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Sample records for adaptor protein regulating

  1. The human adaptor SARM negatively regulates adaptor protein TRIF-dependent Toll-like receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Carty, Michael; Goodbody, Rory; Schröder, Martina; Stack, Julianne; Moynagh, Paul N; Bowie, Andrew G

    2006-10-01

    Toll-like receptors discriminate between different pathogen-associated molecules and activate signaling cascades that lead to immune responses. The specificity of Toll-like receptor signaling occurs by means of adaptor proteins containing Toll-interleukin 1 receptor (TIR) domains. Activating functions have been assigned to four TIR adaptors: MyD88, Mal, TRIF and TRAM. Here we characterize a fifth TIR adaptor, SARM, as a negative regulator of TRIF-dependent Toll-like receptor signaling. Expression of SARM blocked gene induction 'downstream' of TRIF but not of MyD88. SARM associated with TRIF, and 'knockdown' of endogenous SARM expression by interfering RNA led to enhanced TRIF-dependent cytokine and chemokine induction. Thus, the fifth mammalian TIR adaptor SARM is a negative regulator of Toll-like receptor signaling.

  2. Alternative Splicing in CaV2.2 Regulates Neuronal Trafficking via Adaptor Protein Complex-1 Adaptor Protein Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Macabuag, Natsuko

    2015-01-01

    N-type voltage-gated calcium (CaV2.2) channels are expressed in neurons and targeted to the plasma membrane of presynaptic terminals, facilitating neurotransmitter release. Here, we find that the adaptor protein complex-1 (AP-1) mediates trafficking of CaV2.2 from the trans-Golgi network to the cell surface. Examination of splice variants of CaV2.2, containing either exon 37a (selectively expressed in nociceptors) or 37b in the proximal C terminus, reveal that canonical AP-1 binding motifs, YxxΦ and [DE]xxxL[LI], present only in exon 37a, enhance intracellular trafficking of exon 37a-containing CaV2.2 to the axons and plasma membrane of rat DRG neurons. Finally, we identify differential effects of dopamine-2 receptor (D2R) and its agonist-induced activation on trafficking of CaV2.2 isoforms. D2R slowed the endocytosis of CaV2.2 containing exon 37b, but not exon 37a, and activation by the agonist quinpirole reversed the effect of the D2R. Our work thus reveals key mechanisms involved in the trafficking of N-type calcium channels. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT CaV2.2 channels are important for neurotransmitter release, but how they are trafficked is still poorly understood. Here, we describe a novel mechanism for trafficking of CaV2.2 from the trans-Golgi network to the cell surface which is mediated by the adaptor protein AP-1. Alternative splicing of exon 37 produces CaV2.2-exon 37a, selectively expressed in nociceptors, or CaV2.2-exon 37b, which is the major splice isoform. Our study reveals that canonical AP-1 binding motifs (YxxΦ and [DE]xxxL[LI]), present in exon 37a, but not 37b, enhance intracellular trafficking of exon 37a-containing CaV2.2 to axons and plasma membrane of DRG neurons. Interaction of APs with CaV2.2 channels may also be key underlying mechanisms for differential effects of the dopamine D2 receptor on trafficking of CaV2.2 splice variants. PMID:26511252

  3. Binding of AP-2 adaptor complex to brain membrane is regulated by phosphorylation of proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Alberdi, A. . E-mail: aalberdi@fcm.uncu.edu.ar; Sartor, T.; Sosa, M.A.

    2005-05-13

    Phosphorylation of proteins appears as a key process in early steps of clathrin coated vesicle formation. Here, we report that treatment of post-nuclear fraction with alkaline phosphatase induced redistribution of {alpha} subunits of AP-2 adaptor complex to cytosol and this effect was higher in the {alpha}2 subunit. A high serine phosphorylation status of {alpha} subunits correlated with the higher affinity of AP-2 to membranes. Using a simple binding assay, where membranes were incubated with either purified adaptors or cytosols, we observed an inhibitory effect of tyrphostin, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, on the binding of AP-2 to membranes, but also an unexpected decrease induced by the phosphatase inhibitor cyclosporine. We also show an inhibitory effect of ATP mediated by cytosolic proteins, although it could not be related to the phosphorylation of AP-2, suggesting an action upstream a cascade of phosphorylations that participate in the regulation of the assembly of AP-2 to membranes.

  4. Differential Regulation of Clathrin and Its Adaptor Proteins during Membrane Recruitment for Endocytosis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Hu, Tianwei; Yan, Xu; Meng, Tingting; Wang, Yutong; Wang, Qingmei; Zhang, Xiaoyue; Gu, Ying; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Clara; Gadeyne, Astrid; Lin, Jinxing

    2016-01-01

    In plants, clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is dependent on the function of clathrin and its accessory heterooligomeric adaptor protein complexes, ADAPTOR PROTEIN2 (AP-2) and the TPLATE complex (TPC), and is negatively regulated by the hormones auxin and salicylic acid (SA). The details for how clathrin and its adaptor complexes are recruited to the plasma membrane (PM) to regulate CME, however, are poorly understood. We found that SA and the pharmacological CME inhibitor tyrphostin A23 reduce the membrane association of clathrin and AP-2, but not that of the TPC, whereas auxin solely affected clathrin membrane association, in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Genetic and pharmacological experiments revealed that loss of AP2μ or AP2σ partially affected the membrane association of other AP-2 subunits and that the AP-2 subunit AP2σ, but not AP2μ, was required for SA- and tyrphostin A23-dependent inhibition of CME. Furthermore, we show that although AP-2 and the TPC are both required for the PM recruitment of clathrin in wild-type cells, the TPC is necessary for clathrin PM association in AP-2-deficient cells. These results indicate that developmental signals may differentially modulate the membrane recruitment of clathrin and its core accessory complexes to regulate the process of CME in plant cells. PMID:26945051

  5. The Lnk adaptor protein: a key regulator of normal and pathological hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Velazquez, Laura

    2012-12-01

    The development and function of blood cells are regulated by specific growth factors/cytokines and their receptors' signaling pathways. In this way, these factors influence cell survival, proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic cells. Central to this positive and/or negative control are the adaptor proteins. Since their identification 10 years ago, members of the Lnk adaptor protein family have proved to be important activators and/or inhibitors in the hematopoietic, immune and vascular system. In particular, the generation of animal and cellular models for the Lnk and APS proteins has helped establish the physiological role of these molecules through the identification of their specific signaling pathways and the characterization of their binding partners. Moreover, the recent identification of mutations in the LNK gene in myeloproliferative disorders, as well as the correlation of a single nucleotide polymorphism on LNK with hematological, immune and vascular diseases have suggested its involvement in the pathophysiology of these malignancies. The latter findings have thus raised the possibility of addressing Lnk signaling for the treatment of certain human diseases. This review therefore describes the pathophysiological role of this adaptor protein in hematological malignancies and the potential benefits of Lnk therapeutic targeting.

  6. The polarity protein Par3 regulates APP trafficking and processing through the endocytic adaptor protein Numb.

    PubMed

    Sun, Miao; Asghar, Suwaiba Z; Zhang, Huaye

    2016-09-01

    The processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) into β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) is a key step in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and trafficking dysregulations of APP and its secretases contribute significantly to altered APP processing. Here we show that the cell polarity protein Par3 plays an important role in APP processing and trafficking. We found that the expression of full length Par3 is significantly decreased in AD patients. Overexpression of Par3 promotes non-amyloidogenic APP processing, while depletion of Par3 induces intracellular accumulation of Aβ. We further show that Par3 functions by regulating APP trafficking. Loss of Par3 decreases surface expression of APP by targeting APP to the late endosome/lysosome pathway. Finally, we show that the effects of Par3 are mediated through the endocytic adaptor protein Numb, and Par3 functions by interfering with the interaction between Numb and APP. Together, our studies show a novel role for Par3 in regulating APP processing and trafficking.

  7. Adaptor protein Nck1 interacts with p120 Ras GTPase-activating protein and regulates its activity.

    PubMed

    Ger, Marija; Zitkus, Zigmantas; Valius, Mindaugas

    2011-10-01

    Adaptor protein Nck1 binds a number of intracellular proteins and influences various signaling pathways. Here we show that Nck1 directly binds and activates the GTPase-activating protein of Ras (RasGAP), which is responsible for the down-regulation of Ras. The first and the third SH3 domains of Nck1 and the NH(2)-terminal proline-rich sequence of RasGAP contribute most to the complex formation causing direct molecular interaction between the two proteins. Cell adhesion to the substrate is obligatory for the Nck1 and RasGAP association, as cell detachment makes RasGAP incapable of associating with Nck1. This leads to the complex dissipation, decrease of RasGAP activity and the increase of H-Ras-GTP level in the detached cells. Our findings reveal unexpected feature of adaptor protein Nck1 as the regulator of RasGAP activity.

  8. The Rai (Shc C) adaptor protein regulates the neuronal stress response and protects against cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Troglio, Flavia; Echart, Cinara; Gobbi, Alberto; Pawson, Tony; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe; De Simoni, Maria Grazia; Pelicci, Giuliana

    2004-01-01

    Rai (Shc C or N-Shc) is a neuron-specific member of the family of Shc-like adaptor proteins. Rai functions in the cytoplasmic propagation of Ret-dependent survival signals and regulates, in vivo, the number of sympathetic neurons. We report here a function of Rai, i.e., the regulation of the neuronal adaptive response to environmental stresses. We demonstrate that (i) primary cultures of cortical neurons from Rai-/- mice are more sensitive to apoptosis induced by hypoxia or oxidative stress; (ii) in Rai-/- mice, ischemia/reperfusion injury induces severe neurological deficits, increased apoptosis and size of the infarct area, and significantly higher mortality; and (iii) Rai functions as a stress-response gene that increases phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation and Akt phosphorylation after hypoxic or oxidation insults. These data suggest that Rai has a functional neuroprotective role in brain injury, with possible implications in the treatment of stroke. PMID:15494442

  9. Tyrosine phosphorylation-independent regulation of lipopolysaccharide-mediated response by the transmembrane adaptor protein LAB.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Minghua; Fuller, Deirdre M; Ou-Yang, Chih-wen; Sullivan, Sarah A; Zhang, Weiguo

    2012-03-15

    Linker for activation of B cells (LAB)/non-T cell activation linker is a transmembrane adaptor protein that functions in immunoreceptor-mediated signaling. Published studies have shown that LAB has both positive and negative roles in regulating TCR and high-affinity Fc receptor-mediated signaling and cellular function. In this study, we showed that LAB was also expressed in dendritic cells and that LAB deficiency affected LPS-mediated signaling and cytokine production. LPS-mediated MAPK activation was enhanced in LAB(-/-) bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. These bone marrow-derived dendritic cells also produced more TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 than wild-type cells. Moreover, LAB(-/-) mice were hyperresponsive to LPS-induced septic shock. These data indicated that LAB has a negative role in LPS-mediated responses. By using LAB knockin mice, which harbor mutations at five membrane-distal tyrosines, we further showed that, in contrast to its role in immunoreceptor-mediated signaling, LAB function in LPS-mediated signaling pathway did not depend on its tyrosine phosphorylation. Our study suggested a novel mechanism by which LAB functions in the regulation of innate immunity.

  10. Activity-Regulated Cytoskeleton-Associated Protein Controls AMPAR Endocytosis through a Direct Interaction with Clathrin-Adaptor Protein 2123

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Mark J.; P. de Almeida, Luciana; Wauters, Sandrine C.; Januário, Yunan C.; Müller, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated (Arc) protein controls synaptic strength by facilitating AMPA receptor (AMPAR) endocytosis. Here we demonstrate that Arc targets AMPAR to be internalized through a direct interaction with the clathrin-adaptor protein 2 (AP-2). We show that Arc overexpression in dissociated hippocampal neurons obtained from C57BL/6 mouse reduces the density of AMPAR GluA1 subunits at the cell surface and reduces the amplitude and rectification of AMPAR-mediated miniature-EPSCs (mEPSCs). Mutations of Arc, that prevent the AP-2 interaction reduce Arc-mediated endocytosis of GluA1 and abolish the reduction in AMPAR-mediated mEPSC amplitude and rectification. Depletion of the AP-2 subunit µ2 blocks the Arc-mediated reduction in mEPSC amplitude, an effect that is restored by reintroducing µ2. The Arc–AP-2 interaction plays an important role in homeostatic synaptic scaling as the Arc-dependent decrease in mEPSC amplitude, induced by a chronic increase in neuronal activity, is inhibited by AP-2 depletion. These data provide a mechanism to explain how activity-dependent expression of Arc decisively controls the fate of AMPAR at the cell surface and modulates synaptic strength, via the direct interaction with the endocytic clathrin adaptor AP-2. PMID:27257628

  11. Cargo adaptors: structures illuminate mechanisms regulating vesicle biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Paczkowski, Jon E; Richardson, Brian C; Fromme, J Christopher

    2015-07-01

    Cargo adaptors sort transmembrane protein cargos into nascent vesicles by binding directly to their cytosolic domains. Recent studies have revealed previously unappreciated roles for cargo adaptors and regulatory mechanisms governing their function. The adaptor protein (AP)-1 and AP-2 clathrin adaptors switch between open and closed conformations that ensure they function at the right place at the right time. The exomer cargo adaptor has a direct role in remodeling the membrane for vesicle fission. Several different cargo adaptors functioning in distinct trafficking pathways at the Golgi are similarly regulated through bivalent binding to the ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (Arf1) GTPase, potentially enabling regulation by a threshold concentration of Arf1. Taken together, these studies highlight that cargo adaptors do more than just adapt cargos.

  12. Cargo adaptors: structures illuminate mechanisms regulating vesicle biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Paczkowski, Jon E.; Richardson, Brian C.; Fromme, J. Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Cargo adaptors sort transmembrane protein cargos into nascent vesicles by binding directly to their cytosolic domains. Recent studies have revealed previously unappreciated roles for cargo adaptors and regulatory mechanisms governing their function. The AP-1 and AP-2 clathrin adaptors switch between open and closed conformations that ensure they function at the right place at the right time. The exomer cargo adaptor plays a direct role in remodeling the membrane for vesicle fission. Several different cargo adaptors functioning in distinct trafficking pathways at the Golgi are similarly regulated through bivalent binding to the Arf1 GTPase, potentially enabling regulation by a threshold concentration of Arf1. Taken together, these studies highlight that cargo adaptors do more than just adapt cargos. PMID:25795254

  13. Regulation of in vitro and in vivo immune functions by the cytosolic adaptor protein SKAP-HOM.

    PubMed

    Togni, M; Swanson, K D; Reimann, S; Kliche, S; Pearce, A C; Simeoni, L; Reinhold, D; Wienands, J; Neel, B G; Schraven, B; Gerber, A

    2005-09-01

    SKAP-HOM is a cytosolic adaptor protein representing a specific substrate for the Src family protein tyrosine kinase Fyn. Previously, several groups have provided experimental evidence that SKAP-HOM (most likely in cooperation with the cytosolic adaptor protein ADAP) is involved in regulating leukocyte adhesion. To further assess the physiological role of SKAP-HOM, we investigated the immune system of SKAP-HOM-deficient mice. Our data show that T-cell responses towards a variety of stimuli are unaffected in the absence of SKAP-HOM. Similarly, B-cell receptor (BCR)-mediated total tyrosine phosphorylation and phosphorylation of Erk, p38, and JNK, as well as immunoreceptor-mediated Ca(2+) responses, are normal in SKAP-HOM(-/-) animals. However, despite apparently normal membrane-proximal signaling events, BCR-mediated proliferation is strongly attenuated in the absence of SKAP-HOM(-/-). In addition, adhesion of activated B cells to fibronectin (a ligand for beta1 integrins) as well as to ICAM-1 (a ligand for beta2 integrins) is strongly reduced. In vivo, the loss of SKAP-HOM results in a less severe clinical course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis following immunization of mice with the encephalitogenic peptide of MOG (myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein). This is accompanied by strongly reduced serum levels of MOG-specific antibodies and lower MOG-specific T-cell responses. In summary, our data suggest that SKAP-HOM is required for proper activation of the immune system, likely by regulating the cross-talk between immunoreceptors and integrins.

  14. Tarp regulates early Chlamydia-induced host cell survival through interactions with the human adaptor protein SHC1.

    PubMed

    Mehlitz, Adrian; Banhart, Sebastian; Mäurer, André P; Kaushansky, Alexis; Gordus, Andrew G; Zielecki, Julia; Macbeath, Gavin; Meyer, Thomas F

    2010-07-12

    Many bacterial pathogens translocate effector proteins into host cells to manipulate host cell functions. Here, we used a protein microarray comprising virtually all human SRC homology 2 (SH2) and phosphotyrosine binding domains to comprehensively and quantitatively assess interactions between host cell proteins and the early phase Chlamydia trachomatis effector protein translocated actin-recruiting phosphoprotein (Tarp), which is rapidly tyrosine phosphorylated upon host cell entry. We discovered numerous novel interactions between human SH2 domains and phosphopeptides derived from Tarp. The adaptor protein SHC1 was among Tarp's strongest interaction partners. Transcriptome analysis of SHC1-dependent gene regulation during infection indicated that SHC1 regulates apoptosis- and growth-related genes. SHC1 knockdown sensitized infected host cells to tumor necrosis factor-induced apoptosis. Collectively, our findings reveal a critical role for SHC1 in early C. trachomatis-induced cell survival and suggest that Tarp functions as a multivalent phosphorylation-dependent signaling hub that is important during the early phase of chlamydial infection.

  15. An adaptor hierarchy regulates proteolysis during a bacterial cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Kamal Kishore; Bergé, Matthieu; Radhakrishnan, Sunish Kumar; Viollier, Patrick Henri; Chien, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Summary Regulated protein degradation is essential. The timed destruction of crucial proteins by the ClpXP protease drives cell-cycle progression in the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus. Although ClpXP is active alone, additional factors are inexplicably required for cell-cycle dependent proteolysis. Here, we show that these factors constitute an adaptor hierarchy where different substrates are destroyed based on the degree of adaptor assembly. The hierarchy builds upon priming of ClpXP by the adaptor CpdR, which promotes degradation of one class of substrates and also recruits the adaptor RcdA to degrade a second class of substrates. Adding the PopA adaptor promotes destruction of a third class of substrates, while inhibiting degradation of the second class. We dissect RcdA to generate bespoke adaptors, identifying critical substrate elements needed for RcdA recognition and uncovering additional cell-cycle dependent ClpXP substrates. Our work reveals how hierarchical adaptors and primed proteases orchestrate regulated proteolysis during bacterial cell-cycle progression. PMID:26451486

  16. The adaptor protein Cindr regulates JNK activity to maintain epithelial sheet integrity.

    PubMed

    Yasin, Hannah W R; van Rensburg, Samuel H; Feiler, Christina E; Johnson, Ruth I

    2016-02-15

    Epithelia are essential barrier tissues that must be appropriately maintained for their correct function. To achieve this a plethora of protein interactions regulate epithelial cell number, structure and adhesion, and differentiation. Here we show that Cindr (the Drosophila Cin85 and Cd2ap ortholog) is required to maintain epithelial integrity. Reducing Cindr triggered cell delamination and movement. Most delaminating cells died. These behaviors were consistent with JNK activation previously associated with loss of epithelial integrity in response to ectopic oncogene activity. We confirmed a novel interaction between Cindr and Drosophila JNK (dJNK), which when perturbed caused inappropriate JNK signaling. Genetically reducing JNK signaling activity suppressed the effects of reducing Cindr. Furthermore, ectopic JNK signaling phenocopied loss of Cindr and was partially rescued by concomitant cindr over-expression. Thus, correct Cindr-dJNK stoichiometry is essential to maintain epithelial integrity and disturbing this balance may contribute to the pathogenesis of disease states, including cancer.

  17. The adaptor protein SH2B3 (Lnk) negatively regulates neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells and cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tien-Cheng; Chiu, Hsun; Chang, Yu-Jung; Hsu, Tai-Yu; Chiu, Ing-Ming; Chen, Linyi

    2011-01-01

    SH2B adaptor protein family members (SH2B1-3) regulate various physiological responses through affecting signaling, gene expression, and cell adhesion. SH2B1 and SH2B2 were reported to enhance nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced neuronal differentiation in PC12 cells, a well-established neuronal model system. In contrast, SH2B3 was reported to inhibit cell proliferation during the development of immune system. No study so far addresses the role of SH2B3 in the nervous system. In this study, we provide evidence suggesting that SH2B3 is expressed in the cortex of embryonic rat brain. Overexpression of SH2B3 not only inhibits NGF-induced differentiation of PC12 cells but also reduces neurite outgrowth of primary cortical neurons. SH2B3 does so by repressing NGF-induced activation of PLCγ, MEK-ERK1/2 and PI3K-AKT pathways and the expression of Egr-1. SH2B3 is capable of binding to phosphorylated NGF receptor, TrkA, as well as SH2B1β. Our data further demonstrate that overexpression of SH2B3 reduces the interaction between SH2B1β and TrkA. Consistent with this finding, overexpressing the SH2 domain of SH2B3 is sufficient to inhibit NGF-induced neurite outgrowth. Together, our data demonstrate that SH2B3, unlike the other two family members, inhibits neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells and primary cortical neurons. Its inhibitory mechanism is likely through the competition of TrkA binding with the positive-acting SH2B1 and SH2B2.

  18. The adaptor protein 3BP2 associates with VAV guanine nucleotide exchange factors to regulate NFAT activation by the B-cell antigen receptor.

    PubMed

    Foucault, Isabelle; Le Bras, Séverine; Charvet, Céline; Moon, Chéol; Altman, Amnon; Deckert, Marcel

    2005-02-01

    Engagement of the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) activates kinases of the Src and Syk families and signaling complexes assembled by adaptor proteins, which dictate B-cell fate and function. The adaptor 3BP2/SH3BP2, an Abl Src homology domain 3 (SH3)-binding and Syk-kinases interacting protein, exhibits positive regulatory roles in T, natural killer (NK), and basophilic cells. However, its involvement in BCR signaling is completely unknown. Here we show that 3BP2 is tyrosine phosphorylated following BCR aggregation on B lymphoma cells, and that 3BP2 is a substrate for Syk and Fyn, but not Btk. To further explore the function of 3BP2 in B cells, we screened a yeast 2-hybrid B-lymphocyte library and found 3BP2 as a binding partner of Vav proteins. The interaction between 3BP2 and Vav proteins involved both constitutive and inducible mechanisms. 3BP2 also interacted with other components of the BCR signaling pathway, including Syk and phospholipase C gamma (PLC-gamma). Furthermore, overexpression and RNAi blocking experiments showed that 3BP2 regulated BCR-mediated activation of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFATs). Finally, evidence was provided that 3BP2 functionally cooperates with Vav proteins and Rho GTPases to activate NFATs. Our results show that 3BP2 may regulate BCR-mediated gene activation through Vav proteins.

  19. Palmitoylation of protease-activated receptor-1 regulates adaptor protein complex-2 and -3 interaction with tyrosine-based motifs and endocytic sorting.

    PubMed

    Canto, Isabel; Trejo, JoAnn

    2013-05-31

    Protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) is a G protein-coupled receptor for the coagulant protease thrombin. Thrombin binds to and cleaves the N terminus of PAR1, generating a new N terminus that functions as a tethered ligand that cannot diffuse away. In addition to rapid desensitization, PAR1 trafficking is critical for the regulation of cellular responses. PAR1 displays constitutive and agonist-induced internalization. Constitutive internalization of unactivated PAR1 is mediated by the clathrin adaptor protein complex-2 (AP-2), which binds to a distal tyrosine-based motif localized within the C-terminal tail (C-tail) domain. Once internalized, PAR1 is sorted from endosomes to lysosomes via AP-3 interaction with a second C-tail tyrosine motif proximal to the transmembrane domain. However, the regulatory processes that control adaptor protein recognition of PAR1 C-tail tyrosine-based motifs are not known. Here, we report that palmitoylation of PAR1 is critical for regulating proper utilization of tyrosine-based motifs and endocytic sorting. We show that PAR1 is basally palmitoylated at highly conserved C-tail cysteines. A palmitoylation-deficient PAR1 mutant is competent to signal and exhibits a marked increase in constitutive internalization and lysosomal degradation compared with wild type receptor. Intriguingly, enhanced constitutive internalization of PAR1 is mediated by AP-2 and requires the proximal tyrosine-based motif rather than the distal tyrosine motif used by wild type receptor. Moreover, palmitoylation-deficient PAR1 displays increased degradation that is mediated by AP-3. These findings suggest that palmitoylation of PAR1 regulates appropriate utilization of tyrosine-based motifs by adaptor proteins and endocytic trafficking, processes that are critical for maintaining appropriate expression of PAR1 at the cell surface.

  20. Adaptor protein containing PH domain, PTB domain and leucine zipper (APPL1) regulates the protein level of EGFR by modulating its trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jae-Rin; Hahn, Hwa-Sun; Kim, Young-Hoon; Nguyen, Hong-Hoa; Yang, Jun-Mo; Kang, Jong-Sun; Hahn, Myong-Joon

    2011-11-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer APPL1 regulates the protein level of EGFR in response to EGF stimulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Depletion of APPL1 accelerates the movement of EGF/EGFR from the cell surface to the perinuclear region in response to EGF. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knockdown of APPL1 enhances the activity of Rab5. -- Abstract: The EGFR-mediated signaling pathway regulates multiple biological processes such as cell proliferation, survival and differentiation. Previously APPL1 (adaptor protein containing PH domain, PTB domain and leucine zipper 1) has been reported to function as a downstream effector of EGF-initiated signaling. Here we demonstrate that APPL1 regulates EGFR protein levels in response to EGF stimulation. Overexpression of APPL1 enhances EGFR stabilization while APPL1 depletion by siRNA reduces EGFR protein levels. APPL1 depletion accelerates EGFR internalization and movement of EGF/EGFR from cell surface to the perinuclear region in response to EGF treatment. Conversely, overexpression of APPL1 decelerates EGFR internalization and translocation of EGF/EGFR to the perinuclear region. Furthermore, APPL1 depletion enhances the activity of Rab5 which is involved in internalization and trafficking of EGFR and inhibition of Rab5 in APPL1-depleted cells restored EGFR levels. Consistently, APPL1 depletion reduced activation of Akt, the downstream signaling effector of EGFR and this is restored by inhibition of Rab5. These findings suggest that APPL1 is required for EGFR signaling by regulation of EGFR stabilities through inhibition of Rab5.

  1. AP-1/σ1A and AP-1/σ1B adaptor-proteins differentially regulate neuronal early endosome maturation via the Rab5/Vps34-pathway

    PubMed Central

    Candiello, Ermes; Kratzke, Manuel; Wenzel, Dirk; Cassel, Dan; Schu, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The σ1 subunit of the AP-1 clathrin-coated-vesicle adaptor-protein complex is expressed as three isoforms. Tissues express σ1A and one of the σ1B and σ1C isoforms. Brain is the tissue with the highest σ1A and σ1B expression. σ1B-deficiency leads to severe mental retardation, accumulation of early endosomes in synapses and fewer synaptic vesicles, whose recycling is slowed down. AP-1/σ1A and AP-1/σ1B regulate maturation of these early endosomes into multivesicular body late endosomes, thereby controlling synaptic vesicle protein transport into a degradative pathway. σ1A binds ArfGAP1, and with higher affinity brain-specific ArfGAP1, which bind Rabex-5. AP-1/σ1A-ArfGAP1-Rabex-5 complex formation leads to more endosomal Rabex-5 and enhanced, Rab5GTP-stimulated Vps34 PI3-kinase activity, which is essential for multivesicular body endosome formation. Formation of AP-1/σ1A-ArfGAP1-Rabex-5 complexes is prevented by σ1B binding of Rabex-5 and the amount of endosomal Rabex-5 is reduced. AP-1 complexes differentially regulate endosome maturation and coordinate protein recycling and degradation, revealing a novel molecular mechanism by which they regulate protein transport besides their established function in clathrin-coated-vesicle formation. PMID:27411398

  2. AP-1/σ1A and AP-1/σ1B adaptor-proteins differentially regulate neuronal early endosome maturation via the Rab5/Vps34-pathway.

    PubMed

    Candiello, Ermes; Kratzke, Manuel; Wenzel, Dirk; Cassel, Dan; Schu, Peter

    2016-07-14

    The σ1 subunit of the AP-1 clathrin-coated-vesicle adaptor-protein complex is expressed as three isoforms. Tissues express σ1A and one of the σ1B and σ1C isoforms. Brain is the tissue with the highest σ1A and σ1B expression. σ1B-deficiency leads to severe mental retardation, accumulation of early endosomes in synapses and fewer synaptic vesicles, whose recycling is slowed down. AP-1/σ1A and AP-1/σ1B regulate maturation of these early endosomes into multivesicular body late endosomes, thereby controlling synaptic vesicle protein transport into a degradative pathway. σ1A binds ArfGAP1, and with higher affinity brain-specific ArfGAP1, which bind Rabex-5. AP-1/σ1A-ArfGAP1-Rabex-5 complex formation leads to more endosomal Rabex-5 and enhanced, Rab5(GTP)-stimulated Vps34 PI3-kinase activity, which is essential for multivesicular body endosome formation. Formation of AP-1/σ1A-ArfGAP1-Rabex-5 complexes is prevented by σ1B binding of Rabex-5 and the amount of endosomal Rabex-5 is reduced. AP-1 complexes differentially regulate endosome maturation and coordinate protein recycling and degradation, revealing a novel molecular mechanism by which they regulate protein transport besides their established function in clathrin-coated-vesicle formation.

  3. A novel class of antihyperlipidemic agents with low density lipoprotein receptor up-regulation via the adaptor protein autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Asano, Shigehiro; Ban, Hitoshi; Tsuboya, Norie; Uno, Shinsaku; Kino, Kouichi; Ioriya, Katsuhisa; Kitano, Masafumi; Ueno, Yoshihide

    2010-04-22

    We have previously reported compound 2 as a inhibitor of acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol O-acyltransferase (ACAT) and up-regulator of the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) expression. In this study we focused on compound 2, a unique LDL-R up-regulator, and describe the discovery of a novel class of up-regulators of LDL-R. Replacement the methylene urea linker in compound 2 with an acylsulfonamide linker kept a potent LDL-R up-regulatory activity, and subsequent optimization work gave compound 39 as a highly potent LDL-R up-regulator (39; EC(25) = 0.047 microM). Compound 39 showed no ACAT inhibitory activity even at 1 microM. The sodium salts of compound 39 reduced plasma total and LDL cholesterol levels in a dose-dependent manner in an experimental animal model of hyperlipidemia. Moreover, we revealed in this study using RNA interference that autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia (ARH), an adaptor protein of LDL-R, is essential for compound 39 up-regulation of LDL-R expression.

  4. The Adaptor Complex AP-4 Regulates Vacuolar Protein Sorting at the trans-Golgi Network by Interacting with VACUOLAR SORTING RECEPTOR1.

    PubMed

    Fuji, Kentaro; Shirakawa, Makoto; Shimono, Yuki; Kunieda, Tadashi; Fukao, Yoichiro; Koumoto, Yasuko; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko; Shimada, Tomoo

    2016-01-01

    Adaptor protein (AP) complexes play critical roles in protein sorting among different post-Golgi pathways by recognizing specific cargo protein motifs. Among the five AP complexes (AP-1-AP-5) in plants, AP-4 is one of the most poorly understood; the AP-4 components, AP-4 cargo motifs, and AP-4 functional mechanism are not known. Here, we identify the AP-4 components and show that the AP-4 complex regulates receptor-mediated vacuolar protein sorting by recognizing VACUOLAR SORTING RECEPTOR1 (VSR1), which was originally identified as a sorting receptor for seed storage proteins to target protein storage vacuoles in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). From the vacuolar sorting mutant library GREEN FLUORESCENT SEED (GFS), we isolated three gfs mutants that accumulate abnormally high levels of VSR1 in seeds and designated them as gfs4, gfs5, and gfs6. Their responsible genes encode three (AP4B, AP4M, and AP4S) of the four subunits of the AP-4 complex, respectively, and an Arabidopsis mutant (ap4e) lacking the fourth subunit, AP4E, also had the same phenotype. Mass spectrometry demonstrated that these four proteins form a complex in vivo. The four mutants showed defects in the vacuolar sorting of the major storage protein 12S globulins, indicating a role for the AP-4 complex in vacuolar protein transport. AP4M bound to the tyrosine-based motif of VSR1. AP4M localized at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) subdomain that is distinct from the AP-1-localized TGN subdomain. This study provides a novel function for the AP-4 complex in VSR1-mediated vacuolar protein sorting at the specialized domain of the TGN.

  5. The adaptor protein SAP regulates type II NKT-cell development, cytokine production, and cytotoxicity against lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Weng, Xiufang; Liao, Chia-Min; Bagchi, Sreya; Cardell, Susanna L; Stein, Paul L; Wang, Chyung-Ru

    2014-12-01

    CD1d-restricted NKT cells represent a unique lineage of immunoregulatory T cells that are divided into two groups, type I and type II, based on their TCR usage. Because there are no specific tools to identify type II NKT cells, little is known about their developmental requirements and functional regulation. In our previous study, we showed that signaling lymphocytic activation molecule associated protein (SAP) is essential for the development of type II NKT cells. Here, using a type II NKT-cell TCR transgenic mouse model, we demonstrated that CD1d-expressing hematopoietic cells, but not thymic epithelial cells, meditate efficient selection of type II NKT cells. Furthermore, we showed that SAP regulates type II NKT-cell development by controlling early growth response 2 protein and promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger expression. SAP-deficient 24αβ transgenic T cells (24αβ T cells) exhibited an immature phenotype with reduced Th2 cytokine-producing capacity and diminished cytotoxicity to CD1d-expressing lymphoma cells. The impaired IL-4 production by SAP-deficient 24αβ T cells was associated with reduced IFN regulatory factor 4 and GATA-3 induction following TCR stimulation. Collectively, these data suggest that SAP is critical for regulating type II NKT cell responses. Aberrant responses of these T cells may contribute to the immune dysregulation observed in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease caused by mutations in SAP.

  6. Cell-based Fluorescence Complementation Reveals a Role for HIV-1 Nef Protein Dimerization in AP-2 Adaptor Recruitment and CD4 Co-receptor Down-regulation.

    PubMed

    Shu, Sherry T; Emert-Sedlak, Lori A; Smithgall, Thomas E

    2017-02-17

    The HIV-1 Nef accessory factor enhances viral infectivity, immune evasion, and AIDS progression. Nef triggers rapid down-regulation of CD4 via the endocytic adaptor protein 2 (AP-2) complex, a process linked to enhanced viral infectivity and immune escape. Here, we describe a bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay to visualize the interaction of Nef with AP-2 and CD4 in living cells. Interacting protein pairs were fused to complementary non-fluorescent fragments of YFP and co-expressed in 293T cells. Nef interactions with both CD4 and AP-2 resulted in complementation of YFP and a bright fluorescent signal by confocal microcopy that localized to the cell periphery. Co-expression of the AP-2 α subunit enhanced the Nef·AP-2 σ2 subunit BiFC signal and vice versa, suggesting that the AP-2 α-σ2 hemicomplex interacts cooperatively with Nef. Mutagenesis of Nef amino acids Arg-134, Glu-174, and Asp-175, which stabilize Nef for AP-2 α-σ2 binding in a recent co-crystal structure, substantially reduced AP-2 interaction without affecting CD4 binding. A dimerization-defective mutant of Nef failed to interact with either CD4 or AP-2 in the BiFC assay, indicating that Nef quaternary structure is required for CD4 and AP-2 recruitment as well as CD4 down-regulation. A small molecule previously shown to bind the Nef dimerization interface also reduced Nef interactions with AP-2 and CD4 and restored CD4 expression to the surface of HIV-infected cells. Our findings provide a mechanistic explanation for previous observations that dimerization-defective Nef mutants fail to down-regulate CD4 and validate the Nef dimerization interface as a target site for antiretroviral drug development.

  7. The adaptor protein SAP directly associates with PECAM-1 and regulates PECAM-1-mediated-cell adhesion in T-like cell lines.

    PubMed

    Proust, Richard; Crouin, Catherine; Gandji, Leslie Yewakon; Bertoglio, Jacques; Gesbert, Franck

    2014-04-01

    SAP is a small cytosolic adaptor protein expressed in hematopoietic lineages whose main function is to regulate intracellular signaling pathways induced by the triggering of members of the SLAM receptor family. In this paper, we have identified the adhesion molecule PECAM-1 as a new partner for SAP in a conditional yeast two-hybrid screen. PECAM-1 is an immunoglobulin-like molecule expressed by endothelial cells and leukocytes, which possesses both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties. However, little is known about PECAM-1 functions in T cells. We show that SAP directly and specifically interacts with the cytosolic tyrosine 686 of PECAM-1. We generated different T-like cell lines in which SAP or PECAM-1 are expressed or down modulated and we demonstrate that a diminished SAP expression correlates with a diminished PECAM-1-mediated adhesion. Although SAP has mainly been shown to associate with SLAM receptors, we evidence here that SAP is a new actor downstream of PECAM-1.

  8. Regulation of insulin and type 1 insulin-like growth factor signaling and action by the Grb10/14 and SH2B1/B2 adaptor proteins.

    PubMed

    Desbuquois, Bernard; Carré, Nadège; Burnol, Anne-Françoise

    2013-02-01

    The effects of insulin and type 1 insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) on metabolism, growth and survival are mediated by their association with specific receptor tyrosine kinases, which results in both receptor and substrate phosphorylation. Phosphotyrosine residues on receptors and substrates provide docking sites for signaling proteins containing SH2 (Src homology 2) domains, including molecular adaptors. This review focuses on the regulation of insulin/IGF-1 signaling and action by two adaptor families with a similar domain organization: the growth factor receptor-bound proteins Grb7/10/14 and the SH2B proteins. Both Grb10/14 and SH2B1/B2 associate with the activation loop of insulin/IGF-1 receptors through their SH2 domains, but association of Grb10/14 also involves their unique BPS domain. Consistent with Grb14 binding as a pseudosubstrate to the kinase active site, insulin/IGF-induced activation of receptors and downstream signaling pathways in cultured cells is inhibited by Grb10/14 adaptors, but is potentiated by SH2B1/B2 adaptors. Accordingly, Grb10 and Grb14 knockout mice show improved insulin/IGF sensitivity in vivo, and, for Grb10, overgrowth and increased skeketal muscle and pancreatic β-cell mass. Conversely, SH2B1-depleted mice display insulin and IGF-1 resistance, with peripheral depletion leading to reduced adiposity and neuronal depletion leading to obesity through associated leptin resistance. Grb10/14 and SH2B1 adaptors also modulate insulin/IGF-1 action by interacting with signaling components downstream of receptors and exert several tissue-specific effects. The identification of Grb10/14 and SH2B1 as physiological regulators of insulin signaling and action, together with observations that variants at their gene loci are associated with obesity and/or insulin resistance, highlight them as potential therapeutic targets for these conditions.

  9. Modulation of lipoprotein receptor functions by intracellular adaptor proteins.

    PubMed

    Stolt, Peggy C; Bock, Hans H

    2006-10-01

    Members of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene family are critically involved in a wide range of physiological processes including lipid and vitamin homeostasis, cellular migration, neurodevelopment, and synaptic plasticity, to name a few. Lipoprotein receptors exert these diverse biological functions by acting as cellular uptake receptors or by inducing intracellular signaling cascades. It was discovered that a short sequence in the intracellular region of all lipoprotein receptors, Asn-Pro-X-Tyr (NPXY) is important for mediating either endocytosis or signal transduction events, and that this motif serves as a binding site for phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain containing scaffold proteins. These molecular adaptors connect the transmembrane receptors with the endocytosis machinery and regulate cellular trafficking, or function as assembly sites for dynamic multi-protein signaling complexes. Whereas the LDL receptor represents the archetype of an endocytic lipoprotein receptor, the structurally closely related apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (apoER2) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) receptor activate a kinase-dependent intracellular signaling cascade after binding to the neuronal signaling molecule Reelin. This review focuses on two related PTB domain containing adaptor proteins that mediate these divergent lipoprotein receptor responses, ARH (autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia protein) and Dab1 (disabled-1), and discusses the structural and molecular basis of this different behaviour.

  10. Calcyon, a mammalian specific NEEP21 family member, interacts with adaptor protein complex 3 (AP-3) and regulates targeting of AP-3 cargoes.

    PubMed

    Muthusamy, Nagendran; Faundez, Victor; Bergson, Clare

    2012-10-01

    Calcyon is a neural enriched, single transmembrane protein that interacts with clathrin light chain and stimulates clathrin assembly and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. A similar property is shared by the heterotetrameric adaptor protein (AP) complexes AP-1, AP-2, and AP-3 which recruit cargoes for insertion into clathrin coated transport vesicles. Here we report that AP medium (μ) subunits interact with a YXXØ-type tyrosine motif located at residues 133-136 in the cytoplasmic domain of calcyon. Site specific mutagenesis of the critical tyrosine and bulky hydrophobic residues tyrosine 133 and methionine 136 preferentially abrogated binding of the ubiquitous and neuronal isoforms of μ3, and also impacted μ1 and μ2 binding to a lesser degree. The relevance of these interactions was explored in vivo using mice harboring null alleles of calcyon. As seen in the mutagenesis studies, calcyon deletion in mice preferentially altered the subcellular distribution of AP-3 suggesting that calcyon could regulate membrane-bound pools of AP-3 and AP-3 function. To test this hypothesis, we focused on the hilar region of hippocampus, where levels of calcyon, AP-3, and AP-3 cargoes are abundant. We analyzed brain cryosections from control and calcyon null mice for zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3), and phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase type II alpha (PI4KIIα), two well-defined AP-3 cargoes. Confocal microscopy indicated that ZnT3 and PI4KIIα are significantly reduced in the hippocampal mossy fibers of calcyon knock-out brain, a phenotype previously described in AP-3 deficiencies. Altogether, our data suggest that calcyon directly interacts with μ3A and μ3B, and regulates the subcellular distribution of AP-3 and the targeting of AP-3 cargoes.

  11. CALCYON, A MAMMALIAN SPECIFIC NEEP21 FAMILY MEMBER, INTERACTS WITH ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 3 (AP-3) AND REGULATES TARGETING OF AP-3 CARGOES

    PubMed Central

    Muthusamy, Nagendran; Faundez, Victor; Bergson, Clare

    2013-01-01

    Calcyon is a neural enriched, single transmembrane protein that interacts with clathrin light chain (CLC) and stimulates clathrin assembly and clathrin mediated endocytosis (CME). A similar property is shared by the heterotetrameric adaptor protein (AP) complexes AP-1, AP-2, and AP-3 which recruit cargoes for insertion into clathrin coated transport vesicles. Here we report that AP medium (µ) subunits interact with a YXXØ-type tyrosine motif located at residues 133–136 in the cytoplasmic domain of calcyon. Site specific mutagenesis of the critical tyrosine and bulky hydrophobic residues tyrosine 133 and methionine 136 preferentially abrogated binding of the ubiquitous and neuronal isoforms of µ3, and also impacted µ1 and µ2 binding but to a lesser degree. The relevance of these interactions was explored in vivo using mice harboring null-alleles of calcyon. As seen in the mutagenesis studies, calcyon deletion in mice preferentially altered the subcellular distribution of AP-3 suggesting that calcyon could regulate membrane-bound pools of AP-3 and AP-3 function. To test this hypothesis, we focused on the hilar region of hippocampus, where levels of calcyon, AP-3, and AP-3 cargoes are abundant. We analyzed brain cryosections from control and calcyon null mice for zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3), and phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase type II alpha (PI4KIIα), two well-defined AP-3 cargoes. Confocal microscopy indicated that ZnT3 and PI4KIIα are significantly reduced in the hippocampal mossy fibers of calcyon knock-out brain, a phenotype previously described in AP-3 deficiencies. Altogether, our data suggest that calcyon directly interacts with µ3A and µ3B, and regulates the subcellular distribution of AP-3 and the targeting of AP-3 cargoes. PMID:22650988

  12. SH2 domain–containing adaptor protein B expressed in dendritic cells is involved in T-cell homeostasis by regulating dendritic cell–mediated Th2 immunity

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The Src homology 2 domain–containing adaptor protein B (SHB) is widely expressed in immune cells and acts as an important regulator for hematopoietic cell function. SHB silencing induces Th2 immunity in mice. SHB is also involved in T-cell homeostasis in vivo. However, SHB has not yet been studied and addressed in association with dendritic cells (DCs). Materials and Methods The effects of SHB expression on the immunogenicity of DCs were assessed by Shb gene silencing in mouse bone marrow–derived DCs (BMDCs). After silencing, surface phenotype, cytokine expression profile, and T-cell stimulation capacity of BMDCs were examined. We investigated the signaling pathways involved in SHB expression during BMDC development. We also examined the immunogenicity of SHB-knockdown (SHBKD) BMDCs in a mouse atopic dermatitis model. Results SHB was steadily expressed in mouse splenic DCs and in in vitro–generated BMDCs in both immature and mature stages. SHB expression was contingent on activation of the mitogen- activated protein kinase/Foxa2 signaling pathway during DC development. SHBKD increased the expression of MHC class II and costimulatory molecules without affecting the cytokine expression of BMDCs. When co-cultured with T cells, SHBKD in BMDCs significantly induced CD4+ T-cell proliferation and the expression of Th2 cytokines, while the regulatory T cell (Treg) population was downregulated. In mouse atopic dermatitis model, mice inoculated with SHBKD DCs developed more severe symptoms of atopic dermatitis compared with mice injected with control DCs. Conclusion SHB expression in DCs plays an important role in T-cell homeostasis in vivo by regulating DC-mediated Th2 polarization. PMID:28168174

  13. SmShb, the SH2-Containing Adaptor Protein B of Schistosoma mansoni Regulates Venus Kinase Receptor Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Morel, Marion; Vanderstraete, Mathieu; Cailliau, Katia; Hahnel, Steffen; Grevelding, Christoph G; Dissous, Colette

    2016-01-01

    Venus kinase receptors (VKRs) are invertebrate receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) formed by an extracellular Venus Fly Trap (VFT) ligand binding domain associated via a transmembrane domain with an intracellular tyrosine kinase (TK) domain. Schistosoma mansoni VKRs, SmVKR1 and SmVKR2, are both implicated in reproductive activities of the parasite. In this work, we show that the SH2 domain-containing protein SmShb is a partner of the phosphorylated form of SmVKR1. Expression of these proteins in Xenopus oocytes allowed us to demonstrate that the SH2 domain of SmShb interacts with the phosphotyrosine residue (pY979) located in the juxtamembrane region of SmVKR1. This interaction leads to phosphorylation of SmShb on tyrosines and promotes SmVKR1 signaling towards the JNK pathway. SmShb transcripts are expressed in all parasite stages and they were found in ovary and testes of adult worms, suggesting a possible colocalization of SmShb and SmVKR1 proteins. Silencing of SmShb in adult S. mansoni resulted in an accumulation of mature sperm in testes, indicating a possible role of SmShb in gametogenesis.

  14. SmShb, the SH2-Containing Adaptor Protein B of Schistosoma mansoni Regulates Venus Kinase Receptor Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Morel, Marion; Vanderstraete, Mathieu; Cailliau, Katia; Hahnel, Steffen; Grevelding, Christoph G.; Dissous, Colette

    2016-01-01

    Venus kinase receptors (VKRs) are invertebrate receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) formed by an extracellular Venus Fly Trap (VFT) ligand binding domain associated via a transmembrane domain with an intracellular tyrosine kinase (TK) domain. Schistosoma mansoni VKRs, SmVKR1 and SmVKR2, are both implicated in reproductive activities of the parasite. In this work, we show that the SH2 domain-containing protein SmShb is a partner of the phosphorylated form of SmVKR1. Expression of these proteins in Xenopus oocytes allowed us to demonstrate that the SH2 domain of SmShb interacts with the phosphotyrosine residue (pY979) located in the juxtamembrane region of SmVKR1. This interaction leads to phosphorylation of SmShb on tyrosines and promotes SmVKR1 signaling towards the JNK pathway. SmShb transcripts are expressed in all parasite stages and they were found in ovary and testes of adult worms, suggesting a possible colocalization of SmShb and SmVKR1 proteins. Silencing of SmShb in adult S. mansoni resulted in an accumulation of mature sperm in testes, indicating a possible role of SmShb in gametogenesis. PMID:27636711

  15. Stac adaptor proteins regulate trafficking and function of muscle and neuronal L-type Ca2+ channels.

    PubMed

    Polster, Alexander; Perni, Stefano; Bichraoui, Hicham; Beam, Kurt G

    2015-01-13

    Excitation-contraction (EC) coupling in skeletal muscle depends upon trafficking of CaV1.1, the principal subunit of the dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR) (L-type Ca(2+) channel), to plasma membrane regions at which the DHPRs interact with type 1 ryanodine receptors (RyR1) in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. A distinctive feature of this trafficking is that CaV1.1 expresses poorly or not at all in mammalian cells that are not of muscle origin (e.g., tsA201 cells), in which all of the other nine CaV isoforms have been successfully expressed. Here, we tested whether plasma membrane trafficking of CaV1.1 in tsA201 cells is promoted by the adapter protein Stac3, because recent work has shown that genetic deletion of Stac3 in skeletal muscle causes the loss of EC coupling. Using fluorescently tagged constructs, we found that Stac3 and CaV1.1 traffic together to the tsA201 plasma membrane, whereas CaV1.1 is retained intracellularly when Stac3 is absent. Moreover, L-type Ca(2+) channel function in tsA201 cells coexpressing Stac3 and CaV1.1 is quantitatively similar to that in myotubes, despite the absence of RyR1. Although Stac3 is not required for surface expression of CaV1.2, the principle subunit of the cardiac/brain L-type Ca(2+) channel, Stac3 does bind to CaV1.2 and, as a result, greatly slows the rate of current inactivation, with Stac2 acting similarly. Overall, these results indicate that Stac3 is an essential chaperone of CaV1.1 in skeletal muscle and that in the brain, Stac2 and Stac3 may significantly modulate CaV1.2 function.

  16. The Exosome Is Recruited to RNA Substrates through Specific Adaptor Proteins.

    PubMed

    Thoms, Matthias; Thomson, Emma; Baßler, Jochen; Gnädig, Marén; Griesel, Sabine; Hurt, Ed

    2015-08-27

    The exosome regulates the processing, degradation, and surveillance of a plethora of RNA species. However, little is known about how the exosome recognizes and is recruited to its diverse substrates. We report the identification of adaptor proteins that recruit the exosome-associated helicase, Mtr4, to unique RNA substrates. Nop53, the yeast homolog of the tumor suppressor PICT1, targets Mtr4 to pre-ribosomal particles for exosome-mediated processing, while a second adaptor Utp18 recruits Mtr4 to cleaved rRNA fragments destined for degradation by the exosome. Both Nop53 and Utp18 contain the same consensus motif, through which they dock to the "arch" domain of Mtr4 and target it to specific substrates. These findings show that the exosome employs a general mechanism of recruitment to defined substrates and that this process is regulated through adaptor proteins.

  17. Noncanonical Role of the PDZ4 Domain of the Adaptor Protein PDZK1 in the Regulation of the Hepatic High Density Lipoprotein Receptor Scavenger Receptor Class B, Type I (SR-BI)*

    PubMed Central

    Tsukamoto, Kosuke; Wales, Thomas E.; Daniels, Kathleen; Pal, Rinku; Sheng, Ren; Cho, Wonhwa; Stafford, Walter; Engen, John R.; Krieger, Monty; Kocher, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    The four PDZ (PDZ1 to PDZ4) domain-containing adaptor protein PDZK1 controls the expression, localization, and function of the HDL receptor scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI), in hepatocytes in vivo. This control depends on both the PDZ4 domain and the binding of SR-BI's cytoplasmic C terminus to the canonical peptide-binding sites of either the PDZ1 or PDZ3 domain (no binding to PDZ2 or PDZ4). Using transgenic mice expressing in the liver domain deletion (ΔPDZ2 or ΔPDZ3), domain replacement (PDZ2→1), or target peptide binding-negative (PDZ4(G389P)) mutants of PDZK1, we found that neither PDZ2 nor PDZ3 nor the canonical target peptide binding activity of PDZ4 were necessary for hepatic SR-BI regulatory activity. Immunohistochemical studies established that the localization of PDZK1 on hepatocyte cell surface membranes in vivo is dependent on its PDZ4 domain and the presence of SR-BI. Analytical ultracentrifugation and hydrogen deuterium exchange mass spectrometry suggested that the requirement of PDZ4 for localization and SR-BI regulation is not due to PDZ4-mediated oligomerization or induction of conformational changes in the PDZ123 portion of PDZK1. However, surface plasmon resonance analysis showed that PDZ4, but not the other PDZ domains, can bind vesicles that mimic the plasma membrane. Thus, PDZ4 may potentiate PDZK1's regulation of SR-BI by promoting its lipid-mediated attachment to the cytoplasmic membrane. Our results show that not all of the PDZ domains of a multi-PDZ domain-containing adaptor protein are required for its biological activities and that both canonical target peptide binding and noncanonical (peptide binding-independent) capacities of PDZ domains may be employed by a single such adaptor for optimal in vivo activity. PMID:23720744

  18. SR proteins are NXF1 adaptors that link alternative RNA processing to mRNA export.

    PubMed

    Müller-McNicoll, Michaela; Botti, Valentina; de Jesus Domingues, Antonio M; Brandl, Holger; Schwich, Oliver D; Steiner, Michaela C; Curk, Tomaz; Poser, Ina; Zarnack, Kathi; Neugebauer, Karla M

    2016-03-01

    Nuclear export factor 1 (NXF1) exports mRNA to the cytoplasm after recruitment to mRNA by specific adaptor proteins. How and why cells use numerous different export adaptors is poorly understood. Here we critically evaluate members of the SR protein family (SRSF1-7) for their potential to act as NXF1 adaptors that couple pre-mRNA processing to mRNA export. Consistent with this proposal, >1000 endogenous mRNAs required individual SR proteins for nuclear export in vivo. To address the mechanism, transcriptome-wide RNA-binding profiles of NXF1 and SRSF1-7 were determined in parallel by individual-nucleotide-resolution UV cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (iCLIP). Quantitative comparisons of RNA-binding sites showed that NXF1 and SR proteins bind mRNA targets at adjacent sites, indicative of cobinding. SRSF3 emerged as the most potent NXF1 adaptor, conferring sequence specificity to RNA binding by NXF1 in last exons. Interestingly, SRSF3 and SRSF7 were shown to bind different sites in last exons and regulate 3' untranslated region length in an opposing manner. Both SRSF3 and SRSF7 promoted NXF1 recruitment to mRNA. Thus, SRSF3 and SRSF7 couple alternative splicing and polyadenylation to NXF1-mediated mRNA export, thereby controlling the cytoplasmic abundance of transcripts with alternative 3' ends.

  19. Science Signaling Podcast for 12 July 2016: Adaptor proteins limit signaling.

    PubMed

    Wiley, H Steven; VanHook, Annalisa M

    2016-07-12

    This Podcast features an interview with Steven Wiley, senior author of a Research Article that appears in the 12 July 2016 issue of Science Signaling, about how the abundance of adaptor proteins and feedback regulators affect the flow of information downstream of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Information flows through a signaling pathway by sequential interactions between core components of the pathway, many of which have enzymatic activity. Adaptor proteins do not directly participate in relaying the signal and do not have enzymatic activity, but are important for signaling because they facilitate interactions between the core components. Using quantitative methods, Shi et al demonstrated that core components of the EGFR pathway were highly abundant in both normal cells and cancer cells. However, adaptor proteins were present in much lower abundance in both cell types, indicating that it is the abundance of these proteins that limit signaling downstream of EGFR. The authors also found that differences in EGFR signaling between different cell types likely resulted from the variable abundance of feedback regulators.Listen to Podcast.

  20. Crk and CrkL adaptor proteins: networks for physiological and pathological signaling

    PubMed Central

    Birge, Raymond B; Kalodimos, Charalampos; Inagaki, Fuyuhiko; Tanaka, Shinya

    2009-01-01

    The Crk adaptor proteins (Crk and CrkL) constitute an integral part of a network of essential signal transduction pathways in humans and other organisms that act as major convergence points in tyrosine kinase signaling. Crk proteins integrate signals from a wide variety of sources, including growth factors, extracellular matrix molecules, bacterial pathogens, and apoptotic cells. Mounting evidence indicates that dysregulation of Crk proteins is associated with human diseases, including cancer and susceptibility to pathogen infections. Recent structural work has identified new and unusual insights into the regulation of Crk proteins, providing a rationale for how Crk can sense diverse signals and produce a myriad of biological responses. PMID:19426560

  1. The adaptor protein ARH escorts megalin to and through endosomes.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Masaaki; Meerloo, Timo; Takeda, Tetsuro; Farquhar, Marilyn Gist

    2003-12-01

    Megalin is an endocytic receptor that binds multiple ligands and is essential for many physiological processes such as brain development and uptake of proteins by the kidney tubule, yolk sac, and thyroid. The cytoplasmic tail of megalin contains two FXNPXY motifs. Autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia (ARH) is an adaptor protein that binds to the FXNPXY motif of the low-density lipoprotein receptor as well as clathrin and AP-2. We found that ARH also binds to the first FXNPXY motif of megalin in two-hybrid, pull-down and coimmunoprecipitation assays. ARH colocalizes with megalin in clathrin coated pits and in recycling endosomes in the Golgi region. When cells are treated with nocodazole, the recycling endosomes containing megalin and ARH disperse. On internalization of megalin, ARH and megalin are first seen in clathrin coated pits followed by sequential localization in early endosomes and tubular recycling endosomes in the pericentriolar region followed by their reappearance at the cell surface. Expression of ARH in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells expressing megalin mini-receptors enhances megalin-mediated uptake of 125I-lactoferrin, a megalin ligand. These results show that ARH facilitates endocytosis of megalin, escorts megalin along its endocytic route and raise the possibility that transport through the endosomal system is selective and requires interaction with specific adaptor proteins.

  2. Systematic VCP-UBXD Adaptor Network Proteomics Identifies a Role for UBXN10 in Regulating Ciliogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Malavika; Sergeev, Mikhail; Garnaas, Maija; Lydeard, John R.; Huttlin, Edward L.; Goessling, Wolfram; Shah, Jagesh V.; Harper, J. Wade

    2015-01-01

    The AAA-ATPase VCP (also known as p97 or CDC48) uses ATP hydrolysis to “segregate” ubiquitinated proteins from their binding partners. VCP acts via UBX-domain containing adaptors that provide target specificity, but targets and functions of UBXD proteins remain poorly understood. Through systematic proteomic analysis of UBXD proteins in human cells, we reveal a network of over 195 interacting proteins, implicating VCP in diverse cellular pathways. We have explored one such complex between an unstudied adaptor UBXN10 and the intraflagellar transport B (IFT-B) complex, which regulates anterograde transport into cilia. UBXN10 localizes to cilia in a VCP-dependent manner and both VCP and UBXN10 are required for ciliogenesis. Pharmacological inhibition of VCP destabilized the IFT-B complex and increased trafficking rates. Depletion of UBXN10 in zebrafish embryos causes defects in left-right asymmetry, which depends on functional cilia. This study provides a resource for exploring the landscape of UBXD proteins in biology and identifies an unexpected requirement for VCP-UBXN10 in ciliogenesis. PMID:26389662

  3. Nuclear Translocation of Crk Adaptor Proteins by the Influenza A Virus NS1 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Ylösmäki, Leena; Fagerlund, Riku; Kuisma, Inka; Julkunen, Ilkka; Saksela, Kalle

    2016-01-01

    The non-structural protein-1 (NS1) of many influenza A strains, especially those of avian origin, contains an SH3 ligand motif, which binds tightly to the cellular adaptor proteins Crk (Chicken tumor virus number 10 (CT10) regulator of kinase) and Crk-like adapter protein (CrkL). This interaction has been shown to potentiate NS1-induced activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), but additional effects on the host cell physiology may exist. Here we show that NS1 can induce an efficient translocation of Crk proteins from the cytoplasm into the nucleus, which results in an altered pattern of nuclear protein tyrosine phosphorylation. This was not observed using NS1 proteins deficient in SH3 binding or engineered to be exclusively cytoplasmic, indicating a physical role for NS1 as a carrier in the nuclear translocation of Crk. These data further emphasize the role of Crk proteins as host cell interaction partners of NS1, and highlight the potential for host cell manipulation gained by a viral protein simply via acquiring a short SH3 binding motif. PMID:27092521

  4. A role for the adaptor proteins TRAM and TRIF in toll-like receptor 2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, Nadra J; Vladimer, Gregory I; Stenvik, Jørgen; Orning, M Pontus A; Zeid-Kilani, Maria V; Bugge, Marit; Bergstroem, Bjarte; Conlon, Joseph; Husebye, Harald; Hise, Amy G; Fitzgerald, Katherine A; Espevik, Terje; Lien, Egil

    2015-02-06

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are involved in sensing invading microbes by host innate immunity. TLR2 recognizes bacterial lipoproteins/lipopeptides, and lipopolysaccharide activates TLR4. TLR2 and TLR4 signal via the Toll/interleukin-1 receptor adaptors MyD88 and MAL, leading to NF-κB activation. TLR4 also utilizes the adaptors TRAM and TRIF, resulting in activation of interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 3. Here, we report a new role for TRAM and TRIF in TLR2 regulation and signaling. Interestingly, we observed that TLR2-mediated induction of the chemokine Ccl5 was impaired in TRAM or TRIF deficient macrophages. Inhibition of endocytosis reduced Ccl5 release, and the data also suggested that TRAM and TLR2 co-localize in early endosomes, supporting the hypothesis that signaling may occur from an intracellular compartment. Ccl5 release following lipoprotein challenge additionally involved the kinase Tbk-1 and Irf3, as well as MyD88 and Irf1. Induction of Interferon-β and Ccl4 by lipoproteins was also partially impaired in cells lacking TRIF cells. Our results show a novel function of TRAM and TRIF in TLR2-mediated signal transduction, and the findings broaden our understanding of how Toll/interleukin-1 receptor adaptor proteins may participate in signaling downstream from TLR2.

  5. Phosphorylation of the adaptor protein SH2B1β regulates its ability to enhance growth hormone-dependent macrophage motility.

    PubMed

    Su, Hsiao-Wen; Lanning, Nathan J; Morris, David L; Argetsinger, Lawrence S; Lumeng, Carey N; Carter-Su, Christin

    2013-04-15

    Previous studies have shown that growth hormone (GH) recruits the adapter protein SH2B1β to the GH-activated, GH receptor-associated tyrosine kinase JAK2, implicating SH2B1β in GH-dependent actin cytoskeleton remodeling, and suggesting that phosphorylation at serines 161 and 165 in SH2B1β releases SH2B1β from the plasma membrane. Here, we examined the role of SH2B1β in GH regulation of macrophage migration. We show that GH stimulates migration of cultured RAW264.7 macrophages, and primary cultures of peritoneal and bone marrow-derived macrophages. SH2B1β overexpression enhances, whereas SH2B1 knockdown inhibits, GH-dependent motility of RAW macrophages. At least two independent mechanisms regulate the SH2B1β-mediated changes in motility. In response to GH, tyrosines 439 and 494 in SH2B1β are phosphorylated. Mutating these tyrosines in SH2B1β decreases both basal and GH-stimulated macrophage migration. In addition, mutating the polybasic nuclear localization sequence (NLS) in SH2B1β or creating the phosphomimetics SH2B1β(S161E) or SH2B1β(S165E), all of which release SH2B1β from the plasma membrane, enhances macrophage motility. Conversely, SH2B1β(S161/165A) exhibits increased localization at the plasma membrane and decreased macrophage migration. Mutating the NLS or the nearby serine residues does not alter GH-dependent phosphorylation on tyrosines 439 and 494 in SH2B1β. Mutating tyrosines 439 and 494 does not affect localization of SH2B1β at the plasma membrane or movement of SH2B1β into focal adhesions. Taken together, these results suggest that SH2B1β enhances GH-stimulated macrophage motility via mechanisms involving phosphorylation of SH2B1β on tyrosines 439 and 494 and movement of SH2B1β out of the plasma membrane (e.g. as a result of phosphorylation of serines 161 and 165).

  6. The E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Adaptor Protein Skp1 Is Glycosylated by an Evolutionarily Conserved Pathway That Regulates Protist Growth and Development*♦

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Kazi; Zhao, Peng; Mandalasi, Msano; van der Wel, Hanke; Wells, Lance; Blader, Ira J.; West, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protist parasite of warm-blooded animals that causes disease by proliferating intracellularly in muscle and the central nervous system. Previous studies showed that a prolyl 4-hydroxylase related to animal HIFα prolyl hydroxylases is required for optimal parasite proliferation, especially at low O2. We also observed that Pro-154 of Skp1, a subunit of the Skp1/Cullin-1/F-box protein (SCF)-class of E3-ubiquitin ligases, is a natural substrate of this enzyme. In an unrelated protist, Dictyostelium discoideum, Skp1 hydroxyproline is modified by five sugars via the action of three glycosyltransferases, Gnt1, PgtA, and AgtA, which are required for optimal O2-dependent development. We show here that TgSkp1 hydroxyproline is modified by a similar pentasaccharide, based on mass spectrometry, and that assembly of the first three sugars is dependent on Toxoplasma homologs of Gnt1 and PgtA. Reconstitution of the glycosyltransferase reactions in extracts with radioactive sugar nucleotide substrates and appropriate Skp1 glycoforms, followed by chromatographic analysis of acid hydrolysates of the reaction products, confirmed the predicted sugar identities as GlcNAc, Gal, and Fuc. Disruptions of gnt1 or pgtA resulted in decreased parasite growth. Off target effects were excluded based on restoration of the normal glycan chain and growth upon genetic complementation. By analogy to Dictyostelium Skp1, the mechanism may involve regulation of assembly of the SCF complex. Understanding the mechanism of Toxoplasma Skp1 glycosylation is expected to help develop it as a drug target for control of the pathogen, as the glycosyltransferases are absent from mammalian hosts. PMID:26719340

  7. The E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Adaptor Protein Skp1 Is Glycosylated by an Evolutionarily Conserved Pathway That Regulates Protist Growth and Development.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Kazi; Zhao, Peng; Mandalasi, Msano; van der Wel, Hanke; Wells, Lance; Blader, Ira J; West, Christopher M

    2016-02-26

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protist parasite of warm-blooded animals that causes disease by proliferating intracellularly in muscle and the central nervous system. Previous studies showed that a prolyl 4-hydroxylase related to animal HIFα prolyl hydroxylases is required for optimal parasite proliferation, especially at low O2. We also observed that Pro-154 of Skp1, a subunit of the Skp1/Cullin-1/F-box protein (SCF)-class of E3-ubiquitin ligases, is a natural substrate of this enzyme. In an unrelated protist, Dictyostelium discoideum, Skp1 hydroxyproline is modified by five sugars via the action of three glycosyltransferases, Gnt1, PgtA, and AgtA, which are required for optimal O2-dependent development. We show here that TgSkp1 hydroxyproline is modified by a similar pentasaccharide, based on mass spectrometry, and that assembly of the first three sugars is dependent on Toxoplasma homologs of Gnt1 and PgtA. Reconstitution of the glycosyltransferase reactions in extracts with radioactive sugar nucleotide substrates and appropriate Skp1 glycoforms, followed by chromatographic analysis of acid hydrolysates of the reaction products, confirmed the predicted sugar identities as GlcNAc, Gal, and Fuc. Disruptions of gnt1 or pgtA resulted in decreased parasite growth. Off target effects were excluded based on restoration of the normal glycan chain and growth upon genetic complementation. By analogy to Dictyostelium Skp1, the mechanism may involve regulation of assembly of the SCF complex. Understanding the mechanism of Toxoplasma Skp1 glycosylation is expected to help develop it as a drug target for control of the pathogen, as the glycosyltransferases are absent from mammalian hosts.

  8. Adaptor Protein 1A Facilitates Dengue Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Yasamut, Umpa; Tongmuang, Nopprarat; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai; Junking, Mutita; Noisakran, Sansanee; Puttikhunt, Chunya; Chu, Justin Jang Hann; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai

    2015-01-01

    Rearrangement of membrane structure induced by dengue virus (DENV) is essential for replication, and requires host cellular machinery. Adaptor protein complex (AP)-1 is a host component, which can be recruited to components required for membrane rearrangement. Therefore, dysfunction of AP-1 may affect membrane organization, thereby decreasing replication of virus in infected cells. In the present study, AP-1-dependent traffic inhibitor inhibited DENV protein expression and virion production. We further clarified the role of AP-1A in the life cycle of DENV by RNA interference. AP-1A was not involved in DENV entry into cells. However, it facilitated DENV RNA replication. Viral RNA level was reduced significantly in Huh7 cells transfected with AP-1A small interfering RNA (siRNA) compared with control siRNA. Transfection of naked DENV viral RNA into Huh7 cells transfected with AP-1A siRNA resulted in less viral RNA and virion production than transfection into Huh7 cells transfected with control siRNA. Huh7 cells transfected with AP-1A siRNA showed greater modification of membrane structures and fewer vesicular packets compared with cells transfected with control siRNA. Therefore, AP-1A may partly control DENV-induced rearrangement of membrane structures required for viral replication. PMID:26090672

  9. Identification of actin binding protein, ABP-280, as a binding partner of human Lnk adaptor protein.

    PubMed

    He, X; Li, Y; Schembri-King, J; Jakes, S; Hayashi, J

    2000-08-01

    Human Lnk (hLnk) is an adaptor protein with multiple functional domains that regulates T cell activation signaling. In order to identify cellular Lnk binding partners, a yeast two-hybrid screening of human spleen cDNA library was carried out using human hLnk as bait. A polypeptide sequence identical to the C-terminal segment of the actin binding protein (ABP-280) was identified as a hLnk binding protein. The expressed hLnk and the FLAG tagged C-terminal 673 amino acid residues of ABP-280 or the endogenous ABP-280 in COS-7 cells could be co-immunoprecipitated using antibodies either to hLnk, FLAG or ABP-280, respectively. Furthermore, immunofluorescence confocal microscope showed that hLnk and ABP-280 co-localized at the plasma membrane and at juxtanuclear region of COS-7 cells. In Jurkat cells, the endogenous hLnk also associates with the endogenous ABP-280 indicating that the association of these two proteins is physiological. The interacting domains of both proteins were mapped using yeast two-hybrid assays. Our results indicate that hLnk binds to the residues 2006-2454 (repeats 19-23C) of ABP-280. The domain in hLnk that associates with ABP-280 was mapped to an interdomain region of 56 amino acids between pleckstrin homology and Src homology 2 domains. These results suggest that hLnk may exert its regulatory role through its association with ABP-280.

  10. Structure of the periplasmic adaptor protein from a major facilitator superfamily (MFS) multidrug efflux pump

    PubMed Central

    Hinchliffe, Philip; Greene, Nicholas P.; Paterson, Neil G.; Crow, Allister; Hughes, Colin; Koronakis, Vassilis

    2014-01-01

    Periplasmic adaptor proteins are key components of bacterial tripartite efflux pumps. The 2.85 Å resolution structure of an MFS (major facilitator superfamily) pump adaptor, Aquifex aeolicus EmrA, shows linearly arranged α-helical coiled-coil, lipoyl, and β-barrel domains, but lacks the fourth membrane-proximal domain shown in other pumps to interact with the inner membrane transporter. The adaptor α-hairpin, which binds outer membrane TolC, is exceptionally long at 127 Å, and the β-barrel contains a conserved disordered loop. The structure extends the view of adaptors as flexible, modular components that mediate diverse pump assembly, and suggests that in MFS tripartite pumps a hexamer of adaptors could provide a periplasmic seal. PMID:24996185

  11. SH2B1 (SH2-B) and JAK2: a multifunctional adaptor protein and kinase made for each other.

    PubMed

    Maures, Travis J; Kurzer, Jason H; Carter-Su, Christin

    2007-01-01

    Src homology 2 (SH2) B adaptor protein 1 (SH2B1; originally named SH2-B) is a member of a family of adaptor proteins that influences a variety of signaling pathways mediated by Janus kinase (JAK) and receptor tyrosine kinases. Although SH2B1 performs classical adaptor functions, such as recruitment of specific proteins to activated receptors, it also demonstrates a unique ability to enhance the kinase activity of the cytokine receptor-associated tyrosine kinase JAK2, as well as that of several receptor tyrosine kinases. SH2B1 is also among a small number of adaptor proteins shown to undergo nucleocytoplasmic shuttling, although its exact role within the nucleus is not yet clear. Deletion of the SH2B1 gene results in severe obesity and both leptin and insulin resistance, as well as infertility, which might be a consequence of resistance to insulin-like growth factor I. Thus, knockout mice support a role for SH2B1 as a positive regulator of JAK2 signaling pathways initiated by leptin, as well as of pathways initiated by insulin and, potentially, by insulin-like growth factor I.

  12. The hypoxic regulator of sterol synthesis Nro1 is a nuclear import adaptor

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Tzu-Lan; Lee, Chih-Yung S.; Amzel, L. Mario; Espenshade, Peter J.; Bianchet, Mario A.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Fission yeast protein Sre1, the homolog of the mammalian sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP), is a hypoxic transcription factor required for sterol homeostasis and low oxygen growth. Nro1 regulates the stability of the N-terminal transcription factor domain of Sre1 (Sre1N) by inhibiting the action of the prolyl 4-hydroxylase-like Ofd1 in an oxygen-dependent manner. The crystal structure of Nro1 determined at 2.2 Å resolution shows an all-α-helical fold that can be divided into two domains: a small N-terminal domain and a larger C-terminal HEAT-repeat domain. Follow-up studies showed that Nro1 defines a new class of nuclear import adaptor that functions both in Ofd1 nuclear localization and in the oxygen-dependent inhibition of Ofd1 to control the hypoxic response. PMID:21481773

  13. The Hypoxic Regulator of Sterol Synthesis Nro1 Is a Nuclear Import Adaptor

    SciTech Connect

    T Yeh; C Lee; L Amzel; P Espenshade; M Bianchet

    2011-12-31

    Fission yeast protein Sre1, the homolog of the mammalian sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP), is a hypoxic transcription factor required for sterol homeostasis and low-oxygen growth. Nro1 regulates the stability of the N-terminal transcription factor domain of Sre1 (Sre1N) by inhibiting the action of the prolyl 4-hydroxylase-like Ofd1 in an oxygen-dependent manner. The crystal structure of Nro1 determined at 2.2 {angstrom} resolution shows an all-{alpha}-helical fold that can be divided into two domains: a small N-terminal domain, and a larger C-terminal HEAT-repeat domain. Follow-up studies showed that Nro1 defines a new class of nuclear import adaptor that functions both in Ofd1 nuclear localization and in the oxygen-dependent inhibition of Ofd1 to control the hypoxic response.

  14. Expression of the p66Shc protein adaptor is regulated by the activator of transcription STAT4 in normal and chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells

    PubMed Central

    Cattaneo, Francesca; Patrussi, Laura; Capitani, Nagaja; Frezzato, Federica; D'Elios, Mario Milco; Trentin, Livio; Semenzato, Gianpietro; Baldari, Cosima T.

