transport using uptake of tritiated leucine. Under limited leucine availability and/or pharmacologic blockage, LAT-1 gene expression was significantly increased, p<0.05. This was associated with a 3-fold increase in cell invasion, p<0.05. In contrast, following siRNA-mediated gene silencing decreased LAT-1 expression (both mRNA and protein) was associated with decreased cell invasion and decreased leucine uptake, p<0.05. Upregulation of LAT-1 gene expression via limited amino acid availability or following pharmacologic blockade of transport leads to an increase in mouse trophoblast stem cell invasiveness. Downregulation of LAT-1 expression via genetic silencing leads to inhibition of invasiveness. These results demonstrate that LAT-1 plays an important role in trophoblast invasion.

  10. Role of the L- amino acid transporter-1 (LAT-1) in Mouse Trophoblast Cell Invasion*

    PubMed Central

    Chrostowski, Magdalena K.; McGonnigal, Bethany G.; Stabila, Joan P.; Padbury, James F.

    2010-01-01

    LAT-1 (L-type amino acid transporter 1) is a system L, Na+-independent amino acid transporter responsible for transport of large neutral amino acids. Dysregulated expression of LAT-1 is characteristic of many primary human cancers and it’s over expression is related to tumor invasion. LAT-1 is highly expressed in the trophoblast giant cells (TGCs) at the time of implantation. Since trophoblast giant cells are highly invasive during the process of endometrial implantation and placentation, LAT-1 may play a role in the invasive phenotype. Our objectives were to identify the effects of increased and decreased LAT-1 expression on mouse trophoblast invasion. We therefore examined the role of amino acid deprivation, pharmacologic blockade specific to leucine transport and gene silencing (siRNA) on LAT-1 expression and trophoblast cell invasion. We utilized mouse primary trophoblast stem (TS) cells. LAT-1 mRNA expression was quantified by real-time qPCR, protein by Western blotting and cell invasion was measured in Transwell plates through Matrigel. Amino acid transport using uptake of tritiated leucine. Under limited leucine availability and/or pharmacologic blockage, LAT-1 gene expression was significantly increased, p<0.05. This was associated with a 3-fold increase in cell invasion, p<0.05. In contrast, following siRNA-mediated gene silencing decreased LAT-1 expression (both mRNA and protein) was associated with decreased cell invasion and decreased leucine uptake, p<0.05. Upregulation of LAT-1 gene expression via limited amino acid availability or following pharmacologic blockade of transport leads to an increase in mouse trophoblast stem cell invasiveness. Downregulation of LAT-1 expression via genetic silencing leads to inhibition of invasiveness. These results demonstrate that LAT-1 plays an important role in trophoblast invasion. PMID:20421131

  11. The Fermi LAT Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romani, Roger W.

    2011-08-01

    The Large Area Telescope on the Fermi satellite is an impressive pulsar discovery machine, with over 75 pulse detections and counting. The populations of radio-selected, γ-selected and millisecond pulsars are now large enough to display observational patterns in the light curves and luminosities. These patterns are starting to teach us about the physics of the emission zone, which seems dominated by open field lines near the speed of light cylinder. The sample also provides initial inferences about the pulsar population. Apparently a large fraction of neutron stars have a young energetic γ-ray emitting phase, making these objects a good probe of massive star evolution. The long-lived millisecond γ-ray pulsars are even more ubiquitous and may produce a significant fraction of the γ-ray background. In any event, it is clear that the present LAT pulsar sample is dominated by nearby objects, and there is every expectation that the number, and quality, of pulsar detections will increase in years to come.

  12. THREADED ADAPTOR FOR LUGGED PIPE ENDS

    DOEpatents

    Robb, J.E.

    1962-06-01

    An adaptor is designed for enabling a threaded part to be connected to a member at a region having lugs normally receiving bayonet slots of another part for attachment of the latter. It has been found desirable to replace a closure cap connected in a bayonet joint to the end of a coolant tube containing nuclear- reactor fuel elements, with a threaded valve. An adaptor is used which has J- slots receiving lugs on the end of the reactor tube, a thread for connection with the valve, and gear-tooth section enabling a gear-type of tool to rotate the adaptor to seal the valve to the end of the reactor tube. (AEC)

  13. Monoterpene Glycoside ESK246 from Pittosporum Targets LAT3 Amino Acid Transport and Prostate Cancer Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The l-type amino acid transporter (LAT) family consists of four members (LAT1–4) that mediate uptake of neutral amino acids including leucine. Leucine is not only important as a building block for proteins, but plays a critical role in mTORC1 signaling leading to protein translation. As such, LAT family members are commonly upregulated in cancer in order to fuel increased protein translation and cell growth. To identify potential LAT-specific inhibitors, we established a function-based high-throughput screen using a prefractionated natural product library. We identified and purified two novel monoterpene glycosides, ESK242 and ESK246, sourced from a Queensland collection of the plant Pittosporum venulosum. Using Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing individual LAT family members, we demonstrated that ESK246 preferentially inhibits leucine transport via LAT3, while ESK242 inhibits both LAT1 and LAT3. We further show in LNCaP prostate cancer cells that ESK246 is a potent (IC50 = 8.12 μM) inhibitor of leucine uptake, leading to reduced mTORC1 signaling, cell cycle protein expression and cell proliferation. Our study suggests that ESK246 is a LAT3 inhibitor that can be used to study LAT3 function and upon which new antiprostate cancer therapies may be based. PMID:24762008

  14. The Us3 Protein of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Inhibits T Cell Signaling by Confining Linker for Activation of T Cells (LAT) Activation via TRAF6 Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yin; Wu, Songfang; Wang, Yu; Pan, Shuang; Lan, Bei; Liu, Yaohui; Zhang, Liming; Leng, Qianli; Chen, Da; Zhang, Cuizhu; He, Bin; Cao, Youjia

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is the most prevalent human virus and causes global morbidity because the virus is able to infect multiple cell types. Remarkably, HSV infection switches between lytic and latent cycles, where T cells play a critical role. However, the precise way of virus-host interactions is incompletely understood. Here we report that HSV-1 productively infected Jurkat T-cells and inhibited antigen-induced T cell receptor activation. We discovered that HSV-1-encoded Us3 protein interrupted TCR signaling and interleukin-2 production by inactivation of the linker for activation of T cells. This study unveils a mechanism by which HSV-1 intrudes into early events of TCR-mediated cell signaling and may provide novel insights into HSV infection, during which the virus escapes from host immune surveillance. PMID:25907557

  15. LAT alleviates Th2/Treg imbalance in an OVA-induced allergic asthma mouse model through LAT-PLC-γ1 interaction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Li, Xiao-Ming; Gu, Wen; Wang, Di; Chen, Yi; Guo, Xue-Jun

    2017-03-01

    Low expression of linker for activation of T cells (LAT) is observed in asthma. LAT and its downstream regulator, phospholipase C-gamma 1 (PLC-γ1) play important roles in the T cell antigen receptor signaling pathway, and their interaction is associated with CD4(+) cell polarization. Here, we investigated whether LAT can alleviate the imbalance among CD4(+) cell subgroups and the possible mechanism. An ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma mouse model was established and LAT plasmid was delivered. The pathological changes in lung were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid-Schiff staining. The typical cytokines released by T helper 2 (Th2) and regulatory T (Treg) cells were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the number of Th1, Th2, and Treg cells were determined using flow cytometry. Lung CD4(+) T cells were isolated by magnetic isolation. The mRNA expression of LAT and PLC-γ1 was determined by real-time PCR. Co-Immunoprecipitation was performed to confirm the interaction between LAT and PLC-γ1. The protein expression of LAT, PLC-γ1 and corresponding downstream signaling factors were determined by western blotting. The delivery of LAT DNA to the lung could suppress an overactive Th2 response by decreasing allergic response and Th2 cytokine secretion, and by increasing Treg cytokine secretion. The Th2/Treg imbalance in lung and decreased phosphorylated PLC-γ1 expression in lung CD4(+) T cells were rectified by LAT DNA delivery. Excessive activation of the Raf-MEK-ERK and PI3K-AKT-CREB pathways after asthma is attenuated by LAT. The site-specific delivery of LAT DNA to the lung could suppress an overactive Th2 response and rectify the Th2/Treg imbalance in asthmatic mouse model. LAT-PLC-γ1 interaction may contribute to LAT activity in vivo and LAT protects against asthma partly via Raf-MEK-ERK and PI3K-AKT-CREB pathways. The delivery of LAT DNA could offer a novel and safe strategy for asthma prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  16. The LATS2 tumor suppressor inhibits SREBP and suppresses hepatic cholesterol accumulation.

    PubMed

    Aylon, Yael; Gershoni, Anat; Rotkopf, Ron; Biton, Inbal E; Porat, Ziv; Koh, Anna P; Sun, Xiaochen; Lee, Youngmin; Fiel, Maria-Isabel; Hoshida, Yujin; Friedman, Scott L; Johnson, Randy L; Oren, Moshe

    2016-04-01

    The Hippo signaling pathway is a major regulator of organ size. In the liver, Hippo pathway deregulation promotes hyperplasia and hepatocellular carcinoma primarily through hyperactivation of its downstream effector, YAP. The LATS2 tumor suppressor is a core member of the Hippo pathway. A screen for LATS2-interacting proteins in liver-derived cells identified the transcription factor SREBP2, master regulator of cholesterol homeostasis. LATS2 down-regulation caused SREBP activation and accumulation of excessive cholesterol. Likewise, mice harboring liver-specific Lats2 conditional knockout (Lats2-CKO) displayed constitutive SREBP activation and overexpressed SREBP target genes and developed spontaneous fatty liver disease. Interestingly, the impact of LATS2 depletion on SREBP-mediated transcription was clearly distinct from that of YAP overexpression. When challenged with excess dietary cholesterol, Lats2-CKO mice manifested more severe liver damage than wild-type mice. Surprisingly, apoptosis, inflammation, and fibrosis were actually attenuated relative to wild-type mice, in association with impaired p53 activation. Subsequently, Lats2-CKO mice failed to recover effectively from cholesterol-induced damage upon return to a normal diet. Additionally, decreased LATS2 mRNA in association with increased SREBP target gene expression was observed in a subset of human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease cases. Together, these findings further highlight the tight links between tumor suppressors and metabolic homeostasis.

  17. The LATS2 tumor suppressor inhibits SREBP and suppresses hepatic cholesterol accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Aylon, Yael; Gershoni, Anat; Rotkopf, Ron; Biton, Inbal E.; Porat, Ziv; Koh, Anna P.; Sun, Xiaochen; Lee, Youngmin; Fiel, Maria-Isabel; Hoshida, Yujin; Friedman, Scott L.; Johnson, Randy L.; Oren, Moshe

    2016-01-01

    The Hippo signaling pathway is a major regulator of organ size. In the liver, Hippo pathway deregulation promotes hyperplasia and hepatocellular carcinoma primarily through hyperactivation of its downstream effector, YAP. The LATS2 tumor suppressor is a core member of the Hippo pathway. A screen for LATS2-interacting proteins in liver-derived cells identified the transcription factor SREBP2, master regulator of cholesterol homeostasis. LATS2 down-regulation caused SREBP activation and accumulation of excessive cholesterol. Likewise, mice harboring liver-specific Lats2 conditional knockout (Lats2-CKO) displayed constitutive SREBP activation and overexpressed SREBP target genes and developed spontaneous fatty liver disease. Interestingly, the impact of LATS2 depletion on SREBP-mediated transcription was clearly distinct from that of YAP overexpression. When challenged with excess dietary cholesterol, Lats2-CKO mice manifested more severe liver damage than wild-type mice. Surprisingly, apoptosis, inflammation, and fibrosis were actually attenuated relative to wild-type mice, in association with impaired p53 activation. Subsequently, Lats2-CKO mice failed to recover effectively from cholesterol-induced damage upon return to a normal diet. Additionally, decreased LATS2 mRNA in association with increased SREBP target gene expression was observed in a subset of human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease cases. Together, these findings further highlight the tight links between tumor suppressors and metabolic homeostasis. PMID:27013235

  18. Yeast Golgi-localized, γ-Ear–containing, ADP-Ribosylation Factor-binding Proteins Are but Adaptor Protein-1 Is Not Required for Cell-free Transport of Membrane Proteins from the Trans-Golgi Network to the Prevacuolar Compartment

    PubMed Central

    Abazeed, Mohamed E.

