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Sample records for adbex iii cruise

  1. Atlantic Coastal experiment III, FRV Delaware II cruise, 17-27 May 1977 and R/V ONRUST cruise, 28-30, June 1977. Data report

    SciTech Connect

    Malloy, S.; Stoddard, A.; von Bock, K.

    1980-09-01

    The DELAWARE II and ONRUST cruises, continuations of Atlantic Coastal Experiment III, were made during May and late June, 1977, to compare seasonal changes in chlorophyll a, nitrogen nutrient, dissolved oxygen and phytoplankton composition within the mid-Atlantic and New York Bights. Data from 106 stations and 3300 km of surface mapping are reported as classical hydrographic listings, areal and/or vertical contours of chlorophyll a, inorganic nitrogen and salinity, and listings of phytoplankton species abun- dance. Temperature profiles from 100 stations are included, as well as res- piration experiments [ETS assay] for the dinoflagellate, Ceratium tripos.

  2. Russia's views on cruise missiles in the context of START III

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, D Y

    2000-10-30

    The abysmal state of Russia's conventional forces has caused Russia to rely on nuclear weapons to ensure its security. This reliance was formalized in Russia's military doctrine which states that nuclear weapons can be used ''in situations critical to the national security of the RF and its allies.'' In fact, most Russian security analysts believe that this dependence on nuclear weapons will remain for the foreseeable future because the economy will have to improve significantly before a conventional force build up can be contemplated. Yet, despite Russia's need to rely on nuclear weapons, even this may be problematic because its economic plight may create difficulties in maintaining its current level of nuclear forces. Thus, Russia has a keen interest in negotiating a treaty to reduce Strategic Nuclear Forces below START II levels and would prefer to go even beyond the 2,000-2,500 numbers agreed to by Presidents Yeltsin and Clinton in Helsinki in 1997. Sergei Rogov, an influential defense analyst, believes that Russia's strategic nuclear forces will fall below 1,000 warheads by 2010 irrespective of arms control agreements. Accordingly, Russia is keen to ensure rough parity with the US. To retain a credible deterrent posture at these lower levels, Russia believes that it is important to restrain US sea-launched cruise missiles (SLCM)--forces that have heretofore not been captured as strategic weapons in the START treaties. Russian officials reason that once strategic nuclear forces go to very low levels, SLCM capabilities become strategically significant. In fact, according to two well-known Russian security analysts, Anatoli Diakov and Pavel Podvig, Russia's current START III negotiating position calls for the complete elimination of all SLCMs, both nuclear and conventional. Prior to assessing Russia's position regarding cruise missiles and START III, I will examine Russia's overall view of its security position vis-a-vis the US in order to provide background for

  3. Atlantic Coastal Experiment III: R/V KNORR cruise 68, 4-30 August 1977; FRV ALBATROSS IV cruise 77-07, 1-4, 16-31 August 1977. Data report, volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, D.C.; von Bock, K.

    1983-03-01

    Data are reported from KNORR cruise 68, the major investigation of the third Atlantic Coastal Experiment (ACE), conducted during a period of pro-nounced water-column stratification. One hundred fifty-five stations, including 6 time-series sitings, were occupied within the shelf and shelf- break regimes of New York Bight. Measurements were made to assess water-mass characterization, nutrient cycling, carbon/nitrogen assimilation, bio-mass distribution and diel dynamics and benthic/water-column interfacial exchange. Data are also included from the cruise of ALBATROSS IV carried out contemporaneously with the KNORR investigations, in an area ranging from Nantucket Shoals to the upper reaches of the Gulf of Maine. 20 hydrographic stations were used to augment underway mapping in order to elucidate surface-layer chlorophyll and nutrient distributions occurring at an impor-tant boundary of the New York Bight.

  4. Infections on Cruise Ships.

    PubMed

    Kak, Vivek

    2015-08-01

    The modern cruise ship is a small city on the seas, with populations as large as 5,000 seen on large ships. The growth of the cruise ship industry has continued in the twenty-first century, and it was estimated that nearly 21.3 million passengers traveled on cruise ships in 2013, with the majority of these sailing from North America. The presence of large numbers of individuals in close proximity to each other facilitates transmission of infectious diseases, often through person-to-person spread or via contaminated food or water. An infectious agent introduced into the environment of a cruise ship has the potential to be distributed widely across the ship and to cause significant morbidity. The median cruise ship passenger is over 45 years old and often has chronic medical problems, so it is important that, to have a safe cruise ship experience, any potential for the introduction of an infecting agent as well as its transmission be minimized. The majority of cruise ship infections involve respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. This article discusses infectious outbreaks on cruise ships and suggests preventative measures for passengers who plan to travel on cruise ships. PMID:26350312

  5. Infections on Cruise Ships.

    PubMed

    Kak, Vivek

    2015-08-01

    The modern cruise ship is a small city on the seas, with populations as large as 5,000 seen on large ships. The growth of the cruise ship industry has continued in the twenty-first century, and it was estimated that nearly 21.3 million passengers traveled on cruise ships in 2013, with the majority of these sailing from North America. The presence of large numbers of individuals in close proximity to each other facilitates transmission of infectious diseases, often through person-to-person spread or via contaminated food or water. An infectious agent introduced into the environment of a cruise ship has the potential to be distributed widely across the ship and to cause significant morbidity. The median cruise ship passenger is over 45 years old and often has chronic medical problems, so it is important that, to have a safe cruise ship experience, any potential for the introduction of an infecting agent as well as its transmission be minimized. The majority of cruise ship infections involve respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. This article discusses infectious outbreaks on cruise ships and suggests preventative measures for passengers who plan to travel on cruise ships.

  6. The US Cruise Ship Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Willis H.

    1985-01-01

    The cruise ship industry relates directly to many features of the natural and cultural environments. The U.S. cruise ship industry is analyzed. Discusses the size of the industry, precruise passenger liners, current cruise ships, cruise regions and routes, ports of call, major ports, passengers, and future prospects. (RM)

  7. Supersonic Cruise Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclean, F. Edward

    1985-01-01

    The history and status of supersonic cruise research is covered. The early research efforts of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and efforts during the B-70 and SST phase are included. Technological progress made during the NASA Supersonic Cruise Research and Variable Cycle Engine programs are presented. While emphasis is on NASA's contributions to supersonic cruise research in the U.S., also noted are developments in England, France, and Russia. Written in nontechnical language, this book presents the most critical technology issues and research findings.

  8. BENCAL Cruise Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Barlow, Ray; Sessions, Heather; Silulwane, Nonkqubela; Engel, Hermann; Aiken, James; Fishwick, James; Martinez-Vicente, Victor; Morel, Andre

    2003-01-01

    This report documents the scientific activities on board the South African Fisheries Research Ship (FRS) Africana during an ocean color calibration and validation cruise in the Benguela upwelling ecosystem (BEN-CAL), 4-17 October 2002. The cruise, denoted Afncana voyage 170, was staged in the southern Benguela between Cape Town and the Orange River within the region 14-18.5 deg E,29-34 deg S, with 15 scientists participat- ing from seven different international organizations. Uniquely in October 2002, four high-precision ocean color sensors were operational, and these included the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments on the Aqua and Terra spacecraft, the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS), and the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS). SeaWiFS imagery was transmitted daily to the ship to assist in choosing the vessel's course and selecting stations for bio-optical deployments. There were four primary objectives of the cruise. The first was to conduct bio-optical measurements with above- and in-water optical instruments to vicariously calibrate the satellite sensors. The second was to interrelate diverse measurements of the apparent optical properties (AOPs) at satellite sensor wavelengths with inherent optical properties (IOPs) and bio-optically active constituents of seawater such as particles, pigments, and dissolved compounds. The third was to determine the interrelationships between optical properties, phytoplankton pigment composition, photosynthetic rates, and primary production, while the fourth objective was to collect samples for a second pigment round-robin intercalibration experiment. Weather conditions were generally very favorable, and a range of hyperspectral and fixed wavelength AOP instruments were deployed during daylight hours. Various IOP instruments were used to determine the absorption, attenuation, scattering, and backscattering properties of particulate matter and dissolved substances, while

  9. Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reif, Konrad

    Die adaptive Fahrgeschwindigkeitsregelung (ACC, Adaptive Cruise Control) ist eine Weiterentwicklung der konventionellen Fahrgeschwindigkeitsregelung, die eine konstante Fahrgeschwindigkeit einstellt. ACC überwacht mittels eines Radarsensors den Bereich vor dem Fahrzeug und passt die Geschwindigkeit den Gegebenheiten an. ACC reagiert auf langsamer vorausfahrende oder einscherende Fahrzeuge mit einer Reduzierung der Geschwindigkeit, sodass der vorgeschriebene Mindestabstand zum vorausfahrenden Fahrzeug nicht unterschritten wird. Hierzu greift ACC in Antrieb und Bremse ein. Sobald das vorausfahrende Fahrzeug beschleunigt oder die Spur verlässt, regelt ACC die Geschwindigkeit wieder auf die vorgegebene Sollgeschwindigkeit ein (Bild 1). ACC steht somit für eine Geschwindigkeitsregelung, die sich dem vorausfahrenden Verkehr anpasst.