    2016-01-01

    p66Shc attenuates mitogenic, prosurvival and chemotactic signaling and promotes apoptosis in lymphocytes. Consistently, p66Shc deficiency contributes to the survival and trafficking abnormalities of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) B cells. The mechanism of p66shc silencing in CLL B cells is methylation-independent, at variance with other cancer cell types. Here we identify STAT4 as a novel transcriptional regulator of p66Shc in B cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and reporter gene assays showed that STAT4 binds to and activates the p66shc promoter. Silencing or overexpression of STAT4 resulted in a co-modulation of p66Shc. IL-12-dependent STAT4 activation caused a coordinate increase in STAT4 and p66Shc expression, which correlated with enhanced B cell apoptosis. Treatment with the STAT4 inhibitor lisofylline reverted partly this effect, suggesting that STAT4 phosphorylation is not essential for but enhances p66shc transcription. Additionally, we demonstrate that CLL B lymphocytes have a STAT4 expression defect which partly accounts for their p66Shc deficiency, as supported by reconstitution experiments. Finally, we show that p66Shc participates in a positive feedback loop to promote STAT4 expression. These results provide new insights into the mechanism of p66Shc expression in B cells and its defect in CLL, identifying the STAT4/IL-12 pathway as a potential therapeutic target in this neoplasia. PMID:27494881

  15. Roles of BLOC-1 and Adaptor Protein-3 Complexes in Cargo Sorting to Synaptic Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Newell-Litwa, Karen; Salazar, Gloria; Smith, Yoland

    2009-01-01

    Neuronal lysosomes and their biogenesis mechanisms are primarily thought to clear metabolites and proteins whose abnormal accumulation leads to neurodegenerative disease pathology. However, it remains unknown whether lysosomal sorting mechanisms regulate the levels of membrane proteins within synaptic vesicles. Using high-resolution deconvolution microscopy, we identified early endosomal compartments where both selected synaptic vesicle and lysosomal membrane proteins coexist with the adaptor protein complex 3 (AP-3) in neuronal cells. From these early endosomes, both synaptic vesicle membrane proteins and characteristic AP-3 lysosomal cargoes can be similarly sorted to brain synaptic vesicles and PC12 synaptic-like microvesicles. Mouse knockouts for two Hermansky–Pudlak complexes involved in lysosomal biogenesis from early endosomes, the ubiquitous isoform of AP-3 (Ap3b1−/−) and muted, defective in the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex 1 (BLOC-1), increased the content of characteristic synaptic vesicle proteins and known AP-3 lysosomal proteins in isolated synaptic vesicle fractions. These phenotypes contrast with those of the mouse knockout for the neuronal AP-3 isoform involved in synaptic vesicle biogenesis (Ap3b2−/−), in which the content of select proteins was reduced in synaptic vesicles. Our results demonstrate that lysosomal and lysosome-related organelle biogenesis mechanisms regulate steady-state synaptic vesicle protein composition from shared early endosomes. PMID:19144828

  16. Adaptor protein-3: A key player in RBL-2H3 mast cell mediator release

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Elaine Zayas Marcelino; Freitas-Filho, Edismauro Garcia; de Souza-Júnior, Devandir Antonio; daSilva, Luis Lamberti Pinto; Jamur, Maria Celia

    2017-01-01

    Mast cell (MC) secretory granules are Lysosome-Related Organelles (LROs) whose biogenesis is associated with the post-Golgi secretory and endocytic pathways in which the sorting of proteins destined for a specific organelle relies on the recognition of sorting signals by adaptor proteins that direct their incorporation into transport vesicles. The adaptor protein 3 (AP-3) complex mediates protein trafficking between the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and late endosomes, lysosomes, and LROs. AP-3 has a recognized role in LROs biogenesis and regulated secretion in several cell types, including many immune cells such as neutrophils, natural killer cells, and cytotoxic T lymphocytes. However, the relevance of AP-3 for these processes in MCs has not been previously investigated. AP-3 was found to be expressed and distributed in a punctate fashion in rat peritoneal mast cells ex vivo. The rat MC line RBL-2H3 was used as a model system to investigate the role of AP-3 in mast cell secretory granule biogenesis and mediator release. By immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy, AP-3 was localized both to the TGN and early endosomes indicating that AP-3 dependent sorting of proteins to MC secretory granules originates in these organelles. ShRNA mediated depletion of the AP-3 δ subunit was shown to destabilize the AP-3 complex in RBL-2H3 MCs. AP-3 knockdown significantly affected MC regulated secretion of β-hexosaminidase without affecting total cellular enzyme levels. Morphometric evaluation of MC secretory granules by electron microscopy revealed that the area of MC secretory granules in AP-3 knockdown MCs was significantly increased, indicating that AP-3 is involved in MC secretory granule biogenesis. Furthermore, AP-3 knockdown had a selective impact on the secretion of newly formed and newly synthesized mediators. These results show for the first time that AP-3 plays a critical role in secretory granule biogenesis and mediator release in MCs. PMID:28273137

  17. Interaction with the adaptor protein Shc prevents aberrant Erk activation in the absence of extracellular stimulus

    PubMed Central

    Suen, Kin Man; Lin, Chi-Chuan; George, Roger; Melo, Fernando A.; Biggs, Eleanor R.; Ahmed, Zamal; Drake, Melanie N.; Arur, Swathi; Arold, Stefan T.; Ladbury, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Control mechanisms that prevent aberrant signaling are necessary to maintain cellular homeostasis. We describe a novel mechanism by which the adaptor protein Shc binds directly to the MAP-kinase Erk, preventing its activation in the absence of extracellular stimulus. The Shc–Erk complex restricts Erk nuclear translocation, restraining Erk-dependent transcription of genes, including those responsible for oncogenic growth. The complex is formed through unique binding sites on both the Shc PTB domain and N-terminal lobe of Erk. Upon receptor tyrosine kinase stimulation, a conformational change within Shc—induced through interaction with the phosphorylated receptor—releases Erk allowing it to fulfill its role in signaling. Thus, in addition to its established role in promoting MAP-kinase signaling in stimulated cells, Shc negatively regulates Erk activation in the absence of growth factors and thus could be considered as a tumor suppressor in human cells. PMID:23584453

  18. PHF6 Degrees of Separation: The Multifaceted Roles of a Chromatin Adaptor Protein

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Matthew A.M.; Ivanochko, Danton; Picketts, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of chromatin regulation to human disease is highlighted by the growing number of mutations identified in genes encoding chromatin remodeling proteins. While such mutations were first identified in severe developmental disorders, or in specific cancers, several genes have been implicated in both, including the plant homeodomain finger protein 6 (PHF6) gene. Indeed, germline mutations in PHF6 are the cause of the Börjeson–Forssman–Lehmann X-linked intellectual disability syndrome (BFLS), while somatic PHF6 mutations have been identified in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Studies from different groups over the last few years have made a significant impact towards a functional understanding of PHF6 protein function. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of PHF6 with particular emphasis on how it interfaces with a distinct set of interacting partners and its functional roles in the nucleoplasm and nucleolus. Overall, PHF6 is emerging as a key chromatin adaptor protein critical to the regulation of neurogenesis and hematopoiesis. PMID:26103525

  19. Unexpected diversity in Shisa-like proteins suggests the importance of their roles as transmembrane adaptors.

    PubMed

    Pei, Jimin; Grishin, Nick V

    2012-03-01

    The Shisa family of single-transmembrane proteins is characterized by an N-terminal cysteine-rich domain and a proline-rich C-terminal region. Its founding member, Xenopus Shisa, promotes head development by antagonizing Wnt and FGF signaling. Recently, a mouse brain-specific Shisa protein CKAMP44 (Shisa9) was shown to play an important role in AMPA receptor desensitization. We used sequence similarity searches against protein, genome and EST databases to study the evolutionary origin and phylogenetic distribution of Shisa homologs. In addition to nine Shisa subfamilies in vertebrates, we detected distantly related Shisa homologs that possess an N-terminal domain with six conserved cysteines. These Shisa-like proteins include FAM159 and KIAA1644 mainly from vertebrates, and members from various bilaterian invertebrates and Porifera, suggesting their presence in the last common ancestor of Metazoa. Shisa-like genes have undergone large expansions in Branchiostoma floridae and Saccoglossus kowalevskii, and appear to have been lost in certain insects. Pattern-based searches against eukaryotic proteomes also uncovered several other families of predicted single-transmembrane proteins with a similar cysteine-rich domain. We refer to these proteins (Shisa/Shisa-like, WBP1/VOPP1, CX, DUF2650, TMEM92, and CYYR1) as STMC6 proteins (single-transmembrane proteins with conserved 6 cysteines). STMC6 genes are widespread in Metazoa, with the human genome containing 17 members. Frequent occurrences of PY motifs in STMC6 proteins suggest that most of them could interact with WW-domain-containing proteins, such as the NEDD4 family E3 ubiquitin ligases, and could play critical roles in protein degradation and sorting. STMC6 proteins are likely transmembrane adaptors that regulate membrane proteins such as cell surface receptors.

  20. Identification of Cargo for Adaptor Protein (AP) Complexes 3 and 4 by Sucrose Gradient Profiling.

    PubMed

    Pertl-Obermeyer, Heidi; Wu, Xu Na; Schrodt, Jens; Müdsam, Christina; Obermeyer, Gerhard; Schulze, Waltraud X

    2016-09-01

    Intracellular vesicle trafficking is a fundamental process in eukaryotic cells. It enables cellular polarity and exchange of proteins between subcellular compartments such as the plasma membrane or the vacuole. Adaptor protein complexes participate in the vesicle formation by specific selection of the transported cargo. We investigated the role of the adaptor protein complex 3 (AP-3) and adaptor protein complex 4 (AP-4) in this selection process by screening for AP-3 and AP-4 dependent cargo proteins. Specific cargo proteins are expected to be mis-targeted in knock-out mutants of adaptor protein complex components. Thus, we screened for altered distribution profiles across a density gradient of membrane proteins in wild type versus ap-3β and ap-4β knock-out mutants. In ap-3β mutants, especially proteins with transport functions, such as aquaporins and plasma membrane ATPase, as well as vesicle trafficking proteins showed differential protein distribution profiles across the density gradient. In the ap-4β mutant aquaporins but also proteins from lipid metabolism were differentially distributed. These proteins also showed differential phosphorylation patterns in ap-3β and ap-4β compared with wild type. Other proteins, such as receptor kinases were depleted from the AP-3 mutant membrane system, possibly because of degradation after mis-targeting. In AP-4 mutants, membrane fractions were depleted for cytochrome P450 proteins, cell wall proteins and receptor kinases. Analysis of water transport capacity in wild type and mutant mesophyll cells confirmed aquaporins as cargo proteins of AP-3 and AP-4. The combination of organelle density gradients with proteome analysis turned out as a suitable experimental strategy for large-scale analyses of protein trafficking.

  1. Crk Adaptors Negatively Regulate Actin Polymerization in Pedestals Formed by Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) by Binding to Tir Effector

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Villa, José Manuel; Benito-León, María; Martinez-Quiles, Narcisa

    2014-01-01

    Infections by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) cause diarrhea linked to high infant mortality in developing countries. EPEC adheres to epithelial cells and induces the formation of actin pedestals. Actin polymerization is driven fundamentally through signaling mediated by Tir bacterial effector protein, which inserts in the plasma membrane of the infected cell. Tir binds Nck adaptor proteins, which in turn recruit and activate N-WASP, a ubiquitous member of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome family of proteins. N-WASP activates the Arp2/3 complex to promote actin polymerization. Other proteins aside from components of the Tir-Nck-N-WASP pathway are recruited to the pedestals but their functions are unknown. Here we investigate the function of two alternatively spliced isoforms of Crk adaptors (CrkI/II) and the paralog protein CrkL during pedestal formation by EPEC. We found that the Crk isoforms act as redundant inhibitors of pedestal formation. The SH2 domain of CrkII and CrkL binds to phosphorylated tyrosine 474 of Tir and competes with Nck to bind Tir, preventing its recruitment to pedestals and thereby inhibiting actin polymerization. EPEC infection induces phosphorylation of the major regulatory tyrosine in CrkII and CrkL, possibly preventing the SH2 domain of these proteins from interacting with Tir. Phosphorylated CrkII and CrkL proteins localize specifically to the plasma membrane in contact with EPEC. Our study uncovers a novel role for Crk adaptors at pedestals, opening a new perspective in how these oncoproteins regulate actin polymerization. PMID:24675776

  2. Transcriptional repression of Kruppel like factor-2 by the adaptor protein p66shc

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ajay; Hoffman, Timothy A.; DeRicco, Jeremy; Naqvi, Asma; Jain, Mukesh K.; Irani, Kaikobad

    2009-01-01

    The adaptor protein p66shc promotes cellular oxidative stress and apoptosis. Here, we demonstrate a novel mechanistic relationship between p66shc and the kruppel like factor-2 (KLF2) transcription factor and show that this relationship has biological relevance to p66shc-regulated cellular oxidant level, as well as KLF2-induced target gene expression. Genetic knockout of p66shc in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) stimulates activity of the core KLF2 promoter and increases KLF2 mRNA and protein expression. Similarly, shRNA-induced knockdown of p66shc increases KLF2-promoter activity in HeLa cells. The increase in KLF2-promoter activity in p66shc-knockout MEFs is dependent on a myocyte enhancing factor-2A (MEF2A)-binding sequence in the core KLF2 promoter. Short-hairpin RNA-induced knockdown of p66shc in endothelial cells also stimulates KLF2 mRNA and protein expression, as well as expression of the endothelial KLF2 target gene thrombomodulin. MEF2A protein and mRNA are more abundant in p66shc-knockout MEFs, resulting in greater occupancy of the KLF2 promoter by MEF2A. In endothelial cells, the increase in KLF2 and thrombomodulin protein by shRNA-induced decrease in p66shc expression is partly abrogated by knockdown of MEF2A. Finally, knockdown of KLF2 abolishes the decrease in the cellular reactive oxygen species hydrogen peroxide observed with knockdown of p66shc, and KLF2 overexpression suppresses cellular hydrogen peroxide levels, independent of p66shc expression. These findings illustrate a novel mechanism by which p66shc promotes cellular oxidative stress, through suppression of MEF2A expression and consequent repression of KLF2 transcription.—Kumar, A., Hoffman, T. A., DeRicco, J., Naqvi, A., Jain, M. K., Irani, K. Transcriptional repression of Kruppel like factor-2 by the adaptor protein p66shc. PMID:19696221

  3. Comparative analysis of adaptor-mediated clathrin assembly reveals general principles for adaptor clustering.

    PubMed

    Pucadyil, Thomas J; Holkar, Sachin S

    2016-10-15

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) manages the sorting and uptake of the bulk of membrane proteins (or cargo) from the plasma membrane. CME is initiated by the formation of clathrin-coated pits (CCPs), in which adaptors nucleate clathrin assembly. Clathrin adaptors display diversity in both the type and number of evolutionarily conserved clathrin-binding boxes. How this diversity relates to the process of adaptor clustering as clathrin assembles around a growing pit remains unclear. Using real-time, fluorescence microscopy-based assays, we compare the formation kinetics and distribution of clathrin assemblies on membranes that display five unique clathrin adaptors. Correlations between equilibrium and kinetic parameters of clathrin assembly to the eventual adaptor distribution indicate that adaptor clustering is determined not by the amount of clathrin recruited or the degree of clathrin clustered but instead by the rate of clathrin assembly. Together our results emphasize the need to analyze kinetics of protein interactions to better understand mechanisms that regulate CME.

  4. Functions of adaptor protein (AP)-3 and AP-1 in tyrosinase sorting from endosomes to melanosomes.

    PubMed

    Theos, Alexander C; Tenza, Danièle; Martina, José A; Hurbain, Ilse; Peden, Andrew A; Sviderskaya, Elena V; Stewart, Abigail; Robinson, Margaret S; Bennett, Dorothy C; Cutler, Daniel F; Bonifacino, Juan S; Marks, Michael S; Raposo, Graça

    2005-11-01

    Specialized cells exploit adaptor protein complexes for unique post-Golgi sorting events, providing a unique model system to specify adaptor function. Here, we show that AP-3 and AP-1 function independently in sorting of the melanocyte-specific protein tyrosinase from endosomes to the melanosome, a specialized lysosome-related organelle distinguishable from lysosomes. AP-3 and AP-1 localize in melanocytes primarily to clathrin-coated buds on tubular early endosomes near melanosomes. Both adaptors recognize the tyrosinase dileucine-based melanosome sorting signal, and tyrosinase largely colocalizes with each adaptor on endosomes. In AP-3-deficient melanocytes, tyrosinase accumulates inappropriately in vacuolar and multivesicular endosomes. Nevertheless, a substantial fraction still accumulates on melanosomes, concomitant with increased association with endosomal AP-1. Our data indicate that AP-3 and AP-1 function in partially redundant pathways to transfer tyrosinase from distinct endosomal subdomains to melanosomes and that the AP-3 pathway ensures that tyrosinase averts entrapment on internal membranes of forming multivesicular bodies.

  5. The role of Tks adaptor proteins in invadopodia formation, growth and metastasis of melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Iizuka, Shinji; Abdullah, Christopher; Buschman, Matthew D.; Diaz, Begoña; Courtneidge, Sara A.

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic cancer cells are characterized by their ability to degrade and invade through extracellular matrix. We previously showed that the Tks adaptor proteins, Tks4 and Tks5, are required for invadopodia formation and/or function in Src-transformed fibroblasts and a number of human cancer cell types. In this study, we investigated the role of Tks adaptor proteins in melanoma cell invasion and metastasis. Knockdown of either Tks4 or Tks5 in both mouse and human melanoma cell lines resulted in a decreased ability to form invadopodia and degrade extracellular matrix. In addition, Tks-knockdown melanoma cells had decreased proliferation in a 3-dimensional type l collagen matrix, but not in 2-dimensional culture conditions. We also investigated the role of Tks proteins in melanoma progression in vivo using xenografts and experimental metastasis assays. Consistent with our in vitro results, reduction of Tks proteins markedly reduced subcutaneous melanoma growth as well as metastatic growth in the lung. We explored the clinical relevance of Tks protein expression in human melanoma specimens using a tissue microarray. Compared to non-malignant nevi, both Tks proteins were highly expressed in melanoma tissues. Moreover, metastatic melanoma cases showed higher expression of Tks5 than primary melanoma cases. Taken together, these findings suggest the importance of Tks adaptor proteins in melanoma growth and metastasis in vivo, likely via functional invadopodia formation. PMID:27802184

  6. The p66(Shc) adaptor protein controls oxidative stress response in early bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Betts, Dean H; Bain, Nathan T; Madan, Pavneesh

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro production of mammalian embryos suffers from high frequencies of developmental failure due to excessive levels of permanent embryo arrest and apoptosis caused by oxidative stress. The p66Shc stress adaptor protein controls oxidative stress response of somatic cells by regulating intracellular ROS levels through multiple pathways, including mitochondrial ROS generation and the repression of antioxidant gene expression. We have previously demonstrated a strong relationship with elevated p66Shc levels, reduced antioxidant levels and greater intracellular ROS generation with the high incidence of permanent cell cycle arrest of 2-4 cell embryos cultured under high oxygen tensions or after oxidant treatment. The main objective of this study was to establish a functional role for p66Shc in regulating the oxidative stress response during early embryo development. Using RNA interference in bovine zygotes we show that p66Shc knockdown embryos exhibited increased MnSOD levels, reduced intracellular ROS and DNA damage that resulted in a greater propensity for development to the blastocyst stage. P66Shc knockdown embryos were stress resistant exhibiting significantly reduced intracellular ROS levels, DNA damage, permanent 2-4 cell embryo arrest and diminished apoptosis frequencies after oxidant treatment. The results of this study demonstrate that p66Shc controls the oxidative stress response in early mammalian embryos. Small molecule inhibition of p66Shc may be a viable clinical therapy to increase the developmental potential of in vitro produced mammalian embryos.

  7. The Grb2 adaptor.

    PubMed

    Chardin, P; Cussac, D; Maignan, S; Ducruix, A

    1995-08-01

    Grb2 is an 'adaptor' protein made of one SH2 and two SH3 domains. The SH3 domains bind to prolinerich motifs in the C-terminal part of the ras exchange factor Sos. Binding of the Grb2 SH2 domain to phosphotyrosine motifs on receptors, or other adaptor proteins such as Shc, recruits this Grb2/Sos complex at the plasma membrane where Sos stimulates nucleotide exchange on ras, then ras activates raf and leads to MAP kinase activation. The structure of Grb2, the precise motifs recognised by its SH2 and SH3 domains, the way Grb2 performs its function, a possible regulation of its association with Sos, and its ability to complex with other proteins in vivo, are discussed.

  8. Adaptor-dependent degradation of a cell-cycle regulator uses a unique substrate architecture.

    PubMed

    Rood, Keith L; Clark, Nathaniel E; Stoddard, Patrick R; Garman, Scott C; Chien, Peter

    2012-07-03

    In Caulobacter crescentus, the ClpXP protease degrades several crucial cell-cycle regulators, including the phosphodiesterase PdeA. Degradation of PdeA requires the response regulator CpdR and signals a morphological transition in concert with initiation of DNA replication. Here, we report the structure of a Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) domain of PdeA and show that it is necessary for CpdR-dependent degradation in vivo and in vitro. CpdR acts as an adaptor, tethering the amino-terminal PAS domain to ClpXP and promoting recognition of the weak carboxyl-terminal degron of PdeA, a combination that ensures processive proteolysis. We identify sites on the PAS domain needed for CpdR recognition and find that one subunit of the PdeA dimer can be delivered to ClpXP by its partner. Finally, we show that improper stabilization of PdeA in vivo alters cellular behavior. These results introduce an adaptor/substrate pair for ClpXP and reveal broad diversity in adaptor-mediated proteolysis.

  9. Ste50 adaptor protein governs sexual differentiation of Cryptococcus neoformans via the pheromone response MAPK signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kwang-Woo; Kim, Seo-Young; Okagaki, Laura H.; Nielsen, Kirsten; Bahn, Yong-Sun

    2010-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways control diverse cellular functions in pathogenic fungi, including sexual differentiation, stress-response, and maintenance of cell wall integrity. Here we characterized a C. neoformans gene, which is homologous to the yeast Ste50 that is known to play an important role in mating pheromone response and stress response as an adaptor protein to the Ste11 MAPK kinase kinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The C. neoformans Ste50 was not involved in any of the stress responses or virulence factor production (capsule and melanin) that are controlled by the HOG and Ras/cAMP signaling pathways. However, Ste50 was required for mating in both serotype A and serotype D C. neoformans strains. The ste50Δ mutant was completely defective in cell-cell fusion and mating pheromone production. Double mutation of the STE50 gene blocked increased production of pheromone and the hyper-filamentation phenotype of cells deleted of the CRG1 gene, which encodes the RGS protein that negatively regulates pheromone responsive G-protein signaling via the MAPK pathway. Regardless of the presence of the basidiomycota-specific SH3 domains of Ste50 that are known to be required for full virulence of Ustilago maydis, Ste50 was dispensable for virulence of C. neoformans in a murine model of cryptococcosis. In conclusion, the Ste50 adaptor protein controls sexual differentiation of C. neoformans via the pheromone-responsive MAPK pathway but is not required for virulence. PMID:20971202

  10. The small G-protein Arf6GTP recruits the AP-2 adaptor complex to membranes.

    PubMed

    Paleotti, Olivia; Macia, Eric; Luton, Frederic; Klein, Stephanie; Partisani, Mariagrazia; Chardin, Pierre; Kirchhausen, Tom; Franco, Michel

    2005-06-03

    The small GTP-binding protein ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) is involved in plasma membrane/endosomes trafficking. However, precisely how the activation of Arf6 regulates vesicular transport is still unclear. Here, we show that, in vitro, recombinant Arf6GTP recruits purified clathrin-adaptor complex AP-2 (but not AP-1) onto phospholipid liposomes in the absence of phosphoinositides. We also show that phosphoinositides and Arf6 tightly cooperate to translocate AP-2 to the membrane. In vivo, Arf6GTP (but not Arf6GDP) was found associated to AP-2. The expression of the GTP-locked mutant of Arf6 leads to the plasma membrane redistribution of AP-2 in Arf6GTP-enriched areas. Finally, we demonstrated that the expression of the GTP-locked mutant of Arf6 inhibits transferrin receptor internalization without affecting its recycling. Altogether, our results demonstrated that Arf6GTP interacts specifically with AP-2 and promotes its membrane recruitment. These findings strongly suggest that Arf6 plays a major role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis by directly controlling the assembly of the AP-2/clathrin coat.

  11. Adaptor Protein 2 (AP-2) complex is essential for functional axogenesis in hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Kyung, Jae Won; Cho, In Ha; Lee, Sukmook; Song, Woo Keun; Ryan, Timothy A.; Hoppa, Michael B.; Kim, Sung Hyun

    2017-01-01

    The complexity and diversity of a neural network requires regulated elongation and branching of axons, as well as the formation of synapses between neurons. In the present study we explore the role of AP-2, a key endocytic adaptor protein complex, in the development of rat hippocampal neurons. We found that the loss of AP-2 during the early stage of development resulted in impaired axon extension and failed maturation of the axon initial segment (AIS). Normally the AIS performs two tasks in concert, stabilizing neural polarity and generating action potentials. In AP-2 silenced axons polarity is established, however there is a failure to establish action potential firing. Consequently, this impairs activity-driven Ca2+ influx and exocytosis at nerve terminals. In contrast, removal of AP-2 from older neurons does not impair axonal growth or signaling and synaptic function. Our data reveal that AP-2 has important roles in functional axogenesis by proper extension of axon as well as the formation of AIS during the early step of neurodevelopment. PMID:28139716

  12. Tetraspan cargo adaptors usher GPI-anchored proteins into multivesicular bodies

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Chris; Stamnes, Mark A; Katzmann, David J; Piper, Robert C

    2015-01-01

    Ubiquitinated membrane proteins are sorted into intralumenal endosomal vesicles on their way for degradation in lysosomes. Here we summarize the discovery of the Cos proteins, which work to organize and segregate ubiquitinated cargo prior to its incorporation into intralumenal vesicles of the multivesicular body (MVB). Importantly, cargoes such as GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) that cannot undergo ubiquitination, rely entirely on Cos proteins for sorting into intralumenal vesicles using the same pathway that depends on ESCRTs and ubiquitin ligases that typical polytopic membrane proteins do. Here we show Cos proteins provide functions as not only adaptor proteins for ubiquitin ligases, but also as cargo carriers that can physically usher a variety of other proteins into the MVB pathway. We then discuss the significance of this new sorting model and the broader implications for this cargo adaptor mechanism, whereby yeast Cos proteins, and their likely animal analogs, provide a ubiquitin sorting signal in trans to enable sorting of a membrane protein network into intralumenal vesicles. PMID:26505929

  13. Dissecting nuclear Wingless signalling: recruitment of the transcriptional co-activator Pygopus by a chain of adaptor proteins.

    PubMed

    Städeli, Reto; Basler, Konrad

    2005-11-01

    Members of the Wingless (Wg)/Wnt family of secreted glycoproteins control cell fate during embryonic development and adult homeostasis. Wnt signals regulate the expression of target genes by activating a conserved signal transduction pathway. Upon receptor activation, the signal is transmitted intracellularly by stabilization of Armadillo (Arm)/beta-catenin. Arm/beta-catenin translocates to the nucleus, interacts with DNA-binding factors of the Pangolin (Pan)/TCF/LEF class and activates transcription of target genes in cooperation with the recently identified proteins Legless/BCL9 (Lgs) and Pygopus (Pygo). Here, we analyse the mode of action of Pan, Arm, Lgs, and Pygo in Drosophila cultured cells. We provide evidence that together these four proteins form a 'chain of adaptors' linking the NH2-terminal homology domain (NHD) of Pygo to the DNA-binding domain of Pan. We show that the NHD has potent transcriptional activation capacity, which differs from that of acidic activator domains and depends on a conserved NPF tripeptide. A single point mutation within this NPF motif abolishes the transcriptional activity of the Pygo NHD in vitro and strongly reduces Wg signalling in vivo. Together, our results suggest that the transcriptional output of Wg pathway activity largely relies on a 'chain of adaptors' design to direct the Pygo NHD to Wg target promoters in an Arm-dependent manner.

  14. Structural basis for concerted recruitment and activation of IRF-3 by innate immune adaptor proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Baoyu; Shu, Chang; Gao, Xinsheng; Sankaran, Banumathi; Du, Fenglei; Shelton, Catherine L.; Herr, Andrew B.; Ji, Jun-Yuan; Li, Pingwei

    2016-01-01

    Type I IFNs are key cytokines mediating innate antiviral immunity. cGMP-AMP synthase, ritinoic acid-inducible protein 1 (RIG-I)–like receptors, and Toll-like receptors recognize microbial double-stranded (ds)DNA, dsRNA, and LPS to induce the expression of type I IFNs. These signaling pathways converge at the recruitment and activation of the transcription factor IRF-3 (IFN regulatory factor 3). The adaptor proteins STING (stimulator of IFN genes), MAVS (mitochondrial antiviral signaling), and TRIF (TIR domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-β) mediate the recruitment of IRF-3 through a conserved pLxIS motif. Here we show that the pLxIS motif of phosphorylated STING, MAVS, and TRIF binds to IRF-3 in a similar manner, whereas residues upstream of the motif confer specificity. The structure of the IRF-3 phosphomimetic mutant S386/396E bound to the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB)-binding protein reveals that the pLxIS motif also mediates IRF-3 dimerization and activation. Moreover, rotavirus NSP1 (nonstructural protein 1) employs a pLxIS motif to target IRF-3 for degradation, but phosphorylation of NSP1 is not required for its activity. These results suggest a concerted mechanism for the recruitment and activation of IRF-3 that can be subverted by viral proteins to evade innate immune responses. PMID:27302953

  15. The adaptor protein Dab2 sorts LDL receptors into coated pits independently of AP-2 and ARH.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Meghan E; Cooper, Jonathan A

    2006-10-15

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis requires cargo-specific adaptor proteins that recognize specific receptors and recruit them into coated pits. ARH [also called low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) adaptor protein] serves as an adaptor for LDLR endocytosis in liver. However, ARH is dispensable for LDL uptake by some other cell types. Here, we show that the adaptor Dab2 plays a major role in LDLR internalization in HeLa cells and fibroblasts. Dab2 mediates internalization of LDLRs but not transferrin receptors independently of ARH and the classic clathrin adaptor AP-2. If Dab2 is absent, ARH can mediate LDLR endocytosis, but its action requires AP-2. Furthermore, the rate of LDLR endocytosis is decreased when Dab2 is absent and Dab2, but not ARH, catalyzes the efficient clustering of LDLR into coated pits. Dab2 activity requires its binding to clathrin, LDLR and phospholipids. Dab2 is also involved in moving LDLRs off filopodia. We suggest that Dab2 is a cargo-specific endocytic adaptor protein, stably associating with phospholipids and clathrin to sort LDLR to nascent-coated pits, whereas ARH might accelerate later steps in LDLR endocytosis in cooperation with AP-2.

  16. The interaction between the adaptor protein APS and Enigma is involved in actin organisation.

    PubMed

    Barrès, Romain; Gonzalez, Teresa; Le Marchand-Brustel, Yannick; Tanti, Jean-François

    2005-08-15

    APS (adaptor protein with PH and SH2 domains) is an adaptor protein phosphorylated by several tyrosine kinase receptors including the insulin receptor. To identify novel binding partners of APS, we performed yeast two-hybrid screening. We identified Enigma, a PDZ and LIM domain-containing protein that was previously shown to be associated with the actin cytoskeleton. In HEK 293 cells, Enigma interacted specifically with APS, but not with the APS-related protein SH2-B. This interaction required the NPTY motif of APS and the LIM domains of Enigma. In NIH-3T3 cells that express the insulin receptor, Enigma and APS were partially co-localised with F-actin in small ruffling structures. Insulin increased the complex formation between APS and Enigma and their co-localisation in large F-actin containing ruffles. While in NIH-3T3 and HeLa cells the co-expression of both Enigma and APS did not modify the actin cytoskeleton organisation, expression of Enigma alone led to the formation of F-actin clusters. Similar alteration in actin cytoskeleton organisation was observed in cells expressing both Enigma and APS with a mutation in the NPTY motif. These results identify Enigma as a novel APS-binding protein and suggest that the APS/Enigma complex plays a critical role in actin cytoskeleton organisation.

  17. The SH2B1 adaptor protein associates with a proximal region of the erythropoietin receptor.

    PubMed

    Javadi, Mojib; Hofstätter, Edda; Stickle, Natalie; Beattie, Bryan K; Jaster, Robert; Carter-Su, Christin; Barber, Dwayne L

    2012-07-27

    Gene targeting experiments have shown that the cytokine erythropoietin (EPO), its cognate erythropoietin receptor (EPO-R), and associated Janus tyrosine kinase, JAK2, are all essential for erythropoiesis. Structural-functional and murine knock-in experiments have suggested that EPO-R Tyr-343 is important in EPO-mediated mitogenesis. Although Stat5 binds to EPO-R phosphotyrosine 343, the initial Stat5-deficient mice did not have profound erythroid abnormalities suggesting that additional Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing effectors may bind to EPO-R Tyr-343 and couple to downstream signaling pathways. We have utilized cloning of ligand target (COLT) screening to demonstrate that EPO-R Tyr(P)-343 and Tyr(P)-401 bind to the SH2 domain-containing adaptor protein SH2B1β. Immunoprecipitation and in vitro mixing experiments reveal that EPO-R binds to SH2B1 in an SH2 domain-dependent manner and that the sequence that confers SH2B1 binding to the EPO-R is pYXXL. Previous studies have shown that SH2B1 binds directly to JAK2, but we show that in hematopoietic cells, SH2B1β preferentially associates with the EPO-R. SH2B1 is capable of constitutive association with EPO-R, which is necessary for its optimal SH2-dependent recruitment to EPO-R-Tyr(P)-343/Tyr(P)-401. We also demonstrate that SH2B1 is responsive to EPO stimulation and becomes phosphorylated, most likely on serines/threonines, in an EPO dose- and time-dependent manner. In the absence of SH2B1, we observe enhanced activation of signaling pathways downstream of the EPO-R, indicating that SH2B1 is a negative regulator of EPO signaling.

  18. Nrf2 reduces levels of phosphorylated tau protein by inducing autophagy adaptor protein NDP52

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Chulman; Gundemir, Soner; Pritchard, Susanne; Jin, Youngnam N.; Rahman, Irfan; Johnson, Gail V. W.

    2014-03-01

    Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a pivotal transcription factor in the defence against oxidative stress. Here we provide evidence that activation of the Nrf2 pathway reduces the levels of phosphorylated tau by induction of an autophagy adaptor protein NDP52 (also known as CALCOCO2) in neurons. The expression of NDP52, which we show has three antioxidant response elements (AREs) in its promoter region, is strongly induced by Nrf2, and its overexpression facilitates clearance of phosphorylated tau in the presence of an autophagy stimulator. In Nrf2-knockout mice, phosphorylated and sarkosyl-insoluble tau accumulates in the brains concurrent with decreased levels of NDP52. Moreover, NDP52 associates with phosphorylated tau from brain cortical samples of Alzheimer disease cases, and the amount of phosphorylated tau in sarkosyl-insoluble fractions is inversely proportional to that of NDP52. These results suggest that NDP52 plays a key role in autophagy-mediated degradation of phosphorylated tau in vivo.

  19. The role of small adaptor proteins in the control of oncogenic signaling driven by tyrosine kinases in human cancer

    PubMed Central

    Naudin, Cécile; Chevalier, Clément; Roche, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation on tyrosine (Tyr) residues has evolved as an important mechanism to coordinate cell communication in multicellular organisms. The importance of this process has been revealed by the discovery of the prominent oncogenic properties of tyrosine kinases (TK) upon deregulation of their physiological activities, often due to protein overexpression and/or somatic mutation. Recent reports suggest that TK oncogenic signaling is also under the control of small adaptor proteins. These cytosolic proteins lack intrinsic catalytic activity and signal by linking two functional members of a catalytic pathway. While most adaptors display positive regulatory functions, a small group of this family exerts negative regulatory functions by targeting several components of the TK signaling cascade. Here, we review how these less studied adaptor proteins negatively control TK activities and how their loss of function induces abnormal TK signaling, promoting tumor formation. We also discuss the therapeutic consequences of this novel regulatory mechanism in human oncology. PMID:26788993

  20. Synthetic Protein Scaffolds Based on Peptide Motifs and Cognate Adaptor Domains for Improving Metabolic Productivity

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Anselm H. C.; Sticht, Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of many cellular processes relies on the defined interaction among different proteins within the same metabolic or signaling pathway. Consequently, a spatial colocalization of functionally interacting proteins has frequently emerged during evolution. This concept has been adapted within the synthetic biology community for the purpose of creating artificial scaffolds. A recent advancement of this concept is the use of peptide motifs and their cognate adaptor domains. SH2, SH3, GBD, and PDZ domains have been used most often in research studies to date. The approach has been successfully applied to the synthesis of a variety of target molecules including catechin, D-glucaric acid, H2, hydrochinone, resveratrol, butyrate, gamma-aminobutyric acid, and mevalonate. Increased production levels of up to 77-fold have been observed compared to non-scaffolded systems. A recent extension of this concept is the creation of a covalent linkage between peptide motifs and adaptor domains, which leads to a more stable association of the scaffolded systems and thus bears the potential to further enhance metabolic productivity. PMID:26636078

  1. A highly versatile adaptor protein for the tethering of growth factors to gelatin-based biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Addi, Cyril; Murschel, Frédéric; Liberelle, Benoît; Riahi, Nesrine; De Crescenzo, Gregory

    2017-03-01

    In the field of tissue engineering, the tethering of growth factors to tissue scaffolds in an oriented manner can enhance their activity and increase their half-life. We chose to investigate the capture of the basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF) and the Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) on a gelatin layer, as a model for the functionalization of collagen-based biomaterials. Our strategy relies on the use of two high affinity interactions, that is, the one between two distinct coil peptides as well as the one occurring between a collagen-binding domain (CBD) and gelatin. We expressed a chimeric protein to be used as an adaptor that comprises one of the coil peptides and a CBD derived from the human fibronectin. We proved that it has the ability to bind simultaneously to a gelatin substrate and to form a heterodimeric coiled-coil domain with recombinant growth factors being tagged with the complementary coil peptide. The tethering of the growth factors was characterized by ELISA and surface plasmon resonance-based biosensing. The bioactivity of the immobilized bFGF and EGF was evaluated by a human umbilical vein endothelial cell proliferation assay and a vascular smooth muscle cell survival assay. We found that the tethering of EGF preserved its mitogenic and anti-apoptotic activity. In the case of bFGF, when captured via our adaptor protein, changes in its natural mode of interaction with gelatin were observed.

  2. Novel Toll/IL-1 Receptor Homologous Region Adaptors Act as Negative Regulators in Amphioxus TLR Signaling.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jian; Tao, Xin; Li, Rui; Hu, Jingru; Ruan, Jie; Wang, Ruihua; Yang, Manyi; Yang, Rirong; Dong, Xiangru; Chen, Shangwu; Xu, Anlong; Yuan, Shaochun

    2015-10-01

    Studies have shown that the basal chordate amphioxus possesses an extraordinarily complex TLR system, including 39 TLRs and at least 40 Toll/IL-1R homologous region (TIR) adaptors. Besides homologs to MyD88 and TIR domain-containing adaptor molecule (TICAM), most amphioxus TIR adaptors exhibit domain architectures that are not observed in other species. To reveal how these novel TIR adaptors function in amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtauense (bbt), four representatives, bbtTIRA, bbtTIRB, bbtTIRC, and bbtTIRD, were selected for functional analyses. We found bbtTIRA to show a unique inhibitory role in amphioxus TICAM-mediated pathway by interacting with bbtTICAM and bbt receptor interacting protein 1b, whereas bbtTIRC specifically inhibits the amphioxus MyD88-dependent pathway by interacting with bbtMyD88 and depressing the polyubiquitination of bbt TNFR-associated factor 6. Although both bbtTIRB and bbtTIRD are located on endosomes, the TIR domain of bbtTIRB can interact with bbtMyD88 in the cytosol, whereas the TIR domain of bbtTIRD is enclosed in endosome, suggesting that bbtTIRD may be a redundant gene in amphioxus. This study indicated that most expanded TIR adaptors play nonredundant regulatory roles in amphioxus TLR signaling, adding a new layer to understanding the diversity and complexity of innate immunity at basal chordate.

  3. Septins: Regulators of Protein Stability

    PubMed Central

    Vagin, Olga; Beenhouwer, David O.

    2016-01-01

    Septins are small GTPases that play a role in several important cellular processes. In this review, we focus on the roles of septins in protein stabilization. Septins may regulate protein stability by: (1) interacting with proteins involved in degradation pathways, (2) regulating the interaction between transmembrane proteins and cytoskeletal proteins, (3) affecting the mobility of transmembrane proteins in lipid bilayers, and (4) modulating the interaction of proteins with their adaptor or signaling proteins. In this context, we discuss the role of septins in protecting four different proteins from degradation. First we consider botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A) and the contribution of septins to its extraordinarily long intracellular persistence. Next, we discuss the role of septins in stabilizing the receptor tyrosine kinases EGFR and ErbB2. Finally, we consider the contribution of septins in protecting hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) from degradation. PMID:28066764

  4. Characterization of the adaptor protein ARH expression in the brain and ARH molecular interactions.

    PubMed

    Mameza, Marie Germaine; Lockard, Jon M; Zamora, Eduardo; Hillefors, Mi; Lavina, Zeno Scotto; Kaplan, Barry B

    2007-11-01

    Previously, pA134 was identified as one of the mRNAs present in the squid giant axon. Comparative sequence analyses revealed that the pA134 gene product manifested significant similarity to the mammalian lipoprotein receptor adaptor protein also known as ARH (autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia). ARH mRNA and protein displayed very similar pattern of expression throughout the mouse brain. Significant levels of expression were observed in cells with a predominantly neuronal profile in the cerebellum, brainstem, olfactory bulb, hippocampus, and cortex. A yeast two hybrid screen for ARH protein interactions in mouse brain identified the following binders: amyloid precursor-like protein 1, low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) 1, LRP8, and GABA receptor-associated protein-like 1. The interactions of ARH with LRP1 and GABA receptor-associated protein-like 1 were subsequently verified by co-immunoprecipitation of the protein complexes from transfected human embryonic kidney cells. The presence of ARH mRNA in axon of primary sympathetic neurons was established by RT-PCR analyses and confirmed by in situ hybridization. Taken together, our data suggest that ARH is a multifunctional protein whose spectrum of function in the brain goes beyond the traditionally known metabolism of lipoproteins, and that ARH may be locally synthesized in the axon.

  5. The role of palmitoylation and transmembrane domain in sorting of transmembrane adaptor proteins.

    PubMed

    Chum, Tomáš; Glatzová, Daniela; Kvíčalová, Zuzana; Malínský, Jan; Brdička, Tomáš; Cebecauer, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Plasma membrane proteins synthesised at the endoplasmic reticulum are delivered to the cell surface via sorting pathways. Hydrophobic mismatch theory based on the length of the transmembrane domain (TMD) dominates discussion about determinants required for protein sorting to the plasma membrane. Transmembrane adaptor proteins (TRAP) are involved in signalling events which take place at the plasma membrane. Members of this protein family have TMDs of varying length. We were interested in whether palmitoylation or other motifs contribute to the effective sorting of TRAP proteins. We found that palmitoylation is essential for some, but not all, TRAP proteins independent of their TMD length. We also provide evidence that palmitoylation and proximal sequences can modulate sorting of artificial proteins with TMDs of suboptimal length. Our observations point to a unique character of each TMD defined by its primary amino acid sequence and its impact on membrane protein localisation. We conclude that, in addition to the TMD length, secondary sorting determinants such as palmitoylation or flanking sequences have evolved for the localisation of membrane proteins.

  6. Molecular basis of substrate selection by the N-end rule adaptor protein ClpS

    SciTech Connect

    Román-Hernández, Giselle; Grant, Robert A.; Sauer, Robert T.; Baker, Tania A.

    2009-06-19

    The N-end rule is a conserved degradation pathway that relates the stability of a protein to its N-terminal amino acid. Here, we present crystal structures of ClpS, the bacterial N-end rule adaptor, alone and engaged with peptides containing N-terminal phenylalanine, leucine, and tryptophan. These structures, together with a previous structure of ClpS bound to an N-terminal tyrosine, illustrate the molecular basis of recognition of the complete set of primary N-end rule amino acids. In each case, the alpha-amino group and side chain of the N-terminal residue are the major determinants of recognition. The binding pocket for the N-end residue is preformed in the free adaptor, and only small adjustments are needed to accommodate N-end rule residues having substantially different sizes and shapes. M53A ClpS is known to mediate degradation of an expanded repertoire of substrates, including those with N-terminal valine or isoleucine. A structure of Met53A ClpS engaged with an N-end rule tryptophan reveals an essentially wild-type mechanism of recognition, indicating that the Met(53) side chain directly enforces specificity by clashing with and excluding beta-branched side chains. Finally, experimental and structural data suggest mechanisms that make proteins with N-terminal methionine bind very poorly to ClpS, explaining why these high-abundance proteins are not degraded via the N-end rule pathway in the cell.

  7. Identification of an adaptor protein that facilitates Nrf2-Keap1 complex formation and modulates antioxidant response.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuxue; Hou, Yongfan; Liu, Chunchun; Li, Yinlong; Guo, Weiwei; Wu, Jiu-Lin; Xu, Daqian; You, Xue; Pan, Yi; Chen, Yan

    2016-08-01

    Nrf2 plays a key role in the protection of the body against environmental stress via inducible expression of detoxification and antioxidant enzymes. Keap1 functions as a sensor for oxidative and electrophilic stresses and promotes Nrf2 degradation via its E3 ligase activity. Modulation of the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway has been extensively explored as a strategy to combat against drug toxicity and stress-induced diseases. Here we report a new player that modulates the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway. PAQR3, a membrane protein specifically localized in the Golgi apparatus, negatively regulates the expression of an array of Nrf2 target genes and alters cellular level of reactive oxygen species. PAQR3 tethers Nrf2 and Keap1, but not small MAF proteins to the Golgi apparatus. PAQR3 interacts with both Nrf2 and Keap1 and facilitates the interaction of Nrf2 with Keap1. PAQR3 promotes ubiquitination and degradation of Nrf2. Disruption of PAQR3 interaction with Nrf2 and Keap1 by a synthetic peptide reduces Nrf2 ubiquitination and elevates expression of Nrf2 target genes. At the animal level, deletion of PAQR3 increases Nrf2 protein level and the expression of Nrf2 target genes. In conclusion, our study pinpoints that PAQR3 functions as an adaptor protein to promote Nrf2-Keap1 complex formation, thereby modulating the Nrf2-Keap2 pathway and playing an important role in controlling antioxidant response of the cell.

  8. ARH is a modular adaptor protein that interacts with the LDL receptor, clathrin, and AP-2.

    PubMed

    He, Guocheng; Gupta, Sarita; Yi, Ming; Michaely, Peter; Hobbs, Helen H; Cohen, Jonathan C

    2002-11-15

    Mutations in the phosphotyrosine binding domain protein ARH cause autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia, a disorder caused by defective internalization of low density lipoprotein receptors (LDLR) in the liver. To examine the function of ARH, we used pull-down experiments to test for interactions between ARH, the LDLR, and proteins involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. The phosphotyrosine binding domain of ARH interacted with the internalization sequence (NPVY) in the cytoplasmic tail of LDLR in a sequence-specific manner. Mutations in the NPVY sequence that were previously shown to decrease LDLR internalization abolished in vitro binding to ARH. Recombinant ARH bound purified bovine clathrin with high affinity (K(D), approximately 44 nm). The interaction between ARH and clathrin was mapped to a canonical clathrin box sequence (LLDLE) in ARH and to the N-terminal domain of the clathrin heavy chain. A highly conserved 20-amino acid sequence in the C-terminal region of ARH bound the beta(2)-adaptin subunit of AP-2. Mutation of a glutamic acid residue in the appendage domain of beta(2)-adaptin that is required for interaction with the adapter protein beta-arrestin markedly reduced binding to ARH. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that ARH functions as an adaptor protein that couples LDLR to the endocytic machinery.

  9. Negative Regulation of the Endocytic Adaptor Disabled-2 (Dab2) in Mitosis*

    PubMed Central

    Chetrit, David; Barzilay, Lior; Horn, Galit; Bielik, Tom; Smorodinsky, Nechama I.; Ehrlich, Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    Mitotic cells undergo extensive changes in shape and size through the altered regulation and function of their membrane trafficking machinery. Disabled 2 (Dab2), a multidomain cargo-specific endocytic adaptor and a mediator of signal transduction, is a potential integrator of trafficking and signaling. Dab2 binds effectors of signaling and trafficking that localize to different intracellular compartments. Thus, differential localization is a putative regulatory mechanism of Dab2 function. Furthermore, Dab2 is phosphorylated in mitosis and is thus regulated in the cell cycle. However, a detailed description of the intracellular localization of Dab2 in the different phases of mitosis and an understanding of the functional consequences of its phosphorylation are lacking. Here, we show that Dab2 is progressively displaced from the membrane in mitosis. This phenomenon is paralleled by a loss of co-localization with clathrin. Both phenomena culminate in metaphase/anaphase and undergo partial recovery in cytokinesis. Treatment with 2-methoxyestradiol, which arrests cells at the spindle assembly checkpoint, induces the same effects observed in metaphase cells. Moreover, 2-methoxyestradiol also induced Dab2 phosphorylation and reduced Dab2/clathrin interactions, endocytic vesicle motility, clathrin exchange dynamics, and the internalization of a receptor endowed with an NPXY endocytic signal. Serine/threonine to alanine mutations, of residues localized to the central region of Dab2, attenuated its phosphorylation, reduced its membrane displacement, and maintained its endocytic abilities in mitosis. We propose that the negative regulation of Dab2 is part of an accommodation of the cell to the altered physicochemical conditions prevalent in mitosis, aimed at allowing endocytic activity throughout the cell cycle. PMID:21097498

  10. Functions of Adaptor Protein (AP)-3 and AP-1 in Tyrosinase Sorting from Endosomes to MelanosomesD⃞

    PubMed Central

    Theos, Alexander C.; Tenza, Danièle; Martina, José A.; Hurbain, Ilse; Peden, Andrew A.; Sviderskaya, Elena V.; Stewart, Abigail; Robinson, Margaret S.; Bennett, Dorothy C.; Cutler, Daniel F.; Bonifacino, Juan S.; Marks, Michael S.; Raposo, Graça

    2005-01-01

    Specialized cells exploit adaptor protein complexes for unique post-Golgi sorting events, providing a unique model system to specify adaptor function. Here, we show that AP-3 and AP-1 function independently in sorting of the melanocyte-specific protein tyrosinase from endosomes to the melanosome, a specialized lysosome-related organelle distinguishable from lysosomes. AP-3 and AP-1 localize in melanocytes primarily to clathrin-coated buds on tubular early endosomes near melanosomes. Both adaptors recognize the tyrosinase dileucine-based melanosome sorting signal, and tyrosinase largely colocalizes with each adaptor on endosomes. In AP-3-deficient melanocytes, tyrosinase accumulates inappropriately in vacuolar and multivesicular endosomes. Nevertheless, a substantial fraction still accumulates on melanosomes, concomitant with increased association with endosomal AP-1. Our data indicate that AP-3 and AP-1 function in partially redundant pathways to transfer tyrosinase from distinct endosomal subdomains to melanosomes and that the AP-3 pathway ensures that tyrosinase averts entrapment on internal membranes of forming multivesicular bodies. PMID:16162817

  11. Losses, Expansions, and Novel Subunit Discovery of Adaptor Protein Complexes in Haptophyte Algae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Laura J Y; Klute, Mary J; Herman, Emily K; Read, Betsy; Dacks, Joel B

    2015-11-01

    The phylum Haptophyta (Diaphoratickes) contains marine algae that perform biomineralization, extruding large, distinctive calcium carbonate scales (coccoliths) that completely cover the cell. Coccolith production is an important part of global carbon cycling; however, the membrane trafficking pathway by which they are secreted has not yet been elucidated. In most eukaryotes, post-Golgi membrane trafficking involves five heterotetrameric adaptor protein (AP) complexes, which impart cargo selection specificity. To better understand coccolith secretion, we performed comparative genomic, phylogenetic, and transcriptomic analyses of the AP complexes in Emiliania huxleyi strains 92A, Van556, EH2, and CCMP1516, and related haptophytes Gephyrocapsa oceanica and Isochrysis galbana; the latter has lost the ability to biomineralize. We show that haptophytes have a modified membrane trafficking system (MTS), as we found both AP subunit losses and duplications. Additionally, we identified a single conserved subunit of the AP-related TSET complex, whose expression suggests a functional role in membrane trafficking. Finally, we detected novel alpha adaptin ear and gamma adaptin ear proteins, the first of their kind to be described outside of opisthokonts. These novel ear proteins and the sculpting of the MTS may support the capacity for biomineralization in haptophytes, enhancing their ability to perform this highly specialized form of secretion.

  12. Regulation of ITAM adaptor molecules and their receptors by inhibition of calcineurin-NFAT signalling during late stage osteoclast differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Zawawi, M.S.F.; Dharmapatni, A.A.S.S.K.; Cantley, M.D.; McHugh, K.P.; Haynes, D.R.; Crotti, T.N.

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calcineurin/NFAT inhibitors FK506 and VIVIT treated human PBMC derived osteoclasts in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differential regulation of ITAM receptors and adaptor molecules by calcineurin/NFAT inhibitors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FK506 and VIVIT suppress ITAM factors during late phase osteoclast differentiation. -- Abstract: Osteoclasts are specialised bone resorptive cells responsible for both physiological and pathological bone loss. Osteoclast differentiation and activity is dependent upon receptor activator NF-kappa-B ligand (RANKL) interacting with its receptor RANK to induce the transcription factor, nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 1 (NFATc1). The immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-dependent pathway has been identified as a co-stimulatory pathway in osteoclasts. Osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR) and triggering receptor expressed in myeloid cells (TREM2) are essential receptors that pair with adaptor molecules Fc receptor common gamma chain (FcR{gamma}) and DNAX-activating protein 12 kDa (DAP12) respectively to induce calcium signalling. Treatment with calcineurin-NFAT inhibitors, Tacrolimus (FK506) and the 11R-VIVIT (VIVIT) peptide, reduces NFATc1 expression consistent with a reduction in osteoclast differentiation and activity. This study aimed to investigate the effects of inhibiting calcineurin-NFAT signalling on the expression of ITAM factors and late stage osteoclast genes including cathepsin K (CathK), Beta 3 integrin ({beta}3) and Annexin VIII (AnnVIII). Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were differentiated with RANKL and macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) over 10 days in the presence or absence of FK506 or VIVIT. Osteoclast formation (as assessed by tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)) and activity (assessed by dentine pit resorption) were significantly reduced with treatment. Quantitative real

  13. Impairment of dendritic cell functions in patients with adaptor protein-3 complex deficiency.

    PubMed

    Prandini, Alberto; Salvi, Valentina; Colombo, Francesca; Moratto, Daniele; Lorenzi, Luisa; Vermi, William; De Francesco, Maria Antonia; Notarangelo, Lucia Dora; Porta, Fulvio; Plebani, Alessandro; Facchetti, Fabio; Sozzani, Silvano; Badolato, Raffaele

    2016-06-30

    Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 2 (HPS2) is a primary immunodeficiency due to adaptor protein-3 (AP-3) complex deficiency. HPS2 patients present neutropenia, partial albinism, and impaired lysosomal vesicles formation in hematopoietic cells. Given the role of dendritic cells (DCs) in the immune response, we studied monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs) and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) in two HPS2 siblings. Mature HPS2 moDCs showed impaired expression of CD83 and DC-lysosome-associated membrane protein (LAMP), low levels of MIP1-β/CCL4, MIG/CXCL9, and severe defect of interleukin-12 (IL-12) secretion. DCs in lymph-node biopsies from the same patients showed a diffuse cytoplasm reactivity in a large fraction of DC-LAMP(+) cells, instead of the classical dot-like stain. In addition, analysis of pDC-related functions of blood-circulating mononuclear cells revealed reduced interferon-α secretion in response to herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), whereas granzyme-B induction upon IL-3/IL-10 stimulation was normal. Finally, T-cell costimulatory activity, as measured by mixed lymphocyte reaction assay, was lower in patients, suggesting that function and maturation of DCs is abnormal in patients with HPS2.

  14. Phosphorylation of APP-CTF-AICD domains and interaction with adaptor proteins: signal transduction and/or transcriptional role--relevance for Alzheimer pathology.

    PubMed

    Schettini, Gennaro; Govoni, Stefano; Racchi, Marco; Rodriguez, Guido

    2010-12-01

    In recent decades, the study of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and of its proteolytic products carboxy terminal fragment (CTF), APP intracellular C-terminal domain (AICD) and amyloid beta has been mostly focussed on the role of APP as a producer of the toxic amyloid beta peptide. Here, we reconsider the role of APP suggesting, in a provocative way, the protein as a central player in a putative signalling pathway. We highlight the presence in the cytosolic tail of APP of the YENPTY motif which is typical of tyrosine kinase receptors, the phosphorylation of the tyrosine, serine and threonine residues, the kinases involved and the interaction with intracellular adaptor proteins. In particular, we examine the interaction with Shc and Grb2 regulators, which through the activation of Ras proteins elicit downstream signalling events such as the MAPK pathway. The review also addresses the interaction of APP, CTFs and AICD with other adaptor proteins and in particular with Fe65 for nuclear transcriptional activity and the importance of phosphorylation for sorting the secretases involved in the amyloidogenic or non-amyloidogenic pathways. We provide a novel perspective on Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis, focussing on the perturbation of the physiological activities of APP-CTFs and AICD as an alternative perspective from that which normally focuses on the accumulation of neurotoxic proteolytic fragments.

  15. Mitochondrial antiviral signaling adaptor mediated apoptosis in H3N2 swine influenza virus infection is inhibited by viral protein NS1 in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinqiu; Miao, Jinfeng; Hou, Jibo; Lu, Chengping

    2015-05-15

    We investigated the in vitro role of mitochondrial antiviral signaling adaptor (MAVS) in apoptosis induced by H3N2 swine influenza virus infection and the influence of viral NS1 (nonstructural protein 1) protein on this process. H3N2 swine influenza virus (SIV, A/Swine/Shandong/3/2005) was co-cultured with human lung epithelial A549 cells. The relationship of MAVS expression to SIV replication and apoptosis, and the influence of viral proteins on MAVS functions were studied. The data indicate that in response to SIV infection, MAVS was significantly upregulated at both the transcriptional and protein levels in the early stages of infection. Its expression and localization to mitochondria are necessary for apoptosis of epithelial cells induced by H3N2 swine influenza virus. Viral protein NS1 can antagonize MAVS-mediated apoptosis. These findings indicate that MAVS have a role in regulating innate mitochondrial responses to viral infection.

  16. Comparative analysis of adaptor-mediated clathrin assembly reveals general principles for adaptor clustering

    PubMed Central

    Pucadyil, Thomas J.; Holkar, Sachin S.

    2016-01-01

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) manages the sorting and uptake of the bulk of membrane proteins (or cargo) from the plasma membrane. CME is initiated by the formation of clathrin-coated pits (CCPs), in which adaptors nucleate clathrin assembly. Clathrin adaptors display diversity in both the type and number of evolutionarily conserved clathrin-binding boxes. How this diversity relates to the process of adaptor clustering as clathrin assembles around a growing pit remains unclear. Using real-time, fluorescence microscopy–based assays, we compare the formation kinetics and distribution of clathrin assemblies on membranes that display five unique clathrin adaptors. Correlations between equilibrium and kinetic parameters of clathrin assembly to the eventual adaptor distribution indicate that adaptor clustering is determined not by the amount of clathrin recruited or the degree of clathrin clustered but instead by the rate of clathrin assembly. Together our results emphasize the need to analyze kinetics of protein interactions to better understand mechanisms that regulate CME. PMID:27559129

  17. A conserved serine residue regulates the stability of Drosophila Salvador and human WW domain-containing adaptor 45 through proteasomal degradation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Di; Wu, Shian

    2013-04-19

    The Hippo (Hpo) pathway is a conserved tumor suppressor pathway that controls organ size through the coordinated regulation of apoptosis and proliferation. Drosophila Salvador (Sav), which limits organ size, is a core component of the Hpo pathway. In this study, Ser-17 was shown to be important for the stability of Sav. Alanine mutation of Ser-17 promoted the proteasomal degradation of Sav. Destabilization and stabilization of the Sav protein mediated by alanine mutation of Ser-17 and by Hpo, respectively, were independent of each other. This implies that the stability of Sav is controlled by two mechanisms, one that is Ser-17-dependent and Hpo-independent, and another that is Ser-17-independent and Hpo-dependent. These dual mechanisms also regulated the human counterpart of Drosophila Sav, WW domain-containing adaptor 45 (WW45). The conservation of this regulation adds to its significance in normal physiology and tumorigenesis.

  18. Molecular protein adaptor with genetically encoded interaction sites guiding the hierarchical assembly of plasmonically active nanoparticle architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, Andreas; Huber, Matthias C.; Cölfen, Helmut; Schiller, Stefan M.

    2015-03-01

    The control over the defined assembly of nano-objects with nm-precision is important to create systems and materials with enhanced properties, for example, metamaterials. In nature, the precise assembly of inorganic nano-objects with unique features, for example, magnetosomes, is accomplished by efficient and reliable recognition schemes involving protein effectors. Here we present a molecular approach using protein-based ‘adaptors/connectors’ with genetically encoded interaction sites to guide the assembly and functionality of different plasmonically active gold nanoparticle architectures (AuNP). The interaction of the defined geometricaly shaped protein adaptors with the AuNP induces the self-assembly of nanoarchitectures ranging from AuNP encapsulation to one-dimensional chain-like structures, complex networks and stars. Synthetic biology and bionanotechnology are applied to co-translationally encode unnatural amino acids as additional site-specific modification sites to generate functionalized biohybrid nanoarchitectures. This protein adaptor-based nano-object assembly approach might be expanded to other inorganic nano-objects creating biohybrid materials with unique electronic, photonic, plasmonic and magnetic properties.

  19. Tetraspanins and Transmembrane Adaptor Proteins As Plasma Membrane Organizers-Mast Cell Case.

    PubMed

    Halova, Ivana; Draber, Petr

    2016-01-01

    The plasma membrane contains diverse and specialized membrane domains, which include tetraspanin-enriched domains (TEMs) and transmembrane adaptor protein (TRAP)-enriched domains. Recent biophysical, microscopic, and functional studies indicated that TEMs and TRAP-enriched domains are involved in compartmentalization of physicochemical events of such important processes as immunoreceptor signal transduction and chemotaxis. Moreover, there is evidence of a cross-talk between TEMs and TRAP-enriched domains. In this review we discuss the presence and function of such domains and their crosstalk using mast cells as a model. The combined data based on analysis of selected mast cell-expressed tetraspanins [cluster of differentiation (CD)9, CD53, CD63, CD81, CD151)] or TRAPs [linker for activation of T cells (LAT), non-T cell activation linker (NTAL), and phosphoprotein associated with glycosphingolipid-enriched membrane microdomains (PAG)] using knockout mice or specific antibodies point to a diversity within these two families and bring evidence of the important roles of these molecules in signaling events. An example of this diversity is physical separation of two TRAPs, LAT and NTAL, which are in many aspects similar but show plasma membrane location in different microdomains in both non-activated and activated cells. Although our understanding of TEMs and TRAP-enriched domains is far from complete, pharmaceutical applications of the knowledge about these domains are under way.

  20. Structural determinants for binding of sorting nexin 17 (SNX17) to the cytoplasmic adaptor protein Krev interaction trapped 1 (KRIT1).

    PubMed

    Stiegler, Amy L; Zhang, Rong; Liu, Weizhi; Boggon, Titus J

    2014-09-05

    Sorting nexin 17 (SNX17) is a member of the family of cytoplasmic sorting nexin adaptor proteins that regulate endosomal trafficking of cell surface proteins. SNX17 localizes to early endosomes where it directly binds NPX(Y/F) motifs in the cytoplasmic tails of its target receptors to mediate their rates of endocytic internalization, recycling, and/or degradation. SNX17 has also been implicated in mediating cell signaling and can interact with cytoplasmic proteins. KRIT1 (Krev interaction trapped 1), a cytoplasmic adaptor protein associated with cerebral cavernous malformations, has previously been shown to interact with SNX17. Here, we demonstrate that SNX17 indeed binds directly to KRIT1 and map the binding to the second Asn-Pro-Xaa-Tyr/Phe (NPX(Y/F)) motif in KRIT1. We further characterize the interaction as being mediated by the FERM domain of SNX17. We present the co-crystal structure of SNX17-FERM with the KRIT1-NPXF2 peptide to 3.0 Å resolution and demonstrate that the interaction is highly similar in structure and binding affinity to that between SNX17 and P-selectin. We verify the molecular details of the interaction by site-directed mutagenesis and pulldown assay and thereby confirm that the major binding site for SNX17 is confined to the NPXF2 motif in KRIT1. Taken together, our results verify a direct interaction between SNX17 and KRIT1 and classify KRIT1 as a SNX17 binding partner.

  1. The adaptor protein DCAF7 mediates the interaction of the adenovirus E1A oncoprotein with the protein kinases DYRK1A and HIPK2

    PubMed Central

    Glenewinkel, Florian; Cohen, Michael J.; King, Cason R.; Kaspar, Sophie; Bamberg-Lemper, Simone; Mymryk, Joe S.; Becker, Walter

    2016-01-01

    DYRK1A is a constitutively active protein kinase that has a critical role in growth and development which functions by regulating cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. DCAF7 (also termed WDR68 or HAN11) is a cellular binding partner of DYRK1A and also regulates signalling by the protein kinase HIPK2. DCAF7 is an evolutionarily conserved protein with a single WD40 repeat domain and has no catalytic activity. We have defined a DCAF7 binding motif of 12 amino acids in the N-terminal domain of class 1 DYRKs that is functionally conserved in DYRK1 orthologs from Xenopus, Danio rerio and the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. A similar sequence was essential for DCAF7 binding to HIPK2, whereas the closely related HIPK1 family member did not bind DCAF7. Immunoprecipitation and pulldown experiments identified DCAF7 as an adaptor for the association of the adenovirus E1A protein with DYRK1A and HIPK2. Furthermore, DCAF7 was required for the hyperphosphorylation of E1A in DYRK1A or HIPK2 overexpressing cells. Our results characterize DCAF7 as a substrate recruiting subunit of DYRK1A and HIPK2 and suggest that it is required for the negative effect of DYRK1A on E1A-induced oncogenic transformation. PMID:27307198

  2. Clathrin Terminal Domain-Ligand Interactions Regulate Sorting of Mannose 6-Phosphate Receptors Mediated by AP-1 and GGA Adaptors*

    PubMed Central

    Stahlschmidt, Wiebke; Robertson, Mark J.; Robinson, Phillip J.; McCluskey, Adam; Haucke, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Clathrin plays important roles in intracellular membrane traffic including endocytosis of plasma membrane proteins and receptors and protein sorting between the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and endosomes. Whether clathrin serves additional roles in receptor recycling, degradative sorting, or constitutive secretion has remained somewhat controversial. Here we have used acute pharmacological perturbation of clathrin terminal domain (TD) function to dissect the role of clathrin in intracellular membrane traffic. We report that internalization of major histocompatibility complex I (MHCI) is inhibited in cells depleted of clathrin or its major clathrin adaptor complex 2 (AP-2), a phenotype mimicked by application of Pitstop® inhibitors of clathrin TD function. Hence, MHCI endocytosis occurs via a clathrin/AP-2-dependent pathway. Acute perturbation of clathrin also impairs the dynamics of intracellular clathrin/adaptor complex 1 (AP-1)- or GGA (Golgi-localized, γ-ear-containing, Arf-binding protein)-coated structures at the TGN/endosomal interface, resulting in the peripheral dispersion of mannose 6-phosphate receptors. By contrast, secretory traffic of vesicular stomatitis virus G protein, recycling of internalized transferrin from endosomes, or degradation of EGF receptor proceeds unperturbed in cells with impaired clathrin TD function. These data indicate that clathrin is required for the function of AP-1- and GGA-coated carriers at the TGN but may be dispensable for outward traffic en route to the plasma membrane. PMID:24407285

  3. Clathrin terminal domain-ligand interactions regulate sorting of mannose 6-phosphate receptors mediated by AP-1 and GGA adaptors.

    PubMed

    Stahlschmidt, Wiebke; Robertson, Mark J; Robinson, Phillip J; McCluskey, Adam; Haucke, Volker

    2014-02-21

    Clathrin plays important roles in intracellular membrane traffic including endocytosis of plasma membrane proteins and receptors and protein sorting between the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and endosomes. Whether clathrin serves additional roles in receptor recycling, degradative sorting, or constitutive secretion has remained somewhat controversial. Here we have used acute pharmacological perturbation of clathrin terminal domain (TD) function to dissect the role of clathrin in intracellular membrane traffic. We report that internalization of major histocompatibility complex I (MHCI) is inhibited in cells depleted of clathrin or its major clathrin adaptor complex 2 (AP-2), a phenotype mimicked by application of Pitstop® inhibitors of clathrin TD function. Hence, MHCI endocytosis occurs via a clathrin/AP-2-dependent pathway. Acute perturbation of clathrin also impairs the dynamics of intracellular clathrin/adaptor complex 1 (AP-1)- or GGA (Golgi-localized, γ-ear-containing, Arf-binding protein)-coated structures at the TGN/endosomal interface, resulting in the peripheral dispersion of mannose 6-phosphate receptors. By contrast, secretory traffic of vesicular stomatitis virus G protein, recycling of internalized transferrin from endosomes, or degradation of EGF receptor proceeds unperturbed in cells with impaired clathrin TD function. These data indicate that clathrin is required for the function of AP-1- and GGA-coated carriers at the TGN but may be dispensable for outward traffic en route to the plasma membrane.

  4. New function of the adaptor protein SH2B1 in brain-derived neurotrophic factor-induced neurite outgrowth.

    PubMed

    Shih, Chien-Hung; Chen, Chien-Jen; Chen, Linyi

    2013-01-01

    Neurite outgrowth is an essential process for the establishment of the nervous system. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) binds to its receptor TrkB and regulates axonal and dendritic morphology of neurons through signal transduction and gene expression. SH2B1 is a signaling adaptor protein that regulates cellular signaling in various physiological processes. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of SH2B1 in the development of the central nervous system. In this study, we show that knocking down SH2B1 reduces neurite formation of cortical neurons whereas overexpression of SH2B1β promotes the development of hippocampal neurons. We further demonstrate that SH2B1β promotes BDNF-induced neurite outgrowth and signaling using the established PC12 cells stably expressing TrkB, SH2B1β or SH2B1β mutants. Our data indicate that overexpressing SH2B1β enhances BDNF-induced MEK-ERK1/2, and PI3K-AKT signaling pathways. Inhibition of MEK-ERK1/2 and PI3K-AKT pathways by specific inhibitors suggest that these two pathways are required for SH2B1β-promoted BDNF-induced neurite outgrowth. Moreover, SH2B1β enhances BDNF-stimulated phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 at serine 727. Finally, our data indicate that the SH2 domain and tyrosine phosphorylation of SH2B1β contribute to BDNF-induced signaling pathways and neurite outgrowth. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that SH2B1β promotes BDNF-induced neurite outgrowth through enhancing pathways involved MEK-ERK1/2 and PI3K-AKT.

  5. The murine Nck SH2/SH3 adaptors are important for the development of mesoderm-derived embryonic structures and for regulating the cellular actin network.

    PubMed

    Bladt, Friedhelm; Aippersbach, Elke; Gelkop, Sigal; Strasser, Geraldine A; Nash, Piers; Tafuri, Anna; Gertler, Frank B; Pawson, Tony

    2003-07-01

    Mammalian Nck1 and Nck2 are closely related adaptor proteins that possess three SH3 domains, followed by an SH2 domain, and are implicated in coupling phosphotyrosine signals to polypeptides that regulate the actin cytoskeleton. However, the in vivo functions of Nck1 and Nck2 have not been defined. We have mutated the murine Nck1 and Nck2 genes and incorporated beta-galactosidase reporters into the mutant loci. In mouse embryos, the two Nck genes have broad and overlapping expression patterns. They are functionally redundant in the sense that mice deficient for either Nck1 or Nck2 are viable, whereas inactivation of both Nck1 and Nck2 results in profound defects in mesoderm-derived notochord and embryonic lethality at embryonic day 9.5. Fibroblast cell lines derived from Nck1(-/-) Nck2(-/-) embryos have defects in cell motility and in the organization of the lamellipodial actin network. These data suggest that the Nck SH2/SH3 adaptors have important functions in the development of mesodermal structures during embryogenesis, potentially linked to a role in cell movement and cytoskeletal organization.

  6. The endocytic adaptor protein ARH associates with motor and centrosomal proteins and is involved in centrosome assembly and cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Lehtonen, Sanna; Shah, Mehul; Nielsen, Rikke; Iino, Noriaki; Ryan, Jennifer J; Zhou, Huilin; Farquhar, Marilyn G

    2008-07-01

    Numerous proteins involved in endocytosis at the plasma membrane have been shown to be present at novel intracellular locations and to have previously unrecognized functions. ARH (autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia) is an endocytic clathrin-associated adaptor protein that sorts members of the LDL receptor superfamily (LDLR, megalin, LRP). We report here that ARH also associates with centrosomes in several cell types. ARH interacts with centrosomal (gamma-tubulin and GPC2 and GPC3) and motor (dynein heavy and intermediate chains) proteins. ARH cofractionates with gamma-tubulin on isolated centrosomes, and gamma-tubulin and ARH interact on isolated membrane vesicles. During mitosis, ARH sequentially localizes to the nuclear membrane, kinetochores, spindle poles and the midbody. Arh(-/-) embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) show smaller or absent centrosomes suggesting ARH plays a role in centrosome assembly. Rat-1 fibroblasts depleted of ARH by siRNA and Arh(-/-) MEFs exhibit a slower rate of growth and prolonged cytokinesis. Taken together the data suggest that the defects in centrosome assembly in ARH depleted cells may give rise to cell cycle and mitotic/cytokinesis defects. We propose that ARH participates in centrosomal and mitotic dynamics by interacting with centrosomal proteins. Whether the centrosomal and mitotic functions of ARH are related to its endocytic role remains to be established.

  7. The structure and polymerase-recognition mechanism of the crucial adaptor protein AND-1 in the human replisome.

    PubMed

    Guan, Chengcheng; Li, Jun; Sun, Dapeng; Liu, Yingfang; Liang, Huanhuan

    2017-04-05

    DNA replication in eukaryotic cells is performed by a multi-protein complex called the replisome, which consists of helicases, polymerases and adaptor molecules. Human acidic nucleoplasmic DNA-binding protein 1 (AND-1), also known as WD repeat and HMG-box DNA binding protein 1 (WDHD1), is an adaptor molecule crucial for DNA replication. While structural information for the AND-1 yeast ortholog is available, the mechanistic details for how human AND-1 protein anchors the lagging-strand DNA polymerase α (Pol α) to the DNA helicase complex (Cdc45-MCM2-7-GINS, CMG) await elucidation. Here, we report the structures of the N-terminal WD40 and SepB domains of human AND-1, as well as a biochemical analysis of the C-terminal HMG domain. We show that AND-1 exists as a homo-trimer mediated by the SepB domain. Mutant study results suggested that a positively charged groove within the SepB domain provides binding sites for Pol α. Different from its ortholog protein in budding yeast, human AND-1 is recruited to the CMG complex mediated by unknown participants other than GINS. In addition, we show that AND-1 binds to DNA in vitro, using its C-terminal HMG domain. In conclusion, our findings provide important insights into the mechanistic details of human AND-1 function, advancing our understanding of replisome formation during eukaryotic replication.

  8. The modular adaptor protein autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia (ARH) promotes low density lipoprotein receptor clustering into clathrin-coated pits.

    PubMed

    Garuti, Rita; Jones, Christopher; Li, Wei-Ping; Michaely, Peter; Herz, Joachim; Gerard, Robert D; Cohen, Jonathan C; Hobbs, Helen H

    2005-12-09

    Autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia is characterized by a cell type-specific defect in low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) endocytosis. LDLR-mediated uptake of LDL is impaired in the liver, but not in fibroblasts of subjects with this disorder. The disease is caused by mutations in ARH, which encodes a putative adaptor protein that interacts with the cytoplasmic tail of the LDLR, phospholipids, and two components of the clathrin endocytic machinery, clathrin and adaptor protein-2 (AP-2) in vitro. To determine the physiological relevance of these interactions, we examined the effect of mutations in the ARH on LDLR location and function in polarized hepatocytes (WIF-B). The integrity of the FDNPVY sequence in the LDLR cytoplasmic tail was required for ARH-associated LDLR clustering into clathrin-coated pits. The phosphotyrosine binding domain of ARH plus either the clathrin box or the AP-2 binding region were required for both clustering and internalization of the LDLR. Parallel studies performed in vivo with the same recombinant forms of ARH in livers of Arh(-/-) mice confirmed the relevance of the cell culture findings. These results demonstrate that ARH must bind the LDLR tail and either clathrin or AP-2 to promote receptor clustering and internalization of LDL.