    2008-01-01

    Golgi-localized, γ-Ear–containing, ADP-ribosylation factor-binding proteins (GGAs) and adaptor protein-1 (AP-1) mediate clathrin-dependent trafficking of transmembrane proteins between the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and endosomes. In yeast, the vacuolar sorting receptor Vps10p follows a direct pathway from the TGN to the late endosome/prevacuolar compartment (PVC), whereas, the processing protease Kex2p partitions between the direct pathway and an indirect pathway through the early endosome. To examine the roles of the Ggas and AP-1 in TGN–PVC transport, we used a cell-free assay that measures delivery to the PVC of either Kex2p or a chimeric protein (K-V), in which the Vps10p cytosolic tail replaces the Kex2p tail. Either antibody inhibition or dominant-negative Gga2p completely blocked K-V transport but only partially blocked Kex2p transport. Deletion of APL2, encoding the β subunit of AP-1, did not affect K-V transport but partially blocked Kex2p transport. Residual Kex2p transport seen with apl2Δ membranes was insensitive to dominant-negative Gga2p, suggesting that the apl2Δ mutation causes Kex2p to localize to a compartment that precludes Gga-dependent trafficking. These results suggest that yeast Ggas facilitate the specific and direct delivery of Vps10p and Kex2p from the TGN to the PVC and that AP-1 modulates Kex2p trafficking through a distinct pathway, presumably involving the early endosome. PMID:18784256

  19. Low level of LAT-PLC-γ1 interaction is associated with Th2 polarized differentiation: a contributing factor to the etiology of asthma.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xiaohua; Cui, Zhilei; Gu, Wen; Xu, Weiguo; Guo, Xuejun

    2014-07-01

    Linker for activation of T cells (LAT) is a key adaptor in the T cell receptor (TCR) signaling pathway. The expression of LAT is lower in asthmatic patients than that in healthy people, but there is little knowledge about the mechanism underlying this phenomenon. This study was aimed to determine whether LAT-PLC-γ1 interaction was involved in the development of asthma. It was shown that the phosphorylation of PLC-γ1 decreased in the asthmatic mouse model and Th2 cell differentiated CD4(+) T cells. In addition, depleted endogenous PLC-γ1 promoted CD4(+) T cells to differentiate into IL-4-Productor. It was therefore concluded that the low level of LAT-PLC-γ1 interaction was associated with Th2 polarized differentiation, and this may contribute to the etiology of asthma.

  20. LAT1 is the transport competent unit of the LAT1/CD98 heterodimeric amino acid transporter.

    PubMed

    Napolitano, Lara; Scalise, Mariafrancesca; Galluccio, Michele; Pochini, Lorena; Albanese, Leticia Maria; Indiveri, Cesare

    2015-10-01

    LAT1 (SLC7A5) and CD98 (SLC3A2) constitute a heterodimeric transmembrane protein complex that catalyzes amino acid transport. Whether one or both subunits are competent for transport is still unclear. The present work aims to solve this question using different experimental strategies. Firstly, LAT1 and CD98 were immuno-detected in protein extracts from SiHa cells. Under oxidizing conditions, i.e., without addition of SH (thiol) reducing agent DTE, both proteins were revealed as a 120kDa major band. Upon DTE treatment separated bands, corresponding to LAT1(35kDa) or CD98(80kDa), were detected. LAT1 function was evaluated in intact cells as BCH sensitive [(3)H]His transport inhibited by hydrophobic amino acids. Antiport of [(3)H]His was measured in proteoliposomes reconstituted with SiHa cell extract in presence of internal His. Transport was increased by DTE. Hydrophobic amino acids were best inhibitors in addition to hydrophilic Tyr, Gln, Asn and Lys. Cys, Tyr and Gln, included in the intraliposomal space, were transported in antiport with external [(3)H]His. Similar experiments were performed in proteoliposomes reconstituted with the recombinant purified hLAT1. Results overlapping those obtained with native protein were achieved. Lower transport of [(3)H]Leu and [(3)H]Gln with respect to [(3)H]His was detected. Kinetic asymmetry was found with external Km for His lower than internal one. No transport was detected in proteoliposomes reconstituted with recombinant hCD98. The experimental data demonstrate that LAT1 is the sole transport competent subunit of the heterodimer. This conclusion has important outcome for following studies on functional characterization and identification of specific inhibitors with potential application in human therapy.

  1. 21 CFR 870.3620 - Pacemaker lead adaptor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pacemaker lead adaptor. 870.3620 Section 870.3620...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3620 Pacemaker lead adaptor. (a) Identification. A pacemaker lead adaptor is a device used to adapt a pacemaker lead so that it...

  2. 21 CFR 870.2350 - Electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor. 870... Electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor. (a) Identification. An electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor is a passive switching device to which electrocardiograph limb and chest leads may be attached. This device is...

  3. 21 CFR 870.3620 - Pacemaker lead adaptor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pacemaker lead adaptor. 870.3620 Section 870.3620...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3620 Pacemaker lead adaptor. (a) Identification. A pacemaker lead adaptor is a device used to adapt a pacemaker lead so that...

  4. 21 CFR 870.2350 - Electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor. 870... Electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor. (a) Identification. An electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor is a passive switching device to which electrocardiograph limb and chest leads may be attached. This device...

  5. 21 CFR 870.2350 - Electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor. 870... Electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor. (a) Identification. An electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor is a passive switching device to which electrocardiograph limb and chest leads may be attached. This device...

  6. 21 CFR 870.2350 - Electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor. 870... Electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor. (a) Identification. An electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor is a passive switching device to which electrocardiograph limb and chest leads may be attached. This device...

  7. 21 CFR 870.3620 - Pacemaker lead adaptor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pacemaker lead adaptor. 870.3620 Section 870.3620...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3620 Pacemaker lead adaptor. (a) Identification. A pacemaker lead adaptor is a device used to adapt a pacemaker lead so that...

  8. 21 CFR 870.3620 - Pacemaker lead adaptor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pacemaker lead adaptor. 870.3620 Section 870.3620...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3620 Pacemaker lead adaptor. (a) Identification. A pacemaker lead adaptor is a device used to adapt a pacemaker lead so that...

  9. 21 CFR 870.2350 - Electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor. 870... Electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor. (a) Identification. An electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor is a passive switching device to which electrocardiograph limb and chest leads may be attached. This device...

  10. Styles of Creativity: Adaptors and Innovators in a Singapore Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ee, Jessie; Seng, Tan Oon; Kwang, Ng Aik

    2007-01-01

    Kirton (1976) described two creative styles, namely adaptors and innovators. Adaptors prefer to "do things better" whilst, innovators prefer to "do things differently". This study explored the relationship between two creative styles (adaptor and innovator) and the Big Five personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness,…

  11. Boronophenylalanine, a boron delivery agent for boron neutron capture therapy, is transported by ATB0,+, LAT1 and LAT2.

    PubMed

    Wongthai, Printip; Hagiwara, Kohei; Miyoshi, Yurika; Wiriyasermkul, Pattama; Wei, Ling; Ohgaki, Ryuichi; Kato, Itsuro; Hamase, Kenji; Nagamori, Shushi; Kanai, Yoshikatsu

    2015-03-01

    The efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy relies on the selective delivery of boron carriers to malignant cells. p-Boronophenylalanine (BPA), a boron delivery agent, has been proposed to be localized to cells through transporter-mediated mechanisms. In this study, we screened aromatic amino acid transporters to identify BPA transporters. Human aromatic amino acid transporters were functionally expressed in Xenopus oocytes and examined for BPA uptake and kinetic parameters. The roles of the transporters in BPA uptake were characterized in cancer cell lines. For the quantitative assessment of BPA uptake, HPLC was used throughout the study. Among aromatic amino acid transporters, ATB(0,+), LAT1 and LAT2 were found to transport BPA with Km values of 137.4 ± 11.7, 20.3 ± 0.8 and 88.3 ± 5.6 μM, respectively. Uptake experiments in cancer cell lines revealed that the LAT1 protein amount was the major determinant of BPA uptake at 100 μM, whereas the contribution of ATB(0,+) became significant at 1000 μM, accounting for 20-25% of the total BPA uptake in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. ATB(0,+), LAT1 and LAT2 transport BPA at affinities comparable with their endogenous substrates, suggesting that they could mediate effective BPA uptake in vivo. The high and low affinities of LAT1 and ATB(0,+), respectively, differentiate their roles in BPA uptake. ATB(0,+), as well as LAT1, could contribute significantly to the tumor accumulation of BPA at clinical dose.

  12. Aberrant large tumor suppressor 2 (LATS2) gene expression correlates with EGFR mutation and survival in lung adenocarcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Susan Y.; Sit, Ko-Yung; Sihoe, Alan D.L.; Suen, Wai-Sing; Au, Wing-Kuk; Tang, Ximing; Ma, Edmond S.K.; Chan, Wai-Kong; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Minna, John D.; Tsao, George S.W.; Lam, David C.L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Large tumor suppressor 2 (LATS2) gene is a putative tumor suppressor gene with potential roles in regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis in lung cancer. The aim of this study is to explore the association of aberrant LATS2 expression with EGFR mutation and survival in lung adenocarcinoma (AD), and the effects of LATS2 silencing in both lung AD cell lines. Methods LATS2 mRNA and protein expression in resected lung AD were correlated with demographic characteristics, EGFR mutation and survival. LATS2-specific siRNA was transfected into four EGFR wild-type (WT) and three EGFR mutant AD cell lines and the changes in LATS2 expression and relevant signaling molecules before and after LATS2 knockdown were assayed. Results Fifty resected lung AD were included (M:F = 23:27, smokers:non-smokers = 19:31, EGFR mutant:wild-type = 21:29) with LATS2 mRNA levels showed no significant difference between gender, age, smoking and pathological stages while LATS2 immunohistochemical staining on an independent set of 79 lung AD showed similar trend. LATS2 mRNA level was found to be a significant independent predictor for survival status (disease-free survival RR = 0.217; p = 0.003; Overall survival RR = 0.238; p = 0.036). siRNA-mediated suppression of LATS2 expression resulted in augmentation of ERK phosphorylation in EGFR wild-type AD cell lines with high basal LATS2 expression, discriminatory modulation of Akt signaling between EGFR wild-type and mutant cells, and induction of p53 accumulation in AD cell lines with low baseline p53 levels. Conclusions LATS2 expression level is predictive of survival in patients with resected lung AD. LATS2 may modulate and contribute to tumor growth via different signaling pathways in EGFR mutant and wild-type tumors. PMID:24976335

  13. Increased expression of system large amino acid transporter (LAT)-1 mRNA is associated with invasive potential and unfavorable prognosis of human clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The system L amino acid transporter (LAT) has an important role in the transport of various amino acids, and there have been reports about the relation of this system to cancer. Although LATs are highly expressed in the kidneys, little is known about their influence on human renal cancer. Methods To clarify the role of LATs in human clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC), we investigated the expression of mRNAs for LAT1, LAT2, LAT3, LAT4, and 4F2hc in clear cell RCC tissues. The mRNAs of these five genes were analyzed by the real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in matched sets of tumor and non-tumor tissues obtained at operation from 82 Japanese patients with clear cell RCC. We also measured phosphorylated S6 ribosomal protein (Ser-235/236) proteins levels in 18 paired tumor and non-tumor tissues of the patients by Western blotting. Results Expression of LAT1 mRNA was significantly increased in tumor tissue compared with non-tumor tissue, while expression of LAT2 and LAT3 mRNAs was reduced. There was no difference in the expression of LAT4 and 4F2hc mRNAs between tumor and non-tumor tissues. Increased expression of LAT1 mRNA was associated with less differentiated tumors, local invasion, microscopic vascular invasion, and metastasis. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that a higher serum LAT1 mRNA level was associated with a shorter overall survival time. Phosphorylated S6 ribosomal protein levels were associated with metastatic potential. LAT1 mRNA levels positively correlated with phosphorylated S6 ribosomal protein proteins levels in primary tumors. Conclusions These findings suggest that LAT1 mRNA is related to the invasive and progressive potential of clear cell RCC. PMID:24168110

  14. DAPP1: a dual adaptor for phosphotyrosine and 3-phosphoinositides.

    PubMed

    Dowler, S; Currie, R A; Downes, C P; Alessi, D R

    1999-08-15

    We have identified a novel 280 amino acid protein which contains a putative myristoylation site at its N-terminus followed by an Src homology (SH2) domain and a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain at its C-terminus. It has been termed dual adaptor for phosphotyrosine and 3-phosphoinositides (DAPP1). DAPP1 is widely expressed and exhibits high-affinity interactions with PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) and PtdIns(3,4)P(2), but not with other phospholipids tested. These observations predict that DAPP1 will interact with both tyrosine phosphorylated proteins and 3-phosphoinositides and may therefore play a role in regulating the location and/or activity of such proteins(s) in response to agonists that elevate PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) and PtdIns(3,4)P(2).

  15. The GLAST LAT Instrument Science Operations Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Robert A.; LAT ISOC, GLAST

    2006-12-01

    The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) is scheduled for launch in late 2007. The major science instrument on GLAST is the Large Area Telescope (LAT). Operations support and science data processing for the LAT instrument on GLAST will be performed by the LAT Instrument Science Operations Center (ISOC) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). The ISOC supports GLAST mission operations in cooperation with other GLAST mission ground system elements and supports the science research activities of the LAT collaboration. The ISOC will be responsible for monitoring the health and safety of the LAT, preparing command loads for the LAT, maintaining and updating embedded flight software which controls the LAT detector and data acquisition flight hardware, maintaining the operating configration of the LAT and its calibration, and applying event reconstruction processing to downlinked LAT data to recover information about detected gamma-ray photons. The SLAC computer farm will be used to process the large volume of LAT event data and generate science products to be made available to the LAT collaboration through the ISOC and to the broader scientific community through the GLAST Science Support Center at GSFC. Science operations in the ISOC will optimize the performance of the LAT and oversee automated science processing of LAT data to detect and monitor transient gamma-ray sources. We describe the use of collaboration-wide data challenges and service challenges to test and exercise LAT data processing and science operations before launch. This work is supported by Stanford University and the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) under DoE contract number DE-AC03-76SFO0515. Non-US sources of funding also support the efforts of GLAST LAT collaborators in France, Italy, Japan, and Sweden.