  10. Teacher Techniques: Exploring Timber Cruising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    A timber cruise is an estimate of the timber in a stand to see what kinds of trees are growing, how many are marketable, and whether good forest management practices are followed. The objectives of timber cruising are to secure information to recommend good management practices to the land owner and to determine the commercial value of the trees.…

  11. Norovirus transmission on cruise ship.

    PubMed

    Isakbaeva, Elmira T; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Beard, R Suzanne; Bulens, Sandra N; Mullins, James; Monroe, Stephan S; Bresee, Joseph; Sassano, Patricia; Cramer, Elaine H; Glass, Roger I

    2005-01-01

    An outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis affected passengers on two consecutive cruises of ship X and continued on 4 subsequent cruises despite a 1-week sanitization. We documented transmission by food and person-to-person contact; persistence of virus despite sanitization onboard, including introductions of new strains; and seeding of an outbreak on land.

  12. Oceanographic Mower Cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valencia, J.; Ercilla, G.; Hernández-Molina, F. J.; Casas, D.

    2015-04-01

    The MOWER Cruise has executed a geophysics and geologic expedition in the Gulf of Cádiz (sector adjacent to the Strait of Gibraltar) and west off Portugal, in the framework of the coordinate research project MOWER "Erosive features and associated sandy deposits generated by the Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) around Iberia: paleoceanographic, sedimentary & economic implications" (CTM 2012-39599-C03). The main aim of this project is to identify and study the erosional features (terraces and channels) and associated sedimentary deposits (sandy contourites) generated by the Mediterranean Water Masses around the middle continental slope of Iberia (The Mediterranean Outflow Water - MOW - in the Atlantic margins), their Pliocene and Quaternary evolution and their paleoceanographic, sedimentary and economic implications. This objective directly involves the study of alongslope (contourite) processes associated with the MOW and across-slope (turbiditic flows, debris flows, etc.) processes in the sedimentary stacking pattern and evolution of the Iberian margins. The MOWER project and cruise are related to the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 339 (Mediterranean Outflow). It is also linked and coordinated with CONDRIBER Project "Contourite drifts and associated mass-transport deposits along the SW Iberia margin - implications to slope stability and tsunami hazard assessment" (2013-2015) funded by the Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia, Portugal (PTDC/GEO-GEO/4430/2012).

  13. CMO: Cruise Metadata Organizer for JAMSTEC Research Cruises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, K.; Saito, H.; Hanafusa, Y.; Vanroosebeke, A.; Kitayama, T.

    2011-12-01

    JAMSTEC's Data Research Center for Marine-Earth Sciences manages and distributes a wide variety of observational data and samples obtained from JAMSTEC research vessels and deep sea submersibles. Generally, metadata are essential to identify data and samples were obtained. In JAMSTEC, cruise metadata include cruise information such as cruise ID, name of vessel, research theme, and diving information such as dive number, name of submersible and position of diving point. They are submitted by chief scientists of research cruises in the Microsoft Excel° spreadsheet format, and registered into a data management database to confirm receipt of observational data files, cruise summaries, and cruise reports. The cruise metadata are also published via "JAMSTEC Data Site for Research Cruises" within two months after end of cruise. Furthermore, these metadata are distributed with observational data, images and samples via several data and sample distribution websites after a publication moratorium period. However, there are two operational issues in the metadata publishing process. One is that duplication efforts and asynchronous metadata across multiple distribution websites due to manual metadata entry into individual websites by administrators. The other is that differential data types or representation of metadata in each website. To solve those problems, we have developed a cruise metadata organizer (CMO) which allows cruise metadata to be connected from the data management database to several distribution websites. CMO is comprised of three components: an Extensible Markup Language (XML) database, an Enterprise Application Integration (EAI) software, and a web-based interface. The XML database is used because of its flexibility for any change of metadata. Daily differential uptake of metadata from the data management database to the XML database is automatically processed via the EAI software. Some metadata are entered into the XML database using the web

  14. Developmental Continuity? Crawling, Cruising, and Walking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adolph, Karen E.; Berger, Sarah E.; Leo, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    This research examined developmental continuity between "cruising" (moving sideways holding onto furniture for support) and walking. Because cruising and walking involve locomotion in an upright posture, researchers have assumed that cruising is functionally related to walking. Study 1 showed that most infants crawl and cruise concurrently prior…

  15. Staying Healthy on a Cruise

    MedlinePlus

    ... get the most out of your cruise vacation. Zika Travel Information The 2016 Olympics in Brazil, Reggae ... the summer is full of great international celebrations! Zika has been reported in many popular event destinations ...

  16. Progress in supersonic cruise technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driver, C.

    1983-01-01

    The Supersonic Cruise Research (SCR) program identified significant improvements in the technology areas of aerodynamics, structures, propulsion, noise reduction, takeoff and landing procedures, and advanced configuration concepts. These improvements, when combined in a large supersonic cruise vehicle, offer a far greater technology advance than generally realized. They offer the promise of an advanced commercial family of aircraft which are environmentally acceptable, have flexible range-payload capability, and are economically viable. These same areas of technology have direct application to smaller advanced military aircraft and to supersonic executive aircraft. Several possible applications will be addressed.

  17. 43 CFR 5422.1 - Cruise sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cruise sales. 5422.1 Section 5422.1 Public... OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) PREPARATION FOR SALE Volume Measurements § 5422.1 Cruise sales. As the general practice, the Bureau will sell timber on a tree cruise basis....

  18. 43 CFR 5422.1 - Cruise sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cruise sales. 5422.1 Section 5422.1 Public... OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) PREPARATION FOR SALE Volume Measurements § 5422.1 Cruise sales. As the general practice, the Bureau will sell timber on a tree cruise basis....

  19. 43 CFR 5422.1 - Cruise sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cruise sales. 5422.1 Section 5422.1 Public... OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) PREPARATION FOR SALE Volume Measurements § 5422.1 Cruise sales. As the general practice, the Bureau will sell timber on a tree cruise basis....

  20. 43 CFR 5422.1 - Cruise sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cruise sales. 5422.1 Section 5422.1 Public... OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) PREPARATION FOR SALE Volume Measurements § 5422.1 Cruise sales. As the general practice, the Bureau will sell timber on a tree cruise basis....

  1. Supersonic Cruise Research 1979, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Aerodynamics, stability and control, propulsion, and environmental factors of the supersonic cruise aircraft are discussed. Other topics include airframe structures and materials, systems integration, and economics.

  2. Cruise Ship Plume Tracking Survey Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-09-01

    The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing a Cruise Ship Discharge Assessment Report in response to a petition the agency received in March 2000. The petition requested that EPA assess and where necessary control discharges from cruise ships. Comments received during public hearings, in 2000, resulted in the EPA agreeing to conduct a survey to assess the discharge plumes resulting from cruise ships, operating in ocean waters off the Florida coast and to compare the results to the Alaska dispersion models. This survey report describes the daily activities of August 2001 Cruise Ship Plume Tracking Survey, and provides a synopsis of the observations from the survey. It also provides data that can be used to assess dispersion of cruise ship wastewater discharges, while in transit. A description of the survey methods is provided in Section 2. Survey results are presented in Section 3. Findings and conclusions are discussed in Section 4.

  3. Actuator for automatic cruising system

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, K.

    1989-03-07

    An actuator for an automatic cruising system is described, comprising: a casing; a control shaft provided in the casing for rotational movement; a control motor for driving the control shaft; an input shaft; an electromagnetic clutch and a reduction gear which are provided between the control motor and the control shaft; and an external linkage mechanism operatively connected to the control shaft; wherein the reduction gear is a type of Ferguson's mechanical paradox gear having a pinion mounted on the input shaft always connected to the control motor; a planetary gear meshing with the pinion so as to revolve around the pinion; a static internal gear meshing with the planetary gear and connected with the electromagnetic clutch for movement to a position restricting rotation of the static internal gear; and a rotary internal gear fixed on the control shaft and meshed with the planetary gear, the rotary internal gear having a number of teeth slightly different from a number of teeth of the static internal gear; and the electromagnetic clutch has a tubular electromagnetic coil coaxially provided around the input shaft and an engaging means for engaging and disengaging with the static internal gear in accordance with on-off operation of the electromagnetic coil.