  9. The Cellulosome System of Acetivibrio cellulolyticus Includes a Novel Type of Adaptor Protein and a Cell Surface Anchoring Protein

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qi; Gao, Wenchen; Ding, Shi-You; Kenig, Rina; Shoham, Yuval; Bayer, Edward A.; Lamed, Raphael

    2003-01-01

    designated ScaA. In addition, ScaB is thought to assume the role of an adaptor protein, which connects the primary scaffoldin (ScaA) to the cohesin-containing anchoring scaffoldin (ScaC). The cellulosome system of A. cellulolyticus thus appears to exhibit a special type of organization that reflects the function of the ScaB adaptor protein. The intercalation of three multiple cohesin-containing scaffoldins results in marked amplification of the number of enzyme subunits per cellulosome unit. At least 96 enzymes can apparently be incorporated into an individual A. cellulolyticus cellulosome. The role of such amplified enzyme incorporation and the resultant proximity of the enzymes within the cellulosome complex presumably contribute to the enhanced synergistic action and overall efficient digestion of recalcitrant forms of cellulose. Comparison of the emerging organization of the A. cellulolyticus cellulosome with the organizations in other cellulolytic bacteria revealed the diversity of the supramolecular architecture. PMID:12867464

  10. Cross-talk between Tetraspanin CD9 and Transmembrane Adaptor Protein Non-T Cell Activation Linker (NTAL) in Mast Cell Activation and Chemotaxis*

    PubMed Central

    Hálová, Ivana; Dráberová, Lubica; Bambousková, Monika; Machyna, Martin; Stegurová, Lucie; Smrž, Daniel; Dráber, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Chemotaxis, a process leading to movement of cells toward increasing concentrations of chemoattractants, is essential, among others, for recruitment of mast cells within target tissues where they play an important role in innate and adaptive immunity. Chemotaxis is driven by chemoattractants, produced by various cell types, as well as by intrinsic cellular regulators, which are poorly understood. In this study we prepared a new mAb specific for the tetraspanin CD9. Binding of the antibody to bone marrow-derived mast cells triggered activation events that included cell degranulation, Ca2+ response, dephosphorylation of ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) family proteins, and potent tyrosine phosphorylation of the non-T cell activation linker (NTAL) but only weak phosphorylation of the linker for activation of T cells (LAT). Phosphorylation of the NTAL was observed with whole antibody but not with its F(ab)2 or Fab fragments. This indicated involvement of the Fcγ receptors. As documented by electron microscopy of isolated plasma membrane sheets, CD9 colocalized with the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcϵRI) and NTAL but not with LAT. Further tests showed that both anti-CD9 antibody and its F(ab)2 fragment inhibited mast cell chemotaxis toward antigen. Experiments with bone marrow-derived mast cells deficient in NTAL and/or LAT revealed different roles of these two adaptors in antigen-driven chemotaxis. The combined data indicate that chemotaxis toward antigen is controlled in mast cells by a cross-talk among FcϵRI, tetraspanin CD9, transmembrane adaptor proteins NTAL and LAT, and cytoskeleton-regulatory proteins of the ERM family. PMID:23443658

  11. Interactions of the Cytoplasmic Domains of Human and Simian Retroviral Transmembrane Proteins with Components of the Clathrin Adaptor Complexes Modulate Intracellular and Cell Surface Expression of Envelope Glycoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Berlioz-Torrent, Clarisse; Shacklett, Barbara L.; Erdtmann, Lars; Delamarre, Lelia; Bouchaert, Isabelle; Sonigo, Pierre; Dokhelar, Marie Christine; Benarous, Richard

    1999-01-01

    The cytoplasmic domains of the transmembrane (TM) envelope proteins (TM-CDs) of most retroviruses have a Tyr-based motif, YXXØ, in their membrane-proximal regions. This signal is involved in the trafficking and endocytosis of membrane receptors via clathrin-associated AP-1 and AP-2 adaptor complexes. We have used CD8-TM-CD chimeras to investigate the role of the Tyr-based motif of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), and human T-leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) TM-CDs in the cell surface expression of the envelope glycoprotein. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy studies showed that this motif is a major determinant of the cell surface expression of the CD8-HTLV chimera. The YXXØ motif also plays a key role in subcellular distribution of the envelope of lentiviruses HIV-1 and SIV. However, these viruses, which encode TM proteins with a long cytoplasmic domain, have additional determinants distal to the YXXØ motif that participate in regulating cell surface expression. We have also used the yeast two-hybrid system and in vitro binding assays to demonstrate that all three retroviral YXXØ motifs interact with the μ1 and μ2 subunits of AP complexes and that the C-terminal regions of HIV-1 and SIV TM proteins interact with the β2 adaptin subunit. The TM-CDs of HTLV-1, HIV-1, and SIV also interact with the whole AP complexes. These results clearly demonstrate that the cell surface expression of retroviral envelope glycoproteins is governed by interactions with adaptor complexes. The YXXØ-based signal is the major determinant of this interaction for the HTLV-1 TM, which contains a short cytoplasmic domain, whereas the lentiviruses HIV-1 and SIV have additional determinants distal to this signal that are also involved. PMID:9882340

  12. RIAM (Rap1-interacting adaptor molecule) regulates complement-dependent phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Medraño-Fernandez, Iria; Reyes, Raquel; Olazabal, Isabel; Rodriguez, Elena; Sanchez-Madrid, Francisco; Boussiotis, Vassiliki A; Reche, Pedro A; Cabañas, Carlos; Lafuente, Esther M

    2013-07-01

    Phagocytosis mediated by the complement receptor CR3 (also known as integrin αMß2 or Mac-1) is regulated by the recruitment of talin to the cytoplasmic tail of the ß2 integrin subunit. Talin recruitment to this integrin is dependent on Rap1 activation. However, the mechanism by which Rap1 regulates this event and CR3-dependent phagocytosis remains largely unknown. In the present work, we examined the role of the Rap1 effector RIAM, a talin-binding protein, in the regulation of complement-mediated phagocytosis. Using the human myeloid cell lines HL-60 and THP-1, we determined that knockdown of RIAM impaired αMß2 integrin affinity changes induced by stimuli fMLP and LPS. Phagocytosis of complement-opsonized RBC particles, but not of IgG-opsonized RBC particles, was impaired in RIAM knockdown cells. Rap1 activation via EPAC induced by 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP resulted in an increase of complement-mediated phagocytosis that was abrogated by knockdown of RIAM in HL-60 and THP-1 cell lines and in macrophages derived from primary monocytes. Furthermore, recruitment of talin to ß2 integrin during complement-mediated phagocytosis was reduced in RIAM knockdown cells. These results indicate that RIAM is a critical component of the phagocytosis machinery downstream of Rap1 and mediates its function by recruiting talin to the phagocytic complement receptors.

  13. The Cell Signaling Adaptor Protein EPS-8 Is Essential for C. elegans Epidermal Elongation and Interacts with the Ankyrin Repeat Protein VAB-19

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Mei; King, Ryan S.; Berry, Emily C.; Wang, Ying; Hardin, Jeff; Chisholm, Andrew D.

    2008-01-01

    Background The epidermal cells of the C. elegans embryo undergo coordinated cell shape changes that result in the morphogenetic process of elongation. The cytoskeletal ankyrin repeat protein VAB-19 is required for cell shape changes and localizes to cell-matrix attachment structures. The molecular functions of VAB-19 in this process are obscure, as no previous interactors for VAB-19 have been described. Methodology/Principal Findings In screens for VAB-19 binding proteins we identified the signaling adaptor EPS-8. Within C. elegans epidermal cells, EPS-8 and VAB-19 colocalize at cell-matrix attachment structures. The central domain of EPS-8 is necessary and sufficient for its interaction with VAB-19. eps-8 null mutants, like vab-19 mutants, are defective in epidermal elongation and in epidermal-muscle attachment. The eps-8 locus encodes two isoforms, EPS-8A and EPS-8B, that appear to act redundantly in epidermal elongation. The function of EPS-8 in epidermal development involves its N-terminal PTB and central domains, and is independent of its C-terminal SH3 and actin-binding domains. VAB-19 appears to act earlier in the biogenesis of attachment structures and may recruit EPS-8 to these structures. Conclusions/Significance EPS-8 and VAB-19 define a novel pathway acting at cell-matrix attachments to regulate epithelial cell shape. This is the first report of a role for EPS-8 proteins in cell-matrix attachments. The existence of EPS-8B-like isoforms in Drosophila suggests this function of EPS-8 proteins could be conserved among other organisms. PMID:18833327

  14. A conserved serine residue regulates the stability of Drosophila Salvador and human WW domain-containing adaptor 45 through proteasomal degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Di Wu, Shian

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: •Ser-17 is key for the stability of Drosophila Sav. •Ala mutation of Ser-17 promotes the proteasomal degradation of Sav. •Ser-17 residue is not the main target of Hpo-induced Sav stabilization. •Hpo-dependent and -independent mechanisms regulate Sav stability. •This mechanism is conserved in the homologue of Sav, human WW45. -- Abstract: The Hippo (Hpo) pathway is a conserved tumor suppressor pathway that controls organ size through the coordinated regulation of apoptosis and proliferation. Drosophila Salvador (Sav), which limits organ size, is a core component of the Hpo pathway. In this study, Ser-17 was shown to be important for the stability of Sav. Alanine mutation of Ser-17 promoted the proteasomal degradation of Sav. Destabilization and stabilization of the Sav protein mediated by alanine mutation of Ser-17 and by Hpo, respectively, were independent of each other. This implies that the stability of Sav is controlled by two mechanisms, one that is Ser-17-dependent and Hpo-independent, and another that is Ser-17-independent and Hpo-dependent. These dual mechanisms also regulated the human counterpart of Drosophila Sav, WW domain-containing adaptor 45 (WW45). The conservation of this regulation adds to its significance in normal physiology and tumorigenesis.

  15. Crystal structure of human programmed cell death 10 complexed with inositol-(1,3,4,5)-tetrakisphosphate: a novel adaptor protein involved in human cerebral cavernous malformation.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jingjin; Wang, Xiaoyan; Li, De-Feng; Hu, Yonglin; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Da-Cheng

    2010-09-03

    Programmed cell death 10 (PDCD10) is a novel adaptor protein involved in human cerebral cavernous malformation, a common vascular lesion mostly occurring in the central nervous system. By interacting with different signal proteins, PDCD10 could regulate various physiological processes in the cell. The crystal structure of human PDCD10 complexed with inositol-(1,3,4,5)-tetrakisphosphate has been determined at 2.3A resolution. The structure reveals an integrated dimer via a unique assembly that has never been observed before. Each PDCD10 monomer contains two independent domains: an N-terminal domain with a new fold involved in the tight dimer assembly and a C-terminal four-helix bundle domain that closely resembles the focal adhesion targeting domain of focal adhesion kinase. An eight-residue flexible linker connects the two domains, potentially conferring mobility onto the C-terminal domain, resulting in the conformational variability of PDCD10. A variable basic cleft on the top of the dimer interface binds to phosphatidylinositide and regulates the intracellular localization of PDCD10. Two potential sites, respectively located on the two domains, are critical for recruiting different binding partners, such as germinal center kinase III proteins and the focal adhesion protein paxillin.

  16. Multiple interactions drive adaptor-mediated recruitment of the ubiquitin ligase rsp5 to membrane proteins in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, James A; Lewis, Michael J; Nikko, Elina; Pelham, Hugh R B

    2007-07-01

    Recognition of membrane proteins by the Nedd4/Rsp5 ubiquitin ligase family is a critical step in their targeting to the multivesicular body pathway. Some substrates contain "PY" motifs (PPxY), which bind to WW domains in the ligase. Others lack PY motifs and instead rely on adaptors that recruit the ligase to them. To investigate the mechanism of adaptor-mediated ubiquitination, we have characterized the interactions between the adaptor Bsd2, the ubiquitin ligase Rsp5, and the membrane proteins Cps1, Tre1, and Smf1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have reconstituted adaptor-mediated modification of Cps1 and Tre1 in vitro, and we show that two PY motifs in Bsd2 and two WW domains (WW2 and WW3) in Rsp5 are crucial for this. The binding of a weak noncanonical DMAPSY motif in Bsd2 to WW3 is an absolute requirement for Bsd2 adaptor function. We show that sorting of the manganese transporter Smf1, which requires both Bsd2 and Tre1, depends upon two PY motifs in Bsd2 and one motif in Tre1 but only two WW domains in Rsp5. We suggest that sequential assembly of first a Bsd2/Rsp5 complex, then a Tre1/Bsd2/Rsp5 complex followed by a rearrangement of PY-WW interactions is required for the ubiquitination of Smf1.

  17. Molecular basis for the specific recognition of the metazoan cyclic GMP-AMP by the innate immune adaptor protein STING

    DOE PAGES

    Shi, Heping; Wu, Jiaxi; Chen, Zhijian J.; ...

    2015-07-06

    Cyclic GMP-AMP containing a unique combination of mixed phosphodiester linkages (2'3'-cGAMP) is an endogenous second messenger molecule that activates the type-I IFN pathway upon binding to the homodimer of the adaptor protein STING on the surface of endoplasmic reticulum membrane. However, the preferential binding of the asymmetric ligand 2'3'-cGAMP to the symmetric dimer of STING represents a physicochemical enigma. In this paper, we show that 2'3'-cGAMP, but not its linkage isomers, adopts an organized free-ligand conformation that resembles the STING-bound conformation and pays low entropy and enthalpy costs in converting into the active conformation. Finally, our results demonstrate that analysesmore » of free-ligand conformations can be as important as analyses of protein conformations in understanding protein–ligand interactions.« less

  18. Molecular basis for the specific recognition of the metazoan cyclic GMP-AMP by the innate immune adaptor protein STING

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Heping; Wu, Jiaxi; Chen, Zhijian J.; Chen, Chuo

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic GMP-AMP containing a unique combination of mixed phosphodiester linkages (2′3′-cGAMP) is an endogenous second messenger molecule that activates the type-I IFN pathway upon binding to the homodimer of the adaptor protein STING on the surface of endoplasmic reticulum membrane. However, the preferential binding of the asymmetric ligand 2′3′-cGAMP to the symmetric dimer of STING represents a physicochemical enigma. Here we show that 2′3′-cGAMP, but not its linkage isomers, adopts an organized free-ligand conformation that resembles the STING-bound conformation and pays low entropy and enthalpy costs in converting into the active conformation. Our results demonstrate that analyses of free-ligand conformations can be as important as analyses of protein conformations in understanding protein–ligand interactions. PMID:26150511

  19. Deficiency of the adaptor protein SLy1 results in a natural killer cell ribosomopathy affecting tumor clearance.

    PubMed

    Arefanian, Saeed; Schäll, Daniel; Chang, Stephanie; Ghasemi, Reza; Higashikubo, Ryuji; Zheleznyak, Alex; Guo, Yizhan; Yu, Jinsheng; Asgharian, Hosseinali; Li, Wenjun; Gelman, Andrew E; Kreisel, Daniel; French, Anthony R; Zaher, Hani; Plougastel-Douglas, Beatrice; Maggi, Leonard; Yokoyama, Wayne; Beer-Hammer, Sandra; Krupnick, Alexander S

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with robust natural killer (NK) cell function incur lower rates of malignancies. To expand our understanding of genetic factors contributing to this phenomenon, we analyzed NK cells from cancer resistant and susceptible strains of mice. We identified a correlation between NK levels of the X-chromosome-located adaptor protein SLy1 and immunologic susceptibility to cancer. Unlike the case for T or B lymphocytes, where SLy1 shuttles between the cytoplasm and nucleus to facilitate signal transduction, in NK cells SLy1 functions as a ribosomal protein and is located solely in the cytoplasm. In its absence, ribosomal instability results in p53-mediated NK cell senescence and decreased clearance of malignancies. NK defects are reversible under inflammatory conditions and viral clearance is not impacted by SLy1 deficiency. Our work defines a previously unappreciated X-linked ribosomopathy that results in a specific and subtle NK cell dysfunction leading to immunologic susceptibility to cancer.

  20. Molecular basis for the specific recognition of the metazoan cyclic GMP-AMP by the innate immune adaptor protein STING

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Heping; Wu, Jiaxi; Chen, Zhijian J.; Chen, Chuo

    2015-07-06

    Cyclic GMP-AMP containing a unique combination of mixed phosphodiester linkages (2'3'-cGAMP) is an endogenous second messenger molecule that activates the type-I IFN pathway upon binding to the homodimer of the adaptor protein STING on the surface of endoplasmic reticulum membrane. However, the preferential binding of the asymmetric ligand 2'3'-cGAMP to the symmetric dimer of STING represents a physicochemical enigma. In this paper, we show that 2'3'-cGAMP, but not its linkage isomers, adopts an organized free-ligand conformation that resembles the STING-bound conformation and pays low entropy and enthalpy costs in converting into the active conformation. Finally, our results demonstrate that analyses of free-ligand conformations can be as important as analyses of protein conformations in understanding protein–ligand interactions.

  1. The association between the SH2-containing inositol polyphosphate 5-Phosphatase 2 (SHIP2) and the adaptor protein APS has an impact on biochemical properties of both partners.

    PubMed

    Onnockx, Sheela; De Schutter, Julie; Blockmans, Marianne; Xie, Jingwei; Jacobs, Christine; Vanderwinden, Jean-Marie; Erneux, Christophe; Pirson, Isabelle

    2008-01-01

    SHIP2 (SH2-containing inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase 2) is a phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3)) 5-phosphatase containing various motifs susceptible to mediate protein-protein interaction. In cell models, SHIP2 negatively regulates insulin signalling through its catalytic PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) 5-phosphatase activity. We have previously reported that SHIP2 interacts with the c-Cbl associated protein (CAP) and c-Cbl, proteins implicated in the insulin cellular response regulating the small G protein TC10. The first steps of the TC10 pathway are the recruitment and tyrosine phosphorylation by the insulin receptor of the adaptor protein with Pleckstrin Homology and Src Homology 2 domains (APS). Herein, we show that SHIP2 can directly interact with APS in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and in transfected CHO-IR cells (Chinese hamster ovary cells stably transfected with the insulin receptor). Upon insulin stimulation, APS and SHIP2 are recruited to cell membranes as seen by immunofluorescence studies, which is consistent with their interaction. We also observed that SHIP2 negatively regulates APS insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation and consequently inhibits APS association with c-Cbl. APS, which specifically interacts with SHIP2, but not PTEN, in turn, increases the PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) 5-phosphatase activity of SHIP2 in an inositol phosphatase assay. Co-transfection of SHIP2 and APS in CHO-IR cells further increases the inhibitory effect of SHIP2 on Akt insulin-induced phosphorylation. Therefore, the interaction between APS and SHIP2 provides to both proteins potential negative regulatory mechanisms to act on the insulin cascade.

  2. Induction of androgen formation in the male by a TAT-VDAC1 fusion peptide blocking 14-3-3ɛ protein adaptor and mitochondrial VDAC1 interactions.

    PubMed

    Aghazadeh, Yasaman; Martinez-Arguelles, Daniel B; Fan, Jinjiang; Culty, Martine; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2014-10-01

    Low testosterone (T), a major cause of male hypogonadism and infertility, is linked to mood changes, fatigue, osteoporosis, reduced bone-mass index, and aging. The treatment of choice, T replacement therapy, has been linked with increased risk for prostate cancer and luteinizing hormone (LH) suppression, and shown to lead to infertility, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity. Alternate methods to induce T with lower side effects are desirable. In search of the mechanisms regulating T synthesis in the testes, we identified the 14-3-3ɛ protein adaptor as a negative regulator of steroidogenesis. Steroidogenesis begins in mitochondria. 14-3-3ɛ interacts with the outer mitochondrial membrane voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC1) protein, forming a scaffold that limits the availability of cholesterol for steroidogenesis. We report the development of a tool able to induce endogenous T formation. Peptides able to penetrate testes conjugated to 14-3-3ɛ site of interaction with VDAC1 blocked 14-3-3ɛ-VDAC1 interactions while at the same time increased VDAC1-translocator protein (18 kDa) interactions that induced steroid formation in rat testes, leading to increased serum T levels. These peptides rescued intratesticular and serum T formation in adult male rats treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist, which dampened LH and T production.

  3. Induction of Androgen Formation in the Male by a TAT-VDAC1 Fusion Peptide Blocking 14-3-3ɛ Protein Adaptor and Mitochondrial VDAC1 Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Aghazadeh, Yasaman; Martinez-Arguelles, Daniel B; Fan, Jinjiang; Culty, Martine; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2014-01-01

    Low testosterone (T), a major cause of male hypogonadism and infertility, is linked to mood changes, fatigue, osteoporosis, reduced bone-mass index, and aging. The treatment of choice, T replacement therapy, has been linked with increased risk for prostate cancer and luteinizing hormone (LH) suppression, and shown to lead to infertility, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity. Alternate methods to induce T with lower side effects are desirable. In search of the mechanisms regulating T synthesis in the testes, we identified the 14-3-3ɛ protein adaptor as a negative regulator of steroidogenesis. Steroidogenesis begins in mitochondria. 14-3-3ɛ interacts with the outer mitochondrial membrane voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC1) protein, forming a scaffold that limits the availability of cholesterol for steroidogenesis. We report the development of a tool able to induce endogenous T formation. Peptides able to penetrate testes conjugated to 14-3-3ɛ site of interaction with VDAC1 blocked 14-3-3ɛ-VDAC1 interactions while at the same time increased VDAC1-translocator protein (18 kDa) interactions that induced steroid formation in rat testes, leading to increased serum T levels. These peptides rescued intratesticular and serum T formation in adult male rats treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist, which dampened LH and T production. PMID:24947306

  4. Adaptor protein complex 4 deficiency causes severe autosomal-recessive intellectual disability, progressive spastic paraplegia, shy character, and short stature.

    PubMed

    Abou Jamra, Rami; Philippe, Orianne; Raas-Rothschild, Annick; Eck, Sebastian H; Graf, Elisabeth; Buchert, Rebecca; Borck, Guntram; Ekici, Arif; Brockschmidt, Felix F; Nöthen, Markus M; Munnich, Arnold; Strom, Tim M; Reis, Andre; Colleaux, Laurence

    2011-06-10

    Intellectual disability inherited in an autosomal-recessive fashion represents an important fraction of severe cognitive-dysfunction disorders. Yet, the extreme heterogeneity of these conditions markedly hampers gene identification. Here, we report on eight affected individuals who were from three consanguineous families and presented with severe intellectual disability, absent speech, shy character, stereotypic laughter, muscular hypotonia that progressed to spastic paraplegia, microcephaly, foot deformity, decreased muscle mass of the lower limbs, inability to walk, and growth retardation. Using a combination of autozygosity mapping and either Sanger sequencing of candidate genes or next-generation exome sequencing, we identified one mutation in each of three genes encoding adaptor protein complex 4 (AP4) subunits: a nonsense mutation in AP4S1 (NM_007077.3: c.124C>T, p.Arg42(∗)), a frameshift mutation in AP4B1 (NM_006594.2: c.487_488insTAT, p.Glu163_Ser739delinsVal), and a splice mutation in AP4E1 (NM_007347.3: c.542+1_542+4delGTAA, r.421_542del, p.Glu181Glyfs(∗)20). Adaptor protein complexes (AP1-4) are ubiquitously expressed, evolutionarily conserved heterotetrameric complexes that mediate different types of vesicle formation and the selection of cargo molecules for inclusion into these vesicles. Interestingly, two mutations affecting AP4M1 and AP4E1 have recently been found to cause cerebral palsy associated with severe intellectual disability. Combined with previous observations, these results support the hypothesis that AP4-complex-mediated trafficking plays a crucial role in brain development and functioning and demonstrate the existence of a clinically recognizable syndrome due to deficiency of the AP4 complex.

  5. Nck-2, a Novel Src Homology2/3-containing Adaptor Protein That Interacts with the LIM-only Protein PINCH and Components of Growth Factor Receptor Kinase-signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Yizeng; Li, Fugang; Wu, Chuanyue

    1998-01-01

    Many of the protein–protein interactions that are essential for eukaryotic intracellular signal transduction are mediated by protein binding modules including SH2, SH3, and LIM domains. Nck is a SH3- and SH2-containing adaptor protein implicated in coordinating various signaling pathways, including those of growth factor receptors and cell adhesion receptors. We report here the identification, cloning, and characterization of a widely expressed, Nck-related adaptor protein termed Nck-2. Nck-2 comprises primarily three N-terminal SH3 domains and one C-terminal SH2 domain. We show that Nck-2 interacts with PINCH, a LIM-only protein implicated in integrin-linked kinase signaling. The PINCH-Nck-2 interaction is mediated by the fourth LIM domain of PINCH and the third SH3 domain of Nck-2. Furthermore, we show that Nck-2 is capable of recognizing several key components of growth factor receptor kinase-signaling pathways including EGF receptors, PDGF receptor-β, and IRS-1. The association of Nck-2 with EGF receptors was regulated by EGF stimulation and involved largely the SH2 domain of Nck-2, although the SH3 domains of Nck-2 also contributed to the complex formation. The association of Nck-2 with PDGF receptor-β was dependent on PDGF activation and was mediated solely by the SH2 domain of Nck-2. Additionally, we have detected a stable association between Nck-2 and IRS-1 that was mediated primarily via the second and third SH3 domain of Nck-2. Thus, Nck-2 associates with PINCH and components of different growth factor receptor-signaling pathways via distinct mechanisms. Finally, we provide evidence indicating that a fraction of the Nck-2 and/or Nck-1 proteins are associated with the cytoskeleton. These results identify a novel Nck-related SH2- and SH3-domain–containing protein and suggest that it may function as an adaptor protein connecting the growth factor receptor-signaling pathways with the integrin-signaling pathways. PMID:9843575

  6. Rap1-GTP-interacting Adaptor Molecule (RIAM) Protein Controls Invasion and Growth of Melanoma Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Varas, Pablo; Coló, Georgina P.; Bartolomé, Ruben A.; Paterson, Andrew; Medraño-Fernández, Iria; Arellano-Sánchez, Nohemí; Cabañas, Carlos; Sánchez-Mateos, Paloma; Lafuente, Esther M.; Boussiotis, Vassiliki A.; Strömblad, Staffan; Teixidó, Joaquin

    2011-01-01

    The Mig-10/RIAM/lamellipodin (MRL) family member Rap1-GTP-interacting adaptor molecule (RIAM) interacts with active Rap1, a small GTPase that is frequently activated in tumors such as melanoma and prostate cancer. We show here that RIAM is expressed in metastatic human melanoma cells and that both RIAM and Rap1 are required for BLM melanoma cell invasion. RIAM silencing in melanoma cells led to inhibition of tumor growth and to delayed metastasis in a severe combined immunodeficiency xenograft model. Defective invasion of RIAM-silenced melanoma cells arose from impairment in persistent cell migration directionality, which was associated with deficient activation of a Vav2-RhoA-ROCK-myosin light chain pathway. Expression of constitutively active Vav2 and RhoA in cells depleted for RIAM partially rescued their invasion, indicating that Vav2 and RhoA mediate RIAM function. These results suggest that inhibition of cell invasion in RIAM-silenced melanoma cells is likely based on altered cell contractility and cell polarization. Furthermore, we show that RIAM depletion reduces β1 integrin-dependent melanoma cell adhesion, which correlates with decreased activation of both Erk1/2 MAPK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, two central molecules controlling cell growth and cell survival. In addition to causing inhibition of cell proliferation, RIAM silencing led to higher susceptibility to cell apoptosis. Together, these data suggest that defective activation of these kinases in RIAM-silenced cells could account for inhibition of melanoma cell growth and that RIAM might contribute to the dissemination of melanoma cells. PMID:21454517

  7. Molecular cloning of the mouse grb2 gene: differential interaction of the Grb2 adaptor protein with epidermal growth factor and nerve growth factor receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Suen, K L; Bustelo, X R; Pawson, T; Barbacid, M

    1993-01-01

    We report the isolation and molecular characterization of the mouse grb2 gene. The product of this gene, the Grb2 protein, is highly related to the Caenorhabditis elegans sem-5 gene product and the human GRB2 protein and displays the same SH3-SH2-SH3 structural motifs. In situ hybridization studies revealed that the mouse grb2 gene is widely expressed throughout embryonic development (E9.5 to P0). However, grb2 transcripts are not uniformly distributed, and in certain tissues (e.g., thymus) they appear to be regulated during development. Recent genetic and biochemical evidence has implicated the Grb2 protein in the signaling pathways that link cell surface tyrosine kinase receptors with Ras. We have investigated the association of the Grb2 protein with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) receptors in PC12 pheochromocytoma cells. EGF treatment of PC12 cells results in the rapid association of Grb2 with the activated EGF receptors, an interaction mediated by the Grb2 SH2 domain. However, Grb2 does not bind to NGF-activated Trk receptors. Mitogenic signaling of NGF in NIH 3T3 cells ectopically expressing Trk receptors also takes place without detectable association between Grb2 and Trk. These results suggest that whereas EGF and NGF can activate the Ras signaling pathway in PC12 cells, only the EGF receptor is likely to do so through a direct interaction with Grb2. Finally, binding studies with glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins indicate that Grb2 binds two distinct subsets of proteins which are individually recognized by its SH2 and SH3 domains. These observations add further support to the concept that Grb2 is a modular adaptor protein. Images PMID:7689150

  8. The cytoskeleton adaptor protein ankyrin-1 is upregulated by p53 following DNA damage and alters cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Hall, A E; Lu, W-T; Godfrey, J D; Antonov, A V; Paicu, C; Moxon, S; Dalmay, T; Wilczynska, A; Muller, P A J; Bushell, M

    2016-01-01

    The integrity of the genome is maintained by a host of surveillance and repair mechanisms that are pivotal for cellular function. The tumour suppressor protein p53 is a major component of the DNA damage response pathway and plays a vital role in the maintenance of cell-cycle checkpoints. Here we show that a microRNA, miR-486, and its host gene ankyrin-1 (ANK1) are induced by p53 following DNA damage. Strikingly, the cytoskeleton adaptor protein ankyrin-1 was induced over 80-fold following DNA damage. ANK1 is upregulated in response to a variety of DNA damage agents in a range of cell types. We demonstrate that miR-486-5p is involved in controlling G1/S transition following DNA damage, whereas the induction of the ankyrin-1 protein alters the structure of the actin cytoskeleton and sustains limited cell migration during DNA damage. Importantly, we found that higher ANK1 expression correlates with decreased survival in cancer patients. Thus, these observations highlight ANK1 as an important effector downstream of the p53 pathway. PMID:27054339

  9. The Ras suppressor Rsu-1 binds to the LIM 5 domain of the adaptor protein PINCH1 and participates in adhesion-related functions

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, Gerard W.; Chopp, Treasa; Qi Shengmei; Cutler, Mary Lou . E-mail: mcutler@usuhs.mil

    2005-05-15

    Rsu-1 is a highly conserved leucine rich repeat (LRR) protein that is expressed ubiquitously in mammalian cells. Rsu-1 was identified based on its ability to inhibit transformation by Ras, and previous studies demonstrated that ectopic expression of Rsu-1 inhibited anchorage-independent growth of Ras-transformed cells and human tumor cell lines. Using GAL4-based yeast two-hybrid screening, the LIM domain protein, PINCH1, was identified as the binding partner of Rsu-1. PINCH1 is an adaptor protein that localizes to focal adhesions and it has been implicated in the regulation of adhesion functions. Subdomain mapping in yeast revealed that Rsu-1 binds to the LIM 5 domain of PINCH1, a region not previously identified as a specific binding domain for any other protein. Additional testing demonstrated that PINCH2, which is highly homologous to PINCH1, except in the LIM 5 domain, does not interact with Rsu-1. Glutathione transferase fusion protein binding studies determined that the LRR region of Rsu-1 interacts with PINCH1. Transient expression studies using epitope-tagged Rsu-1 and PINCH1 revealed that Rsu-1 co-immunoprecipitated with PINCH1 and colocalized with vinculin at sites of focal adhesions in mammalian cells. In addition, endogenous P33 Rsu-1 from 293T cells co-immunoprecipitated with transiently expressed myc-tagged PINCH1. Furthermore, RNAi-induced reduction in Rsu-1 RNA and protein inhibited cell attachment, and while previous studies demonstrated that ectopic expression of Rsu-1 inhibited Jun kinase activation, the depletion of Rsu-1 resulted in activation of Jun and p38 stress kinases. These studies demonstrate that Rsu-1 interacts with PINCH1 in mammalian cells and functions, in part, by altering cell adhesion.

  10. Protein Interaction Profiling of the p97 Adaptor UBXD1 Points to a Role for the Complex in Modulating ERGIC-53 Trafficking*

    PubMed Central

    Haines, Dale S.; Lee, J. Eugene; Beauparlant, Stephen L.; Kyle, Dane B.; den Besten, Willem; Sweredoski, Michael J.; Graham, Robert L. J.; Hess, Sonja; Deshaies, Raymond J.

    2012-01-01

    UBXD1 is a member of the poorly understood subfamily of p97 adaptors that do not harbor a ubiquitin association domain or bind ubiquitin-modified proteins. Of clinical importance, p97 mutants found in familial neurodegenerative conditions Inclusion Body Myopathy Paget's disease of the bone and/or Frontotemporal Dementia and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis are defective at interacting with UBXD1, indicating that functions regulated by a p97-UBXD1 complex are altered in these diseases. We have performed liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of UBXD1-interacting proteins to identify pathways in which UBXD1 functions. UBXD1 displays prominent association with ERGIC-53, a hexameric type I integral membrane protein that functions in protein trafficking. The UBXD1-ERGIC-53 interaction requires the N-terminal 10 residues of UBXD1 and the C-terminal cytoplasmic 12 amino acid tail of ERGIC-53. Use of p97 and E1 enzyme inhibitors indicate that complex formation between UBXD1 and ERGIC-53 requires the ATPase activity of p97, but not ubiquitin modification. We also performed SILAC-based quantitative proteomic profiling to identify ERGIC-53 interacting proteins. This analysis identified known (e.g. COPI subunits) and novel (Rab3GAP1/2 complex involved in the fusion of vesicles at the cell membrane) interactions that are also mediated through the C terminus of the protein. Immunoprecipitation and Western blotting analysis confirmed the proteomic interaction data and it also revealed that an UBXD1-Rab3GAP association requires the ERGIC-53 binding domain of UBXD1. Localization studies indicate that UBXD1 modules the sub-cellular trafficking of ERGIC-53, including promoting movement to the cell membrane. We propose that p97-UBXD1 modulates the trafficking of ERGIC-53-containing vesicles by controlling the interaction of transport factors with the cytoplasmic tail of ERGIC-53. PMID:22337587

  11. The role of Drp1 adaptor proteins MiD49 and MiD51 in mitochondrial fission: implications for human disease.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Kathleen; Dasgupta, Asish; Chen, Kuang-Hueih; Mewburn, Jeff; Archer, Stephen L

    2016-11-01

    Mitochondrial morphology is governed by the balance of mitochondrial fusion, mediated by mitofusins and optic atrophy 1 (OPA1), and fission, mediated by dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1). Disordered mitochondrial dynamics alters metabolism, proliferation, apoptosis and mitophagy, contributing to human diseases, including neurodegenerative syndromes, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), cancer and ischemia/reperfusion injury. Post-translational regulation of Drp1 (by phosphorylation and SUMOylation) is an established means of modulating Drp1 activation and translocation to the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM). This review focuses on Drp1 adaptor proteins that also regulate fission. The proteins include fission 1 (Fis1), mitochondrial fission factor (Mff) and mitochondrial dynamics proteins of 49 kDa and 51 kDa (MiD49, MiD51). Heterologous MiD overexpression sequesters inactive Drp1 on the OMM, promoting fusion; conversely, increased endogenous MiD creates focused Drp1 multimers that optimize OMM scission. The triggers that activate MiD-bound Drp1 in disease states are unknown; however, MiD51 has a unique capacity for ADP binding at its nucleotidyltransferase domain. Without ADP, MiD51 inhibits Drp1, whereas ADP promotes MiD51-mediated fission, suggesting a link between metabolism and fission. Confusion over whether MiDs mediate fusion (by sequestering inactive Drp1) or fission (by guiding Drp1 assembly) relates to a failure to consider cell types used and to distinguish endogenous compared with heterologous changes in expression. We speculate that endogenous MiDs serve as Drp1-binding partners that are dysregulated in disease states and may be important targets for inhibiting cell proliferation and ischemia/reperfusion injury. Moreover, it appears that the composition of the fission apparatus varies between disease states and amongst individuals. MiDs may be important targets for inhibiting cell proliferation and attenuating ischemia/reperfusion injury.

  12. Signaling adaptor protein SH2B1 enhances neurite outgrowth and accelerates the maturation of human induced neurons.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yi-Chao; Chen, Su-Liang; Wang, Ya-Jean; Chen, Yun-Hsiang; Wang, Dan-Yen; Chen, Linyi; Chen, Chia-Hsiang; Chen, Hwei-Hsien; Chiu, Ing-Ming

    2014-06-01

    Recent advances in somatic cell reprogramming have highlighted the plasticity of the somatic epigenome, particularly through demonstrations of direct lineage reprogramming of adult mouse and human fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and induced neurons (iNs) under defined conditions. However, human cells appear to be less plastic and have a higher epigenetic hurdle for reprogramming to both iPSCs and iNs. Here, we show that SH2B adaptor protein 1β (SH2B1) can enhance neurite outgrowth of iNs reprogrammed from human fibroblasts as early as day 14, when combined with miR124 and transcription factors BRN2 and MYT1L (IBM) under defined conditions. These SH2B1-enhanced iNs (S-IBM) showed canonical neuronal morphology, and expressed multiple neuronal markers, such as TuJ1, NeuN, and synapsin, and functional proteins for neurotransmitter release, such as GABA, vGluT2, and tyrosine hydroxylase. Importantly, SH2B1 accelerated mature process of functional neurons and exhibited action potentials as early as day 14; without SH2B1, the IBM iNs do not exhibit action potentials until day 21. Our data demonstrate that SH2B1 can enhance neurite outgrowth and accelerate the maturation of human iNs under defined conditions. This approach will facilitate the application of iNs in regenerative medicine and in vitro disease modeling.

  13. Adaptor protein disabled-2 modulates low density lipoprotein receptor synthesis in fibroblasts from patients with autosomal recessive hypercholesterolaemia.

    PubMed

    Eden, Emily R; Sun, Xi-Ming; Patel, Dilipkumar D; Soutar, Anne K

    2007-11-15

    Autosomal recessive hypercholesterolaemia (ARH), characterized clinically by severe inherited hypercholesterolaemia, is caused by recessive null mutations in LDLRAP1 (formerly ARH). Immortalized lymphocytes and monocyte-macrophages, and presumably hepatocytes, from ARH patients fail to take up and degrade plasma low density lipoproteins (LDL) because they lack LDLRAP1, a cargo-specific adaptor required for clathrin-mediated endocytosis of the LDL receptor. Surprisingly, LDL-receptor function is normal in ARH patients' skin fibroblasts in culture. Disabled-2 (Dab2) has been implicated previously in clathrin-mediated internalization of LDL-receptor family members, and we show here that Dab2 is highly expressed in skin fibroblasts, but not in lymphocytes. SiRNA-depletion of Dab2 profoundly reduced LDL-receptor activity in ARH fibroblasts as a result of profound reduction in LDL-receptor protein, but not mRNA; heterologous expression of murine Dab2 reversed this effect. In contrast, LDL-receptor protein content was unchanged in Dab-2-depleted control cells. Incorporation of 35S-labelled amino acids into LDL receptor protein revealed a corresponding apparent reduction in accumulation of newly synthesized LDL-receptor protein on depletion of Dab2 in ARH, but not in control, cells. This reduction in LDL-receptor protein in Dab2-depleted ARH cells could not be reversed by treatment of the cells with proteasomal or lysosomal inhibitors. Thus, we propose a novel role for Dab2 in ARH fibroblasts, where it is apparently required to allow normal translation of LDL receptor mRNA.

  14. Bivalent Motif-Ear Interactions Mediate the Association of the Accessory Protein Tepsin with the AP-4 Adaptor Complex.

    PubMed

    Mattera, Rafael; Guardia, Carlos M; Sidhu, Sachdev S; Bonifacino, Juan S

    2015-12-25

    The heterotetrameric (ϵ-β4-μ4-σ4) complex adaptor protein 4 (AP-4) is a component of a non-clathrin coat involved in protein sorting at the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Considerable interest in this complex has arisen from the recent discovery that mutations in each of its four subunits are the cause of a congenital intellectual disability and movement disorder in humans. Despite its physiological importance, the structure and function of this coat remain poorly understood. To investigate the assembly of the AP-4 coat, we dissected the determinants of interaction of AP-4 with its only known accessory protein, the ENTH/VHS-domain-containing protein tepsin. Using a variety of protein interaction assays, we found that tepsin comprises two phylogenetically conserved peptide motifs, [GS]LFXG[ML]X[LV] and S[AV]F[SA]FLN, within its C-terminal unstructured region, which interact with the C-terminal ear (or appendage) domains of the β4 and ϵ subunits of AP-4, respectively. Structure-based mutational analyses mapped the binding site for the [GS]LFXG[ML]X[LV] motif to a conserved, hydrophobic surface on the β4-ear platform fold. Both peptide-ear interactions are required for efficient association of tepsin with AP-4, and for recruitment of tepsin to the TGN. The bivalency of the interactions increases the avidity of tepsin for AP-4 and may enable cross-linking of multiple AP-4 heterotetramers, thus contributing to the assembly of the AP-4 coat. In addition to revealing critical aspects of this coat, our findings extend the paradigm of peptide-ear interactions, previously established for clathrin-AP-1/AP-2 coats, to a non-clathrin coat.

  15. New insight into the functions of the interleukin-17 receptor adaptor protein Act1 in psoriatic arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies have implicated the tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 3-interacting protein 2 (TRAF3IP2) gene and its product, nuclear factor-kappa-B activator 1 (Act1), in the development of psoriatic arthritis (PsA). The high level of sequence homology of the TRAF3IP2 (Act1) gene across the animal kingdom and the presence of the Act1 protein in multiple cell types strongly suggest that the protein is of importance in normal cellular function. Act1 is an adaptor protein for the interleukin-17 (IL-17) receptor, and recent observations have highlighted the significance of IL-17 signaling and localized inflammation in autoimmune diseases. This review summarizes data from recent genome-wide association studies as well as immunological and molecular investigations of Act1. Together, these studies provide new insight into the role of IL-17 signaling in PsA. It is well established that IL-17 activation of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) signaling pathways normally leads to nuclear factor-kappa-B-mediated inflammation. However, the dominant PsA-associated TRAF3IP2 (Act1) gene single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs33980500) results in decreased binding of Act1 to TRAF6. This key mutation in Act1 could lead to a greater association of the IL-17 receptor with TRAF2/TRAF5 and this in turn suggests an alternative function for IL-17 in PsA. The recent observations described and discussed in this review raise the clinically significant possibility of redefining the immunological role of IL-17 in PsA and provide a basis for defining future studies to elucidate the molecular and cellular functions of Act1. PMID:23116200

  16. The Adaptor Protein-1 μ1B Subunit Expands the Repertoire of Basolateral Sorting Signal Recognition in Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiaoli; Mattera, Rafael; Ren, Xuefeng; Chen, Yu; Retamal, Claudio; González, Alfonso; Bonifacino, Juan S.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY An outstanding question in protein sorting is why polarized epithelial cells express two isoforms of the μ1 subunit of the AP-1 clathrin adaptor complex: the ubiquitous μ1A and the epithelial-specific μ1B. Previous studies led to the notion that μ1A and μ1B mediate basolateral sorting predominantly from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and recycling endosomes, respectively. Using improved analytical tools, however, we find that μ1A and μ1B largely colocalize with each other. They also colocalize to similar extents with TGN and recycling endosome markers, as well as with basolateral cargoes transiting biosynthetic and endocytic-recycling routes. Instead, the two isoforms differ in their signal-recognition specificity. In particular, μ1B preferentially binds a subset of signals from cargoes that are sorted basolaterally in a μ1B-dependent manner. We conclude that expression of distinct μ1 isoforms in epithelial cells expands the repertoire of signals recognized by AP-1 for sorting of a broader range of cargoes to the basolateral surface. PMID:24229647

  17. Identification of Atg2 and ArfGAP1 as Candidate Genetic Modifiers of the Eye Pigmentation Phenotype of Adaptor Protein-3 (AP-3) Mutants in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Fernandez, Imilce A; Dell'Angelica, Esteban C

    2015-01-01

    The Adaptor Protein (AP)-3 complex is an evolutionary conserved, molecular sorting device that mediates the intracellular trafficking of proteins to lysosomes and related organelles. Genetic defects in AP-3 subunits lead to impaired biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles (LROs) such as mammalian melanosomes and insect eye pigment granules. In this work, we have performed a forward screening for genetic modifiers of AP-3 function in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Specifically, we have tested collections of large multi-gene deletions--which together covered most of the autosomal chromosomes-to identify chromosomal regions that, when deleted in single copy, enhanced or ameliorated the eye pigmentation phenotype of two independent AP-3 subunit mutants. Fine-mapping led us to define two non-overlapping, relatively small critical regions within fly chromosome 3. The first critical region included the Atg2 gene, which encodes a conserved protein involved in autophagy. Loss of one functional copy of Atg2 ameliorated the pigmentation defects of mutants in AP-3 subunits as well as in two other genes previously implicated in LRO biogenesis, namely Blos1 and lightoid, and even increased the eye pigment content of wild-type flies. The second critical region included the ArfGAP1 gene, which encodes a conserved GTPase-activating protein with specificity towards GTPases of the Arf family. Loss of a single functional copy of the ArfGAP1 gene ameliorated the pigmentation phenotype of AP-3 mutants but did not to modify the eye pigmentation of wild-type flies or mutants in Blos1 or lightoid. Strikingly, loss of the second functional copy of the gene did not modify the phenotype of AP-3 mutants any further but elicited early lethality in males and abnormal eye morphology when combined with mutations in Blos1 and lightoid, respectively. These results provide genetic evidence for new functional links connecting the machinery for biogenesis of LROs with molecules implicated in

  18. Dual Activation of TRIF and MyD88 Adaptor Proteins by Angiotensin II Evokes Opposing Effects on Pressure, Cardiac Hypertrophy and Inflammatory Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Madhu V.; Cicha, Michael Z.; Meyerholz, David K.; Chapleau, Mark W.; Abboud, François M.

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is recognized as an immune disorder whereby immune cells play a defining role in the genesis and progression of the disease. The innate immune system and its component toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key determinants of the immunological outcome through their pro-inflammatory response. TLR activated signaling pathways utilize several adaptor proteins of which adaptor proteins MyD88 and TRIF define two major inflammatory pathways. In this study, we compared the contributions of MyD88 and TRIF adaptor proteins to angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy in mice. Deletion of MyD88 did not prevent cardiac hypertrophy and the pressor response to Ang II tended to increase. Moreover, the increase in inflammatory gene expression (Tnfa, Nox4 and Agtr1a) was significantly greater in the heart and kidney of MyD88-deficient mice compared with wild type mice. Thus, pathways involving MyD88 may actually restrain the inflammatory responses. On the other hand, in mice with non-functional TRIF (Trifmut mice), Ang II induced hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy were abrogated, and pro-inflammatory gene expression in heart and kidneys was unchanged or decreased. Our results indicate that Ang II induces activation of a pro-inflammatory innate immune response, causing hypertension, and cardiac hypertrophy. These effects require functional adaptor protein TRIF-mediated pathways. However, the common MyD88 dependent signaling pathway, which is also activated simultaneously by Ang II, paradoxically exerts a negative regulatory influence on these responses. PMID:26195481

  19. The Clathrin Adaptor Proteins ARH, Dab2, and Numb Play Distinct Roles in Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 Versus Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-mediated Cholesterol Uptake*

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jian; Fu, Zhen-Yan; Li, Pei-Shan; Miao, Hong-Hua; Li, Bo-Liang; Ma, Yi-Tong; Song, Bao-Liang

    2014-01-01

    The uptake of circulating low density lipoproteins (LDL) is mediated by LDL receptor (LDLR) through clathrin-dependent endocytosis. At the early stage of this process, adaptor proteins ARH and Dab2 specifically bind the endocytic signal motif in LDLR and recruit clathrin/AP2 to initiate internalization. On the other hand, intestinal cholesterol is absorbed by Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1) through clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Another adaptor protein, Numb recognizes the endocytic motif in NPC1L1 C terminus and couples NPC1L1 to endocytic machinery. The ARH, Dab2, and Numb proteins contain a homogeneous phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domain that directly binds endocytic motifs. Because ARH, Dab2, and Numb are all PTB domain family members, the emerging mystery is whether these adaptors act complementally in LDLR and NPC1L1 endocytosis. Here, we found that ARH and Dab2 did not bind NPC1L1 and were not required for NPC1L1 internalization. Similarly, Numb lacked the ability to interact with the LDLR C terminus and was dispensable for LDL uptake. Only the Numb isoforms with shorter PTB domain could facilitate NPC1L1 endocytosis. Besides the reported function in intestinal cholesterol absorption, Numb also mediated cholesterol reabsorption from bile in liver. We further identified a Numb variant with G595D substitution in humans of low blood LDL-cholesterol. The G595D substitution impaired NPC1L1 internalization and cholesterol reabsorption, due to attenuating affinity of Numb to clathrin/AP2. These results demonstrate that Numb specifically regulates NPC1L1-mediated cholesterol absorption both in human intestine and liver, distinct from ARH and Dab2, which selectively participate in LDLR-mediated LDL uptake. PMID:25331956

  20. The clathrin adaptor proteins ARH, Dab2, and numb play distinct roles in Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 versus low density lipoprotein receptor-mediated cholesterol uptake.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jian; Fu, Zhen-Yan; Li, Pei-Shan; Miao, Hong-Hua; Li, Bo-Liang; Ma, Yi-Tong; Song, Bao-Liang

    2014-11-28

    The uptake of circulating low density lipoproteins (LDL) is mediated by LDL receptor (LDLR) through clathrin-dependent endocytosis. At the early stage of this process, adaptor proteins ARH and Dab2 specifically bind the endocytic signal motif in LDLR and recruit clathrin/AP2 to initiate internalization. On the other hand, intestinal cholesterol is absorbed by Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1) through clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Another adaptor protein, Numb recognizes the endocytic motif in NPC1L1 C terminus and couples NPC1L1 to endocytic machinery. The ARH, Dab2, and Numb proteins contain a homogeneous phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domain that directly binds endocytic motifs. Because ARH, Dab2, and Numb are all PTB domain family members, the emerging mystery is whether these adaptors act complementally in LDLR and NPC1L1 endocytosis. Here, we found that ARH and Dab2 did not bind NPC1L1 and were not required for NPC1L1 internalization. Similarly, Numb lacked the ability to interact with the LDLR C terminus and was dispensable for LDL uptake. Only the Numb isoforms with shorter PTB domain could facilitate NPC1L1 endocytosis. Besides the reported function in intestinal cholesterol absorption, Numb also mediated cholesterol reabsorption from bile in liver. We further identified a Numb variant with G595D substitution in humans of low blood LDL-cholesterol. The G595D substitution impaired NPC1L1 internalization and cholesterol reabsorption, due to attenuating affinity of Numb to clathrin/AP2. These results demonstrate that Numb specifically regulates NPC1L1-mediated cholesterol absorption both in human intestine and liver, distinct from ARH and Dab2, which selectively participate in LDLR-mediated LDL uptake.

  1. Nuclear IKKbeta is an adaptor protein for IkappaBalpha ubiquitination and degradation in UV-induced NF-kappaB activation.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Yoshihiro; Asano, Tomoichiro; Nakayama, Keiko; Kato, Tomohisa; Karin, Michael; Kamata, Hideaki

    2010-08-27

    Proinflammatory cytokines activate NF-kappaB using the IkappaB kinase (IKK) complex that phosphorylates inhibitory proteins (IkappaBs) at N-terminal sites resulting in their ubiquitination and degradation in the cytoplasm. Although ultraviolet (UV) irradiation does not lead to IKK activity, it activates NF-kappaB by an unknown mechanism through IkappaBalpha degradation without N-terminal phosphorylation. Here, we describe an adaptor function of nuclear IKKbeta in UV-induced IkappaBalpha degradation. UV irradiation induces the nuclear translocation of IkappaBalpha and association with IKKbeta, which constitutively interacts with beta-TrCP through heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein-U (hnRNP-U) leading to IkappaBalpha ubiquitination and degradation. Furthermore, casein kinase 2 (CK2) and p38 associate with IKKbeta and promote IkappaBalpha degradation by phosphorylation at C-terminal sites. Thus, nuclear IKKbeta acts as an adaptor protein for IkappaBalpha degradation in UV-induced NF-kappaB activation. NF-kappaB activated by the nuclear IKKbeta adaptor protein suppresses anti-apoptotic gene expression and promotes UV-induced cell death.

  2. SR Proteins: Binders, Regulators, and Connectors of RNA

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Sunjoo

    2017-01-01

    Serine and arginine-rich (SR) proteins are RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) known as constitutive and alternative splicing regulators. As splicing is linked to transcriptional and post-transcriptional steps, SR proteins are implicated in the regulation of multiple aspects of the gene expression program. Recent global analyses of SR-RNA interaction maps have advanced our understanding of SR-regulated gene expression. Diverse SR proteins play partially overlapping but distinct roles in transcription-coupled splicing and mRNA processing in the nucleus. In addition, shuttling SR proteins act as adaptors for mRNA export and as regulators for translation in the cytoplasm. This mini-review will summarize the roles of SR proteins as RNA binders, regulators, and connectors from transcription in the nucleus to translation in the cytoplasm. PMID:28152302

  3. Adaptor Protein-1 Complex Affects the Endocytic Trafficking and Function of Peptidylglycine α-Amidating Monooxygenase, a Luminal Cuproenzyme.

    PubMed

    Bonnemaison, Mathilde L; Bäck, Nils; Duffy, Megan E; Ralle, Martina; Mains, Richard E; Eipper, Betty A

    2015-08-28

    The adaptor protein-1 complex (AP-1), which transports cargo between the trans-Golgi network and endosomes, plays a role in the trafficking of Atp7a, a copper-transporting P-type ATPase, and peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), a copper-dependent membrane enzyme. Lack of any of the four AP-1 subunits impairs function, and patients with MEDNIK syndrome, a rare genetic disorder caused by lack of expression of the σ1A subunit, exhibit clinical and biochemical signs of impaired copper homeostasis. To explore the role of AP-1 in copper homeostasis in neuroendocrine cells, we used corticotrope tumor cells in which AP-1 function was diminished by reducing expression of its μ1A subunit. Copper levels were unchanged when AP-1 function was impaired, but cellular levels of Atp7a declined slightly. The ability of PAM to function was assessed by monitoring 18-kDa fragment-NH2 production from proopiomelanocortin. Reduced AP-1 function made 18-kDa fragment amidation more sensitive to inhibition by bathocuproine disulfonate, a cell-impermeant Cu(I) chelator. The endocytic trafficking of PAM was altered, and PAM-1 accumulated on the cell surface when AP-1 levels were reduced. Reduced AP-1 function increased the Atp7a presence in early/recycling endosomes but did not alter the ability of copper to stimulate its appearance on the plasma membrane. Co-immunoprecipitation of a small fraction of PAM and Atp7a supports the suggestion that copper can be transferred directly from Atp7a to PAM, a process that can occur only when both proteins are present in the same subcellular compartment. Altered luminal cuproenzyme function may contribute to deficits observed when the AP-1 function is compromised.

  4. Enigma interacts with adaptor protein with PH and SH2 domains to control insulin-induced actin cytoskeleton remodeling and glucose transporter 4 translocation.

    PubMed

    Barrès, Romain; Grémeaux, Thierry; Gual, Philippe; Gonzalez, Teresa; Gugenheim, Jean; Tran, Albert; Le Marchand-Brustel, Yannick; Tanti, Jean-François

    2006-11-01

    APS (adaptor protein with PH and SH2 domains) initiates a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-independent pathway involved in insulin-stimulated glucose transport. We recently identified Enigma, a PDZ and LIM domain-containing protein, as a partner of APS and showed that APS-Enigma complex plays a critical role in actin cytoskeleton organization in fibroblastic cells. Because actin rearrangement is important for insulin-induced glucose transporter 4 (Glut 4) translocation, we studied the potential involvement of Enigma in insulin-induced glucose transport in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Enigma mRNA was expressed in differentiated adipocytes and APS and Enigma were colocalized with cortical actin. Expression of an APS mutant unable to bind Enigma increased the insulin-induced Glut 4 translocation to the plasma membrane. By contrast, overexpression of Enigma inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose transport and Glut 4 translocation without alterations in proximal insulin signaling. This inhibitory effect was prevented with the deletion of the LIM domains of Enigma. Using time-lapse fluorescent microscopy of green fluorescent protein-actin, we demonstrated that the overexpression of Enigma altered insulin-induced actin rearrangements, whereas the expression of Enigma without its LIM domains was without effect. A physiological link between increased expression of Enigma and an alteration in insulin-induced glucose uptake was suggested by the increase in Enigma mRNA expression in adipose tissue of diabetic obese patients. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that the interaction between APS and Enigma is involved in insulin-induced Glut 4 translocation by regulating cortical actin remodeling and raise the possibility that modification of APS/Enigma ratio could participate in the alteration of insulin-induced glucose uptake in adipose tissue.

  5. CD2v Interacts with Adaptor Protein AP-1 during African Swine Fever Infection

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Núñez, Daniel; García-Urdiales, Eduardo; Martínez-Bonet, Marta; Nogal, María L.; Barroso, Susana; Revilla, Yolanda; Madrid, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) CD2v protein is believed to be involved in virulence enhancement, viral hemadsorption, and pathogenesis, although the molecular mechanisms of the function of this viral protein are still not fully understood. Here we describe that CD2v localized around viral factories during ASFV infection, suggesting a role in the generation and/or dynamics of these viral structures and hence in disturbing cellular traffic. We show that CD2v targeted the regulatory trans-Golgi network (TGN) protein complex AP-1, a key element in cellular traffic. This interaction was disrupted by brefeldin A even though the location of CD2v around the viral factory remained unchanged. CD2v-AP-1 binding was independent of CD2v glycosylation and occurred on the carboxy-terminal part of CD2v, where a canonical di-Leu motif previously reported to mediate AP-1 binding in eukaryotic cells, was identified. This motif was shown to be functionally interchangeable with the di-Leu motif present in HIV-Nef protein in an AP-1 binding assay. However, we demonstrated that it was not involved either in CD2v cellular distribution or in CD2v-AP-1 binding. Taken together, these findings shed light on CD2v function during ASFV infection by identifying AP-1 as a cellular factor targeted by CD2v and hence elucidate the cellular pathways used by the virus to enhance infectivity. PMID:25915900

  6. CD2v Interacts with Adaptor Protein AP-1 during African Swine Fever Infection.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Núñez, Daniel; García-Urdiales, Eduardo; Martínez-Bonet, Marta; Nogal, María L; Barroso, Susana; Revilla, Yolanda; Madrid, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) CD2v protein is believed to be involved in virulence enhancement, viral hemadsorption, and pathogenesis, although the molecular mechanisms of the function of this viral protein are still not fully understood. Here we describe that CD2v localized around viral factories during ASFV infection, suggesting a role in the generation and/or dynamics of these viral structures and hence in disturbing cellular traffic. We show that CD2v targeted the regulatory trans-Golgi network (TGN) protein complex AP-1, a key element in cellular traffic. This interaction was disrupted by brefeldin A even though the location of CD2v around the viral factory remained unchanged. CD2v-AP-1 binding was independent of CD2v glycosylation and occurred on the carboxy-terminal part of CD2v, where a canonical di-Leu motif previously reported to mediate AP-1 binding in eukaryotic cells, was identified. This motif was shown to be functionally interchangeable with the di-Leu motif present in HIV-Nef protein in an AP-1 binding assay. However, we demonstrated that it was not involved either in CD2v cellular distribution or in CD2v-AP-1 binding. Taken together, these findings shed light on CD2v function during ASFV infection by identifying AP-1 as a cellular factor targeted by CD2v and hence elucidate the cellular pathways used by the virus to enhance infectivity.

  7. Endocytosis of megalin by visceral endoderm cells requires the Dab2 adaptor protein.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Meghan E; Cooper, Jonathan A

    2005-11-15

    Rapid endocytosis of lipoprotein receptors involves NPxY signals contained in their cytoplasmic tails. Several proteins, including ARH and Dab2, can bind these sequences, but their importance for endocytosis may vary in different cell types. The lipoprotein receptor megalin is expressed in the visceral endoderm (VE), a polarized epithelium that supplies maternal nutrients to the early mammalian embryo. Dab2 is also expressed in the VE, and is required for embryo growth and gastrulation. Here, we show that ARH is absent from the VE, and Dab2 is required for uptake of megalin, its co-receptor cubilin, and a cubilin ligand, transferrin, from the brush border of the VE into intracellular vesicles. By making isoform-specific knock-in mice, we show that the p96 splice form of Dab2, which binds endocytic proteins, can fully rescue endocytosis. The more abundant p67 isoform, which lacks some endocytic protein binding sites, only partly rescues endocytosis. Endocytosis of cubilin is also impaired in VE and in mid-gestation visceral yolk sac when p96 is absent. These studies suggest that Dab2 p96 mediates endocytosis of megalin in the VE. In addition, rescue of embryonic viability correlates with endocytosis, suggesting that endocytosis mediated by Dab2 is important for normal development.

  8. NRAGE, a p75NTR adaptor protein, is required for developmental apoptosis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, M J M; Kenchappa, R S; Andrieu, D; Leclercq-Smekens, M; Nguyen, H N T; Carter, B D; Muscatelli, F; Barker, P A; De Backer, O

    2008-12-01

    NRAGE (also known as Maged1, Dlxin) is a member of the MAGE gene family that may play a role in the neuronal apoptosis that is regulated by the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR). To test this hypothesis in vivo, we generated NRAGE knockout mice and found that NRAGE deletion caused a defect in developmental apoptosis of sympathetic neurons of the superior cervical ganglia, similar to that observed in p75NTR knockout mice. Primary sympathetic neurons derived from NRAGE knockout mice were resistant to apoptosis induced by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a pro-apoptotic p75NTR ligand, and NRAGE-deficient sympathetic neurons show attenuated BDNF-dependent JNK activation. Hair follicle catagen is an apoptosis-like process that is dependent on p75NTR signaling; we show that NRAGE and p75NTR show regulated co-expression in the hair follicle and that identical defects in hair follicle catagen are present in NRAGE and p75NTR knockout mice. Interestingly, NRAGE knockout mice have severe defects in motoneuron apoptosis that are not observed in p75NTR knockout animals, raising the possibility that NRAGE may facilitate apoptosis induced by receptors other than p75NTR. Together, these studies demonstrate that NRAGE plays an important role in apoptotic-signaling in vivo.

  9. Crystal structures of the Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domains from the Brucella protein TcpB and host adaptor TIRAP reveal mechanisms of molecular mimicry.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Greg A; Deredge, Daniel; Waldhuber, Anna; Fresquez, Theresa; Wilkins, David Z; Smith, Patrick T; Durr, Susi; Cirl, Christine; Jiang, Jiansheng; Jennings, William; Luchetti, Timothy; Snyder, Nathaniel; Sundberg, Eric J; Wintrode, Patrick; Miethke, Thomas; Xiao, T Sam

    2014-01-10

    The Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domains are crucial innate immune signaling modules. Microbial TIR domain-containing proteins inhibit Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling through molecular mimicry. The TIR domain-containing protein TcpB from Brucella inhibits TLR signaling through interaction with host adaptor proteins TIRAP/Mal and MyD88. To characterize the microbial mimicry of host proteins, we have determined the X-ray crystal structures of the TIR domains from the Brucella protein TcpB and the host adaptor protein TIRAP. We have further characterized homotypic interactions of TcpB using hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry and heterotypic TcpB and TIRAP interaction by co-immunoprecipitation and NF-κB reporter assays. The crystal structure of the TcpB TIR domain reveals the microtubule-binding site encompassing the BB loop as well as a symmetrical dimer mediated by the DD and EE loops. This dimerization interface is validated by peptide mapping through hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry. The human TIRAP TIR domain crystal structure reveals a unique N-terminal TIR domain fold containing a disulfide bond formed by Cys(89) and Cys(134). A comparison between the TcpB and TIRAP crystal structures reveals substantial conformational differences in the region that encompasses the BB loop. These findings underscore the similarities and differences in the molecular features found in the microbial and host TIR domains, which suggests mechanisms of bacterial mimicry of host signaling adaptor proteins, such as TIRAP.

  10. Regulation of ITAM adaptor molecules and their receptors by inhibition of calcineurin-NFAT signalling during late stage osteoclast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Zawawi, M S F; Dharmapatni, A A S S K; Cantley, M D; McHugh, K P; Haynes, D R; Crotti, T N

    2012-10-19

    Osteoclasts are specialised bone resorptive cells responsible for both physiological and pathological bone loss. Osteoclast differentiation and activity is dependent upon receptor activator NF-kappa-B ligand (RANKL) interacting with its receptor RANK to induce the transcription factor, nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 1 (NFATc1). The immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-dependent pathway has been identified as a co-stimulatory pathway in osteoclasts. Osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR) and triggering receptor expressed in myeloid cells (TREM2) are essential receptors that pair with adaptor molecules Fc receptor common gamma chain (FcRγ) and DNAX-activating protein 12kDa (DAP12) respectively to induce calcium signalling. Treatment with calcineurin-NFAT inhibitors, Tacrolimus (FK506) and the 11R-VIVIT (VIVIT) peptide, reduces NFATc1 expression consistent with a reduction in osteoclast differentiation and activity. This study aimed to investigate the effects of inhibiting calcineurin-NFAT signalling on the expression of ITAM factors and late stage osteoclast genes including cathepsin K (CathK), Beta 3 integrin (β3) and Annexin VIII (AnnVIII). Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were differentiated with RANKL and macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) over 10days in the presence or absence of FK506 or VIVIT. Osteoclast formation (as assessed by tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)) and activity (assessed by dentine pit resorption) were significantly reduced with treatment. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis demonstrated that FK506 treatment significantly (p<0.05) reduced the expression of NFATc1, CathK, OSCAR, FcRγ, TREM2 and DAP12 during the terminal stage of osteoclast formation. VIVIT treatment significantly (p<0.05) decreased CathK, OSCAR, FcRγ, and AnnVIII, gene expression. This data suggest FK506 and VIVIT act differently in targeting the

  11. Structural and Functional Characterization of Cargo-Binding Sites on the μ4-Subunit of Adaptor Protein Complex 4

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Breyan H.; Lin, Yimo; Corales, Esteban A.; Burgos, Patricia V.; Mardones, Gonzalo A.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptor protein (AP) complexes facilitate protein trafficking by playing key roles in the selection of cargo molecules to be sorted in post-Golgi compartments. Four AP complexes (AP-1 to AP-4) contain a medium-sized subunit (μ1-μ4) that recognizes YXXØ-sequences (Ø is a bulky hydrophobic residue), which are sorting signals in transmembrane proteins. A conserved, canonical region in μ subunits mediates recognition of YXXØ-signals by means of a critical aspartic acid. Recently we found that a non-canonical YXXØ-signal on the cytosolic tail of the Alzheimer's disease amyloid precursor protein (APP) binds to a distinct region of the μ4 subunit of the AP-4 complex. In this study we aimed to determine the functionality of both binding sites of μ4 on the recognition of the non-canonical YXXØ-signal of APP. We found that substitutions in either binding site abrogated the interaction with the APP-tail in yeast-two hybrid experiments. Further characterization by isothermal titration calorimetry showed instead loss of binding to the APP signal with only the substitution R283D at the non-canonical site, in contrast to a decrease in binding affinity with the substitution D190A at the canonical site. We solved the crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of the D190A mutant bound to this non-canonical YXXØ-signal. This structure showed no significant difference compared to that of wild-type μ4. Both differential scanning fluorimetry and limited proteolysis analyses demonstrated that the D190A substitution rendered μ4 less stable, suggesting an explanation for its lower binding affinity to the APP signal. Finally, in contrast to overexpression of the D190A mutant, and acting in a dominant-negative manner, overexpression of μ4 with either a F255A or a R283D substitution at the non-canonical site halted APP transport at the Golgi apparatus. Together, our analyses support that the functional recognition of the non-canonical YXXØ-signal of APP is limited to the non

  12. Dengue Virus Subverts Host Innate Immunity by Targeting Adaptor Protein MAVS

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhenjian; Zhu, Xun; Wen, Weitao; Yuan, Jie; Hu, Yiwen; Chen, Jiahui; An, Shu; Dong, Xinhuai; Lin, Cuiji; Yu, Jianchen; Wu, Jueheng; Yang, Yi; Cai, Junchao; Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dengue virus (DENV) is the most common mosquito-borne virus infecting humans and is currently a serious global health challenge. To establish infection in its host cells, DENV must subvert the production and/or antiviral effects of interferon (IFN). The aim of this study was to understand the mechanisms by which DENV suppresses IFN production. We determined that DENV NS4A interacts with mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS), which was previously found to activate NF-κB and IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), thus inducing type I IFN in the mitochondrion-associated endoplasmic reticulum membranes (MAMs). We further demonstrated that NS4A is associated with the N-terminal CARD-like (CL) domain and the C-terminal transmembrane (TM) domain of MAVS. This association prevented the binding of MAVS to RIG-I, resulting in the repression of RIG-I-induced IRF3 activation and, consequently, the abrogation of IFN production. Collectively, our findings illustrate a new molecular mechanism by which DENV evades the host immune system and suggest new targets for anti-DENV strategies. IMPORTANCE Type I interferon (IFN) constitutes the first line of host defense against invading viruses. To successfully establish infection, dengue virus (DENV) must counteract either the production or the function of IFN. The mechanism by which DENV suppresses IFN production is poorly understood and characterized. In this study, we demonstrate that the DENV NS4A protein plays an important role in suppressing interferon production through binding MAVS and disrupting the RIG-I–MAVS interaction in mitochondrion-associated endoplasmic reticulum membranes (MAMs). Our study reveals that MAVS is a novel host target of NS4A and provides a molecular mechanism for DENV evasion of the host innate immune response. These findings have important implications for understanding the pathogenesis of DENV and may provide new insights into using NS4A as a therapeutic and/or prevention target. PMID

  13. The deca-GX3 proteins Yae1-Lto1 function as adaptors recruiting the ABC protein Rli1 for iron-sulfur cluster insertion.

    PubMed

    Paul, Viktoria Désirée; Mühlenhoff, Ulrich; Stümpfig, Martin; Seebacher, Jan; Kugler, Karl G; Renicke, Christian; Taxis, Christof; Gavin, Anne-Claude; Pierik, Antonio J; Lill, Roland

    2015-07-16

    Cytosolic and nuclear iron-sulfur (Fe-S) proteins are involved in many essential pathways including translation and DNA maintenance. Their maturation requires the cytosolic Fe-S protein assembly (CIA) machinery. To identify new CIA proteins we employed systematic protein interaction approaches and discovered the essential proteins Yae1 and Lto1 as binding partners of the CIA targeting complex. Depletion of Yae1 or Lto1 results in defective Fe-S maturation of the ribosome-associated ABC protein Rli1, but surprisingly no other tested targets. Yae1 and Lto1 facilitate Fe-S cluster assembly on Rli1 in a chain of binding events. Lto1 uses its conserved C-terminal tryptophan for binding the CIA targeting complex, the deca-GX3 motifs in both Yae1 and Lto1 facilitate their complex formation, and Yae1 recruits Rli1. Human YAE1D1 and the cancer-related ORAOV1 can replace their yeast counterparts demonstrating evolutionary conservation. Collectively, the Yae1-Lto1 complex functions as a target-specific adaptor that recruits apo-Rli1 to the generic CIA machinery.

  14. The deca-GX3 proteins Yae1-Lto1 function as adaptors recruiting the ABC protein Rli1 for iron-sulfur cluster insertion

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Viktoria Désirée; Mühlenhoff, Ulrich; Stümpfig, Martin; Seebacher, Jan; Kugler, Karl G; Renicke, Christian; Taxis, Christof; Gavin, Anne-Claude; Pierik, Antonio J; Lill, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Cytosolic and nuclear iron-sulfur (Fe-S) proteins are involved in many essential pathways including translation and DNA maintenance. Their maturation requires the cytosolic Fe-S protein assembly (CIA) machinery. To identify new CIA proteins we employed systematic protein interaction approaches and discovered the essential proteins Yae1 and Lto1 as binding partners of the CIA targeting complex. Depletion of Yae1 or Lto1 results in defective Fe-S maturation of the ribosome-associated ABC protein Rli1, but surprisingly no other tested targets. Yae1 and Lto1 facilitate Fe-S cluster assembly on Rli1 in a chain of binding events. Lto1 uses its conserved C-terminal tryptophan for binding the CIA targeting complex, the deca-GX3 motifs in both Yae1 and Lto1 facilitate their complex formation, and Yae1 recruits Rli1. Human YAE1D1 and the cancer-related ORAOV1 can replace their yeast counterparts demonstrating evolutionary conservation. Collectively, the Yae1-Lto1 complex functions as a target-specific adaptor that recruits apo-Rli1 to the generic CIA machinery. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08231.001 PMID:26182403

  15. Adaptors for radiation detectors

    DOEpatents

    Livesay, Ronald Jason

    2015-07-28

    Described herein are adaptors and other devices for radiation detectors that can be used to make accurate spectral measurements of both small and large bulk sources of radioactivity, such as building structures, soils, vessels, large equipment, and liquid bodies. Some exemplary devices comprise an adaptor for a radiation detector, wherein the adaptor can be configured to collimate radiation passing through the adapter from an external radiation source to the radiation detector and the adaptor can be configured to enclose a radiation source within the adapter to allow the radiation detector to measure radiation emitted from the enclosed radiation source.

  16. Adaptors for radiation detectors

    DOEpatents

    Livesay, Ronald Jason

    2014-04-22

    Described herein are adaptors and other devices for radiation detectors that can be used to make accurate spectral measurements of both small and large bulk sources of radioactivity, such as building structures, soils, vessels, large equipment, and liquid bodies. Some exemplary devices comprise an adaptor for a radiation detector, wherein the adaptor can be configured to collimate radiation passing through the adapter from an external radiation source to the radiation detector and the adaptor can be configured to enclose a radiation source within the adapter to allow the radiation detector to measure radiation emitted from the enclosed radiation source.

  17. Adaptor protein 2–mediated endocytosis of the β-secretase BACE1 is dispensable for amyloid precursor protein processing

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, Yogikala; Burgos, Patricia V.; Schindler, Christina; Farías, Ginny G.; Magadár, Javier G.; Bonifacino, Juan S.

    2012-01-01

    The β-site amyloid precursor protein (APP)–cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is a transmembrane aspartyl protease that catalyzes the proteolytic processing of APP and other plasma membrane protein precursors. BACE1 cycles between the trans-Golgi network (TGN), the plasma membrane, and endosomes by virtue of signals contained within its cytosolic C-terminal domain. One of these signals is the DXXLL-motif sequence DISLL, which controls transport between the TGN and endosomes via interaction with GGA proteins. Here we show that the DISLL sequence is embedded within a longer [DE]XXXL[LI]-motif sequence, DDISLL, which mediates internalization from the plasma membrane by interaction with the clathrin-associated, heterotetrameric adaptor protein 2 (AP-2) complex. Mutation of this signal or knockdown of either AP-2 or clathrin decreases endosomal localization and increases plasma membrane localization of BACE1. Remarkably, internalization-defective BACE1 is able to cleave an APP mutant that itself cannot be delivered to endosomes. The drug brefeldin A reversibly prevents BACE1-catalyzed APP cleavage, ruling out that this reaction occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or ER–Golgi intermediate compartment. Taken together, these observations support the notion that BACE1 is capable of cleaving APP in late compartments of the secretory pathway. PMID:22553349

  18. Studying multisite binary and ternary protein interactions by global analysis of isothermal titration calorimetry data in SEDPHAT: application to adaptor protein complexes in cell signaling.

    PubMed

    Houtman, Jon C D; Brown, Patrick H; Bowden, Brent; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Appella, Ettore; Samelson, Lawrence E; Schuck, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Multisite interactions and the formation of ternary or higher-order protein complexes are ubiquitous features of protein interactions. Cooperativity between different ligands is a hallmark for information transfer, and is frequently critical for the biological function. We describe a new computational platform for the global analysis of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) data for the study of binary and ternary multisite interactions, implemented as part of the public domain multimethod analysis software SEDPHAT. The global analysis of titrations performed in different orientations was explored, and the potential for unraveling cooperativity parameters in multisite interactions was assessed in theory and experiment. To demonstrate the practical potential and limitations of global analyses of ITC titrations for the study of cooperative multiprotein interactions, we have examined the interactions of three proteins that are critical for signal transduction after T-cell activation, LAT, Grb2, and Sos1. We have shown previously that multivalent interactions between these three molecules promote the assembly of large multiprotein complexes important for T-cell receptor activation. By global analysis of the heats of binding observed in sets of ITC injections in different orientations, which allowed us to follow the formation of binary and ternary complexes, we observed negative and positive cooperativity that may be important to control the pathway of assembly and disassembly of adaptor protein particles.