  16. Early onset combined immunodeficiency and autoimmunity in patients with loss-of-function mutation in LAT

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Baerbel; Zaidman, Irina; Yousefi, O. Sascha; Hershkovitz, Dov; Stein, Jerry; Unger, Susanne; Schachtrup, Kristina; Sigvardsson, Mikael; Kuperman, Amir A.; Shaag, Avraham; Schamel, Wolfgang W.; Elpeleg, Orly

    2016-01-01

    The adapter protein linker for activation of T cells (LAT) is a critical signaling hub connecting T cell antigen receptor triggering to downstream T cell responses. In this study, we describe the first kindred with defective LAT signaling caused by a homozygous mutation in exon 5, leading to a premature stop codon deleting most of the cytoplasmic tail of LAT, including the critical tyrosine residues for signal propagation. The three patients presented from early childhood with combined immunodeficiency and severe autoimmune disease. Unlike in the mouse counterpart, reduced numbers of T cells were present in the patients. Despite the reported nonredundant role of LAT in Ca2+ mobilization, residual T cells were able to induce Ca2+ influx and nuclear factor (NF) κB signaling, whereas extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling was completely abolished. This is the first report of a LAT-related disease in humans, manifesting by a progressive combined immune deficiency with severe autoimmune disease. PMID:27242165

  17. Syp1 is a conserved endocytic adaptor that contains domains involved in cargo selection and membrane tubulation

    SciTech Connect

    Reider, Amanda; Barker, Sarah L.; Mishra, Sanjay K.; Im, Young Jun; Maldonado-Báez, Lymarie; Hurley, James H.; Traub, Linton M.; Wendland, Beverly

    2010-10-28

    Internalization of diverse transmembrane cargos from the plasma membrane requires a similarly diverse array of specialized adaptors, yet only a few adaptors have been characterized. We report the identification of the muniscin family of endocytic adaptors that is conserved from yeast to human beings. Solving the structures of yeast muniscin domains confirmed the unique combination of an N-terminal domain homologous to the crescent-shaped membrane-tubulating EFC/F-BAR domains and a C-terminal domain homologous to cargo-binding {mu} homology domains ({mu}HDs). In vitro and in vivo assays confirmed membrane-tubulation activity for muniscin EFC/F-BAR domains. The {mu}HD domain has conserved interactions with the endocytic adaptor/scaffold Ede1/eps15, which influences muniscin localization. The transmembrane protein Mid2, earlier implicated in polarized Rho1 signalling, was identified as a cargo of the yeast adaptor protein. These and other data suggest a model in which the muniscins provide a combined adaptor/membrane-tubulation activity that is important for regulating endocytosis.

  18. Amino acid transporter LAT3 is required for podocyte development and function.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Yuji; Nishibori, Yukino; Akimoto, Yoshihiro; Kudo, Akihiko; Ito, Noriko; Fukuhara, Daisuke; Kurayama, Ryota; Higashihara, Eiji; Babu, Ellappan; Kanai, Yoshikatsu; Asanuma, Katsuhiko; Nagata, Michio; Majumdar, Arindam; Tryggvason, Karl; Yan, Kunimasa

    2009-07-01

    LAT3 is a Na+-independent neutral l-amino acid transporter recently isolated from a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. Although liver, skeletal muscle, and pancreas are known to express LAT3, the tissue distribution and physiologic function of this transporter are not completely understood. Here, we observed that glomeruli express LAT3. Immunofluorescence, confocal microscopy, and immunoelectron microscopy revealed that LAT3 localizes to the apical plasma membrane of podocyte foot processes. In mice, starvation upregulated glomerular LAT3, phosphorylated AKT1, reconstituted the actin network, and elongated foot processes. In the fetal kidney, we observed intense LAT3 expression at the capillary loops stage of renal development. Finally, zebrafish morphants lacking lat3 function showed collapsed glomeruli with thickened glomerular basement membranes. Permeability studies of the glomerular filtration barrier in these zebrafish morphants demonstrated a disruption of selective glomerular permeability. Our data suggest that LAT3 may play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of podocyte structure and function by regulating protein synthesis and the actin cytoskeleton.

  19. Increased neurovirulence and reactivation of the herpes simplex virus type 1 latency associated transcript (LAT) negative mutant dLAT2903 with a disrupted LAT miR-H2

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xianzhi; Brown, Don; Osorio, Nelson; Hsiang, Chinhui; BenMohamed, Lbachir; Wechsler, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    At least six microRNAs (miRNAs) appear to be encoded by the latency associated transcript (LAT) of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). The gene for ICP0, an important immediate early (IE) viral protein, is antisense to, and overlaps with, the region of LAT from which miRNA H2 (miR-H2) is derived. We recently reported that a mutant (McK-ΔH2) disrupted for miR-H2 on the wild type HSV-1 strain McKrae genomic background has increased ICP0 expression, increased neurovirulence, and slightly more rapid reactivation. We report here that HSV-1 mutants deleted for the LAT promoter nonetheless make significant amounts of miR-H2 during lytic tissue culture infection, presumably via readthrough transcription from an upstream promoter. To determine if miR-H2 might also play a role in the HSV-1 latency-reactivation cycle of a LAT negative mutant, we constructed dLAT-ΔH2, in which miR-H2 is disrupted in dLAT2903 without altering the predicted amino acid sequence of the overlapping ICP0 open reading frame. Similar to McK-ΔH2, dLAT-ΔH2 expressed more ICP0, was more neurovirulent, and had increased reactivation in the mouse TG explant induced reactivation model of HSV-1 compared to its parental virus. Interestingly, although the increased reactivation of McK-ΔH2 compared to its parental wt virus was subtle and only detected at very early times after explant TG induced reactivation, the increased reactivation of dLAT-ΔH2 compared to its dLAT2903 parental virus appeared more robust and was significantly increased even at late times after induction. These results confirm that miR-H2 plays a role in modulating the HSV-1 reactivation phenotype. PMID:26069184

  20. TIR domain-containing adaptor SARM is a late addition to the ongoing microbe–host dialog

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qing; Zmasek, Christian M.; Cai, Xiaohui; Godzik, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain-containing proteins play important roles in defense against pathogens in both animals and plants, connecting the immunity signaling pathways via a chain of specific protein–protein interactions. Among them is SARM, the only TIR domain-containing adaptor that can negatively regulate TLR signaling. By extensive phylogenetic analysis, we show here that SARM is closely related to bacterial proteins with TIR domains, suggesting that this family has a different evolutionary history from other animal TIR-containing adaptors, possibly emerging via a lateral gene transfer from bacteria to animals. We also show evidence of several similar, independent transfer events, none of which, however, survived in vertebrates. An evolutionary relationship between the animal SARM adaptor and bacterial proteins with TIR domains illustrates the possible role that bacterial TIR-containing proteins play in regulating eukaryotic immune responses and how this mechanism was possibly adapted by the eukaryotes themselves. PMID:21110998

  1. Neuronal Roles of the Bicaudal D Family of Motor Adaptors.

    PubMed

    Budzinska, M; Wicher, K B; Terenzio, M

    2017-01-01

    All cell types rely on active intracellular cargo transport to shuttle essential cellular components such as proteins, lipids, RNA, and even organelles from the center to the periphery and vice versa. Additionally, several signaling pathways take advantage of intracellular transport to propagate their signals by moving activated receptors and protein effectors to specific locations inside the cell. Neurons particularly, being a very polarized cell type, are highly dependent on molecular motors for the anterograde and retrograde delivery of essential cellular components and signaling molecules. For these reasons, motor adaptor proteins have been extensively investigated in regard to their role in physiology and pathology of the nervous system. In this chapter, we will concentrate on a family of motor adaptor proteins, Bicaudal D (BICD), and their function in the context of the nervous system. BicD was originally described as essential for the correct localization of maternal mRNAs in Drosophila's oocyte and a regulator of the Golgi to ER retrograde transport in mammalian cells. Both mammalian BICD1 and BICD2 are highly expressed in the nervous system during development, and their importance in neuronal homeostasis has been recently under scrutiny. Several mutations in BICD2 have been linked to the development of neuromuscular diseases, and BICD2 knockout (KO) mice display migration defects of the radial cerebellar granule cells. More in line with the overall topic of this book, BICD1 was identified as a novel regulator of neurotrophin (NT) signaling as its deletion leads to defective sorting of ligand-activated NT receptors with dramatic consequences on the NT-mediated signaling pathway.

  2. New genetic variants of LATS1 detected in urinary bladder and colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Saadeldin, Mona K.; Shawer, Heba; Mostafa, Ahmed; Kassem, Neemat M.; Amleh, Asma; Siam, Rania

    2015-01-01

    LATS1, the large tumor suppressor 1 gene, encodes for a serine/threonine kinase protein and is implicated in cell cycle progression. LATS1 is down-regulated in various human cancers, such as breast cancer, and astrocytoma. Point mutations in LATS1 were reported in human sarcomas. Additionally, loss of heterozygosity of LATS1 chromosomal region predisposes to breast, ovarian, and cervical tumors. In the current study, we investigated LATS1 genetic variations including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), in 28 Egyptian patients with either urinary bladder or colon cancers. The LATS1 gene was amplified and sequenced and the expression of LATS1 at the RNA level was assessed in 12 urinary bladder cancer samples. We report, the identification of a total of 29 variants including previously identified SNPs within LATS1 coding and non-coding sequences. A total of 18 variants were novel. Majority of the novel variants, 13, were mapped to intronic sequences and un-translated regions of the gene. Four of the five novel variants located in the coding region of the gene, represented missense mutations within the serine/threonine kinase catalytic domain. Interestingly, LATS1 RNA steady state levels was lost in urinary bladder cancerous tissue harboring four specific SNPs (16045 + 41736 + 34614 + 56177) positioned in the 5′UTR, intron 6, and two silent mutations within exon 4 and exon 8, respectively. This study identifies novel single-base-sequence alterations in the LATS1 gene. These newly identified variants could potentially be used as novel diagnostic or prognostic tools in cancer. PMID:25628642

  3. Scaffold functions of 14-3-3 adaptors in B cell immunoglobulin class switch DNA recombination.

    PubMed

    Lam, Tonika; Thomas, Lisa M; White, Clayton A; Li, Guideng; Pone, Egest J; Xu, Zhenming; Casali, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Class switch DNA recombination (CSR) of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) locus crucially diversifies antibody biological effector functions. CSR involves the induction of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) expression and AID targeting to switch (S) regions by 14-3-3 adaptors. 14-3-3 adaptors specifically bind to 5'-AGCT-3' repeats, which make up for the core of all IgH locus S regions. They selectively target the upstream and downstream S regions that are set to undergo S-S DNA recombination. We hypothesized that 14-3-3 adaptors function as scaffolds to stabilize CSR enzymatic elements on S regions. Here we demonstrate that all seven 14-3-3β, 14-3-3ε, 14-3-3γ, 14-3-3η, 14-3-3σ, 14-3-3τ and 14-3-3ζ adaptors directly interacted with AID, PKA-Cα (catalytic subunit) and PKA-RIα (regulatory inhibitory subunit) and uracil DNA glycosylase (Ung). 14-3-3 adaptors, however, did not interact with AID C-terminal truncation mutant AIDΔ(180-198) or AIDF193A and AIDL196A point-mutants (which have been shown not to bind to S region DNA and fail to mediate CSR). 14-3-3 adaptors colocalized with AID and replication protein A (RPA) in B cells undergoing CSR. 14-3-3 and AID binding to S region DNA was disrupted by viral protein R (Vpr), an accessory protein of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1), which inhibited CSR without altering AID expression or germline IH-CH transcription. Accordingly, we demonstrated that 14-3-3 directly interact with Vpr, which in turn, also interact with AID, PKA-Cα and Ung. Altogether, our findings suggest that 14-3-3 adaptors play important scaffold functions and nucleate the assembly of multiple CSR factors on S regions. They also show that such assembly can be disrupted by a viral protein, thereby allowing us to hypothesize that small molecule compounds that specifically block 14-3-3 interactions with AID, PKA and/or Ung can be used to inhibit unwanted CSR.

  4. Adaptor assembly for coupling turbine blades to rotor disks

    SciTech Connect

    Delvaux, John McConnel; Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose; Joyce, Kilmer Joseph; Tindell, Allan Randall

    2014-06-03

    An adaptor assembly for coupling a blade root of a turbine blade to a root slot of a rotor disk is disclosed. The adaptor assembly may generally include an adaptor body having a root configured to be received within the root slot. The adaptor body may also define a slot having an open end configured to receive the blade root. The adaptor body may further define a channel. The adaptor assembly may also include a plate having an outwardly extending foot. The foot may be configured to be received within the channel. Additionally, the plate may be configured to cover at least a portion of the open end of the slot when the foot is received within the channel.

  5. BKGE: Fermi-LAT Background Estimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasileiou, Vlasios

    2014-11-01

    The Fermi-LAT Background Estimator (BKGE) is a publicly available open-source tool that can estimate the expected background of the Fermi-LAT for any observational conguration and duration. It produces results in the form of text files, ROOT files, gtlike source-model files (for LAT maximum likelihood analyses), and PHA I/II FITS files (for RMFit/XSpec spectral fitting analyses). Its core is written in C++ and its user interface in Python.