  4. Autonomous intelligent cruise control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baret, Marc; Bomer, Thierry T.; Calesse, C.; Dudych, L.; L'Hoist, P.

    1995-01-01

    Autonomous intelligent cruise control (AICC) systems are not only controlling vehicles' speed but acting on the throttle and eventually on the brakes they could automatically maintain the relative speed and distance between two vehicles in the same lane. And more than just for comfort it appears that these new systems should improve the safety on highways. By applying a technique issued from the space research carried out by MATRA, a sensor based on a charge coupled device (CCD) was designed to acquire the reflected light on standard-mounted car reflectors of pulsed laser diodes emission. The CCD is working in a unique mode called flash during transfer (FDT) which allows identification of target patterns in severe optical environments. It provides high accuracy for distance and angular position of targets. The absence of moving mechanical parts ensures high reliability for this sensor. The large field of view and the high measurement rate give a global situation assessment and a short reaction time. Then, tracking and filtering algorithms have been developed in order to select the target, on which the equipped vehicle determines its safety distance and speed, taking into account its maneuvering and the behaviors of other vehicles.

  5. Wake-Vortex Hazards During Cruise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, Vernon J.; James, Kevin D.; Nixon, David (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Even though the hazard posed by lift-generated wakes of subsonic transport aircraft has been studied extensively for approach and departure at airports, only a small amount of effort has gone into the potential hazard at cruise altitude. This paper reports on a studio of the wake-vortex hazard during cruise because encounters may become more prevalent when free-flight becomes available and each aircraft, is free to choose its own route between destinations. In order to address the problem, the various fluid-dynamic stages that vortex wakes usually go through as they age will be described along with estimates of the potential hazard that each stage poses. It appears that a rolling-moment hazard can be just as severe at cruise as for approach at airports, but it only persists for several minutes. However, the hazard posed by the downwash in the wake due to the lift on the generator aircraft persists for tens of minutes in a long narrow region behind the generating aircraft. The hazard consists of severe vertical loads when an encountering aircraft crosses the wake. A technique for avoiding vortex wakes at cruise altitude will be described. To date the hazard posed by lift-generated vortex wakes and their persistence at cruise altitudes has been identified and subdivided into several tasks. Analyses of the loads to be encounter and are underway and should be completed shortly. A review of published literature on the subject has been nearly completed (see text) and photographs of vortex wakes at cruise altitudes have been taken and the various stages of decay have been identified. It remains to study and sort the photographs for those that best illustrate the various stages of decay after they are shed by subsonic transport aircraft at cruise altitudes. The present status of the analysis and the paper are described.

  6. Robust predictive cruise control for commercial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junell, Jaime; Tumer, Kagan

    2013-10-01

    In this paper we explore learning-based predictive cruise control and the impact of this technology on increasing fuel efficiency for commercial trucks. Traditional cruise control is wasteful when maintaining a constant velocity over rolling hills. Predictive cruise control (PCC) is able to look ahead at future road conditions and solve for a cost-effective course of action. Model- based controllers have been implemented in this field but cannot accommodate many complexities of a dynamic environment which includes changing road and vehicle conditions. In this work, we focus on incorporating a learner into an already successful model- based predictive cruise controller in order to improve its performance. We explore back propagating neural networks to predict future errors then take actions to prevent said errors from occurring. The results show that this approach improves the model based PCC by up to 60% under certain conditions. In addition, we explore the benefits of classifier ensembles to further improve the gains due to intelligent cruise control.

  7. When propfans cruise, will LDN 65 fly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mintz, Fred; Dickerson, William

    1990-01-01

    The type and extent of response that may be expected from the persons exposed to the noise of propfans cruising overhead is examined. The cruise mode is of particular interest because it appears that it is in this mode that the propfan airplane noise differs substantially from the noise of present jet-powered airplanes. Early test data on propfan engines suggests that noise levels on the ground under the flight track of commercial propfan transports may approach 65 decibels. To explore the reaction of the exposed population to repeated noise levels of this magnitude, it may be helpful to review some of the pertinent literature on the effects of environmental noise.

  8. Systems integration studies for supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mascitti, V. R.

    1975-01-01

    Technical progress in each of the disciplinary research areas affecting the design of supersonic cruise aircraft is discussed. The NASA AST/SCAR Program supported the integration of these technical advances into supersonic cruise aircraft configuration concepts. While the baseline concepts reflect differing design philosophy, all reflect a level of economic performance considerably above the current foreign aircraft as well as the former U.S. SST. Range-payload characteristics of the study configurating show significant improvement, while meeting environmental goals such as takeoff and landing noise and upper atmospheric pollution.

  9. 33 CFR 104.295 - Additional requirements-cruise ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ships. 104.295 Section 104.295 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... requirements—cruise ships. (a) At all MARSEC Levels, the owner or operator of a cruise ship must ensure the... cruise ship must ensure that security briefs to passengers about the specific threat are provided....

  10. 33 CFR 104.295 - Additional requirements-cruise ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ships. 104.295 Section 104.295 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... requirements—cruise ships. (a) At all MARSEC Levels, the owner or operator of a cruise ship must ensure the... cruise ship must ensure that security briefs to passengers about the specific threat are provided....

  11. 33 CFR 104.295 - Additional requirements-cruise ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ships. 104.295 Section 104.295 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... requirements—cruise ships. (a) At all MARSEC Levels, the owner or operator of a cruise ship must ensure the... cruise ship must ensure that security briefs to passengers about the specific threat are provided....

  12. 33 CFR 104.295 - Additional requirements-cruise ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ships. 104.295 Section 104.295 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... requirements—cruise ships. (a) At all MARSEC Levels, the owner or operator of a cruise ship must ensure the... cruise ship must ensure that security briefs to passengers about the specific threat are provided....

  13. 33 CFR 104.295 - Additional requirements-cruise ships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ships. 104.295 Section 104.295 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... requirements—cruise ships. (a) At all MARSEC Levels, the owner or operator of a cruise ship must ensure the... cruise ship must ensure that security briefs to passengers about the specific threat are provided....

  14. Worry and its correlates onboard cruise ships.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Katharina; Larsen, Svein; Marnburg, Einar; Øgaard, Torvald

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined job-specific worry, as well as possible predictors of such worry, namely job-specific self-efficacy and supervisor dispositionism. 133 non-supervising crew members at different departments onboard upmarket cruise ships filled in a questionnaire during one of their journeys. Findings show that employees report moderate amounts of job-specific worry and the galley crew reports significantly greater amounts of worry than the other departments. Results also indicate that cruise ship crews worry somewhat more than workers in the land based service sector. Furthermore it was found that supervisor dispositionism, i.e. supervisors with fixed mindsets, was related to greater amounts of worry among the crew. Surprisingly, job-specific self-efficacy was unrelated to job-specific worry.

  15. Tom Cruise is dangerous and irresponsible.

    PubMed

    Neill, Ushma S

    2005-08-01

    Yes, even the JCI can weigh in on celebrity gossip, but hopefully without becoming a tabloid. Rather, we want to shine a light on the reckless comments actor Tom Cruise has recently made that psychiatry is a "quack" field and his belief that postpartum depression cannot be treated pharmacologically. We can only hope that his influence as a celebrity does not hold back those in need of psychiatric treatment. PMID:16075033

  16. Tom Cruise is dangerous and irresponsible

    PubMed Central

    Neill, Ushma S.

    2005-01-01

    Yes, even the JCI can weigh in on celebrity gossip, but hopefully without becoming a tabloid. Rather, we want to shine a light on the reckless comments actor Tom Cruise has recently made that psychiatry is a “quack” field and his belief that postpartum depression cannot be treated pharmacologically. We can only hope that his influence as a celebrity does not hold back those in need of psychiatric treatment. PMID:16075033

  17. Supersonic cruise aircraft research: An annotated bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuttle, M. H.

    1980-01-01

    This bibliography, with abstracts, consists of 69 publications arranged in chronological order. The material may be useful to those interested in supersonic cruise fighter/penetrator/interceptor airplanes. Two pertinent conferences on military supercruise aircraft are considered as single items; one contains 37 papers and the other 29 papers. In addition, several related bibliographies are included which cover supersonic civil aircraft and military aircraft studies at the Langley Research Center. There is also an author index.

  18. Mars Global Surveyor: Cruising to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Glenn E.

    1997-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft was launched on November 7, 1996, and is now cruising to Mars. While the launch was excellent, and the spacecraft and its science payload are in perfect operating condition, a broken deployment damper on one of the two solar arrays has posed some concern relative to the use of that solar array as a drag surfae during aerobraking operations at Mars.