  19. The Adaptor Protein Myd88 Is a Key Signaling Molecule in the Pathogenesis of Irinotecan-Induced Intestinal Mucositis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Deysi V T; Lima-Júnior, Roberto C P; Carvalho, Cibele B M; Borges, Vanessa F; Wanderley, Carlos W S; Bem, Amanda X C; Leite, Caio A V G; Teixeira, Maraiza A; Batista, Gabriela L P; Silva, Rangel L; Cunha, Thiago M; Brito, Gerly A C; Almeida, Paulo R C; Cunha, Fernando Q; Ribeiro, Ronaldo A

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal mucositis is a common side effect of irinotecan-based anticancer regimens. Mucositis causes cell damage, bacterial/endotoxin translocation and production of cytokines including IL-1 and IL-18. These molecules and toll-like receptors (TLRs) activate a common signaling pathway that involves the Myeloid Differentiation adaptor protein, MyD88, whose role in intestinal mucositis is unknown. Then, we evaluated the involvement of TLRs and MyD88 in the pathogenesis of irinotecan-induced intestinal mucositis. MyD88-, TLR2- or TLR9-knockout mice and C57BL/6 (WT) mice were given either saline or irinotecan (75 mg/kg, i.p. for 4 days). On day 7, animal survival, diarrhea and bacteremia were assessed, and following euthanasia, samples of the ileum were obtained for morphometric analysis, myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay and measurement of pro-inflammatory markers. Irinotecan reduced the animal survival (50%) and induced a pronounced diarrhea, increased bacteremia, neutrophil accumulation in the intestinal tissue, intestinal damage and more than twofold increased expression of MyD88 (200%), TLR9 (400%), TRAF6 (236%), IL-1β (405%), IL-18 (365%), COX-2 (2,777%) and NF-κB (245%) in the WT animals when compared with saline-injected group (P<0.05). Genetic deletion of MyD88, TLR2 or TLR9 effectively controlled the signs of intestinal injury when compared with irinotecan-administered WT controls (P<0.05). In contrast to the MyD88-/- and TLR2-/- mice, the irinotecan-injected TLR9-/- mice showed a reduced survival, a marked diarrhea and an enhanced expression of IL-18 versus irinotecan-injected WT controls. Additionally, the expression of MyD88 was reduced in the TLR2-/- or TLR9-/- mice. This study shows a critical role of the MyD88-mediated TLR2 and TLR9 signaling in the pathogenesis of irinotecan-induced intestinal mucositis.

  20. The Adaptor Protein Myd88 Is a Key Signaling Molecule in the Pathogenesis of Irinotecan-Induced Intestinal Mucositis

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Deysi V. T.; Lima-Júnior, Roberto C. P.; Carvalho, Cibele B. M.; Borges, Vanessa F.; Wanderley, Carlos W. S.; Bem, Amanda X. C.; Leite, Caio A. V. G.; Teixeira, Maraiza A.; Batista, Gabriela L. P.; Silva, Rangel L.; Cunha, Thiago M.; Brito, Gerly A. C.; Almeida, Paulo R. C.; Cunha, Fernando Q.; Ribeiro, Ronaldo A.

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal mucositis is a common side effect of irinotecan-based anticancer regimens. Mucositis causes cell damage, bacterial/endotoxin translocation and production of cytokines including IL–1 and IL–18. These molecules and toll-like receptors (TLRs) activate a common signaling pathway that involves the Myeloid Differentiation adaptor protein, MyD88, whose role in intestinal mucositis is unknown. Then, we evaluated the involvement of TLRs and MyD88 in the pathogenesis of irinotecan-induced intestinal mucositis. MyD88-, TLR2- or TLR9-knockout mice and C57BL/6 (WT) mice were given either saline or irinotecan (75 mg/kg, i.p. for 4 days). On day 7, animal survival, diarrhea and bacteremia were assessed, and following euthanasia, samples of the ileum were obtained for morphometric analysis, myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay and measurement of pro-inflammatory markers. Irinotecan reduced the animal survival (50%) and induced a pronounced diarrhea, increased bacteremia, neutrophil accumulation in the intestinal tissue, intestinal damage and more than twofold increased expression of MyD88 (200%), TLR9 (400%), TRAF6 (236%), IL–1β (405%), IL–18 (365%), COX–2 (2,777%) and NF-κB (245%) in the WT animals when compared with saline-injected group (P<0.05). Genetic deletion of MyD88, TLR2 or TLR9 effectively controlled the signs of intestinal injury when compared with irinotecan-administered WT controls (P<0.05). In contrast to the MyD88-/- and TLR2-/- mice, the irinotecan-injected TLR9-/- mice showed a reduced survival, a marked diarrhea and an enhanced expression of IL–18 versus irinotecan-injected WT controls. Additionally, the expression of MyD88 was reduced in the TLR2-/- or TLR9-/- mice. This study shows a critical role of the MyD88-mediated TLR2 and TLR9 signaling in the pathogenesis of irinotecan-induced intestinal mucositis. PMID:26440613

  1. Identification of Atg2 and ArfGAP1 as Candidate Genetic Modifiers of the Eye Pigmentation Phenotype of Adaptor Protein-3 (AP-3) Mutants in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Fernandez, Imilce A.; Dell’Angelica, Esteban C.

    2015-01-01

    The Adaptor Protein (AP)-3 complex is an evolutionary conserved, molecular sorting device that mediates the intracellular trafficking of proteins to lysosomes and related organelles. Genetic defects in AP-3 subunits lead to impaired biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles (LROs) such as mammalian melanosomes and insect eye pigment granules. In this work, we have performed a forward screening for genetic modifiers of AP-3 function in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Specifically, we have tested collections of large multi-gene deletions–which together covered most of the autosomal chromosomes–to identify chromosomal regions that, when deleted in single copy, enhanced or ameliorated the eye pigmentation phenotype of two independent AP-3 subunit mutants. Fine-mapping led us to define two non-overlapping, relatively small critical regions within fly chromosome 3. The first critical region included the Atg2 gene, which encodes a conserved protein involved in autophagy. Loss of one functional copy of Atg2 ameliorated the pigmentation defects of mutants in AP-3 subunits as well as in two other genes previously implicated in LRO biogenesis, namely Blos1 and lightoid, and even increased the eye pigment content of wild-type flies. The second critical region included the ArfGAP1 gene, which encodes a conserved GTPase-activating protein with specificity towards GTPases of the Arf family. Loss of a single functional copy of the ArfGAP1 gene ameliorated the pigmentation phenotype of AP-3 mutants but did not to modify the eye pigmentation of wild-type flies or mutants in Blos1 or lightoid. Strikingly, loss of the second functional copy of the gene did not modify the phenotype of AP-3 mutants any further but elicited early lethality in males and abnormal eye morphology when combined with mutations in Blos1 and lightoid, respectively. These results provide genetic evidence for new functional links connecting the machinery for biogenesis of LROs with molecules implicated

  2. Mechanisms Regulating Protein Localization.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Nicholas C; Doetsch, Paul W; Corbett, Anita H

    2015-10-01

    Cellular functions are dictated by protein content and activity. There are numerous strategies to regulate proteins varying from modulating gene expression to post-translational modifications. One commonly used mode of regulation in eukaryotes is targeted localization. By specifically redirecting the localization of a pool of existing protein, cells can achieve rapid changes in local protein function. Eukaryotic cells have evolved elegant targeting pathways to direct proteins to the appropriate cellular location or locations. Here, we provide a general overview of these localization pathways, with a focus on nuclear and mitochondrial transport, and present a survey of the evolutionarily conserved regulatory strategies identified thus far. We end with a description of several specific examples of proteins that exploit localization as an important mode of regulation.

  3. Impaired Lysosomal Integral Membrane Protein 2-dependent Peroxiredoxin 6 Delivery to Lamellar Bodies Accounts for Altered Alveolar Phospholipid Content in Adaptor Protein-3-deficient pearl Mice.

    PubMed

    Kook, Seunghyi; Wang, Ping; Young, Lisa R; Schwake, Michael; Saftig, Paul; Weng, Xialian; Meng, Ying; Neculai, Dante; Marks, Michael S; Gonzales, Linda; Beers, Michael F; Guttentag, Susan

    2016-04-15

    The Hermansky Pudlak syndromes (HPS) constitute a family of disorders characterized by oculocutaneous albinism and bleeding diathesis, often associated with lethal lung fibrosis. HPS results from mutations in genes of membrane trafficking complexes that facilitate delivery of cargo to lysosome-related organelles. Among the affected lysosome-related organelles are lamellar bodies (LB) within alveolar type 2 cells (AT2) in which surfactant components are assembled, modified, and stored. AT2 from HPS patients and mouse models of HPS exhibit enlarged LB with increased phospholipid content, but the mechanism underlying these defects is unknown. We now show that AT2 in the pearl mouse model of HPS type 2 lacking the adaptor protein 3 complex (AP-3) fails to accumulate the soluble enzyme peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6) in LB. This defect reflects impaired AP-3-dependent trafficking of PRDX6 to LB, because pearl mouse AT2 cells harbor a normal total PRDX6 content. AP-3-dependent targeting of PRDX6 to LB requires the transmembrane protein LIMP-2/SCARB2, a known AP-3-dependent cargo protein that functions as a carrier for lysosomal proteins in other cell types. Depletion of LB PRDX6 in AP-3- or LIMP-2/SCARB2-deficient mice correlates with phospholipid accumulation in lamellar bodies and with defective intraluminal degradation of LB disaturated phosphatidylcholine. Furthermore, AP-3-dependent LB targeting is facilitated by protein/protein interaction between LIMP-2/SCARB2 and PRDX6 in vitro and in vivo Our data provide the first evidence for an AP-3-dependent cargo protein required for the maturation of LB in AT2 and suggest that the loss of PRDX6 activity contributes to the pathogenic changes in LB phospholipid homeostasis found HPS2 patients.

  4. TIR domain-containing adaptor SARM is a late addition to the ongoing microbe-host dialog.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Zmasek, Christian M; Cai, Xiaohui; Godzik, Adam

    2011-04-01

    Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain-containing proteins play important roles in defense against pathogens in both animals and plants, connecting the immunity signaling pathways via a chain of specific protein-protein interactions. Among them is SARM, the only TIR domain-containing adaptor that can negatively regulate TLR signaling. By extensive phylogenetic analysis, we show here that SARM is closely related to bacterial proteins with TIR domains, suggesting that this family has a different evolutionary history from other animal TIR-containing adaptors, possibly emerging via a lateral gene transfer from bacteria to animals. We also show evidence of several similar, independent transfer events, none of which, however, survived in vertebrates. An evolutionary relationship between the animal SARM adaptor and bacterial proteins with TIR domains illustrates the possible role that bacterial TIR-containing proteins play in regulating eukaryotic immune responses and how this mechanism was possibly adapted by the eukaryotes themselves.

  5. Adaptor protein ARH is recruited to the plasma membrane by low density lipoprotein (LDL) binding and modulates endocytosis of the LDL/LDL receptor complex in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Sirinian, Maria Isabella; Belleudi, Francesca; Campagna, Filomena; Ceridono, Mara; Garofalo, Tina; Quagliarini, Fabiana; Verna, Roberto; Calandra, Sebastiano; Bertolini, Stefano; Sorice, Maurizio; Torrisi, Maria Rosaria; Arca, Marcello

    2005-11-18

    ARH is a newly discovered adaptor protein required for the efficient activity of low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) in selected tissues. Individuals lacking ARH have severe hypercholesterolemia due to an impaired hepatic clearance of LDL. It has been demonstrated that ARH is required for the efficient internalization of the LDL-LDLR complex and to stabilize the association of the receptor with LDL in Epstein-Barr virus-immortalized B lymphocytes. However, little information is available on the role of ARH in liver cells. Here we provide evidence that ARH is codistributed with LDLR on the basolateral area in confluent HepG2-polarized cells. This distribution is not modified by the overexpression of LDLR. Conversely, the activation of the LDLR-mediated endocytosis, but not the binding of LDL to LDLR, promotes a significant colocalization of ARH with LDL-LDLR complex that peaked at 2 min at 37 degrees C. To further assess the role of ARH in LDL-LDLR complex internalization, we depleted ARH protein using the RNA interference technique. Twenty-four hours after transfection with ARH-specific RNA interference, ARH protein was depleted in HepG2 cells by more than 70%. Quantitative immunofluorescence analysis revealed that the depletion of ARH caused about 80% reduction in LDL internalization. Moreover, our findings indicate that ARH is associated with other proteins of the endocytic machinery. We suggest that ARH is an endocytic sorting adaptor that actively participates in the internalization of the LDL-LDLR complex, possibly enhancing the efficiency of its packaging into the endocytic vesicles.

  6. Adaptor protein-2 sigma subunit mutations causing familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia type 3 (FHH3) demonstrate genotype–phenotype correlations, codon bias and dominant-negative effects

    PubMed Central

    Hannan, Fadil M.; Howles, Sarah A.; Rogers, Angela; Cranston, Treena; Gorvin, Caroline M.; Babinsky, Valerie N.; Reed, Anita A.; Thakker, Clare E.; Bockenhauer, Detlef; Brown, Rosalind S.; Connell, John M.; Cook, Jacqueline; Darzy, Ken; Ehtisham, Sarah; Graham, Una; Hulse, Tony; Hunter, Steven J.; Izatt, Louise; Kumar, Dhavendra; McKenna, Malachi J.; McKnight, John A.; Morrison, Patrick J.; Mughal, M. Zulf; O'Halloran, Domhnall; Pearce, Simon H.; Porteous, Mary E.; Rahman, Mushtaqur; Richardson, Tristan; Robinson, Robert; Scheers, Isabelle; Siddique, Haroon; van't Hoff, William G.; Wang, Timothy; Whyte, Michael P.; Nesbit, M. Andrew; Thakker, Rajesh V.

    2015-01-01

    The adaptor protein-2 sigma subunit (AP2σ2) is pivotal for clathrin-mediated endocytosis of plasma membrane constituents such as the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR). Mutations of the AP2σ2 Arg15 residue result in familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia type 3 (FHH3), a disorder of extracellular calcium (Ca2+o) homeostasis. To elucidate the role of AP2σ2 in Ca2+o regulation, we investigated 65 FHH probands, without other FHH-associated mutations, for AP2σ2 mutations, characterized their functional consequences and investigated the genetic mechanisms leading to FHH3. AP2σ2 mutations were identified in 17 probands, comprising 5 Arg15Cys, 4 Arg15His and 8 Arg15Leu mutations. A genotype–phenotype correlation was observed with the Arg15Leu mutation leading to marked hypercalcaemia. FHH3 probands harboured additional phenotypes such as cognitive dysfunction. All three FHH3-causing AP2σ2 mutations impaired CaSR signal transduction in a dominant-negative manner. Mutational bias was observed at the AP2σ2 Arg15 residue as other predicted missense substitutions (Arg15Gly, Arg15Pro and Arg15Ser), which also caused CaSR loss-of-function, were not detected in FHH probands, and these mutations were found to reduce the numbers of CaSR-expressing cells. FHH3 probands had significantly greater serum calcium (sCa) and magnesium (sMg) concentrations with reduced urinary calcium to creatinine clearance ratios (CCCR) in comparison with FHH1 probands with CaSR mutations, and a calculated index of sCa × sMg/100 × CCCR, which was ≥ 5.0, had a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 83 and 86%, respectively, for FHH3. Thus, our studies demonstrate AP2σ2 mutations to result in a more severe FHH phenotype with genotype–phenotype correlations, and a dominant-negative mechanism of action with mutational bias at the Arg15 residue. PMID:26082470

  7. Recruitment of the adaptor protein 2 complex by the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 envelope protein is necessary for high levels of virus release.

    PubMed

    Noble, Beth; Abada, Paolo; Nunez-Iglesias, Juan; Cannon, Paula M

    2006-03-01

    The envelope (Env) protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) and the HIV-1 Vpu protein stimulate the release of retroviral particles from human cells that restrict virus production, an activity that we call the enhancement of virus release (EVR). We have previously shown that two separate domains in the HIV-2 envelope protein are required for this activity: a glycine-tyrosine-x-x-hydrophobic (GYxxtheta) motif in the cytoplasmic tail and an unmapped region in the ectodomain of the protein. We here report that the cellular partner of the GYxxtheta motif is the adaptor protein complex AP-2. The mutation of this motif or the depletion of AP-2 by RNA interference abrogated EVR activity and changed the cellular distribution of the Env from a predominantly punctate pattern to a more diffuse distribution. Since the L domain of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) contains a Yxxtheta motif that interacts with AP-2, we used both wild-type and L domain-defective particles of HIV-1 and EIAV to examine whether the HIV-2 Env EVR function was analogous to L domain activity. We observed that the production of all particles was stimulated by HIV-2 Env or Vpu, suggesting that the L domain and EVR activities play independent roles in the release of retroviruses. Interestingly, we found that the cytoplasmic tail of the murine leukemia virus (MLV) Env could functionally substitute for the HIV-2 Env tail, but it did so in a manner that did not require a Yxxtheta motif or AP-2. The cellular distribution of the chimeric HIV-2/MLV Env was significantly less punctate than the wild-type Env, although confocal analysis revealed an overlap in the steady-state locations of the two proteins. Taken together, these data suggest that the essential GYxxtheta motif in the HIV-2 Env tail recruits AP-2 in order to direct Env to a cellular pathway or location that is necessary for its ability to enhance virus release but that an alternate mechanism provided by the MLV Env tail can

  8. Recruitment of the Adaptor Protein 2 Complex by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2 Envelope Protein Is Necessary for High Levels of Virus Release†

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Beth; Abada, Paolo; Nunez-Iglesias, Juan; Cannon, Paula M.

    2006-01-01

    The envelope (Env) protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) and the HIV-1 Vpu protein stimulate the release of retroviral particles from human cells that restrict virus production, an activity that we call the enhancement of virus release (EVR). We have previously shown that two separate domains in the HIV-2 envelope protein are required for this activity: a glycine-tyrosine-x-x-hydrophobic (GYxxθ) motif in the cytoplasmic tail and an unmapped region in the ectodomain of the protein. We here report that the cellular partner of the GYxxθ motif is the adaptor protein complex AP-2. The mutation of this motif or the depletion of AP-2 by RNA interference abrogated EVR activity and changed the cellular distribution of the Env from a predominantly punctate pattern to a more diffuse distribution. Since the L domain of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) contains a Yxxθ motif that interacts with AP-2, we used both wild-type and L domain-defective particles of HIV-1 and EIAV to examine whether the HIV-2 Env EVR function was analogous to L domain activity. We observed that the production of all particles was stimulated by HIV-2 Env or Vpu, suggesting that the L domain and EVR activities play independent roles in the release of retroviruses. Interestingly, we found that the cytoplasmic tail of the murine leukemia virus (MLV) Env could functionally substitute for the HIV-2 Env tail, but it did so in a manner that did not require a Yxxθ motif or AP-2. The cellular distribution of the chimeric HIV-2/MLV Env was significantly less punctate than the wild-type Env, although confocal analysis revealed an overlap in the steady-state locations of the two proteins. Taken together, these data suggest that the essential GYxxθ motif in the HIV-2 Env tail recruits AP-2 in order to direct Env to a cellular pathway or location that is necessary for its ability to enhance virus release but that an alternate mechanism provided by the MLV Env tail can functionally substitute

  9. Inflammasome adaptor protein Apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD (ASC) is critical for the immune response and survival in west Nile virus encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mukesh; Roe, Kelsey; Orillo, Beverly; Muruve, Daniel A; Nerurkar, Vivek R; Gale, Michael; Verma, Saguna

    2013-04-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurotropic flavivirus that has emerged globally as a significant cause of viral encephalitis in humans. The WNV-induced innate immune response, including production of antiviral cytokines, is critical for controlling virus infection. The adaptor protein ASC mediates a critical step in innate immune signaling by bridging the interaction between the pathogen recognition receptors and caspase 1 in inflammasome complexes, but its role in WNV immunopathogenesis is not defined. Here, we demonstrate that ASC is essential for interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production and development of effective host immunity against WNV. ASC-deficient mice exhibited increased susceptibility to WNV infection, and reduced survival was associated with enhanced virus replication in the peripheral tissues and central nervous system (CNS). Infection of cultured bone marrow-derived dendritic cells showed that ASC was essential for the activation of caspase 1, a key component of inflammasome assembly. ASC(-/-) mice exhibited attenuated levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the serum. Intriguingly, infected ASC(-/-) mice also displayed reduced levels of alpha interferon (IFN-α) and IgM in the serum, indicating the overall protective role of ASC in restricting WNV infection. However, brains from ASC(-/-) mice displayed unrestrained inflammation, including elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, such as IFN-γ, CCL2, and CCL5, which correlated with more pronounced activation of the astrocytes, enhanced infiltration of peripheral immune cells in the CNS, and increased neuronal cell death. Collectively, our data provide new insights into the role of ASC as an essential modulator of inflammasome-dependent and -independent immune responses to effectively control WNV infection.

  10. Syp1 is a conserved endocytic adaptor that contains domains involved in cargo selection and membrane tubulation

    SciTech Connect

    Reider, Amanda; Barker, Sarah L.; Mishra, Sanjay K.; Im, Young Jun; Maldonado-Báez, Lymarie; Hurley, James H.; Traub, Linton M.; Wendland, Beverly

    2010-10-28

    Internalization of diverse transmembrane cargos from the plasma membrane requires a similarly diverse array of specialized adaptors, yet only a few adaptors have been characterized. We report the identification of the muniscin family of endocytic adaptors that is conserved from yeast to human beings. Solving the structures of yeast muniscin domains confirmed the unique combination of an N-terminal domain homologous to the crescent-shaped membrane-tubulating EFC/F-BAR domains and a C-terminal domain homologous to cargo-binding {mu} homology domains ({mu}HDs). In vitro and in vivo assays confirmed membrane-tubulation activity for muniscin EFC/F-BAR domains. The {mu}HD domain has conserved interactions with the endocytic adaptor/scaffold Ede1/eps15, which influences muniscin localization. The transmembrane protein Mid2, earlier implicated in polarized Rho1 signalling, was identified as a cargo of the yeast adaptor protein. These and other data suggest a model in which the muniscins provide a combined adaptor/membrane-tubulation activity that is important for regulating endocytosis.

  11. Endocytic adaptors – social networking at the plasma membrane

    PubMed Central

    Reider, Amanda; Wendland, Beverly

    2011-01-01

    Receptor-mediated endocytosis is a dynamic process that is crucial for maintaining plasma membrane composition and controlling cell-signaling pathways. A variety of entry routes have evolved to ensure that the vast array of molecules on the cell surface can be differentially internalized by endocytosis. This diversity has extended to include a growing list of endocytic adaptor proteins, which are thought to initiate the internalization process. The key function of adaptors is to select the proteins that should be removed from the cell surface. Thus, they have a central role in defining the physiology of a cell. This has made the study of adaptor proteins a very active area of research that is ripe for exciting future discoveries. Here, we review recent work on how adaptors mediate endocytosis and address the following questions: what characteristics define an endocytic adaptor protein? What roles do these proteins fulfill in addition to selecting cargo and how might adaptors function in clathrin-independent endocytic pathways? Through the findings discussed in this Commentary, we hope to stimulate further characterization of known adaptors and expansion of the known repertoire by identification of new adaptors. PMID:21536832

  12. A putative TIR domain protein from Helicobacter pylori is dimeric in solution and interacts with human TLR adaptor Myeloid Differentiation Primary Response 88.

    PubMed

    Türköz, Burcu Kaplan

    2017-03-06

    Helicobacter pylori is an important human pathogen capable of causing persistent infection with minimal immune response. The first line of defense during H. pylori infection is through gastric epithelial cells that present Toll like receptors (TLR), a family of bacterial proteins which share homology with the Toll/IL1 receptor (TIR) domain. Bacterial TIR proteins (BTP) mimic human TIR domain proteins and act on MyD88 signaling pathways to suppress TLR signaling. H. pylori might also produce a similar protein. A putative H. pylori BTP was found based on sequence homology and the corresponding gene hp1437 was inserted into an expression vector in fusion with an N-terminal cleavable 6his-tag. The recombinant protein, 6his-HP1437 was purified using nickel affinity chromatography with a yield of 8 mg/ L culture. Oligomerization of HP1437 was investigated by size-exclusion chromatography. Our results show that HP1437 forms dimers in solution similar to other BTPs. Furthermore, GST pull down assays identify an interaction between HP1437 and human TIR domain adaptor MyD88. This study suggests that HP1437 has the characteristic features of BTPs and may play a direct role in reduced immune response against H. pylori by binding to MyD88 and pave the way for an in-depth characterization of this putative novel H. pylori virulence factor.

  13. Human kidney anion exchanger 1 interacts with adaptor-related protein complex 1 {mu}1A (AP-1 mu1A)

    SciTech Connect

    Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Junking, Mutita; Ngaojanlar, Piengpaga; Sukomon, Nattakan; Ungsupravate, Duangporn; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai; Akkarapatumwong, Varaporn; Noisakran, Sansanee; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

    2010-10-08

    Research highlights: {yields} Trafficking defect of kAE1 is a cause of dRTA but trafficking pathway of kAE1 has not been clearly described. {yields} Adaptor-related protein complex 1 {mu}1A (AP-1 mu1A) was firstly reported to interact with kAE1. {yields} The interacting site for AP-1 mu1A on Ct-kAE1 was found to be Y904DEV907, a subset of YXXO motif. {yields} AP-1 mu1A knockdown showed a marked reduction of kAE1 on the cell membrane and its accumulation in endoplasmic reticulum. {yields} AP-1 mu1A has a critical role in kAE1 trafficking to the plasma membrane. -- Abstract: Kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) mediates chloride (Cl{sup -}) and bicarbonate (HCO{sub 3}{sup -}) exchange at the basolateral membrane of kidney {alpha}-intercalated cells. Impaired trafficking of kAE1 leads to defect of the Cl{sup -}/HCO{sub 3}{sup -} exchange at the basolateral membrane and failure of proton (H{sup +}) secretion at the apical membrane, causing a kidney disease - distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). To gain a better insight into kAE1 trafficking, we searched for proteins physically interacting with the C-terminal region of kAE1 (Ct-kAE1), which contains motifs crucial for intracellular trafficking, by a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system. An adaptor-related protein complex 1 {mu}1A (AP-1 mu1A) subunit was found to interact with Ct-kAE1. The interaction between either Ct-kAE1 or full-length kAE1 and AP-1 mu1A were confirmed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T by co-immunoprecipitation, affinity co-purification, co-localization, yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-based protein fragment complementation assay (PCA) and GST pull-down assay. The interacting site for AP-1 mu1A on Ct-kAE1 was found to be Y904DEV907, a subset of YXXO motif. Interestingly, suppression of endogenous AP-1 mu1A in HEK 293T by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreased membrane localization of kAE1 and increased its intracellular accumulation, suggesting for the first time that AP-1 mu1A is involved in the kAE1

  14. Biophysical analysis of binding of WW domains of the YAP2 transcriptional regulator to PPXY motifs within WBP1 and WBP2 adaptors.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Caleb B; McIntosh, Samantha K N; Mikles, David C; Bhat, Vikas; Deegan, Brian J; Seldeen, Kenneth L; Saeed, Ali M; Buffa, Laura; Sudol, Marius; Nawaz, Zafar; Farooq, Amjad

    2011-11-08

    The YAP2 transcriptional regulator mediates a plethora of cellular functions, including the newly discovered Hippo tumor suppressor pathway, by virtue of its ability to recognize WBP1 and WBP2 signaling adaptors among a wide variety of other ligands. Herein, using isothermal titration calorimery and circular dichroism in combination with molecular modeling and molecular dynamics, we provide evidence that the WW1 and WW2 domains of YAP2 recognize various PPXY motifs within WBP1 and WBP2 in a highly promiscuous and subtle manner. Thus, although both WW domains strictly require the integrity of the consensus PPXY sequence, nonconsensus residues within and flanking this motif are not critical for high-affinity binding, implying that they most likely play a role in stabilizing the polyproline type II helical conformation of the PPXY ligands. Of particular interest is the observation that both WW domains bind to a PPXYXG motif with highest affinity, implicating a preference for a nonbulky and flexible glycine one residue to the C-terminal side of the consensus tyrosine. Importantly, a large set of residues within both WW domains and the PPXY motifs appear to undergo rapid fluctuations on a nanosecond time scale, suggesting that WW-ligand interactions are highly dynamic and that such conformational entropy may be an integral part of the reversible and temporal nature of cellular signaling cascades. Collectively, our study sheds light on the molecular determinants of a key WW-ligand interaction pertinent to cellular functions in health and disease.

  15. Role of an adaptor protein Lin-7B in brain development: possible involvement in autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Makoto; Matsumoto, Ayumi; Hamada, Nanako; Ito, Hidenori; Miyauchi, Akihiko; Jimbo, Eriko F; Momoi, Mariko Y; Tabata, Hidenori; Yamagata, Takanori; Nagata, Koh-Ichi

    2015-01-01

    Using comparative genomic hybridization analysis for an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patient, a 73-Kb duplication at 19q13.33 (nt. 49 562 755-49 635 956) including LIN7B and 5 other genes was detected. We then identified a novel frameshift mutation in LIN7B in another ASD patient. Since LIN7B encodes a scaffold protein essential for neuronal function, we analyzed the role of Lin-7B in the development of cerebral cortex. Acute knockdown of Lin-7B with in utero electroporation caused a delay in neuronal migration during corticogenesis. When Lin-7B was knocked down in cortical neurons in one hemisphere, their axons failed to extend efficiently into the contralateral hemisphere after leaving the corpus callosum. Meanwhile, enhanced expression of Lin-7B had no effects on both cortical neuron migration and axon growth. Notably, silencing of Lin-7B did not affect the proliferation of neuronal progenitors and stem cells. Taken together, Lin-7B was found to play a pivotal role in corticogenesis through the regulation of excitatory neuron migration and interhemispheric axon growth, while further analyses are required to directly link functional defects of Lin-7B to ASD pathophysiology. Lin-7 plays a pivotal role as a scaffold protein in synaptic development and plasticity. Based on genetic analyses we identified mutations in LIN-7B gene in some ASD (autism-spectrum disorder) patients. Functional defects in Lin-7B caused abnormal neuronal migration and interhemispheric axon growth during mouse brain development. Thus, functional deficiency in Lin-7B could be implicated in clinical phenotypes in some ASD patients through bringing about abnormal cortical architecture.

  16. Role of adaptor proteins and clathrin in the trafficking of human kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) to the cell surface.

    PubMed

    Junking, Mutita; Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Duangtum, Natapol; Cheunsuchon, Boonyarit; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

    2014-07-01

    Kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) plays an important role in acid-base homeostasis by mediating chloride/bicarbornate (Cl-/HCO3-) exchange at the basolateral membrane of α-intercalated cells in the distal nephron. Impaired intracellular trafficking of kAE1 caused by mutations of SLC4A1 encoding kAE1 results in kidney disease - distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). However, it is not known how the intracellular sorting and trafficking of kAE1 from trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the basolateral membrane occurs. Here, we studied the role of basolateral-related sorting proteins, including the mu1 subunit of adaptor protein (AP) complexes, clathrin and protein kinase D, on kAE1 trafficking in polarized and non-polarized kidney cells. By using RNA interference, co-immunoprecipitation, yellow fluorescent protein-based protein fragment complementation assays and immunofluorescence staining, we demonstrated that AP-1 mu1A, AP-3 mu1, AP-4 mu1 and clathrin (but not AP-1 mu1B, PKD1 or PKD2) play crucial roles in intracellular sorting and trafficking of kAE1. We also demonstrated colocalization of kAE1 and basolateral-related sorting proteins in human kidney tissues by double immunofluorescence staining. These findings indicate that AP-1 mu1A, AP-3 mu1, AP-4 mu1 and clathrin are required for kAE1 sorting and trafficking from TGN to the basolateral membrane of acid-secreting α-intercalated cells.

  17. WAC regulates mTOR activity by acting as an adaptor for the TTT and Pontin/Reptin complexes

    PubMed Central

    David-Morrison, Gabriela; Xu, Zhen; Rui, Yan-Ning; Charng, Wu-Lin; Jaiswal, Manish; Yamamoto, Shinya; Xiong, Bo; Zhang, Ke; Sandoval, Hector; Duraine, Lita; Zuo, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Sheng; Bellen, Hugo J.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The ability to sense energy status is crucial in the regulation of metabolism via the mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1). The assembly of the TTT-Pontin/Reptin complex is responsive to changes in energy status. In energy sufficient conditions, the TTT-Pontin/Reptin complex promotes mTORC1 dimerization and mTORC1-Rag interaction, which are critical for mTORC1 activation. We show that WAC is a regulator of energy-mediated mTORC1 activity. In a Drosophila screen designed to isolate mutations that cause neuronal dysfunction, we identified wacky, the homolog of WAC. Loss of Wacky leads to neurodegeneration, defective mTOR activity and increased autophagy. Wacky and WAC have conserved physical interactions with mTOR and its regulators, including Pontin and Reptin which bind to the TTT complex to regulate energy-dependent activation of mTORC1. WAC promotes the interaction between TTT and Pontin/Reptin in an energy-dependent manner, thereby promoting mTORC1 activity by facilitating mTORC1 dimerization and mTORC1-Rag interaction. PMID:26812014

  18. Adaptor protein cerebral cavernous malformation 3 (CCM3) mediates phosphorylation of the cytoskeletal proteins ezrin/radixin/moesin by mammalian Ste20-4 to protect cells from oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Fidalgo, Miguel; Guerrero, Ana; Fraile, María; Iglesias, Cristina; Pombo, Celia M; Zalvide, Juan

    2012-03-30

    While studying the functions of CCM3/PDCD10, a gene encoding an adaptor protein whose mutation results in vascular malformations, we have found that it is involved in a novel response to oxidative stress that results in phosphorylation and activation of the ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) family of proteins. This phosphorylation protects cells from accidental cell death induced by oxidative stress. We also present evidence that ERM phosphorylation is performed by the GCKIII kinase Mst4, which is activated and relocated to the cell periphery after oxidative stress. The cellular levels of Mst4 and its activation after oxidative stress depend on the presence of CCM3, as absence of the latter impairs the phosphorylation of ERM proteins and enhances death of cells exposed to reactive oxygen species. These findings shed new light on the response of cells to oxidative stress and identify an important pathophysiological situation in which ERM proteins and their phosphorylation play a significant role.

  19. Transforming growth factor-beta suppresses nonmetastatic colon cancer through Smad4 and adaptor protein ELF at an early stage of tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yi; Katuri, Varalakshmi; Srinivasan, Radhika; Fogt, Franz; Redman, Robert; Anand, Girish; Said, Anan; Fishbein, Thomas; Zasloff, Michael; Reddy, E Premkumar; Mishra, Bibhuti; Mishra, Lopa

    2005-05-15

    Although transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is both a suppressor and promoter of tumorigenesis, its contribution to early tumor suppression and staging remains largely unknown. In search of the mechanism of early tumor suppression, we identified the adaptor protein ELF, a beta-spectrin from stem/progenitor cells committed to foregut lineage. ELF activates and modulates Smad4 activation of TGF-beta to confer cell polarity, to maintain cell architecture, and to inhibit epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Analysis of development of colon cancer in (adult) elf+/-/Smad4+/-, elf+/-, Smad4+/-, and gut epithelial cells from elf-/- mutant mouse embryos pinpoints the defect to hyperplasia/adenoma transition. Further analysis of the role of ELF in human colorectal cancer confirms reduced expression of ELF in Dukes' B1 stage tissues (P < 0.05) and of Smad4 in advanced colon cancers (P < 0.05). This study indicates that by modulating Smad 4, ELF has a key role in TGF-beta signaling in the suppression of early colon cancer.

  20. The modular adaptor protein ARH is required for low density lipoprotein (LDL) binding and internalization but not for LDL receptor clustering in coated pits.

    PubMed

    Michaely, Peter; Li, Wei-Ping; Anderson, Richard G W; Cohen, Jonathan C; Hobbs, Helen H

    2004-08-06

    ARH is an adaptor protein required for efficient endocytosis of low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors (LDLRs) in selected tissues. Individuals lacking ARH (ARH-/-) have severe hypercholesterolemia due to impaired hepatic clearance of LDL. Immortalized lymphocytes, but not fibroblasts, from ARH-deficient subjects fail to internalize LDL. To further define the role of ARH in LDLR function, we compared the subcellular distribution of the LDLR in lymphocytes from normal and ARH-/- subjects. In normal lymphocytes LDLRs were predominantly located in intracellular compartments, whereas in ARH-/- cells the receptors were almost exclusively on the plasma membrane. Biochemical assays and quantification of LDLR by electron microscopy indicated that ARH-/- lymphocytes had >20-fold more LDLR on the cell surface and a approximately 27-fold excess of LDLR outside of coated pits. The accumulation of LDLR on the cell surface was not due to failure of receptors to localize in coated pits since the number of LDLRs in coated pits was similar in ARH-/- and normal cells. Despite the dramatic increase in cell surface receptors, LDL binding was only 2-fold higher in the ARH-/- lymphocytes. These findings indicate that ARH is required not only for internalization of the LDL.LDLR complex but also for efficient binding of LDL to the receptor and suggest that ARH stabilizes the associations of the receptor with LDL and with the invaginating portion of the budding pit, thereby increasing the efficiency of LDL internalization.

  1. Disruption of adaptor protein 2μ (AP-2μ) in cochlear hair cells impairs vesicle reloading of synaptic release sites and hearing.

    PubMed

    Jung, SangYong; Maritzen, Tanja; Wichmann, Carolin; Jing, Zhizi; Neef, Andreas; Revelo, Natalia H; Al-Moyed, Hanan; Meese, Sandra; Wojcik, Sonja M; Panou, Iliana; Bulut, Haydar; Schu, Peter; Ficner, Ralf; Reisinger, Ellen; Rizzoli, Silvio O; Neef, Jakob; Strenzke, Nicola; Haucke, Volker; Moser, Tobias

    2015-11-03

    Active zones (AZs) of inner hair cells (IHCs) indefatigably release hundreds of vesicles per second, requiring each release site to reload vesicles at tens per second. Here, we report that the endocytic adaptor protein 2μ (AP-2μ) is required for release site replenishment and hearing. We show that hair cell-specific disruption of AP-2μ slows IHC exocytosis immediately after fusion of the readily releasable pool of vesicles, despite normal abundance of membrane-proximal vesicles and intact endocytic membrane retrieval. Sound-driven postsynaptic spiking was reduced in a use-dependent manner, and the altered interspike interval statistics suggested a slowed reloading of release sites. Sustained strong stimulation led to accumulation of endosome-like vacuoles, fewer clathrin-coated endocytic intermediates, and vesicle depletion of the membrane-distal synaptic ribbon in AP-2μ-deficient IHCs, indicating a further role of AP-2μ in clathrin-dependent vesicle reformation on a timescale of many seconds. Finally, we show that AP-2 sorts its IHC-cargo otoferlin. We propose that binding of AP-2 to otoferlin facilitates replenishment of release sites, for example, via speeding AZ clearance of exocytosed material, in addition to a role of AP-2 in synaptic vesicle reformation.

  2. The interaction of the cellular export adaptor protein Aly/REF with ICP27 contributes to the efficiency of herpes simplex virus 1 mRNA export.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiaochen; Devi-Rao, Gayathri; Golovanov, Alexander P; Sandri-Goldin, Rozanne M

    2013-07-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) protein ICP27 enables viral mRNA export by accessing the cellular mRNA export receptor TAP/NXF, which guides mRNA through the nuclear pore complex. ICP27 binds viral mRNAs and interacts with TAP/NXF, providing a link to the cellular mRNA export pathway. ICP27 also interacts with the mRNA export adaptor protein Aly/REF, which binds cellular mRNAs and also interacts with TAP/NXF. Studies using small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown indicated that Aly/REF is not required for cellular mRNA export, and similar knockdown studies during HSV-1 infection led us to conclude that Aly/REF may be dispensable for viral RNA export. Recently, the structural basis of the interaction of ICP27 with Aly/REF was elucidated at atomic resolution, and it was shown that three ICP27 residues, W105, R107, and L108, interface with the RNA recognition motif (RRM) domain of Aly/REF. Here, to determine the role the interaction of ICP27 and Aly/REF plays during infection, these residues were mutated to alanine, and a recombinant virus, WRL-A, was constructed. Virus production was reduced about 10-fold during WRL-A infection, and export of ICP27 protein and most viral mRNAs was less efficient. We conclude that interaction of ICP27 with Aly/REF contributes to efficient viral mRNA export.

  3. The Sho1 Adaptor Protein Links Oxidative Stress to Morphogenesis and Cell Wall Biosynthesis in the Fungal Pathogen Candida albicans† ‡

    PubMed Central

    Román, Elvira; Nombela, César; Pla, Jesús

    2005-01-01

    The Sho1 adaptor protein is an important element of one of the two upstream branches of the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a signal transduction cascade involved in adaptation to stress. In the present work, we describe its role in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans by the construction of mutants altered in this gene. We report here that sho1 mutants are sensitive to oxidative stress but that Sho1 has a minor role in the transmission of the phosphorylation signal to the Hog1 MAP kinase in response to oxidative stress, which mainly occurs through a putative Sln1-Ssk1 branch of the HOG pathway. Genetic analysis revealed that double ssk1 sho1 mutants were still able to grow on high-osmolarity media and activate Hog1 in response to this stress, indicating the existence of alternative inputs of the pathway. We also demonstrate that the Cek1 MAP kinase is constitutively active in hog1 and ssk1 mutants, a phenotypic trait that correlates with their resistance to the cell wall inhibitor Congo red, and that Sho1 is essential for the activation of the Cek1 MAP kinase under different conditions that require active cell growth and/or cell wall remodeling, such as the resumption of growth upon exit from the stationary phase. sho1 mutants are also sensitive to certain cell wall interfering compounds (Congo red, calcofluor white), presenting an altered cell wall structure (as shown by the ability to aggregate), and are defective in morphogenesis on different media, such as SLAD and Spider, that stimulate hyphal growth. These results reveal a role for the Sho1 protein in linking oxidative stress, cell wall biogenesis, and morphogenesis in this important human fungal pathogen. PMID:16287872

  4. Adaptor protein CRK induces epithelial–mesenchymal transition and metastasis of bladder cancer cells through HGF/c-Met feedback loop

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Ryuji; Tsuda, Masumi; Wang, Lei; Maishi, Nako; Abe, Takashige; Kimura, Taichi; Tanino, Mishie; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Hida, Kyoko; Ohba, Yusuke; Shinohara, Nobuo; Nonomura, Katsuya; Tanaka, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    We have previously reported that an adaptor protein CRK, including CRK-I and CRK-II, plays essential roles in the malignant potential of various aggressive human cancers, suggesting the validity of targeting CRK in molecular targeted therapy of a wide range of cancers. Nevertheless, the role of CRK in human bladder cancer with marked invasion, characterized by distant metastasis and poor prognosis, remains obscure. In the present study, immunohistochemistry indicated a striking enhancement of CRK-I/-II, but not CRK-like, in human bladder cancer tissues compared to normal urothelium. We established CRK-knockdown bladder cancer cells using 5637 and UM-UC-3, which showed a significant decline in cell migration, invasion, and proliferation. It is noteworthy that an elimination of CRK conferred suppressed phosphorylation of c-Met and the downstream scaffold protein Gab1 in a hepatocyte growth factor-dependent and -independent manner. In epithelial–mesenchymal transition-related molecules, E-cadherin was upregulated by CRK elimination, whereas N-cadherin, vimentin, and Zeb1 were downregulated. A similar effect was observed following treatment with c-Met inhibitor SU11274. Depletion of CRK significantly decreased cell proliferation of 5637 and UM-UC-3, consistent with reduced activity of ERK. An orthotopic xenograft model with bioluminescent imaging revealed that CRK knockdown significantly attenuated not only tumor volume but also the number of circulating tumor cells, resulted in a complete abrogation of metastasis. Taken together, this evidence uncovered essential roles of CRK in invasive bladder cancer through the hepatocyte growth factor/c-Met/CRK feedback loop for epithelial–mesenchymal transition induction. Thus, CRK might be a potent molecular target in bladder cancer, particularly for preventing metastasis, leading to the resolution of clinically longstanding critical issues. PMID:25816892

  5. DAPP1: a dual adaptor for phosphotyrosine and 3-phosphoinositides.

    PubMed

    Dowler, S; Currie, R A; Downes, C P; Alessi, D R

    1999-08-15

    We have identified a novel 280 amino acid protein which contains a putative myristoylation site at its N-terminus followed by an Src homology (SH2) domain and a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain at its C-terminus. It has been termed dual adaptor for phosphotyrosine and 3-phosphoinositides (DAPP1). DAPP1 is widely expressed and exhibits high-affinity interactions with PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) and PtdIns(3,4)P(2), but not with other phospholipids tested. These observations predict that DAPP1 will interact with both tyrosine phosphorylated proteins and 3-phosphoinositides and may therefore play a role in regulating the location and/or activity of such proteins(s) in response to agonists that elevate PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) and PtdIns(3,4)P(2).

  6. The Mu Subunit of Plasmodium falciparum Clathrin-Associated Adaptor Protein 2 Modulates In Vitro Parasite Response to Artemisinin and Quinine

    PubMed Central

    Henriques, Gisela; van Schalkwyk, Donelly A.; Burrow, Rebekah; Warhurst, David C.; Thompson, Eloise; Baker, David A.; Fidock, David A.; Hallett, Rachel; Flueck, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of drug-resistant parasites is a serious threat faced by malaria control programs. Understanding the genetic basis of resistance is critical to the success of treatment and intervention strategies. A novel locus associated with antimalarial resistance, ap2-mu (encoding the mu chain of the adaptor protein 2 [AP2] complex), was recently identified in studies on the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi (pcap2-mu). Furthermore, analysis in Kenyan malaria patients of polymorphisms in the Plasmodium falciparum ap2-mu homologue, pfap2-mu, found evidence that differences in the amino acid encoded by codon 160 are associated with enhanced parasite survival in vivo following combination treatments which included artemisinin derivatives. Here, we characterize the role of pfap2-mu in mediating the in vitro antimalarial drug response of P. falciparum by generating transgenic parasites constitutively expressing codon 160 encoding either the wild-type Ser (Ser160) or the Asn mutant (160Asn) form of pfap2-mu. Transgenic parasites carrying the pfap2-mu 160Asn allele were significantly less sensitive to dihydroartemisinin using a standard 48-h in vitro test, providing direct evidence of an altered parasite response to artemisinin. Our data also provide evidence that pfap2-mu variants can modulate parasite sensitivity to quinine. No evidence was found that pfap2-mu variants contribute to the slow-clearance phenotype exhibited by P. falciparum in Cambodian patients treated with artesunate monotherapy. These findings provide compelling evidence that pfap2-mu can modulate P. falciparum responses to multiple drugs. We propose that this gene should be evaluated further as a potential molecular marker of antimalarial resistance. PMID:25691625

  7. The Mu subunit of Plasmodium falciparum clathrin-associated adaptor protein 2 modulates in vitro parasite response to artemisinin and quinine.

    PubMed

    Henriques, Gisela; van Schalkwyk, Donelly A; Burrow, Rebekah; Warhurst, David C; Thompson, Eloise; Baker, David A; Fidock, David A; Hallett, Rachel; Flueck, Christian; Sutherland, Colin J

    2015-05-01

    The emergence of drug-resistant parasites is a serious threat faced by malaria control programs. Understanding the genetic basis of resistance is critical to the success of treatment and intervention strategies. A novel locus associated with antimalarial resistance, ap2-mu (encoding the mu chain of the adaptor protein 2 [AP2] complex), was recently identified in studies on the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi (pcap2-mu). Furthermore, analysis in Kenyan malaria patients of polymorphisms in the Plasmodium falciparum ap2-mu homologue, pfap2-mu, found evidence that differences in the amino acid encoded by codon 160 are associated with enhanced parasite survival in vivo following combination treatments which included artemisinin derivatives. Here, we characterize the role of pfap2-mu in mediating the in vitro antimalarial drug response of P. falciparum by generating transgenic parasites constitutively expressing codon 160 encoding either the wild-type Ser (Ser160) or the Asn mutant (160Asn) form of pfap2-mu. Transgenic parasites carrying the pfap2-mu 160Asn allele were significantly less sensitive to dihydroartemisinin using a standard 48-h in vitro test, providing direct evidence of an altered parasite response to artemisinin. Our data also provide evidence that pfap2-mu variants can modulate parasite sensitivity to quinine. No evidence was found that pfap2-mu variants contribute to the slow-clearance phenotype exhibited by P. falciparum in Cambodian patients treated with artesunate monotherapy. These findings provide compelling evidence that pfap2-mu can modulate P. falciparum responses to multiple drugs. We propose that this gene should be evaluated further as a potential molecular marker of antimalarial resistance.

  8. Direct interactions of adaptor protein complexes 1 and 2 with the copper transporter ATP7A mediate its anterograde and retrograde trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Ling; Kaler, Stephen G.

    2015-01-01

    ATP7A is a P-type ATPase in which diverse mutations lead to X-linked recessive Menkes disease or occipital horn syndrome. Recently, two previously unknown ATP7A missense mutations, T994I and P1386S, were shown to cause an isolated distal motor neuropathy without clinical or biochemical features of other ATP7A disorders. These mutant alleles cause subtle defects in ATP7A intracellular trafficking, resulting in preferential plasma membrane localization compared with wild-type ATP7A. We reported previously that ATP7AP1386S causes unstable insertion of the eighth and final transmembrane segment, preventing proper position of the carboxyl-terminal tail in a proportion of mutant molecules. Here, we utilize this and other naturally occurring and engineered mutant ATP7A alleles to identify mechanisms of normal ATP7A trafficking. We show that adaptor protein (AP) complexes 1 and 2 physically interact with ATP7A and that binding is mediated in part by a carboxyl-terminal di-leucine motif. In contrast to other ATP7A missense mutations, ATP7AP1386S partially disturbs interactions with both APs, leading to abnormal axonal localization in transfected NSC-34 motor neurons and altered calcium-signaling following glutamate stimulation. Our results imply that AP-1 normally tethers ATP7A at the trans-Golgi network in the somatodendritic segments of motor neurons and that alterations affecting the ATP7A carboxyl-terminal tail induce release of the copper transporter to the axons or axonal membranes. The latter effects are intensified by diminished interaction with AP-2, impeding ATP7A retrograde trafficking. Taken together, these findings further illuminate the normal molecular mechanisms of ATP7A trafficking and suggest a pathophysiological basis for ATP7A-related distal motor neuropathy. PMID:25574028

  9. A combined LDL receptor/LDL receptor adaptor protein 1 mutation as the cause for severe familial hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Soufi, Muhidien; Rust, Stephan; Walter, Michael; Schaefer, Juergen R

    2013-05-25

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) results from impaired catabolism of plasma low density lipoproteins (LDL), thus leading to high cholesterol, atherosclerosis, and a high risk of premature myocardial infarction. FH is commonly caused by defects of the LDL receptor or its main ligand apoB, together mediating cellular uptake and clearance of plasma LDL. In some cases FH is inherited by mutations in the genes of PCSK9 and LDLRAP1 (ARH) in a dominant or recessive trait. The encoded proteins are required for LDL receptor stability and internalization within the LDLR pathway. To detect the underlying genetic defect in a family of Turkish descent showing unregular inheritance of severe FH, we screened the four candidate genes by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) mutation analysis. We identified different combinatory mixtures of LDLR- and LDLRAP1-gene defects as the cause for severe familial hypercholesterolemia in this family. We also show for the first time that a heterozygous LDLR mutation combined with a homozygous LDLRAP1 mutation produces a more severe hypercholesterolemia phenotype in the same family than a homozygous LDLR mutation alone.

  10. A Repressor Protein Complex Regulates Leaf Growth in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Nathalie; Pauwels, Laurens; Baekelandt, Alexandra; De Milde, Liesbeth; Van Leene, Jelle; Besbrugge, Nienke; Heyndrickx, Ken S.; Pérez, Amparo Cuéllar; Durand, Astrid Nagels; De Clercq, Rebecca; Van De Slijke, Eveline; Vanden Bossche, Robin; Eeckhout, Dominique; Gevaert, Kris; Vandepoele, Klaas; De Jaeger, Geert; Goossens, Alain; Inzé, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Cell number is an important determinant of final organ size. In the leaf, a large proportion of cells are derived from the stomatal lineage. Meristemoids, which are stem cell-like precursor cells, undergo asymmetric divisions, generating several pavement cells adjacent to the two guard cells. However, the mechanism controlling the asymmetric divisions of these stem cells prior to differentiation is not well understood. Here, we characterized PEAPOD (PPD) proteins, the only transcriptional regulators known to negatively regulate meristemoid division. PPD proteins interact with KIX8 and KIX9, which act as adaptor proteins for the corepressor TOPLESS. D3-type cyclin encoding genes were identified among direct targets of PPD2, being negatively regulated by PPDs and KIX8/9. Accordingly, kix8 kix9 mutants phenocopied PPD loss-of-function producing larger leaves resulting from increased meristemoid amplifying divisions. The identified conserved complex might be specific for leaf growth in the second dimension, since it is not present in Poaceae (grasses), which also lack the developmental program it controls. PMID:26232487

  11. Neuronal Roles of the Bicaudal D Family of Motor Adaptors.

    PubMed

    Budzinska, M; Wicher, K B; Terenzio, M

    2017-01-01

    All cell types rely on active intracellular cargo transport to shuttle essential cellular components such as proteins, lipids, RNA, and even organelles from the center to the periphery and vice versa. Additionally, several signaling pathways take advantage of intracellular transport to propagate their signals by moving activated receptors and protein effectors to specific locations inside the cell. Neurons particularly, being a very polarized cell type, are highly dependent on molecular motors for the anterograde and retrograde delivery of essential cellular components and signaling molecules. For these reasons, motor adaptor proteins have been extensively investigated in regard to their role in physiology and pathology of the nervous system. In this chapter, we will concentrate on a family of motor adaptor proteins, Bicaudal D (BICD), and their function in the context of the nervous system. BicD was originally described as essential for the correct localization of maternal mRNAs in Drosophila's oocyte and a regulator of the Golgi to ER retrograde transport in mammalian cells. Both mammalian BICD1 and BICD2 are highly expressed in the nervous system during development, and their importance in neuronal homeostasis has been recently under scrutiny. Several mutations in BICD2 have been linked to the development of neuromuscular diseases, and BICD2 knockout (KO) mice display migration defects of the radial cerebellar granule cells. More in line with the overall topic of this book, BICD1 was identified as a novel regulator of neurotrophin (NT) signaling as its deletion leads to defective sorting of ligand-activated NT receptors with dramatic consequences on the NT-mediated signaling pathway.

  12. Structural Basis for Small G Protein Effector Interaction of Ras-related Protein 1 (Rap1) and Adaptor Protein Krev Interaction Trapped 1 (KRIT1)

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Rong; Draheim, Kyle M.; Liu, Weizhi; Calderwood, David A.; Boggon, Titus J.

    2012-09-17

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) affect 0.1-0.5% of the population resulting in leaky vasculature and severe neurological defects. KRIT1 (Krev interaction trapped-1) mutations associate with {approx}40% of familial CCMs. KRIT1 is an effector of Ras-related protein 1 (Rap1) GTPase. Rap1 relocalizes KRIT1 from microtubules to cell membranes to impact integrin activation, potentially important for CCM pathology. We report the 1.95 {angstrom} co-crystal structure of KRIT1 FERM domain in complex with Rap1. Rap1-KRIT1 interaction encompasses an extended surface, including Rap1 Switch I and II and KRIT1 FERM F1 and F2 lobes. Rap1 binds KRIT1-F1 lobe using a GTPase-ubiquitin-like fold interaction but binds KRIT1-F2 lobe by a novel interaction. Point mutagenesis confirms the interaction. High similarity between KRIT1-F2/F3 and talin is revealed. Additionally, the mechanism for FERM domains acting as GTPase effectors is suggested. Finally, structure-based alignment of each lobe suggests classification of FERM domains as ERM-like and TMFK-like (talin-myosin-FAK-KRIT-like) and that FERM lobes resemble domain 'modules.'

  13. Regulation of protein secretion by ... protein secretion?

    PubMed

    Atmakuri, Krishnamohan; Fortune, Sarah M

    2008-09-11

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) requires an alternative protein secretion system, ESX1, for virulence. Recently, Raghavan et al. (2008) reported a new regulatory circuit that may explain how ESX1 activity is controlled during infection. Mtb appears to regulate ESX1 by modulating transcription of associated genes rather than structural components of the secretion system itself.

  14. Trafficking of TRPP2 by PACS proteins represents a novel mechanism of ion channel regulation

    PubMed Central

    Köttgen, Michael; Benzing, Thomas; Simmen, Thomas; Tauber, Robert; Buchholz, Björn; Feliciangeli, Sylvain; Huber, Tobias B; Schermer, Bernhard; Kramer-Zucker, Albrecht; Höpker, Katja; Simmen, Katia Carmine; Tschucke, Christoph Carl; Sandford, Richard; Kim, Emily; Thomas, Gary; Walz, Gerd

    2005-01-01

    The trafficking of ion channels to the plasma membrane is tightly controlled to ensure the proper regulation of intracellular ion homeostasis and signal transduction. Mutations of polycystin-2, a member of the TRP family of cation channels, cause autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, a disorder characterized by renal cysts and progressive renal failure. Polycystin-2 functions as a calcium-permeable nonselective cation channel; however, it is disputed whether polycystin-2 resides and acts at the plasma membrane or endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We show that the subcellular localization and function of polycystin-2 are directed by phosphofurin acidic cluster sorting protein (PACS)-1 and PACS-2, two adaptor proteins that recognize an acidic cluster in the carboxy-terminal domain of polycystin-2. Binding to these adaptor proteins is regulated by the phosphorylation of polycystin-2 by the protein kinase casein kinase 2, required for the routing of polycystin-2 between ER, Golgi and plasma membrane compartments. Our paradigm that polycystin-2 is sorted to and active at both ER and plasma membrane reconciles the previously incongruent views of its localization and function. Furthermore, PACS proteins may represent a novel molecular mechanism for ion channel trafficking, directing acidic cluster-containing ion channels to distinct subcellular compartments. PMID:15692563

  15. Epigenetic regulation of protein glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Zoldoš, Vlatka; Grgurević, Srđana; Lauc, Gordan

    2010-10-01

    Protein N-glycosylation is an ancient metabolic pathway that still exists in all three domains of life (Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya). The covalent addition of one or more complex oligosaccharides (glycans) to protein backbones greatly diversifies their structures and makes the glycoproteome several orders of magnitude more complex than the proteome itself. Contrary to polypeptides, which are defined by a sequence of nucleotides in the corresponding genes, the glycan part of glycoproteins are encoded in a complex dynamic network of hundreds of proteins, whereby activity is defined by both genetic sequence and the regulation of gene expression. Owing to the complex nature of their biosynthesis, glycans are particularly versatile and apparently a large part of human variation derives from differences in protein glycosylation. Composition of the individual glycome appears to be rather stable, and thus differences in the pattern of glycan synthesis between individuals could originate either from genetic polymorphisms or from stable epigenetic regulation of gene expression in different individuals. Studies of epigenetic modification of genes involved in protein glycosylation are still scarce, but their results indicate that this process might be very important for the regulation of protein glycosylation.

  16. Regulation of cargo-selective endocytosis by dynamin 2 GTPase-activating protein girdin.

    PubMed

    Weng, Liang; Enomoto, Atsushi; Miyoshi, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Kiyofumi; Asai, Naoya; Morone, Nobuhiro; Jiang, Ping; An, Jian; Kato, Takuya; Kuroda, Keisuke; Watanabe, Takashi; Asai, Masato; Ishida-Takagishi, Maki; Murakumo, Yoshiki; Nakashima, Hideki; Kaibuchi, Kozo; Takahashi, Masahide

    2014-09-17

    In clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME), specificity and selectivity for cargoes are thought to be tightly regulated by cargo-specific adaptors for distinct cellular functions. Here, we show that the actin-binding protein girdin is a regulator of cargo-selective CME. Girdin interacts with dynamin 2, a GTPase that excises endocytic vesicles from the plasma membrane, and functions as its GTPase-activating protein. Interestingly, girdin depletion leads to the defect in clathrin-coated pit formation in the center of cells. Also, we find that girdin differentially interacts with some cargoes, which competitively prevents girdin from interacting with dynamin 2 and confers the cargo selectivity for CME. Therefore, girdin regulates transferrin and E-cadherin endocytosis in the center of cells and their subsequent polarized intracellular localization, but has no effect on integrin and epidermal growth factor receptor endocytosis that occurs at the cell periphery. Our results reveal that girdin regulates selective CME via a mechanism involving dynamin 2, but not by operating as a cargo-specific adaptor.

  17. Activity-dependent Protein Dynamics Define Interconnected Cores of Co-regulated Postsynaptic Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Trinidad, Jonathan C.; Thalhammer, Agnes; Burlingame, Alma L.; Schoepfer, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Synapses are highly dynamic structures that mediate cell–cell communication in the central nervous system. Their molecular composition is altered in an activity-dependent fashion, which modulates the efficacy of subsequent synaptic transmission events. Whereas activity-dependent trafficking of individual key synaptic proteins into and out of the synapse has been characterized previously, global activity-dependent changes in the synaptic proteome have not been studied. To test the feasibility of carrying out an unbiased large-scale approach, we investigated alterations in the molecular composition of synaptic spines following mass stimulation of the central nervous system induced by pilocarpine. We observed widespread changes in relative synaptic abundances encompassing essentially all proteins, supporting the view that the molecular composition of the postsynaptic density is tightly regulated. In most cases, we observed that members of gene families displayed coordinate regulation even when they were not known to physically interact. Analysis of correlated synaptic localization revealed a tightly co-regulated cluster of proteins, consisting of mainly glutamate receptors and their adaptors. This cluster constitutes a functional core of the postsynaptic machinery, and changes in its size affect synaptic strength and synaptic size. Our data show that the unbiased investigation of activity-dependent signaling of the postsynaptic density proteome can offer valuable new information on synaptic plasticity. PMID:23035237

  18. CHIP Regulates Osteoclast Formation through Promoting TRAF6 Protein Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shan; Shu, Bing; Zhang, Yanquan; Li, Jia; Guo, Junwei; Wang, Yinyin; Ren, Fangli; Xiao, Guozhi; Chang, Zhijie; Chen, Di

    2014-01-01

    Objective Carboxyl terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP or STUB1) is an E3 ligase and regulates the stability of several proteins which are involved in tumor growth and metastasis. However, the role of CHIP in bone growth and bone remodeling in vivo has not been reported. The objective of this study is to investigate the role and mechanism of CHIP in regulation of bone mass and bone remodeling. Methods The bone phenotype of Chip−/− mice was examined by histology, histomorphometry and micro-CT analyses. The regulatory mechanism of CHIP on the degradation of TRAF6 and the inhibition of NF-κB signaling was examined by immunoprecipitation (IP), western blotting and luciferase reporter assays. Results In this study, we found that deletion of the Chip gene leads to osteopenic phenotype and increased osteoclast formation. We further found that TRAF6, as a novel substrate of CHIP, is up-regulated in Chip−/− osteoclasts. TRAF6 is critical for RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. TRAF6 is an adaptor protein which functions as an E3 ligase to regulate the activation of TAK1 and the I-κB kinase (IKK) and is a key regulator of NF-κB signaling. CHIP interacts with TRAF6 to promote TRAF6 ubiquitination and proteasome degradation. CHIP inhibits p65 nuclear translocation, leading to the repression of the TRAF6-mediated NF-κB transcription. Conclusion CHIP inhibits NF-κB signaling via promoting TRAF6 degradation and plays an important role in osteoclastogenesis and bone remodeling, suggesting that it may be a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of bone loss associated diseases. PMID:24578159

  19. Arabidopsis BPM proteins function as substrate adaptors to a cullin3-based E3 ligase to affect fatty acid metabolism in plants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liyuan; Lee, Joo Hyun; Weber, Henriette; Tohge, Takayuki; Witt, Sandra; Roje, Sanja; Fernie, Alisdair R; Hellmann, Hanjo

    2013-06-01

    Regulation of transcriptional processes is a critical mechanism that enables efficient coordination of the synthesis of required proteins in response to environmental and cellular changes. Transcription factors require accurate activity regulation because they play a critical role as key mediators assuring specific expression of target genes. In this work, we show that cullin3-based E3 ligases have the potential to interact with a broad range of ethylene response factor (ERF)/APETALA2 (AP2) transcription factors, mediated by Math-BTB/POZ (for Meprin and TRAF [tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor] homolog)-Broad complex, Tramtrack, Bric-a-brac/Pox virus and Zinc finger) proteins. The assembly with an E3 ligase causes degradation of their substrates via the 26S proteasome, as demonstrated for the wrinkled1 ERF/AP2 protein. Furthermore, loss of Math-BTB/POZ proteins widely affects plant development and causes altered fatty acid contents in mutant seeds. Overall, this work demonstrates a link between fatty acid metabolism and E3 ligase activities in plants and establishes CUL3-based E3 ligases as key regulators in transcriptional processes that involve ERF/AP2 family members.

  20. Structural analysis of intermolecular interactions in the kinesin adaptor complex fasciculation and elongation protein zeta 1/ short coiled-coil protein (FEZ1/SCOCO).

    PubMed

    Alborghetti, Marcos Rodrigo; Furlan, Ariane da Silva; da Silva, Júlio César; Sforça, Maurício Luís; Honorato, Rodrigo Vargas; Granato, Daniela Campos; dos Santos Migueleti, Deivid Lucas; Neves, Jorge L; de Oliveira, Paulo Sergio Lopes; Paes-Leme, Adriana Franco; Zeri, Ana Carolina de Mattos; de Torriani, Iris Concepcion Linares; Kobarg, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Cytoskeleton and protein trafficking processes, including vesicle transport to synapses, are key processes in neuronal differentiation and axon outgrowth. The human protein FEZ1 (fasciculation and elongation protein zeta 1 / UNC-76, in C. elegans), SCOCO (short coiled-coil protein / UNC-69) and kinesins (e.g. kinesin heavy chain / UNC116) are involved in these processes. Exploiting the feature of FEZ1 protein as a bivalent adapter of transport mediated by kinesins and FEZ1 protein interaction with SCOCO (proteins involved in the same path of axonal growth), we investigated the structural aspects of intermolecular interactions involved in this complex formation by NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance), cross-linking coupled with mass spectrometry (MS), SAXS (Small Angle X-ray Scattering) and molecular modelling. The topology of homodimerization was accessed through NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) studies of the region involved in this process, corresponding to FEZ1 (92-194). Through studies involving the protein in its monomeric configuration (reduced) and dimeric state, we propose that homodimerization occurs with FEZ1 chains oriented in an anti-parallel topology. We demonstrate that the interaction interface of FEZ1 and SCOCO defined by MS and computational modelling is in accordance with that previously demonstrated for UNC-76 and UNC-69. SAXS and literature data support a heterotetrameric complex model. These data provide details about the interaction interfaces probably involved in the transport machinery assembly and open perspectives to understand and interfere in this assembly and its involvement in neuronal differentiation and axon outgrowth.

  1. Structural Analysis of Intermolecular Interactions in the Kinesin Adaptor Complex Fasciculation and Elongation Protein Zeta 1/ Short Coiled-Coil Protein (FEZ1/SCOCO)

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Júlio César; Sforça, Maurício Luís; Honorato, Rodrigo Vargas; Granato, Daniela Campos; dos Santos Migueleti, Deivid Lucas; Neves, Jorge L.; de Oliveira, Paulo Sergio Lopes; Paes-Leme, Adriana Franco; Zeri, Ana Carolina de Mattos; de Torriani, Iris Concepcion Linares; Kobarg, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Cytoskeleton and protein trafficking processes, including vesicle transport to synapses, are key processes in neuronal differentiation and axon outgrowth. The human protein FEZ1 (fasciculation and elongation protein zeta 1 / UNC-76, in C. elegans), SCOCO (short coiled-coil protein / UNC-69) and kinesins (e.g. kinesin heavy chain / UNC116) are involved in these processes. Exploiting the feature of FEZ1 protein as a bivalent adapter of transport mediated by kinesins and FEZ1 protein interaction with SCOCO (proteins involved in the same path of axonal growth), we investigated the structural aspects of intermolecular interactions involved in this complex formation by NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance), cross-linking coupled with mass spectrometry (MS), SAXS (Small Angle X-ray Scattering) and molecular modelling. The topology of homodimerization was accessed through NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) studies of the region involved in this process, corresponding to FEZ1 (92-194). Through studies involving the protein in its monomeric configuration (reduced) and dimeric state, we propose that homodimerization occurs with FEZ1 chains oriented in an anti-parallel topology. We demonstrate that the interaction interface of FEZ1 and SCOCO defined by MS and computational modelling is in accordance with that previously demonstrated for UNC-76 and UNC-69. SAXS and literature data support a heterotetrameric complex model. These data provide details about the interaction interfaces probably involved in the transport machinery assembly and open perspectives to understand and interfere in this assembly and its involvement in neuronal differentiation and axon outgrowth. PMID:24116125

  2. Temporal regulation of EGF signaling networks by the scaffold protein Shc1

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yong; Zhang, Cunjie; Croucher, David R.; Soliman, Mohamed A.; St-Denis, Nicole; Pasculescu, Adrian; Taylor, Lorne; Tate, Stephen A.; Hardy, Rod W.; Colwill, Karen; Dai, Anna Yue; Bagshaw, Rick; Dennis, James W.; Gingras, Anne-Claude; Daly, Roger J.; Pawson, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Cell-surface receptors frequently employ scaffold proteins to recruit cytoplasmic targets, but the rationale for this is uncertain. Activated receptor tyrosine kinases, for example, engage scaffolds such as Shc1 that contain phosphotyrosine (pTyr) binding (PTB) domains. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we find that Shc1 responds to epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation through multiple waves of distinct phosphorylation events and protein interactions. Following stimulation, Shc1 rapidly binds a group of proteins that activate pro-mitogenic/survival pathways dependent on recruitment of the Grb2 adaptor to Shc1 pTyr sites. Akt-mediated feedback phosphorylation of Shc1 Ser29 then recruits the Ptpn12 tyrosine phosphatase. This is followed by a sub-network of proteins involved in cytoskeletal reorganization, trafficking and signal termination that binds Shc1 with delayed kinetics, largely through the SgK269 pseudokinase/adaptor protein. Ptpn12 acts as a switch to convert Shc1 from pTyr/Grb2-based signaling to SgK269-mediated pathways that regulate cell invasion and morphogenesis. The Shc1 scaffold therefore directs the temporal flow of signaling information following EGF stimulation. PMID:23846654

  3. Redox Regulation of Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Thu H.; Carroll, Kate S.

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinases represent one of the largest families of genes found in eukaryotes. Kinases mediate distinct cellular processes ranging from proliferation, differentiation, survival, and apoptosis. Ligand-mediated activation of receptor kinases can lead to the production of endogenous H2O2 by membrane-bound NADPH oxidases. In turn, H2O2 can be utilized as a secondary messenger in signal transduction pathways. This review presents an overview of the molecular mechanisms involved in redox regulation of protein kinases and its effects on signaling cascades. In the first half, we will focus primarily on receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), whereas the latter will concentrate on downstream non-receptor kinases involved in relaying stimulant response. Select examples from the literature are used to highlight the functional role of H2O2 regarding kinase activity, as well as the components involved in H2O2 production and regulation during cellular signaling. In addition, studies demonstrating direct modulation of protein kinases by H2O2 through cysteine oxidation will be emphasized. Identification of these redox-sensitive residues may help uncover signaling mechanisms conserved within kinase subfamilies. In some cases, these residues can even be exploited as targets for the development of new therapeutics. Continued efforts in this field will further basic understanding of kinase redox regulation, and delineate the mechanisms involved in physiologic and pathological H2O2 responses. PMID:23639002

  4. TLR-independent control of innate immunity in Caenorhabditis elegans by the TIR domain adaptor protein TIR-1, an ortholog of human SARM.

    PubMed

    Couillault, Carole; Pujol, Nathalie; Reboul, Jérôme; Sabatier, Laurence; Guichou, Jean-François; Kohara, Yuji; Ewbank, Jonathan J

    2004-05-01

    Both plants and animals respond to infection by synthesizing compounds that directly inhibit or kill invading pathogens. We report here the identification of infection-inducible antimicrobial peptides in Caenorhabditis elegans. Expression of two of these peptides, NLP-29 and NLP-31, was differentially regulated by fungal and bacterial infection and was controlled in part by tir-1, which encodes an ortholog of SARM, a Toll-interleukin 1 receptor (TIR) domain protein. Inactivation of tir-1 by RNA interference caused increased susceptibility to infection. We identify protein partners for TIR-1 and show that the small GTPase Rab1 and the f subunit of ATP synthase participate specifically in the control of antimicrobial peptide gene expression. As the activity of tir-1 was independent of the single nematode Toll-like receptor, TIR-1 may represent a component of a previously uncharacterized, but conserved, innate immune signaling pathway.

  5. MicroRNAs regulate tight junction proteins and modulate epithelial/endothelial barrier functions.

    PubMed

    Cichon, Christoph; Sabharwal, Harshana; Rüter, Christian; Schmidt, M Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Tightly controlled epithelial and endothelial barriers are a prerequisite for life as these barriers separate multicellular organisms from their environment and serve as first lines of defense. Barriers between neighboring epithelial cells are formed by multiple intercellular junctions including the 'apical junctional complex-AJC' with tight junctions (TJ), adherens junctions (AJ), and desmosomes. TJ consist of tetraspan transmembrane proteins like occludin, various claudins that directly control paracellular permeability, and the 'Junctional Adhesion Molecules' (JAMs). For establishing tight barriers TJ are essential but at the same time have to allow also selective permeability. For this, TJ need to be tightly regulated and controlled. This is organized by a variety of adaptor molecules, i.e., protein kinases, phosphatases and GTPases, which in turn are regulated and fine-tuned involving microRNAs (miRNAs). In this review we summarize available data on the role and targeting of miRNAs in the maintenance of epithelial and/or endothelial barriers.

  6. Molecular cloning and characterization of GhAPm, a gene encoding the μ subunit of the clathrin-associated adaptor protein complex that is associated with cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber development.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tao; Zhang, Rui; Yang, Dawei; Guo, Sandui

    2011-06-01

    The clathrin-associated adaptor protein (AP) complexes are the primary clathrin adaptors that contribute to the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs). The GhAPm gene (GenBank accession number: GU359054), which encodes the medium subunit of the AP complexes, was cloned from cotton by rapid amplification of cDNA ends-polymerase chain reaction (RACE-PCR). The full-length cDNA was 1590 bp in size and encoded an open reading frame (ORF) of 416 amino acids with a molecular weight of 46 kDa. The GhAPm protein shared 81-85% identity at the amino acid level with the AP complex μ subunits isolated from Vitis vinifera, Glycine max, Populus trichocarpa, Ricinus communis and Arabidopsis thaliana, respectively. The corresponding genomic DNA, containing eight exons and seven introns, was isolated and analyzed. Also, a 5'-flanking region was analyzed, and a group of putative cis-acting elements were identified. DNA gel blot analysis showed that there is only one GhAPm gene in the cotton genome. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that GhAPm is expressed in the root, stem, leaf, petal, ovule, and fiber. However, the interesting finding is that GhAPm expression level was shown to increase steadily as the cotton fiber develops. In 30 DPA fibers, expression increases sharply and arrives at a peak then the expression levels decrease rapidly. Based on these data, we propose that GhAPm has a critical role in cotton membrane trafficking and fiber development.