  6. Optical Observations Of Fermi LAT Monitored Blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Kyle; Carini, M. T.

    2009-01-01

    For the past 8 years the Bell Observatory at Western Kentucky University has been conducting R band monitoring of the variability of approximately 50 Blazars. A subset of these objects are being routinely observed with the LAT instrument on-board the Fermi Space Telescope. Adding the Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) at Kitt Peak National Observatory and observations with the AZT-11 telescope at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (CRAO), we are intensively monitoring the Blazars on the Lat monitoring list. We present the results of our long term monitoring of the LAT monitored Blazars, as well as the recent contemporaneous optical R band observations we have obtained of the LAT Blazars.

  7. SCIMP is a transmembrane non-TIR TLR adaptor that promotes proinflammatory cytokine production from macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Lin; Bokil, Nilesh J.; Wall, Adam A.; Kapetanovic, Ronan; Lansdaal, Natalie M.; Marceline, Faustine; Burgess, Belinda J.; Tong, Samuel J.; Guo, Zhong; Alexandrov, Kirill; Ross, Ian L.; Hibbs, Margaret L.; Stow, Jennifer L.; Sweet, Matthew J.

    2017-01-01

    Danger signals activate Toll-like receptors (TLRs), thereby initiating inflammatory responses. Canonical TLR signalling, via Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor domain (TIR)-containing adaptors and proinflammatory transcription factors such as NF-κB, occurs in many cell types; however, additional mechanisms are required for specificity of inflammatory responses in innate immune cells. Here we show that SCIMP, an immune-restricted, transmembrane adaptor protein (TRAP), promotes selective proinflammatory cytokine responses by direct modulation of TLR4. SCIMP is a non-TIR-containing adaptor, binding directly to the TLR4-TIR domain in response to lipopolysaccharide. In macrophages, SCIMP is constitutively associated with the Lyn tyrosine kinase, is required for tyrosine phosphorylation of TLR4, and facilitates TLR-inducible production of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-12p40. Point mutations in SCIMP abrogating TLR4 binding also prevent SCIMP-mediated cytokine production. SCIMP is, therefore, an immune-specific TLR adaptor that shapes host defence and inflammation. PMID:28098138

  8. SCIMP is a transmembrane non-TIR TLR adaptor that promotes proinflammatory cytokine production from macrophages.

    PubMed

    Luo, Lin; Bokil, Nilesh J; Wall, Adam A; Kapetanovic, Ronan; Lansdaal, Natalie M; Marceline, Faustine; Burgess, Belinda J; Tong, Samuel J; Guo, Zhong; Alexandrov, Kirill; Ross, Ian L; Hibbs, Margaret L; Stow, Jennifer L; Sweet, Matthew J

    2017-01-18

    Danger signals activate Toll-like receptors (TLRs), thereby initiating inflammatory responses. Canonical TLR signalling, via Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor domain (TIR)-containing adaptors and proinflammatory transcription factors such as NF-κB, occurs in many cell types; however, additional mechanisms are required for specificity of inflammatory responses in innate immune cells. Here we show that SCIMP, an immune-restricted, transmembrane adaptor protein (TRAP), promotes selective proinflammatory cytokine responses by direct modulation of TLR4. SCIMP is a non-TIR-containing adaptor, binding directly to the TLR4-TIR domain in response to lipopolysaccharide. In macrophages, SCIMP is constitutively associated with the Lyn tyrosine kinase, is required for tyrosine phosphorylation of TLR4, and facilitates TLR-inducible production of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-12p40. Point mutations in SCIMP abrogating TLR4 binding also prevent SCIMP-mediated cytokine production. SCIMP is, therefore, an immune-specific TLR adaptor that shapes host defence and inflammation.

  9. Glucose regulates clathrin adaptors at the trans-Golgi network and endosomes

    PubMed Central

    Aoh, Quyen L.; Graves, Lee M.; Duncan, Mara C.

    2011-01-01

    Glucose is a rich source of energy and the raw material for biomass increase. Many eukaryotic cells remodel their physiology in the presence and absence of glucose. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae undergoes changes in transcription, translation, metabolism, and cell polarity in response to glucose availability. Upon glucose starvation, translation initiation and cell polarity are immediately inhibited, and then gradually recover. In this paper, we provide evidence that, as in cell polarity and translation, traffic at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and endosomes is regulated by glucose via an unknown mechanism that depends on protein kinase A (PKA). Upon glucose withdrawal, clathrin adaptors exhibit a biphasic change in localization: they initially delocalize from the membrane within minutes and later partially recover onto membranes. Additionally, the removal of glucose induces changes in posttranslational modifications of adaptors. Ras and Gpr1 signaling pathways, which converge on PKA, are required for changes in adaptor localization and changes in posttranslational modifications. Acute inhibition of PKA demonstrates that inhibition of PKA prior to glucose withdrawal prevents several adaptor responses to starvation. This study demonstrates that PKA activity prior to glucose starvation primes membrane traffic at the TGN and endosomes in response to glucose starvation. PMID:21832155

  10. An organized co-assembly of clathrin adaptors is essential for endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Skruzny, Michal; Desfosses, Ambroise; Prinz, Simone; Dodonova, Svetlana O; Gieras, Anna; Uetrecht, Charlotte; Jakobi, Arjen J; Abella, Marc; Hagen, Wim J H; Schulz, Joachim; Meijers, Rob; Rybin, Vladimir; Briggs, John A G; Sachse, Carsten; Kaksonen, Marko

    2015-04-20

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis, the main trafficking route from the plasma membrane to the cytoplasm, is critical to many fundamental cellular processes. Clathrin, coupled to the membrane by adaptor proteins, is thought to play a major structural role in endocytosis by self-assembling into a cage-like lattice around the forming vesicle. Although clathrin adaptors are essential for endocytosis, little is known about their structural role in this process. Here we show that the membrane-binding domains of two conserved clathrin adaptors, Sla2 and Ent1, co-assemble in a PI(4,5)P2-dependent manner to form organized lattices on membranes. We determined the structure of the co-assembled lattice by electron cryo-microscopy and designed mutations that specifically impair the lattice formation in vitro. We show that these mutations block endocytosis in vivo. We suggest that clathrin adaptors not only link the polymerized clathrin to the membrane but also form an oligomeric structure, which is essential for membrane remodeling during endocytosis.

  11. Myosin VI and its cargo adaptors – linking endocytosis and autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Tumbarello, David A.; Kendrick-Jones, John; Buss, Folma

    2013-01-01

    Summary The coordinated trafficking and tethering of membrane cargo within cells relies on the function of distinct cytoskeletal motors that are targeted to specific subcellular compartments through interactions with protein adaptors and phospholipids. The unique actin motor myosin VI functions at distinct steps during clathrin-mediated endocytosis and the early endocytic pathway – both of which are involved in cargo trafficking and sorting – through interactions with Dab2, GIPC, Tom1 and LMTK2. This multifunctional ability of myosin VI can be attributed to its cargo-binding tail region that contains two protein–protein interaction interfaces, a ubiquitin-binding motif and a phospholipid binding domain. In addition, myosin VI has been shown to be a regulator of the autophagy pathway, because of its ability to link the endocytic and autophagic pathways through interactions with the ESCRT-0 protein Tom1 and the autophagy adaptor proteins T6BP, NDP52 and optineurin. This function has been attributed to facilitating autophagosome maturation and subsequent fusion with the lysosome. Therefore, in this Commentary, we discuss the relationship between myosin VI and the different myosin VI adaptor proteins, particularly with regards to the spatial and temporal regulation that is required for the sorting of cargo at the early endosome, and their impact on autophagy. PMID:23781020

  12. Split GFP Complementation as Reporter of Membrane Protein Expression and Stability in E. coli: A Tool to Engineer Stability in a LAT Transporter.

    PubMed

    Errasti-Murugarren, Ekaitz; Rodríguez-Banqueri, Arturo; Vázquez-Ibar, José Luis

    2017-01-01

    Obtaining enough quantity of recombinant membrane transport proteins with optimal purity and stability for structural studies is a remarkable challenge. In this chapter, we describe a protocol to engineer SteT, the amino acid transporter of Bacillus subtilis, in order to improve its heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and its stability in detergent micelles. We built a library of 70 SteT mutants, combining a random mutagenesis protocol with a split GFP assay as reporter of protein folding and membrane insertion. Mutagenesis was restricted to residues situated in the transmembrane domains. Improved versions of SteT were successfully identified after analyzing the expression yield and monodispersity in detergent micelles of the library's members.

  13. Parallel SCF Adaptor Capture Proteomics Reveals a Role for SCFFBXL17 in NRF2 Activation via BACH1 Repressor Turnover

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Meng-Kwang Marcus; Lim, Hui-Jun; Bennett, Eric J.; Shi, Yang; Harper, J. Wade

    2014-01-01

    Modular Cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligases (CRLs) use substrate binding adaptor proteins to specify target ubiquitylation. Many of the ~200 human CRL adaptor proteins remain poorly studied due to a shortage of efficient methods to identify biologically relevant substrates. Here, we report the development of Parallel Adaptor Capture (PAC) proteomics, and its use to systematically identify candidate targets for the leucine-rich repeat family of F-box proteins (FBXLs) that function with SKP1-CUL1-F-box protein (SCF) E3s. In validation experiments, we identify the unstudied F-box protein FBXL17 as a regulator of the NFR2 oxidative stress pathway. We demonstrate that FBXL17 controls the transcription of the NRF2 target HMOX1 via turnover of the transcriptional repressor BACH1 in the absence or presence of extrinsic oxidative stress. This work identifies a role for SCFFBXL17 in controlling the threshold for NRF2-dependent gene activation and provides a framework for elucidating the functions of CRL adaptor proteins. PMID:24035498

  14. Novel Toll/IL-1 Receptor Homologous Region Adaptors Act as Negative Regulators in Amphioxus TLR Signaling.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jian; Tao, Xin; Li, Rui; Hu, Jingru; Ruan, Jie; Wang, Ruihua; Yang, Manyi; Yang, Rirong; Dong, Xiangru; Chen, Shangwu; Xu, Anlong; Yuan, Shaochun

    2015-10-01

    Studies have shown that the basal chordate amphioxus possesses an extraordinarily complex TLR system, including 39 TLRs and at least 40 Toll/IL-1R homologous region (TIR) adaptors. Besides homologs to MyD88 and TIR domain-containing adaptor molecule (TICAM), most amphioxus TIR adaptors exhibit domain architectures that are not observed in other species. To reveal how these novel TIR adaptors function in amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtauense (bbt), four representatives, bbtTIRA, bbtTIRB, bbtTIRC, and bbtTIRD, were selected for functional analyses. We found bbtTIRA to show a unique inhibitory role in amphioxus TICAM-mediated pathway by interacting with bbtTICAM and bbt receptor interacting protein 1b, whereas bbtTIRC specifically inhibits the amphioxus MyD88-dependent pathway by interacting with bbtMyD88 and depressing the polyubiquitination of bbt TNFR-associated factor 6. Although both bbtTIRB and bbtTIRD are located on endosomes, the TIR domain of bbtTIRB can interact with bbtMyD88 in the cytosol, whereas the TIR domain of bbtTIRD is enclosed in endosome, suggesting that bbtTIRD may be a redundant gene in amphioxus. This study indicated that most expanded TIR adaptors play nonredundant regulatory roles in amphioxus TLR signaling, adding a new layer to understanding the diversity and complexity of innate immunity at basal chordate.

  15. Boronophenylalanine, a boron delivery agent for boron neutron capture therapy, is transported by ATB0,+, LAT1 and LAT2

    PubMed Central

    Wongthai, Printip; Hagiwara, Kohei; Miyoshi, Yurika; Wiriyasermkul, Pattama; Wei, Ling; Ohgaki, Ryuichi; Kato, Itsuro; Hamase, Kenji; Nagamori, Shushi; Kanai, Yoshikatsu

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy relies on the selective delivery of boron carriers to malignant cells. p-Boronophenylalanine (BPA), a boron delivery agent, has been proposed to be localized to cells through transporter-mediated mechanisms. In this study, we screened aromatic amino acid transporters to identify BPA transporters. Human aromatic amino acid transporters were functionally expressed in Xenopus oocytes and examined for BPA uptake and kinetic parameters. The roles of the transporters in BPA uptake were characterized in cancer cell lines. For the quantitative assessment of BPA uptake, HPLC was used throughout the study. Among aromatic amino acid transporters, ATB0,+, LAT1 and LAT2 were found to transport BPA with Km values of 137.4 ± 11.7, 20.3 ± 0.8 and 88.3 ± 5.6 μM, respectively. Uptake experiments in cancer cell lines revealed that the LAT1 protein amount was the major determinant of BPA uptake at 100 μM, whereas the contribution of ATB0,+ became significant at 1000 μM, accounting for 20–25% of the total BPA uptake in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. ATB0,+, LAT1 and LAT2 transport BPA at affinities comparable with their endogenous substrates, suggesting that they could mediate effective BPA uptake in vivo. The high and low affinities of LAT1 and ATB0,+, respectively, differentiate their roles in BPA uptake. ATB0,+, as well as LAT1, could contribute significantly to the tumor accumulation of BPA at clinical dose. PMID:25580517

  16. Molecular architecture of a dynamin adaptor: implications for assembly of mitochondrial fission complexes

    PubMed Central

    Koirala, Sajjan; Bui, Huyen T.; Schubert, Heidi L.; Eckert, Debra M.; Hill, Christopher P.