  19. A study of altitude-constrained supersonic cruise transport concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tice, David C.; Martin, Glenn L.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of restricting maximum cruise altitude on the mission performance of two supersonic transport concepts across a selection of cruise Mach numbers is studied. Results indicate that a trapezoidal wing concept can be competitive with an arrow wing depending on the altitude and Mach number constraints imposed. The higher wing loading of trapezoidal wing configurations gives them an appreciably lower average cruise altitude than the lower wing loading of the arrow wing configurations, and this advantage increases as the maximum allowable cruise altitude is reduced.

  20. Global mortality attributable to aircraft cruise emissions.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Steven R H; Britter, Rex E; Waitz, Ian A

    2010-10-01

    Aircraft emissions impact human health though degradation of air quality. The majority of previous analyses of air quality impacts from aviation have considered only landing and takeoff emissions. We show that aircraft cruise emissions impact human health over a hemispheric scale and provide the first estimate of premature mortalities attributable to aircraft emissions globally. We estimate ∼8000 premature mortalities per year are attributable to aircraft cruise emissions. This represents ∼80% of the total impact of aviation (where the total includes the effects of landing and takeoff emissions), and ∼1% of air quality-related premature mortalities from all sources. However, we note that the impact of landing and takeoff emissions is likely to be under-resolved. Secondary H(2)SO(4)-HNO(3)-NH(3) aerosols are found to dominate mortality impacts. Due to the altitude and region of the atmosphere at which aircraft emissions are deposited, the extent of transboundary air pollution is particularly strong. For example, we describe how strong zonal westerly winds aloft, the mean meridional circulation around 30-60°N, interaction of aircraft-attributable aerosol precursors with background ammonia, and high population densities in combination give rise to an estimated ∼3500 premature mortalities per year in China and India combined, despite their relatively small current share of aircraft emissions. Subsidence of aviation-attributable aerosol and aerosol precursors occurs predominantly around the dry subtropical ridge, which results in reduced wet removal of aviation-attributable aerosol. It is also found that aircraft NO(x) emissions serve to increase oxidation of nonaviation SO(2), thereby further increasing the air quality impacts of aviation. We recommend that cruise emissions be explicitly considered in the development of policies, technologies and operational procedures designed to mitigate the air quality impacts of air transportation.

  1. Marine Educational and Research Cruise in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C.; Lallemand, S.; Wu, F. T.

    2009-12-01

    During April 2009, we conducted a seismic and ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) cruise as part of the Taiwan mountain building process study, called the TAIGER. The seismic is shot by the US Columbia University’s research vessel Langseth and the OBSs, including Taiwan, French and American OBSs, are carried out by a Taiwanese student training ship, called Yu-Yin (means to educate the young people) No. 2. Both ships take a big number of research scientists and technical staff (15-25 people) to conduct the seismic and OBS survey. In addition, the Yu-Yin No. 2 ship hosts a total of 25 students, both MS and PhD graduate students, from Taiwan, France and USA. The student group consists of 13 from the National Taiwan Ocean University (Taiwan), 1 from the National Central University (Taiwan), 9 from the Montpellier University (France) and 2 from the New York State University. Nearly all the French and American students are on their very first trip to Taiwan. The research activities will be reported in the T25 Tectonophysics Section. This paper only deals with the educational events. The cruise includes two parts: the first mainly to deploy the OBSs and the second to retrieve the OBSs back to the ship. In addition, the French group arranges a field geological trip onshore Taiwan to put into their hands of the actions of Taiwan mountain building processes. The marine educational courses are filled in the daily ship time at 4 hours per day. As a result, we believe that we have achieved the followings: (1) mix the students and encourage a lovely study environment, (2) mix the teachers and enhance their teaching spectrum, (3) stay in a live and work together boat, allowing more and wider culture exchange. In the future, we certainly will use every possible opportunity to promote more Marine Educational and Research Cruises.

  2. Mars Science Laboratory Cruise Propulsion Maneuvering Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Raymond S.; Mizukami, Masahi; Barber, Todd J.

    2013-01-01

    Mars Science Laboratory "Curiosity" is NASA's most recent mission to Mars, launched in November 2011, and landed in August 2012. It is a subcompact car-sized nuclear powered rover designed for a long duration mission, with an extensive suite of science instruments. Entry, descent and landing used a unique "skycrane" concept. This report describes the propulsive maneuvering operations during cruise from Earth to Mars, to control attitudes and to target the vehicle for entry. The propulsion subsystem, mission operations, and flight performance are discussed. All trajectory control maneuvers were well within accuracy requirements, and all turns and spin corrections were nominal.

  3. Mars Mission, Viking I on Titan III Centaur Rocket Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Launch of the Mars mission Viking I payload on Titan III Centaur rocket, August 20, 1975. The interplanetary cruise phase of the Viking spacecraft lasted 310 days until Mars orbit insertion. The Viking I orbiter high-gain antenna was put into operation November 12, 1975. The high-gain antenna was repositioned daily to keep the radio beams aimed directly at the Earth.

  4. Cruise missiles should not stop START

    SciTech Connect

    Tsipis, K.

    1988-11-01

    A method for verifying a cruise-missile agreement that would be acceptable to the military, industrial, and intelligence communities in both nations must be as unintrusive as possible, while remaining immune to cheating of any significance. This is the goal of the technical solutions outlined here. The elements of a verification regime described do not require routine, intrusive, on-site visits to naval vessels, aircraft, air bases, or weapons magazines where missiles may be stored. They do not interfere with the operational readiness of the missiles, and they protect legitimate military secrets of the inspected nation. If supported by competent national technical means of verification such as those both sides already employ, with a small number of on-site challenge inspections, a combination of technical solutions and procedures such as these could be effective. They would adequately safeguard the national security and sovereignty of the participating nations while providing policymakers with the option of a treaty that limits the number of long-range nuclear cruise missiles or eliminates them completely. As discussed, there are problems that remain to be addressed, but they should not be allowed to block a U.S.-Soviet agreement significantly reducing strategic nuclear arsenals.

  5. Structural design of supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischler, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    The major efforts leading to an efficient structural design include: (1) the analysis methods used to improve the structural model optimization and compare the structural concepts, (2) the analysis and description of the fail-safe, crack growth, and residual strength studies and tests, (3) baseline structural trade studies to determine optimum structural weights including effects of geometry changes, strength, fail-safety, aeroelastics and flutter, 6AL-4V annealed titanium in structural efficiency after 70,000 hours at temperature, (5) the study of three structural models for aircraft at 2.0 Mach, 2.2 Mach, and 2.4 Mach cruise speeds, (6) the study of many structural concepts to determine their weight efficiencies; and (7) the determination of the requirements for large-scale structural development testing.

  6. Hepatitis E Outbreak on Cruise Ship

    PubMed Central

    Ijaz, Samreen; Kafatos, George; Booth, Linda; Thomas, H. Lucy; Walsh, Amanda; Ramsay, Mary; Morgan, Dilys

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, acute hepatitis E infection was confirmed in 4 passengers returning to the United Kingdom after a world cruise. Epidemiologic investigation showed that of 789 persons who provided blood samples, 195 (25%) were seropositive, 33 (4%) had immunoglobulin [Ig] M levels consistent with recent acute infection (11 of these persons were symptomatic), and 162 (21%) had IgG only, consistent with past infection. Passenger mean age was 68 years. Most (426/789, 54%) passengers were female, yet most with acute infection (25/33, 76%) were male. Sequencing of RNA from 3 case-patients identified hepatitis E virus genotype 3, closely homologous to genotype 3 viruses from Europe. Significant association with acute infection was found for being male, drinking alcohol, and consuming shellfish while on board (odds ratio 4.27, 95% confidence interval 1.23–26.94, p = 0.019). This was probably a common-source foodborne outbreak. PMID:19891860

  7. An outbreak of Cyclospora infection on a cruise ship.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, R A; Nanyonjo, R; Pingault, N M; Combs, B G; Mazzucchelli, T; Armstrong, P; Tarling, G; Dowse, G K

    2013-03-01

    In 2010, an outbreak of cyclosporiasis affected passengers and crew on two successive voyages of a cruise ship that departed from and returned to Fremantle, Australia. There were 73 laboratory-confirmed and 241 suspected cases of Cyclospora infection reported in passengers and crew from the combined cruises. A case-control study performed in crew members found that illness was associated with eating items of fresh produce served onboard the ship, but the study was unable conclusively to identify the responsible food(s). It is likely that one or more of the fresh produce items taken onboard at a south-east Asian port during the first cruise was contaminated. If fresh produce supplied to cruise ships is sourced from countries or regions where Cyclospora is endemic, robust standards of food production and hygiene should be applied to the supply chain. PMID:22687637

  8. Galileo post-Gaspra cruise and Earth-2 encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyer, P. E.; Andrews, M. M.