  7. Nuclear localization of amyloid-β precursor protein-binding protein Fe65 is dependent on regulated intramembrane proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Koistinen, Niina A.; Edlund, Anna K.; Menon, Preeti K.; Ivanova, Elena V.; Bacanu, Smaranda

    2017-01-01

    Fe65 is an adaptor protein involved in both processing and signaling of the Alzheimer-associated amyloid-β precursor protein, APP. Here, the subcellular localization was further investigated using TAP-tagged Fe65 constructs expressed in human neuroblastoma cells. Our results indicate that PTB2 rather than the WW domain is important for the nuclear localization of Fe65. Electrophoretic mobility shift of Fe65 caused by phosphorylation was not detected in the nuclear fraction, suggesting that phosphorylation could restrict nuclear localization of Fe65. Furthermore, both ADAM10 and γ-secretase inhibitors decreased nuclear Fe65 in a similar way indicating an important role also of α-secretase in regulating nuclear translocation. PMID:28323844

  8. 14-3-3 proteins: key regulators of cell division, signalling and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    van Hemert, M J; Steensma, H Y; van Heusden, G P

    2001-10-01

    The 14-3-3 proteins constitute a family of conserved proteins present in all eukaryotic organisms so far investigated. These proteins have attracted interest because they are involved in important cellular processes such as signal transduction, cell-cycle control, apoptosis, stress response and malignant transformation and because at least 100 different binding partners for the 14-3-3 proteins have been reported. Although the exact function of 14-3-3 proteins is still unknown, they are known to (1) act as adaptor molecules stimulating protein-protein interactions, (2) regulate the subcellular localisation of proteins and (3) activate or inhibit enzymes. In this review, we discuss the role of the 14-3-3 proteins in three cellular processes: cell cycle control, signal transduction and apoptosis. These processes are regulated by the 14-3-3 proteins at multiple steps. The 14-3-3 proteins have an overall inhibitory effect on cell cycle progression and apoptosis, whereas in signal transduction they may act as stimulatory or inhibitory factors. This article contains supplementary material which may be viewed at the BioEssays website at http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/0265-9247/Suppmat/23/v23_10.936.

  9. Prion protein in ESC regulation.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Alberto; Pericuesta, Eva; Ramírez, Miguel Ángel; Gutiérrez-Adán, Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    A large number of studies have analysed the putative functions of the prion protein (PrP(C)) in mammals. Although its sequence conservation over a wide range of different animals may indicate that this protein could have a key role in prion diseases, an absolutely accepted involvement has not been found so far. We have recently reported that PrP(C) regulates Nanog mRNA expression, the first non-redundant function of PrP(C) in embryonic stem cells (ESC), which translates into control of pluripotency and early differentiation. Contrary to what it is believed, the other two members of the prion protein family, Doppel and Shadoo, cannot replace the absence of PrP(C), causing the appearance of a new embryoid body (EB) population in our in vitro culture. The similarities between EB and an early post-implantation embryo suggest that this might also occur in vivo, enhancing the importance of this finding. On the other hand, our data may support the hypothesis of a relationship between the loss of PrP(C) function and neuronal degeneration in prion diseases. A reduction in brain stem cells pluripotency after PrP(C) is misfolded into the pathological conformation (PrP(Sc)) could lead to a delay or a disappearance of the normal brain damage recovery.

  10. Cutting edge: the "death" adaptor CRADD/RAIDD targets BCL10 and suppresses agonist-induced cytokine expression in T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qing; Liu, Yan; Moore, Daniel J; Elizer, Sydney K; Veach, Ruth A; Hawiger, Jacek; Ruley, H Earl

    2012-03-15

    The expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in response to TCR agonists is regulated by the caspase-recruitment domain membrane-associated guanylate kinase 1 (CARMA1) signalosome through the coordinated assembly of complexes containing the BCL10 adaptor protein. We describe a novel mechanism to negatively regulate the CARMA1 signalosome by the "death" adaptor protein caspase and receptor interacting protein adaptor with death domain (CRADD)/receptor interacting protein-associated ICH-1/CED-3 homologous protein with a death domain. We show that CRADD interacts with BCL10 through its caspase recruitment domain and suppresses interactions between BCL10 and CARMA1. TCR agonist-induced interaction between CRADD and BCL10 coincides with reduction of its complex formation with CARMA1 in wild-type, as compared with Cradd-deficient, primary cells. Finally, Cradd-deficient spleen cells, CD4(+) T cells, and mice respond to T cell agonists with strikingly higher production of proinflammatory mediators, including IFN-γ, IL-2, TNF-α, and IL-17. These results define a novel role for CRADD as a negative regulator of the CARMA1 signalosome and suppressor of Th1- and Th17-mediated inflammatory responses.

  11. Targeting signals and subunit interactions in coated vesicle adaptor complexes

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    There are two clathrin-coated vesicle adaptor complexes in the cell, one associated with the plasma membrane and one associated with the TGN. The subunit composition of the plasma membrane adaptor complex is alpha-adaptin, beta-adaptin, AP50, and AP17; while that of the TGN adaptor complex is gamma-adaptin, beta'-adaptin, AP47, and AP19. To search for adaptor targeting signals, we have constructed chimeras between alpha-adaptin and gamma-adaptin within their NH2-terminal domains. We have identified stretches of sequence in the two proteins between amino acids approximately 130 and 330-350 that are essential for targeting. Immunoprecipitation reveals that this region determines whether a construct coassemblies with AP50 and AP17, or with AP47 and AP19. These observations suggest that these other subunits may play an important role in targeting. In contrast, beta- and beta'-adaptins are clearly not involved in this event. Chimeras between the alpha- and gamma-adaptin COOH-terminal domains reveal the presence of a second targeting signal. We have further investigated the interactions between the adaptor subunits using the yeast two-hybrid system. Interactions can be detected between the beta/beta'-adaptins and the alpha/gamma- adaptins, between the beta/beta'-adaptins and the AP50/AP47 subunits, between alpha-adaptin and AP17, and between gamma-adaptin and AP19. These results indicate that the adaptor subunits act in concert to target the complex to the appropriate membrane. PMID:7593184

  12. Spike, a novel BH3-only protein, regulates apoptosis at the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Mund, Thomas; Gewies, Andreas; Schoenfeld, Nicole; Bauer, Manuel K A; Grimm, Stefan

    2003-04-01

    We have isolated Spike, a novel and evolutionary conserved BH3-only protein. BH3-only proteins constitute a family of apoptosis inducers that mediate proapoptotic signals. In contrast to most proteins of this family, Spike was not found to be associated with mitochondria. Furthermore, unlike the known BH3-only proteins, Spike could not interact with all tested Bcl-2 family members, despite its BH3 domain being necessary for cell killing. Our findings indicate that Spike is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum. The endoplasmic reticulum is an organelle that has only recently been implicated in regulation of apoptosis. At this locale, Spike interacts with Bap31, an adaptor protein for pro-caspase-8 and Bcl-XL. In doing so, Spike is able to inhibit the formation of a complex between Bap31 and the antiapoptotic Bcl-XL protein. Furthermore, Spike transmits the signal of specific death receptors. Its down-regulation in certain tumors suggests that Spike may also play a role in tumorigenesis. Our findings add new insight for how BH3-only and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins regulate cell death.

  13. Structure of the Toll/Interleukin-1 Receptor (TIR) Domain of the B-cell Adaptor That Links Phosphoinositide Metabolism with the Negative Regulation of the Toll-like Receptor (TLR) Signalosome*

    PubMed Central

    Halabi, Samer; Sekine, Eiki; Verstak, Brett; Gay, Nicholas J.; Moncrieffe, Martin C.

    2017-01-01

    Ligand binding to Toll-like receptors (TLRs) results in dimerization of their cytosolic Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domains and recruitment of post-receptor signal transducers into a complex signalosome. TLR activation leads to the production of transcription factors and pro-inflammatory molecules and the activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) in a process that requires the multimodular B-cell adaptor for phosphoinositide 3-kinase (BCAP). BCAP has a sequence previously proposed as a “cryptic” TIR domain. Here, we present the structure of the N-terminal region of human BCAP and show that it possesses a canonical TIR fold. Dimeric BCAP associates with the TIR domains of TLR2/4 and MAL/TIRAP, suggesting that it is recruited to the TLR signalosome by multitypic TIR-TIR interactions. BCAP also interacts with the p85 subunit of PI3K and phospholipase Cγ, enzymes that deplete plasma membrane phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), and these interactions provide a molecular explanation for BCAP-mediated down-regulation of inflammatory signaling. PMID:27909057

  14. Differential Recognition Preferences of the Three Src Homology 3 (SH3) Domains from the Adaptor CD2-associated Protein (CD2AP) and Direct Association with Ras and Rab Interactor 3 (RIN3)*

    PubMed Central

    Rouka, Evgenia; Simister, Philip C.; Janning, Melanie; Kumbrink, Joerg; Konstantinou, Tassos; Muniz, João R. C.; Joshi, Dhira; O'Reilly, Nicola; Volkmer, Rudolf; Ritter, Brigitte; Knapp, Stefan; von Delft, Frank; Kirsch, Kathrin H.; Feller, Stephan M.

    2015-01-01

    CD2AP is an adaptor protein involved in membrane trafficking, with essential roles in maintaining podocyte function within the kidney glomerulus. CD2AP contains three Src homology 3 (SH3) domains that mediate multiple protein-protein interactions. However, a detailed comparison of the molecular binding preferences of each SH3 remained unexplored, as well as the discovery of novel interactors. Thus, we studied the binding properties of each SH3 domain to the known interactor Casitas B-lineage lymphoma protein (c-CBL), conducted a peptide array screen based on the recognition motif PxPxPR and identified 40 known or novel candidate binding proteins, such as RIN3, a RAB5-activating guanine nucleotide exchange factor. CD2AP SH3 domains 1 and 2 generally bound with similar characteristics and specificities, whereas the SH3-3 domain bound more weakly to most peptide ligands tested yet recognized an unusually extended sequence in ALG-2-interacting protein X (ALIX). RIN3 peptide scanning arrays revealed two CD2AP binding sites, recognized by all three SH3 domains, but SH3-3 appeared non-functional in precipitation experiments. RIN3 recruited CD2AP to RAB5a-positive early endosomes via these interaction sites. Permutation arrays and isothermal titration calorimetry data showed that the preferred binding motif is Px(P/A)xPR. Two high-resolution crystal structures (1.65 and 1.11 Å) of CD2AP SH3-1 and SH3-2 solved in complex with RIN3 epitopes 1 and 2, respectively, indicated that another extended motif is relevant in epitope 2. In conclusion, we have discovered novel interaction candidates for CD2AP and characterized subtle yet significant differences in the recognition preferences of its three SH3 domains for c-CBL, ALIX, and RIN3. PMID:26296892

  15. Differential Recognition Preferences of the Three Src Homology 3 (SH3) Domains from the Adaptor CD2-associated Protein (CD2AP) and Direct Association with Ras and Rab Interactor 3 (RIN3).

    PubMed

    Rouka, Evgenia; Simister, Philip C; Janning, Melanie; Kumbrink, Joerg; Konstantinou, Tassos; Muniz, João R C; Joshi, Dhira; O'Reilly, Nicola; Volkmer, Rudolf; Ritter, Brigitte; Knapp, Stefan; von Delft, Frank; Kirsch, Kathrin H; Feller, Stephan M

    2015-10-16

    CD2AP is an adaptor protein involved in membrane trafficking, with essential roles in maintaining podocyte function within the kidney glomerulus. CD2AP contains three Src homology 3 (SH3) domains that mediate multiple protein-protein interactions. However, a detailed comparison of the molecular binding preferences of each SH3 remained unexplored, as well as the discovery of novel interactors. Thus, we studied the binding properties of each SH3 domain to the known interactor Casitas B-lineage lymphoma protein (c-CBL), conducted a peptide array screen based on the recognition motif PxPxPR and identified 40 known or novel candidate binding proteins, such as RIN3, a RAB5-activating guanine nucleotide exchange factor. CD2AP SH3 domains 1 and 2 generally bound with similar characteristics and specificities, whereas the SH3-3 domain bound more weakly to most peptide ligands tested yet recognized an unusually extended sequence in ALG-2-interacting protein X (ALIX). RIN3 peptide scanning arrays revealed two CD2AP binding sites, recognized by all three SH3 domains, but SH3-3 appeared non-functional in precipitation experiments. RIN3 recruited CD2AP to RAB5a-positive early endosomes via these interaction sites. Permutation arrays and isothermal titration calorimetry data showed that the preferred binding motif is Px(P/A)xPR. Two high-resolution crystal structures (1.65 and 1.11 Å) of CD2AP SH3-1 and SH3-2 solved in complex with RIN3 epitopes 1 and 2, respectively, indicated that another extended motif is relevant in epitope 2. In conclusion, we have discovered novel interaction candidates for CD2AP and characterized subtle yet significant differences in the recognition preferences of its three SH3 domains for c-CBL, ALIX, and RIN3.

  16. Non-redundant and complementary functions of adaptor proteins TRAF2 and TRAF3 in a ubiquitination cascade that activates NIK-dependent alternative NF-κB signaling

    PubMed Central

    Vallabhapurapu, Sivakumar; Matsuzawa, Atsushi; Zhang, WeiZhou; Tseng, Ping-Hui; Keats, Jonathan J.; Wang, Haopeng; Vignali, Dario A. A.; Bergsagel, P. Leif; Karin, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The adaptor and signaling proteins TRAF2, TRAF3 and cIAP1 and cIAP2 were suggested to inhibit alternative nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling in resting cells by targeting NF-κB inducing kinase (NIK) to ubiquitin-dependent degradation, thus preventing processing of the NF-κB2 precursor protein p100 to release p52. However, the respective functions of TRAF2 and TRAF3 in NIK degradation and activation of alternative NF-κB signaling has remained elusive. We now show that CD40 or BAFF receptor activation resulted in TRAF3 degradation in a cIAP1-cIAP2- and TRAF2- dependent way due to enhanced cIAP1, cIAP2 TRAF3-directed ubiquitin ligase activity. Receptor-induced activation of cIAP1 and cIAP2 correlated with their K63-linked ubiquitination by TRAF2. Degradation of TRAF3 prevented association of NIK with the cIAP1-cIAP2-TRAF2 ubiquitin ligase complex, which resulted in NIK stabilization and NF-κB2-p100 processing. Constitutive activation of this pathway causes perinatal lethality and lymphoid defects. PMID:18997792

  17. Regulation of protein turnover by heat shock proteins.

    PubMed

    Bozaykut, Perinur; Ozer, Nesrin Kartal; Karademir, Betul

    2014-12-01

    Protein turnover reflects the balance between synthesis and degradation of proteins, and it is a crucial process for the maintenance of the cellular protein pool. The folding of proteins, refolding of misfolded proteins, and also degradation of misfolded and damaged proteins are involved in the protein quality control (PQC) system. Correct protein folding and degradation are controlled by many different factors, one of the most important of which is the heat shock protein family. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are in the class of molecular chaperones, which may prevent the inappropriate interaction of proteins and induce correct folding. On the other hand, these proteins play significant roles in the degradation pathways, including endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD), the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and autophagy. This review focuses on the emerging role of HSPs in the regulation of protein turnover; the effects of HSPs on the degradation machineries ERAD, autophagy, and proteasome; as well as the role of posttranslational modifications in the PQC system.

  18. Function and regulation of Rnd proteins.

    PubMed

    Chardin, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    The Rnd proteins, which form a distinct sub-group of the Rho family of small GTP-binding proteins, have been shown to regulate the organization of the actin cytoskeleton in several tissues. In the brain, they participate in neurite extension, whereas in smooth muscle, they modulate contractility. Recent evidence has shown that Rnd3 (RhoE) is also involved in the regulation of cell-cycle progression and transformation, indicating that these proteins might have other, as yet unexplored roles.

  19. Serine residues in the LAT adaptor are essential for TCR-dependent signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Florensa, Mario; García-Blesa, Antonio; Yélamos, José; Muñoz-Suano, Alba; Domínguez-Villar, Margarita; Valdor, Rut; Alonso, Antonio; García-Cózar, Francisco; Aparicio, Pedro; Malissen, Bernard; Aguado, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    The adaptor protein LAT has a prominent role in the transduction of intracellular signals elicited by the TCR/CD3 complex. Upon TCR engagement, LAT becomes tyrosine-phosphorylated and thereby, recruits to the membrane several proteins implicated in the activation of downstream signaling pathways. However, little is known about the role of other conserved motifs present in the LAT sequence. Here, we report that the adaptor LAT contains several conserved serine-based motifs, which are essential for proper signal transduction through the TCR. Mutation of these serine motifs in the human T cell line Jurkat prevents proper calcium influx, MAPK activation, and IL-2 production in response to TCR/CD3 stimulation. Moreover, this mutant form of LAT has a reduced ability to bind to PLC-γ1 and SLP-76, although phosphorylation of tyrosine residues 132, 171, and 191 is not decreased, raising a possible role for the serine-based motifs of LAT for the binding of important partners. The functional role of LAT serine-based motifs in signal transduction could be mediated by an effect on tyrosine phosphorylation, as their mutation significantly diminishes the phosphorylation of tyrosine residue 226. In addition, these serine motifs seem to have a regulatory role, given that upon their mutation, ZAP-70 shows enhanced phosphorylation. Therefore, the LAT serine-based motifs likely regulate signaling pathways that are essential for T cell physiology.

  20. Regulation of TET Protein Stability by Calpains

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Zhang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY DNA methylation at the fifth position of cytosine (5mC) is an important epigenetic modification that affects chromatin structure and gene expression. Recent studies have established a critical function of the Ten-eleven translocation (Tet) family of proteins in regulating DNA methylation dynamics. Three Tet genes have been identified in mammals, and they all encode for proteins capable of oxidizing 5mC as part of the DNA demethylation process. While regulation of Tet expression at the transcriptional level is well documented, how TET proteins are regulated at post-translational level is poorly understood. In this study, we report that all three TET proteins are direct substrates of calpains, a family of calcium-dependent proteases. Specifically, calpain1 mediates TET1 and TET2 turnover in mouse ES cells, and calpain2 regulates TET3 level during differentiation. This study provides the first evidence that TET proteins are subject to calpain-mediated degradation. PMID:24412366

  1. The Fe65 adaptor protein interacts through its PID1 domain with the transcription factor CP2/LSF/LBP1.

    PubMed

    Zambrano, N; Minopoli, G; de Candia, P; Russo, T

    1998-08-07

    The neural protein Fe65 possesses three putative protein-protein interaction domains: one WW domain and two phosphotyrosine interaction/phosphotyrosine binding domains (PID1 and PID2); the most C-terminal of these domains (PID2) interacts in vivo with the Alzheimer's beta-amyloid precursor protein, whereas the WW domain binds to Mena, the mammalian homolog of Drosophila-enabled protein. By the interaction trap procedure, we isolated a cDNA clone encoding a possible ligand of the N-terminal PID/PTB domain of Fe65 (PID1). Sequence analysis of this clone revealed that this ligand corresponded to the previously identified transcription factor CP2/LSF/LBP1. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that the interaction between Fe65 and CP2/LSF/LBP1 also takes place in vivo between the native molecules. The localization of both proteins was studied using fractionated cellular extracts. These experiments demonstrated that the various isoforms of CP2/LSF/LBP1 are differently distributed among subcellular fractions. At least one isoform, derived from alternative splicing (LSF-ID), is present outside the nucleus; Fe65 was found in both fractions. Furthermore, transfection experiments with an HA-tagged CP2/LSF/LBP1 cDNA demonstrated that Fe65 interacts also with the nuclear form of CP2/LSF/LBP1. Considering that the analysis of Fe65 distribution in fractionated cell extracts demonstrated that this protein is present both in nuclear and non-nuclear fractions, we examined the expression of Fe65 deletion mutants in the two fractions. This analysis allowed us to observe that a small region N-terminal to the WW domain is phosphorylated and is necessary for the presence of Fe65 in the nuclear fraction.

  2. The Adaptor Molecule SAP Regulates IFNγ and IL-4 Production in Vα14 Transgenic NKT cells via Effects on GATA-3 and T-bet Expression1

    PubMed Central

    Cen, Osman; Ueda, Aki; Guzman, Laura; Jain, Jimmy; Bassiri, Hamid; Nichols, Kim E.; Stein, Paul L.

    2008-01-01

    NKT cells comprise a rare regulatory T cell population of limited TCR diversity, with most cells utilizing a Vα14Jα18 TCR. These cells exhibit a critical dependence on the signaling adapter molecule SAP for their ontogeny, an aspect not seen in conventional αβ T cells. Prior studies demonstrate that SAP enhances TCR-induced activation of NF-kB in CD4+ T cells. Since NF-kB is required for NKT cell development, SAP might promote the ontogeny of this lineage by signaling to NF-kB. In this report, we demonstrate that forced expression of the NF-kB target gene, Bcl-xL, or IKKβ, a catalytic subunit of the IkB kinase complex essential for NF-kB activation, fails to restore NKT cell development in sap−/− mice, suggesting that SAP mediates NKT cell development independently of NF-kB. To examine the role of SAP in NKT cell function, we generated NKT cells in sap−/− mice by expressing a transgene encoding the Vα14Jα18 component of the invariant TCR. These cells bound α-GalCer loaded CD1d tetramers, but exhibited a very immature CD24+NK1.1- phenotype. While sap−/− tetramer-reactive cells proliferated in response to TCR activation, they did not produce appreciable levels of IL-4 or IFN-γ. The reduction in cytokine production correlated with the near absence of GATA-3 and T-bet, key transcription factors regulating cytokine expression and maturation of NKT cells. Ectopic expression of GATA-3 partially restored IL-4 production by the NKT cells. Collectively these data suggest that by promoting GATA3 and T-bet expression, SAP exerts control over NKT cell development and mature NKT cell cytokine production. PMID:19155483

  3. Dynamic complex formation between HD-GYP, GGDEF and PilZ domain proteins regulates motility in Xanthomonas campestris.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Robert P; McCarthy, Yvonne; Kiely, Patrick A; O'Connor, Rosemary; Farah, Chuck S; Armitage, Judith P; Dow, J Maxwell

    2012-11-01

    RpfG is a member of a class of wide spread bacterial two-component regulators with an HD-GYP cyclic di-GMP phosphodiesterase domain. In the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris, RpfG together with the sensor kinase RpfC regulates multiple factors as a response to the cell-to-cell Diffusible Signalling Factor (DSF). A dynamic physical interaction of RpfG with two diguanylate cyclase (GGDEF) domain proteins controls motility. Here we show that, contrary to expectation, regulation of motility by the GGDEF domain proteins does not depend upon their cyclic di-GMP synthetic activity. Furthermore we show that the complex of RpfG and GGDEF domain proteins recruits a specific PilZ domain 'adaptor' protein, and this complex then interacts with the pilus motor proteins PilU and PiIT. The results support a model in which DSF signalling influences motility through the highly regulated dynamic interaction of proteins that affect pilus action. A specific motif that we identify to be required for HD-GYP domain interaction is conserved in a number of GGDEF domain proteins, suggesting that regulation via interdomain interactions is of broad relevance.

  4. The adaptor molecule signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP) is essential in mechanisms involving the Fyn tyrosine kinase for induction and progression of collagen-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Ming-Chao; Veillette, André

    2013-11-01

    Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein (SAP) is an Src homology 2 domain-only adaptor involved in multiple immune cell functions. It has also been linked to immunodeficiencies and autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus. Here, we examined the role and mechanism of action of SAP in autoimmunity using a mouse model of autoimmune arthritis, collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). We found that SAP was essential for development of CIA in response to collagen immunization. It was also required for production of collagen-specific antibodies, which play a key role in disease pathogenesis. These effects required SAP expression in T cells, not in B cells. In mice immunized with a high dose of collagen, the activity of SAP was nearly independent of its ability to bind the protein tyrosine kinase Fyn and correlated with the capacity of SAP to promote full differentiation of follicular T helper (TFH) cells. However, with a lower dose of collagen, the role of SAP was more dependent on Fyn binding, suggesting that additional mechanisms other than TFH cell differentiation were involved. Further studies suggested that this might be due to a role of the SAP-Fyn interaction in natural killer T cell development through the ability of SAP-Fyn to promote Vav-1 activation. We also found that removal of SAP expression during progression of CIA attenuated disease severity. However, it had no effect on disease when CIA was clinically established. Together, these results indicate that SAP plays an essential role in CIA because of Fyn-independent and Fyn-dependent effects on TFH cells and, possibly, other T cell types.

  5. TLR signaling adaptor protein MyD88 in primary sensory neurons contributes to persistent inflammatory and neuropathic pain and neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xing-Jun; Liu, Tong; Chen, Gang; Wang, Bing; Yu, Xiao-Lu; Yin, Cui; Ji, Ru-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that neuro-immune and neuro-glial interactions are critically involved in chronic pain sensitization. It is well studied how immune/glial mediators sensitize pain, but how sensory neurons control neuroinflammation remains unclear. We employed Myd88 conditional knockout (CKO) mice, in which Myd88 was deleted in sodium channel subunit Nav1.8-expressing primary sensory neurons, to examine the unique role of neuronal MyD88 in regulating acute and chronic pain, and possible underlying mechanisms. We found that baseline pain and the formalin induced acute inflammatory pain were intact in CKO mice. However, the late phase inflammatory pain following complete Freund’s adjuvant injection and the late phase neuropathic pain following chronic constriction injury (CCI), were reduced in CKO mice. CCI induced up-regulation of MyD88 and chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 expression in DRG neurons and macrophage infiltration into DRGs, and microglia activation in spinal dorsal horns in wild-type mice, but all these changes were compromised in CKO mice. Finally, the pain hypersensitivity induced by intraplantar IL-1β was reduced in CKO mice. Our findings suggest that MyD88 in primary sensory neurons plays an active role in regulating IL-1β signaling and neuroinflammation in the peripheral and the central nervous systems, and contributes to the maintenance of persistent pain. PMID:27312666

  6. A kinase interacting protein (AKIP1) is a key regulator of cardiac stress

    PubMed Central

    Sastri, Mira; Haushalter, Kristofer J.; Panneerselvam, Mathivadhani; Chang, Philip; Fridolfsson, Heidi; Finley, J. Cameron; Ng, Daniel; Schilling, Jan M.; Miyanohara, Atsushi; Day, Michele E.; Hakozaki, Hiro; Petrosyan, Susanna; Koller, Antonius; King, Charles C.; Darshi, Manjula; Blumenthal, Donald K.; Ali, Sameh Saad; Roth, David M.; Patel, Hemal H.; Taylor, Susan S.

    2013-01-01

    cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) regulates a myriad of functions in the heart, including cardiac contractility, myocardial metabolism, and gene expression. However, a molecular integrator of the PKA response in the heart is unknown. Here, we show that the PKA adaptor A-kinase interacting protein 1 (AKIP1) is up-regulated in cardiac myocytes in response to oxidant stress. Mice with cardiac gene transfer of AKIP1 have enhanced protection to ischemic stress. We hypothesized that this adaptation to stress was mitochondrial-dependent. AKIP1 interacted with the mitochondrial localized apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) under both normal and oxidant stress. When cardiac myocytes or whole hearts are exposed to oxidant and ischemic stress, levels of both AKIP1 and AIF were enhanced. AKIP1 is preferentially localized to interfibrillary mitochondria and up-regulated in this cardiac mitochondrial subpopulation on ischemic injury. Mitochondria isolated from AKIP1 gene-transferred hearts showed increased mitochondrial localization of AKIP1, decreased reactive oxygen species generation, enhanced calcium tolerance, decreased mitochondrial cytochrome C release, and enhance phosphorylation of mitochondrial PKA substrates on ischemic stress. These observations highlight AKIP1 as a critical molecular regulator and a therapeutic control point for stress adaptation in the heart. PMID:23319652

  7. Modulation of TCR responsiveness by the Grb2-family adaptor, Gads.

    PubMed

    Lugassy, Jennie; Corso, Jasmin; Beach, Dvora; Petrik, Thomas; Oellerich, Thomas; Urlaub, Henning; Yablonski, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    T cell antigen receptor (TCR) signaling depends on three interacting adaptor proteins: SLP-76, Gads, and LAT. Their mechanisms of signaling have been extensively explored, with the aid of fortuitously isolated LAT- and SLP-76-deficient T cell lines, but no such tools were available for Gads, a Grb2-family adaptor that bridges the TCR-inducible interaction between SLP-76 and LAT. TALEN-directed genome editing was applied to disrupt the first coding exon of human Gads in the Jurkat T cell line. Gads was dispensable for TCR-induced phosphorylation of SLP-76, but was a dose-dependent amplifier of TCR-induced CD69 expression. Gads conferred responsiveness to weak TCR stimuli, leading to PLC-γ1 phosphorylation and calcium flux. TALEN-derived, Gads-deficient T cell lines provide a uniquely tractable genetic platform for exploring its regulatory features, such as Gads phosphorylation at T262, which we observed by mass spectrometry. Upon mutation of this site, TCR responsiveness and sensitivity to weak TCR stimuli were increased. This study demonstrates the feasibility of TALEN-based reverse genetics in Jurkat T cells, while enriching our understanding of Gads as a regulated modulator of TCR sensitivity.

  8. Stepping stone: a cytohesin adaptor for membrane cytoskeleton restraint in the syncytial Drosophila embryo

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiangshu; Lee, Donghoon M.; Yu, Cao Guo; Angers, Stephane; Harris, Tony J. C.

    2015-01-01

    Cytohesin Arf-GEFs are conserved plasma membrane regulators. The sole Drosophila cytohesin, Steppke, restrains Rho1-dependent membrane cytoskeleton activity at the base of plasma membrane furrows of the syncytial embryo. By mass spectrometry, we identified a single major Steppke-interacting protein from syncytial embryos, which we named Stepping stone (Sstn). By sequence, Sstn seems to be a divergent homologue of the mammalian cytohesin adaptor FRMD4A. Our experiments supported this relationship. Specifically, heterophilic coiled-coil interactions linked Sstn and Steppke in vivo and in vitro, whereas a separate C-terminal region was required for Sstn localization to furrows. Sstn mutant and RNAi embryos displayed abnormal, Rho1-dependent membrane cytoskeleton expansion from the base of pseudocleavage and cellularization furrows, closely mimicking Steppke loss-of-function embryos. Elevating Sstn furrow levels had no effect on the steppke phenotype, but elevating Steppke furrow levels reversed the sstn phenotype, suggesting that Steppke acts downstream of Sstn and that additional mechanisms can recruit Steppke to furrows. Finally, the coiled-coil domain of Steppke was required for Sstn binding and in addition homodimerization, and its removal disrupted Steppke furrow localization and activity in vivo. Overall we propose that Sstn acts as a cytohesin adaptor that promotes Steppke activity for localized membrane cytoskeleton restraint in the syncytial Drosophila embryo. PMID:25540427

  9. Sub-cellular distribution of UNC-104(KIF1A) upon binding to adaptors as UNC-16(JIP3), DNC-1(DCTN1/Glued) and SYD-2(Liprin-α) in C. elegans neurons.

    PubMed

    Hsu, C-C; Moncaleano, J D; Wagner, O I

    2011-03-10

    The accumulation of cargo (tau, amyloid precursor protein, neurofilaments etc.) in neurons is a hallmark of various neurodegenerative diseases while we have only little knowledge how axonal transport is regulated. Kinesin-3 UNC-104(KIF1A) is the major transporter of synaptic vesicles and recent reports suggest that a cargo itself can affect the motor's activity. Inspecting an interactome map, we identify three putative UNC-104 interactors, namely UNC-16(JIP3), DNC-1(DCTN1/Glued) and SYD-2(Liprin-α), known to be adaptors in essential neuronal protein complexes. We then employed the novel method bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay to visualize motor-adaptor complexes in the nervous system of living C. elegans. Interestingly, the binding of UNC-104 to each adaptor protein results in different sub-cellular distributions and has distinctive effects on the motor's motility. Specifically, if UNC-104 bound to UNC-16, the motor is primarily localized in the soma of neurons while bound to DNC-1, the motor is basically found in axonal termini. On the other hand, if UNC-104 is bound to SYD-2 we identify motor populations mostly along axons. Therefore, these three adaptors inherit different functions in steering the motor to specific sub-cellular locations in the neuron.

  10. BAR domain proteins regulate Rho GTPase signaling

    PubMed Central

    Aspenström, Pontus

    2014-01-01

    BAR proteins comprise a heterogeneous group of multi-domain proteins with diverse biological functions. The common denominator is the Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domain that not only confers targeting to lipid bilayers, but also provides scaffolding to mold lipid membranes into concave or convex surfaces. This function of BAR proteins is an important determinant in the dynamic reconstruction of membrane vesicles, as well as of the plasma membrane. Several BAR proteins function as linkers between cytoskeletal regulation and membrane dynamics. These links are provided by direct interactions between BAR proteins and actin-nucleation-promoting factors of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein family and the Diaphanous-related formins. The Rho GTPases are key factors for orchestration of this intricate interplay. This review describes how BAR proteins regulate the activity of Rho GTPases, as well as how Rho GTPases regulate the function of BAR proteins. This mutual collaboration is a central factor in the regulation of vital cellular processes, such as cell migration, cytokinesis, intracellular transport, endocytosis, and exocytosis. PMID:25483303

  11. FET proteins regulate lifespan and neuronal integrity

    PubMed Central

    Therrien, Martine; Rouleau, Guy A.; Dion, Patrick A.; Parker, J. Alex

    2016-01-01

    The FET protein family includes FUS, EWS and TAF15 proteins, all of which have been linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, a fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting motor neurons. Here, we show that a reduction of FET proteins in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans causes synaptic dysfunction accompanied by impaired motor phenotypes. FET proteins are also involved in the regulation of lifespan and stress resistance, acting partially through the insulin/IGF-signalling pathway. We propose that FET proteins are involved in the maintenance of lifespan, cellular stress resistance and neuronal integrity. PMID:27117089

  12. Regulation of cardiac C-protein phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Titus, F.L.

    1985-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms of cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic responses were addressed by studying subcellular changes in protein phosphorylation, cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity and protein phosphatase activity in frog hearts. B-adrenergic agonists increased and muscarinic cholinergic agonists decreased (/sup 32/P)phosphate incorporation into C-protein, a thick filament component. Regulation of protein phosphatase activity by Iso and methacholine (MCh) was assayed using extracts of drug treated frog hearts and (/sup 32/P)phospho-C-protein as substrate. Total phosphatase activity decreased 21% in extracts from hearts perfused with 0.1 ..mu..M Iso and 17% in hearts exposed to Iso plus 1 ..mu..M methacholine. This decrease reflected decreased phosphatase-2A activity. No changes in total phosphatase activity were measurable in broken cells treated with Iso or MCh. The results suggest adrenergic stimulation changes contractile activity in frog hearts by activating cAMP-dependent protein kinase associated with particulate cellular elements and inactivating soluble protein phosphatase-2A. This is the first demonstration of coordinated regulation of these enzymes by B-adrenergic agonists favoring phosphorylation of effector proteins. Coordinated regulation by methacholine in the presence of Iso was not observed.

  13. Palmitic acid increases pro-oxidant adaptor protein p66Shc expression and affects vascularization factors in angiogenic mononuclear cells: Action of resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Favre, Julie; Yildirim, Cansu; Leyen, Thomas A; Chen, Weena J Y; van Genugten, Renate E; van Golen, Larissa W; Garcia-Vallejo, Juan-Jesus; Musters, Rene; Baggen, Josefien; Fontijn, Ruud; van der Pouw Kraan, Tineke; Serné, Erik; Koolwijk, Pieter; Diamant, Michaela; Horrevoets, Anton J G

    2015-12-01

    A defect in neo-vascularization process involving circulating angiogenic mononuclear cells (CACs) dysfunction is associated with diabetes. We showed that oxidative stress was elevated in CACs cultured from blood of individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and diabetes. We then assessed the action of palmitic acid (PA), a deregulated and increased NEFA in metabolic disorders, focusing on its oxidant potential. We observed that the phyto-polyphenol resveratrol normalized oxidative stress both in CACs isolated from MetS patients or treated with PA. Resveratrol further decreased the deleterious action of PA on gene expression of vascularization factors (TNFα, VEGF-A, SDF1α, PECAM-1, VEGFR2, Tie2 and CXCR4) and improved CAC motility. Particularly, resveratrol abolished the PA-induced over-expression of the pro-oxidant protein p66Shc. Neither KLF2 nor SIRT1, previously shown in resveratrol and p66Shc action, was directly involved. Silencing p66Shc normalized PA action on VEGF-A and TNFα specifically, without abolishing the PA-induced oxidative stress, which suggests a deleterious role of p66Shc independently of any major modulation of the cellular oxidative status in a high NEFA levels context. Besides showing that resveratrol reverses PA-induced harmful effects on human CAC function, certainly through profound cellular modifications, we establish p66Shc as a major therapeutic target in metabolic disorders, independent from glycemic control.

  14. Absence of the inflammasome adaptor ASC reduces hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in mice.

    PubMed

    Cero, Fadila Telarevic; Hillestad, Vigdis; Sjaastad, Ivar; Yndestad, Arne; Aukrust, Pål; Ranheim, Trine; Lunde, Ida Gjervold; Olsen, Maria Belland; Lien, Egil; Zhang, Lili; Haugstad, Solveig Bjærum; Løberg, Else Marit; Christensen, Geir; Larsen, Karl-Otto; Skjønsberg, Ole Henning

    2015-08-15

    Pulmonary hypertension is a serious condition that can lead to premature death. The mechanisms involved are incompletely understood although a role for the immune system has been suggested. Inflammasomes are part of the innate immune system and consist of the effector caspase-1 and a receptor, where nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) is the best characterized and interacts with the adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase-recruitment domain (ASC). To investigate whether ASC and NLRP3 inflammasome components are involved in hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension, we utilized mice deficient in ASC and NLRP3. Active caspase-1, IL-18, and IL-1β, which are regulated by inflammasomes, were measured in lung homogenates in wild-type (WT), ASC(-/-), and NLRP3(-/-) mice, and phenotypical changes related to pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular remodeling were characterized after hypoxic exposure. Right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) of ASC(-/-) mice was significantly lower than in WT exposed to hypoxia (40.8 ± 1.5 mmHg vs. 55.8 ± 2.4 mmHg, P < 0.001), indicating a substantially reduced pulmonary hypertension in mice lacking ASC. Magnetic resonance imaging further supported these findings by demonstrating reduced right ventricular remodeling. RVSP of NLRP3(-/-) mice exposed to hypoxia was not significantly altered compared with WT hypoxia. Whereas hypoxia increased protein levels of caspase-1, IL-18, and IL-1β in WT and NLRP3(-/-) mice, this response was absent in ASC(-/-) mice. Moreover, ASC(-/-) mice displayed reduced muscularization and collagen deposition around arteries. In conclusion, hypoxia-induced elevated right ventricular pressure and remodeling were attenuated in mice lacking the inflammasome adaptor protein ASC, suggesting that inflammasomes play an important role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension.

  15. Regulators of G protein signalling proteins in the human myometrium.

    PubMed

    Ladds, Graham; Zervou, Sevasti; Vatish, Manu; Thornton, Steven; Davey, John

    2009-05-21

    The contractile state of the human myometrium is controlled by extracellular signals that promote relaxation or contraction. Many of these signals function through G protein-coupled receptors at the cell surface, stimulating heterotrimeric G proteins and leading to changes in the activity of effector proteins responsible for bringing about the response. G proteins can interact with multiple receptors and many different effectors and are key players in the response. Regulators of G protein signalling (RGS) proteins are GTPase activating proteins for heterotrimeric G proteins and help terminate the signal. Little is known about the function of RGS proteins in human myometrium and we have therefore analysed transcript levels for RGS proteins at various stages of pregnancy (non-pregnant, preterm, term non-labouring, term labouring). RGS2 and RGS5 were the most abundantly expressed isolates in each of the patient groups. The levels of RGS4 and RGS16 (and to a lesser extent RGS2 and RGS14) increased in term labouring samples relative to the other groups. Yeast two-hybrid analysis and co-immunoprecipitation in myometrial cells revealed that both RGS2 and RGS5 interact directly with the cytoplasmic tail of the oxytocin receptor, suggesting they might help regulate signalling through this receptor.

  16. Adaptor assembly for coupling turbine blades to rotor disks

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose; Delvaux, John McConnell

    2014-09-23

    An adaptor assembly for coupling a blade root of a turbine blade to a root slot of a rotor disk is described. The adaptor assembly includes a turbine blade having a blade root and an adaptor body having an adaptor root. The adaptor body defines a slot having an open end configured to receive the blade root of the turbine blade such that the adaptor root of the adaptor body and the blade root of the turbine blade are adjacent to one another when the blade root of the turbine blade is positioned within the slot. Both the adaptor root of the adaptor body and the blade root of the turbine blade are configured to be received within the root slot of the rotor disk.

  17. Small molecule regulators of protein arginine methyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Donghang; Yadav, Neelu; King, Randall W; Swanson, Maurice S; Weinstein, Edward J; Bedford, Mark T

    2004-06-04

    Here we report the identification of small molecules that specifically inhibit protein arginine N-methyltransferase (PRMT) activity. PRMTs are a family of proteins that either monomethylate or dimethylate the guanidino nitrogen atoms of arginine side chains. This common post-translational modification is implicated in protein trafficking, signal transduction, and transcriptional regulation. Most methyltransferases use the methyl donor, S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet), as a cofactor. Current methyltransferase inhibitors display limited specificity, indiscriminately targeting all enzymes that use AdoMet. In this screen we have identified a primary compound, AMI-1, that specifically inhibits arginine, but not lysine, methyltransferase activity in vitro and does not compete for the AdoMet binding site. Furthermore, AMI-1 prevents in vivo arginine methylation of cellular proteins and can modulate nuclear receptor-regulated transcription from estrogen and androgen response elements, thus operating as a brake on certain hormone actions.

  18. Regulation of Mutant p53 Protein Expression.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumaran, Reshma; Tan, Kah Hin; Miranda, Panimaya Jeffreena; Haupt, Sue; Haupt, Ygal

    2015-01-01

    For several decades, p53 has been detected in cancer biopsies by virtue of its high protein expression level which is considered indicative of mutation. Surprisingly, however, mouse genetic studies revealed that mutant p53 is inherently labile, similar to its wild type (wt) counterpart. Consistently, in response to stress conditions, both wt and mutant p53 accumulate in cells. While wt p53 returns to basal level following recovery from stress, mutant p53 remains stable. In part, this can be explained in mutant p53-expressing cells by the lack of an auto-regulatory loop with Mdm2 and other negative regulators, which are pivotal for wt p53 regulation. Further, additional protective mechanisms are acquired by mutant p53, largely mediated by the co-chaperones and their paralogs, the stress-induced heat shock proteins. Consequently, mutant p53 is accumulated in cancer cells in response to chronic stress and this accumulation is critical for its oncogenic gain of functions (GOF). Building on the extensive knowledge regarding wt p53, the regulation of mutant p53 is unraveling. In this review, we describe the current understanding on the major levels at which mutant p53 is regulated. These include the regulation of p53 protein levels by microRNA and by enzymes controlling p53 proteasomal degradation.

  19. THREADED ADAPTOR FOR LUGGED PIPE ENDS

    DOEpatents

    Robb, J.E.

    1962-06-01

    An adaptor is designed for enabling a threaded part to be connected to a member at a region having lugs normally receiving bayonet slots of another part for attachment of the latter. It has been found desirable to replace a closure cap connected in a bayonet joint to the end of a coolant tube containing nuclear- reactor fuel elements, with a threaded valve. An adaptor is used which has J- slots receiving lugs on the end of the reactor tube, a thread for connection with the valve, and gear-tooth section enabling a gear-type of tool to rotate the adaptor to seal the valve to the end of the reactor tube. (AEC)

  20. MicroRNAs regulate tight junction proteins and modulate epithelial/endothelial barrier functions

    PubMed Central

    Cichon, Christoph; Sabharwal, Harshana; Rüter, Christian; Schmidt, M Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Tightly controlled epithelial and endothelial barriers are a prerequisite for life as these barriers separate multicellular organisms from their environment and serve as first lines of defense. Barriers between neighboring epithelial cells are formed by multiple intercellular junctions including the ‘apical junctional complex—AJC’ with tight junctions (TJ), adherens junctions (AJ), and desmosomes. TJ consist of tetraspan transmembrane proteins like occludin, various claudins that directly control paracellular permeability, and the ‘Junctional Adhesion Molecules’ (JAMs). For establishing tight barriers TJ are essential but at the same time have to allow also selective permeability. For this, TJ need to be tightly regulated and controlled. This is organized by a variety of adaptor molecules, i.e., protein kinases, phosphatases and GTPases, which in turn are regulated and fine-tuned involving microRNAs (miRNAs). In this review we summarize available data on the role and targeting of miRNAs in the maintenance of epithelial and/or endothelial barriers. PMID:25610754

  1. MAP1S Protein Regulates the Phagocytosis of Bacteria and Toll-like Receptor (TLR) Signaling.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ming; Zhang, Yifan; Liu, Leyuan; Zhang, Tingting; Han, Fang; Cleveland, Joseph; Wang, Fen; McKeehan, Wallace L; Li, Yu; Zhang, Dekai

    2016-01-15

    Phagocytosis is a critical cellular process for innate immune defense against microbial infection. The regulation of phagocytosis process is complex and has not been well defined. An intracellular molecule might regulate cell surface-initiated phagocytosis, but the underlying molecular mechanism is poorly understood (1). In this study, we found that microtubule-associated protein 1S (MAP1S), a protein identified recently that is involved in autophagy (2), is expressed primarily in macrophages. MAP1S-deficient macrophages are impaired in the phagocytosis of bacteria. Furthermore, we demonstrate that MAP1S interacts directly with MyD88, a key adaptor of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), upon TLR activation and affects the TLR signaling pathway. Intriguingly, we also observe that, upon TLR activation, MyD88 participates in autophagy processing in a MAP1S-dependent manner by co-localizing with MAP1 light chain 3 (MAP1-LC3 or LC3). Therefore, we reveal that an intracellular autophagy-related molecule of MAP1S controls bacterial phagocytosis through TLR signaling.

  2. Brain-specific interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein in sleep regulation.

    PubMed

    Taishi, Ping; Davis, Christopher J; Bayomy, Omar; Zielinski, Mark R; Liao, Fan; Clinton, James M; Smith, Dirk E; Krueger, James M

    2012-03-01

    Interleukin (IL)-1β is involved in several brain functions, including sleep regulation. It promotes non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep via the IL-1 type I receptor. IL-1β/IL-1 receptor complex signaling requires adaptor proteins, e.g., the IL-1 receptor brain-specific accessory protein (AcPb). We have cloned and characterized rat AcPb, which shares substantial homologies with mouse AcPb and, compared with AcP, is preferentially expressed in the brain. Furthermore, rat somatosensory cortex AcPb mRNA varied across the day with sleep propensity, increased after sleep deprivation, and was induced by somnogenic doses of IL-1β. Duration of NREM sleep was slightly shorter and duration of REM sleep was slightly longer in AcPb knockout than wild-type mice. In response to lipopolysaccharide, which is used to induce IL-1β, sleep responses were exaggerated in AcPb knockout mice, suggesting that, in normal mice, inflammation-mediated sleep responses are attenuated by AcPb. We conclude that AcPb has a role in sleep responses to inflammatory stimuli and, possibly, in physiological sleep regulation.

  3. Regulation of cardiomyocyte signaling by RGS proteins: differential selectivity towards G proteins and susceptibility to regulation.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jianming; Michalek, Christina; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Ming; Xu, Xiaomei; Mende, Ulrike

    2006-07-01

    Many signals that regulate cardiomyocyte growth, differentiation and function are mediated via heterotrimeric G proteins, which are under the control of RGS proteins (Regulators of G protein Signaling). Several RGS proteins are expressed in the heart, but so far little is known about their function and regulation. Using adenoviral gene transfer, we conducted the first comprehensive analysis of the capacity and selectivity of the major cardiac RGS proteins (RGS2-RGS5) to regulate central G protein-mediated signaling pathways in adult ventricular myocytes (AVM). All four RGS proteins potently inhibited Gq/11-mediated phospholipase C beta stimulation and cell growth (assessed in neonatal myocytes). Importantly, RGS2 selectively inhibited Gq/11 signaling, whereas RGS3, RGS4 and RGS5 had the capacity to regulate both Gq/11 and Gi/o signaling (carbachol-induced cAMP inhibition). Gs signaling was unaffected, and, contrary to reports in other cell lines, RGS2-RGS5 did not appear to regulate adenylate cyclase directly in AVM. Since RGS proteins can be highly regulated in their expression by many different stimuli, we also tested the hypothesis that RGS expression is subject to G protein-mediated regulation in AVM and determined the specificity with which enhanced G protein signaling alters endogenous RGS expression in AVM. RGS2 mRNA and protein were markedly but transiently up-regulated by enhanced Gq/11 signaling (alpha1-adrenergic stimulation or Galphaq* overexpression), possibly by a negative feedback mechanism. In contrast, the other negative regulators of Gq/11 signaling (RGS3-RGS5) were unchanged. Endogenous RGS2 (but not RGS3-RGS5) expression was also up-regulated in cells with enhanced AC signaling (beta-adrenergic or forskolin stimulation). Taken together, these findings suggest diverse roles of RGS proteins in regulating myocyte signaling. RGS2 emerged as the only selective and highly regulated inhibitor of Gq/11 signaling that could potentially become a promising

  4. Protein Synthesis Initiation Factors: Phosphorylation and Regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Karen S. Browning

    2009-06-15

    The initiation of the synthesis of proteins is a fundamental process shared by all living organisms. Each organism has both shared and unique mechanisms for regulation of this vital process. Higher plants provide for a major amount of fixation of carbon from the environment and turn this carbon into food and fuel sources for our use. However, we have very little understanding of how plants regulate the synthesis of the proteins necessary for these metabolic processes. The research carried out during the grant period sought to address some of these unknowns in the regulation of protein synthesis initiation. Our first goal was to determine if phosphorylation plays a significant role in plant initiation of protein synthesis. The role of phosphorylation, although well documented in mammalian protein synthesis regulation, is not well studied in plants. We showed that several of the factors necessary for the initiation of protein synthesis were targets of plant casein kinase and showed differential phosphorylation by the plant specific isoforms of this kinase. In addition, we identified and confirmed the phosphorylation sites in five of the plant initiation factors. Further, we showed that phosphorylation of one of these factors, eIF5, affected the ability of the factor to participate in the initiation process. Our second goal was to develop a method to make initiation factor 3 (eIF3) using recombinant methods. To date, we successfully cloned and expressed 13/13 subunits of wheat eIF3 in E. coli using de novo gene construction methods. The final step in this process is to place the subunits into three different plasmid operons for co-expression. Successful completion of expression of eIF3 will be an invaluable tool to the plant translation community.

  5. The LIM domain protein nTRIP6 recruits the mediator complex to AP-1-regulated promoters.

    PubMed

    Diefenbacher, Markus E; Reich, Daniela; Dahley, Oliver; Kemler, Denise; Litfin, Margarethe; Herrlich, Peter; Kassel, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Several LIM domain proteins regulate transcription. They are thought to act through their LIM protein-protein interaction domains as adaptors for the recruitment of transcriptional co-regulators. An intriguing example is nTRIP6, the nuclear isoform of the focal adhesion protein TRIP6. nTRIP6 interacts with AP-1 and enhances its transcriptional activity. nTRIP6 is also essential for the transrepression of AP-1 by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), by mediating GR tethering to promoter-bound AP-1. Here we report on the molecular mechanism by which nTRIP6 exerts these effects. Both the LIM domains and the pre-LIM region of nTRIP6 are necessary for its co-activator function for AP-1. Discrete domains within the pre-LIM region mediate the dimerization of nTRIP6 at the promoter, which enables the recruitment of the Mediator complex subunits THRAP3 and Med1. This recruitment is blocked by GR, through a competition between GR and THRAP3 for the interaction with the LIM domains of nTRIP6. Thus, nTRIP6 both positively and negatively regulates transcription by orchestrating the recruitment of the Mediator complex to AP-1-regulated promoters.

  6. The TWD40-2 protein and the AP2 complex cooperate in the clathrin-mediated endocytosis of cellulose synthase to regulate cellulose biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Bashline, Logan; Li, Shundai; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Gu, Ying

    2015-10-13

    Cellulose biosynthesis is performed exclusively by plasma membrane-localized cellulose synthases (CESAs). Therefore, the trafficking of CESAs to and from the plasma membrane is an important mechanism for regulating cellulose biosynthesis. CESAs were recently identified as cargo proteins of the classic adaptor protein 2 (AP2) complex of the clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) pathway. The AP2 complex of the CME pathway is conserved in yeast, animals, and plants, and has been well-characterized in many systems. In contrast, the recently discovered TPLATE complex (TPC), which is proposed to function as a CME adaptor complex, is only conserved in plants and a few other eukaryotes. In this study, we discovered that the TWD40-2 protein, a putative member of the TPC, is also important for the endocytosis of CESAs. Genetic analysis between TWD40-2 and AP2M of the AP2 complex revealed that the roles of TWD40-2 in CME are both distinct from and cooperative with the AP2 complex. Loss of efficient CME in twd40-2-3 resulted in the unregulated overaccumulation of CESAs at the plasma membrane. In seedlings of twd40-2-3 and other CME-deficient mutants, a direct correlation was revealed between endocytic deficiency and cellulose content deficiency, highlighting the importance of controlled CESA endocytosis in regulating cellulose biosynthesis.

  7. Styles of Creativity: Adaptors and Innovators in a Singapore Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ee, Jessie; Seng, Tan Oon; Kwang, Ng Aik

    2007-01-01

    Kirton (1976) described two creative styles, namely adaptors and innovators. Adaptors prefer to "do things better" whilst, innovators prefer to "do things differently". This study explored the relationship between two creative styles (adaptor and innovator) and the Big Five personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness,…

  8. 21 CFR 870.3620 - Pacemaker lead adaptor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pacemaker lead adaptor. 870.3620 Section 870.3620...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3620 Pacemaker lead adaptor. (a) Identification. A pacemaker lead adaptor is a device used to adapt a pacemaker lead so that...

  9. 21 CFR 870.2350 - Electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor. 870... Electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor. (a) Identification. An electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor is a passive switching device to which electrocardiograph limb and chest leads may be attached. This device...

  10. 21 CFR 870.2350 - Electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor. 870... Electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor. (a) Identification. An electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor is a passive switching device to which electrocardiograph limb and chest leads may be attached. This device...

  11. 21 CFR 870.2350 - Electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor. 870... Electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor. (a) Identification. An electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor is a passive switching device to which electrocardiograph limb and chest leads may be attached. This device...

  12. 21 CFR 870.3620 - Pacemaker lead adaptor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pacemaker lead adaptor. 870.3620 Section 870.3620...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3620 Pacemaker lead adaptor. (a) Identification. A pacemaker lead adaptor is a device used to adapt a pacemaker lead so that...

  13. 21 CFR 870.3620 - Pacemaker lead adaptor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pacemaker lead adaptor. 870.3620 Section 870.3620...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3620 Pacemaker lead adaptor. (a) Identification. A pacemaker lead adaptor is a device used to adapt a pacemaker lead so that...

  14. 21 CFR 870.2350 - Electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor. 870... Electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor. (a) Identification. An electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor is a passive switching device to which electrocardiograph limb and chest leads may be attached. This device...

  15. 21 CFR 870.3620 - Pacemaker lead adaptor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pacemaker lead adaptor. 870.3620 Section 870.3620...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3620 Pacemaker lead adaptor. (a) Identification. A pacemaker lead adaptor is a device used to adapt a pacemaker lead so that...

  16. 21 CFR 870.2350 - Electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor. 870... Electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor. (a) Identification. An electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor is a passive switching device to which electrocardiograph limb and chest leads may be attached. This device...

  17. Mechanism and regulation of eukaryotic protein synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Merrick, W C

    1992-01-01

    This review presents a description of the numerous eukaryotic protein synthesis factors and their apparent sequential utilization in the processes of initiation, elongation, and termination. Additionally, the rare use of reinitiation and internal initiation is discussed, although little is known biochemically about these processes. Subsequently, control of translation is addressed in two different settings. The first is the global control of translation, which is effected by protein phosphorylation. The second is a series of specific mRNAs for which there is a direct and unique regulation of the synthesis of the gene product under study. Other examples of translational control are cited but not discussed, because the general mechanism for the regulation is unknown. Finally, as is often seen in an active area of investigation, there are several observations that cannot be readily accommodated by the general model presented in the first part of the review. Alternate explanations and various lines of experimentation are proposed to resolve these apparent contradictions. PMID:1620067

  18. Teaching resources. Regulation of protein translation.

    PubMed

    Landau, Emmanuel M

    2006-03-07

    This Teaching Resource provides a summary and slides derived from a lecture on protein translation and is part of the course "Cell Signaling Systems: A Course for Graduate Students." The lecture begins with a discussion of the various components that perform the translation process and then proceeds to describe the initiation, scanning, and ribosomal entry processes. The lecture concludes with the signaling mechanisms underlying translation regulation.

  19. Asymmetric Inheritance of Aggregated Proteins and Age Reset in Yeast Are Regulated by Vac17-Dependent Vacuolar Functions.

    PubMed

    Hill, Sandra Malmgren; Hao, Xinxin; Grönvall, Johan; Spikings-Nordby, Stephanie; Widlund, Per O; Amen, Triana; Jörhov, Anna; Josefson, Rebecca; Kaganovich, Daniel; Liu, Beidong; Nyström, Thomas

    2016-07-19

    Age can be reset during mitosis in both yeast and stem cells to generate a young daughter cell from an aged and deteriorated one. This phenomenon requires asymmetry-generating genes (AGGs) that govern the asymmetrical inheritance of aggregated proteins. Using a genome-wide imaging screen to identify AGGs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we discovered a previously unknown role for endocytosis, vacuole fusion, and the myosin-dependent adaptor protein Vac17 in asymmetrical inheritance of misfolded proteins. Overproduction of Vac17 increases deposition of aggregates into cytoprotective vacuole-associated sites, counteracts age-related breakdown of endocytosis and vacuole integrity, and extends replicative lifespan. The link between damage asymmetry and vesicle trafficking can be explained by a direct interaction between aggregates and vesicles. We also show that the protein disaggregase Hsp104 interacts physically with endocytic vesicle-associated proteins, such as the dynamin-like protein, Vps1, which was also shown to be required for Vac17-dependent sequestration of protein aggregates. These data demonstrate that two physiognomies of aging-reduced endocytosis and protein aggregation-are interconnected and regulated by Vac17.

  20. Regulation of protein phosphorylation in oat mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Pike, C.; Kopeck, K.; Sceppa, E. )

    1989-04-01

    We sought to identify phosphorylated proteins in isolated oat mitocchondria and to characterize the enzymatic and regulatory properties of the protein kinase(s). Mitochondria from oats (Avena sativa L. cv. Garry) were purified on Percoll gradients. Mitochondria were incubated with {sup 32}P-{gamma}-ATP; proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE. A small number of bands was detected on autoradiograms, most prominently at 70 kD and 42 kD; the latter band has been tentatively identified as a subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, a well-known phosphoprotein. The protein kinase(s) could also phosphorylate casein, but not histone. Spermine enhanced the phosphorylation of casein and inhibited the phosphorylation of the 42 kD band. These studies were carried out on both intact and burst mitochondria. Control by calcium and other ions was investigated. The question of the action of regulators on protein kinase or protein phosphatase was studied by the use of {sup 35}S-adenosine thiotriphosphate.

  1. miR-181 interacts with signaling adaptor molecule DENN/MADD and enhances TNF-induced cell death

    PubMed Central

    Ghorbani, Samira; Talebi, Farideh; Ghasemi, Sedigheh; Jahanbazi Jahan Abad, Ali; Vojgani, Mohammed; Noorbakhsh, Farshid

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs, which regulate the expression of protein coding transcripts through mRNA degradation or translational inhibition. Numerous reports have highlighted the role of miRNAs in regulating cell death pathways including the expression of genes involved in the induction of apoptosis. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a proinflammatory cytokine which can send pro-death signals through its receptor TNFR1. Diverse adaptor molecules including DENN/MADD adaptor protein have been shown to modulate TNF-α pro-death signaling via recruitment of MAP kinases to TNFR1 and activation of pro-survival NFκB signaling. Herein, we investigated the role of microRNA-181 (miR-181) in regulating DENN/MADD expression levels and its subsequent effects on TNF-α-induced cell death. Using bioinformatics analyses followed by luciferase reporter assays we showed that miR-181 interacts with the 3’ UTR of DENN/MADD transcripts. miR-181 overexpression also led to decreased endogenous DENN/MADD mRNA levels in L929 murine fibroblasts. Flow cytometric analysis of miR-181 transfected cells showed this miRNA accentuates mitochondrial membrane potential loss caused by TNF-α. These findings were associated with enhanced apoptosis of L929 cells following TNF-α treatment. Overall, these data point to the potential role of miR-181 in regulating TNF-α pro-death signaling, which could be of importance from pathogenesis and therapeutic perspectives in inflammatory disorders associated with tissue degeneration and cell death. PMID:28323882

  2. Regulation of longevity by regulator of G-protein signaling protein, Loco.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuh-Ru; Kim, Keetae; Yang, Yanfei; Ivessa, Andreas; Sadoshima, Junichi; Park, Yongkyu

    2011-06-01

    Regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins contribute to G-protein signaling pathways as activators or repressors with GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity. To characterize whether regulation of RGS proteins influences longevity in several species, we measured stress responses and lifespan of RGS-overexpressing and RGS-lacking mutants. Reduced expression of Loco, a RGS protein of Drosophila melanogaster, resulted in a longer lifespan for both male and female flies, also exhibiting stronger resistance to three different stressors (starvation, oxidation, and heat) and higher manganese-containing superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity. In addition, this reduction in Loco expression increased fat content and diminished cAMP levels. In contrast, overexpression of both genomic and cDNA loco gene significantly shortened the lifespan with weaker stress resistance and lower fat content. Deletion analysis of the Loco demonstrated that its RGS domain is required for the regulation of longevity. Consistently, when expression of RGS14, mammalian homologue of Loco, was reduced in rat fibroblast cells, the resistance to oxidative stress increased with higher MnSOD expression. The changes of yeast Rgs2 expression, which shares a conserved RGS domain with the fly Loco protein, also altered lifespan and stress resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we provide the first evidence that RGS proteins with GAP activity affect both stress resistance and longevity in several species.

  3. Localization and Function of Pals1-associated Tight Junction Protein in Drosophila Is Regulated by Two Distinct Apical Complexes.

    PubMed

    Sen, Arnab; Sun, Rui; Krahn, Michael P

    2015-05-22

    The transmembrane protein Crumbs (Crb) and its intracellular adaptor protein Pals1 (Stardust, Sdt in Drosophila) play a crucial role in the establishment and maintenance of apical-basal polarity in epithelial cells in various organisms. In contrast, the multiple PDZ domain-containing protein Pals1-associated tight junction protein (PATJ), which has been described to form a complex with Crb/Sdt, is not essential for apical basal polarity or for the stability of the Crb/Sdt complex in the Drosophila epidermis. Here we show that, in the embryonic epidermis, Sdt is essential for the correct subcellular localization of PATJ in differentiated epithelial cells but not during cellularization. Consistently, the L27 domain of PATJ is crucial for the correct localization and function of the protein. Our data further indicate that the four PDZ domains of PATJ function, to a large extent, in redundancy, regulating the function of the protein. Interestingly, the PATJ-Sdt heterodimer is not only recruited to the apical cell-cell contacts by binding to Crb but depends on functional Bazooka (Baz). However, biochemical experiments show that PATJ associates with both complexes, the Baz-Sdt and the Crb-Sdt complex, in the mature epithelium of the embryonic epidermis, suggesting a role of these two complexes for the function of PATJ during the development of Drosophila.

  4. Exercise regulation of intestinal tight junction proteins.

    PubMed

    Zuhl, Micah; Schneider, Suzanne; Lanphere, Katherine; Conn, Carole; Dokladny, Karol; Moseley, Pope

    2014-06-01

    Gastrointestinal distress, such as diarrhoea, cramping, vomiting, nausea and gastric pain are common among athletes during training and competition. The mechanisms that cause these symptoms are not fully understood. The stress of heat and oxidative damage during exercise causes disruption to intestinal epithelial cell tight junction proteins resulting in increased permeability to luminal endotoxins. The endotoxin moves into the blood stream leading to a systemic immune response. Tight junction integrity is altered by the phosphoylation state of the proteins occludin and claudins, and may be regulated by the type of exercise performed. Prolonged exercise and high-intensity exercise lead to an increase in key phosphorylation enzymes that ultimately cause tight junction dysfunction, but the mechanisms are different. The purpose of this review is to (1) explain the function and physiology of tight junction regulation, (2) discuss the effects of prolonged and high-intensity exercise on tight junction permeability leading to gastrointestinal distress and (3) review agents that may increase or decrease tight junction integrity during exercise.

  5. Mining protein kinases regulation using graphical models.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qingfeng; Chen, Yi-Ping Phoebe

    2011-03-01

    Abnormal kinase activity is a frequent cause of diseases, which makes kinases a promising pharmacological target. Thus, it is critical to identify the characteristics of protein kinases regulation by studying the activation and inhibition of kinase subunits in response to varied stimuli. Bayesian network (BN) is a formalism for probabilistic reasoning that has been widely used for learning dependency models. However, for high-dimensional discrete random vectors the set of plausible models becomes large and a full comparison of all the posterior probabilities related to the competing models becomes infeasible. A solution to this problem is based on the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. This paper proposes a BN-based framework to discover the dependency correlations of kinase regulation. Our approach is to apply the MCMC method to generate a sequence of samples from a probability distribution, by which to approximate the distribution. The frequent connections (edges) are identified from the obtained sampling graphical models. Our results point to a number of novel candidate regulation patterns that are interesting in biology and include inferred associations that were unknown.

  6. Karyopherin Alpha Proteins Regulate Oligodendrocyte Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Mariani, John N.; Zhang, Chi; Sawai, Setsu; John, Gareth R.

    2017-01-01

    Proper regulation of the coordinated transcriptional program that drives oligodendrocyte (OL) differentiation is essential for central nervous system myelin formation and repair. Nuclear import, mediated in part by a group of karyopherin alpha (Kpna) proteins, regulates transcription factor access to the genome. Understanding how canonical nuclear import functions to control genomic access in OL differentiation may aid in the creation of novel therapeutics to stimulate myelination and remyelination. Here, we show that members of the Kpna family regulate OL differentiation, and may play distinct roles downstream of different pro-myelinating stimuli. Multiple family members are expressed in OLs, and their pharmacologic inactivation dose-dependently decreases the rate of differentiation. Additionally, upon differentiation, the three major Kpna subtypes (P/α2, Q/α3, S/α1) display differential responses to the pro-myelinating cues T3 and CNTF. Most notably, the Q/α3 karyopherin Kpna4 is strongly upregulated by CNTF treatment both compared with T3 treatment and other Kpna responses. Kpna4 inactivation results in inhibition of CNTF-induced OL differentiation, in the absence of changes in proliferation or viability. Collectively, these findings suggest that canonical nuclear import is an integral component of OL differentiation, and that specific Kpnas may serve vital and distinct functions downstream of different pro-myelinating cues. PMID:28107514

  7. Karyopherin Alpha Proteins Regulate Oligodendrocyte Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Laitman, Benjamin M; Mariani, John N; Zhang, Chi; Sawai, Setsu; John, Gareth R

    2017-01-01

    Proper regulation of the coordinated transcriptional program that drives oligodendrocyte (OL) differentiation is essential for central nervous system myelin formation and repair. Nuclear import, mediated in part by a group of karyopherin alpha (Kpna) proteins, regulates transcription factor access to the genome. Understanding how canonical nuclear import functions to control genomic access in OL differentiation may aid in the creation of novel therapeutics to stimulate myelination and remyelination. Here, we show that members of the Kpna family regulate OL differentiation, and may play distinct roles downstream of different pro-myelinating stimuli. Multiple family members are expressed in OLs, and their pharmacologic inactivation dose-dependently decreases the rate of differentiation. Additionally, upon differentiation, the three major Kpna subtypes (P/α2, Q/α3, S/α1) display differential responses to the pro-myelinating cues T3 and CNTF. Most notably, the Q/α3 karyopherin Kpna4 is strongly upregulated by CNTF treatment both compared with T3 treatment and other Kpna responses. Kpna4 inactivation results in inhibition of CNTF-induced OL differentiation, in the absence of changes in proliferation or viability. Collectively, these findings suggest that canonical nuclear import is an integral component of OL differentiation, and that specific Kpnas may serve vital and distinct functions downstream of different pro-myelinating cues.

  8. Scaffold functions of 14-3-3 adaptors in B cell immunoglobulin class switch DNA recombination.

    PubMed

    Lam, Tonika; Thomas, Lisa M; White, Clayton A; Li, Guideng; Pone, Egest J; Xu, Zhenming; Casali, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Class switch DNA recombination (CSR) of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) locus crucially diversifies antibody biological effector functions. CSR involves the induction of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) expression and AID targeting to switch (S) regions by 14-3-3 adaptors. 14-3-3 adaptors specifically bind to 5'-AGCT-3' repeats, which make up for the core of all IgH locus S regions. They selectively target the upstream and downstream S regions that are set to undergo S-S DNA recombination. We hypothesized that 14-3-3 adaptors function as scaffolds to stabilize CSR enzymatic elements on S regions. Here we demonstrate that all seven 14-3-3β, 14-3-3ε, 14-3-3γ, 14-3-3η, 14-3-3σ, 14-3-3τ and 14-3-3ζ adaptors directly interacted with AID, PKA-Cα (catalytic subunit) and PKA-RIα (regulatory inhibitory subunit) and uracil DNA glycosylase (Ung). 14-3-3 adaptors, however, did not interact with AID C-terminal truncation mutant AIDΔ(180-198) or AIDF193A and AIDL196A point-mutants (which have been shown not to bind to S region DNA and fail to mediate CSR). 14-3-3 adaptors colocalized with AID and replication protein A (RPA) in B cells undergoing CSR. 14-3-3 and AID binding to S region DNA was disrupted by viral protein R (Vpr), an accessory protein of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1), which inhibited CSR without altering AID expression or germline IH-CH transcription. Accordingly, we demonstrated that 14-3-3 directly interact with Vpr, which in turn, also interact with AID, PKA-Cα and Ung. Altogether, our findings suggest that 14-3-3 adaptors play important scaffold functions and nucleate the assembly of multiple CSR factors on S regions. They also show that such assembly can be disrupted by a viral protein, thereby allowing us to hypothesize that small molecule compounds that specifically block 14-3-3 interactions with AID, PKA and/or Ung can be used to inhibit unwanted CSR.

  9. Regulation of Rho proteins by phosphorylation in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Loirand, Gervaise; Guilluy, Christophe; Pacaud, Pierre

    2006-08-01

    The small G protein Rho signaling pathways are recognized as major regulators of cardiovascular functions, and activation of Rho proteins appears to be a common component for the pathogenesis of hypertension and vascular proliferative disorders. Rho proteins are tightly regulated, and recent evidence suggests that modulation of Rho protein signaling by phosphorylation of Rho proteins provides an additional simple mechanism for coordinating Rho protein functions. This regulation by phosphorylation is particularly important in the arterial wall, where RhoA protein expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells is controlled by the endothelium through the nitric oxide/cGMP-dependent kinase pathway.

  10. Adaptor assembly for coupling turbine blades to rotor disks

    SciTech Connect

    Delvaux, John McConnel; Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose; Joyce, Kilmer Joseph; Tindell, Allan Randall

    2014-06-03

    An adaptor assembly for coupling a blade root of a turbine blade to a root slot of a rotor disk is disclosed. The adaptor assembly may generally include an adaptor body having a root configured to be received within the root slot. The adaptor body may also define a slot having an open end configured to receive the blade root. The adaptor body may further define a channel. The adaptor assembly may also include a plate having an outwardly extending foot. The foot may be configured to be received within the channel. Additionally, the plate may be configured to cover at least a portion of the open end of the slot when the foot is received within the channel.

  11. 14-3-3 and its binding partners are regulators of protein–protein interactions during spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shengyi; Wong, Elissa W P; Li, Michelle W M; Lee, Will M; Cheng, C Yan

    2009-01-01

    During spermatogenesis, spermiation takes place at the adluminal edge of the seminiferous epithelium at stage VIII of the epithelial cycle during which fully developed spermatids (i.e. spermatozoa) detach from the epithelium in adult rat testes. This event coincides with the migration of preleptotene/leptotene spermatocytes across the blood–testis barrier from the basal to the apical (or adluminal) compartment. At stage XIV of the epithelial cycle, Pachytene spermatocytes (diploid, 2n) differentiate into diplotene spermatocytes (tetraploid, 4n) in the apical compartment of the epithelium, which begin meiosis I to be followed by meiosis II to form spermatids (haploid, 1n) at stage XIVof the epithelial cycle. These spermatids, in turn, undergo extensive morphological changes and traverse the seminiferous epithelium until they differentiate into elongated spermatids. Thus, there are extensive changes at the Sertoli–Sertoli and Sertoli–germ cell interface via protein ‘coupling’ and ‘uncoupling’ between cell adhesion protein complexes, as well as changes in interactions between integral membrane proteins and their peripheral adaptors, regulatory protein kinases and phosphatases, and the cytoskeletal proteins. These precisely coordinated protein–protein interactions affect cell adhesion and cell movement. In this review, we focus on the 14-3-3 protein family, whose members have different binding partners in the seminiferous epithelium. Recent studies have illustrated that 14-3-3 affects protein–protein interactions in the seminiferous epithelium, and regulates cell adhesion possibly via its effects on intracellular protein trafficking and cell-polarity proteins. This review provides a summary on the latest findings regarding the role of 14-3-3 family of proteins and their potential implications on spermatogenesis. We also highlight research areas that deserve attentions by investigators. PMID:19366886

  12. The Importin β Binding Domain as a Master Regulator of Nucleocytoplasmic Transport

    PubMed Central

    Lott, Kaylen; Cingolani, Gino

    2010-01-01

    Specific and efficient recognition of import cargoes is essential to ensure nucleocytoplasmic transport. To this end, the prototypical karyopherin importin β associates with import cargoes directly or, more commonly, through import adaptors, such as importin α and snurportin. Adaptor proteins bind the nuclear localization sequence (NLS) of import cargoes while recruiting importin β via an N-terminal importin β binding (IBB) domain. The use of adaptors greatly expands and amplifies the repertoire of cellular cargoes that importin β can efficiently import into the cell nucleus and allows for fine regulation of nuclear import. Accordingly, the IBB-domain is a dedicated NLS, unique to adaptor proteins that functions as a molecular liaison between importin β and import cargoes. This review provides an overview of the molecular role played by the IBB-domain in orchestrating nucleocytoplasmic transport. Recent work has determined that the IBB-domain has specialized functions at every step of the import and export pathway. Unexpectedly, this stretch of ∼40 amino acids plays an essential role in regulating processes such as formation of the import complex, docking and translocation through the nuclear pore complex (NPC), release of import cargoes into the cell nucleus and finally recycling of import adaptors and importin β into the cytoplasm. Thus, the IBB-domain is a master regulator of nucleocytoplasmic transport, whose complex molecular function is only recently beginning to emerge. PMID:21029753

  13. An organized co-assembly of clathrin adaptors is essential for endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Skruzny, Michal; Desfosses, Ambroise; Prinz, Simone; Dodonova, Svetlana O; Gieras, Anna; Uetrecht, Charlotte; Jakobi, Arjen J; Abella, Marc; Hagen, Wim J H; Schulz, Joachim; Meijers, Rob; Rybin, Vladimir; Briggs, John A G; Sachse, Carsten; Kaksonen, Marko

    2015-04-20

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis, the main trafficking route from the plasma membrane to the cytoplasm, is critical to many fundamental cellular processes. Clathrin, coupled to the membrane by adaptor proteins, is thought to play a major structural role in endocytosis by self-assembling into a cage-like lattice around the forming vesicle. Although clathrin adaptors are essential for endocytosis, little is known about their structural role in this process. Here we show that the membrane-binding domains of two conserved clathrin adaptors, Sla2 and Ent1, co-assemble in a PI(4,5)P2-dependent manner to form organized lattices on membranes. We determined the structure of the co-assembled lattice by electron cryo-microscopy and designed mutations that specifically impair the lattice formation in vitro. We show that these mutations block endocytosis in vivo. We suggest that clathrin adaptors not only link the polymerized clathrin to the membrane but also form an oligomeric structure, which is essential for membrane remodeling during endocytosis.