    2010-01-01

    Recruitment and assembly of some dynamin-related guanosine triphosphatases depends on adaptor proteins restricted to distinct cellular membranes. The yeast Mdv1 adaptor localizes to mitochondria by binding to the membrane protein Fis1. Subsequent Mdv1 binding to the mitochondrial dynamin Dnm1 stimulates Dnm1 assembly into spirals, which encircle and divide the mitochondrial compartment. In this study, we report that dimeric Mdv1 is joined at its center by a 92-Å antiparallel coiled coil (CC). Modeling of the Fis1–Mdv1 complex using available crystal structures suggests that the Mdv1 CC lies parallel to the bilayer with N termini at opposite ends bound to Fis1 and C-terminal β-propeller domains (Dnm1-binding sites) extending into the cytoplasm. A CC length of appropriate length and sequence is necessary for optimal Mdv1 interaction with Fis1 and Dnm1 and is important for proper Dnm1 assembly before membrane scission. Our results provide a framework for understanding how adaptors act as scaffolds to orient and stabilize the assembly of dynamins on membranes. PMID:21149566

  17. Increased neurovirulence and reactivation of the herpes simplex virus type 1 latency-associated transcript (LAT)-negative mutant dLAT2903 with a disrupted LAT miR-H2.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xianzhi; Brown, Don; Osorio, Nelson; Hsiang, Chinhui; BenMohamed, Lbachir; Wechsler, Steven L

    2016-02-01

    At least six microRNAs (miRNAs) appear to be encoded by the latency-associated transcript (LAT) of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). The gene for ICP0, an important immediate early (IE) viral protein, is anti-sense to, and overlaps with, the region of LAT from which miRNA H2 (miR-H2) is derived. We recently reported that a mutant (McK-ΔH2) disrupted for miR-H2 on the wild-type HSV-1 strain McKrae genomic background has increased ICP0 expression, increased neurovirulence, and slightly more rapid reactivation. We report here that HSV-1 mutants deleted for the LAT promoter nonetheless make significant amounts of miR-H2 during lytic tissue culture infection, presumably via readthrough transcription from an upstream promoter. To determine if miR-H2 might also play a role in the HSV-1 latency/reactivation cycle of a LAT-negative mutant, we constructed dLAT-ΔH2, in which miR-H2 is disrupted in dLAT2903 without altering the predicted amino acid sequence of the overlapping ICP0 open reading frame. Similar to McK-ΔH2, dLAT-ΔH2 expressed more ICP0, was more neurovirulent, and had increased reactivation in the mouse TG explant-induced reactivation model of HSV-1 compared with its parental virus. Interestingly, although the increased reactivation of McK-ΔH2 compared with its parental wild-type (wt) virus was subtle and only detected at very early times after explant TG induced reactivation, the increased reactivation of dLAT-ΔH2 compared with its dLAT2903 parental virus appeared more robust and was significantly increased even at late times after induction. These results confirm that miR-H2 plays a role in modulating the HSV-1 reactivation phenotype.

  18. Automated Science Processing for GLAST LAT Data

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, James

    2007-07-12

    Automated Science Processing (ASP) will be performed by the GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT) Instrument Science Operations Center (ISOC) on data from the satellite as soon as the Level 1 data are available in the ground processing pipeline. ASP will consist of time-critical science analyses that will facilitate follow-up and multi-wavelength observations of transient sources. These analyses include refinement of gamma-ray burst (GRB) positions, timing, flux and spectral properties, off-line searches for untriggered GRBs and gamma-ray afterglows, longer time scale monitoring of a standard set of sources (AGNs, X-ray binaries), and searches for previously unknown flaring sources in the LAT band. We describe the design of ASP and its scientific products; and we show results of a prototype implementation, driven by the standard LAT data processing pipeline, as applied to simulated LAT and GBM data.

  19. Automated Science Processing for GLAST LAT Data

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, James; Carson, Jennifer; Focke, Warren; /SLAC

    2007-10-15

    Automated Science Processing (ASP) will be performed by the GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT) Instrument Science Operations Center (ISOC) on data from the satellite as soon as the Level 1 data are available in the ground processing pipeline. ASP will consist of time-critical science analyses that will facilitate follow-up and multi-wavelength observations of transient sources. These analyses include refinement of gamma-ray burst (GRB) positions, timing, flux and spectral properties, off-line searches for untriggered GRBs and gamma-ray afterglows, longer time scale monitoring of a standard set of sources (AGNs, X-ray binaries), and searches for previously unknown flaring sources in the LAT band. We describe the design of ASP and its scientific products; and we show results of a prototype implementation, driven by the standard LAT data processing pipeline, as applied to simulated LAT and GBM data.

  20. 21 CFR 870.3620 - Pacemaker lead adaptor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3620 Pacemaker lead adaptor... entitled “Guidance for the Submission of Research and Marketing Applications for Permanent Pacemaker...

  1. [Co-integration of BLG-LAtPA and WAP improved the expression of LAtPA in transgenic mouse milk].

    PubMed

    Zhou, J; Deng, J X; Cheng, X; Lu, Y F; Yang, X; Huang, P T

    2001-01-01

    In order to improve the expression of longer acting tissue plasminogen activator in the mammary epithelium of transgenic mice, the fragment of BLG-LAtPA hydrid gene was microinjected into mouse embryos with mice whey acid protein gene. Three mouse were tested as being Co-integration of BLG-LAtPA and WAP transgene by PCR and Southern blot. Milk obtained from lactating females contains biologically active tPA, and the concentration of tPA was calculated to be about 10 micrograms/mL.

  2. Linker for Activation of T Cells (LAT), a Novel Immunohistochemical Marker for T Cells, NK Cells, Mast Cells, and Megakaryocytes

    PubMed Central

    Facchetti, Fabio; Chan, John K. C.; Zhang, Weiguo; Tironi, Andrea; Chilosi, Marco; Parolini, Silvia; Notarangelo, Luigi D.; Samelson, Lawrence E.

    1999-01-01

    LAT (linker for activation of T cells) is an integral membrane protein of 36–38 kd that plays an important role in T cell activation. Using a rabbit polyclonal antibody generated against the cytosolic portion of LAT, we investigated the immunohistochemical expression of LAT in normal and pathological hematolymphoid tissues. LAT reacts with human T cells in paraffin sections, including decalcified bone marrow trephines. LAT appears early in T cells at the thymocyte stage and before TdT expression in embryos, and is expressed in peripheral lymphoid tissues, without restriction to any T cell subpopulations. In addition to T cells, natural killer (NK) cells (evaluated with flow cytometry), megakaryocytes and mast cells are also LAT-positive, whereas B cells and other myeloid and monocytic derived cells are negative. Tested on a total of 264 paraffin-embedded tissue biopsies, LAT reacted with the great majority (96.8%) of T/NK-cell neoplasms, covering the full range of T cell maturation. Although antibodies to both LAT and CD3 had a similarly high sensitivity in the staining of T/NK-cell lymphomas, when used in conjunction, they successfully identified a higher number of cases (98.4%). Atypical megakaryocytes from different hematological disorders, as well as mast cells in mastocytosis were also LAT-positive, but all neoplasms of B cell origin, Hodgkin’s lymphomas, and several nonlymphoid malignancies were negative. These data indicate that the anti-LAT antibody may be of value to diagnostic histopathologists for the identification of T cell neoplasms. PMID:10233842

  3. Activation of T lymphocytes and the role of the adapter LAT.

    PubMed

    Aguado, Enrique; Martínez-Florensa, Mario; Aparicio, Pedro

    2006-12-01

    The adapter molecule LAT (Linker for the Activation of T cells) is a membrane protein that becomes phosphorylated on conserved tyrosine residues upon TCR/CD3 complex engagement in T lymphocytes. Tyrosine phosphorylation of this adapter recruits to the membrane many signaling proteins through the interaction with the phosphotyrosine binding domains of these proteins, allowing the activation of several intracellular signaling pathways. Initial studies performed in T cell lines suggested that the adapter LAT acts primarily as a platform for the distribution of activation signals coming from the TCR/CD3 complex, and the phenotype of LAT deficient mice, in which T cell development is arrested at an early stage, supported this "activatory" function. However, the analysis of several knock-in mice strains in which some tyrosine residues have been mutated, has revealed the development of lymphoproliferative disorders caused by polyclonal T lymphocytes producing high titers of T helper-type 2 (T(H)2) cytokines. Very recently, it has been demonstrated that raft localization of LAT is altered in anergic T lymphocytes. Therefore, LAT show unexpected regulatory functions in T cell development and homeostasis.

  4. NEDD4 E3 ligase inhibits the activity of the Hippo pathway by targeting LATS1 for degradation.

    PubMed

    Salah, Zaidoun; Cohen, Sherri; Itzhaki, Ella; Aqeilan, Rami I

    2013-12-15

    Proper regulation of cell proliferation, cell apoptosis, and cell death are vital for the development and survival of living organisms. Failure or dysfunction of any of these processes can have devastating effects, including cancer. The Hippo pathway, first discovered in Drosophila, has been found to be a major growth-regulatory signaling pathway that controls these crucial processes and has been implicated in cell-progress regulation and organ size determination. Abnormal regulation of this pathway has been found in several cancer types. However, the mechanisms that regulate the pathway and its core members yet have to be elucidated. One of the main core components of this pathway is LATS1, a serine/threonine kinase. Therefore, understanding how LATS1 activity is regulated is expected to shed light on new mechanisms that regulate the Hippo pathway. In the current work, we identified several potential LATS1 regulators and proved that NEDD4 E3 ubiquitin ligase controls LATS1 stability. We demonstrate that NEDD4 directly interacts with LATS1, leading to ubiquitination and decreased levels of LATS1 and, thus, increased YAP localization in the nucleus, which subsequently increases the transcriptional activity of YAP. As such, we show that NEDD4 acts as an additional regulator of the Hippo pathway on the protein level via interactions between WW domain-containing and PPxY motif-containing proteins. These findings might be applied in the development of new therapeutic approaches through the activation of LATS1.

  5. NEDD4 E3 ligase inhibits the activity of the Hippo pathway by targeting LATS1 for degradation

    PubMed Central

    Salah, Zaidoun; Cohen, Sherri; Itzhaki, Ella; Aqeilan, Rami I

    2013-01-01

    Proper regulation of cell proliferation, cell apoptosis, and cell death are vital for the development and survival of living organisms. Failure or dysfunction of any of these processes can have devastating effects, including cancer. The Hippo pathway, first discovered in Drosophila, has been found to be a major growth-regulatory signaling pathway that controls these crucial processes and has been implicated in cell-progress regulation and organ size determination. Abnormal regulation of this pathway has been found in several cancer types. However, the mechanisms that regulate the pathway and its core members yet have to be elucidated. One of the main core components of this pathway is LATS1, a serine/threonine kinase. Therefore, understanding how LATS1 activity is regulated is expected to shed light on new mechanisms that regulate the Hippo pathway. In the current work, we identified several potential LATS1 regulators and proved that NEDD4 E3 ubiquitin ligase controls LATS1 stability. We demonstrate that NEDD4 directly interacts with LATS1, leading to ubiquitination and decreased levels of LATS1 and, thus, increased YAP localization in the nucleus, which subsequently increases the transcriptional activity of YAP. As such, we show that NEDD4 acts as an additional regulator of the Hippo pathway on the protein level via interactions between WW domain-containing and PPxY motif-containing proteins. These findings might be applied in the development of new therapeutic approaches through the activation of LATS1. PMID:24107629

  6. Requirement of Nck adaptors for actin dynamics and cell migration stimulated by platelet-derived growth factor B.

    PubMed

    Rivera, G M; Antoku, S; Gelkop, S; Shin, N Y; Hanks, S K; Pawson, T; Mayer, B J

    2006-06-20

    The Nck family of Src homology (SH) 2/SH3 domain adaptors functions to link tyrosine phosphorylation induced by extracellular signals with downstream regulators of actin dynamics. We investigated the role of mammalian Nck adaptors in signaling from the activated platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor (PDGFbetaR) to the actin cytoskeleton. We report here that Nck adaptors are required for cytoskeletal reorganization and chemotaxis stimulated by PDGF-B. Analysis of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins demonstrated that Crk-associated substrate (p130(Cas)), not the activated PDGFbetaR itself, is the major Nck SH2 domain-binding protein in PDGF-B-stimulated cells. Both Nck- and p130(Cas)-deficient cells fail to display cytoskeletal rearrangements, including the formation of membrane ruffles and the disassembly of actin bundles, typically shown by their WT counterparts in response to PDGF-B. Furthermore, Nck and p130(Cas) colocalize in phosphotyrosine-enriched membrane ruffles induced by PDGF-B in NIH 3T3 cells. These results suggest that Nck adaptors play an essential role in linking the activated PDGFbetaR with actin dynamics through a pathway that involves p130(Cas).