    1993-01-01

    This article documents DSN support for the Galileo cruise after the Oct. 1991 encounter with the asteroid Gaspra. This article also details the Earth-2 encounter and the special non-DSN support provided during the Earth-2 closest approach.

  9. An outbreak of Cyclospora infection on a cruise ship.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, R A; Nanyonjo, R; Pingault, N M; Combs, B G; Mazzucchelli, T; Armstrong, P; Tarling, G; Dowse, G K

    2013-03-01

    In 2010, an outbreak of cyclosporiasis affected passengers and crew on two successive voyages of a cruise ship that departed from and returned to Fremantle, Australia. There were 73 laboratory-confirmed and 241 suspected cases of Cyclospora infection reported in passengers and crew from the combined cruises. A case-control study performed in crew members found that illness was associated with eating items of fresh produce served onboard the ship, but the study was unable conclusively to identify the responsible food(s). It is likely that one or more of the fresh produce items taken onboard at a south-east Asian port during the first cruise was contaminated. If fresh produce supplied to cruise ships is sourced from countries or regions where Cyclospora is endemic, robust standards of food production and hygiene should be applied to the supply chain.

  10. Jet aircraft emissions during cruise: Present and future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    Forecasts of engine exhaust emissions that may be practicably achievable for future commercial aircraft operating at high altitude cruise conditions are compared to cruise emission for present day aircraft. The forecasts are based on: (1) knowledge of emission characteristics of combustors and augmentors; (2) combustion research in emission reduction technology, and (3) trends in projected engine designs for advanced subsonic or supersonic commercial aircraft. Recent progress that was made in the evolution of emissions reduction technology is discussed.

  11. Cruise ship's doctors - company employees or independent contractors?

    PubMed

    Dahl, Eilif

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, cruise companies have stated that they are in the transport business but not in the business of providing medical services to passengers. They have claimed not to be able to supervise or control the ship's medical personnel and cruise ship's doctors have therefore mostly been signed on as independent contractors, not employees. A United States court decision from 1988, Barbetta versus S/S Bermuda Star, supported this view and ruled that a ship's owner cannot be held vicariously liable for the negligence of the ship's doctor directed at the ship's passengers. Some years ago a cruise passenger fell and hit his head while boarding a trolley ashore. Hours later he was seen aboard by the ship's doctor, who sent him to a local hospital. He died 1 week later, and his daughter filed a complaint alleging the cruise company was vicariously liable for the purported negligence of the ship's doctor and nurse, under actual or apparent agency theories. A United States district court initially dismissed the case, but in November 2014 the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit disagreed and reversed. From then on independently contracted ship's doctors may be considered de facto employees of the cruise line. The author discusses the employment status of physicians working on cruise ships and reviews arguments for and against the Appellate Court's decision. PMID:27681214

  12. Cruise ship's doctors - company employees or independent contractors?

    PubMed

    Dahl, Eilif

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, cruise companies have stated that they are in the transport business but not in the business of providing medical services to passengers. They have claimed not to be able to supervise or control the ship's medical personnel and cruise ship's doctors have therefore mostly been signed on as independent contractors, not employees. A United States court decision from 1988, Barbetta versus S/S Bermuda Star, supported this view and ruled that a ship's owner cannot be held vicariously liable for the negligence of the ship's doctor directed at the ship's passengers. Some years ago a cruise passenger fell and hit his head while boarding a trolley ashore. Hours later he was seen aboard by the ship's doctor, who sent him to a local hospital. He died 1 week later, and his daughter filed a complaint alleging the cruise company was vicariously liable for the purported negligence of the ship's doctor and nurse, under actual or apparent agency theories. A United States district court initially dismissed the case, but in November 2014 the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit disagreed and reversed. From then on independently contracted ship's doctors may be considered de facto employees of the cruise line. The author discusses the employment status of physicians working on cruise ships and reviews arguments for and against the Appellate Court's decision.

  13. SAGE III

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-06-15

    SAGE III Data and Information The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas ... on the spacecraft. SAGE III produced L1 and L2 scientific data from 5/07/2002 until 12/31/2005. The flight of the second instrument is as ... Guide Documents:  Project Guide Data Products User's Guide  (PDF) Relevant Documents:  ...

  14. Data report of the DOE-sponsored northwest marine sciences group, September-October 1980 cruise

    SciTech Connect

    Postel, J. R.; Peterson, W. K.; Kitchen, J. C.; Menzies, D. W.

    1982-01-01

    This cruise was part of a continuing program to collect detailed information on the processes affecting plankton productivity, abundance, and distribution off the Washington coast, and on the chemistry, distribution, and flux of particulate material in these waters. The sampling program for this cruise was designed to determine the effect of the Quinault Canyon on the biology, chemistry, hydrography, and flux of particulate material in Washington coastal waters. The field program had three major components: Leg I, concerned with the deployment of current meters and measurement of water properties in the vicinity of Quinault Canyon; Leg II, predominantly a transect or survey phase; and Leg III, intensive sampling at a smaller number of sites to investigate important processes and rates. The intensive investigations focused on rates of important processes involved in transfer of energy and biomass in pelagic ecosystems and included measures of phytoplankton productivity, zooplankton grazing rates, microbial activity, flux of organic matter and suspended particulates, and characteristics of a near-bottom nepheloid layer. (ERB)

  15. Participation in the 1996 Arlindo Cruise to the Indonesian Seas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marra, John

    1997-01-01

    The objective of Arlindo-Productivity is to understand the factors responsible for regional differences in the response of phytoplankton and zooplankton to the SE and NW Monsoons in Indonesia. The hypothesis is that an interplay between circulation and shoaling of the nutricline, as a response to the monsoons, regulates productivity in the Indonesian Seas. My o@jective for the cruise in 1996 was to continue our collaboration with Indonesian scientists by conducting a set of hydrographic, primary production and spectral irradiance observations in the Indonesian Seas. This grant paid for shipping, travel and incidental costs associated with participation in the cruise in December, 1996. Ship costs were borne by the Indonesian Institute of Sciences as part of the collaborative effort. A plan for Arlindo in 1996 was agreed upon in March, 1996, by Indonesian scientists together with Arnold Gordon. The plan called for a 20-day physical oceanography and mooring cruise in November, 1996, followed by a 5-day bio-optical cruise. The bio-optical cruise departed from, and returned to, Ambon, and sampled in the Banda Sea. We completed a series of chlorophyll analyses, both a sampling of surface variability and depth profiles in the Banda Sea. We also completed three MER profiles for depth profiles of spectral irradiance. These data have a useful by-product in that they can be used for vicarious calibration of the OCTS sensor aboard the ADEOS satellite. As such, the data has been transmitted to NASDA in Japan for their use.

  16. Acute Gastroenteritis on Cruise Ships - United States, 2008-2014.

    PubMed

    Freeland, Amy L; Vaughan, George H; Banerjee, Shailendra N

    2016-01-15

    From 1990 to 2004, the reported rates of diarrheal disease (three or more loose stools or a greater than normal frequency in a 24-hour period) on cruise ships decreased 2.4%, from 29.2 cases per 100,000 travel days to 28.5 cases (1,2). Increased rates of acute gastroenteritis illness (diarrhea or vomiting that is associated with loose stools, bloody stools, abdominal cramps, headache, muscle aches, or fever) occurred in years that novel strains of norovirus, the most common etiologic agent in cruise ship outbreaks, emerged (3). To determine recent rates of acute gastroenteritis on cruise ships, CDC analyzed combined data for the period 2008-2014 that were submitted by cruise ships sailing in U.S. jurisdiction (defined as passenger vessels carrying ≥13 passengers and within 15 days of arriving in the United States) (4). CDC also reviewed laboratory data to ascertain the causes of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks and examined trends over time. During the study period, the rates of acute gastroenteritis per 100,000 travel days decreased among passengers from 27.2 cases in 2008 to 22.3 in 2014. Rates for crew members remained essentially unchanged (21.3 cases in 2008 and 21.6 in 2014). However, the rate of acute gastroenteritis was significantly higher in 2012 than in 2011 or 2013 for both passengers and crew members, likely related to the emergence of a novel strain of norovirus, GII.4 Sydney (5). During 2008-2014, a total of 133 cruise ship acute gastroenteritis outbreaks were reported, 95 (71%) of which had specimens available for testing. Among these, 92 (97%) were caused by norovirus, and among 80 norovirus specimens for which a genotype was identified, 59 (73.8%) were GII.4 strains. Cruise ship travelers experiencing diarrhea or vomiting should report to the ship medical center promptly so that symptoms can be assessed, proper treatment provided, and control measures implemented.