  14. SCIMP is a transmembrane non-TIR TLR adaptor that promotes proinflammatory cytokine production from macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Lin; Bokil, Nilesh J.; Wall, Adam A.; Kapetanovic, Ronan; Lansdaal, Natalie M.; Marceline, Faustine; Burgess, Belinda J.; Tong, Samuel J.; Guo, Zhong; Alexandrov, Kirill; Ross, Ian L.; Hibbs, Margaret L.; Stow, Jennifer L.; Sweet, Matthew J.

    2017-01-01

    Danger signals activate Toll-like receptors (TLRs), thereby initiating inflammatory responses. Canonical TLR signalling, via Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor domain (TIR)-containing adaptors and proinflammatory transcription factors such as NF-κB, occurs in many cell types; however, additional mechanisms are required for specificity of inflammatory responses in innate immune cells. Here we show that SCIMP, an immune-restricted, transmembrane adaptor protein (TRAP), promotes selective proinflammatory cytokine responses by direct modulation of TLR4. SCIMP is a non-TIR-containing adaptor, binding directly to the TLR4-TIR domain in response to lipopolysaccharide. In macrophages, SCIMP is constitutively associated with the Lyn tyrosine kinase, is required for tyrosine phosphorylation of TLR4, and facilitates TLR-inducible production of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-12p40. Point mutations in SCIMP abrogating TLR4 binding also prevent SCIMP-mediated cytokine production. SCIMP is, therefore, an immune-specific TLR adaptor that shapes host defence and inflammation. PMID:28098138

  15. Regulation and roles for claudin-family tight junction proteins

    PubMed Central

    Findley, Mary K.; Koval, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Transmembrane proteins known as claudins play a critical role in tight junctions by regulating paracellular barrier permeability. The control of claudin assembly into tight junctions requires a complex interplay between several classes of claudins, other transmembrane proteins and scaffold proteins. Claudins are also subject to regulation by post-translational modifications including phosphorylation and palmitoylation. Several human diseases have been linked to claudin mutations, underscoring the physiologic function of these proteins. Roles for claudins in regulating cell phenotype and growth control also are beginning to emerge, suggesting a multifaceted role for claudins in regulation of cells beyond serving as a simple structural element of tight junctions. PMID:19319969

  16. Regulation of the energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase by antigen receptor and Ca2+ in T lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tamás, Peter; Hawley, Simon A.; Clarke, Rosemary G.; Mustard, Kirsty J.; Green, Kevin; Hardie, D. Grahame; Cantrell, Doreen A.

    2006-01-01

    The adenosine monophosphate (AMP)–activated protein kinase (AMPK) has a crucial role in maintaining cellular energy homeostasis. This study shows that human and mouse T lymphocytes express AMPKα1 and that this is rapidly activated in response to triggering of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR). TCR stimulation of AMPK was dependent on the adaptors LAT and SLP76 and could be mimicked by the elevation of intracellular Ca2+ with Ca2+ ionophores or thapsigargin. AMPK activation was also induced by energy stress and depletion of cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP). However, TCR and Ca2+ stimulation of AMPK required the activity of Ca2+–calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinases (CaMKKs), whereas AMPK activation induced by increased AMP/ATP ratios did not. These experiments reveal two distinct pathways for the regulation of AMPK in T lymphocytes. The role of AMPK is to promote ATP conservation and production. The rapid activation of AMPK in response to Ca2+ signaling in T lymphocytes thus reveals that TCR triggering is linked to an evolutionally conserved serine kinase that regulates energy metabolism. Moreover, AMPK does not just react to cellular energy depletion but also anticipates it. PMID:16818670

  17. An Overview of Chromatin-Regulating Proteins in Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pingyu; Torres, Keila; Liu, Xiuping; Liu, Chang-gong; Pollock, Raphael E.

    2016-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, gene expressions on chromosome DNA are orchestrated by a dynamic chromosome structure state that is largely controlled by chromatin-regulating proteins, which regulate chromatin structures, release DNA from the nucleosome, and activate or suppress gene expression by modifying nucleosome histones or mobilizing DNA-histone structure. The two classes of chromatin- regulating proteins are 1) enzymes that modify histones through methylation, acetylation, phosphorylation, adenosine diphosphate–ribosylation, glycosylation, sumoylation, or ubiquitylation and 2) enzymes that remodel DNA-histone structure with energy from ATP hydrolysis. Chromatin-regulating proteins, which modulate DNA-histone interaction, change chromatin conformation, and increase or decrease the binding of functional DNA-regulating protein complexes, have major functions in nuclear processes, including gene transcription and DNA replication, repair, and recombination. This review provides a general overview of chromatin-regulating proteins, including their classification, molecular functions, and interactions with the nucleosome in eukaryotic cells. PMID:26796306

  18. A conserved inter-domain communication mechanism regulates the ATPase activity of the AAA-protein Drg1.

    PubMed

    Prattes, Michael; Loibl, Mathias; Zisser, Gertrude; Luschnig, Daniel; Kappel, Lisa; Rössler, Ingrid; Grassegger, Manuela; Hromic, Altijana; Krieger, Elmar; Gruber, Karl; Pertschy, Brigitte; Bergler, Helmut

    2017-03-17

    AAA-ATPases fulfil essential roles in different cellular pathways and often act in form of hexameric complexes. Interaction with pathway-specific substrate and adaptor proteins recruits them to their targets and modulates their catalytic activity. This substrate dependent regulation of ATP hydrolysis in the AAA-domains is mediated by a non-catalytic N-terminal domain. The exact mechanisms that transmit the signal from the N-domain and coordinate the individual AAA-domains in the hexameric complex are still the topic of intensive research. Here, we present the characterization of a novel mutant variant of the eukaryotic AAA-ATPase Drg1 that shows dysregulation of ATPase activity and altered interaction with Rlp24, its substrate in ribosome biogenesis. This defective regulation is the consequence of amino acid exchanges at the interface between the regulatory N-domain and the adjacent D1 AAA-domain. The effects caused by these mutations strongly resemble those of pathological mutations of the AAA-ATPase p97 which cause the hereditary proteinopathy IBMPFD (inclusion body myopathy associated with Paget's disease of the bone and frontotemporal dementia). Our results therefore suggest well conserved mechanisms of regulation between structurally, but not functionally related members of the AAA-family.

  19. A conserved inter-domain communication mechanism regulates the ATPase activity of the AAA-protein Drg1

    PubMed Central

    Prattes, Michael; Loibl, Mathias; Zisser, Gertrude; Luschnig, Daniel; Kappel, Lisa; Rössler, Ingrid; Grassegger, Manuela; Hromic, Altijana; Krieger, Elmar; Gruber, Karl; Pertschy, Brigitte; Bergler, Helmut

    2017-01-01

    AAA-ATPases fulfil essential roles in different cellular pathways and often act in form of hexameric complexes. Interaction with pathway-specific substrate and adaptor proteins recruits them to their targets and modulates their catalytic activity. This substrate dependent regulation of ATP hydrolysis in the AAA-domains is mediated by a non-catalytic N-terminal domain. The exact mechanisms that transmit the signal from the N-domain and coordinate the individual AAA-domains in the hexameric complex are still the topic of intensive research. Here, we present the characterization of a novel mutant variant of the eukaryotic AAA-ATPase Drg1 that shows dysregulation of ATPase activity and altered interaction with Rlp24, its substrate in ribosome biogenesis. This defective regulation is the consequence of amino acid exchanges at the interface between the regulatory N-domain and the adjacent D1 AAA-domain. The effects caused by these mutations strongly resemble those of pathological mutations of the AAA-ATPase p97 which cause the hereditary proteinopathy IBMPFD (inclusion body myopathy associated with Paget’s disease of the bone and frontotemporal dementia). Our results therefore suggest well conserved mechanisms of regulation between structurally, but not functionally related members of the AAA-family. PMID:28303975

  20. Regulation of protein kinase C by the cytoskeletal protein calponin.

    PubMed

    Leinweber, B; Parissenti, A M; Gallant, C; Gangopadhyay, S S; Kirwan-Rhude, A; Leavis, P C; Morgan, K G

    2000-12-22

    Previous studies from this laboratory have shown that, upon agonist activation, calponin co-immunoprecipitates and co-localizes with protein kinase Cepsilon (PKCepsilon) in vascular smooth muscle cells. In the present study we demonstrate that calponin binds directly to the regulatory domain of PKC both in overlay assays and, under native conditions, by sedimentation with lipid vesicles. Calponin was found to bind to the C2 region of both PKCepsilon and PKCalpha with possible involvement of C1B. The C2 region of PKCepsilon binds to the calponin repeats with a requirement for the region between amino acids 160 and 182. We have also found that calponin can directly activate PKC autophosphorylation. By using anti-phosphoantibodies to residue Ser-660 of PKCbetaII, we found that calponin, in a lipid-independent manner, increased auto-phosphorylation of PKCalpha, -epsilon, and -betaII severalfold compared with control conditions. Similarly, calponin was found to increase the amount of (32)P-labeled phosphate incorporated into PKC from [gamma-(32)P]ATP. We also observed that calponin addition strongly increased the incorporation of radiolabeled phosphate into an exogenous PKC peptide substrate, suggesting an activation of enzyme activity. Thus, these results raise the possibility that calponin may function in smooth muscle to regulate PKC activity by facilitating the phosphorylation of PKC.

  1. Role of the clathrin adaptor PICALM in normal hematopoiesis and polycythemia vera pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Yuichi; Maeda, Manami; Pasham, Mithun; Aguet, Francois; Tacheva-Grigorova, Silvia K; Masuda, Takeshi; Yi, Hai; Lee, Sung-Uk; Xu, Jian; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie; Ericsson, Maria; Mullally, Ann; Heuser, John; Kirchhausen, Tom; Maeda, Takahiro

    2015-04-01

    Clathrin-dependent endocytosis is an essential cellular process shared by all cell types. Despite this, precisely how endocytosis is regulated in a cell-type-specific manner and how this key pathway functions physiologically or pathophysiologically remain largely unknown. PICALM, which encodes the clathrin adaptor protein PICALM, was originally identified as a component of the CALM/AF10 leukemia oncogene. Here we show, by employing a series of conditional Picalm knockout mice, that PICALM critically regulates transferrin uptake in erythroid cells by functioning as a cell-type-specific regulator of transferrin receptor endocytosis. While transferrin receptor is essential for the development of all hematopoietic lineages, Picalm was dispensable for myeloid and B-lymphoid development. Furthermore, global Picalm inactivation in adult mice did not cause gross defects in mouse fitness, except for anemia and a coat color change. Freeze-etch electron microscopy of primary erythroblasts and live-cell imaging of murine embryonic fibroblasts revealed that Picalm function is required for efficient clathrin coat maturation. We showed that the PICALM PIP2 binding domain is necessary for transferrin receptor endocytosis in erythroblasts and absolutely essential for erythroid development from mouse hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in an erythroid culture system. We further showed that Picalm deletion entirely abrogated the disease phenotype in a Jak2(V617F) knock-in murine model of polycythemia vera. Our findings provide new insights into the regulation of cell-type-specific transferrin receptor endocytosis in vivo. They also suggest a new strategy to block cellular uptake of transferrin-bound iron, with therapeutic potential for disorders characterized by inappropriate red blood cell production, such as polycythemia vera.

  2. Role of the clathrin adaptor PICALM in normal hematopoiesis and polycythemia vera pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Yuichi; Maeda, Manami; Pasham, Mithun; Aguet, Francois; Tacheva-Grigorova, Silvia K.; Masuda, Takeshi; Yi, Hai; Lee, Sung-Uk; Xu, Jian; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie; Ericsson, Maria; Mullally, Ann; Heuser, John; Kirchhausen, Tom; Maeda, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Clathrin-dependent endocytosis is an essential cellular process shared by all cell types. Despite this, precisely how endocytosis is regulated in a cell-type-specific manner and how this key pathway functions physiologically or pathophysiologically remain largely unknown. PICALM, which encodes the clathrin adaptor protein PICALM, was originally identified as a component of the CALM/AF10 leukemia oncogene. Here we show, by employing a series of conditional Picalm knockout mice, that PICALM critically regulates transferrin uptake in erythroid cells by functioning as a cell-type-specific regulator of transferrin receptor endocytosis. While transferrin receptor is essential for the development of all hematopoietic lineages, Picalm was dispensable for myeloid and B-lymphoid development. Furthermore, global Picalm inactivation in adult mice did not cause gross defects in mouse fitness, except for anemia and a coat color change. Freeze-etch electron microscopy of primary erythroblasts and live-cell imaging of murine embryonic fibroblasts revealed that Picalm function is required for efficient clathrin coat maturation. We showed that the PICALM PIP2 binding domain is necessary for transferrin receptor endocytosis in erythroblasts and absolutely essential for erythroid development from mouse hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in an erythroid culture system. We further showed that Picalm deletion entirely abrogated the disease phenotype in a Jak2V617F knock-in murine model of polycythemia vera. Our findings provide new insights into the regulation of cell-type-specific transferrin receptor endocytosis in vivo. They also suggest a new strategy to block cellular uptake of transferrin-bound iron, with therapeutic potential for disorders characterized by inappropriate red blood cell production, such as polycythemia vera. PMID:25552701

  3. AP-1 clathrin adaptor and CG8538/Aftiphilin are involved in Notch signaling during eye development in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Kametaka, Satoshi; Kametaka, Ai; Yonekura, Shinichi; Haruta, Mineyuki; Takenoshita, Seiichi; Goto, Satoshi; Waguri, Satoshi

    2012-02-01

    Clathrin adaptor protein complex-1 (AP-1) and its accessory proteins play a role in the sorting of integral membrane proteins at the trans-Golgi network and endosomes. Their physiological functions in complex organisms, however, are not fully understood. In this study, we found that CG8538p, an uncharacterized Drosophila protein, shares significant structural and functional characteristics with Aftiphilin, a mammalian AP-1 accessory protein. The Drosophila Aftiphilin was shown to interact directly with the ear domain of γ-adaptin of Drosophila AP-1, but not with the GAE domain of Drosophila GGA. In S2 cells, Drosophila Aftiphilin and AP-1 formed a complex and colocalized at the Golgi compartment. Moreover, tissue-specific depletion of AP-1 or Aftiphilin in the developing eyes resulted in a disordered alignment of photoreceptor neurons in larval stage and roughened eyes with aberrant ommatidia in adult flies. Furthermore, AP-1-depleted photoreceptor neurons showed an intracellular accumulation of a Notch regulator, Scabrous, and downregulation of Notch by promoting its degradation in the lysosomes. These results suggest that AP-1 and Aftiphilin are cooperatively involved in the intracellular trafficking of Notch during eye development in Drosophila.

  4. 14-3-3 proteins: regulators of numerous eukaryotic proteins.

    PubMed

    van Heusden, G Paul H

    2005-09-01

    14-3-3 proteins form a family of highly conserved proteins capable of binding to more than 200 different mostly phosphorylated proteins. They are present in all eukaryotic organisms investigated, often in multiple isoforms, up to 13 in some plants. 14-3-3 binding partners are involved in almost every cellular process and 14-3-3 proteins play a key role in these processes. 14-3-3 proteins interact with products encoded by oncogenes, with filament forming proteins involved in Alzheimer'ss disease and many other proteins related to human diseases. Disturbance of the interactions with 14-3-3 proteins may lead to diseases like cancer and the neurological Miller-Dieker disease. The molecular consequences of 14-3-3 binding are diverse and only partly understood. Binding of a protein to a 14-3-3 protein may result in stabilization of the active or inactive phosphorylated form of the protein, to a conformational alteration leading to activation or inhibition, to a different subcellular localization or to the interaction with other proteins. Currently genome- and proteome-wide studies are contributing to a wider knowledge of this important family of proteins.

  5. Regulation, Signaling, and Physiological Functions of G-Proteins.

    PubMed

    Syrovatkina, Viktoriya; Alegre, Kamela O; Dey, Raja; Huang, Xin-Yun

    2016-09-25

    Heterotrimeric guanine-nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (G-proteins) mainly relay the information from G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) on the plasma membrane to the inside of cells to regulate various biochemical functions. Depending on the targeted cell types, tissues, and organs, these signals modulate diverse physiological functions. The basic schemes of heterotrimeric G-proteins have been outlined. In this review, we briefly summarize what is known about the regulation, signaling, and physiological functions of G-proteins. We then focus on a few less explored areas such as the regulation of G-proteins by non-GPCRs and the physiological functions of G-proteins that cannot be easily explained by the known G-protein signaling pathways. There are new signaling pathways and physiological functions for G-proteins to be discovered and further interrogated. With the advancements in structural and computational biological techniques, we are closer to having a better understanding of how G-proteins are regulated and of the specificity of G-protein interactions with their regulators.

  6. MiR-7a is an important mediator in Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD)-regulated expression of focal adhesion kinase (FAK)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yingting; Cui, Hongen; Huang, Xianjie; Zhu, Bo; Guan, Shengwen; Cheng, Wei; Lai, Yueyang; Zhang, Xiaoxin; Hua, Zi-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD), a classical adaptor protein mediating apoptotic stimuli-induced cell death, has been reported to engage in several non-apoptotic processes such as T cell and cardiac development and tumorigenesis. Recently, there are several reports about the FADD's involvement in cell migration, however the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here, we present a new finding that FADD could regulate the expression of FAK, a non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase overexpressed in many cancers, and played an important role in cell migration in murine MEF and melanoma cells with different metastatic potential, B16F10 and B16F1. Moreover, miR-7a, a tumor suppressor which prohibits cell migration and invasion, was up-regulated in FADD-deficient cells. And FAK was verified to be the direct target gene of miR-7a in B16F10 cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that miR-7a was a necessary mediator in FADD-regulated FAK expression. In contrast to its classical apoptotic role, FADD interference could reduce the rate of cell migration, which could be rescued by inhibiting miR-7a expression. Taken together, our data provide a novel explanation regarding how FADD regulates cell migration in murine melanoma cells. PMID:27286445

  7. Genetic Deletion of the Clathrin Adaptor GGA3 Reduces Anxiety and Alters GABAergic Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, David; Lomoio, Selene; Haydon, Philip G.; Moss, Stephen J.; Tesco, Giuseppina

    2016-01-01

    Golgi-localized γ-ear-containing ARF binding protein 3 (GGA3) is a monomeric clathrin adaptor that has been shown to regulate the trafficking of the Beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme (BACE1), which is required for production of the Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-associated amyloid βpeptide. Our previous studies have shown that BACE1 is degraded via the lysosomal pathway and that depletion of GGA3 results in increased BACE1 levels and activity owing to impaired lysosomal trafficking and degradation. We further demonstrated the role of GGA3 in the regulation of BACE1 in vivo by showing that BACE1 levels are increased in the brain of GGA3 null mice. We report here that GGA3 deletion results in novelty-induced hyperactivity and decreased anxiety-like behaviors. Given the pivotal role of GABAergic transmission in the regulation of anxiety-like behaviors, we performed electrophysiological recordings in hippocampal slices and found increased phasic and decreased tonic inhibition in the dentate gyrus granule cells (DGGC). Moreover, we found that the number of inhibitory synapses is increased in the dentate gyrus of GGA3 null mice in further support of the electrophysiological data. Thus, the increased GABAergic transmission is a leading candidate mechanism underlying the reduced anxiety-like behaviors observed in GGA3 null mice. All together these findings suggest that GGA3 plays a key role in GABAergic transmission. Since BACE1 levels are elevated in the brain of GGA3 null mice, it is possible that at least some of these phenotypes are a consequence of increased processing of BACE1 substrates. PMID:27192432

  8. Exercise and Regulation of Protein Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Atherton, Philip J; Phillips, Bethan E; Wilkinson, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscles exhibit radical changes in physiology and metabolism in response to exercise. While exercise induces highly specific physiological changes, e.g., hypertrophy, associated with weightlifting or oxygen utilization associated with aerobic-type exercises, the foundation of these changes is driven by the summation of exercise-induced alterations in muscle protein metabolism. Practically, any type of exercise stimulates muscle protein turnover, the purpose being both to renew, and also modify, the myocellular composition of proteins in line with adaptations according to the mechanical and metabolic demands imposed. The mechanism(s) by which exercise stimulates protein turnover has been the subset of intense study. These studies have been led by the use of stable isotopically labeled amino acids. Essentially, use of these heavier variants (e.g., (13)C AA vs. (12)C) coupled to mass spectrometry has enabled study of the dynamic responses of muscle protein turnover to exercise. Using these techniques, it has become patently clear that exercise stimulates muscle protein turnover, i.e., muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and breakdown (MPB). Moreover, intake of specific nutrients (i.e., dietary proteins) potentiates MPS while attenuating MPB, facilitating maintenance of proteostasis and exercise adaptation. The mechanisms driving these protein metabolic responses to exercise include the coordinated activation of mRNA translation pathways (e.g., mechanistic target of rapamycin) and multiple MPB pathways (e.g., autophagy and ubiquitin-proteasome). These processes are triggered by exercise-induced hormone, auto/paracrine-acting growth factors, mechanical transduction, and intramyocellular second messenger pathways. Finally, there remains poor understanding of how distinct exercise modes (e.g., resistance vs. endurance) lead to such distinct adaptations from a protein metabolic and molecular standpoint.

  9. Roles for Regulator of G Protein Signaling Proteins in Synaptic Signaling and Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Kyle J.; Squires, Katherine E.

    2016-01-01

    The regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) family of proteins serves critical roles in G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) and heterotrimeric G protein signal transduction. RGS proteins are best understood as negative regulators of GPCR/G protein signaling. They achieve this by acting as GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) for Gα subunits and accelerating the turnoff of G protein signaling. Many RGS proteins also bind additional signaling partners that either regulate their functions or enable them to regulate other important signaling events. At neuronal synapses, GPCRs, G proteins, and RGS proteins work in coordination to regulate key aspects of neurotransmitter release, synaptic transmission, and synaptic plasticity, which are necessary for central nervous system physiology and behavior. Accumulating evidence has revealed key roles for specific RGS proteins in multiple signaling pathways at neuronal synapses, regulating both pre- and postsynaptic signaling events and synaptic plasticity. Here, we review and highlight the current knowledge of specific RGS proteins (RGS2, RGS4, RGS7, RGS9-2, and RGS14) that have been clearly demonstrated to serve critical roles in modulating synaptic signaling and plasticity throughout the brain, and we consider their potential as future therapeutic targets. PMID:26655302

  10. Transcriptional Regulation by Trithorax-Group Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kingston, Robert E.; Tamkun, John W.

    2014-01-01

    The trithorax group of genes (trxG) was identified in mutational screens that examined developmental phenotypes and suppression of Polycomb mutant phenotypes. The protein products of these genes are primarily involved in gene activation, although some can also have repressive effects. There is no central function for these proteins. Some move nucleosomes about on the genome in an ATP-dependent manner, some covalently modify histones such as methylating lysine 4 of histone H3, and some directly interact with the transcription machinery or are a part of that machinery. It is interesting to consider why these specific members of large families of functionally related proteins have strong developmental phenotypes. PMID:25274705

  11. The innate immunity adaptor SARM translocates to the nucleus to stabilize lamins and prevent DNA fragmentation in response to pro-apoptotic signaling.

    PubMed

    Sethman, Chad R; Hawiger, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Sterile alpha and armadillo-motif containing protein (SARM), a highly conserved and structurally unique member of the MyD88 family of Toll-like receptor adaptors, plays an important role in innate immunity signaling and apoptosis. Its exact mechanism of intracellular action remains unclear. Apoptosis is an ancient and ubiquitous process of programmed cell death that results in disruption of the nuclear lamina and, ultimately, dismantling of the nucleus. In addition to supporting the nuclear membrane, lamins serve important roles in chromatin organization, epigenetic regulation, transcription, nuclear transport, and mitosis. Mutations and other damage that destabilize nuclear lamins (laminopathies) underlie a number of intractable human diseases. Here, we report that SARM translocates to the nucleus of human embryonic kidney cells by using its amino-terminal Armadillo repeat region. Within the nucleus, SARM forms a previously unreported lattice akin to the nuclear lamina scaffold. Moreover, we show that SARM protects lamins from apoptotic degradation and reduces internucleosomal DNA fragmentation in response to signaling induced by the proinflammatory cytokine Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha. These findings indicate an important link between the innate immunity adaptor SARM and stabilization of nuclear lamins during inflammation-driven apoptosis in human cells.

  12. The immune adaptor molecule SARM modulates tumor necrosis factor alpha production and microglia activation in the brainstem and restricts West Nile Virus pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Szretter, Kristy J; Samuel, Melanie A; Gilfillan, Susan; Fuchs, Anja; Colonna, Marco; Diamond, Michael S

    2009-09-01

    Sterile alpha and HEAT/Armadillo motif (SARM) is a highly conserved Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR)-containing adaptor protein that is believed to negatively regulate signaling of the pathogen recognition receptors Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and TLR4. To test its physiological function in the context of a microbial infection, we generated SARM(-/-) mice and evaluated the impact of this deficiency on the pathogenesis of West Nile virus (WNV), a neurotropic flavivirus that requires TLR signaling to restrict infection. Although SARM was preferentially expressed in cells of the central nervous system (CNS), studies with primary macrophages, neurons, or astrocytes showed no difference in viral growth kinetics. In contrast, viral replication was increased specifically in the brainstem of SARM(-/-) mice, and this was associated with enhanced mortality after inoculation with a virulent WNV strain. A deficiency of SARM was also linked to reduced levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), decreased microglia activation, and increased neuronal death in the brainstem after WNV infection. Thus, SARM appears to be unique among the TIR adaptor molecules, since it functions to restrict viral infection and neuronal injury in a brain region-specific manner, possibly by modulating the activation of resident CNS inflammatory cells.

  13. Regulating Rap small G-proteins in time and space.

    PubMed

    Gloerich, Martijn; Bos, Johannes L

    2011-10-01

    Signaling by the small G-protein Rap is under tight regulation by its GEFs and GAPs. These are multi-domain proteins that are themselves controlled by distinct upstream pathways, and thus couple different extra- and intracellular cues to Rap. The individual RapGEFs and RapGAPs are, in addition, targeted to specific cellular locations by numerous anchoring mechanisms and, consequently, may control different pools of Rap. Here, we review the various activating signals and targeting mechanisms of these proteins and discuss their contribution to the spatiotemporal regulation and biological functions of the Rap proteins.

  14. Copper Delivery to Chloroplast Proteins and its Regulation.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Guadalupe; Pilon, Marinus

    2015-01-01

    Copper is required for photosynthesis in chloroplasts of plants because it is a cofactor of plastocyanin, an essential electron carrier in the thylakoid lumen. Other chloroplast copper proteins are copper/zinc superoxide dismutase and polyphenol oxidase, but these proteins seem to be dispensable under conditions of low copper supply when transcripts for these proteins undergo microRNA-mediated down regulation. Two ATP-driven copper transporters function in tandem to deliver copper to chloroplast compartments. This review seeks to summarize the mechanisms of copper delivery to chloroplast proteins and its regulation. We also delineate some of the unanswered questions that still remain in this field.

  15. Copper Delivery to Chloroplast Proteins and its Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, Guadalupe; Pilon, Marinus

    2016-01-01

    Copper is required for photosynthesis in chloroplasts of plants because it is a cofactor of plastocyanin, an essential electron carrier in the thylakoid lumen. Other chloroplast copper proteins are copper/zinc superoxide dismutase and polyphenol oxidase, but these proteins seem to be dispensable under conditions of low copper supply when transcripts for these proteins undergo microRNA-mediated down regulation. Two ATP-driven copper transporters function in tandem to deliver copper to chloroplast compartments. This review seeks to summarize the mechanisms of copper delivery to chloroplast proteins and its regulation. We also delineate some of the unanswered questions that still remain in this field. PMID:26793223

  16. MTBreg: The Database of Conditionally Regulated Proteins in Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kaufman, Markus; Pal, Debnath; Eisenberg, David

    Proteins up- and down- regulated in Mycobacterium tuberculosis grown under conditions mimicking infection are included in this database. It also includes information on proteins that are regulated by selected transcription factors or other regulatory proteins. The literature data provided here is complimentary to the databases provided by Michael Strong that include recent TB computational functional linkages and the Prolinks Database by Peter Bowers. The experimental condition, the experimental dataset and a literature reference will be displayed, including links to the computationally linked proteins in the Prolinks Database and the entry in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Structural Genomics Database.[Copied from information at http://www.doe-mbi.ucla.edu/Services/MTBreg/

  17. The RNAissance family: SR proteins as multifaceted regulators of gene expression.

    PubMed

    Howard, Jonathan M; Sanford, Jeremy R

    2015-01-01

    Serine and arginine-rich (SR) proteins play multiple roles in the eukaryotic gene expression pathway. Initially described as constitutive and alternative splicing factors, now it is clear that SR proteins are key determinants of exon identity and function as molecular adaptors, linking the pre-messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) to the splicing machinery. In addition, now SR proteins are implicated in many aspects of mRNA and noncoding RNA (ncRNA) processing well beyond splicing. These unexpected roles, including RNA transcription, export, translation, and decay, may prove to be the rule rather than the exception. To simply define, this family of RNA-binding proteins as splicing factors belies the broader roles of SR proteins in post-transcriptional gene expression.

  18. Regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins in cancer biology.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Jillian H; Hooks, Shelley B

    2009-11-15

    The regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) family is a diverse group of multifunctional proteins that regulate cellular signaling events downstream of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). In recent years, GPCRs have been linked to the initiation and progression of multiple cancers; thus, regulators of GPCR signaling are also likely to be important to the pathophysiology of cancer. This review highlights recent studies detailing changes in RGS transcript expression during oncogenesis, single nucleotide polymorphisms in RGS proteins linked to lung and bladder cancers, and specific roles for RGS proteins in multiple cancer types.

  19. 21 CFR 870.3620 - Pacemaker lead adaptor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3620 Pacemaker lead adaptor... entitled “Guidance for the Submission of Research and Marketing Applications for Permanent Pacemaker...

  20. The adaptor 3BP2 is required for KIT receptor expression and human mast cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Ainsua-Enrich, Erola; Serrano-Candelas, Eva; Álvarez-Errico, Damiana; Picado, César; Sayós, Joan; Rivera, Juan; Martín, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    3BP2 is a cytoplasmic adaptor protein that acts as a positive regulator in mast cell FcεRI-dependent signaling. The KIT receptor whose ligand is the stem cell factor (SCF) is necessary for mast cell development, proliferation and survival as well as for optimal IgE-dependent signal. Activating mutations in KIT have been associated with several diseases including mastocytosis. In the present work, we found that 3BP2 silencing impairs KIT signaling pathways, thus affecting PI3K and MAP kinase pathways in human mast cells from HMC-1, LAD2 (human mast cell lines) and CD34+-derived mast cells. Unexpectedly, silencing of 3BP2 reduces KIT expression in normal human mast cells as well as in HMC-1 cells where KIT is mutated, thus increasing cellular apoptosis and caspase 3/7 activity. 3BP2 silencing reduces KIT transcription expression levels. Interestingly, 3BP2 silencing decreased MITF expression, a transcription factor involved in KIT expression. Reconstitution of 3BP2 in knockdown cells leads to reversal of KIT expression as well as survival phenotype. Accordingly MITF reconstitution enhances KIT expression levels in 3BP2 silenced cells. Moreover, downregulation of KIT expression by miRNA221 overexpression or the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib also reduced 3BP2 and MITF expression. Furthermore, KIT tyrosine activity inhibition reduced 3BP2 and MITF expression, demonstrating again a tight and reciprocal relationship between these molecules. Taken together, our results show that 3BP2 regulates human mast cell survival and participates in KIT-mediated signal transduction by directly controlling KIT receptor expression, suggesting its potential as a therapeutic target in mast cell-mediated inflammatory diseases and deregulated KIT disorders. PMID:25810396

  1. Protein conformation as a regulator of cell-matrix adhesion.

    PubMed

    Hytönen, Vesa P; Wehrle-Haller, Bernhard

    2014-04-14

    The dynamic regulation of cell-matrix adhesion is essential for tissue homeostasis and architecture, and thus numerous pathologies are linked to altered cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interaction and ECM scaffold. The molecular machinery involved in cell-matrix adhesion is complex and involves both sensory and matrix-remodelling functions. In this review, we focus on how protein conformation controls the organization and dynamics of cell-matrix adhesion. The conformational changes in various adhesion machinery components are described, including examples from ECM as well as cytoplasmic proteins. The discussed mechanisms involved in the regulation of protein conformation include mechanical stress, post-translational modifications and allosteric ligand-binding. We emphasize the potential role of intrinsically disordered protein regions in these processes and discuss the role of protein networks and co-operative protein interactions in the formation and consolidation of cell-matrix adhesion and extracellular scaffolds.

  2. Rab proteins: The key regulators of intracellular vesicle transport

    SciTech Connect

    Bhuin, Tanmay; Roy, Jagat Kumar

    2014-10-15

    Vesicular/membrane trafficking essentially regulates the compartmentalization and abundance of proteins within the cells and contributes in many signalling pathways. This membrane transport in eukaryotic cells is a complex process regulated by a large and diverse array of proteins. A large group of monomeric small GTPases; the Rabs are essential components of this membrane trafficking route. Most of the Rabs are ubiquitously expressed proteins and have been implicated in vesicle formation, vesicle motility/delivery along cytoskeleton elements and docking/fusion at target membranes through the recruitment of effectors. Functional impairments of Rabs affecting transport pathways manifest different diseases. Rab functions are accompanied by cyclical activation and inactivation of GTP-bound and GDP-bound forms between the cytosol and membranes which is regulated by upstream regulators. Rab proteins are characterized by their distinct sub-cellular localization and regulate a wide variety of endocytic, transcytic and exocytic transport pathways. Mutations of Rabs affect cell growth, motility and other biological processes. - Highlights: • Rab proteins regulate different signalling pathways. • Deregulation of Rabs is the fundamental causes of a variety of human diseases. • This paper gives potential directions in developing therapeutic targets. • This paper also gives ample directions for modulating pathways central to normal physiology. • These are the huge challenges for drug discovery and delivery in near future.

  3. The Src homology 2 protein Shb promotes cell cycle progression in murine hematopoietic stem cells by regulation of focal adhesion kinase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Gustafsson, Karin; Heffner, Garrett; Wenzel, Pamela L.; Curran, Matthew; Grawé, Jan; McKinney-Freeman, Shannon L.; Daley, George Q.; Welsh, Michael

    2013-07-15

    The widely expressed adaptor protein Shb has previously been reported to contribute to T cell function due to its association with the T cell receptor and furthermore, several of Shb's known interaction partners are established regulators of blood cell development and function. In addition, Shb deficient embryonic stem cells displayed reduced blood cell colony formation upon differentiation in vitro. The aim of the current study was therefore to explore hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell function in the Shb knockout mouse. Shb deficient bone marrow contained reduced relative numbers of long-term hematopoietic stem cells (LT-HSCs) that exhibited lower proliferation rates. Despite this, Shb knockout LT-HSCs responded promptly by entering the cell cycle in response to genotoxic stress by 5-fluorouracil treatment. In competitive LT-HSC transplantations, Shb null cells initially engrafted as well as the wild-type cells but provided less myeloid expansion over time. Moreover, Shb knockout bone marrow cells exhibited elevated basal activities of focal adhesion kinase/Rac1/p21-activated kinase signaling and reduced responsiveness to Stem Cell Factor stimulation. Consequently, treatment with a focal adhesion kinase inhibitor increased Shb knockout LT-HSC proliferation. The altered signaling characteristics thus provide a plausible mechanistic explanation for the changes in LT-HSC proliferation since these signaling intermediates have all been shown to participate in LT-HSC cell cycle control. In summary, the loss of Shb dependent signaling in bone marrow cells, resulting in elevated focal adhesion kinase activity and reduced proliferative responses in LT-HSCs under steady state hematopoiesis, confers a disadvantage to the maintenance of LT-HSCs over time. -- Highlights: • Shb is an adaptor protein operating downstream of tyrosine kinase receptors. • Shb deficiency reduces hematopoietic stem cell proliferation. • The proliferative effect of Shb occurs via increased

  4. Recycling and Endosomal Sorting of Protease-activated Receptor-1 Is Distinctly Regulated by Rab11A and Rab11B Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Grimsey, Neil J.; Coronel, Luisa J.; Cordova, Isabel Canto; Trejo, JoAnn

    2016-01-01

    Protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) is a G protein-coupled receptor that undergoes proteolytic irreversible activation by coagulant and anti-coagulant proteases. Given the irreversible activation of PAR1, signaling by the receptor is tightly regulated through desensitization and intracellular trafficking. PAR1 displays both constitutive and agonist-induced internalization. Constitutive internalization of PAR1 is important for generating an internal pool of naïve receptors that replenish the cell surface and facilitate resensitization, whereas agonist-induced internalization of PAR1 is critical for terminating G protein signaling. We showed that PAR1 constitutive internalization is mediated by the adaptor protein complex-2 (AP-2), whereas AP-2 and epsin control agonist-induced PAR1 internalization. However, the mechanisms that regulate PAR1 recycling are not known. In the present study we screened a siRNA library of 140 different membrane trafficking proteins to identify key regulators of PAR1 intracellular trafficking. In addition to known mediators of PAR1 endocytosis, we identified Rab11B as a critical regulator of PAR1 trafficking. We found that siRNA-mediated depletion of Rab11B and not Rab11A blocks PAR1 recycling, which enhanced receptor lysosomal degradation. Although Rab11A is not required for PAR1 recycling, depletion of Rab11A resulted in intracellular accumulation of PAR1 through disruption of basal lysosomal degradation of the receptor. Moreover, enhanced degradation of PAR1 observed in Rab11B-deficient cells is blocked by depletion of Rab11A and the autophagy related-5 protein, suggesting that PAR1 is shuttled to an autophagic degradation pathway in the absence of Rab11B recycling. Together these findings suggest that Rab11A and Rab11B differentially regulate intracellular trafficking of PAR1 through distinct endosomal sorting mechanisms. PMID:26635365

  5. Regulation of ribosomal protein synthesis in an Escherichia coli mutant missing ribosomal protein L1.

    PubMed Central

    Jinks-Robertson, S; Nomura, M

    1981-01-01

    In an Escherichia coli B strain missing ribosomal protein L1, the synthesis rate of L11 is 50% greater than that of other ribosomal proteins. This finding is in agreement with the previous conclusion that L1 regulates synthesis of itself and L11 and indicates that this regulation is important for maintaining the balanced synthesis of ribosomal proteins under physiological conditions. PMID:7009590

  6. AP-1/σ1B-Dependent SV Protein Recycling Is Regulated in Early Endosomes and Is Coupled to AP-2 Endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Kratzke, Manuel; Candiello, Ermes; Schmidt, Bernhard; Jahn, Olaf; Schu, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Adaptor protein (AP)-1/σ1B(-/-) mice have reduced synaptic-vesicle (SV) recycling and increased endosomes. Mutant mice have impaired spatial memory, and σ1B-deficient humans have a severe mental retardation. In order to define these σ1B(-/-) 'bulk' endosomes and to determine their functions in SV recycling, we developed a protocol to separate them from the majority of the neuronal endosomes. The σ1B(-/-) 'bulk' endosomes proved to be classic early endosomes with an increase in the phospholipid phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI-3-P), which recruits proteins mediating protein sorting out of early endosomes into different routes. σ1B deficiency induced alterations in the endosomal proteome reveals two major functions: SV protein storage and sorting into endolysosomes. Alternative endosomal recycling pathways are not up-regulated, but certain SV proteins are misrouted. Tetraspanins are enriched in σ1B(-/-) synaptosomes, but not in their endosomes or in their clathrin-coated-vesicles (CCVs), indicating AP-1/σ1B-dependent sorting. Synapses contain also more AP-2 CCV, although it is expected that they contain less due to reduced SV recycling. Coat composition of these AP-2 CCVs is altered, and thus, they represent a subpopulation of AP-2 CCVs. Association of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK)-IIα, -δ and casein kinase (CK)-IIα with the endosome/SV pool is altered, as well as 14-3-3η, indicating changes in specific signalling pathways regulating synaptic plasticity. The accumulation of early endosomes and endocytotic AP-2 CCV indicates the regulation of SV recycling via early endosomes by the interdependent regulation of AP-2-mediated endocytosis and AP-1/σ1B-mediated SV reformation.

  7. Antemortem stress regulates protein acetylation and glycolysis in postmortem muscle.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhongwen; Li, Xin; Wang, Zhenyu; Shen, Qingwu W; Zhang, Dequan

    2016-07-01

    Although exhaustive research has established that preslaughter stress is a major factor contributing to pale, soft, exudative (PSE) meat, questions remain regarding the biochemistry of postmortem glycolysis. In this study, the influence of preslaughter stress on protein acetylation in relationship to glycolysis was studied. The data show that antemortem swimming significantly enhanced glycolysis and the total acetylated proteins in postmortem longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of mice. Inhibition of protein acetylation by histone acetyltransferase (HAT) inhibitors eliminated stress induced increase in glycolysis. Inversely, antemortem injection of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, trichostatin A (TSA) and nicotinamide (NAM), further increased protein acetylation early postmortem and the glycolysis. These data provide new insight into the biochemistry of postmortem glycolysis by showing that protein acetylation regulates glycolysis, which may participate in the regulation of preslaughter stress on glycolysis in postmortem muscle.

  8. [TSC-22D proteins: new regulators of cell homeostasis?].

    PubMed

    Pépin, Aurélie; Biola-Vidamment, Armelle; Latré de Laté, Perle; Espinasse, Marie-Alix; Godot, Véronique; Pallardy, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The GILZ (glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper) protein has first been identified as a glucocorticoid-responsive gene and is now presented as a major regulator of inflammation. Expanding literature documents a role for GILZ as a mediator of the immuno-modulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of glucocorticoids, mainly through interference with key signal transduction pathways such as nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) or activated protein-1 (AP-1). The TSC-22 (TGF-β-stimulated clone-22) protein is described as an apoptosis modulator and as a new tumor suppressor gene. GILZ and TSC-22, characterized by the presence of a leucine zipper domain and a TSC-box, belong to the TSC-22D (TSC-22 domain) family of proteins which comprises today 18 members. Functions of these proteins suggest that this family plays a major role in cell homeostasis and in the regulation of the immune system.

  9. The myxoma virus m-t5 ankyrin repeat host range protein is a novel adaptor that coordinately links the cellular signaling pathways mediated by Akt and Skp1 in virus-infected cells.

    PubMed

    Werden, Steven J; Lanchbury, Jerry; Shattuck, Donna; Neff, Chris; Dufford, Max; McFadden, Grant

    2009-12-01

    Most poxviruses express multiple proteins containing ankyrin (ANK) repeats accounting for a large superfamily of related but unique determinants of poxviral tropism. Recently, select members of this novel family of poxvirus proteins have drawn considerable attention for their potential roles in modulating intracellular signaling networks during viral infection. The rabbit-specific poxvirus, myxoma virus (MYXV), encodes four unique ANK repeat proteins, termed M-T5, M148, M149, and M150, all of which include a carboxy-terminal PRANC domain which closely resembles a cellular protein motif called the F-box domain. Here, we show that each MYXV-encoded ANK repeat protein, including M-T5, interacts directly with the Skp1 component of the host SCF ubiquitin ligase complex, and that the binding of M-T5 to cullin 1 is indirect via binding to Skp1 in the host SCF complex. To understand the significance of these virus-host protein interactions, the various binding domains of M-T5 were mapped. The N-terminal ANK repeats I and II were identified as being important for interaction with Akt, whereas the C-terminal PRANC/F-box-like domain was essential for binding to Skp1. We also report that M-T5 can bind Akt and the host SCF complex (via Skp1) simultaneously in MYXV-infected cells. Finally, we report that M-T5 specifically mediates the relocalization of Akt from the nucleus to the cytoplasm during infection with the wild-type MYXV, but not the M-T5 knockout version of the virus. These results indicate that ANK/PRANC proteins play a critical role in reprogramming disparate cellular signaling cascades to establish a new cellular environment more favorable for virus replication.

  10. New Insights into the Protein Turnover Regulation in Ethylene Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Gyeong Mee

    2015-07-01

    Biosynthesis of the phytohormone ethylene is under tight regulation to satisfy the need for appropriate levels of ethylene in plants in response to exogenous and endogenous stimuli. The enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS), which catalyzes the rate-limiting step of ethylene biosynthesis, plays a central role to regulate ethylene production through changes in ACS gene expression levels and the activity of the enzyme. Together with molecular genetic studies suggesting the roles of post-translational modification of the ACS, newly emerging evidence strongly suggests that the regulation of ACS protein stability is an alternative mechanism that controls ethylene production, in addition to the transcriptional regulation of ACS genes. In this review, recent new insight into the regulation of ACS protein turnover is highlighted, with a special focus on the roles of phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and novel components that regulate the turnover of ACS proteins. The prospect of cross-talk between ethylene biosynthesis and other signaling pathways to control turnover of the ACS protein is also considered.

  11. Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD) regulates autophagy through promoting the expression of Ras homolog enriched in brain (Rheb) in human breast adenocarcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    He, Liangqiang; Ren, Yongzhe; Zheng, Qianqian; Wang, Lu; Lai, Yueyang; Guan, Shengwen; Zhang, Xiaoxin; Zhang, Rong; Wang, Jie; Chen, Dianhua; Yang, Yunwen; Zhuang, Hongqin; Cheng, Wei; Zhang, Jing; Hua, Zi-chun

    2016-01-01

    FADD (Fas-associated protein with death domain) is a classical adaptor protein in apoptosis. Increasing evidences have shown that FADD is also implicated in cell cycle progression, proliferation and tumorigenesis. The role of FADD in cancer remains largely unexplored. In this study, In Silico Analysis using Oncomine and Kaplan Meier plotter revealed that FADD is significantly up-regulated in breast cancer tissues and closely associated with a poor prognosis in patients with breast cancer. To better understanding the FADD functions in breast cancer, we performed proteomics analysis by LC-MS/MS detection and found that Rheb–mTORC1 pathway was dysregulated in MCF-7 cells when FADD knockdown. The mTORC1 pathway is a key regulator in many processes, including cell growth, metabolism and autophagy. Here, FADD interference down-regulated Rheb expression and repressed mTORC1 activity in breast cancer cell lines. The autophagy was induced by FADD deficiency in MCF7 or MDA-231 cells but rescued by recovering Rheb expression. Similarly, growth defect in FADD-knockdown cells was also restored by Rheb overexpression. These findings implied a novel role of FADD in tumor progression via Rheb–mTORC1 pathway in breast cancer. PMID:27013580

  12. Alternative splicing regulation of APP exon 7 by RBFox proteins.

    PubMed

    Alam, Shafiul; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Tsukahara, Toshifumi

    2014-12-01

    RBFox proteins are well-known alternative splicing regulators. We have shown previously that during neuronal differentiation of P19 cells induced by all-trans retinoic acid and cell aggregation, RBFox1 shows markedly increased temporal expression. To find its key splicing regulation, we examined the effect of RBFox1 on 33 previously reported and validated neuronal splicing events of P19 cells. We observed that alternative splicing of three genes, specifically, amyloid precursor protein (APP), disks large homolog 3 (DLG3), and G protein, alpha activating activity polypeptide O (GNAO1), was altered by transient RBFox1 expression in HEK293 and HeLa cells. Moreover, an RBFox1 mutant (RBFox1FA) that was unable to bind the target RNA sequence ((U)GCAUG) did not induce these splicing events. APP generates amyloid beta peptides that are involved in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease, and therefore we examined APP alternative splicing regulation by RBFox1 and other splicing regulators. Our results indicated that RBFox proteins promote the skipping of APP exon 7, but not the inclusion of exon 8. We made APP6789 minigenes and observed that two (U)GCAUG sequences, located upstream of exon 7 and in exon 7, functioned to induce skipping of exon 7 by RBFox proteins. Overall, RBFox proteins may shift APP from exon 7 containing isoforms, APP770 and APP751, toward the exon 7 lacking isoform, APP695, which is predominant in neural tissues.

  13. Regulation by Polycomb and Trithorax Group Proteins in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Venegas, Raúl

    2010-01-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) and trithorax group (trxG) proteins are key regulators of homeotic genes and have crucial roles in cell proliferation, growth and development. PcG and trxG proteins form higher order protein complexes that contain SET domain proteins, with a histone methyltransferase (HMTase) activity, responsible for the different types of lysine methylation at the N-terminal tails of the core histone proteins. In recent years, genetic studies along with biochemical and cell biological analyses in Arabidopsis have enabled researchers to begin to understand how PcG and trxG proteins are recruited to chromatin and how they regulate their target genes and to elucidate their functions. This review focuses on the advances in our understanding of the biological roles of PcG and trxG proteins, their molecular mechanisms of action and further examines the role of histone marks in PcG and trxG regulation in Arabidopsis. PMID:22303254

  14. The RCP-Rab11 complex regulates endocytic protein sorting.

    PubMed

    Peden, Andrew A; Schonteich, Eric; Chun, John; Junutula, Jagath R; Scheller, Richard H; Prekeris, Rytis

    2004-08-01

    Rab 11 GTPase is an important regulator of endocytic membrane traffic. Recently, we and others have identified a novel family of Rab11 binding proteins, known as Rab11-family interacting proteins (FIPs). One of the family members, Rab coupling protein (RCP), was identified as a protein binding to both Rab4 and Rab11 GTPases. RCP was therefore suggested to serve a dual function as Rab4 and Rab11 binding protein. In this study, we characterized the cellular functions of RCP and mapped its interactions with Rab4 and Rab11. Our data show that RCP interacts only weakly with Rab4 in vitro and does not play the role of coupling Rab11 and Rab4 in vivo. Furthermore, our data indicate that the RCP-Rab11 complex regulates the sorting of transferrin receptors from the degradative to the recycling pathway. We therefore propose that RCP functions primarily as a Rab11 binding protein that regulates protein sorting in tubular endosomes.

  15. G protein-coupled receptors and the regulation of autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Wauson, Eric M.; Dbouk, Hashem A.; Ghosh, Anwesha B.; Cobb, Melanie H.

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is an important catabolic cellular process that eliminates damaged and unnecessary cytoplasmic proteins and organelles. Basal autophagy occurs during normal physiological conditions, but the activity of this process can be significantly altered in human diseases. Thus, defining the regulatory inputs and signals that control autophagy is essential. Nutrients are key modulators of autophagy. While autophagy is generally accepted to be regulated in a cell autonomous fashion, recent studies suggest nutrients can modulate autophagy in a systemic manner by inducing the secretion of hormones and neurotransmitters that regulate G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Emerging studies show that GPCRs also regulate autophagy by directly detecting extracellular nutrients. We review the role of GPCRs in autophagy regulation, highlighting their potential as therapeutic drug targets. PMID:24751357

  16. Role of Regulators of G Protein Signaling Proteins in Bone Physiology and Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Jules, Joel; Yang, Shuying; Chen, Wei; Li, Yi-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins enhance the intrinsic GTPase activity of α subunits of the heterotrimeric G protein complex of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and thereby inactivate signal transduction initiated by GPCRs. The RGS family consists of nearly 37 members with a conserved RGS homology domain which is critical for their GTPase accelerating activity. RGS proteins are expressed in most tissues, including heart, lung, brain, kidney, and bone and play essential roles in many physiological and pathological processes. In skeletal development and bone homeostasis as well as in many bone disorders, RGS proteins control the functions of various GPCRs, including the parathyroid hormone receptor type 1 and calcium-sensing receptor and also regulate various critical signaling pathways, such as Wnt and calcium oscillations. This chapter will discuss the current findings on the roles of RGS proteins in regulating signaling of key GPCRs in skeletal development and bone homeostasis. We also will examine the current updates of RGS proteins’ regulation of calcium oscillations in bone physiology and highlight the roles of RGS proteins in selected bone pathological disorders. Despite the recent advances in bone and mineral research, RGS proteins remain understudied in the skeletal system. Further understanding of the roles of RGS proteins in bone should not only provide great insights into the molecular basis of various bone diseases but also generate great therapeutic drug targets for many bone diseases. PMID:26123302

  17. Mechanism and Regulation of Protein Synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Dever, Thomas E; Kinzy, Terri Goss; Pavitt, Graham D

    2016-05-01

    In this review, we provide an overview of protein synthesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae The mechanism of protein synthesis is well conserved between yeast and other eukaryotes, and molecular genetic studies in budding yeast have provided critical insights into the fundamental process of translation as well as its regulation. The review focuses on the initiation and elongation phases of protein synthesis with descriptions of the roles of translation initiation and elongation factors that assist the ribosome in binding the messenger RNA (mRNA), selecting the start codon, and synthesizing the polypeptide. We also examine mechanisms of translational control highlighting the mRNA cap-binding proteins and the regulation of GCN4 and CPA1 mRNAs.

  18. The protein acetylome and the regulation of metabolism.

    PubMed

    Xing, Shufan; Poirier, Yves

    2012-07-01

    Acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) is a central metabolite involved in numerous anabolic and catabolic pathways, as well as in protein acetylation. Beyond histones, a large number of metabolic enzymes are acetylated in both animal and bacteria, and the protein acetylome is now emerging in plants. Protein acetylation is influenced by the cellular level of both acetyl-CoA and NAD(+), and regulates the activity of several enzymes. Acetyl-CoA is thus ideally placed to act as a key molecule linking the energy balance of the cell to the regulation of gene expression and metabolic pathways via the control of protein acetylation. Better knowledge over how to influence acetyl-CoA levels and the acetylation process promises to be an invaluable tool to control metabolic pathways.

  19. Transcriptional regulation of storage protein synthesis during dicotyledon seed filling.

    PubMed

    Verdier, Jérôme; Thompson, Richard D

    2008-09-01

    Seeds represent a major source of nutrients for human and animal livestock diets. The nutritive value of seeds is largely due to storage products which accumulate during a key phase of seed development, seed filling. In recent years, our understanding of the mechanisms regulating seed filling has advanced significantly due to the diversity of experimental approaches used. This review summarizes recent findings related to transcription factors that regulate seed storage protein accumulation. A framework for the regulation of storage protein synthesis is established which incorporates the events before, during and after seed storage protein synthesis. The transcriptional control of storage protein synthesis is accompanied by physiological and environmental controls, notably through the action of plant hormones and other intermediary metabolites. Finally, recent post-genomics analyses on different model plants have established the existence of a conserved seed filling process involving the master regulators (LEC1, LEC2, ABI3 and FUS3) but also revealed certain differences in fine regulation between plant families.

  20. Rab proteins: the key regulators of intracellular vesicle transport.

    PubMed

    Bhuin, Tanmay; Roy, Jagat Kumar

    2014-10-15

    Vesicular/membrane trafficking essentially regulates the compartmentalization and abundance of proteins within the cells and contributes in many signalling pathways. This membrane transport in eukaryotic cells is a complex process regulated by a large and diverse array of proteins. A large group of monomeric small GTPases; the Rabs are essential components of this membrane trafficking route. Most of the Rabs are ubiquitously expressed proteins and have been implicated in vesicle formation, vesicle motility/delivery along cytoskeleton elements and docking/fusion at target membranes through the recruitment of effectors. Functional impairments of Rabs affecting transport pathways manifest different diseases. Rab functions are accompanied by cyclical activation and inactivation of GTP-bound and GDP-bound forms between the cytosol and membranes which is regulated by upstream regulators. Rab proteins are characterized by their distinct sub-cellular localization and regulate a wide variety of endocytic, transcytic and exocytic transport pathways. Mutations of Rabs affect cell growth, motility and other biological processes.

  1. Sex Hormones Regulate Cytoskeletal Proteins Involved in Brain Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Hansberg-Pastor, Valeria; González-Arenas, Aliesha; Piña-Medina, Ana Gabriela; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    In the brain of female mammals, including humans, a number of physiological and behavioral changes occur as a result of sex hormone exposure. Estradiol and progesterone regulate several brain functions, including learning and memory. Sex hormones contribute to shape the central nervous system by modulating the formation and turnover of the interconnections between neurons as well as controlling the function of glial cells. The dynamics of neuron and glial cells morphology depends on the cytoskeleton and its associated proteins. Cytoskeletal proteins are necessary to form neuronal dendrites and dendritic spines, as well as to regulate the diverse functions in astrocytes. The expression pattern of proteins, such as actin, microtubule-associated protein 2, Tau, and glial fibrillary acidic protein, changes in a tissue-specific manner in the brain, particularly when variations in sex hormone levels occur during the estrous or menstrual cycles or pregnancy. Here, we review the changes in structure and organization of neurons and glial cells that require the participation of cytoskeletal proteins whose expression and activity are regulated by estradiol and progesterone. PMID:26635640

  2. Network motifs in integrated cellular networks of transcription-regulation and protein-protein interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeger-Lotem, Esti; Sattath, Shmuel; Kashtan, Nadav; Itzkovitz, Shalev; Milo, Ron; Pinter, Ron Y.; Alon, Uri; Margalit, Hanah

    2004-04-01

    Genes and proteins generate molecular circuitry that enables the cell to process information and respond to stimuli. A major challenge is to identify characteristic patterns in this network of interactions that may shed light on basic cellular mechanisms. Previous studies have analyzed aspects of this network, concentrating on either transcription-regulation or protein-protein interactions. Here we search for composite network motifs: characteristic network patterns consisting of both transcription-regulation and protein-protein interactions that recur significantly more often than in random networks. To this end we developed algorithms for detecting motifs in networks with two or more types of interactions and applied them to an integrated data set of protein-protein interactions and transcription regulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found a two-protein mixed-feedback loop motif, five types of three-protein motifs exhibiting coregulation and complex formation, and many motifs involving four proteins. Virtually all four-protein motifs consisted of combinations of smaller motifs. This study presents a basic framework for detecting the building blocks of networks with multiple types of interactions.

  3. Eosinophil granule cationic proteins regulate the classical pathway of complement.

    PubMed Central

    Weiler, J M; Edens, R E; Bell, C S; Gleich, G J

    1995-01-01

    Major basic protein, the primary constituent of eosinophil granules, regulates the alternative and classical pathways of complement. Major basic protein and other eosinophil granule cationic proteins, which are important in mediating tissue damage in allergic disease, regulate the alternative pathway by interfering with C3b interaction with factor B to assemble an alternative pathway C3 convertase. In the present study, eosinophil peroxidase, eosinophil cationic protein and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin, as well as major basic protein, were examined for capacity to regulate the classical pathway. Eosinophil peroxidase, eosinophil cationic protein and major basic protein inhibited formation of cell-bound classical pathway C3 convertase (EAC1,4b,2a), causing 50% inhibition of complement-mediated lysis at about 0.19, 0.75 and 0.5 micrograms/10(7) cellular intermediates, respectively. Eosinophil-derived neurotoxin had no activity on this pathway of complement. The eosinophil granule proteins were examined for activity on the formation of the membrane attack complex. Major basic protein and eosinophil cationic protein had no activity on terminal lysis. In contrast, eosinophil peroxidase inhibited lysis of EAC1,4b,2a,3b,5b, but had only minimal activity on later events in complement lysis. These polycations were then examined to determine the site(s) at which they regulated the early classical pathway. Eosinophil granule polycationic proteins: (1) reduced the Zmax at all time points but had only minimal effect on the Tmax during the formation of the classical pathway C3 convertase (EAC1,4b,2a); (2) inhibited formation of EAC1,4b,2a proportional to C4 but independent of C2 concentration; (3) inhibited fluid phase formation of C1,4b,2a, as reflected by a decrease in C1-induced consumption of C2 over time; and (4) inhibited C1 activity over time without a direct effect on either C4 or C2. These observations suggest that polycations regulate the early classical pathway by

  4. Elucidation of Novel Structural Scaffold in Rohu TLR2 and Its Binding Site Analysis with Peptidoglycan, Lipoteichoic Acid and Zymosan Ligands, and Downstream MyD88 Adaptor Protein

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Bikash Ranjan; Basu, Madhubanti; Swain, Banikalyan; Dikhit, Manas Ranjan; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Samanta, Mrinal

    2013-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play key roles in sensing wide array of microbial signatures and induction of innate immunity. TLR2 in fish resembles higher eukaryotes by sensing peptidoglycan (PGN) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) of bacterial cell wall and zymosan of yeasts. However, in fish TLR2, no study yet describes the ligand binding motifs in the leucine rich repeat regions (LRRs) of the extracellular domain (ECD) and important amino acids in TLR2-TIR (toll/interleukin-1 receptor) domain that could be engaged in transmitting downstream signaling. We predicted these in a commercially important freshwater fish species rohu (Labeo rohita) by constructing 3D models of TLR2-ECD, TLR2-TIR, and MyD88-TIR by comparative modeling followed by 40 ns (nanosecond) molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) for TLR2-ECD and 20 ns MDS for TLR2-TIR and MyD88-TIR. Protein (TLR2-ECD)–ligands (PGN, LTA, and zymosan) docking in rohu by AutoDock4.0, FlexX2.1, and GOLD4.1 anticipated LRR16–19, LRR12–14, and LRR20-CT as the most important ligand binding motifs. Protein (TLR2-TIR)—protein (MyD88-TIR) interaction by HADDOCK and ZDOCK predicted BB loop, αB-helix, αC-helix, and CD loop in TLR2-TIR and BB loop, αB-helix, and CD loop in MyD88-TIR as the critical binding domains. This study provides ligands recognition and downstream signaling. PMID:23956969

  5. Transcriptional regulation of the uncoupling protein-1 gene.

    PubMed

    Villarroya, Francesc; Peyrou, Marion; Giralt, Marta

    2017-03-01

    Regulated transcription of the uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) gene, and subsequent UCP1 protein synthesis, is a hallmark of the acquisition of the differentiated, thermogenically competent status of brown and beige/brite adipocytes, as well as of the responsiveness of brown and beige/brite adipocytes to adaptive regulation of thermogenic activity. The 5' non-coding region of the UCP1 gene contains regulatory elements that confer tissue specificity, differentiation dependence, and neuro-hormonal regulation to UCP1 gene transcription. Two main regions-a distal enhancer and a proximal promoter region-mediate transcriptional regulation through interactions with a plethora of transcription factors, including nuclear hormone receptors and cAMP-responsive transcription factors. Co-regulators, such as PGC-1α, play a pivotal role in the concerted regulation of UCP1 gene transcription. Multiple interactions of transcription factors and co-regulators at the promoter region of the UCP1 gene result in local chromatin remodeling, leading to activation and increased accessibility of RNA polymerase II and subsequent gene transcription. Moreover, a commonly occurring A-to-G polymorphism in close proximity to the UCP1 gene enhancer influences the extent of UCP1 gene transcription. Notably, it has been reported that specific aspects of obesity and associated metabolic diseases are associated with human population variability at this site. On another front, the unique properties of the UCP1 promoter region have been exploited to develop brown adipose tissue-specific gene delivery tools for experimental purposes.

  6. Fe-S Proteins that Regulate Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Mettert, Erin L.; Kiley, Patricia J.

    2014-01-01

    Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster containing proteins that regulate gene expression are present in most organisms. The innate chemistry of their Fe-S cofactors makes these regulatory proteins ideal for sensing environmental signals, such as gases (e.g. O2 and NO), levels of Fe and Fe-S clusters, reactive oxygen species, and redox cycling compounds, to subsequently mediate an adaptive response. Here we review the recent findings that have provided invaluable insight into the mechanism and function of these highly significant Fe-S regulatory proteins. PMID:25450978

  7. Lil3 Assembles with Proteins Regulating Chlorophyll Synthesis in Barley.

    PubMed

    Mork-Jansson, Astrid; Bue, Ann Kristin; Gargano, Daniela; Furnes, Clemens; Reisinger, Veronika; Arnold, Janine; Kmiec, Karol; Eichacker, Lutz Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The light-harvesting-like (LIL) proteins are a family of membrane proteins that share a chlorophyll a/b-binding motif with the major light-harvesting antenna proteins of oxygenic photoautotrophs. LIL proteins have been associated with the regulation of tetrapyrrol biosynthesis, and plant responses to light-stress. Here, it was found in a native PAGE approach that chlorophyllide, and chlorophyllide plus geranylgeraniolpyrophosphate trigger assembly of Lil3 in three chlorine binding fluorescent protein bands, termed F1, F2, and F3. It is shown that light and chlorophyllide trigger accumulation of protochlorophyllide-oxidoreductase, and chlorophyll synthase in band F3. Chlorophyllide and chlorophyll esterified to geranylgeraniol were identified as basis of fluorescence recorded from band F3. A direct interaction between Lil3, CHS and POR was confirmed in a split ubiquitin assay. In the presence of light or chlorophyllide, geranylgeraniolpyrophosphate was shown to trigger a loss of the F3 band and accumulation of Lil3 and geranylgeranyl reductase in F1 and F2. No direct interaction between Lil3 and geranylgeraniolreductase was identified in a split ubiquitin assay; however, accumulation of chlorophyll esterified to phytol in F1 and F2 corroborated the enzymes assembly. Chlorophyll esterified to phytol and the reaction center protein psbD of photosystem II were identified to accumulate together with psb29, and APX in the fluorescent band F2. Data show that Lil3 assembles with proteins regulating chlorophyll synthesis in etioplasts from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

  8. Lil3 Assembles with Proteins Regulating Chlorophyll Synthesis in Barley

    PubMed Central

    Gargano, Daniela; Furnes, Clemens; Reisinger, Veronika; Arnold, Janine; Kmiec, Karol; Eichacker, Lutz Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The light-harvesting-like (LIL) proteins are a family of membrane proteins that share a chlorophyll a/b-binding motif with the major light-harvesting antenna proteins of oxygenic photoautotrophs. LIL proteins have been associated with the regulation of tetrapyrrol biosynthesis, and plant responses to light-stress. Here, it was found in a native PAGE approach that chlorophyllide, and chlorophyllide plus geranylgeraniolpyrophosphate trigger assembly of Lil3 in three chlorine binding fluorescent protein bands, termed F1, F2, and F3. It is shown that light and chlorophyllide trigger accumulation of protochlorophyllide-oxidoreductase, and chlorophyll synthase in band F3. Chlorophyllide and chlorophyll esterified to geranylgeraniol were identified as basis of fluorescence recorded from band F3. A direct interaction between Lil3, CHS and POR was confirmed in a split ubiquitin assay. In the presence of light or chlorophyllide, geranylgeraniolpyrophosphate was shown to trigger a loss of the F3 band and accumulation of Lil3 and geranylgeranyl reductase in F1 and F2. No direct interaction between Lil3 and geranylgeraniolreductase was identified in a split ubiquitin assay; however, accumulation of chlorophyll esterified to phytol in F1 and F2 corroborated the enzymes assembly. Chlorophyll esterified to phytol and the reaction center protein psbD of photosystem II were identified to accumulate together with psb29, and APX in the fluorescent band F2. Data show that Lil3 assembles with proteins regulating chlorophyll synthesis in etioplasts from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). PMID:26172838

  9. Regulation of Ebola virus VP40 matrix protein by SUMO

    PubMed Central

    Baz-Martínez, Maite; El Motiam, Ahmed; Ruibal, Paula; Condezo, Gabriela N.; de la Cruz-Herrera, Carlos F.; Lang, Valerie; Collado, Manuel; San Martín, Carmen; Rodríguez, Manuel S.; Muñoz-Fontela, Cesar; Rivas, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    The matrix protein of Ebola virus (EBOV) VP40 regulates viral budding, nucleocapsid recruitment, virus structure and stability, viral genome replication and transcription, and has an intrinsic ability to form virus-like particles. The elucidation of the regulation of VP40 functions is essential to identify mechanisms to inhibit viral replication and spread. Post-translational modifications of proteins with ubiquitin-like family members are common mechanisms for the regulation of host and virus multifunctional proteins. Thus far, no SUMOylation of VP40 has been described. Here we demonstrate that VP40 is modified by SUMO and that SUMO is included into the viral like particles (VLPs). We demonstrate that lysine residue 326 in VP40 is involved in SUMOylation, and by analyzing a mutant in this residue we show that SUMO conjugation regulates the stability of VP40 and the incorporation of SUMO into the VLPs. Our study indicates for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that EBOV hijacks the cellular SUMOylation system in order to modify its own proteins. Modulation of the VP40-SUMO interaction may represent a novel target for the therapy of Ebola virus infection. PMID:27849047

  10. Lipid droplet meets a mitochondrial protein to regulate adipocyte lipolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In response to adrenergic stimulation, adipocytes undergo protein kinase A (PKA)-stimulated lipolysis. A key PKA target in this context is perilipin 1, a major regulator of lipolysis on lipid droplets (LDs). A study published in this issue of The EMBO Journal (Pidoux et al, 2011) identifies optic at...

  11. Adaptor proteins MiD49 and MiD51 can act independently of Mff and Fis1 in Drp1 recruitment and are specific for mitochondrial fission.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Catherine S; Elgass, Kirstin D; Parton, Robert G; Osellame, Laura D; Stojanovski, Diana; Ryan, Michael T

    2013-09-20

    Drp1 (dynamin-related protein 1) is recruited to both mitochondrial and peroxisomal membranes to execute fission. Fis1 and Mff are Drp1 receptor/effector proteins of mitochondria and peroxisomes. Recently, MiD49 and MiD51 were also shown to recruit Drp1 to the mitochondrial surface; however, different reports have ascribed opposing roles in fission and fusion. Here, we show that MiD49 or MiD51 overexpression blocked fission by acting in a dominant-negative manner by sequestering Drp1 specifically at mitochondria, causing unopposed fusion events at mitochondria along with elongation of peroxisomes. Mitochondrial elongation caused by MiD49/51 overexpression required the action of fusion mediators mitofusins 1 and 2. Furthermore, at low level overexpression when MiD49 and MiD51 form discrete foci at mitochondria, mitochondrial fission events still occurred. Unlike Fis1 and Mff, MiD49 and MiD51 were not targeted to the peroxisomal surface, suggesting that they specifically act to facilitate Drp1-directed fission at mitochondria. Moreover, when MiD49 or MiD51 was targeted to the surface of peroxisomes or lysosomes, Drp1 was specifically recruited to these organelles. Moreover, the Drp1 recruitment activity of MiD49/51 appeared stronger than that of Mff or Fis1. We conclude that MiD49 and MiD51 can act independently of Mff and Fis1 in Drp1 recruitment and suggest that they provide specificity to the division of mitochondria.

  12. Protein Kinase D1 regulates focal adhesion dynamics and cell adhesion through Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase type-l γ

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Nisha; Bastea, Ligia I.; Long, Jason; Döppler, Heike; Ling, Kun; Storz, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Focal adhesions (FAs) are highly dynamic structures that are assembled and disassembled on a continuous basis. The balance between the two processes mediates various aspects of cell behavior, ranging from cell adhesion and spreading to directed cell migration. The turnover of FAs is regulated at multiple levels and involves a variety of signaling molecules and adaptor proteins. In the present study, we show that in response to integrin engagement, a subcellular pool of Protein Kinase D1 (PKD1) localizes to the FAs. PKD1 affects FAs by decreasing turnover and promoting maturation, resulting in enhanced cell adhesion. The effects of PKD1 are mediated through direct phosphorylation of FA-localized phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase type-l γ (PIP5Klγ) at serine residue 448. This phosphorylation occurs in response to Fibronectin-RhoA signaling and leads to a decrease in PIP5Klγs’ lipid kinase activity and binding affinity for Talin. Our data reveal a novel function for PKD1 as a regulator of FA dynamics and by identifying PIP5Klγ as a novel PKD1 substrate provide mechanistic insight into this process. PMID:27775029

  13. Protein Kinase D1 regulates focal adhesion dynamics and cell adhesion through Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase type-l γ.

    PubMed

    Durand, Nisha; Bastea, Ligia I; Long, Jason; Döppler, Heike; Ling, Kun; Storz, Peter

    2016-10-24

    Focal adhesions (FAs) are highly dynamic structures that are assembled and disassembled on a continuous basis. The balance between the two processes mediates various aspects of cell behavior, ranging from cell adhesion and spreading to directed cell migration. The turnover of FAs is regulated at multiple levels and involves a variety of signaling molecules and adaptor proteins. In the present study, we show that in response to integrin engagement, a subcellular pool of Protein Kinase D1 (PKD1) localizes to the FAs. PKD1 affects FAs by decreasing turnover and promoting maturation, resulting in enhanced cell adhesion. The effects of PKD1 are mediated through direct phosphorylation of FA-localized phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase type-l γ (PIP5Klγ) at serine residue 448. This phosphorylation occurs in response to Fibronectin-RhoA signaling and leads to a decrease in PIP5Klγs' lipid kinase activity and binding affinity for Talin. Our data reveal a novel function for PKD1 as a regulator of FA dynamics and by identifying PIP5Klγ as a novel PKD1 substrate provide mechanistic insight into this process.

  14. Erythrocyte Protein 4.1 Binds and Regulates Myosin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasternack, Gary R.; Racusen, Richard H.

    1989-12-01

    Myosin was recently identified in erythrocytes and was shown to partition both with membrane and cytosolic fractions, suggesting that it may be loosely bound to membranes [Fowler, V. M., Davis, J. Q. & Bennett, V. (1985) J. Cell Biol. 100, 47-55, and Wong, A. J., Kiehart, D. P. & Pollard, T. D. (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260, 46-49]; however, the molecular basis for this binding was unclear. The present studies employed immobilized monomeric myosin to examine the interaction of myosin with erythrocyte protein 4.1. In human erythrocytes, protein 4.1 binds to integral membrane proteins and mediates spectrin-actin assembly. Protein 4.1 binds to rabbit skeletal muscle myosin with a Kd = 140 nM and a stoichiometry consistent with 1:1 binding. Heavy meromyosin competes for protein 4.1 binding with Ki = 36-54 nM; however, the S1 fragment (the myosin head) competes less efficiently. Affinity chromatography of partial chymotryptic digests of protein 4.1 on immobilized myosin identified a 10-kDa domain of protein 4.1 as the myosin-binding site. In functional studies, protein 4.1 partially inhibited the actin-activated Mg2+-ATPase activity of rabbit skeletal muscle myosin with Ki = 51 nM. Liver cytosolic and erythrocyte myosins preactivated with myosin light-chain kinase were similarly inhibited by protein 4.1. These studies show that protein 4.1 binds, modulates, and thus may regulate myosin. This interaction might serve to generate the contractile forces involved in Mg2+-ATP-dependent shape changes in erythrocytes and may additionally serve as a model for myosin organization and regulation in non-muscle cells.

  15. Emerging roles of zinc finger proteins in regulating adipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shengjuan; Zhang, Lifan; Zhou, Xiang; Du, Min; Jiang, Zhihua; Hausman, Gary J.; Bergen, Werner G.; Zan, Linsen; Dodson, Michael V.

    2014-01-01

    Proteins containing the zinc finger domain(s) are named zinc finger proteins (ZFPs), which are one of the largest classes of transcription factors in eukaryotic genomes. A large number of ZFPs have been studied and many of them were found to be involved regulating normal growth and development of cells and tissues through diverse signal transduction pathways. Recent studies revealed that a small but increasing number of ZFPs could function as key transcriptional regulators involved in adipogenesis. As the prevalence of obesity and metabolic disorders, the investigation of molecular regulatory mechanisms of adipocyte development must be more completely understood to develop novel and long term impact strategies for ameliorating obesity. In this review, we discuss recent work which has documented that ZFPs are important functional contributors to the regulation of adipogenesis. Taken altogether these data lead to the conclusion that ZFPs may become promising targets to combat human obesity. PMID:23760207

  16. Emerging roles of zinc finger proteins in regulating adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shengjuan; Zhang, Lifan; Zhou, Xiang; Du, Min; Jiang, Zhihua; Hausman, Gary J; Bergen, Werner G; Zan, Linsen; Dodson, Michael V

    2013-12-01

    Proteins containing the zinc finger domain(s) are named zinc finger proteins (ZFPs), one of the largest classes of transcription factors in eukaryotic genomes. A large number of ZFPs have been studied and many of them were found to be involved in regulating normal growth and development of cells and tissues through diverse signal transduction pathways. Recent studies revealed that a small but increasing number of ZFPs could function as key transcriptional regulators involved in adipogenesis. Due to the prevalence of obesity and metabolic disorders, the investigation of molecular regulatory mechanisms of adipocyte development must be more completely understood in order to develop novel and long-term impact strategies for ameliorating obesity. In this review, we discuss recent work that has documented that ZFPs are important functional contributors to the regulation of adipogenesis. Taken together, these data lead to the conclusion that ZFPs may become promising targets to combat human obesity.