  7. Contribution of LATS1 and LATS2 promoter methylation in OSCC development.

    PubMed

    Ladiz, Mohammad Ayoub Rigi; Najafi, Maryam; Kordi-Tamandani, Dor Mohammad

    2017-03-01

    The aberrant DNA methylation of the tumor suppressor genes involved in DNA Damage Response (DDR) signaling and cell cycle regulation may lead to the tumorigenesis. Our purpose here is to analyze the promoter methylation and mRNA expression levels of LATS1 and LATS2 (LATS1/2) genes in OSCC. Promoter methylation status of LATS1/2 genes was evaluated in 70 OSCC paraffin-embedded tissues and 70 normal oral samples, using Methylation Specific PCR (MSP). LATS1/2 mRNA expression profiles were also investigated in 14 OSCC patients and 14 normal samples, using real-time PCR. In both candidate genes, promoter methylation assessment revealed significant relationship between cases and controls (OR = 2.24, 95 % CI = 1.40-3.54, P = 0.001; LATS1 and OR = 15.5, 95%CI = 3.64-64.76, P < 0.001; LATS2). As well as, the evaluation of mRNA expression levels showed decreased expression in OSCC tissues in compare to control tissues. (Mean ± SD 1.74 ± 0.14 in OSCC versus 2.10 ± 0.24 in controls, P < 0.001; LATS1 and Mean ± SD 1.36 ± 0.077 in OSCC versus 1.96 ± 0.096 in controls, P < 0.001; LATS2). To the best our knowledge, this is the first report regarding the down-regulation of LATS1/2 through promoter methylation in OSCC. It is suggested to explore the down-stream transcription factors of both genes for finding the molecular mechanism of this deregulation in OSCC.

  8. Potentiation of CD3-induced expression of the linker for activation of T cells (LAT) by the calcineurin inhibitors cyclosporin A and FK506.

    PubMed

    Peters, D; Tsuchida, M; Manthei, E R; Alam, T; Cho, C S; Knechtle, S J; Hamawy, M M

    2000-05-01

    The activation of blood cells, including T cells, triggers intracellular signals that control the expression of critical molecules, including cytokines and cytokine receptors. We show that T-cell receptor (TCR) ligation increases the cellular level of the protein linker for activation of T cells (LAT), a molecule critical for T-cell development and function. T-cell activation increased LAT messenger RNA, as determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and by Northern blotting. The TCR-induced increase in LAT expression involved the activation of the serine/threonine kinases PKC and MEK, because inhibitors of these kinases blocked the increase in LAT. Accordingly, the PKC activator phorbol myristate acetate up-regulated LAT expression. Strikingly, the calcineurin inhibitors cyclosporin A (CsA) and FK506 strongly potentiated TCR-induced LAT expression, suggesting that the activation of calcineurin following TCR ligation negatively regulates LAT expression. Accordingly, Ca(++ )ionophores, which can activate calcineurin by increasing intracellular Ca(++), blocked the TCR-induced increase in cellular LAT. CsA and FK506 blocked the Ca(++ )ionophores' inhibitory effect on LAT expression. Notably, CsA and FK506 preferentially up-regulated TCR-induced LAT expression; under the same conditions, these compounds did not increase the expression of 14 other molecules that previously had been implicated in T-cell activation. These data show that TCR-induced LAT expression involves the activation of the PKC-Erk pathway and is negatively regulated by the activation of calcineurin. Furthermore, the potentiation of TCR-induced LAT expression by CsA and FK506 suggests that the action of these agents involves up-regulating the cellular level of critical signaling molecules. These findings may have important therapeutic implications. (Blood. 2000;95:2733-2741)

  9. The myxoma virus m-t5 ankyrin repeat host range protein is a novel adaptor that coordinately links the cellular signaling pathways mediated by Akt and Skp1 in virus-infected cells.

    PubMed

    Werden, Steven J; Lanchbury, Jerry; Shattuck, Donna; Neff, Chris; Dufford, Max; McFadden, Grant

    2009-12-01

    Most poxviruses express multiple proteins containing ankyrin (ANK) repeats accounting for a large superfamily of related but unique determinants of poxviral tropism. Recently, select members of this novel family of poxvirus proteins have drawn considerable attention for their potential roles in modulating intracellular signaling networks during viral infection. The rabbit-specific poxvirus, myxoma virus (MYXV), encodes four unique ANK repeat proteins, termed M-T5, M148, M149, and M150, all of which include a carboxy-terminal PRANC domain which closely resembles a cellular protein motif called the F-box domain. Here, we show that each MYXV-encoded ANK repeat protein, including M-T5, interacts directly with the Skp1 component of the host SCF ubiquitin ligase complex, and that the binding of M-T5 to cullin 1 is indirect via binding to Skp1 in the host SCF complex. To understand the significance of these virus-host protein interactions, the various binding domains of M-T5 were mapped. The N-terminal ANK repeats I and II were identified as being important for interaction with Akt, whereas the C-terminal PRANC/F-box-like domain was essential for binding to Skp1. We also report that M-T5 can bind Akt and the host SCF complex (via Skp1) simultaneously in MYXV-infected cells. Finally, we report that M-T5 specifically mediates the relocalization of Akt from the nucleus to the cytoplasm during infection with the wild-type MYXV, but not the M-T5 knockout version of the virus. These results indicate that ANK/PRANC proteins play a critical role in reprogramming disparate cellular signaling cascades to establish a new cellular environment more favorable for virus replication.

  10. Systematic VCP-UBXD Adaptor Network Proteomics Identifies a Role for UBXN10 in Regulating Ciliogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Malavika; Sergeev, Mikhail; Garnaas, Maija; Lydeard, John R.; Huttlin, Edward L.; Goessling, Wolfram; Shah, Jagesh V.; Harper, J. Wade

    2015-01-01

    The AAA-ATPase VCP (also known as p97 or CDC48) uses ATP hydrolysis to “segregate” ubiquitinated proteins from their binding partners. VCP acts via UBX-domain containing adaptors that provide target specificity, but targets and functions of UBXD proteins remain poorly understood. Through systematic proteomic analysis of UBXD proteins in human cells, we reveal a network of over 195 interacting proteins, implicating VCP in diverse cellular pathways. We have explored one such complex between an unstudied adaptor UBXN10 and the intraflagellar transport B (IFT-B) complex, which regulates anterograde transport into cilia. UBXN10 localizes to cilia in a VCP-dependent manner and both VCP and UBXN10 are required for ciliogenesis. Pharmacological inhibition of VCP destabilized the IFT-B complex and increased trafficking rates. Depletion of UBXN10 in zebrafish embryos causes defects in left-right asymmetry, which depends on functional cilia. This study provides a resource for exploring the landscape of UBXD proteins in biology and identifies an unexpected requirement for VCP-UBXN10 in ciliogenesis. PMID:26389662

  11. LAT Is Required for Tyrosine Phosphorylation of Phospholipase Cγ2 and Platelet Activation by the Collagen Receptor GPVI

    PubMed Central

    Pasquet, Jean-Max; Gross, Barbara; Quek, Lynn; Asazuma, Naoki; Zhang, Weiguo; Sommers, Connie L.; Schweighoffer, Edina; Tybulewicz, Victor; Judd, Barbara; Lee, Jong Ran; Koretzky, Gary; Love, Paul E.; Samelson, Lawrence E.; Watson, Steve P.

    1999-01-01

    In the present study, we have addressed the role of the linker for activation of T cells (LAT) in the regulation of phospholipase Cγ2 (PLCγ2) by the platelet collagen receptor glycoprotein VI (GPVI). LAT is tyrosine phosphorylated in human platelets heavily in response to collagen, collagen-related peptide (CRP), and FcγRIIA cross-linking but only weakly in response to the G-protein-receptor-coupled agonist thrombin. LAT tyrosine phosphorylation is abolished in CRP-stimulated Syk-deficient mouse platelets, whereas it is not altered in SLP-76-deficient mice or Btk-deficient X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) human platelets. Using mice engineered to lack the adapter LAT, we showed that tyrosine phosphorylation of Syk and Btk in response to CRP was maintained in LAT-deficient platelets whereas phosphorylation of SLP-76 was slightly impaired. In contrast, tyrosine phosphorylation of PLCγ2 was substantially reduced in LAT-deficient platelets but was not completely inhibited. The reduction in phosphorylation of PLCγ2 was associated with marked inhibition of formation of phosphatidic acid, a metabolite of 1,2-diacylglycerol, phosphorylation of pleckstrin, a substrate of protein kinase C, and expression of P-selectin in response to CRP, whereas these parameters were not altered in response to thrombin. Activation of the fibrinogen receptor integrin αIIbβ3 in response to CRP was also reduced in LAT-deficient platelets but was not completely inhibited. These results demonstrate that LAT tyrosine phosphorylation occurs downstream of Syk and is independent of the adapter SLP-76, and they establish a major role for LAT in the phosphorylation and activation of PLCγ2, leading to downstream responses such as α-granule secretion and activation of integrin αIIbβ3. The results further demonstrate that the major pathway of tyrosine phosphorylation of SLP-76 is independent of LAT and that there is a minor, LAT-independent pathway of tyrosine phosphorylation of PLCγ2. We

  12. TIR domain-containing adaptor SARM is a late addition to the ongoing microbe-host dialog.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Zmasek, Christian M; Cai, Xiaohui; Godzik, Adam

    2011-04-01

    Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain-containing proteins play important roles in defense against pathogens in both animals and plants, connecting the immunity signaling pathways via a chain of specific protein-protein interactions. Among them is SARM, the only TIR domain-containing adaptor that can negatively regulate TLR signaling. By extensive phylogenetic analysis, we show here that SARM is closely related to bacterial proteins with TIR domains, suggesting that this family has a different evolutionary history from other animal TIR-containing adaptors, possibly emerging via a lateral gene transfer from bacteria to animals. We also show evidence of several similar, independent transfer events, none of which, however, survived in vertebrates. An evolutionary relationship between the animal SARM adaptor and bacterial proteins with TIR domains illustrates the possible role that bacterial TIR-containing proteins play in regulating eukaryotic immune responses and how this mechanism was possibly adapted by the eukaryotes themselves. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cooperative and independent roles of the Drp1 adaptors Mff, MiD49 and MiD51 in mitochondrial fission.

    PubMed

    Osellame, Laura D; Singh, Abeer P; Stroud, David A; Palmer, Catherine S; Stojanovski, Diana; Ramachandran, Rajesh; Ryan, Michael T

    2016-06-01

    Cytosolic dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1, also known as DNM1L) is required for both mitochondrial and peroxisomal fission. Drp1-dependent division of these organelles is facilitated by a number of adaptor proteins at mitochondrial and peroxisomal surfaces. To investigate the interplay of these adaptor proteins, we used gene-editing technology to create a suite of cell lines lacking the adaptors MiD49 (also known as MIEF2), MiD51 (also known as MIEF1), Mff and Fis1. Increased mitochondrial connectivity was observed following loss of individual adaptors, and this was further enhanced following the combined loss of MiD51 and Mff. Moreover, loss of adaptors also conferred increased resistance of cells to intrinsic apoptotic stimuli, with MiD49 and MiD51 showing the more prominent role. Using a proximity-based biotin labeling approach, we found close associations between MiD51, Mff and Drp1, but not Fis1. Furthermore, we found that MiD51 can suppress Mff-dependent enhancement of Drp1 GTPase activity. Our data indicates that Mff and MiD51 regulate Drp1 in specific ways to promote mitochondrial fission.

  14. Modulation of LAT1 (SLC7A5) transporter activity and stability by membrane cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Dickens, David; Chiduza, George N; Wright, Gareth S A; Pirmohamed, Munir; Antonyuk, Svetlana V; Hasnain, S Samar

    2017-03-08

    LAT1 (SLC7A5) is a transporter for both the uptake of large neutral amino acids and a number of pharmaceutical drugs. It is expressed in numerous cell types including T-cells, cancer cells and brain endothelial cells. However, mechanistic knowledge of how it functions and its interactions with lipids are unknown or limited due to inability of obtaining stable purified protein in sufficient quantities. Our data show that depleting cellular cholesterol reduced the Vmax but not the Km of the LAT1 mediated uptake of a model substrate into cells (L-DOPA). A soluble cholesterol analogue was required for the stable purification of the LAT1 with its chaperon CD98 (4F2hc,SLC3A2) and that this stabilised complex retained the ability to interact with a substrate. We propose cholesterol interacts with the conserved regions in the LAT1 transporter that have been shown to bind to cholesterol/CHS in Drosophila melanogaster dopamine transporter. In conclusion, LAT1 is modulated by cholesterol impacting on its stability and transporter activity. This novel finding has implications for other SLC7 family members and additional eukaryotic transporters that contain the LeuT fold.