  17. Acute Gastroenteritis on Cruise Ships - United States, 2008-2014.

    PubMed

    Freeland, Amy L; Vaughan, George H; Banerjee, Shailendra N

    2016-01-01

    From 1990 to 2004, the reported rates of diarrheal disease (three or more loose stools or a greater than normal frequency in a 24-hour period) on cruise ships decreased 2.4%, from 29.2 cases per 100,000 travel days to 28.5 cases (1,2). Increased rates of acute gastroenteritis illness (diarrhea or vomiting that is associated with loose stools, bloody stools, abdominal cramps, headache, muscle aches, or fever) occurred in years that novel strains of norovirus, the most common etiologic agent in cruise ship outbreaks, emerged (3). To determine recent rates of acute gastroenteritis on cruise ships, CDC analyzed combined data for the period 2008-2014 that were submitted by cruise ships sailing in U.S. jurisdiction (defined as passenger vessels carrying ≥13 passengers and within 15 days of arriving in the United States) (4). CDC also reviewed laboratory data to ascertain the causes of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks and examined trends over time. During the study period, the rates of acute gastroenteritis per 100,000 travel days decreased among passengers from 27.2 cases in 2008 to 22.3 in 2014. Rates for crew members remained essentially unchanged (21.3 cases in 2008 and 21.6 in 2014). However, the rate of acute gastroenteritis was significantly higher in 2012 than in 2011 or 2013 for both passengers and crew members, likely related to the emergence of a novel strain of norovirus, GII.4 Sydney (5). During 2008-2014, a total of 133 cruise ship acute gastroenteritis outbreaks were reported, 95 (71%) of which had specimens available for testing. Among these, 92 (97%) were caused by norovirus, and among 80 norovirus specimens for which a genotype was identified, 59 (73.8%) were GII.4 strains. Cruise ship travelers experiencing diarrhea or vomiting should report to the ship medical center promptly so that symptoms can be assessed, proper treatment provided, and control measures implemented. PMID:26766396

  18. FRV Deleware II cruise, 30 June to 7 July 1978. Data report

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, W.; von Bock, K.

    1982-05-01

    This was the last of three companion cruises designed to provide broad-scale coverage of seasonal shelf conditions occurring between the April and October investigations undertaken aboard ATLANTIS II cruises 99 and 104.

  19. An economic study of an advanced technology supersonic cruise vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, C. L.; Williams, L. J.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of the methods used and the results of an economic study of an advanced technology supersonic cruise vehicle. This vehicle was designed for a maximum range of 4000 n.mi. at a cruise speed of Mach 2.7 and carrying 292 passengers. The economic study includes the estimation of aircraft unit cost, operating cost, and idealized cash flow and discounted cash flow return on investment. In addition, it includes a sensitivity study on the effects of unit cost, manufacturing cost, production quantity, average trip length, fuel cost, load factor, and fare on the aircraft's economic feasibility.

  20. Performance and benefits of an advanced technology supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzsimmons, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    The results of four years research on technology are synthesized in an advanced supersonic cruise aircraft design. Comparisons are presented with the former United States SST and the British-French Concorde, including aerodynamic efficiency, propulsion efficiency, weight efficiency, and community noise. Selected trade study results are presented on the subjects of design cruise Mach number, engine cycle selection, and noise suppression. The critical issue of program timing is addressed and some observations made regarding the impact that timing has on engine selection and minimization of program risk.

  1. Some design considerations for supersonic cruise mixed compression inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowditch, D. N.

    1973-01-01

    A mixed compression inlet designed for supersonic cruise has very demanding requirements for high total pressure recovery and low bleed and cowl drag. However, since the optimum inlet for supersonic cruise performance may have other undesirable characteristics, it is necessary to establish trade-offs between inlet performance and other inlet characteristics. Some of these trade-offs between the amount of internal compression, aerodynamic performance and angle-of-attack tolerance are reviewed. Techniques for analysis of boundary layer control and subsonic diffuser flow are discussed.

  2. 14 CFR 91.179 - IFR cruising altitude or flight level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false IFR cruising altitude or flight level. 91... Instrument Flight Rules § 91.179 IFR cruising altitude or flight level. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC... level cruising flight in controlled airspace shall maintain the altitude or flight level assigned...

  3. 14 CFR 91.179 - IFR cruising altitude or flight level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false IFR cruising altitude or flight level. 91... Instrument Flight Rules § 91.179 IFR cruising altitude or flight level. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC... level cruising flight in controlled airspace shall maintain the altitude or flight level assigned...

  4. 14 CFR 91.179 - IFR cruising altitude or flight level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false IFR cruising altitude or flight level. 91... Instrument Flight Rules § 91.179 IFR cruising altitude or flight level. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC... level cruising flight in controlled airspace shall maintain the altitude or flight level assigned...

  5. 33 CFR 165.1154 - Security Zones; Cruise Ships, San Pedro Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zones; Cruise Ships, San... § 165.1154 Security Zones; Cruise Ships, San Pedro Bay, California. (a) Definition. “Cruise ship” as... anchored at a designated anchorage either inside the Federal breakwaters bounding San Pedro Bay or...

  6. 33 CFR 165.1154 - Security Zones; Cruise Ships, San Pedro Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security Zones; Cruise Ships, San... § 165.1154 Security Zones; Cruise Ships, San Pedro Bay, California. (a) Definition. “Cruise ship” as... anchored at a designated anchorage either inside the Federal breakwaters bounding San Pedro Bay or...

  7. 33 CFR 165.1157 - Security Zone; Cruise Ships, Santa Barbara, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security Zone; Cruise Ships... § 165.1157 Security Zone; Cruise Ships, Santa Barbara, California. (a) Location. The following areas are... cruise ship located within 3 nautical miles of the Santa Barbara Harbor Breakwater Light (Light...

  8. 33 CFR 165.1157 - Security Zone; Cruise Ships, Santa Barbara, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security Zone; Cruise Ships... § 165.1157 Security Zone; Cruise Ships, Santa Barbara, California. (a) Location. The following areas are... cruise ship located within 3 nautical miles of the Santa Barbara Harbor Breakwater Light (Light...

  9. Welding III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allegheny County Community Coll., Pittsburgh, PA.

    Instructional objectives and performance requirements are outlined in this course guide for Welding III, an advanced course in arc welding offered at the Community College of Allegheny County to provide students with the proficiency necessary for industrial certification. The course objectives, which are outlined first, specify that students will…

  10. Learning to Work on a Cruise Ship: Accounts from Bali

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artini, Luh Putu; Nilan, Pam

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at motivations and both formal and informal learning contexts for well-educated young Balinese from poorer areas who enrol in cruise ship training colleges. The major motivations were getting a high income and helping the family. While basic hospitality and tourism skills are acquired, trainees also named other capacities such…

  11. 16 CFR 309.22 - Determining estimated cruising range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... with the provisions of 40 CFR part 600 (other than electric vehicles), you must possess a reasonable... CFR part 600 (other than electric vehicles), you must possess a reasonable basis, consisting of... cruising range values for dedicated vehicles required to comply with the provisions of 40 CFR part 600...

  12. 16 CFR 309.22 - Determining estimated cruising range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... cruising range values for dedicated vehicles required to comply with the provisions of 40 CFR part 600 are...-1993-05-20, “Electric Vehicle Energy Consumption and Range Test Procedure.” This incorporation by reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1...

  13. 16 CFR 309.22 - Determining estimated cruising range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... cruising range values for dedicated vehicles required to comply with the provisions of 40 CFR part 600 are... set forth in Society of Automotive Engineers (“SAE”) Surface Vehicle Recommended Practice SAE J1634... reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1...

  14. 16 CFR 309.22 - Determining estimated cruising range.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... cruising range values for dedicated vehicles required to comply with the provisions of 40 CFR part 600 are... reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... with the provisions of 40 CFR part 600 (other than electric vehicles), you must possess a...

  15. Yet More Visualized JAMSTEC Cruise and Dive Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomiyama, T.; Hase, H.; Fukuda, K.; Saito, H.; Kayo, M.; Matsuda, S.; Azuma, S.