  17. A conserved NAD(+) binding pocket that regulates protein-protein interactions during aging.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Bonkowski, Michael S; Moniot, Sébastien; Zhang, Dapeng; Hubbard, Basil P; Ling, Alvin J Y; Rajman, Luis A; Qin, Bo; Lou, Zhenkun; Gorbunova, Vera; Aravind, L; Steegborn, Clemens; Sinclair, David A

    2017-03-24

    DNA repair is essential for life, yet its efficiency declines with age for reasons that are unclear. Numerous proteins possess Nudix homology domains (NHDs) that have no known function. We show that NHDs are NAD(+) (oxidized form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) binding domains that regulate protein-protein interactions. The binding of NAD(+) to the NHD domain of DBC1 (deleted in breast cancer 1) prevents it from inhibiting PARP1 [poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase], a critical DNA repair protein. As mice age and NAD(+) concentrations decline, DBC1 is increasingly bound to PARP1, causing DNA damage to accumulate, a process rapidly reversed by restoring the abundance of NAD(+) Thus, NAD(+) directly regulates protein-protein interactions, the modulation of which may protect against cancer, radiation, and aging.

  18. Protein kinase A regulates the osteogenic activity of Osterix.

    PubMed

    He, Siyuan; Choi, You Hee; Choi, Joong-Kook; Yeo, Chang-Yeol; Chun, ChangJu; Lee, Kwang Youl

    2014-10-01

    Osterix belongs to the SP gene family and is a core transcription factor responsible for osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Activation of protein kinase A (PKA), a serine/threonine kinase, is essential for controlling bone formation and BMP-induced osteoblast differentiation. However, the relationship between Osterix and PKA is still unclear. In this report, we investigated the precise role of the PKA pathway in regulating Osterix during osteoblast differentiation. We found that PKA increased the protein level of Osterix; PKA phosphorylated Osterix, increased protein stability, and enhanced the transcriptional activity of Osterix. These results suggest that Osterix is a novel target of PKA, and PKA modulates osteoblast differentiation partially through the regulation of Osterix.

  19. Heat Shock Proteins in Tendinopathy: Novel Molecular Regulators

    PubMed Central

    Millar, Neal L.; Murrell, George A. C.

    2012-01-01

    Tendon disorders—tendinopathies—are the primary reason for musculoskeletal consultation in primary care and account for up to 30% of rheumatological consultations. Whilst the molecular pathophysiology of tendinopathy remains difficult to interpret the disease process involving repetitive stress, and cellular load provides important mechanistic insight into the area of heat shock proteins which spans many disease processes in the autoimmune community. Heat shock proteins, also called damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), are rapidly released following nonprogrammed cell death, are key effectors of the innate immune system, and critically restore homeostasis by promoting the reconstruction of the effected tissue. Our investigations have highlighted a key role for HSPs in tendion disease which may ultimately affect tissue rescue mechanisms in tendon pathology. This paper aims to provide an overview of the biology of heat shock proteins in soft tissue and how these mediators may be important regulators of inflammatory mediators and matrix regulation in tendinopathy. PMID:23258952

  20. Intrinsic and extrinsic negative regulators of nuclear protein transport processes

    PubMed Central

    Sekimoto, Toshihiro; Yoneda, Yoshihiro

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear–cytoplasmic protein transport is a critical process in cellular events. The identification of transport signals (nuclear localization signal and nuclear export signal) and their receptors has facilitated our understanding of this expanding field. Nuclear transport must be appropriately regulated to deliver proteins through the nuclear pore when their functions are required in the nucleus, and to export them into the cytoplasm when they are not needed in the nucleus. Altered nuclear transport processes have been observed in stressed cells, which would change gene expressions. Some viruses interfere with nuclear transport in host cells to evade immune defense. Moreover, certain transport factors negatively regulate nuclear protein transport in cells. Understanding the regulatory mechanisms of nuclear–cytoplasmic trafficking not only provides important information about cellular processes, but also is of use for developing specific inhibitors for transport pathways. PMID:22672474

  1. BCL-2 family proteins as regulators of mitochondria metabolism.

    PubMed

    Gross, Atan

    2016-08-01

    The BCL-2 family proteins are major regulators of apoptosis, and one of their major sites of action are the mitochondria. Mitochondria are the cellular hubs for metabolism and indeed selected BCL-2 family proteins also possess roles related to mitochondria metabolism and dynamics. Here we discuss the link between mitochondrial metabolism/dynamics and the fate of stem cells, with an emphasis on the role of the BID-MTCH2 pair in regulating this link. We also discuss the possibility that BCL-2 family proteins act as metabolic sensors/messengers coming on and off of mitochondria to "sample" the cytosol and provide the mitochondria with up-to-date metabolic information. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'EBEC 2016: 19th European Bioenergetics Conference, Riva del Garda, Italy, July 2-6, 2016', edited by Prof. Paolo Bernardi.

  2. HypoxiaDB: a database of hypoxia-regulated proteins

    PubMed Central

    Khurana, Pankaj; Sugadev, Ragumani; Jain, Jaspreet; Singh, Shashi Bala

    2013-01-01

    There has been intense interest in the cellular response to hypoxia, and a large number of differentially expressed proteins have been identified through various high-throughput experiments. These valuable data are scattered, and there have been no systematic attempts to document the various proteins regulated by hypoxia. Compilation, curation and annotation of these data are important in deciphering their role in hypoxia and hypoxia-related disorders. Therefore, we have compiled HypoxiaDB, a database of hypoxia-regulated proteins. It is a comprehensive, manually-curated, non-redundant catalog of proteins whose expressions are shown experimentally to be altered at different levels and durations of hypoxia. The database currently contains 72 000 manually curated entries taken on 3500 proteins extracted from 73 peer-reviewed publications selected from PubMed. HypoxiaDB is distinctive from other generalized databases: (i) it compiles tissue-specific protein expression changes under different levels and duration of hypoxia. Also, it provides manually curated literature references to support the inclusion of the protein in the database and establish its association with hypoxia. (ii) For each protein, HypoxiaDB integrates data on gene ontology, KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway, protein–protein interactions, protein family (Pfam), OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man), PDB (Protein Data Bank) structures and homology to other sequenced genomes. (iii) It also provides pre-compiled information on hypoxia-proteins, which otherwise requires tedious computational analysis. This includes information like chromosomal location, identifiers like Entrez, HGNC, Unigene, Uniprot, Ensembl, Vega, GI numbers and Genbank accession numbers associated with the protein. These are further cross-linked to respective public databases augmenting HypoxiaDB to the external repositories. (iv) In addition, HypoxiaDB provides an online sequence-similarity search tool for

  3. Regulation of bone morphogenetic proteins in early embryonic development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Yukiyo; Oelgeschläger, Michael

    2004-11-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), a large subgroup of the TGF-β family of secreted growth factors, control fundamental events in early embryonic development, organogenesis and adult tissue homeostasis. The plethora of dose-dependent cellular processes regulated by BMP signalling demand a tight regulation of BMP activity. Over the last decade, a number of proteins have been identified that bind BMPs in the extracellular space and regulate the interaction of BMPs with their cognate receptors, including the secreted BMP antagonist Chordin. In the early vertebrate embryo, the localized secretion of BMP antagonists from the dorsal blastopore lip establishes a functional BMP signalling gradient that is required for the determination of the dorsoventral or back to belly body axis. In particular, inhibition of BMP activity is essential for the formation of neural tissue in the development of vertebrate and invertebrate embryos. Here we review recent studies that have provided new insight into the regulation of BMP signalling in the extracellular space. In particular, we discuss the recently identified Twisted gastrulation protein that modulates, in concert with metalloproteinases of the Tolloid family, the interaction of Chordin with BMP and a family of proteins that share structural similarities with Chordin in the respective BMP binding domains. In addition, genetic and functional studies in zebrafish and frog provide compelling evidence that the secreted protein Sizzled functionally interacts with the Chd BMP pathway, despite being expressed ventrally in the early gastrula-stage embryo. These intriguing discoveries may have important implications, not only for our current concept of early embryonic patterning, but also for the regulation of BMP activity at later developmental stages and tissue homeostasis in the adult.

  4. In vitro and in vivo Analysis of the Binding of the C Terminus of the HDL Receptor Scavenger Receptor Class B type I (SR-BI) to the PDZ1 Domain of its Cytoplasmic Adaptor Protein PDZK1

    SciTech Connect

    O Kocher; G Birrane; K Tsukamoto; S Fenske; A Yesilaltay; R Pal; K Daniels; J Ladias; M Krieger

    2011-12-31

    The PDZ1 domain of the four PDZ domain-containing protein PDZK1 has been reported to bind the C terminus of the HDL receptor scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI), and to control hepatic SR-BI expression and function. We generated wild-type (WT) and mutant murine PDZ1 domains, the mutants bearing single amino acid substitutions in their carboxylate binding loop (Lys(14)-Xaa(4)-Asn(19)-Tyr-Gly-Phe-Phe-Leu(24)), and measured their binding affinity for a 7-residue peptide corresponding to the C terminus of SR-BI ((503)VLQEAKL(509)). The Y20A and G21Y substitutions abrogated all binding activity. Surprisingly, binding affinities (K(d)) of the K14A and F22A mutants were 3.2 and 4.0 ?M, respectively, similar to 2.6 ?M measured for the WT PDZ1. To understand these findings, we determined the high resolution structure of WT PDZ1 bound to a 5-residue sequence from the C-terminal SR-BI ((505)QEAKL(509)) using x-ray crystallography. In addition, we incorporated the K14A and Y20A substitutions into full-length PDZK1 liver-specific transgenes and expressed them in WT and PDZK1 knock-out mice. In WT mice, the transgenes did not alter endogenous hepatic SR-BI protein expression (intracellular distribution or amount) or lipoprotein metabolism (total plasma cholesterol, lipoprotein size distribution). In PDZK1 knock-out mice, as expected, the K14A mutant behaved like wild-type PDZK1 and completely corrected their hepatic SR-BI and plasma lipoprotein abnormalities. Unexpectedly, the 10-20-fold overexpressed Y20A mutant also substantially, but not completely, corrected these abnormalities. The results suggest that there may be an additional site(s) within PDZK1 that bind(s) SR-BI and mediate(s) productive SR-BI-PDZK1 interaction previously attributed exclusively to the canonical binding of the C-terminal SR-BI to PDZ1.

  5. The EH and SH3 domain Ese proteins regulate endocytosis by linking to dynamin and Eps15.

    PubMed Central

    Sengar, A S; Wang, W; Bishay, J; Cohen, S; Egan, S E

    1999-01-01

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is a multistep process which requires interaction between a number of conserved proteins. We have cloned two mammalian genes which code for a number of endocytic adaptor proteins. Two of these proteins, termed Ese1 and Ese2, contain two N-terminal EH domains, a central coiled-coil domain and five C-terminal SH3 domains. Ese1 is constitutively associated with Eps15 proteins to form a complex with at least 14 protein-protein interaction surfaces. Yeast two-hybrid assays have revealed that Ese1 EH and SH3 domains bind epsin family proteins and dynamin, respectively. Overexpression of Ese1 is sufficient to block clathrin-mediated endocytosis in cultured cells, presumably through disruption of higher order protein complexes, which are assembled on the endogenous Ese1-Eps15 scaffold. The Ese1-Eps15 scaffold therefore links dynamin, epsin and other endocytic pathway components. PMID:10064583

  6. SUMO modification regulates the protein stability of NDRG1.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Eun; Kim, Jung Hwa

    2015-03-27

    N-myc Downstream Regulated Gene 1 (NDRG1) is a metastasis suppressor protein which suppresses metastasis without affecting primary tumorigenesis. There have been many reports about the anti-metastatic function of NDRG1 in various cancers. However, the regulatory mechanism of NDRG1 at the protein level has not been studied widely. Here, we found that NDRG1 is posttranslationally modified by Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier (SUMO), preferentially by SUMO-2, and the major SUMO acceptor site of NDRG1 is Lys 14. Using various SUMO-2 modification status mimicking NDRG1 mutants, we characterized the role of SUMO-2 modification on NDRG1. SUMO-2 modification does not affect the subcellular distribution of NDRG1. However, the protein stability of NDRG1 is influenced by SUMO-2 modification. We found that both the wildtype and the SUMO modification site mutant form of the NDRG1 protein were very stable but the protein stability of SUMO-2 fused NDRG1 K14R had dramatically decreased. In addition, the expression of p21 is downregulated by overexpression of SUMO-2 fused NDRG1 K14R mutants. These results indicate that SUMO-2 modification is implicated in the modulation of NDRG1 protein level and function. This novel link between SUMO modification and regulation of NDRG1 could be a therapeutic target for treatment of various metastatic cancers.

  7. The developmentally regulated avian protein IFAPa-400 is transitin.

    PubMed

    Ma, X; Charron, F; Cole, G J; Savard, P E; Vincent, M

    1998-07-01

    Transitin and IFAPa-400 are developmentally regulated high M(r) proteins expressed transiently in early chick embryogenesis. Both are associated with radially oriented fibers in the developing CNS and with various neural and myogenic tissues before their down-regulation at later stages. Previous studies have shown that IFAPa-400 colocalized and copurified with intermediate filament proteins and recent molecular cloning has indicated that transitin is a member of this family of cytoskeletal proteins. Here, we provide evidence that IFAPa-400 and transitin are the same protein. The sequence of a composite cDNA corresponding to more than 700 amino acids of IFAPa-400 carboxy-terminal extremity is identical to that of transitin. Both proteins exhibit identical apparent M(r) and isoelectric point. Immunopurified IFAPa-400 reacts with different antibodies to transitin and vice-versa. The patterns of expression of both proteins show a perfect coincidence at the tissue level. At the subcellular level, most antibodies to IFAPa-400/transitin decorate a typical intermediate filament network. However, monoclonal antibody A2B11, at the origin of transitin identification, exhibits a staining more typical of a cortical component, suggesting that different populations of transitin exist within the cell.

  8. Regulation of thrombosis and vascular function by protein methionine oxidation.

    PubMed

    Gu, Sean X; Stevens, Jeff W; Lentz, Steven R

    2015-06-18

    Redox biology is fundamental to both normal cellular homeostasis and pathological states associated with excessive oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen species function not only as signaling molecules but also as redox regulators of protein function. In the vascular system, redox reactions help regulate key physiologic responses such as cell adhesion, vasoconstriction, platelet aggregation, angiogenesis, inflammatory gene expression, and apoptosis. During pathologic states, altered redox balance can cause vascular cell dysfunction and affect the equilibrium between procoagulant and anticoagulant systems, contributing to thrombotic vascular disease. This review focuses on the emerging role of a specific reversible redox reaction, protein methionine oxidation, in vascular disease and thrombosis. A growing number of cardiovascular and hemostatic proteins are recognized to undergo reversible methionine oxidation, in which methionine residues are posttranslationally oxidized to methionine sulfoxide. Protein methionine oxidation can be reversed by the action of stereospecific enzymes known as methionine sulfoxide reductases. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II is a prototypical methionine redox sensor that responds to changes in the intracellular redox state via reversible oxidation of tandem methionine residues in its regulatory domain. Several other proteins with oxidation-sensitive methionine residues, including apolipoprotein A-I, thrombomodulin, and von Willebrand factor, may contribute to vascular disease and thrombosis.

  9. The Pch2 AAA+ ATPase promotes phosphorylation of the Hop1 meiotic checkpoint adaptor in response to synaptonemal complex defects

    PubMed Central

    Herruzo, Esther; Ontoso, David; González-Arranz, Sara; Cavero, Santiago; Lechuga, Ana; San-Segundo, Pedro A.

    2016-01-01

    Meiotic cells possess surveillance mechanisms that monitor critical events such as recombination and chromosome synapsis. Meiotic defects resulting from the absence of the synaptonemal complex component Zip1 activate a meiosis-specific checkpoint network resulting in delayed or arrested meiotic progression. Pch2 is an evolutionarily conserved AAA+ ATPase required for the checkpoint-induced meiotic block in the zip1 mutant, where Pch2 is only detectable at the ribosomal DNA array (nucleolus). We describe here that high levels of the Hop1 protein, a checkpoint adaptor that localizes to chromosome axes, suppress the checkpoint defect of a zip1 pch2 mutant restoring Mek1 activity and meiotic cell cycle delay. We demonstrate that the critical role of Pch2 in this synapsis checkpoint is to sustain Mec1-dependent phosphorylation of Hop1 at threonine 318. We also show that the ATPase activity of Pch2 is essential for its checkpoint function and that ATP binding to Pch2 is required for its localization. Previous work has shown that Pch2 negatively regulates Hop1 chromosome abundance during unchallenged meiosis. Based on our results, we propose that, under checkpoint-inducing conditions, Pch2 also possesses a positive action on Hop1 promoting its phosphorylation and its proper distribution on unsynapsed chromosome axes. PMID:27257060

  10. Protein Kinases of the Hippo Pathway: Regulation and Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Avruch, Joseph; Zhou, Dawang; Fitamant, Julien; Bardeesy, Nabeel; Mou, Fan; Barrufet, Laura Regué

    2012-01-01

    The “Hippo” signaling pathway has emerged as a major regulator of cell proliferation and survival in metazoans. The pathway, as delineated by genetic and biochemical studies in Drosophila, consists of a kinase cascade regulated by cell-cell contact and cell polarity that inhibits the transcriptional coactivator Yorkie and its proliferative, anti-differentiation, antiapoptotic transcriptional program. The core pathway components are the GC kinase Hippo, which phosphorylates the noncatalytic polypeptide Mats/Mob1 and, with the assistance of the scaffold protein Salvador, phosphorylates the ndr-family kinase Lats. In turn phospho-Lats, after binding to phospho-Mats, autoactivates and phosphorylates Yorkie, resulting in its nuclear exit. Hippo also uses the scaffold protein Furry and a different Mob protein to control another ndr-like kinase, the morphogenetic regulator Tricornered. Architecturally homologous kinase cascades consisting of a GC kinase, a Mob protein, a scaffolding polypeptide and an ndr-like kinase are well described in yeast; in S. cerevisiae e.g., the MEN pathway promotes mitotic exit whereas the RAM network, using a different GC kinase, Mob protein, scaffold and ndr-like kinase, regulates cell polarity and morphogenesis. In mammals, the Hippo orthologues Mst1 and Mst2 utilize the Salvador ortholog WW45/Sav1 and other scaffolds to regulate the kinases Lats1/Lats2 and ndr1/ndr2. As in Drosophila, murine Mst1/Mst2, in a redundant manner, negatively regulate the Yorkie ortholog YAP in the epithelial cells of the liver and gut; loss of both Mst1 and Mst2 results in hyperproliferation and tumorigenesis that can be largely negated by reduction or elimination of YAP. Despite this conservation, considerable diversification in pathway composition and regulation is already evident; in skin e.g., YAP phosphorylation is independent of Mst1Mst2 and Lats1Lats2. Moreover, in lymphoid cells, Mst1/Mst2, under the control of the Rap1 GTPase and independent of YAP

  11. A liquid crystal of ascorbyl palmitate, used as vaccine platform, provides sustained release of antigen and has intrinsic pro-inflammatory and adjuvant activities which are dependent on MyD88 adaptor protein.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Vallecillo, María F; Minguito de la Escalera, María M; Aguirre, María V; Ullio Gamboa, Gabriela V; Palma, Santiago D; González-Cintado, Leticia; Chiodetti, Ana L; Soldano, Germán; Morón, Gabriel; Allemandi, Daniel A; Ardavín, Carlos; Pistoresi-Palencia, María C; Maletto, Belkys A

    2015-09-28

    Modern subunit vaccines require the development of new adjuvant strategies. Recently, we showed that CpG-ODN formulated with a liquid crystal nanostructure formed by self-assembly of 6-O-ascorbyl palmitate (Coa-ASC16) is an attractive system for promoting an antigen-specific immune response to weak antigens. Here, we showed that after subcutaneous injection of mice with near-infrared fluorescent dye-labeled OVA antigen formulated with Coa-ASC16, the dye-OVA was retained at the injection site for a longer period than when soluble dye-OVA was administered. Coa-ASC16 alone elicited a local inflammation, but how this material triggers this response has not been described yet. Although it is known that some materials used as a platform are not immunologically inert, very few studies have directly focused on this topic. In this study, we explored the underlying mechanisms concerning the interaction between Coa-ASC16 and the immune system and we found that the whole inflammatory response elicited by Coa-ASC16 (leukocyte recruitment and IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12 production) was dependent on the MyD88 protein. TLR2, TLR4, TLR7 and NLRP3-inflammasome signaling were not required for induction of this inflammatory response. Coa-ASC16 induced local release of self-DNA, and in TLR9-deficient mice IL-6 production was absent. In addition, Coa-ASC16 revealed an intrinsic adjuvant activity which was affected by MyD88 and IL-6 absence. Taken together these results indicate that Coa-ASC16 used as a vaccine platform is effective due to the combination of the controlled release of antigen and its intrinsic pro-inflammatory activity. Understanding how Coa-ASC16 works might have significant implications for rational vaccine design.

  12. Regulation of Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling by ADP-ribosylation*

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Yukihide; Papoutsoglou, Panagiotis; Maturi, Varun; Tsubakihara, Yutaro; Hottiger, Michael O.; Heldin, Carl-Henrik; Moustakas, Aristidis

    2016-01-01

    We previously established a mechanism of negative regulation of transforming growth factor β signaling mediated by the nuclear ADP-ribosylating enzyme poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) and the deribosylating enzyme poly-(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG), which dynamically regulate ADP-ribosylation of Smad3 and Smad4, two central signaling proteins of the pathway. Here we demonstrate that the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway can also be regulated by the opposing actions of PARP1 and PARG. PARG positively contributes to BMP signaling and forms physical complexes with Smad5 and Smad4. The positive role PARG plays during BMP signaling can be neutralized by PARP1, as demonstrated by experiments where PARG and PARP1 are simultaneously silenced. In contrast to PARG, ectopic expression of PARP1 suppresses BMP signaling, whereas silencing of endogenous PARP1 enhances signaling and BMP-induced differentiation. The two major Smad proteins of the BMP pathway, Smad1 and Smad5, interact with PARP1 and can be ADP-ribosylated in vitro, whereas PARG causes deribosylation. The overall outcome of this mode of regulation of BMP signal transduction provides a fine-tuning mechanism based on the two major enzymes that control cellular ADP-ribosylation. PMID:27129221

  13. Regulation of GABAA receptors by fragile X mental retardation protein.

    PubMed

    Liu, Baosong; Li, Lijun; Chen, Juan; Wang, Zefen; Li, Zhiqiang; Wan, Qi

    2013-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by the loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). The deficiency of GABAA receptors (GABAARs) is implicated in FXS. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. To investigate the effect of FMRP on GABAARs, we transfected FMRP cDNAs in rat cortical neurons. We measured the protein expression of GABAARs and phosphatase PTEN, and recorded GABAAR-mediated whole-cell currents in the transfected neurons. We show that the transfection of FMRP cDNAs causes increased protein expression of GABAARs in cortical neurons, but GABAAR-mediated whole-cell currents are not potentiated by FMRP transfection. These results suggest the possibility that intracellular signaling antagonizing GABAAR activity may play a role in inhibiting GABAAR function in FMRP-transfected neurons. We further show that FMRP transfection results in an enhanced protein expression of PTEN, which contributes to the inhibition of GABAAR function in FMRP-transfected neurons. These results indicate that GABAARs are regulated by FMRP through both an up-regulation of GABAAR expression and a PTEN enhancement-induced inhibition of GABAAR function, suggesting that an abnormal regulation of GABAAR and PTEN by the loss of FMRP underlies the pathogenesis of FXS.

  14. HYPERSENSITIVE TO RED AND BLUE 1, a ZZ-type zinc finger protein, regulates phytochrome B-mediated red and cryptochrome-mediated blue light responses.

    PubMed

    Kang, Xiaojun; Chong, Jason; Ni, Min

    2005-03-01

    Plant photoreceptors that regulate photomorphogenic development include red/far-red-light-absorbing phytochromes and blue/UV-A-light-absorbing cryptochromes. We have undertaken a genetic screen to identify additional components downstream of the photoreceptors in Arabidopsis thaliana. We identified a short hypocotyl mutant under red and blue light, hypersensitive to red and blue 1 (hrb1). Mutation in HRB1 also enhances the end-of-day far-red light response, inhibits leaf expansion and petiole elongation, and attenuates the expression of CAB3 and CHS. Double mutant analysis indicates that phyB is epistatic to hrb1 under red light, and cry1 cry2 is epistatic to hrb1 under blue light for both hypocotyl growth and light-regulated gene expression responses. HRB1 localizes to the nucleus and belongs to a protein family of Drought induced 19 (Di19). HRB1 and all other family members contain a ZZ-type zinc finger domain, which in other organisms is implicated in protein-protein interactions between dystrophin and calmodulin and between transcriptional adaptors and activators. HRB1 activity is also required for red and blue light-induced expression of PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 4 (PIF4). pif4 shows a very similar hypersensitive response as hrb1 to both red light and blue light and is epistatic to hrb1 in control of light-regulated gene expression responses. Thus, the roles of HRB1 and PIF4 together in regulating both red and blue light responses may represent points where red light signaling and blue light signaling intersect.

  15. G protein modulation of recombinant P/Q-type calcium channels by regulators of G protein signalling proteins.

    PubMed

    Mark, M D; Wittemann, S; Herlitze, S

    2000-10-01

    1. Fast synaptic transmission is triggered by the activation of presynaptic Ca2+ channels which can be inhibited by Gbetagamma subunits via G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). Regulators of G protein signalling (RGS) proteins are GTPase-accelerating proteins (GAPs), which are responsible for >100-fold increases in the GTPase activity of G proteins and might be involved in the regulation of presynaptic Ca2+ channels. In this study we investigated the effects of RGS2 on G protein modulation of recombinant P/Q-type channels expressed in a human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cell line using whole-cell recordings. 2. RGS2 markedly accelerates transmitter-mediated inhibition and recovery from inhibition of Ba2+ currents (IBa) through P/Q-type channels heterologously expressed with the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 (mAChR M2). 3. Both RGS2 and RGS4 modulate the prepulse facilitation properties of P/Q-type Ca2+ channels. G protein reinhibition is accelerated, while release from inhibition is slowed. These kinetics depend on the availability of G protein alpha and betagamma subunits which is altered by RGS proteins. 4. RGS proteins unmask the Ca2+ channel beta subunit modulation of Ca2+ channel G protein inhibition. In the presence of RGS2, P/Q-type channels containing the beta2a and beta3 subunits reveal significantly altered kinetics of G protein modulation and increased facilitation compared to Ca2+ channels coexpressed with the beta1b or beta4 subunit.

  16. Regulation of the Src Kinase-associated Phosphoprotein 55 Homologue by the Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase PTP-PEST in the Control of Cell Motility*

    PubMed Central

    Ayoub, Emily; Hall, Anita; Scott, Adam M.; Chagnon, Mélanie J.; Miquel, Géraldine; Hallé, Maxime; Noda, Masaharu; Bikfalvi, Andreas; Tremblay, Michel L.

    2013-01-01

    PTP-PEST is a cytosolic ubiquitous protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) that contains, in addition to its catalytic domain, several protein-protein interaction domains that allow it to interface with several signaling pathways. Among others, PTP-PEST is a key regulator of cellular motility and cytoskeleton dynamics. The complexity of the PTP-PEST interactome underscores the necessity to identify its interacting partners and physiological substrates in order to further understand its role in focal adhesion complex turnover and actin organization. Using a modified yeast substrate trapping two-hybrid system, we identified a cytosolic adaptor protein named Src kinase-associated phosphoprotein 55 homologue (SKAP-Hom) as a novel substrate of PTP-PEST. To confirm PTP-PEST interaction with SKAP-Hom, in vitro pull down assays were performed demonstrating that the PTP catalytic domain and Proline-rich 1 (P1) domain are respectively binding to the SKAP-Hom Y260 and Y297 residues and its SH3 domain. Subsequently, we generated and rescued SKAP-Hom-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) with WT SKAP-Hom, SKAP-Hom tyrosine mutants (Y260F, Y260F/Y297F), or SKAP-Hom SH3 domain mutant (W335K). Given the role of PTP-PEST, wound-healing and trans-well migration assays were performed using the generated lines. Indeed, SKAP-Hom-deficient MEFs showed a defect in migration compared with WT-rescued MEFs. Interestingly, the SH3 domain mutant-rescued MEFs showed an enhanced cell migration corresponding potentially with higher tyrosine phosphorylation levels of SKAP-Hom. These findings suggest a novel role of SKAP-Hom and its phosphorylation in the regulation of cellular motility. Moreover, these results open new avenues by which PTP-PEST regulates cellular migration, a hallmark of metastasis. PMID:23897807

  17. Regulation of the Src kinase-associated phosphoprotein 55 homologue by the protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP-PEST in the control of cell motility.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, Emily; Hall, Anita; Scott, Adam M; Chagnon, Mélanie J; Miquel, Géraldine; Hallé, Maxime; Noda, Masaharu; Bikfalvi, Andreas; Tremblay, Michel L

    2013-09-06

    PTP-PEST is a cytosolic ubiquitous protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) that contains, in addition to its catalytic domain, several protein-protein interaction domains that allow it to interface with several signaling pathways. Among others, PTP-PEST is a key regulator of cellular motility and cytoskeleton dynamics. The complexity of the PTP-PEST interactome underscores the necessity to identify its interacting partners and physiological substrates in order to further understand its role in focal adhesion complex turnover and actin organization. Using a modified yeast substrate trapping two-hybrid system, we identified a cytosolic adaptor protein named Src kinase-associated phosphoprotein 55 homologue (SKAP-Hom) as a novel substrate of PTP-PEST. To confirm PTP-PEST interaction with SKAP-Hom, in vitro pull down assays were performed demonstrating that the PTP catalytic domain and Proline-rich 1 (P1) domain are respectively binding to the SKAP-Hom Y260 and Y297 residues and its SH3 domain. Subsequently, we generated and rescued SKAP-Hom-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) with WT SKAP-Hom, SKAP-Hom tyrosine mutants (Y260F, Y260F/Y297F), or SKAP-Hom SH3 domain mutant (W335K). Given the role of PTP-PEST, wound-healing and trans-well migration assays were performed using the generated lines. Indeed, SKAP-Hom-deficient MEFs showed a defect in migration compared with WT-rescued MEFs. Interestingly, the SH3 domain mutant-rescued MEFs showed an enhanced cell migration corresponding potentially with higher tyrosine phosphorylation levels of SKAP-Hom. These findings suggest a novel role of SKAP-Hom and its phosphorylation in the regulation of cellular motility. Moreover, these results open new avenues by which PTP-PEST regulates cellular migration, a hallmark of metastasis.

  18. Protein phosphorylation and regulation of adaptive responses in bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Stock, J B; Ninfa, A J; Stock, A M

    1989-01-01

    Bacteria continuously adapt to changes in their environment. Responses are largely controlled by signal transduction systems that contain two central enzymatic components, a protein kinase that uses adenosine triphosphate to phosphorylate itself at a histidine residue and a response regulator that accepts phosphoryl groups from the kinase. This conserved phosphotransfer chemistry is found in a wide range of bacterial species and operates in diverse systems to provide different regulatory outputs. The histidine kinases are frequently membrane receptor proteins that respond to environmental signals and phosphorylate response regulators that control transcription. Four specific regulatory systems are discussed in detail: chemotaxis in response to attractant and repellent stimuli (Che), regulation of gene expression in response to nitrogen deprivation (Ntr), control of the expression of enzymes and transport systems that assimilate phosphorus (Pho), and regulation of outer membrane porin expression in response to osmolarity and other culture conditions (Omp). Several additional systems are also examined, including systems that control complex developmental processes such as sporulation and fruiting-body formation, systems required for virulent infections of plant or animal host tissues, and systems that regulate transport and metabolism. Finally, an attempt is made to understand how cross-talk between parallel phosphotransfer pathways can provide a global regulatory curcuitry. PMID:2556636

  19. Regulated protein kinases and phosphatases in cell cycle decisions.

    PubMed

    Novak, Bela; Kapuy, Orsolya; Domingo-Sananes, Maria Rosa; Tyson, John J

    2010-12-01

    Many aspects of cell physiology are controlled by protein kinases and phosphatases, which together determine the phosphorylation state of targeted substrates. Some of these target proteins are themselves kinases or phosphatases or other components of a regulatory network characterized by feedback and feed-forward loops. In this review we describe some common regulatory motifs involving kinases, phosphatases, and their substrates, focusing particularly on bistable switches involved in cellular decision processes. These general principles are applied to cell cycle transitions, with special emphasis on the roles of regulated phosphatases in orchestrating progression from one phase to the next of the DNA replication-division cycle.

  20. The serine/arginine-rich protein SF2/ASF regulates protein sumoylation

    PubMed Central

    Pelisch, Federico; Gerez, Juan; Druker, Jimena; Schor, Ignacio E.; Muñoz, Manuel J.; Risso, Guillermo; Petrillo, Ezequiel; Westman, Belinda J.; Lamond, Angus I.; Arzt, Eduardo; Srebrow, Anabella

    2010-01-01

    Protein modification by conjugation of small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) is involved in diverse biological functions, such as transcription regulation, subcellular partitioning, stress response, DNA damage repair, and chromatin remodeling. Here, we show that the serine/arginine-rich protein SF2/ASF, a factor involved in splicing regulation and other RNA metabolism-related processes, is a regulator of the sumoylation pathway. The overexpression of this protein stimulates, but its knockdown inhibits SUMO conjugation. SF2/ASF interacts with Ubc9 and enhances sumoylation of specific substrates, sharing characteristics with already described SUMO E3 ligases. In addition, SF2/ASF interacts with the SUMO E3 ligase PIAS1 (protein inhibitor of activated STAT-1), regulating PIAS1-induced overall protein sumoylation. The RNA recognition motif 2 of SF2/ASF is necessary and sufficient for sumoylation enhancement. Moreover, SF2/ASF has a role in heat shock-induced sumoylation and promotes SUMO conjugation to RNA processing factors. These results add a component to the sumoylation pathway and a previously unexplored role for the multifunctional SR protein SF2/ASF. PMID:20805487

  1. Spiral biasing adaptor for use in Si drift detectors and Si drift detector arrays

    DOEpatents

    Li, Zheng; Chen, Wei

    2016-07-05

    A drift detector array, preferably a silicon drift detector (SDD) array, that uses a low current biasing adaptor is disclosed. The biasing adaptor is customizable for any desired geometry of the drift detector single cell with minimum drift time of carriers. The biasing adaptor has spiral shaped ion-implants that generate the desired voltage profile. The biasing adaptor can be processed on the same wafer as the drift detector array and only one biasing adaptor chip/side is needed for one drift detector array to generate the voltage profiles on the front side and back side of the detector array.

  2. Regulation of protein degradation in muscle by calcium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeman, Richard J.; Kameyama, Tsuneo; Matsumoto, Kazue; Bernstein, Paul; Etlinger, Joseph D.

    1985-01-01

    Calcium-dependent regulation of intracellular protein degradation was studied in isolated rat skeletal muscles incubated in vitro in the presence of a large variety of agents known to affect calcium movement and distribution. The effect of different classes of protease inhibitors was tested to determine the responsible proteolytic systems involved in calcium-dependent degradation. The results suggest that nonlysosomal leupetin- and E-64-c-sensitive proteases are resposible for calcium-dependent proteolysis in muscle.

  3. The protein kinase LKB1 negatively regulates bone morphogenetic protein receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Raja, Erna; Edlund, Karolina; Kahata, Kaoru; Zieba, Agata; Morén, Anita; Watanabe, Yukihide; Voytyuk, Iryna; Botling, Johan; Söderberg, Ola; Micke, Patrick; Pyrowolakis, George; Heldin, Carl-Henrik; Moustakas, Aristidis

    2016-01-01

    The protein kinase LKB1 regulates cell metabolism and growth and is implicated in intestinal and lung cancer. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling regulates cell differentiation during development and tissue homeostasis. We demonstrate that LKB1 physically interacts with BMP type I receptors and requires Smad7 to promote downregulation of the receptor. Accordingly, LKB1 suppresses BMP-induced osteoblast differentiation and affects BMP signaling in Drosophila wing longitudinal vein morphogenesis. LKB1 protein expression and Smad1 phosphorylation analysis in a cohort of non-small cell lung cancer patients demonstrated a negative correlation predominantly in a subset enriched in adenocarcinomas. Lung cancer patient data analysis indicated strong correlation between LKB1 loss-of-function mutations and high BMP2 expression, and these two events further correlated with expression of a gene subset functionally linked to apoptosis and migration. This new mechanism of BMP receptor regulation by LKB1 has ramifications in physiological organogenesis and disease. PMID:26701726

  4. Regulated specific proteolysis of the Cajal body marker protein coilin.

    PubMed

    Velma, Venkatramreddy; Broome, Hanna J; Hebert, Michael D

    2012-12-01

    Cajal bodies (CB) are subnuclear domains that contain various proteins with diverse functions including the CB marker protein coilin. In this study, we investigate the proteolytic activity of calpain on coilin. Here, we report a 28-kDa cleaved coilin fragment detected by two coilin antibodies that is cell cycle regulated, with levels that are consistently reduced during mitosis. We further show that an in vitro calpain assay with full-length or C-terminal coilin recombinant protein releases the same size cleaved fragment. Furthermore, addition of exogenous RNA to purified coilin induces proteolysis by calpain. We also report that the relative levels of this cleaved coilin fragment are susceptible to changes induced by various cell stressors, and that coilin localization is affected by inhibition or knockdown of calpain both under normal and stressed conditions. Collectively, our data suggest that coilin is subjected to regulated specific proteolysis by calpain, and this processing may play a role in the regulation of coilin activity and CB formation.

  5. Regulation of the p73 protein stability and degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Oberst, Andrew; Salomoni, Paolo; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Oren, Moshe; Melino, Gerry; Bernassola, Francesca . E-mail: bernasso@uniroma2.it

    2005-06-10

    p73, a homologue to the tumor suppressor gene p53, is involved in tumorigenesis, though its specific role remains unclear. The gene has two distinct promoters which allow the formation of two protein isoforms with opposite effects: full-length transactivating (TA) p73 shows pro-apoptotic effects, while the shorter {delta}Np73, which lacks the N-terminal transactivating domain, has an evident anti-apoptotic function. Unlike p53, the p73 gene is rarely mutated in human cancers. However, alterations in the relative levels of TA and {delta}Np73 have been shown to correlate with prognosis in several human cancers, suggesting that the fine regulation of these two isoforms is of pivotal importance in controlling proliferation and cell death. Much effort is currently focused on the elucidation of the mechanisms that differentially control TA and {delta}Np73 activity and protein stability, a process complicated by the finding that both proteins are regulated by a similar suite of complex post-translational modifications that include ubiquitination, sequential phosphorylation, prolyl-isomerization, recruitment into the PML-nuclear body (PML-NB), and acetylation. Here we shall consider the main regulatory partners of p73, with particular attention to the recently discovered Itch- and Nedd8-mediated degradation pathways, along with the emerging roles of PML, p38 MAP kinase, Pin1, and p300 in p73 transcriptional activation, and possible mechanisms for the differential regulation of the TAp73 and {delta}Np73 isoforms.

  6. Distinct Roles for TGN/Endosome Epsin-like Adaptors Ent3p and Ent5p

    PubMed Central

    Costaguta, Giancarlo; Duncan, Mara C.; Fernández, G. Esteban; Huang, Grace H.

    2006-01-01

    Clathrin adaptors are key factors in clathrin-coated vesicle formation, coupling clathrin to cargo and/or the lipid bilayer. A physically interacting network of three classes of adaptors participate in clathrin-mediated traffic between the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and endosomes: AP-1, Gga proteins, and epsin-like proteins. Here we investigate functional relationships within this network through transport assays and protein localization analysis in living yeast cells. We observed that epsin-like protein Ent3p preferentially localized with Gga2p, whereas Ent5p distributed equally between AP-1 and Gga2p. Ent3p was mislocalized in Gga-deficient but not in AP-1–deficient cells. In contrast, Ent5p retained localization in cells lacking either or both AP-1 and Gga proteins. The Ent proteins were dispensable for AP-1 or Gga localization. Synthetic genetic growth and α-factor maturation defects were observed when ent5Δ but not ent3Δ was introduced together with deletions of the GGA genes. In AP-1–deficient cells, ent3Δ and to a lesser extent ent5Δ caused minor α-factor maturation defects, but together resulted in a near-lethal phenotype. Deletions of ENT3 and ENT5 also displayed synthetic defects similar to, but less severe than, synthetic effects of AP-1 and Gga inactivation. These results differentiate Ent3p and Ent5p function in vivo, suggesting that Ent3p acts primarily with Gga proteins, whereas Ent5p acts with both AP-1 and Gga proteins but is more critical for AP-1–mediated transport. The data also support a model in which the Ent adaptors provide important accessory functions to AP-1 and Gga proteins in TGN/endosome traffic. PMID:16790491

  7. Redox regulation by reversible protein S-thiolation in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Loi, Vu Van; Rossius, Martina; Antelmann, Haike

    2015-01-01

    Low molecular weight (LMW) thiols function as thiol-redox buffers to maintain the reduced state of the cytoplasm. The best studied LMW thiol is the tripeptide glutathione (GSH) present in all eukaryotes and Gram-negative bacteria. Firmicutes bacteria, including Bacillus and Staphylococcus species utilize the redox buffer bacillithiol (BSH) while Actinomycetes produce the related redox buffer mycothiol (MSH). In eukaryotes, proteins are post-translationally modified to S-glutathionylated proteins under conditions of oxidative stress. S-glutathionylation has emerged as major redox-regulatory mechanism in eukaryotes and protects active site cysteine residues against overoxidation to sulfonic acids. First studies identified S-glutathionylated proteins also in Gram-negative bacteria. Advances in mass spectrometry have further facilitated the identification of protein S-bacillithiolations and S-mycothiolation as BSH- and MSH-mixed protein disulfides formed under oxidative stress in Firmicutes and Actinomycetes, respectively. In Bacillus subtilis, protein S-bacillithiolation controls the activities of the redox-sensing OhrR repressor and the methionine synthase MetE in vivo. In Corynebacterium glutamicum, protein S-mycothiolation was more widespread and affected the functions of the maltodextrin phosphorylase MalP and thiol peroxidase (Tpx). In addition, novel bacilliredoxins (Brx) and mycoredoxins (Mrx1) were shown to function similar to glutaredoxins in the reduction of BSH- and MSH-mixed protein disulfides. Here we review the current knowledge about the functions of the bacterial thiol-redox buffers glutathione, bacillithiol, and mycothiol and the role of protein S-thiolation in redox regulation and thiol protection in model and pathogenic bacteria. PMID:25852656

  8. Function and Regulation of Heterotrimeric G Proteins during Chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Kamp, Marjon E; Liu, Youtao; Kortholt, Arjan

    2016-01-14

    Chemotaxis, or directional movement towards an extracellular gradient of chemicals, is necessary for processes as diverse as finding nutrients, the immune response, metastasis and wound healing. Activation of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) is at the very base of the chemotactic signaling pathway. Chemotaxis starts with binding of the chemoattractant to GPCRs at the cell-surface, which finally leads to major changes in the cytoskeleton and directional cell movement towards the chemoattractant. Many chemotaxis pathways that are directly regulated by Gβγ have been identified and studied extensively; however, whether Gα is just a handle that regulates the release of Gβγ or whether Gα has its own set of distinct chemotactic effectors, is only beginning to be understood. In this review, we will discuss the different levels of regulation in GPCR signaling and the downstream pathways that are essential for proper chemotaxis.

  9. Hkat, a novel nutritionally regulated transmembrane protein in adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ren

    2012-01-01

    White adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ regulating many aspects of whole body physiology and pathology. Adipogenesis, a process in which premature cells differentiate into adipocytes, is a complex process that includes orchestrated changes in gene expression and cell morphology in response to various nutritional and hormonal stimuli. To profile transcriptome changes in response to nutritional stimulation, we performed RNA-seq on fat in mice treated with either a high-fat diet or fasting. We identified a novel nutritionally regulated gene, Gm12824, named Hkat (heart, kidney, adipose-enriched transmembrane protein). We show that both fasting and obesity dramatically reduce Hkat in white adipose tissue, and that fasting reduces while obesity increases its expression in brown fat. Hkat is localized to the plasma membrane and induced during adipogenesis. Therefore, Hkat is a novel nutritionally regulated gene that is potentially involved in metabolism.

  10. ZF21 protein regulates cell adhesion and motility.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Makoto; Hoshino, Daisuke; Sakamoto, Takeharu; Kawasaki, Noritaka; Koshikawa, Naohiko; Seiki, Motoharu

    2010-07-02

    Cell migration on an extracellular matrix (ECM) requires continuous formation and turnover of focal adhesions (FAs) along the direction of cell movement. However, our knowledge of the components of FAs and the mechanism of their regulation remains limited. Here, we identify ZF21, a member of a protein family characterized by the presence of a phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate-binding FYVE domain, to be a new regulator of FAs and cell movement. Knockdown of ZF21 expression in cells increased the number of FAs and suppressed cell migration. Knockdown of ZF21 expression also led to a significant delay in FA disassembly following induction of synchronous disassembly of FAs by nocodazole treatment. ZF21 bound to focal adhesion kinase, localized to FAs, and was necessary for dephosphorylation of FAK at Tyr(397), which is important for disassembly of FAs. Thus, ZF21 represents a new component of FAs, mediates disassembly of FAs, and thereby regulates cell motility.

  11. Akt phosphorylates and regulates Pdcd4 tumor suppressor protein.

    PubMed

    Palamarchuk, Alexey; Efanov, Alexey; Maximov, Vadim; Aqeilan, Rami I; Croce, Carlo M; Pekarsky, Yuri

    2005-12-15

    Programmed cell death 4 (Pdcd4) is a tumor suppressor protein that interacts with eukaryotic initiation factor 4A and inhibits protein synthesis. Pdcd4 also suppresses the transactivation of activator protein-1 (AP-1)-responsive promoters by c-Jun. The Akt (protein kinase B) serine/threonine kinase is a key mediator of phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, survival, and growth. Because Pdcd4 has two putative Akt phosphorylation sites at Ser(67) and Ser(457), we investigated whether Akt phosphorylates and regulates Pdcd4. Our results show that Akt specifically phosphorylates Ser(67) and Ser(457) residues of Pdcd4 in vitro and in vivo. We further show that phosphorylation of Pdcd4 by Akt causes nuclear translocation of Pdcd4. Using luciferase assay, we show that phosphorylation of Pdcd4 by Akt also causes a significant decrease of the ability of Pdcd4 to interfere with the transactivation of AP-1-responsive promoter by c-Jun.

  12. Manduca Contactin Regulates Amyloid Precursor Protein-Dependent Neuronal Migration

    PubMed Central

    Ramaker, Jenna M.; Swanson, Tracy L.

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) was originally identified as the source of β-amyloid peptides that accumulate in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but it also has been implicated in the control of multiple aspects of neuronal motility. APP belongs to an evolutionarily conserved family of transmembrane proteins that can interact with a variety of adapter and signaling molecules. Recently, we showed that both APP and its insect ortholog [APPL (APP-Like)] directly bind the heterotrimeric G-protein Goα, supporting the model that APP can function as an unconventional Goα-coupled receptor. We also adapted a well characterized assay of neuronal migration in the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, to show that APPL–Goα signaling restricts ectopic growth within the developing nervous system, analogous to the role postulated for APP family proteins in controlling migration within the mammalian cortex. Using this assay, we have now identified Manduca Contactin (MsContactin) as an endogenous ligand for APPL, consistent with previous work showing that Contactins interact with APP family proteins in other systems. Using antisense-based knockdown protocols and fusion proteins targeting both proteins, we have shown that MsContactin is selectively expressed by glial cells that ensheath the migratory neurons (expressing APPL), and that MsContactin–APPL interactions normally prevent inappropriate migration and outgrowth. These results provide new evidence that Contactins can function as authentic ligands for APP family proteins that regulate APP-dependent responses in the developing nervous system. They also support the model that misregulated Contactin–APP interactions might provoke aberrant activation of Goα and its effectors, thereby contributing to the neurodegenerative sequelae that typify AD. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Members of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) family participate in many aspects of neuronal development, but the ligands that normally activate APP signaling have remained

  13. Transcriptional regulation of decreased protein synthesis during skeletal muscle unloading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, G.; Steffen, J. M.; Geoghegan, T. E.

    1989-01-01

    The regulatory role of transcriptional alterations in unloaded skeletal muscles was investigated by determining levels of total muscle RNA and mRNA fractions in soleus, gastrocnemius, and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) of rats subjected to whole-body suspension for up to 7 days. After 7 days, total RNA and mRNA contents were lower in soleus and gastrocnemius, compared with controls, but the concentrations of both RNAs per g muscle were unaltered. Alpha-actin mRNA (assessed by dot hybridization) was significantly reduced in soleus after 1, 3, and 7 days of suspension and in gastrocnemius after 3 and 7 days, but was unchanged in EDL. Protein synthesis directed by RNA extracted from soleus and EDL indicated marked alteration in mRNAs coding for several small proteins. Results suggest that altered transcription and availability of specific mRNAs contribute significantly to the regulation of protein synthesis during skeletal muscle unloading.

  14. The mevalonate pathway regulates primitive streak formation via protein farnesylation

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto-Uchida, Yoshimi; Yu, Ruoxing; Miyamura, Norio; Arima, Norie; Ishigami-Yuasa, Mari; Kagechika, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Suguru; Hosoya, Takamitsu; Nawa, Makiko; Kasama, Takeshi; Asaoka, Yoichi; Alois, Reiner Wimmer; Elling, Ulrich; Penninger, Josef M.; Nishina, Sachiko; Azuma, Noriyuki; Nishina, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    The primitive streak in peri-implantation embryos forms the mesoderm and endoderm and controls cell differentiation. The metabolic cues regulating primitive streak formation remain largely unknown. Here we utilised a mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation system and a library of well-characterised drugs to identify these metabolic factors. We found that statins, which inhibit the mevalonate metabolic pathway, suppressed primitive streak formation in vitro and in vivo. Using metabolomics and pharmacologic approaches we identified the downstream signalling pathway of mevalonate and revealed that primitive streak formation requires protein farnesylation but not cholesterol synthesis. A tagging-via-substrate approach revealed that nuclear lamin B1 and small G proteins were farnesylated in embryoid bodies and important for primitive streak gene expression. In conclusion, protein farnesylation driven by the mevalonate pathway is a metabolic cue essential for primitive streak formation. PMID:27883036

  15. STAT5-Interacting Proteins: A Synopsis of Proteins that Regulate STAT5 Activity

    PubMed Central

    Able, Ashley A.; Burrell, Jasmine A.; Stephens, Jacqueline M.

    2017-01-01

    Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STATs) are key components of the JAK/STAT pathway. Of the seven STATs, STAT5A and STAT5B are of particular interest for their critical roles in cellular differentiation, adipogenesis, oncogenesis, and immune function. The interactions of STAT5A and STAT5B with cytokine/hormone receptors, nuclear receptors, transcriptional regulators, proto-oncogenes, kinases, and phosphatases all contribute to modulating STAT5 activity. Among these STAT5 interacting proteins, some serve as coactivators or corepressors to regulate STAT5 transcriptional activity and some proteins can interact with STAT5 to enhance or repress STAT5 signaling. In addition, a few STAT5 interacting proteins have been identified as positive regulators of STAT5 that alter serine and tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT5 while other proteins have been identified as negative regulators of STAT5 via dephosphorylation. This review article will discuss how STAT5 activity is modulated by proteins that physically interact with STAT5. PMID:28287479

  16. The Arf6 GTPase-activating Proteins ARAP2 and ACAP1 Define Distinct Endosomal Compartments That Regulate Integrin α5β1 Traffic*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Pei-Wen; Luo, Ruibai; Jian, Xiaoying; Randazzo, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Arf6 and the Arf6 GTPase-activating protein (GAP) ACAP1 are established regulators of integrin traffic important to cell adhesion and migration. However, the function of Arf6 with ACAP1 cannot explain the range of Arf6 effects on integrin-based structures. We propose that Arf6 has different functions determined, in part, by the associated Arf GAP. We tested this idea by comparing the Arf6 GAPs ARAP2 and ACAP1. We found that ARAP2 and ACAP1 had opposing effects on apparent integrin β1 internalization. ARAP2 knockdown slowed, whereas ACAP1 knockdown accelerated, integrin β1 internalization. Integrin β1 association with adaptor protein containing a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain, and leucine zipper motif (APPL)-positive endosomes and EEA1-positive endosomes was affected by ARAP2 knockdown and depended on ARAP2 GAP activity. ARAP2 formed a complex with APPL1 and colocalized with Arf6 and APPL in a compartment distinct from the Arf6/ACAP1 tubular recycling endosome. In addition, although ACAP1 and ARAP2 each colocalized with Arf6, they did not colocalize with each other and had opposing effects on focal adhesions (FAs). ARAP2 overexpression promoted large FAs, but ACAP1 overexpression reduced FAs. Taken together, the data support a model in which Arf6 has at least two sites of opposing action defined by distinct Arf6 GAPs. PMID:25225293

  17. Protein Kinase D Regulates Cell Death Pathways in Experimental Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jingzhen; Liu, Yannan; Tan, Tanya; Guha, Sushovan; Gukovsky, Ilya; Gukovskaya, Anna; Pandol, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation and acinar cell necrosis are two major pathological responses of acute pancreatitis, a serious disorder with no current therapies directed to its molecular pathogenesis. Serine/threonine protein kinase D family, which includes PKD/PKD1, PKD2, and PKD3, has been increasingly implicated in the regulation of multiple physiological and pathophysiological effects. We recently reported that PKD/PKD1, the predominant PKD isoform expressed in rat pancreatic acinar cells, mediates early events of pancreatitis including NF-κB activation and inappropriate intracellular digestive enzyme activation. In current studies, we investigated the role and mechanisms of PKD/PKD1 in the regulation of necrosis in pancreatic acinar cells by using two novel small molecule PKD inhibitors CID755673 and CRT0066101 and molecular approaches in in vitro and in vivo experimental models of acute pancreatitis. Our results demonstrated that both CID755673 and CRT0066101 are PKD-specific inhibitors and that PKD/PKD1 inhibition by either the chemical inhibitors or specific PKD/PKD1 siRNAs attenuated necrosis while promoting apoptosis induced by pathological doses of cholecystokinin-octapeptide (CCK) in pancreatic acinar cells. Conversely, up-regulation of PKD expression in pancreatic acinar cells increased necrosis and decreased apoptosis. We further showed that PKD/PKD1 regulated several key cell death signals including inhibitors of apoptotic proteins, caspases, receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 to promote necrosis. PKD/PKD1 inhibition by CID755673 significantly ameliorated necrosis and severity of pancreatitis in an in vivo experimental model of acute pancreatitis. Thus, our studies indicate that PKD/PKD1 is a key mediator of necrosis in acute pancreatitis and that PKD/PKD1 may represent a potential therapeutic target in acute pancreatitis. PMID:22470346

  18. Interaction of amphiphysins with AP-1 clathrin adaptors at the membrane.

    PubMed

    Huser, Sonja; Suri, Gregor; Crottet, Pascal; Spiess, Martin

    2013-02-15

    The assembly of clathrin/AP (adaptor protein)-1-coated vesicles on the trans-Golgi network and endosomes is much less studied than that of clathrin/AP-2 vesicles at the plasma membrane for endocytosis. In vitro, the association of AP-1 with protein-free liposomes had been shown to require phosphoinositides, Arf1 (ADP-ribosylation factor 1)-GTP and additional cytosolic factor(s). We have purified an active fraction from brain cytosol and found it to contain amphiphysin 1 and 2 and endophilin A1, three proteins known to be involved in the formation of AP-2/clathrin coats at the plasma membrane. Assays with bacterially expressed and purified proteins showed that AP-1 stabilization on liposomes depends on amphiphysin 2 or the amphiphysin 1/2 heterodimer. Activity is independent of the SH3 (Src homology 3) domain, but requires interaction of the WDLW motif with γ-adaptin. Endogenous amphiphysin in neurons and transfected protein in cell lines co-localize perinuclearly with AP-1 at the trans-Golgi network. This localization depends on interaction of clathrin and the adaptor sequence in the amphiphysins and is sensitive to brefeldin A, which inhibits Arf1-dependent AP-1 recruitment. Interaction between AP-1 and amphiphysin 1/2 in vivo was demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation after cross-linking. These results suggest an involvement of amphiphysins not only with AP-2 at the plasma membrane, but also in AP-1/clathrin coat formation at the trans-Golgi network.

  19. Adaptor for Measuring Principal Strains with Tuckerman Strain Gage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcpherson, A E

    1943-01-01

    An adapter is described which uses three Tuckerman optical strain gages to measure the displacement of the three vortices of an equilateral triangle along lines 120 degrees apart. These displacements are substituted in well-known equations in order to compute the magnitude and direction of the principal strains. Tests of the adaptor indicate that principal strains over a gage length of 1.42 inch may be measured with a systematic error not exceeding 4 percent and a mean observational error of the order of + or minus 0.000006. The maximum observed error in strain was of the order of 0.00006. The directions of principal strains for unidirectional stress were measured with the adaptor with an average error of the order of 1 degree.

  20. Putting a break on protein translocation: metabolic regulation of mitochondrial protein import.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Johannes M

    2009-04-01

    Sequence-inherent targeting information directs polypeptides synthesized in the cytosol to their respective cellular compartment. Some proteins use ambiguous sorting signals or specific folding properties to be dually distributed between the cytosol and mitochondria. A study published in this issue of Molecular Microbiology shows that in the case of fumarase this distribution is controlled by the metabolic state of yeast cells. The metabolite-dependent distribution of fumarase represents an exciting example of regulated protein import into mitochondria that shows that eukaryotes can adapt the intracellular protein distribution to their physiological conditions.

  1. Regulation of protein synthesis during sea urchin early development

    SciTech Connect

    Kelso, L.C.

    1989-01-01

    Fertilization of the sea urchin egg results in a 20-40 fold increase in the rate of protein synthesis. The masked message hypothesis proposes that mRNAs are masked or unavailable for translation in the egg. We devised an in vivo assay to test this hypothesis. Our results show that masked mRNAs limit protein synthesis in the unfertilized egg. In addition, we show that protein synthesis is also regulated at the level of translational machinery. Following fertilization is a period of rapid cell divisions. This period, known as the rapid cleavage stage, is characterized by the transient synthesis of a novel set of proteins. The synthesis of these proteins is programmed by maternal mRNAs stored in the unfertilized egg. To study the behavior of these mRNAs, we prepared a cDNA library from polysomal poly (A+) RNA from 2-hour embryos. ({sup 32}P) labeled probes, prepared from the cDNA library, were used to monitor the levels of individual mRNAs in polysomes at fertilization and during early development.

  2. SH2B1beta adaptor is a key enhancer of RET tyrosine kinase signaling.

    PubMed

    Donatello, S; Fiorino, A; Degl'Innocenti, D; Alberti, L; Miranda, C; Gorla, L; Bongarzone, I; Rizzetti, M G; Pierotti, M A; Borrello, M G

    2007-10-04

    The RET gene encodes two main isoforms of a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) implicated in various human diseases. Activating germ-line point mutations are responsible for multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2-associated medullary thyroid carcinomas, inactivating germ-line mutations for Hirschsprung's disease, while somatic rearrangements (RET/PTCs) are specific to papillary thyroid carcinomas. SH2B1beta, a member of the SH2B adaptors family, and binding partner for several RTKs, has been recently described to interact with proto-RET. Here, we show that both RET isoforms and its oncogenic derivatives bind to SH2B1beta through the SRC homology 2 (SH2) domain and a kinase activity-dependent mechanism. As a result, RET phosphorylates SH2B1beta, which in turn enhances its autophosphorylation, kinase activity, and downstream signaling. RET tyrosine residues 905 and 981 are important determinants for functional binding of the adaptor, as removal of both autophosphorylation sites displaces its recruitment. Binding of SH2B1beta appears to protect RET from dephosphorylation by protein tyrosine phosphatases, and might represent a likely mechanism contributing to its upregulation. Thus, overexpression of SH2B1beta, by enhancing phosphorylation/activation of RET transducers, potentiates the cellular differentiation and the neoplastic transformation thereby induced, and counteracts the action of RET inhibitors. Overall, our results identify SH2B1beta as a key enhancer of RET physiologic and pathologic activities.

  3. EML proteins in microtubule regulation and human disease.

    PubMed

    Fry, Andrew M; O'Regan, Laura; Montgomery, Jessica; Adib, Rozita; Bayliss, Richard

    2016-10-15

    The EMLs are a conserved family of microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs). The founding member was discovered in sea urchins as a 77-kDa polypeptide that co-purified with microtubules. This protein, termed EMAP for echinoderm MAP, was the major non-tubulin component present in purified microtubule preparations made from unfertilized sea urchin eggs [J. Cell Sci. (1993) 104: , 445-450; J. Cell Sci. (1987) 87: (Pt 1), 71-84]. Orthologues of EMAP were subsequently identified in other echinoderms, such as starfish and sand dollar, and then in more distant eukaryotes, including flies, worms and vertebrates, where the name of ELP or EML (both for EMAP-like protein) has been adopted [BMC Dev. Biol. (2008) 8: , 110; Dev. Genes Evol. (2000) 210: , 2-10]. The common property of these proteins is their ability to decorate microtubules. However, whether they are associated with particular microtubule populations or exercise specific functions in different microtubule-dependent processes remains unknown. Furthermore, although there is limited evidence that they regulate microtubule dynamics, the biochemical mechanisms of their molecular activity have yet to be explored. Nevertheless, interest in these proteins has grown substantially because of the identification of EML mutations in neuronal disorders and oncogenic fusions in human cancers. Here, we summarize our current knowledge of the expression, localization and structure of what is proving to be an interesting and important class of MAPs. We also speculate about their function in microtubule regulation and highlight how the studies of EMLs in human diseases may open up novel avenues for patient therapy.

  4. The senescence-induced staygreen protein regulates chlorophyll degradation.

    PubMed

    Park, So-Yon; Yu, Jae-Woong; Park, Jong-Sung; Li, Jinjie; Yoo, Soo-Cheul; Lee, Na-Yeoun; Lee, Sang-Kyu; Jeong, Seok-Won; Seo, Hak Soo; Koh, Hee-Jong; Jeon, Jong-Seong; Park, Youn-Il; Paek, Nam-Chon

    2007-05-01

    Loss of green color in leaves results from chlorophyll (Chl) degradation in chloroplasts, but little is known about how Chl catabolism is regulated throughout leaf development. Using the staygreen (sgr) mutant in rice (Oryza sativa), which maintains greenness during leaf senescence, we identified Sgr, a senescence-associated gene encoding a novel chloroplast protein. Transgenic rice overexpressing Sgr produces yellowish-brown leaves, and Arabidopsis thaliana pheophorbide a oxygenase-impaired mutants exhibiting a stay-green phenotype during dark-induced senescence have reduced expression of Sgr homologs, indicating that Sgr regulates Chl degradation at the transcriptional level. We show that the leaf stay-greenness of the sgr mutant is associated with a failure in the destabilization of the light-harvesting chlorophyll binding protein (LHCP) complexes of the thylakoid membranes, which is a prerequisite event for the degradation of Chls and LHCPs during senescence. Transient overexpression of Sgr in Nicotiana benthamiana and an in vivo pull-down assay show that Sgr interacts with LHCPII, indicating that the Sgr-LHCPII complexes are formed in the thylakoid membranes. Thus, we propose that in senescing leaves, Sgr regulates Chl degradation by inducing LHCPII disassembly through direct interaction, leading to the degradation of Chls and Chl-free LHCPII by catabolic enzymes and proteases, respectively.

  5. Molecular mechanisms regulating protein kinase Czeta turnover and cellular transformation.

    PubMed Central

    Le Good, J Ann; Brindley, David N

    2004-01-01

    The regulation of protein kinase C (PKC)zeta in relation to its turnover, cell growth and transformation was investigated in Rat2 fibroblasts by over-expressing wild-type or mutant forms of PKCzeta. Deletion of the pseudosubstrate site (PSS) produced the most active mutant (PKCzeta Delta PSS), but mutants designed to mimic phosphorylated PKCzeta had lower specific activities in an in vitro assay. The mutant lacking phosphorylation at the Thr-560 site (T560A) had similar specific activity to wild-type PKCzeta. The T560A mutant also protected PKCzeta against proteolysis, whereas phosphorylation at Thr-410 targeted it towards proteosomal degradation. Blocking proteosomal degradation with lactacystin caused the accumulation of full-length PKCzeta Delta PSS, T410E, PKCzeta Delta PSS T410/560E, PKCzeta and T560A. Expressed PKCzeta activity was paralleled by extracellular-regulated protein kinase activation, increased cell division, serum-independent growth and focus formation. These foci were seen for cells expressing higher PKCzeta activity (PKCzeta Delta PSS, PKCzeta Delta PSS T410/560E and T560A mutants), but these fibroblasts did not show significant anchorage-independent growth. This work provides novel information concerning the role of the PSS and phosphorylation sites in regulating the activity and turnover of an atypical PKC and shows how this activity can induce cell transformation with respect to focus formation. PMID:14580237

  6. Autopalmitoylation of TEAD Proteins Regulates Transcriptional Output of Hippo Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chan, PuiYee; Han, Xiao; Zheng, Baohui; DeRan, Michael; Yu, Jianzhong; Jarugumilli, Gopala K.; Deng, Hua; Pan, Duojia; Luo, Xuelian; Wu, Xu

    2016-01-01

    TEA domain (TEAD) transcription factors bind to the co-activator YAP/TAZ, and regulate the transcriptional output of Hippo pathway, playing critical roles in organ size control and tumorigenesis. Protein S-palmitoylation attaches fatty acid (palmitate) to cysteine residues, and regulates protein trafficking, membrane localization and signaling activities. Using activity-based chemical probes, we discovered that human TEADs possess intrinsic palmitoylating enzyme-like activities, and undergo autopalmitoylation at evolutionarily conserved cysteine residues under physiological conditions. We determined the crystal structures of lipid-bound TEADs, and found that the lipid chain of palmitate inserts into a conserved deep hydrophobic pocket. Strikingly, palmitoylation is required for TEAD’s binding to YAP/TAZ, but dispensable for the binding to Vgll4 tumor suppressor. In addition, palmitoylation does not alter TEAD’s localization. Moreover, TEAD palmitoylation-deficient mutants impaired TAZ-mediated muscle differentiation in vitro, and Yorkie-mediated tissue overgrowth in Drosophila in vivo. Our study directly linked autopalmitoylation to the transcriptional regulation of Hippo pathway. PMID:26900866

  7. Regulation of protein glycosylation and sorting by the Golgi matrix proteins GRASP55/65

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Yi; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Nix, David B.; Katoh, Toshihiko; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Tiemeyer, Michael; Wang, Yanzhuang

    2013-01-01

    The Golgi receives the entire output of newly synthesized cargo from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), processes it in the stack largely through modification of bound oligosaccharides, and sorts it in the trans-Golgi network (TGN). GRASP65 and GRASP55, two proteins localized to the Golgi stack and early secretory pathway, mediate processes including Golgi stacking, Golgi ribbon linking, and unconventional secretion. Previously we have shown that GRASP depletion in cells disrupts Golgi stack formation. Here we report that knockdown of the GRASP proteins, alone or combined, accelerates protein trafficking through the Golgi membranes but also has striking negative effects on protein glycosylation and sorting. These effects are not caused by Golgi ribbon unlinking, unconventional secretion, or ER stress. We propose that GRASP55/65 are negative regulators of exocytic transport and that this slowdown helps to ensure more complete protein glycosylation in the Golgi stack and proper sorting at the TGN. PMID:23552074

  8. Testosterone Regulates Tight Junction Proteins and Influences Prostatic Autoimmune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Jing; Mostaghel, Elahe A.; Vakar-Lopez, Funda; Montgomery, Bruce; True, Larry; Nelson, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone and inflammation have been linked to the development of common age-associated diseases affecting the prostate gland including prostate cancer, prostatitis, and benign prostatic hypertrophy. We hypothesized that testosterone regulates components of prostate tight junctions which serve as a barrier to inflammation, thus providing a connection between age- and treatment-associated testosterone declines and prostatic pathology. We examined the expression and distribution of tight junction proteins in prostate biospecimens from mouse models and a clinical study of chemical castration, using transcript profiling, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. We determined that low serum testosterone is associated with reduced transcript and protein levels of Claudin 4 and Claudin 8, resulting in defective tight junction ultrastructure in benign prostate glands. Expression of Claudin 4 and Claudin 8 was negatively correlated with the mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate caused by testosterone deprivation. Testosterone suppression also induced an auto-immune humoral response directed toward prostatic proteins. Testosterone supplementation in castrate mice resulted in re-expression of tight junction components in prostate epithelium and significantly reduced prostate inflammatory cell numbers. These data demonstrate that tight junction architecture in the prostate is related to changes in serum testosterone levels, and identify an androgen-regulated mechanism that potentially contributes to the development of prostate inflammation and consequent pathology. PMID:21761342

  9. The evolution of regulators of G protein signalling proteins as drug targets - 20 years in the making: IUPHAR Review 21.

    PubMed

    Sjögren, B

    2017-03-01

    Regulators of G protein signalling (RGS) proteins are celebrating the 20th anniversary of their discovery. The unveiling of this new family of negative regulators of G protein signalling in the mid-1990s solved a persistent conundrum in the G protein signalling field, in which the rate of deactivation of signalling cascades in vivo could not be replicated in exogenous systems. Since then, there has been tremendous advancement in the knowledge of RGS protein structure, function, regulation and their role as novel drug targets. RGS proteins play an important modulatory role through their GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity at active, GTP-bound Gα subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins. They also possess many non-canonical functions not related to G protein signalling. Here, an update on the status of RGS proteins as drug targets is provided, highlighting advances that have led to the inclusion of RGS proteins in the IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY database of drug targets.

  10. The AP-2 adaptor beta2 appendage scaffolds alternate cargo endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Keyel, Peter A; Thieman, James R; Roth, Robyn; Erkan, Elif; Everett, Eric T; Watkins, Simon C; Heuser, John E; Traub, Linton M

    2008-12-01

    The independently folded appendages of the large alpha and beta2 subunits of the endocytic adaptor protein (AP)-2 complex coordinate proper assembly and operation of endocytic components during clathrin-mediated endocytosis. The beta2 subunit appendage contains a common binding site for beta-arrestin or the autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia (ARH) protein. To determine the importance of this interaction surface in living cells, we used small interfering RNA-based gene silencing. The effect of extinguishing beta2 subunit expression on the internalization of transferrin is considerably weaker than an AP-2 alpha subunit knockdown. We show the mild sorting defect is due to fortuitous substitution of the beta2 chain with the closely related endogenous beta1 subunit of the AP-1 adaptor complex. Simultaneous silencing of both beta1 and beta2 subunit transcripts recapitulates the strong alpha subunit RNA interference (RNAi) phenotype and results in loss of ARH from endocytic clathrin coats. An RNAi-insensitive beta2-yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) expressed in the beta1 + beta2-silenced background restores cellular AP-2 levels, robust transferrin internalization, and ARH colocalization with cell surface clathrin. The importance of the beta appendage platform subdomain over clathrin for precise deposition of ARH at clathrin assembly zones is revealed by a beta2-YFP with a disrupted ARH binding interface, which does not restore ARH colocalization with clathrin. We also show a beta-arrestin 1 mutant, which engages coated structures in the absence of any G protein-coupled receptor stimulation, colocalizes with beta2-YFP and clathrin even in the absence of an operational clathrin binding sequence. These findings argue against ARH and beta-arrestin binding to a site upon the beta2 appendage platform that is later obstructed by polymerized clathrin. We conclude that ARH and beta-arrestin depend on a privileged beta2 appendage site for proper cargo recruitment to clathrin

  11. Nuclear envelope protein MAN1 regulates clock through BMAL1

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shu-Ting; Zhang, Luoying; Lin, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Linda Chen; Garcia, Valentina Elizabeth; Tsai, Chen-Wei; Ptáček, Louis; Fu, Ying-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Circadian clocks serve as internal pacemakers that influence many basic homeostatic processes; consequently, the expression and function of their components are tightly regulated by intricate networks of feedback loops that fine-tune circadian processes. Our knowledge of these components and pathways is far from exhaustive. In recent decades, the nuclear envelope has emerged as a global gene regulatory machine, although its role in circadian regulation has not been explored. We report that transcription of the core clock component BMAL1 is positively modulated by the inner nuclear membrane protein MAN1, which directly binds the BMAL1 promoter and enhances its transcription. Our results establish a novel connection between the nuclear periphery and circadian rhythmicity, therefore bridging two global regulatory systems that modulate all aspects of bodily functions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02981.001 PMID:25182847

  12. New Insights into Mechanism and Regulation of Actin Capping Protein

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, John A.; Sept, David

    2008-01-01

    The heterodimeric actin capping protein, referred to here as “CP,” is an essential element of the actin cytoskeleton, binding to the barbed ends of actin filaments and regulating their polymerization. In vitro, CP has a critical role in the dendritic nucleation process of actin assembly mediated by Arp2/3 complex, and in vivo, CP is important for actin assembly and actin-based process of morphogenesis and differentiation. Recent studies have provided new insight into the mechanism of CP binding the barbed end, which raises new possibilities for the dynamics of CP and actin in cells. In addition, a number of molecules that bind and regulate CP have been discovered, suggesting new ideas for how CP may integrate into diverse processes of cell physiology. PMID:18544499

  13. Regulation of Lipid and Glucose Metabolism by Phosphatidylcholine Transfer Protein

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hye Won; Wei, Jie; Cohen, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (PC-TP, a.k.a. StARD2) binds phosphatidylcholines and catalyzes their intermembrane transfer and exchange in vitro. The structure of PC-TP comprises a hydrophobic pocket and a well-defined head-group binding site, and its gene expression is regulated by peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α. Recent studies have revealed key regulatory roles for PC-TP in lipid and glucose metabolism. Notably, Pctp−/− mice are sensitized to insulin action and exhibit more efficient brown fat-mediated thermogenesis. PC-TP appears to limit access of fatty acids to mitochondria by stimulating the activity of thioesterase superfamily member 2, a newly characterized long-chain fatty acyl-CoA thioesterase. Because PC-TP discriminates among phosphatidylcholines within lipid bilayers, it may function as a sensor that links metabolic regulation to membrane composition. PMID:20338778

  14. The bromodomain protein BRD4 regulates splicing during heat shock

    PubMed Central

    Hussong, Michelle; Kaehler, Christian; Kerick, Martin; Grimm, Christina; Franz, Alexandra; Timmermann, Bernd; Welzel, Franziska; Isensee, Jörg; Hucho, Tim; Krobitsch, Sylvia; Schweiger, Michal R.

    2017-01-01

    The cellular response to heat stress is an ancient and evolutionarily highly conserved defence mechanism characterised by the transcriptional up-regulation of cyto-protective genes and a partial inhibition of splicing. These features closely resemble the proteotoxic stress response during tumor development. The bromodomain protein BRD4 has been identified as an integral member of the oxidative stress as well as of the inflammatory response, mainly due to its role in the transcriptional regulation process. In addition, there are also several lines of evidence implicating BRD4 in the splicing process. Using RNA-sequencing we found a significant increase in splicing inhibition, in particular intron retentions (IR), following heat treatment in BRD4-depleted cells. This leads to a decrease of mRNA abundancy of the affected transcripts, most likely due to premature termination codons. Subsequent experiments revealed that BRD4 interacts with the heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) such that under heat stress BRD4 is recruited to nuclear stress bodies and non-coding SatIII RNA transcripts are up-regulated. These findings implicate BRD4 as an important regulator of splicing during heat stress. Our data which links BRD4 to the stress induced splicing process may provide novel mechanisms of BRD4 inhibitors in regard to anti-cancer therapies. PMID:27536004

  15. Novel aspects of Ras proteins biology: regulation and implications.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sala, D; Rebollo, A

    1999-08-01

    The importance of Ras proteins as crucial crossroads in cellular signaling pathways has been well established. In spite of the elucidation of the mechanism of RAS activation by growth factors and the delineation of MAP kinase cascades, the overall framework of Ras interactions is far from being complete. Novel regulators of Ras GDP/GTP exchange have been identified that may mediate the activation of Ras in response to changes in intracellular calcium and diacylglycerol. The direct activation of Ras by free radicals such as nitric oxide also suggests potential regulation of Ras function by the cellular redox state. In addition, the array of Ras effectors continues to expand, uncovering links between Ras and other cellular signaling pathways. Ras is emerging as a dual regulator of cellular functions, playing either positive or negative roles in the regulation of proliferation and apoptosis. The signals transmitted by Ras may be modulated by other pathways triggered in parallel, resulting in the final order for proliferation or apoptosis. The diversity of ras-mediated effects may be related in part to differential involvement of Ras homologues in distinct cellular processes. The study of Ras posttranslational modifications has yielded a broad battery of inhibitors that have been envisaged as anti-cancer agents. Although an irreversible modification, Ras isoprenylation appears to be modulated by growth factors and by the activity of the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway, which may lead to changes in Ras activity.