  15. Modulation of LAT1 (SLC7A5) transporter activity and stability by membrane cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Dickens, David; Chiduza, George N.; Wright, Gareth S. A.; Pirmohamed, Munir; Antonyuk, Svetlana V.; Hasnain, S. Samar

    2017-01-01

    LAT1 (SLC7A5) is a transporter for both the uptake of large neutral amino acids and a number of pharmaceutical drugs. It is expressed in numerous cell types including T-cells, cancer cells and brain endothelial cells. However, mechanistic knowledge of how it functions and its interactions with lipids are unknown or limited due to inability of obtaining stable purified protein in sufficient quantities. Our data show that depleting cellular cholesterol reduced the Vmax but not the Km of the LAT1 mediated uptake of a model substrate into cells (L-DOPA). A soluble cholesterol analogue was required for the stable purification of the LAT1 with its chaperon CD98 (4F2hc,SLC3A2) and that this stabilised complex retained the ability to interact with a substrate. We propose cholesterol interacts with the conserved regions in the LAT1 transporter that have been shown to bind to cholesterol/CHS in Drosophila melanogaster dopamine transporter. In conclusion, LAT1 is modulated by cholesterol impacting on its stability and transporter activity. This novel finding has implications for other SLC7 family members and additional eukaryotic transporters that contain the LeuT fold. PMID:28272458

  16. Fermi-LAT Observations of Galactic Transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the observations of Galactic transients by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope. The LAT is producing spectacular results for the GeV transient sky, some of which are shown and reviewed. Some of the results in the GeV range that are discussed in this presentation are: (1) New blazars and unidentified transients (2) the jet of the Cygnus X-3 microquasar (3) gamma rays from V407 Cygni nova (4) Fast high-energy gamma-ray flares from the Crab Nebula

  17. ATP binding to p97/VCP D1 domain regulates selective recruitment of adaptors to its proximal N-domain.

    PubMed

    Chia, Wei Sheng; Chia, Diana Xueqi; Rao, Feng; Bar Nun, Shoshana; Geifman Shochat, Susana

    2012-01-01

    p97/Valosin-containing protein (VCP) is a member of the AAA-ATPase family involved in many cellular processes including cell division, intracellular trafficking and extraction of misfolded proteins in endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD). It is a homohexamer with each subunit containing two tandem D1 and D2 ATPase domains and N- and C-terminal regions that function as adaptor protein binding domains. p97/VCP is directed to its many different functional pathways by associating with various adaptor proteins. The regulation of the recruitment of the adaptor proteins remains unclear. Two adaptor proteins, Ufd1/Npl4 and p47, which bind exclusively to the p97/VCP N-domain and direct p97/VCP to either ERAD-related processes or homotypic fusion of Golgi fragments, were studied here. Surface plasmon resonance biosensor-based assays allowed the study of binding kinetics in real time. In competition experiments, it was observed that in the presence of ATP, Ufd1/Npl4 was able to compete more effectively with p47 for binding to p97/VCP. By using non-hydrolysable ATP analogues and the hexameric truncated p97/N-D1 fragment, it was shown that binding rather than hydrolysis of ATP to the proximal D1 domain strengthened the Ufd1/Npl4 association with the N-domain, thus regulating the recruitment of either Ufd1/Npl4 or p47. This novel role of ATP and an assigned function to the D1 AAA-ATPase domain link the multiple functions of p97/VCP to the metabolic status of the cell.

  18. Elucidation of Novel Structural Scaffold in Rohu TLR2 and Its Binding Site Analysis with Peptidoglycan, Lipoteichoic Acid and Zymosan Ligands, and Downstream MyD88 Adaptor Protein

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Bikash Ranjan; Basu, Madhubanti; Swain, Banikalyan; Dikhit, Manas Ranjan; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Samanta, Mrinal

    2013-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play key roles in sensing wide array of microbial signatures and induction of innate immunity. TLR2 in fish resembles higher eukaryotes by sensing peptidoglycan (PGN) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) of bacterial cell wall and zymosan of yeasts. However, in fish TLR2, no study yet describes the ligand binding motifs in the leucine rich repeat regions (LRRs) of the extracellular domain (ECD) and important amino acids in TLR2-TIR (toll/interleukin-1 receptor) domain that could be engaged in transmitting downstream signaling. We predicted these in a commercially important freshwater fish species rohu (Labeo rohita) by constructing 3D models of TLR2-ECD, TLR2-TIR, and MyD88-TIR by comparative modeling followed by 40 ns (nanosecond) molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) for TLR2-ECD and 20 ns MDS for TLR2-TIR and MyD88-TIR. Protein (TLR2-ECD)–ligands (PGN, LTA, and zymosan) docking in rohu by AutoDock4.0, FlexX2.1, and GOLD4.1 anticipated LRR16–19, LRR12–14, and LRR20-CT as the most important ligand binding motifs. Protein (TLR2-TIR)—protein (MyD88-TIR) interaction by HADDOCK and ZDOCK predicted BB loop, αB-helix, αC-helix, and CD loop in TLR2-TIR and BB loop, αB-helix, and CD loop in MyD88-TIR as the critical binding domains. This study provides ligands recognition and downstream signaling. PMID:23956969

  19. Tonic LAT-HDAC7 Signals Sustain Nur77 and Irf4 Expression to Tune Naive CD4 T Cells.

    PubMed

    Myers, Darienne R; Lau, Tannia; Markegard, Evan; Lim, Hyung W; Kasler, Herbert; Zhu, Minghua; Barczak, Andrea; Huizar, John P; Zikherman, Julie; Erle, David J; Zhang, Weiguo; Verdin, Eric; Roose, Jeroen P

    2017-05-23

    CD4(+) T cells differentiate into T helper cell subsets in feedforward manners with synergistic signals from the T cell receptor (TCR), cytokines, and lineage-specific transcription factors. Naive CD4(+) T cells avoid spontaneous engagement of feedforward mechanisms but retain a prepared state. T cells lacking the adaptor molecule LAT demonstrate impaired TCR-induced signals yet cause a spontaneous lymphoproliferative T helper 2 (TH2) cell syndrome in mice. Thus, LAT constitutes an unexplained maintenance cue. Here, we demonstrate that tonic signals through LAT constitutively export the repressor HDAC7 from the nucleus of CD4(+) T cells. Without such tonic signals, HDAC7 target genes Nur77 and Irf4 are repressed. We reveal that Nur77 suppresses CD4(+) T cell proliferation and uncover a suppressive role for Irf4 in TH2 polarization; halving Irf4 gene-dosage leads to increases in GATA3(+) and IL-4(+) cells. Our studies reveal that naive CD4(+) T cells are dynamically tuned by tonic LAT-HDAC7 signals. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Adaptor proteins MiD49 and MiD51 can act independently of Mff and Fis1 in Drp1 recruitment and are specific for mitochondrial fission.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Catherine S; Elgass, Kirstin D; Parton, Robert G; Osellame, Laura D; Stojanovski, Diana; Ryan, Michael T

    2013-09-20

    Drp1 (dynamin-related protein 1) is recruited to both mitochondrial and peroxisomal membranes to execute fission. Fis1 and Mff are Drp1 receptor/effector proteins of mitochondria and peroxisomes. Recently, MiD49 and MiD51 were also shown to recruit Drp1 to the mitochondrial surface; however, different reports have ascribed opposing roles in fission and fusion. Here, we show that MiD49 or MiD51 overexpression blocked fission by acting in a dominant-negative manner by sequestering Drp1 specifically at mitochondria, causing unopposed fusion events at mitochondria along with elongation of peroxisomes. Mitochondrial elongation caused by MiD49/51 overexpression required the action of fusion mediators mitofusins 1 and 2. Furthermore, at low level overexpression when MiD49 and MiD51 form discrete foci at mitochondria, mitochondrial fission events still occurred. Unlike Fis1 and Mff, MiD49 and MiD51 were not targeted to the peroxisomal surface, suggesting that they specifically act to facilitate Drp1-directed fission at mitochondria. Moreover, when MiD49 or MiD51 was targeted to the surface of peroxisomes or lysosomes, Drp1 was specifically recruited to these organelles. Moreover, the Drp1 recruitment activity of MiD49/51 appeared stronger than that of Mff or Fis1. We conclude that MiD49 and MiD51 can act independently of Mff and Fis1 in Drp1 recruitment and suggest that they provide specificity to the division of mitochondria.

  1. Adaptor Proteins MiD49 and MiD51 Can Act Independently of Mff and Fis1 in Drp1 Recruitment and Are Specific for Mitochondrial Fission*

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Catherine S.; Elgass, Kirstin D.; Parton, Robert G.; Osellame, Laura D.; Stojanovski, Diana; Ryan, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Drp1 (dynamin-related protein 1) is recruited to both mitochondrial and peroxisomal membranes to execute fission. Fis1 and Mff are Drp1 receptor/effector proteins of mitochondria and peroxisomes. Recently, MiD49 and MiD51 were also shown to recruit Drp1 to the mitochondrial surface; however, different reports have ascribed opposing roles in fission and fusion. Here, we show that MiD49 or MiD51 overexpression blocked fission by acting in a dominant-negative manner by sequestering Drp1 specifically at mitochondria, causing unopposed fusion events at mitochondria along with elongation of peroxisomes. Mitochondrial elongation caused by MiD49/51 overexpression required the action of fusion mediators mitofusins 1 and 2. Furthermore, at low level overexpression when MiD49 and MiD51 form discrete foci at mitochondria, mitochondrial fission events still occurred. Unlike Fis1 and Mff, MiD49 and MiD51 were not targeted to the peroxisomal surface, suggesting that they specifically act to facilitate Drp1-directed fission at mitochondria. Moreover, when MiD49 or MiD51 was targeted to the surface of peroxisomes or lysosomes, Drp1 was specifically recruited to these organelles. Moreover, the Drp1 recruitment activity of MiD49/51 appeared stronger than that of Mff or Fis1. We conclude that MiD49 and MiD51 can act independently of Mff and Fis1 in Drp1 recruitment and suggest that they provide specificity to the division of mitochondria. PMID:23921378

  2. Involvement of the L-Type Amino Acid Transporter Lat2 in the Transport of 3,3′-Diiodothyronine across the Plasma Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Kinne, Anita; Wittner, Melanie; Wirth, Eva K.; Hinz, Katrin M.; Schülein, Ralf; Köhrle, Josef; Krause, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are transported across cell membranes by transmembrane transporter proteins, for example by members of the monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) and the L-type amino acid transporter (LAT) families. LATs consist of a light chain (e.g. LAT2) and a heavy chain (CD98), which is essential for their cell surface expression and functionality. The specificity of Lat2 for thyroid hormones and their metabolites and its role in their transport was not fully clear. This fact motivated us to establish a cell system to elucidate the uptake of thyroid hormones and their metabolites by mouse Lat2. The coinjection of cRNA coding for Lat2 and CD98 into Xenopus laevis oocytes resulted in a markedly increased level of 3,3′-diiodo-L-thyronine (3,3′-T2) and to some extent also enhanced T3 transport. To gain insight into properties of thyroid hormones and their metabolites transported by Lat2, we inhibited 3,3′-T2 uptake by various iodothyronine derivatives. T1 and T2 derivatives as well as 2-aminobicyclo-[2, 2,1]-heptane-2-carboxylic acid strongly competed with 3,3′-T2 uptake. In addition, we performed T2 uptake measurements with the thyroid hormone-specific transporter MCT8. For both Lat2 and MCT8, Km values in a low micromolar range were calculated. We demonstrated that oocytes are a suitable system for thyroid hormone transport studies mediated by Lat2. Our data indicates that Lat2 compared to other thyroid hormone transporters prefers 3,3′-T2 as the substrate. Thus, Lat2 might contribute to the availability of thyroid hormone by importing and/or exporting 3,3′-T2, which is generated either by T3 inactivation or by rapid deiodinase 1-mediated rT3 degradation. PMID:26601072

  3. The GLAST Mission, LAT and GRBs

    SciTech Connect

    Omodei, Nicola; /INFN, Pisa

    2006-04-05

    The GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT) is the next generation satellite experiment for high-energy gamma-ray astronomy. It is a pair conversion telescope built with a plastic anticoincidence shield, a segmented CsI electromagnetic calorimeter, and the largest silicon strip tracker ever built. It will cover the energy range from 30 MeV to 300 GeV, shedding light on many issues left open by its predecessor EGRET. One of the most exciting science topics is the detection and observation of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). In this paper we present the work done so far by the GRB LAT science group in studying the performance of the LAT detector to observe GRBs.We report on the simulation framework developed by the group as well as on the science tools dedicated to GRBs data analysis. We present the LAT sensitivity to GRBs obtained with such simulations, and, finally, the general scheme of GRBs detection that will be adopted on orbit.

  4. In vitro and in vivo Analysis of the Binding of the C Terminus of the HDL Receptor Scavenger Receptor Class B type I (SR-BI) to the PDZ1 Domain of its Cytoplasmic Adaptor Protein PDZK1

    SciTech Connect

    O Kocher; G Birrane; K Tsukamoto; S Fenske; A Yesilaltay; R Pal; K Daniels; J Ladias; M Krieger

    2011-12-31

    The PDZ1 domain of the four PDZ domain-containing protein PDZK1 has been reported to bind the C terminus of the HDL receptor scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI), and to control hepatic SR-BI expression and function. We generated wild-type (WT) and mutant murine PDZ1 domains, the mutants bearing single amino acid substitutions in their carboxylate binding loop (Lys(14)-Xaa(4)-Asn(19)-Tyr-Gly-Phe-Phe-Leu(24)), and measured their binding affinity for a 7-residue peptide corresponding to the C terminus of SR-BI ((503)VLQEAKL(509)). The Y20A and G21Y substitutions abrogated all binding activity. Surprisingly, binding affinities (K(d)) of the K14A and F22A mutants were 3.2 and 4.0 ?M, respectively, similar to 2.6 ?M measured for the WT PDZ1. To understand these findings, we determined the high resolution structure of WT PDZ1 bound to a 5-residue sequence from the C-terminal SR-BI ((505)QEAKL(509)) using x-ray crystallography. In addition, we incorporated the K14A and Y20A substitutions into full-length PDZK1 liver-specific transgenes and expressed them in WT and PDZK1 knock-out mice. In WT mice, the transgenes did not alter endogenous hepatic SR-BI protein expression (intracellular distribution or amount) or lipoprotein metabolism (total plasma cholesterol, lipoprotein size distribution). In PDZK1 knock-out mice, as expected, the K14A mutant behaved like wild-type PDZK1 and completely corrected their hepatic SR-BI and plasma lipoprotein abnormalities. Unexpectedly, the 10-20-fold overexpressed Y20A mutant also substantially, but not completely, corrected these abnormalities. The results suggest that there may be an additional site(s) within PDZK1 that bind(s) SR-BI and mediate(s) productive SR-BI-PDZK1 interaction previously attributed exclusively to the canonical binding of the C-terminal SR-BI to PDZ1.