    2014-12-01

    Every year, JAMSTEC performs about a hundred of research cruises and numerous dive surveys using its research vessels and submersibles. JAMSTEC provides data and samples obtained during these cruises and dives to international users through a series of data sites on the Internet. The "DARWIN (http://www.godac.jamstec.go.jp/darwin/e)" data site disseminates cruise and dive information. On DARWIN, users can search interested cruises and dives with a combination search form or an interactive tree menu, and find lists of observation data as well as links to surrounding databases. Document catalog, physical sample databases, and visual archive of dive surveys (e. g. in http://www.godac.jamstec.go.jp/jmedia/portal/e) are directly accessible from the lists. In 2014, DARWIN experienced an update, which was arranged mainly for enabling on-demand data visualization. Using login users' functions, users can put listed data items into the virtual basket and then trim, plot and download the data. The visualization tools help users to quickly grasp the quality and characteristics of observation data. Meanwhile, JAMSTEC launched a new data site named "JDIVES (http://www.godac.jamstec.go.jp/jdives/e)" to visualize data and sample information obtained by dive surveys. JDIVES shows tracks of dive surveys on the "Google Earth Plugin" and diagrams of deep-sea environmental data such as temperature, salinity, and depth. Submersible camera images and links to associated databases are placed along the dive tracks. The JDVIES interface enables users to perform so-called virtual dive surveys, which can help users to understand local geometries of dive spots and geological settings of associated data and samples. It is not easy for individual researchers to organize a huge amount of information recovered from each cruise and dive. The improved visibility and accessibility of JAMSTEC databases are advantageous not only for second-hand users, but also for on-board researchers themselves.

  16. Evolving physically simulated flying creatures for efficient cruising.

    PubMed

    Shim, Yoon-Sik; Kim, Chang-Hun

    2006-01-01

    The body-brain coevolution of aerial life forms has not been developed as far as aquatic or terrestrial locomotion in the field of artificial life. We are studying physically simulated 3D flying creatures by evolving both wing shapes and their controllers. A creature's wing is modeled as a number of articulated cylinders, connected by triangular films (patagia). The wing structure and its motor controllers for cruising flight are generated by an evolutionary algorithm within a simulated aerodynamic environment. The most energy-efficient cruising speed and the lift and drag coefficients of each flier are calculated from its morphological characteristics and used in the fitness evaluation. To observe a wide range of creature size, the evolution is run separately for creatures categorized into three species by body weight. The resulting creatures vary in size from pigeons to pterosaurs, with various wing configurations. We discuss the characteristics of shape and motion of the evolved creatures, including flight stability and Strouhal number.

  17. [MORBIDITY OF SUBMARINE CREW SAILORS IN LONG-DISTANCE CRUISES].

    PubMed

    Myznikov, I L; Burtsev, N N; Bondarenko N V; Khamidullina, A Ya

    2015-01-01

    Morbidity among the personnel of a Kola-based (beyond the Arctic circle) atomic (ASM) and diesel-powered (DSM) submarines in the course of long-distance cruises in different waters of the world ocean was studied. Statistics was collected from the reports of submarine medical officers since 1969. Levels and causes of morbidity were analyzed. According to the data of many years' observations, within the structure of primary diseases of military contractors on cruises the leading place has been occupied by respiratory disorders followed by skin and subcutaneous fat problems, and digestive diseases. Incidence of chronic diseases among ASM and DSM personnel was evaluated. The authors raise the issue of dental care quality provided to submariners. PMID:26554134

  18. Minimum energy, liquid hydrogen supersonic cruise vehicle study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, G. D.; Morris, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The potential was examined of hydrogen-fueled supersonic vehicles designed for cruise at Mach 2.7 and at Mach 2.2. The aerodynamic, weight, and propulsion characteristics of a previously established design of a LH2 fueled, Mach 2.7 supersonic cruise vehicle (SCV) were critically reviewed and updated. The design of a Mach 2.2 SCV was established on a corresponding basis. These baseline designs were then studied to determine the potential of minimizing energy expenditure in performing their design mission, and to explore the effect of fuel price and noise restriction on their design and operating performance. The baseline designs of LH2 fueled aircraft were than compared with equivalent designs of jet A (conventional hydrocarbon) fueled SCV's. Use of liquid hydrogen for fuel for the subject aircraft provides significant advantages in performance, cost, noise, pollution, sonic boom, and energy utilization.

  19. Relative risk assessment of cruise ships biosolids disposal alternatives.

    PubMed

    Avellaneda, Pedro M; Englehardt, James D; Olascoaga, Josefina; Babcock, Elizabeth A; Brand, Larry; Lirman, Diego; Rogge, Wolfgang F; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Tchobanoglous, George

    2011-10-01

    A relative risk assessment of biosolids disposal alternatives for cruise ships is presented in this paper. The area of study encompasses islands and marine waters of the Caribbean Sea. The objective was to evaluate relative human health and ecological risks of (a) dewatering/incineration, (b) landing the solids for disposal, considering that in some countries land-disposed solids might be discharged in the near-shore environment untreated, and (c) deep ocean disposal. Input to the Bayesian assessment consisted of professional judgment based on available literature and modeling information, data on constituent concentrations in cruise ship biosolids, and simulations of constituent concentrations in Caribbean waters assuming ocean disposal. Results indicate that human health and ecological risks associated with land disposal and shallow ocean disposal are higher than those of the deep ocean disposal and incineration. For incineration, predicted ecological impacts were lower relative to deep ocean disposal before considering potential impacts of carbon emissions.

  20. Heavy ion observations by MARIE in cruise phase and Marsorbit

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kerry T.; Cleghorn, Timothy F.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Pinsky, Lawrence S.; Zeitlin, Cary

    2004-12-01

    The charged particle spectrum for nuclei from protons to neon, (charge Z = 10) was observed during the cruise phase and orbit around Mars by the MARIE charged particle spectrometer on the Odyssey spacecraft. The cruise data were taken between April 23, 2001 and mid-August 2001. The Mars orbit data were taken March 5, 2002 through May 2002 and are scheduled to continue until August 2004. Charge peaks are clearly separated for charges up to Z = 10. Especially prominent are the carbon and oxygen peaks, with boron and nitrogen also clearly visible. Although heavy ions are much less abundant than protons in the cosmic ray environment, it is important to determine their abundances because their ionization energy losses (proportional to Z2) are far more dangerous to humans and to instruments. Thus the higher charged nuclei make a significant contribution to dose and dose equivalent received in space. Results of the charged particle spectrum measurements will be reported.

  1. Overview of NASA's Supersonic Cruise Efficiency - Propulsion Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeBonis, James R.

    2009-01-01

    The research in Supersonic Cruise Efficiency Propulsion (SCE-P) Technical Challenge area of NASA's Supersonics project is discussed. The research in SCE-P is being performed to enable efficient supersonic flight over land. Research elements in this area include: Advance Inlet Concepts, High Performance/Wider Operability Fan and Compressor, Advanced Nozzle Concepts, and Intelligent Sensors/Actuators. The research under each of these elements is briefly discussed.

  2. An autonomous rendezvous and docking system using cruise missile technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, ED; Nicholson, Bruce

    1991-01-01

    In November 1990 General Dynamics demonstrated an AR&D system for members of the Strategic Avionics Technology Working Group. This simulation utilized prototype hardware derived from the Cruise Missile and Centaur avionics systems. The object of this proof of concept demonstration was to show that all the accuracy, reliability, and operational requirements established for a spacecraft to dock with Space Station Freedom could be met by the proposed AR&D system.

  3. Environmental effects of an aircraft at cruise: An update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundararaman, N.

    1980-01-01

    The status of the calculations of ozone change due to high altitude aircraft is critically reviewed and important areas of uncertainty identified. Laboratory determinations of chemical reaction rates and modeling refinements show that the effect of cruise altitude emissions on stratospheric ozone has changed from one of ozone decrease to one of slight increase. It is concluded that the uncertainties in the present understanding of the effects of high altitude aircraft are such as to warrant continued studies.

  4. Impact of cruise ship emissions in Victoria, BC, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poplawski, Karla; Setton, Eleanor; McEwen, Bryan; Hrebenyk, Dan; Graham, Mark; Keller, Peter

    2011-02-01

    Characterization of the effects of cruise ship emissions on local air quality is scarce. Our objective was to investigate community level concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) and sulphur dioxide (SO 2) associated with cruise ships in James Bay, Victoria, British Columbia (BC), Canada. Data obtained over four years (2005-2008) at the nearest air quality network site located 3.5 km from the study area, a CALPUFF modeling exercise (2007), and continuous measurements taken in the James Bay community over a three-month period during the 2009 cruise ship season were examined. Concentrations of PM 2.5 and nitrogen oxide (NO) were elevated on weekends with ships present with winds from the direction of the terminal to the monitoring station. SO 2 displayed the greatest impact from the presence of cruise ships in the area. Network data showed peaks in hourly SO 2 when ships were in port during all years. The CALPUFF modeling analysis found predicted 24-hour SO 2 levels to exceed World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines of 20 μg m -3 for approximately 3% of 24-hour periods, with a maximum 24-hour concentration in the community of 41 μg m -3; however, the CALPUFF model underestimated concentrations when predicted and measured concentrations were compared at the network site. Continuous monitoring at the location in the community predicted to experience highest SO 2 concentrations measured a maximum 24-hour concentration of 122 μg m -3 and 16% of 24-hour periods were above the WHO standard. The 10-minute concentrations of SO 2 reached up to 599 μg m -3 and exceeded the WHO 10-minute SO 2 guideline (500 μg m -3) for 0.03% of 10-minute periods. No exceedences of BC Provincial or Canadian guidelines or standards were observed.