  16. Ribozymes, riboswitches and beyond: regulation of gene expression without proteins

    PubMed Central

    Serganov, Alexander; Patel, Dinshaw J.

    2015-01-01

    Although various functions of RNA are carried out in conjunction with proteins, some catalytic RNAs, or ribozymes, which contribute to a range of cellular processes, require little or no assistance from proteins. Furthermore, the discovery of metabolite-sensing riboswitches and other types of RNA sensors has revealed RNA-based mechanisms that cells use to regulate gene expression in response to internal and external changes. Structural studies have shown how these RNAs can carry out a range of functions. In addition, the contribution of ribozymes and riboswitches to gene expression is being revealed as far more widespread than was previously appreciated. These findings have implications for understanding how cellular functions might have evolved from RNA-based origins. PMID:17846637

  17. Iron-regulated surface determinant (Isd) proteins of Staphylococcus lugdunensis.

    PubMed

    Zapotoczna, Marta; Heilbronner, Simon; Speziale, Pietro; Foster, Timothy J

    2012-12-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is the only coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species with a locus encoding iron-regulated surface determinant (Isd) proteins. In Staphylococcus aureus, the Isd proteins capture heme from hemoglobin and transfer it across the wall to a membrane-bound transporter, which delivers it into the cytoplasm, where heme oxygenases release iron. The Isd proteins of S. lugdunensis are expressed under iron-restricted conditions. We propose that S. lugdunensis IsdB and IsdC proteins perform the same functions as those of S. aureus. S. lugdunensis IsdB is the only hemoglobin receptor within the isd locus. It specifically binds human hemoglobin with a dissociation constant (K(d)) of 23 nM and transfers heme on IsdC. IsdB expression promotes bacterial growth in an iron-limited medium containing human hemoglobin but not mouse hemoglobin. This correlates with weak binding of IsdB to mouse hemoglobin in vitro. Unlike IsdB and IsdC, the proteins IsdJ and IsdK are not sorted to the cell wall in S. lugdunensis. In contrast, IsdJ expressed in S. aureus and Lactococcus lactis is anchored to peptidoglycan, suggesting that S. lugdunensis sortases may differ in signal recognition or could be defective. IsdJ and IsdK are present in the culture supernatant, suggesting that they could acquire heme from the external milieu. The IsdA protein of S. aureus protects bacteria from bactericidal lipids due to its hydrophilic C-terminal domain. IsdJ has a similar region and protected S. aureus and L. lactis as efficiently as IsdA but, possibly due to its location, was less effective in its natural host.

  18. Identification of CMS as a cytosolic adaptor of the human pTalpha chain involved in pre-TCR function.

    PubMed

    Navarro, María N; Nusspaumer, Gretel; Fuentes, Patricia; González-García, Sara; Alcain, Juan; Toribio, María L

    2007-12-15

    The T-cell receptor beta (TCRbeta)/pre-TCRalpha (pTalpha) pre-TCR complex (pre-TCR) signals the expansion and differentiation of de-veloping thymocytes. Functional pro-perties of the pre-TCR rely on its unique pTalpha chain, which suggests the participation of specific intracellular adaptors. However, pTalpha-interacting molecules remain unknown. Here, we identified a polyproline-arginine sequence in the human pTalpha cytoplasmic tail that interacted in vitro with SH3 domains of the CIN85/CMS family of adaptors, and mediated the recruitment of multiprotein complexes involving all (CMS, CIN85, and CD2BP3) members. Supporting the physiologic relevance of this interaction, we found that 1 such adaptor, CMS, interacted in vivo with human pTalpha, and its expression was selectively up-regulated during human thymopoiesis in pre-TCR-activated thymocytes. Upon activation, pre-TCR clustering was induced, and CMS and polymerized actin were simultaneously recruited to the pre-TCR activation site. CMS also associated via its C-terminal region to the actin cytoskeleton in the endocytic compartment, where it colocalized with internalized pTalpha in traffic to lysosomal degradation. Notably, deletion of the pTalpha CIN85/CMS-binding motif impaired pre-TCR-mediated Ca(2+) mobilization and NFAT transcriptional activity, and precluded activation induced by overexpression of a CMS-SH3 N-terminal mutant. These results provide the first molecular evidence for a pTalpha intracellular adaptor involved in pre-TCR function.

  19. Regulation of G protein signaling by the 70kDa heat shock protein.

    PubMed

    Lim, William K; Kanelakis, Kimon C; Neubig, Richard R

    2013-02-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) transduce extracellular signals to the interior of the cell by activating membrane-bound guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (G proteins). An increasing number of proteins have been reported to bind to and regulate GPCRs. We report a novel regulation of the alpha(2A) adrenergic receptor (α(2A)-R) by the ubiquitous stress-inducible 70kDa heat shock protein, hsp70. Hsp70, but not hsp90, attenuated G protein-dependent high affinity agonist binding to the α(2A)-R in Sf9 membranes. Antagonist binding was unchanged, suggesting that hsp70 uncouples G proteins from the receptor. As hsp70 did not bind G proteins but complexed with the α(2A)-R in intact cells, a direct interaction with the receptor seems likely. In the presence of hsp70, α(2A)-R-catalyzed [(35)S]GTPγS binding was reduced by approximately 70%. In contrast, approximately 50-fold higher concentrations of hsp70 were required to reduce agonist binding to the stress-inducible 5-hydroxytryptamine(1A) receptor (5-HT(1A)-R). In heat-stressed CHO cells, the α(2A)-R was significantly uncoupled from G proteins, coincident with an increased localization of hsp70 at the membrane. The contrasting effect of hsp70 on the α(2A)-R compared to the 5-HT(1A)-R suggests that during stress, upregulation of hsp70 may attenuate signaling from specific GPCRs as part of the stress response to foster survival.

  20. Photoreactive synthetic regulator of protein function and methods of use thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Trauner, Dirk; Isacoff, Ehud Y; Kramer, Richard H; Banghart, Matthew R; Fortin, Doris L; Mourot, Alexandre

    2015-03-31

    The present disclosure provides a photoreactive synthetic regulator of protein function. The present disclosure further provides a light-regulated polypeptide that includes a subject synthetic regulator. Also provided are cells and membranes comprising a subject light-regulated polypeptide. The present disclosure further provides methods of modulating protein function, involving use of light.

  1. Structural Analysis of the Interaction between Dishevelled2 and Clathrin AP-2 Adaptor, A Critical Step in Noncanonical Wnt Signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Anan; Xing, Yi; Harrison, Stephen C.; Kirchhausen, Tomas

    2010-10-14

    Wnt association with its receptor, Frizzled (Fz), and recruitment by the latter of an adaptor, Dishevelled (Dvl), initiates signaling through at least two distinct pathways (canonical and noncanonical). Endocytosis and compartmentalization help determine the signaling outcome. Our previous work has shown that Dvl2 links at least one Frizzled family member (Fz4) to clathrin-mediated endocytosis by interacting with the {mu}2 subunit of the AP-2 clathrin adaptor, through both a classical endocytic tyrosine motif and a so-called DEP domain. We report here the crystal structure of a chimeric protein that mimics the Dvl2-{mu}2 complex. The DEP domain binds at one end of the elongated, C-terminal domain of {mu}2. This domain:domain interface shows that parts of the {mu}2 surface distinct from the tyrosine-motif site can help recruit specific receptors or adaptors into a clathrin coated pit. Mutation of residues at the DEP-{mu}2 contact or in the tyrosine motif reduce affinity of Dvl2 for {mu}2 and block efficient internalization of Fz4 in response to ligation by Wnt5a. The crystal structure has thus allowed us to identify the specific interaction that leads to Frizzled uptake and to downstream, noncanonical signaling events.

  2. Ankyrin repeat and SOCS box protein 15 regulates protein synthesis in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    McDaneld, T G; Hannon, K; Moody, D E

    2006-06-01

    Ankyrin repeat and SOCS box protein 15 (ASB15) is an Asb family member expressed predominantly in skeletal muscle. We have previously reported that ASB15 mRNA abundance decreases after administration of beta-adrenergic receptor agonists. Because beta-adrenergic receptor agonists are known to stimulate muscle hypertrophy, the objective of this study was to determine whether ASB15 regulates cellular processes that contribute to muscle growth. Stable myoblast C2C12 cells expressing full-length ASB15 (ASB15-FL) and ASB15 lacking the ankyrin repeat (ASB15-Ank) or SOCS box (ASB15-SOCS) motifs were evaluated for changes in proliferation, differentiation, protein synthesis, and protein degradation. Expression of ASB15-FL caused a delay in differentiation, followed by an increase in protein synthesis of approximately 34% (P<0.05). A consistent effect of ASB15 overexpression was observed in vivo, where ectopic expression of ASB15 increased skeletal muscle fiber area (P<0.0001) after 9 days. Expression of ASB15-SOCS altered differentiation of myoblasts, resulting in detachment of cells from culture plates. Expression of ASB15-Ank increased protein degradation by 84 h of differentiation (P<0.05), and in vivo ectopic expression of an ASB15 construct lacking both the ankyrin repeat and SOCS box motifs decreased skeletal muscle fiber area (P<0.0001). Together, these results suggest ASB15 participates in the regulation of protein turnover and muscle cell development by stimulating protein synthesis and regulating differentiation of muscle cells. This is the first study to demonstrate a role for an Asb family member in skeletal muscle growth.

  3. Regulation of the activity of protein kinases by endogenous heat stable protein inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Szmigielski, A

    1985-01-01

    Protein kinase activities are regulated by endogenous thermostable protein inhibitors. Type I inhibitor is a protein of MW 22,000-24,000 which inhibits specifically cyclic AMP-(cAMP) dependent protein kinase (APK) as a competitive inhibitor of catalytic subunits of the enzyme. Type I inhibitor activity changes inversely according to the activation of adenylate cyclase and the changes in cAMP content in tissues. It seems that type I inhibitor serves as a factor preventing spontaneous cAMP-dependent phosphorylation in unstimulated cell. The other thermostable protein which inhibits APK activity has been found in Sertoli cell-enriched testis (testis inhibitor). Physiological role of the testis inhibitor is unknown. Type II inhibitor is a protein of MW 15,000 which blocks phosphorylation mediated by cAMP and cyclic GMP (cGMP) dependent (APK and GPK) and cyclic nucleotide independent protein kinases as a competitive inhibitor of substrate proteins. Activity of this inhibitor specifically changes in reciprocal manner to the changes in cGMP content. It seems that type II inhibitor serves as a factor preventing the phosphorylation catalyzed by GPK when cGMP content is low. Stimulation of guanylate cyclase and activation of GPK is followed by a decrease of type II inhibitor activity. This change in relationship between activities of GPK and type II inhibitor allows for effective phosphorylation catalyzed by this enzyme when cGMP content is increased.

  4. PREFACE: Physics approaches to protein interactions and gene regulation Physics approaches to protein interactions and gene regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussinov, Ruth; Panchenko, Anna R.; Przytycka, Teresa

    2011-06-01

    networks have been identified, including scale free distribution of the vertex degree, network motifs, and modularity, to name a few. These studies of network organization require the network to be as complete as possible, which given the limitations of experimental techniques is not currently the case. Therefore, experimental procedures for detecting biomolecular interactions should be complemented by computational approaches. The paper by Lees et al provides a review of computational methods, integrating multiple independent sources of data to infer physical and functional protein-protein interaction networks. One of the important aspects of protein interactions that should be accounted for in the prediction of protein interaction networks is that many proteins are composed of distinct domains. Protein domains may mediate protein interactions while proteins and their interaction networks may gain complexity through gene duplication and expansion of existing domain architectures via domain rearrangements. The latter mechanisms have been explored in detail in the paper by Cohen-Gihon et al. Protein-protein interactions are not the only component of the cell's interactome. Regulation of cell activity can be achieved at the level of transcription and involve a transcription factor—DNA binding which typically requires recognition of a specific DNA sequence motif. Chip-Chip and the more recent Chip-Seq technologies allow in vivo identification of DNA binding sites and, together with novel in vitro approaches, provide data necessary for deciphering the corresponding binding motifs. Such information, complemented by structures of protein-DNA complexes and knowledge of the differences in binding sites among homologs, opens the door to constructing predictive binding models. The paper by Persikov and Singh provides an example of such a model in the Cys2His2 zinc finger family. Recent studies have indicated that the presence of such binding motifs is, however, neither necessary

  5. Scaffold Proteins Regulating Extracellular Regulated Kinase Function in Cardiac Hypertrophy and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yan; Sheikh, Farah

    2016-01-01

    The mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK)-extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathway is a central downstream signaling pathway that is activated in cardiac muscle cells during mechanical and agonist-mediated hypertrophy. Studies in genetic mouse models deficient in ERK-associated MAPK components pathway have further reinforced a direct role for this pathway in stress-induced cardiac hypertrophy and disease. However, more recent studies have highlighted that these signaling pathways may exert their regulatory functions in a more compartmentalized manner in cardiac muscle. Emerging data has uncovered specific MAPK scaffolding proteins that tether MAPK/ERK signaling specifically at the sarcomere and plasma membrane in cardiac muscle and show that deficiencies in these scaffolding proteins alter ERK activity and phosphorylation, which are then critical in altering the cardiac myocyte response to stress-induced hypertrophy and disease progression. In this review, we provide insights on ERK-associated scaffolding proteins regulating cardiac myofilament function and their impact on cardiac hypertrophy and disease. PMID:26973524

  6. Regulation of dopamine transporter function by protein-protein interactions: new discoveries and methodological challenges.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Jacob; Jørgensen, Trine Nygaard; Gether, Ulrik

    2010-04-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) plays a key role in regulating dopaminergic signalling in the brain by mediating rapid clearance of dopamine from the synaptic clefts. The psychostimulatory actions of cocaine and amphetamine are primarily the result of a direct interaction of these compounds with DAT leading to attenuated dopamine clearance and for amphetamine even increased dopamine release. In the last decade, intensive efforts have been directed towards understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms governing the activity and availability of DAT in the plasma membrane of the pre-synaptic neurons. This has led to the identification of a plethora of different kinases, receptors and scaffolding proteins that interact with DAT and hereby either modulate the catalytic activity of the transporter or regulate its trafficking and degradation. Several new tools for studying DAT regulation in live cells have also recently become available such as fluorescently tagged cocaine analogues and fluorescent substrates. Here we review the current knowledge about the role of protein-protein interactions in DAT regulation as well as we describe the most recent methodological developments that have been established to overcome the challenges associated with the study of DAT in endogenous systems.

  7. Regulation of myocardin factor protein stability by the LIM-only protein FHL2

    PubMed Central

    Hinson, Jeremiah S.; Medlin, Matt D.; Taylor, Joan M.; Mack, Christopher P.

    2008-01-01

    Extensive evidence indicates that serum response factor (SRF) regulates muscle-specific gene expression and that myocardin family SRF cofactors are critical for smooth muscle cell differentiation. In a yeast two hybrid screen for novel SRF binding partners expressed in aortic SMC, we identified four and a half LIM domain protein 2 (FHL2) and confirmed this interaction by GST pull-down and coimmunoprecipitation assays. FHL2 also interacted with all three myocardin factors and enhanced myocardin and myocardin-related transcription factor (MRTF)-A-dependent transactivation of smooth muscle α-actin, SM22, and cardiac atrial natriuretic factor promoters in 10T1/2 cells. The expression of FHL2 increased myocardin and MRTF-A protein levels, and, importantly, this effect was due to an increase in protein stability not due to an increase in myocardin factor mRNA expression. Treatment of cells with proteasome inhibitors MG-132 and lactacystin strongly upregulated endogenous MRTF-A protein levels and resulted in a substantial increase in ubiquitin immunoreactivity in MRTF-A immunoprecipitants. Interestingly, the expression of FHL2 attenuated the effects of RhoA and MRTF-B on promoter activity, perhaps through decreased MRTF-B nuclear localization or decreased SRF-CArG binding. Taken together, these data indicate that myocardin factors are regulated by proteasome-mediated degradation and that FHL2 regulates SRF-dependent transcription by multiple mechanisms, including stabilization of myocardin and MRTF-A. PMID:18586895

  8. Multifactorial Regulation of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaohan; Kim, Kyeong-Man

    2017-01-01

    Endocytosis is a process by which cells absorb extracellular materials via the inward budding of vesicles formed from the plasma membrane. Receptor-mediated endocytosis is a highly selective process where receptors with specific binding sites for extracellular molecules internalize via vesicles. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest single family of plasma-membrane receptors with more than 1000 family members. But the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of GPCRs are believed to be highly conserved. For example, receptor phosphorylation in collaboration with β-arrestins plays major roles in desensitization and endocytosis of most GPCRs. Nevertheless, a number of subsequent studies showed that GPCR regulation, such as that by endocytosis, occurs through various pathways with a multitude of cellular components and processes. This review focused on i) functional interactions between homologous and heterologous pathways, ii) methodologies applied for determining receptor endocytosis, iii) experimental tools to determine specific endocytic routes, iv) roles of small guanosine triphosphate-binding proteins in GPCR endocytosis, and v) role of post-translational modification of the receptors in endocytosis. PMID:28035080

  9. Regulation of polar auxin transport by protein and lipid kinases

    PubMed Central

    Jaillais, Yvon

    2016-01-01

    The directional transport of auxin, known as polar auxin transport, allows asymmetric distribution of this hormone in different cells and tissues. This system creates local auxin maxima, minima and gradients that are instrumental in both organ initiation and shape determination. As such, polar auxin transport is crucial for all aspects of plant development but also for environmental interaction, notably in shaping plant architecture to its environment. Cell-to-cell auxin transport is mediated by a network of auxin carriers that are regulated at the transcriptional and post-translational levels. Here we review our current knowledge on some aspects of the ‘non-genomic’ regulation of auxin transport, putting an emphasis on how phosphorylation by protein and lipid kinases controls the polarity, intracellular trafficking, stability and activity of auxin carriers. We describe the role of several AGC kinases, including PINOID, D6PK and the blue light photoreceptor phot1, in phosphorylating auxin carriers from the PIN and ABCB families. We also highlight the function of some Receptor-Like Kinases (RLK) and two-component histidine kinase receptors in polar auxin transport, noticing that there are likely RLKs involved in coordinating auxin distribution yet to be discovered. In addition, we describe the emerging role of phospholipid phosphorylation in polarity establishment and intracellular trafficking of PIN proteins. We outline these various phosphorylation mechanisms in the context of primary and lateral root development, leaf cell shape acquisition as well as root gravitropism and shoot phototropism. PMID:27242371

  10. Conservation of protein abundance patterns reveals the regulatory architecture of the EGFR-MAPK pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, T.; Niepel, M.; McDermott, J. E.; Gao, Y.; Nicora, C. D.; Chrisler, W. B.; Markillie, L. M.; Petyuk, V. A.; Smith, R. D.; Rodland, K. D.; Sorger, P. K.; Qian, W. -J.; Wiley, H. S.

    2016-07-12

    It is not known whether cancer cells generally show quantitative differences in the expression of signaling pathway proteins that could dysregulate signal transduction. To explore this issue, we first defined the primary components of the EGF-MAPK pathway in normal human mammary epithelial cells, identifying 16 core proteins and 10 feedback regulators. We then quantified their absolute abundance across a panel of normal and cancer cell lines. We found that core pathway proteins were expressed at very similar levels across all cell types. In contrast, the EGFR and transcriptionally controlled feedback regulators were expressed at highly variable levels. The absolute abundance of most core pathway proteins was between 50,000- 70,000 copies per cell, but the adaptors SOS1, SOS2, and GAB1 were found at far lower levels (2,000-5,000 per cell). MAPK signaling showed saturation in all cells between 3,000-10,000 occupied EGFR, consistent with the idea that low adaptor levels limit signaling. Our results suggest that the core MAPK pathway is essentially invariant across different cell types, with cell- specific differences in signaling likely due to variable levels of feedback regulators. The low abundance of adaptors relative to the EGFR could be responsible for previous observation of saturable signaling, endocytosis, and high affinity EGFR.

  11. The regulation of protein content and quality in national and international food standards.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Janine L

    2012-08-01

    Food regulation aims to protect public health through a safe and nutritious food supply produced by a compliant food industry. Food standards of developed countries generally do not regulate protein content or protein quality because the risk of dietary protein inadequacy in their national populations is very low. Protein is nevertheless regulated for reasons of product quality or protein labelling or to minimise assessed health risks associated with consumption of certain animal- and vegetable-protein foods; analogue products that extend or simulate commonly available animal-protein foods; and special purpose foods such as infant formula and foods, supplementary and medical foods, and foods for weight loss. The extent and approach to protein regulation varies greatly among jurisdictions but where it occurs, it is applied through minimum and sometimes maximum limits on protein content or quality measures or both using an inter-related approach. Protein quality measures range from amino acid profiles and digestibility corrected scores to protein rating, a rat bioassay and reference proteins not further described. Regulatory methods for protein quality determination are referenced to the published scientific literature or developed nationally. Internationally, the Codex Alimentarius regulates the protein content and quality of some foods. The Codex approach varies according to the food but is similar to the approaches used in national and regional food regulation. This paper provides a comparison of the regulation of protein in foods using examples from the food regulations of Australia New Zealand, Canada, the European Union, the United States of America and the Codex Alimentarius.

  12. Clustered microRNAs' coordination in regulating protein-protein interaction network

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xiongying; Liu, Changning; Yang, Pengcheng; He, Shunmin; Liao, Qi; Kang, Shuli; Zhao, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a growing class of small RNAs with crucial regulatory roles at the post-transcriptional level, are usually found to be clustered on chromosomes. However, with the exception of a few individual cases, so far little is known about the functional consequence of this conserved clustering of miRNA loci. In animal genomes such clusters often contain non-homologous miRNA genes. One hypothesis to explain this heterogeneity suggests that clustered miRNAs are functionally related by virtue of co-targeting downstream pathways. Results Integrating of miRNA cluster information with protein protein interaction (PPI) network data, our research supports the hypothesis of the functional coordination of clustered miRNAs and links it to the topological features of miRNAs' targets in PPI network. Specifically, our results demonstrate that clustered miRNAs jointly regulate proteins in close proximity of the PPI network. The possibility that two proteins yield to this coordinated regulation is negatively correlated with their distance in PPI network. Guided by the knowledge of this preference, we found several network communities enriched with target genes of miRNA clusters. In addition, our results demonstrate that the variance of this propensity can also partly be explained by protein's connectivity and miRNA's conservation. Conclusion In summary, this work supports the hypothesis of intra-cluster coordination and investigates the extent of this coordination. PMID:19558649

  13. Oxysterol-related-binding-protein related Protein-2 (ORP2) regulates cortisol biosynthesis and cholesterol homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Escajadillo, Tamara; Wang, Hongxia; Li, Linda; Li, Donghui; Sewer, Marion B

    2016-05-15

    Oxysterol binding protein-related protein 2 (ORP2) is a lipid binding protein that has been implicated in various cellular processes, including lipid sensing, cholesterol efflux, and endocytosis. We recently identified ORP2 as a member of a protein complex that regulates glucocorticoid biosynthesis. Herein, we examine the effect of silencing ORP2 on adrenocortical function and show that the ORP2 knockdown cells exhibit reduced amounts of multiple steroid metabolites, including progesterone, 11-deoxycortisol, and cortisol, but have increased concentrations of androgens, and estrogens. Moreover, silencing ORP2 suppresses the expression of most proteins required for cortisol production and reduces the expression of steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1). ORP2 silencing also increases cellular cholesterol, concomitant with decreased amounts of 22-hydroxycholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol, two molecules that have been shown to bind to ORP2. Further, we show that ORP2 binds to liver X receptor (LXR) and is required for nuclear LXR expression. LXR and ORP2 are recruited to the CYP11B1 promoter in response to cAMP signaling. Additionally, ORP2 is required for the expression of other LXR target genes, including ABCA1 and the LDL receptor (LDLR). In summary, we establish a novel role for ORP2 in regulating steroidogenic capacity and cholesterol homeostasis in the adrenal cortex.

  14. CD2AP Regulates SUMOylation of CIN85 in Podocytes

    PubMed Central

    Niedenthal, Rainer; Klaus, Malte; Teng, Beina; Worthmann, Kirstin; King, Benjamin L.; Peterson, Kevin J.; Haller, Hermann

    2012-01-01

    Podocytes are highly differentiated and polarized epithelial cells located on the visceral side of the glomerulus. They form an indispensable component of the glomerular filter, the slit diaphragm, formed by several transmembrane proteins and adaptor molecules. Disruption of the slit diaphragm can lead to massive proteinuria and nephrotic syndrome in mice and humans. CD2AP is an adaptor protein that is important for the maintenance of the slit diaphragm. Together with its paralogue, CIN85, CD2AP belongs to a family of adaptor proteins that are primarily described as being involved in endocytosis and downregulation of receptor tyrosine kinase activity. We have shown that full-length CIN85 is upregulated in podocytes in the absence of CD2AP, whereas in wild-type cells, full-length CIN85 is not detectable. In this study, we show that full-length CIN85 is postranslationally modified by SUMOylation in wild-type podocytes. We can demonstrate that CIN85 is SUMOylated by SUMO-1, -2, and -3 and that SUMOylation is enhanced in the presence of CD2AP. Conversion of lysine 598 to arginine completely abolishes SUMOylation and leads to increased binding of CIN85 to nephrin. Our results indicate a novel role for CD2AP in regulating posttranslational modification of CIN85. PMID:22203040

  15. Regulator of G protein signaling proteins differentially modulate signaling of μ and δ opioid receptors

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zhihua; Li, Zhisong; Guo, Lei; Ye, Caiying; Li, Juan; Yu, Xiaoli; Yang, Huifen; Wang, Yulin; Chen, Chongguang; Zhang, Dechang; Liu-Chen, Lee-Yuan

    2009-01-01

    Effects of regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins on μ and δ opioid receptors were investigated in HEK293 cells. Co-expression of RGS1, RGS2, RGS4, RGS9, RGS10 or RGS19 (Gα-interacting protein (GAIP)) significantly reduced [Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-N-methyl-Phe-Gly-ol]-Enkephalin (DAMGO)-induced inhibition of adenylyl cyclase (AC) mediated by μ opioid receptor, but only RGS9 decreased the effects of [Tyr-D-Pen-Gly-p-Chloro-Phe-D-Pen]-Enkephalin (DPDPE) mediated by δ opioid receptor. When C-tails of the receptors were exchanged (μ/δC and δ/μC chimeras), RGS proteins decreased δ/μC-mediated AC inhibition, but none had significant effects on that via μ/δC receptor. Thus, the C-terminal domains of the receptors are critical for the differential effects of RGS proteins, which may be due to differences in receptor - G protein - RGS protein interactions in signaling complexes. PMID:17433292

  16. R4 Regulator of G Protein Signaling (RGS) Proteins in Inflammation and Immunity.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhihui; Chan, Eunice C; Druey, Kirk M

    2016-03-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have important functions in both innate and adaptive immunity, with the capacity to bridge interactions between the two arms of the host responses to pathogens through direct recognition of secreted microbial products or the by-products of host cells damaged by pathogen exposure. In the mid-1990s, a large group of intracellular proteins was discovered, the regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) family, whose main, but not exclusive, function appears to be to constrain the intensity and duration of GPCR signaling. The R4/B subfamily--the focus of this review--includes RGS1-5, 8, 13, 16, 18, and 21, which are the smallest RGS proteins in size, with the exception of RGS3. Prominent roles in the trafficking of B and T lymphocytes and macrophages have been described for RGS1, RGS13, and RGS16, while RGS18 appears to control platelet and osteoclast functions. Additional G protein independent functions of RGS13 have been uncovered in gene expression in B lymphocytes and mast cell-mediated allergic reactions. In this review, we discuss potential physiological roles of this RGS protein subfamily, primarily in leukocytes having central roles in immune and inflammatory responses. We also discuss approaches to target RGS proteins therapeutically, which represents a virtually untapped strategy to combat exaggerated immune responses leading to inflammation.

  17. Perilipin-related protein regulates lipid metabolism in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Chughtai, Ahmed Ali; Kaššák, Filip; Kostrouchová, Markéta; Novotný, Jan Philipp; Krause, Michael W.; Kostrouch, Zdenek

    2015-01-01

    Perilipins are lipid droplet surface proteins that contribute to fat metabolism by controlling the access of lipids to lipolytic enzymes. Perilipins have been identified in organisms as diverse as metazoa, fungi, and amoebas but strikingly not in nematodes. Here we identify the protein encoded by the W01A8.1 gene in Caenorhabditis elegans as the closest homologue and likely orthologue of metazoan perilipin. We demonstrate that nematode W01A8.1 is a cytoplasmic protein residing on lipid droplets similarly as human perilipins 1 and 2. Downregulation or elimination of W01A8.1 affects the appearance of lipid droplets resulting in the formation of large lipid droplets localized around the dividing nucleus during the early zygotic divisions. Visualization of lipid containing structures by CARS microscopy in vivo showed that lipid-containing structures become gradually enlarged during oogenesis and relocate during the first zygotic division around the dividing nucleus. In mutant embryos, the lipid containing structures show defective intracellular distribution in subsequent embryonic divisions and become gradually smaller during further development. In contrast to embryos, lipid-containing structures in enterocytes and in epidermal cells of adult animals are smaller in mutants than in wild type animals. Our results demonstrate the existence of a perilipin-related regulation of fat metabolism in nematodes and provide new possibilities for functional studies of lipid metabolism. PMID:26357594

  18. Expression of Tyrosine Hydroxylase is Negatively Regulated Via Prion Protein.

    PubMed

    da Luz, Marcio Henrique Mello; Glezer, Isaias; Xavier, Andre Machado; da Silva, Marcelo Alberti Paiva; Pino, Jessica Monteiro Volejnik; Zamith, Thiago Panaro; Vieira, Taynara Fernanda; Antonio, Bruno Brito; Antunes, Hanna Karen Moreira; Martins, Vilma Regina; Lee, Kil Sun

    2016-07-01

    Cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) is a glycoprotein of the plasma membrane that plays pleiotropic functions by interacting with multiple signaling complexes at the cell surface. Recently, a number of studies have reported the involvement of PrP(C) in dopamine metabolism and signaling, including its interactions with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine receptors. However, the outcomes reported by independent studies are still debatable. Therefore in this study, we investigated the effects of PrP(C) on the TH expression during the differentiation of N2a cells with dibutyryl-cAMP, a well-known cAMP analog that activates TH transcription. Upon differentiation, TH was induced with concomitant reduction of PrP(C) at protein level, but not at mRNA level. shRNA-mediated PrP(C) reduction increased the basal level of TH at both mRNA and protein levels without dibutyryl-cAMP treatment. This phenotype was reversed by re-expression of PrP(C). PrP(C) knockdown also potentiated the effect of dibutyryl-cAMP on TH expression. Our findings suggest that PrP(C) has suppressive effects on TH expression. As a consequence, altered PrP(C) functions may affect the regulation of dopamine metabolism and related neurological disorders.

  19. Regulation of Nuclear Localization of Signaling Proteins by Cytokinin

    SciTech Connect

    Kieber, J.J.

    2010-05-01

    Cytokinins are a class of mitogenic plant hormones that play an important role in most aspects of plant development, including shoot and root growth, vascular and photomorphogenic development and leaf senescence. A model for cytokinin perception and signaling has emerged that is similar to bacterial two-component phosphorelays. In this model, binding of cytokinin to the extracellular domain of the Arabidopsis histidine kinase (AHKs) receptors induces autophosphorylation within the intracellular histidine-kinase domain. The phosphoryl group is subsequently transferred to cytosolic Arabidopsis histidine phosphotransfer proteins (AHPs), which have been suggested to translocate to the nucleus in response to cytokinin treatment, where they then transfer the phosphoryl group to nuclear-localized response regulators (Type-A and Type-B ARRs). We examined the effects of cytokinin on AHP subcellular localization in Arabidopsis and, contrary to expectations, the AHPs maintained a constant nuclear/cytosolic distribution following cytokinin treatment. Furthermore, mutation of the conserved phosphoacceptor histidine residue of the AHP, as well as disruption of multiple cytokinin signaling elements, did not affect the subcellular localization of the AHP proteins. Finally, we present data indicating that AHPs maintain a nuclear/cytosolic distribution by balancing active transport into and out of the nucleus. Our findings suggest that the current models indicating relocalization of AHP protein into the nucleus in response to cytokinin are incorrect. Rather, AHPs actively maintain a consistent nuclear/cytosolic distribution regardless of the status of the cytokinin response pathway.

  20. Regulation of G protein-coupled receptor export trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Chunmin; Filipeanu, Catalin M.; Duvernay, Matthew T.; Wu, Guangyu

    2007-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute a superfamily of cell-surface receptors which share a common topology of seven transmembrane domains and modulate a variety of cell functions through coupling to heterotrimeric G proteins by responding to a vast array of stimuli. The magnitude of cellular response elicited by a given signal is dictated by the level of GPCR expression at the plasma membrane, which is the balance of elaborately regulated endocytic and exocytic trafficking. This review will cover recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanism underlying anterograde transport of the newly synthesized GPCRs from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) through the Golgi to the plasma membrane. We will focus on recently identified motifs involved in GPCR exit from the ER and the Golgi, GPCR folding in the ER and the rescue of misfolded receptors from within, GPCR-interacting proteins that modulate receptor cell-surface targeting, pathways that mediate GPCR traffic, and the functional role of export in controlling GPCR signaling. PMID:17074298

  1. The regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase by phosphorylation.

    PubMed Central

    Stein, S C; Woods, A; Jones, N A; Davison, M D; Carling, D

    2000-01-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) cascade is activated by an increase in the AMP/ATP ratio within the cell. AMPK is regulated allosterically by AMP and by reversible phosphorylation. Threonine-172 within the catalytic subunit (alpha) of AMPK (Thr(172)) was identified as the major site phosphorylated by the AMP-activated protein kinase kinase (AMPKK) in vitro. We have used site-directed mutagenesis to study the role of phosphorylation of Thr(172) on AMPK activity. Mutation of Thr(172) to an aspartic acid residue (T172D) in either alpha1 or alpha2 resulted in a kinase complex with approx. 50% the activity of the corresponding wild-type complex. The activity of wild-type AMPK decreased by greater than 90% following treatment with protein phosphatases, whereas the activity of the T172D mutant complex fell by only 10-15%. Mutation of Thr(172) to an alanine residue (T172A) almost completely abolished kinase activity. These results indicate that phosphorylation of Thr(172) accounts for most of the activation by AMPKK, but that other sites are involved. In support of this we have shown that AMPKK phosphorylates at least two other sites on the alpha subunit and one site on the beta subunit. Furthermore, we provide evidence that phosphorylation of Thr(172) may be involved in the sensitivity of the AMPK complex to AMP. PMID:10642499

  2. Heterotrimeric G proteins regulate nitrogen-use efficiency in rice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongying; Qian, Qian; Wu, Kun; Luo, Jijing; Wang, Shuansuo; Zhang, Chengwei; Ma, Yanfei; Liu, Qian; Huang, Xianzhong; Yuan, Qingbo; Han, Ruixi; Zhao, Meng; Dong, Guojun; Guo, Longbiao; Zhu, Xudong; Gou, Zhiheng; Wang, Wen; Wu, Yuejin; Lin, Hongxuan; Fu, Xiangdong

    2014-06-01

    The drive toward more sustainable agriculture has raised the profile of crop plant nutrient-use efficiency. Here we show that a major rice nitrogen-use efficiency quantitative trait locus (qNGR9) is synonymous with the previously identified gene DEP1 (DENSE AND ERECT PANICLES 1). The different DEP1 alleles confer different nitrogen responses, and genetic diversity analysis suggests that DEP1 has been subjected to artificial selection during Oryza sativa spp. japonica rice domestication. The plants carrying the dominant dep1-1 allele exhibit nitrogen-insensitive vegetative growth coupled with increased nitrogen uptake and assimilation, resulting in improved harvest index and grain yield at moderate levels of nitrogen fertilization. The DEP1 protein interacts in vivo with both the Gα (RGA1) and Gβ (RGB1) subunits, and reduced RGA1 or enhanced RGB1 activity inhibits nitrogen responses. We conclude that the plant G protein complex regulates nitrogen signaling and modulation of heterotrimeric G protein activity provides a strategy for environmentally sustainable increases in rice grain yield.

  3. In vitro aggregation of the regulated secretory protein chromogranin A.

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Renu K; Chang, Wen Tzu; Geetha, Chitta; Joyce, Paul B M; Gorr, Sven-Ulrik

    2002-01-01

    Aggregation chaperones, consisting of secretory proteins that contain a hexa-histidine epitope tag, enhance the calcium-induced aggregation of regulated secretory proteins and their sorting to secretory granules. The goal of this study was to gain a better understanding of this unusual aggregation mechanism. Hexa-histidine-epitope-tagged secreted alkaline phosphatase, an aggregation chaperone, enhanced the in vitro aggregation of chromogranin A in the presence of calcium, but not in the presence of magnesium or other divalent cations. As an exception, chromogranin was completely aggregated by zinc, even in the absence of the aggregation chaperone. In addition, fluorescence spectroscopy of the aggregation reaction mixture showed an increase in fluorescence intensity consistent with the formation of protein aggregates. The calcium-induced aggregation of chromogranin A was completely inhibited by 0.2% Triton X-100, suggesting that it involves hydrophobic interactions. In contrast, the detergent did not affect chaperone-enhanced aggregation, suggesting that this aggregation does not depend on hydrophobic interactions. EDTA-treated chaperone did not enhance chromogranin A aggregation, indicating that divalent cations are necessary for chaperone action. Although the structure of the aggregation chaperone was not important, the size of the chaperone was. Thus the free His-hexapeptide could not substitute for the aggregation chaperone. Based on these results, we propose that the hexa-histidine tag, in the context of a polypeptide, acts as a divalent cation-dependent nucleation site for chromogranin A aggregation. PMID:12175332

  4. Reciprocal influence of connexins and apical junction proteins on their expressions and functions

    PubMed Central

    Derangeon, Mickaël; Spray, David C.; Bourmeyster, Nicolas; Sarrouilhe, Denis; Hervé, Jean-Claude

    2009-01-01

    Membranes of adjacent cells form intercellular junctional complexes to mechanically anchor neighbour cells (anchoring junctions), to seal the paracellular space and to prevent diffusion of integral proteins within the plasma membrane (tight junctions) and to allow cell-to-cell diffusion of small ions and molecules (gap junctions). These different types of specialised plasma membrane microdomains, sharing common adaptor molecules, particularly zonula occludens proteins, frequently present intermingled relationships where the different proteins co-assemble into macromolecular complexes and their expressions are co-ordinately regulated. Proteins forming gap junction channels (connexins, particularly) and proteins fulfilling cell attachment or forming tight junction strands mutually influence expression and functions of one another. PMID:19046940

  5. Regulation of alternative splicing in Drosophila by 56 RNA binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Angela N.; Duff, Michael O.; May, Gemma; Yang, Li; Bolisetty, Mohan; Landolin, Jane; Wan, Ken; Sandler, Jeremy; Booth, Benjamin W.; Celniker, Susan E.; Graveley, Brenton R.; Brenner, Steven E.

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing is regulated by RNA binding proteins (RBPs) that recognize pre-mRNA sequence elements and activate or repress adjacent exons. Here, we used RNA interference and RNA-seq to identify splicing events regulated by 56 Drosophila proteins, some previously unknown to regulate splicing. Nearly all proteins affected alternative first exons, suggesting that RBPs play important roles in first exon choice. Half of the splicing events were regulated by multiple proteins, demonstrating extensive combinatorial regulation. We observed that SR and hnRNP proteins tend to act coordinately with each other, not antagonistically. We also identified a cross-regulatory network where splicing regulators affected the splicing of pre-mRNAs encoding other splicing regulators. This large-scale study substantially enhances our understanding of recent models of splicing regulation and provides a resource of thousands of exons that are regulated by 56 diverse RBPs. PMID:26294686

  6. Regulation of alternative splicing in Drosophila by 56 RNA binding proteins

    DOE PAGES

    Brooks, Angela N.; Duff, Michael O.; May, Gemma; ...

    2015-08-20

    Alternative splicing is regulated by RNA binding proteins (RBPs) that recognize pre-mRNA sequence elements and activate or repress adjacent exons. Here, we used RNA interference and RNA-seq to identify splicing events regulated by 56 Drosophila proteins, some previously unknown to regulate splicing. Nearly all proteins affected alternative first exons, suggesting that RBPs play important roles in first exon choice. Half of the splicing events were regulated by multiple proteins, demonstrating extensive combinatorial regulation. We observed that SR and hnRNP proteins tend to act coordinately with each other, not antagonistically. We also identified a cross-regulatory network where splicing regulators affected themore » splicing of pre-mRNAs encoding other splicing regulators. In conclusion, this large-scale study substantially enhances our understanding of recent models of splicing regulation and provides a resource of thousands of exons that are regulated by 56 diverse RBPs.« less

  7. Regulation of alternative splicing in Drosophila by 56 RNA binding proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Angela N.; Duff, Michael O.; May, Gemma; Yang, Li; Bolisetty, Mohan; Landolin, Jane; Wan, Ken; Sandler, Jeremy; Booth, Benjamin W.; Celniker, Susan E.; Graveley, Brenton R.; Brenner, Steven E.

    2015-08-20

    Alternative splicing is regulated by RNA binding proteins (RBPs) that recognize pre-mRNA sequence elements and activate or repress adjacent exons. Here, we used RNA interference and RNA-seq to identify splicing events regulated by 56 Drosophila proteins, some previously unknown to regulate splicing. Nearly all proteins affected alternative first exons, suggesting that RBPs play important roles in first exon choice. Half of the splicing events were regulated by multiple proteins, demonstrating extensive combinatorial regulation. We observed that SR and hnRNP proteins tend to act coordinately with each other, not antagonistically. We also identified a cross-regulatory network where splicing regulators affected the splicing of pre-mRNAs encoding other splicing regulators. In conclusion, this large-scale study substantially enhances our understanding of recent models of splicing regulation and provides a resource of thousands of exons that are regulated by 56 diverse RBPs.

  8. STING Requires the Adaptor TRIF to Trigger Innate Immune Responses to Microbial Infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Majumdar, Tanmay; Kessler, Patricia; Ozhegov, Evgeny; Zhang, Ying; Chattopadhyay, Saurabh; Barik, Sailen; Sen, Ganes C

    2016-09-14

    The intracellular microbial nucleic acid sensors, TLR3 and STING, recognize pathogen molecules and signal to activate the interferon pathway. The TIR-domain containing protein TRIF is the sole adaptor of TLR3. Here, we report an essential role for TRIF in STING signaling: various activators of STING could not induce genes in the absence of TRIF. TRIF and STING interacted directly, through their carboxy-terminal domains, to promote STING dimerization, intermembrane translocation, and signaling. Herpes simplex virus (HSV), which triggers the STING signaling pathway and is controlled by it, replicated more efficiently in the absence of TRIF, and HSV-infected TRIF(-/-) mice displayed pronounced pathology. Our results indicate that defective STING signaling may be responsible for the observed genetic association between TRIF mutations and herpes simplex encephalitis in patients.

  9. Keap1-Independent Regulation of Nrf2 Activity by Protein Acetylation and a BET Bromodomain Protein

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Nirmalya; Tian, Min; Spirohn, Kerstin; Boutros, Michael; Bohmann, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian BET proteins comprise a family of bromodomain-containing epigenetic regulators with complex functions in chromatin organization and gene regulation. We identified the sole member of the BET protein family in Drosophila, Fs(1)h, as an inhibitor of the stress responsive transcription factor CncC, the fly ortholog of Nrf2. Fs(1)h physically interacts with CncC in a manner that requires the function of its bromodomains and the acetylation of CncC. Treatment of cultured Drosophila cells or adult flies with fs(1)h RNAi or with the BET protein inhibitor JQ1 de-represses CncC transcriptional activity and engages protective gene expression programs. The mechanism by which Fs(1)h inhibits CncC function is distinct from the canonical mechanism that stimulates Nrf2 function by abrogating Keap1-dependent proteasomal degradation. Consistent with the independent modes of CncC regulation by Keap1 and Fs(1)h, combinations of drugs that can specifically target these pathways cause a strong synergistic and specific activation of protective CncC- dependent gene expression and boosts oxidative stress resistance. This synergism might be exploitable for the design of combinatorial therapies to target diseases associated with oxidative stress or inflammation. PMID:27233051

  10. Regulation of blood-testis barrier by actin binding proteins and protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nan; Tang, Elizabeth I.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2016-01-01

    The blood-testis barrier (BTB) is an important ultrastructure in the testis since the onset of spermatogenesis coincides with the establishment of a functional barrier in rodents and humans. It is also noted that a delay in the assembly of a functional BTB following treatment of neonatal rats with drugs such as diethylstilbestrol or adjudin also delays the first wave of spermiation. While the BTB is one of the tightest blood-tissue barriers, it undergoes extensive remodeling, in particular at stage VIII of the epithelial cycle to facilitate the transport of preleptotene spermatocytes connected in clones across the immunological barrier. Without this timely transport of preleptotene spermatocytes derived from type B spermatogonia, meiosis will be arrested, causing aspermatogenesis. Yet the biology and regulation of the BTB remains largely unexplored since the morphological studies in the 1970s. Recent studies, however, have shed new light on the biology of the BTB. Herein, we critically evaluate some of these findings, illustrating that the Sertoli cell BTB is regulated by actin binding proteins (ABPs), likely supported by non-receptor protein kinases, to modulate the organization of actin microfilament bundles at the site. Furthermore, microtubule (MT)-based cytoskeleton is also working in concert with the actin-based cytoskeleton to confer BTB dynamics. This timely review provides an update on the unique biology and regulation of the BTB based on the latest findings in the field, focusing on the role of ABPs and non-receptor protein kinases. PMID:26628556

  11. Huntingtin-Associated Protein 1 Interacts with Breakpoint Cluster Region Protein to Regulate Neuronal Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Pai-Tsang; Chen, Chien-Ho; Hsu, I-Uen; Salim, Shaima’a Ahmad; Kao, Shu-Huei; Cheng, Chao-Wen; Lai, Chang-Hao; Lee, Cheng-Fan; Lin, Yung-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in microtubule-dependent trafficking and certain signaling pathways in neuronal cells represent critical pathogenesis in neurodegenerative diseases. Huntingtin (Htt)-associated protein-1 (Hap1) is a brain-enriched protein and plays a key role in the trafficking of neuronal surviving and differentiating cargos. Lack of Hap1 reduces signaling through tropomyosin-related kinases including extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK), resulting in inhibition of neurite outgrowth, hypothalamic dysfunction and postnatal lethality in mice. To examine how Hap1 is involved in microtubule-dependent trafficking and neuronal differentiation, we performed a proteomic analysis using taxol-precipitated microtubules from Hap1-null and wild-type mouse brains. Breakpoint cluster region protein (Bcr), a Rho GTPase regulator, was identified as a Hap1-interacting partner. Bcr was co-immunoprecipitated with Hap1 from transfected neuro-2a cells and co-localized with Hap1A isoform more in the differentiated than in the nondifferentiated cells. The Bcr downstream effectors, namely ERK and p38, were significantly less activated in Hap1-null than in wild-type mouse hypothalamus. In conclusion, Hap1 interacts with Bcr on microtubules to regulate neuronal differentiation. PMID:25671650

  12. Regulation of blood-testis barrier by actin binding proteins and protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Tang, Elizabeth I; Cheng, C Yan

    2016-03-01

    The blood-testis barrier (BTB) is an important ultrastructure in the testis, since the onset of meiosis and spermiogenesis coincides with the establishment of a functional barrier in rodents and humans. It is also noted that a delay in the assembly of a functional BTB following treatment of neonatal rats with drugs such as diethylstilbestrol or adjudin also delays the first wave of spermiation. While the BTB is one of the tightest blood-tissue barriers, it undergoes extensive remodeling, in particular, at stage VIII of the epithelial cycle to facilitate the transport of preleptotene spermatocytes connected in clones across the immunological barrier. Without this timely transport of preleptotene spermatocytes derived from type B spermatogonia, meiosis will be arrested, causing aspermatogenesis. Yet the biology and regulation of the BTB remains largely unexplored since the morphological studies in the 1970s. Recent studies, however, have shed new light on the biology of the BTB. Herein, we critically evaluate some of these findings, illustrating that the Sertoli cell BTB is regulated by actin-binding proteins (ABPs), likely supported by non-receptor protein kinases, to modulate the organization of actin microfilament bundles at the site. Furthermore, microtubule-based cytoskeleton is also working in concert with the actin-based cytoskeleton to confer BTB dynamics. This timely review provides an update on the unique biology and regulation of the BTB based on the latest findings in the field, focusing on the role of ABPs and non-receptor protein kinases.

  13. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Tti2 Regulates PIKK Proteins and Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Kyle S.; Duennwald, Martin L.; Karagiannis, Jim; Genereaux, Julie; McCarton, Alexander S.; Brandl, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    The TTT complex is composed of the three essential proteins Tel2, Tti1, and Tti2. The complex is required to maintain steady state levels of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinase (PIKK) proteins, including mTOR, ATM/Tel1, ATR/Mec1, and TRRAP/Tra1, all of which serve as regulators of critical cell signaling pathways. Due to their association with heat shock proteins, and with newly synthesized PIKK peptides, components of the TTT complex may act as cochaperones. Here, we analyze the consequences of depleting the cellular level of Tti2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show that yeast expressing low levels of Tti2 are viable under optimal growth conditions, but the cells are sensitive to a number of stress conditions that involve PIKK pathways. In agreement with this, depleting Tti2 levels decreased expression of Tra1, Mec1, and Tor1, affected their localization and inhibited the stress responses in which these molecules are involved. Tti2 expression was not increased during heat shock, implying that it does not play a general role in the heat shock response. However, steady state levels of Hsp42 increase when Tti2 is depleted, and tti2L187P has a synthetic interaction with exon 1 of the human Huntingtin gene containing a 103 residue polyQ sequence, suggesting a general role in protein quality control. We also find that overexpressing Hsp90 or its cochaperones is synthetic lethal when Tti2 is depleted, an effect possibly due to imbalanced stoichiometry of a complex required for PIKK assembly. These results indicate that Tti2 does not act as a general chaperone, but may have a specialized function in PIKK folding and/or complex assembly. PMID:27172216

  14. Internal Amino Acids Promote Gap1 Permease Ubiquitylation via TORC1/Npr1/14-3-3-Dependent Control of the Bul Arrestin-Like Adaptors

    PubMed Central

    Merhi, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Ubiquitylation of many plasma membrane proteins promotes their endocytosis followed by degradation in the lysosome. The yeast general amino acid permease, Gap1, is ubiquitylated and downregulated when a good nitrogen source like ammonium is provided to cells growing on a poor nitrogen source. This ubiquitylation requires the Rsp5 ubiquitin ligase and the redundant arrestin-like Bul1 and Bul2 adaptors. Previous studies have shown that Gap1 ubiquitylation involves the TORC1 kinase complex, which inhibits the Sit4 phosphatase. This causes inactivation of the protein kinase Npr1, which protects Gap1 against ubiquitylation. However, the mechanisms inducing Gap1 ubiquitylation after Npr1 inactivation remain unknown. We here show that on a poor nitrogen source, the Bul adaptors are phosphorylated in an Npr1-dependent manner and bound to 14-3-3 proteins that protect Gap1 against downregulation. After ammonium is added and converted to amino acids, the Bul proteins are dephosphorylated, dissociate from the 14-3-3 proteins, and undergo ubiquitylation. Furthermore, dephosphorylation of Bul requires the Sit4 phosphatase, which is essential to Gap1 downregulation. The data support the emerging concept that permease ubiquitylation results from activation of the arrestin-like adaptors of the Rsp5 ubiquitin ligase, this coinciding with their dephosphorylation, dissociation from the inhibitory 14-3-3 proteins, and ubiquitylation. PMID:22966204

  15. Arabidopsis protein phosphatase DBP1 nucleates a protein network with a role in regulating plant defense.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, José Luis; Castelló, María José; Naumann, Kai; Lassowskat, Ines; Navarrete-Gómez, Marisa; Scheel, Dierk; Vera, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana DBP1 belongs to the plant-specific family of DNA-binding protein phosphatases. Although recently identified as a novel host factor mediating susceptibility to potyvirus, little is known about DBP1 targets and partners and the molecular mechanisms underlying its function. Analyzing changes in the phosphoproteome of a loss-of-function dbp1 mutant enabled the identification of 14-3-3λ isoform (GRF6), a previously reported DBP1 interactor, and MAP kinase (MAPK) MPK11 as components of a small protein network nucleated by DBP1, in which GRF6 stability is modulated by MPK11 through phosphorylation, while DBP1 in turn negatively regulates MPK11 activity. Interestingly, grf6 and mpk11 loss-of-function mutants showed altered response to infection by the potyvirus Plum pox virus (PPV), and the described molecular mechanism controlling GRF6 stability was recapitulated upon PPV infection. These results not only contribute to a better knowledge of the biology of DBP factors, but also of MAPK signalling in plants, with the identification of GRF6 as a likely MPK11 substrate and of DBP1 as a protein phosphatase regulating MPK11 activity, and unveils the implication of this protein module in the response to PPV infection in Arabidopsis.

  16. Machines of destruction - AAA+ proteases and the adaptors that control them.

    PubMed

    Gur, Eyal; Ottofueling, Ralf; Dougan, David A

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria are frequently exposed to changes in environmental conditions, such as fluctuations in temperature, pH or the availability of nutrients. These assaults can be detrimental to cell as they often result in a proteotoxic stress, which can cause the accumulation of unfolded proteins. In order to restore a productive folding environment in the cell, bacteria have evolved a network of proteins, known as the protein quality control (PQC) network, which is composed of both chaperones and AAA+ proteases. These AAA+ proteases form a major part of this PQC network, as they are responsible for the removal of unwanted and damaged proteins. They also play an important role in the turnover of specific regulatory or tagged proteins. In this review, we describe the general features of an AAA+ protease, and using two of the best-characterised AAA+ proteases in Escherichia coli (ClpAP and ClpXP) as a model for all AAA+ proteases, we provide a detailed mechanistic description of how these machines work. Specifically, the review examines the physiological role of these machines, as well as the substrates and the adaptor proteins that modulate their substrate specificity.

  17. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor (TRAF)-interacting protein (TRIP) negatively regulates the TRAF2 ubiquitin-dependent pathway by suppressing the TRAF2-sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) interaction.

    PubMed

    Park, Eui-Soon; Choi, Seunga; Shin, Bongjin; Yu, Jungeun; Yu, Jiyeon; Hwang, Jung-Me; Yun, Hyeongseok; Chung, Young-Ho; Choi, Jong-Soon; Choi, Yongwon; Rho, Jaerang

    2015-04-10

    The signaling pathway downstream of TNF receptor (TNFR) is involved in the induction of a wide range of cellular processes, including cell proliferation, activation, differentiation, and apoptosis. TNFR-associated factor 2 (TRAF2) is a key adaptor molecule in TNFR signaling complexes that promotes downstream signaling cascades, such as nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. TRAF-interacting protein (TRIP) is a known cellular binding partner of TRAF2 and inhibits TNF-induced NF-κB activation. Recent findings that TRIP plays a multifunctional role in antiviral response, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and embryonic development have increased our interest in exploring how TRIP can affect the TNFR-signaling pathway on a molecular level. In our current study, we demonstrated that TRIP is negatively involved in the TNF-induced inflammatory response through the down-regulation of proinflammatory cytokine production. Here, we demonstrated that the TRAF2-TRIP interaction inhibits Lys(63)-linked TRAF2 ubiquitination by inhibiting TRAF2 E3 ubiquitin (Ub) ligase activity. The TRAF2-TRIP interaction inhibited the binding of sphingosine 1-phosphate, which is a cofactor of TRAF2 E3 Ub ligase, to the TRAF2 RING domain. Finally, we demonstrated that TRIP functions as a negative regulator of proinflammatory cytokine production by inhibiting TNF-induced NF-κB activation. These results indicate that TRIP is an important cellular regulator of the TNF-induced inflammatory response.

  18. Shoc2/Sur8 protein regulates neurite outgrowth.

    PubMed

    Leon, Gonzalo; Sanchez-Ruiloba, Lucia; Perez-Rodriguez, Andrea; Gragera, Teresa; Martinez, Natalia; Hernandez, Silvia; Anta, Berta; Calero, Olga; Garcia-Dominguez, Carlota A; Dura, Lara M; Peña-Jimenez, Daniel; Castro, Judit; Zarich, Natasha; Sanchez-Gomez, Pilar; Calero, Miguel; Iglesias, Teresa; Oliva, Jose L; Rojas, Jose M

    2014-01-01

    The Shoc2 protein has been implicated in the positive regulation of the Ras-ERK pathway by increasing the functional binding interaction between Ras and Raf, leading to increased ERK activity. Here we found that Shoc2 overexpression induced sustained ERK phosphorylation, notably in the case of EGF stimulation, and Shoc2 knockdown inhibited ERK activation. We demonstrate that ectopic overexpression of human Shoc2 in PC12 cells significantly promotes neurite extension in the presence of EGF, a stimulus that induces proliferation rather than differentiation in these cells. Finally, Shoc2 depletion reduces both NGF-induced neurite outgrowth and ERK activation in PC12 cells. Our data indicate that Shoc2 is essential to modulate the Ras-ERK signaling outcome in cell differentiation processes involved in neurite outgrowth.

  19. Cell death in leukemia: passenger protein regulation by topoisomerase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Jahnke, Ulrike; Higginbottom, Karen; Newland, Adrian C; Cotter, Finbarr E; Allen, Paul D

    2007-10-05

    Etoposide is a potent inducer of mitotic catastrophe; a type of cell death resulting from aberrant mitosis. It is important in p53 negative cells where p53 dependent apoptosis and events at the G1 and G2 cell cycle checkpoints are compromised. Passenger proteins regulate many aspects of mitosis and siRNA interference or direct inhibition of Aurora B kinase results in mitotic catastrophe. However, there is little available data of clinical relevance in leukaemia models. Here, in p53 negative K562 myeloid leukemia cells, etoposide-induced mitotic catastrophe is shown to be time and/or concentration dependent. Survivin and Aurora remained bound to chromosomes. Survivin and Aurora were also associated with Cdk1 and were shown to form complexes, which in pull down experiments, included INCENP. There was no evidence of Aurora B kinase suppression. These data suggests etoposide will complement Aurora B kinase inhibitors currently in clinical trials for cancer.

  20. Stress responses during ageing: molecular pathways regulating protein homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Kyriakakis, Emmanouil; Princz, Andrea; Tavernarakis, Nektarios

    2015-01-01

    The ageing process is characterized by deterioration of physiological function accompanied by frailty and ageing-associated diseases. The most broadly and well-studied pathways influencing ageing are the insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 signaling pathway and the dietary restriction pathway. Recent studies in diverse organisms have also delineated emerging pathways, which collectively or independently contribute to ageing. Among them the proteostatic-stress-response networks, inextricably affect normal ageing by maintaining or restoring protein homeostasis to preserve proper cellular and organismal function. In this chapter, we survey the involvement of heat stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress responses in the regulation of longevity, placing emphasis on the cross talk between different response mechanisms and their systemic effects. We further discuss novel insights relevant to the molecular pathways mediating these stress responses that may facilitate the development of innovative interventions targeting age-related pathologies such as diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases.

  1. Prion protein expression regulates embryonic stem cell pluripotency and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Alberto; Pericuesta, Eva; Ramírez, Miguel Ángel; Gutierrez-Adan, Alfonso

    2011-04-04

    Cellular prion protein (PRNP) is a glycoprotein involved in the pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Although the physiological function of PRNP is largely unknown, its key role in prion infection has been extensively documented. This study examines the functionality of PRNP during the course of embryoid body (EB) differentiation in mouse Prnp-null (KO) and WT embryonic stem cell (ESC) lines. The first feature observed was a new population of EBs that only appeared in the KO line after 5 days of differentiation. These EBs were characterized by their expression of several primordial germ cell (PGC) markers until Day 13. In a comparative mRNA expression analysis of genes playing an important developmental role during ESC differentiation to EBs, Prnp was found to participate in the transcription of a key pluripotency marker such as Nanog. A clear switching off of this gene on Day 5 was observed in the KO line as opposed to the WT line, in which maximum Prnp and Nanog mRNA levels appeared at this time. Using a specific antibody against PRNP to block PRNP pathways, reduced Nanog expression was confirmed in the WT line. In addition, antibody-mediated inhibition of ITGB5 (integrin αvβ5) in the KO line rescued the low expression of Nanog on Day 5, suggesting the regulation of Nanog transcription by Prnp via this Itgb5. mRNA expression analysis of the PRNP-related proteins PRND (Doppel) and SPRN (Shadoo), whose PRNP function is known to be redundant, revealed their incapacity to compensate for the absence of PRNP during early ESC differentiation. Our findings provide strong evidence for a relationship between Prnp and several key pluripotency genes and attribute Prnp a crucial role in regulating self-renewal/differentiation status of ESC, confirming the participation of PRNP during early embryogenesis.

  2. Integrin β4 regulates SPARC protein to promote invasion.

    PubMed

    Gerson, Kristin D; Shearstone, Jeffrey R; Maddula, V S R Krishna; Seligmann, Bruce E; Mercurio, Arthur M

    2012-03-23

    The α6β4 integrin (referred to as "β4" integrin) is a receptor for laminins that promotes carcinoma invasion through its ability to regulate key signaling pathways and cytoskeletal dynamics. An analysis of published Affymetrix GeneChip data to detect downstream effectors involved in β4-mediated invasion of breast carcinoma cells identified SPARC, or secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine. This glycoprotein has been shown to play an important role in matrix remodeling and invasion. Our analysis revealed that manipulation of β4 integrin expression and signaling impacted SPARC expression and that SPARC facilitates β4-mediated invasion. Expression of β4 in β4-deficient cells reduced the expression of a specific microRNA (miR-29a) that targets SPARC and impedes invasion. In cells that express endogenous β4, miR-29a expression is low and β4 ligation facilitates the translation of SPARC through a TOR-dependent mechanism. The results obtained in this study demonstrate that β4 can regulate SPARC expression and that SPARC is an effector of β4-mediated invasion. They also highlight a potential role for specific miRNAs in executing the functions of integrins.

  3. Diabetes regulates fructose absorption through thioredoxin-interacting protein

    PubMed Central

    Dotimas, James R; Lee, Austin W; Schmider, Angela B; Carroll, Shannon H; Shah, Anu; Bilen, Julide; Elliott, Kayla R; Myers, Ronald B; Soberman, Roy J; Yoshioka, Jun; Lee, Richard T

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic studies suggest that the absorptive capacity of the small intestine for fructose is limited, though the molecular mechanisms controlling this process remain unknown. Here we demonstrate that thioredoxin-interacting protein (Txnip), which regulates glucose homeostasis in mammals, binds to fructose transporters and promotes fructose absorption by the small intestine. Deletion of Txnip in mice reduced fructose transport into the peripheral bloodstream and liver, as well as the severity of adverse metabolic outcomes resulting from long-term fructose consumption. We also demonstrate that fructose consumption induces expression of Txnip in the small intestine. Diabetic mice had increased expression of Txnip in the small intestine as well as enhanced fructose uptake and transport into the hepatic portal circulation. The deletion of Txnip in mice abolished the diabetes-induced increase in fructose absorption. Our results indicate that Txnip is a critical regulator of fructose metabolism and suggest that a diabetic state can promote fructose uptake. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18313.001 PMID:27725089

  4. DELLA proteins regulate arbuscule formation in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Floss, Daniela S; Levy, Julien G; Lévesque-Tremblay, Véronique; Pumplin, Nathan; Harrison, Maria J

    2013-12-17

    Most flowering plants are able to form endosymbioses with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. In this mutualistic association, the fungus colonizes the root cortex and establishes elaborately branched hyphae, called arbuscules, within the cortical cells. Arbuscule development requires the cellular reorganization of both symbionts, and the resulting symbiotic interface functions in nutrient exchange. A plant symbiosis signaling pathway controls the development of the symbiosis. Several components of the pathway have been identified, but transcriptional regulators that control downstream pathways for arbuscule formation are still unknown. Here we show that DELLA proteins, which are repressors of gibberellic acid (GA) signaling and function at the nexus of several signaling pathways, are required for arbuscule formation. Arbuscule formation is severely impaired in a Medicago truncatula Mtdella1/Mtdella2 double mutant; GA treatment of wild-type roots phenocopies the della double mutant, and a dominant DELLA protein (della1-Δ18) enables arbuscule formation in the presence of GA. Ectopic expression of della1-Δ18 suggests that DELLA activity in the vascular tissue and endodermis is sufficient to enable arbuscule formation in the inner cortical cells. In addition, expression of della1-Δ18 restores arbuscule formation in the symbiosis signaling pathway mutant cyclops/ipd3, indicating an intersection between DELLA and symbiosis signaling for arbuscule formation. GA signaling also influences arbuscule formation in monocots, and a Green Revolution wheat variety carrying dominant DELLA alleles shows enhanced colonization but a limited growth response to arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.

  5. DELLA proteins regulate arbuscule formation in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Floss, Daniela S.; Levy, Julien G.; Lévesque-Tremblay, Véronique; Pumplin, Nathan; Harrison, Maria J.

    2013-01-01

    Most flowering plants are able to form endosymbioses with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. In this mutualistic association, the fungus colonizes the root cortex and establishes elaborately branched hyphae, called arbuscules, within the cortical cells. Arbuscule development requires the cellular reorganization of both symbionts, and the resulting symbiotic interface functions in nutrient exchange. A plant symbiosis signaling pathway controls the development of the symbiosis. Several components of the pathway have been identified, but transcriptional regulators that control downstream pathways for arbuscule formation are still unknown. Here we show that DELLA proteins, which are repressors of gibberellic acid (GA) signaling and function at the nexus of several signaling pathways, are required for arbuscule formation. Arbuscule formation is severely impaired in a Medicago truncatula Mtdella1/Mtdella2 double mutant; GA treatment of wild-type roots phenocopies the della double mutant, and a dominant DELLA protein (della1-Δ18) enables arbuscule formation in the presence of GA. Ectopic expression of della1-Δ18 suggests that DELLA activity in the vascular tissue and endodermis is sufficient to enable arbuscule formation in the inner cortical cells. In addition, expression of della1-Δ18 restores arbuscule formation in the symbiosis signaling pathway mutant cyclops/ipd3, indicating an intersection between DELLA and symbiosis signaling for arbuscule formation. GA signaling also influences arbuscule formation in monocots, and a Green Revolution wheat variety carrying dominant DELLA alleles shows enhanced colonization but a limited growth response to arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. PMID:24297892

  6. Leucocyte protein Trojan, a possible regulator of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Petrov, Petar; Syrjänen, Riikka; Uchida, Tatsuya; Vainio, Olli

    2017-02-01

    Trojan is a leucocyte-specific protein, cloned from chicken embryonic thymocyte cDNA library. The molecule is a type I transmembrane protein with an extracellular CCP domain, followed by two FN3 domains. Its cytoplasmic tail is predicted to possess a MAPK docking and a PKA phosphorylation sites. Trojan has been proposed to have an anti-apoptotic role based on its differential expression on developing thymocyte subpopulations. Using a chicken cell line, our in vitro studies showed that upon apoptosis induction, Trojan expression rises dramatically on the surface of surviving cells and gradually decreases towards its normal levels as cells recover. When sorted based on their expression levels of Trojan, cells with high expression appeared less susceptible to apoptotic induction than those bearing no or low levels of Trojan on their surface. The mechanism by which the molecule exerts its function is yet to be discovered. We found that cells overexpressing Trojan from a cDNA plasmid show elevated steady-state levels of intracellular calcium, suggesting the molecule is able to transmit cytoplasmic signals. The mechanistic nature of Trojan-induced signalling is a target of future investigation. In this article, we conducted a series of experiments that suggest Trojan as an anti-apoptotic regulator.

  7. Somatostatin regulates tight junction proteins expression in colitis mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao; Wang, Qian; Xu, Hua; Tao, Liping; Lu, Jing; Cai, Lin; Wang, Chunhui

    2014-01-01

    Tight junction plays a critical role in intestinal defence. The alteration and perturbation of tight junction proteins could induce intestine barrier damage, and lead to the malabsorption of electrolytes and water. Previous studies had showed that colonic infection and inflammation could lead to the alteration of tight junction function, and somatostatin could protect intestinal epithelia. Thus, this study could explore that whether somatostatin could regulate tight junction in colitis mice. Colitis mice with diarrhea were induced by Citrobacter rodentium (CR) and Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). In CR infected model, cladudin-1 and claudin-3 expression significantly decreased compared with the control mice (P<0.05); after octreotide treatment, claudin-1 and claudin-3 expression significantly increased compared with untreated CR infected mice (P<0.05). In DSS colitis model, occludin and claudin-3 expression significantly decreased compared with the control mice (P<0.05); and octreotide treatment could only significantly upregulate claudin-3 expression compared with untreated DSS colitis mice (P<0.05). To testify our results in vivo, we repeated the models in caco-2 cells by exposed with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (E. Coli) and Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). The results in vitro were consistent with in vivo study. The results suggested that somatostatin play a role in intestinal barrier protection by modulating tight junction proteins expression.

  8. Somatostatin regulates tight junction proteins expression in colitis mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao; Wang, Qian; Xu, Hua; Tao, Liping; Lu, Jing; Cai, Lin; Wang, Chunhui

    2014-01-01

    Tight junction plays a critical role in intestinal defence. The alteration and perturbation of tight junction proteins could induce intestine barrier damage, and lead to the malabsorption of electrolytes and water. Previous studies had showed that colonic infection and inflammation could lead to the alteration of tight junction function, and somatostatin could protect intestinal epithelia. Thus, this study could explore that whether somatostatin could regulate tight junction in colitis mice. Colitis mice with diarrhea were induced by Citrobacter rodentium (CR) and Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). In CR infected model, cladudin-1 and claudin-3 expression significantly decreased compared with the control mice (P < 0.05); after octreotide treatment, claudin-1 and claudin-3 expression significantly increased compared with untreated CR infected mice (P < 0.05). In DSS colitis model, occludin and claudin-3 expression significantly decreased compared with the control mice (P < 0.05); and octreotide treatment could only significantly upregulate claudin-3 expression compared with untreated DSS colitis mice (P < 0.05). To testify our results in vivo, we repeated the models in caco-2 cells by exposed with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (E. Coli) and Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). The results in vitro were consistent with in vivo study. The results suggested that somatostatin play a role in intestinal barrier protection by modulating tight junction proteins expression. PMID:24966923

  9. DUB3 Deubiquitylating Enzymes Regulate Hippo Pathway Activity by Regulating the Stability of ITCH, LATS and AMOT Proteins.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hung Thanh; Kugler, Jan-Michael; Cohen, Stephen M

    2017-01-01

    The YAP and TAZ transcriptional coactivators promote oncogenic transformation. Elevated YAP/TAZ activity has been documented in human tumors. YAP and TAZ are negatively regulated by the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway. The activity and stability of several Hippo pathway components, including YAP/TAZ, is regulated by ubiquitin mediated protein turnover and several ubiquitin ligase complexes have been implicated in human cancer. However, little is known about the deubiquitylating enzymes that counteract these ubiquitin ligases in regulation of the Hippo pathway. Here we identify the DUB3 family deubiquitylating enzymes as regulators of Hippo pathway activity. We provide evidence that DUB3 proteins regulate YAP/TAZ activity by controlling the stability of the E3 ligase ITCH, the LATS kinases and the AMOT family proteins. As a novel Hippo pathway regulator, DUB3 has the potential to act a tumor suppressor by limiting YAP activity.

  10. DUB3 Deubiquitylating Enzymes Regulate Hippo Pathway Activity by Regulating the Stability of ITCH, LATS and AMOT Proteins

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The YAP and TAZ transcriptional coactivators promote oncogenic transformation. Elevated YAP/TAZ activity has been documented in human tumors. YAP and TAZ are negatively regulated by the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway. The activity and stability of several Hippo pathway components, including YAP/TAZ, is regulated by ubiquitin mediated protein turnover and several ubiquitin ligase complexes have been implicated in human cancer. However, little is known about the deubiquitylating enzymes that counteract these ubiquitin ligases in regulation of the Hippo pathway. Here we identify the DUB3 family deubiquitylating enzymes as regulators of Hippo pathway activity. We provide evidence that DUB3 proteins regulate YAP/TAZ activity by controlling the stability of the E3 ligase ITCH, the LATS kinases and the AMOT family proteins. As a novel Hippo pathway regulator, DUB3 has the potential to act a tumor suppressor by limiting YAP activity. PMID:28061504

  11. Phosphorylation-Dependent Regulation of G-Protein Cycle during Nodule Formation in Soybean[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Signaling pathways mediated by heterotrimeric G-protein complexes comprising Gα, Gβ, and Gγ subunits and their regulatory RGS (Regulator of G-protein Signaling) protein are conserved in all eukaryotes. We have shown that the specific Gβ and Gγ proteins of a soybean (Glycine max) heterotrimeric G-protein complex are involved in regulation of nodulation. We now demonstrate the role of Nod factor receptor 1 (NFR1)-mediated phosphorylation in regulation of the G-protein cycle during nodulation in soybean. We also show that during nodulation, the G-protein cycle is regulated by the activity of RGS proteins. Lower or higher expression of RGS proteins results in fewer or more nodules, respectively. NFR1 interacts with RGS proteins and phosphorylates them. Analysis of phosphorylated RGS protein identifies specific amino acids that, when phosphorylated, result in significantly higher GTPase accelerating activity. These data point to phosphorylation-based regulation of G-protein signaling during nodule development. We propose that active NFR1 receptors phosphorylate and activate RGS proteins, which help maintain the Gα proteins in their inactive, trimeric conformation, resulting in successful nodule development. Alternatively, RGS proteins might also have a direct role in regulating nodulation because overexpression of their phospho-mimic version leads to partial restoration of nodule formation in nod49 mutants. PMID:26498905

  12. Evolutionary Genomics Suggests That CheV Is an Additional Adaptor for Accommodating Specific Chemoreceptors within the Chemotaxis Signaling Complex.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Davi R; Zhulin, Igor B

    2016-02-01

    Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica are models for many experiments in molecular biology including chemotaxis, and most of the results obtained with one organism have been generalized to another. While most components of the chemotaxis pathway are strongly conserved between the two species, Salmonella genomes contain some chemoreceptors and an additional protein, CheV, that are not found in E. coli. The role of CheV was examined in distantly related species Bacillus subtilis and Helicobacter pylori, but its role in bacterial chemotaxis is still not well understood. We tested a hypothesis that in enterobacteria CheV functions as an additional adaptor linking the CheA kinase to certain types of chemoreceptors that cannot be effectively accommodated by the universal adaptor CheW. Phylogenetic profiling, genomic context and comparative protein sequence analyses suggested that CheV interacts with specific domains of CheA and chemoreceptors from an orthologous group exemplified by the Salmonella McpC protein. Structural consideration of the conservation patterns suggests that CheV and CheW share the same binding spot on the chemoreceptor structure, but have some affinity bias towards chemoreceptors from different orthologous groups. Finally, published experimental results and data newly obtained via comparative genomics support the idea that CheV functions as a "phosphate sink" possibly to off-set the over-stimulation of the kinase by certain types of chemoreceptors. Overall, our results strongly suggest that CheV is an additional adaptor for accommodating specific chemoreceptors within the chemotaxis signaling complex.

  13. Evolutionary genomics suggests that CheV is an additional adaptor for accommodating specific chemoreceptors within the chemotaxis signaling complex

    DOE PAGES

    Ortega, Davi R.; Zhulin, Igor B.; Punta, Marco

    2016-02-04

    Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica are models for many experiments in molecular biology including chemotaxis, and most of the results obtained with one organism have been generalized to another. While most components of the chemotaxis pathway are strongly conserved between the two species, Salmonella genomes contain some chemoreceptors and an additional protein, CheV, that are not found in E. coli. The role of CheV was examined in distantly related species Bacillus subtilis and Helicobacter pylori, but its role in bacterial chemotaxis is still not well understood. We tested a hypothesis that in enterobacteria CheV functions as an additional adaptor lin