  5. LAT Automated Science Processing for Gamma-Ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, James

    2007-05-01

    The LAT Instrument Science Operations Center (ISOC) will perform various tasks to support coordination of multiwavelength observations for transient sources. In this paper, we describe the prototype implementation of the Automated Science Processing (ASP) for the detection and analysis of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in LAT and GBM data. The GRB-related tasks include: position refinement using LAT data given initial GBM or GCN locations, spectral analysis using LAT data alone, joint spectral fitting with GBM data, gamma-ray afterglow detection and characterization, and blind searches for prompt burst emission in LAT data.

  6. A liquid crystal of ascorbyl palmitate, used as vaccine platform, provides sustained release of antigen and has intrinsic pro-inflammatory and adjuvant activities which are dependent on MyD88 adaptor protein.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Vallecillo, María F; Minguito de la Escalera, María M; Aguirre, María V; Ullio Gamboa, Gabriela V; Palma, Santiago D; González-Cintado, Leticia; Chiodetti, Ana L; Soldano, Germán; Morón, Gabriel; Allemandi, Daniel A; Ardavín, Carlos; Pistoresi-Palencia, María C; Maletto, Belkys A

    2015-09-28

    Modern subunit vaccines require the development of new adjuvant strategies. Recently, we showed that CpG-ODN formulated with a liquid crystal nanostructure formed by self-assembly of 6-O-ascorbyl palmitate (Coa-ASC16) is an attractive system for promoting an antigen-specific immune response to weak antigens. Here, we showed that after subcutaneous injection of mice with near-infrared fluorescent dye-labeled OVA antigen formulated with Coa-ASC16, the dye-OVA was retained at the injection site for a longer period than when soluble dye-OVA was administered. Coa-ASC16 alone elicited a local inflammation, but how this material triggers this response has not been described yet. Although it is known that some materials used as a platform are not immunologically inert, very few studies have directly focused on this topic. In this study, we explored the underlying mechanisms concerning the interaction between Coa-ASC16 and the immune system and we found that the whole inflammatory response elicited by Coa-ASC16 (leukocyte recruitment and IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12 production) was dependent on the MyD88 protein. TLR2, TLR4, TLR7 and NLRP3-inflammasome signaling were not required for induction of this inflammatory response. Coa-ASC16 induced local release of self-DNA, and in TLR9-deficient mice IL-6 production was absent. In addition, Coa-ASC16 revealed an intrinsic adjuvant activity which was affected by MyD88 and IL-6 absence. Taken together these results indicate that Coa-ASC16 used as a vaccine platform is effective due to the combination of the controlled release of antigen and its intrinsic pro-inflammatory activity. Understanding how Coa-ASC16 works might have significant implications for rational vaccine design.

  7. GLAST LAT And Pulsars: What Do We Learn from Simulations?

    SciTech Connect

    Razzano, Massimiliano; Harding, Alice K.; /NASA, Goddard

    2007-10-24

    Gamma-ray pulsars are among the best targets for the Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard the GLAST mission. The higher sensitivity, time and energy resolution of the LAT will provide data of fundamental importance to understand the physics of these fascinating objects. Powerful tools for studying the LAT capabilities for pulsar science are the simulation programs developed within the GLAST Collaboration. Thanks to these simulations it is possible to produce a detailed distribution of gamma-ray photons in energy and phase that can be folded through the LAT Instrument Response Functions (IRFs). Here we present some of the main interesting results from the simulations developed to study the discovery potential of the LAT. In particular we will focus on the capability of the LAT to discover new radio-loud gamma-ray pulsars, on the discrimination between Polar Cap and Outer Gap models, and on the LAT pulsar sensitivity.

  8. The LAT story: a tale of cooperativity, coordination, and choreography.

    PubMed

    Balagopalan, Lakshmi; Coussens, Nathan P; Sherman, Eilon; Samelson, Lawrence E; Sommers, Connie L

    2010-08-01

    The adapter molecule LAT is a nucleating site for multiprotein signaling complexes that are vital for the function and differentiation of T cells. Extensive investigation of LAT in multiple experimental systems has led to an integrated understanding of the formation, composition, regulation, dynamic movement, and function of LAT-nucleated signaling complexes. This review discusses interactions of signaling molecules that bind directly or indirectly to LAT and the role of cooperativity in stabilizing LAT-nucleated signaling complexes. In addition, it focuses on how imaging studies visualize signaling assemblies as signaling clusters and demonstrate their dynamic nature and cellular fate. Finally, this review explores the function of LAT based on the interpretation of mouse models using various LAT mutants.

  9. Stabilization of a prokaryotic LAT transporter by random mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Banqueri, Arturo; Errasti-Murugarren, Ekaitz; Bartoccioni, Paola; Kowalczyk, Lukasz; Perálvarez-Marín, Alex; Palacín, Manuel; Vázquez-Ibar, José Luis

    2016-04-01

    The knowledge of three-dimensional structures at atomic resolution of membrane transport proteins has improved considerably our understanding of their physiological roles and pathological implications. However, most structural biology techniques require an optimal candidate within a protein family for structural determination with (a) reasonable production in heterologous hosts and (b) good stability in detergent micelles. SteT, the Bacillus subtilis L-serine/L-threonine exchanger is the best-known prokaryotic paradigm of the mammalian L-amino acid transporter (LAT) family. Unfortunately, SteT's lousy stability after extracting from the membrane prevents its structural characterization. Here, we have used an approach based on random mutagenesis to engineer stability in SteT. Using a split GFP complementation assay as reporter of protein expression and membrane insertion, we created a library of 70 SteT mutants each containing random replacements of one or two residues situated in the transmembrane domains. Analysis of expression and monodispersity in detergent of this library permitted the identification of evolved versions of SteT with a significant increase in both expression yield and stability in detergent with respect to wild type. In addition, these experiments revealed a correlation between the yield of expression and the stability in detergent micelles. Finally, and based on protein delipidation and relipidation assays together with transport experiments, possible mechanisms of SteT stabilization are discussed. Besides optimizing a member of the LAT family for structural determination, our work proposes a new approach that can be used to optimize any membrane protein of interest. © 2016 Rodríguez-Banqueri et al.

  10. Stabilization of a prokaryotic LAT transporter by random mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Banqueri, Arturo; Errasti-Murugarren, Ekaitz; Bartoccioni, Paola; Kowalczyk, Lukasz; Perálvarez-Marín, Alex

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge of three-dimensional structures at atomic resolution of membrane transport proteins has improved considerably our understanding of their physiological roles and pathological implications. However, most structural biology techniques require an optimal candidate within a protein family for structural determination with (a) reasonable production in heterologous hosts and (b) good stability in detergent micelles. SteT, the Bacillus subtilis l-serine/l-threonine exchanger is the best-known prokaryotic paradigm of the mammalian l–amino acid transporter (LAT) family. Unfortunately, SteT’s lousy stability after extracting from the membrane prevents its structural characterization. Here, we have used an approach based on random mutagenesis to engineer stability in SteT. Using a split GFP complementation assay as reporter of protein expression and membrane insertion, we created a library of 70 SteT mutants each containing random replacements of one or two residues situated in the transmembrane domains. Analysis of expression and monodispersity in detergent of this library permitted the identification of evolved versions of SteT with a significant increase in both expression yield and stability in detergent with respect to wild type. In addition, these experiments revealed a correlation between the yield of expression and the stability in detergent micelles. Finally, and based on protein delipidation and relipidation assays together with transport experiments, possible mechanisms of SteT stabilization are discussed. Besides optimizing a member of the LAT family for structural determination, our work proposes a new approach that can be used to optimize any membrane protein of interest. PMID:26976827

  11. LAT1 activity of carboxylic acid bioisosteres: Evaluation of hydroxamic acids as substrates.

    PubMed

    Zur, Arik A; Chien, Huan-Chieh; Augustyn, Evan; Flint, Andrew; Heeren, Nathan; Finke, Karissa; Hernandez, Christopher; Hansen, Logan; Miller, Sydney; Lin, Lawrence; Giacomini, Kathleen M; Colas, Claire; Schlessinger, Avner; Thomas, Allen A

    2016-10-15

    Large neutral amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) is a solute carrier protein located primarily in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that offers the potential to deliver drugs to the brain. It is also up-regulated in cancer cells, as part of a tumor's increased metabolic demands. Previously, amino acid prodrugs have been shown to be transported by LAT1. Carboxylic acid bioisosteres may afford prodrugs with an altered physicochemical and pharmacokinetic profile than those derived from natural amino acids, allowing for higher brain or tumor levels of drug and/or lower toxicity. The effect of replacing phenylalanine's carboxylic acid with a tetrazole, acylsulfonamide and hydroxamic acid (HA) bioisostere was examined. Compounds were tested for their ability to be LAT1 substrates using both cis-inhibition and trans-stimulation cell assays. As HA-Phe demonstrated weak substrate activity, its structure-activity relationship (SAR) was further explored by synthesis and testing of HA derivatives of other LAT1 amino acid substrates (i.e., Tyr, Leu, Ile, and Met). The potential for a false positive in the trans-stimulation assay caused by parent amino acid was evaluated by conducting compound stability experiments for both HA-Leu and the corresponding methyl ester derivative. We concluded that HA's are transported by LAT1. In addition, our results lend support to a recent account that amino acid esters are LAT1 substrates, and that hydrogen bonding may be as important as charge for interaction with the transporter binding site. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Heterodimerization of y(+)LAT-1 and 4F2hc visualized by acceptor photobleaching FRET microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kleemola, Maaria; Toivonen, Minna; Mykkänen, Juha; Simell, Olli; Huoponen, Kirsi; Heiskanen, Kaisa M

    2007-10-01

    y(+)LAT-1 and 4F2hc are the subunits of a transporter complex for cationic amino acids, located mainly in the basolateral plasma membrane of epithelial cells in the small intestine and renal tubules. Mutations in y(+)LAT-1 impair the transport function of this complex and cause a selective aminoaciduria, lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI, OMIM #222700), associated with severe, complex clinical symptoms. The subunits of an active transporter co-localize in the plasma membrane, but the exact process of dimerization is unclear since direct evidence for the assembly of this transporter in intact human cells has not been available. In this study, we used fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) microscopy to investigate the interactions of y(+)LAT-1 and 4F2hc in HEK293 cells expressing y(+)LAT-1 and 4F2hc fused with ECFP or EYFP. FRET was quantified by measuring fluorescence intensity changes in the donor fluorophore (ECFP) after the photobleaching of the acceptor (EYFP). Increased donor fluorescence could be detected throughout the cell, from the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex to the plasma membrane. Therefore, our data prove the interaction of y(+)LAT-1 and 4F2hc prior to the plasma membrane and thus provide evidence for 4F2hc functioning as a chaperone in assisting the transport of y(+)LAT-1 to the plasma membrane.

  13. Lats1/2 Regulate Yap/Taz to Control Nephron Progenitor Epithelialization and Inhibit Myofibroblast Formation.

    PubMed

    McNeill, Helen; Reginensi, Antoine

    2017-03-01

    In the kidney, formation of the functional filtration units, the nephrons, is essential for postnatal life. During development, mesenchymal progenitors tightly regulate the balance between self-renewal and differentiation to give rise to all nephron epithelia. Here, we investigated the functions of the Hippo pathway serine/threonine-protein kinases Lats1 and Lats2, which phosphorylate and inhibit the transcriptional coactivators Yap and Taz, in nephron progenitor cells. Genetic deletion of Lats1 and Lats2 in nephron progenitors of mice led to disruption of nephrogenesis, with an accumulation of spindle-shaped cells in both cortical and medullary regions of the kidney. Lineage-tracing experiments revealed that the cells that accumulated in the interstitium derived from nephron progenitor cells and expressed E-cadherin as well as vimentin, a myofibroblastic marker not usually detected after mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition. The accumulation of these interstitial cells associated with collagen deposition and ectopic expression of the myofibroblastic markers vimentin and α-smooth-muscle actin in developing kidneys. Although these myofibroblastic cells had high Yap and Taz accumulation in the nucleus concomitant with a loss of phosphorylated Yap, reduction of Yap and/or Taz expression levels completely rescued the Lats1/2 phenotype. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Lats1/2 kinases restrict Yap/Taz activities to promote nephron progenitor cell differentiation in the mammalian kidney. Notably, our data also show that myofibroblastic cells can differentiate from nephron progenitors. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  14. An evolutionarily conserved negative feedback mechanism in the Hippo pathway reflects functional difference between LATS1 and LATS2

    PubMed Central

    Park, Gun-Soo; Oh, Hyangyee; Kim, Minchul; Kim, Tackhoon; Johnson, Randy L.; Irvine, Ke