  5. Texas Teacher at Sea on the BOLIVAR Project Geophysical Cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keelan, M.; Sullivan, S.; Ellins, K.

    2004-12-01

    UTIG provides K-12 teachers with research experiences in field programs that involve UTIG scientists. I am a 6th-9th grade science teacher in Van Vleck, Texas and in April 2004 I sailed to the southeastern Caribbean aboard the R/V Maurice Ewing as a member of the BOLIVAR Project alongside scientists from the U.S. and Venezuela. Our goal was collect seismic data to image the crust and mantle beneath the Caribbean as part of a study of the tectonic processes accompanying different stages of the Caribbean arc/South America continental collision process. Throughout the 52-day cruise I worked as a watch stander, interpreted newly collected seismic reflection data, helped deploy the streamer, maintained a cruise blog (a chronological journal weblog documenting personal thoughts about my experience), spoke with students in Texas with the telephone on loan from Iridium Satellite Solutions, and responded to email inquiries from shore-based students. It was hard work, but most importantly, a voyage of discovery. With guidance from scientists and GK-12 Fellows at UTIG, I am using my experience and the data collected as the basis for K-12 curriculum resources, including learning activities and a video documentary. Support for my participation and post-cruise activities was provided by the NSF and the Trull Foundation in Texas. If given the opportunity to do this again, I would, without reservation!

  6. What Cruising Infants Understand about Support for Locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Sarah E.; Chan, Gladys L. Y.; Adolph, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    “Cruising” infants can only walk using external support to augment their balance. We examined cruisers’ understanding of support for upright locomotion under four conditions: cruising over a wooden handrail at chest height, a large gap in the handrail, a wobbly unstable handrail, and an ill positioned low handrail. Infants distinguished among the support properties of the handrails with differential attempts to cruise and handrail-specific forms of haptic exploration and gait modifications. They consistently attempted the wood handrail, rarely attempted the gap, and occasionally attempted the low and wobbly handrails. On the wood and gap handrails, attempt rates matched the probability of cruising successfully; but on the low and wobbly handrails, attempt rates under- and over-estimated the probability of success, respectively. Haptic exploration was most frequent and varied on the wobbly handrail, and gait modifications—including previously undocumented “knee cruising”—were most frequent and effective on the low handrail. Results are discussed in terms of developmental changes in the meaning of support. PMID:25221439

  7. The ESASSI-08 cruise in the South Scotia Ridge region: Water masses, currents, and the ASF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, M.; Gomis, D.; Flexas, M. M.; Jordà, G.; Orsi, A. H.

    2009-04-01

    The ESASSI-08 oceanographic cruise carried out in January 2008 was the major milestone of ESASSI, the Spanish component of SASSI (a core project of the International Polar Year devoted to study the shelf-slope exchanges in different locations of Antarctica). The specific objectives of ESASSI, the sampling strategy and the overall distribution of the main variables across the 11 sections covered by the cruise are presented in a poster. Here we focus on three specific issues: i) the observation of strong tidal currents over some of the sampled slopes; ii) the path of the Antarctic Slope Front (ASF) over the SSR; and iii) the outflow of dense, ventilated water from the Weddell Sea into the South Scotia Sea. The main results are: i) Strong tidal currents with a significant diurnal component were observed over the southern slope of the SSR. Three tidal models are compared with the observations and used to de-tide ADCP currents. ii) The signature of the ASF is clearly detected on the southern slopes of the SSR (on the Weddell Sea flank). Over the northern slopes (the Scotia Sea flank), however, only weak signatures of frontal structures are observed; an in-depth biochemical analysis will be required to link the structures observed over the two flanks of the SSR. What seems clear is that the ASF does not extend further than Elephant Island, since southwestward of that island the shelf and the slope are fully occupied by Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) from the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. iii) The shallower component of Weddell Sea Deep Water (Upper WSDW) flows over the SSR and pours into the Scotia Sea except to the east of Elephant Island, where the channels are less than 1500 m deep. The densest component of WSDW (Lower WSDW) is observed at both flanks of the SSR, but again a more detailed analysis of biochemical data will be required to prove a direct flux of this water mass across the SSR. Weddell Sea Bottom Water (WSBW) is not observed in any of the sampled sections.

  8. Federated provenance of oceanographic research cruises: from metadata to data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Rob; Leadbetter, Adam; Shepherd, Adam

    2016-04-01

    The World Wide Web Consortium's Provenance Data Model and associated Semantic Web ontology (PROV-O) have created much interest in the Earth and Space Science Informatics community (Ma et al., 2014). Indeed, PROV-O has recently been posited as an upper ontology for the alignment of various data models (Cox, 2015). Similarly, PROV-O has been used as the building blocks of a data release lifecycle ontology (Leadbetter & Buck, 2015). In this presentation we show that the alignment between different local data descriptions of an oceanographic research cruise can be achieved through alignment with PROV-O and that descriptions of the funding bodies, organisations and researchers involved in a cruise and its associated data release lifecycle can be modelled within a PROV-O based environment. We show that, at a first-order, this approach is scalable by presenting results from three endpoints (the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, USA; the British Oceanographic Data Centre at the National Oceanography Centre, UK; and the Marine Institute, Ireland). Current advances in ontology engineering, provide pathways to resolving reasoning issues from varying perspectives on implementing PROV-O. This includes the use of the Information Object design pattern where such edge cases as research cruise scheduling efforts are considered. PROV-O describes only things which have happened, but the Information Object design pattern allows for the description of planned research cruises through its statement that the local data description is not the the entity itself (in this case the planned research cruise) and therefore the local data description itself can be described using the PROV-O model. In particular, we present the use of the data lifecycle ontology to show the connection between research cruise activities and their associated datasets, and the publication of those data sets online with Digital Object Identifiers and

  9. Lesbians and Gay Men's Vacation Motivations, Perceptions, and Constraints: A Study of Cruise Vacation Choice.

    PubMed

    Weeden, Clare; Lester, Jo-Anne; Jarvis, Nigel

    2016-08-01

    This study explores the push-pull vacation motivations of gay male and lesbian consumers and examines how these underpin their perceptions and purchase constraints of a mainstream and LGBT(1) cruise. Findings highlight a complex vacation market. Although lesbians and gay men share many of the same travel motivations as their heterosexual counterparts, the study reveals sexuality is a significant variable in their perception of cruise vacations, which further influences purchase constraints and destination choice. Gay men have more favorable perceptions than lesbians of both mainstream and LGBT cruises. The article recommends further inquiry into the multifaceted nature of motivations, perception, and constraints within the LGBT market in relation to cruise vacations.

  10. [Medicine aboard cruise ships--law insurance specifics].

    PubMed

    Ottomann, C; Frenzel, R; Muehlberger, T

    2013-04-01

    The booming cruise industry, associated with ships with more passengers and crew on board, results in growing medical needs for the ship doctor. The ship's doctor insurance policy includes different jurisdictions, namely national law, international law, tort law, insurance law and labor law. In addition, international agreements must be taken into account, which complicates the design of an adequate insurance policy. Equally high are the costs and defense costs for the ship's doctor in case of liability. In order to limit the liability for all parties is to ask for appropriately qualified medical staff, hired on board.

  11. Computer assessment of electromagnetic means of detecting approaching cruise missiles

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, G.J.; King, R.J.; Lytle, R.J.; Miller, E.K.

    1983-11-01

    Numerical modeling of Beverage and monopole antennas shows the fields of both antennas to have a similar dependence on range and height above ground, with the Beverage antenna having slightly greater gain in the forward direction due to its directivity. The use of multiple Beverage antennas closely spaced was found to increase the efficiency and gain in the forward direction for short Beverage antennas. For the longer antenna considered for the cruise missile radar, the decrease in directivity for two closely spaced antennas reduced the forward gain.

  12. Maneuver Design for the Juno Mission: Inner Cruise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlak, Thomas A.; Frauenholz, Raymond B.; Bordi, John J.; Kangas, Julie A.; Helfrich, Clifford E.

    2014-01-01

    The Juno spacecraft launched in August 2011 and, following a successful Earth flyby in October 2013, is on course for a nominal orbit insertion at Jupiter in July 2016. This paper examines the design and execution of deterministic and statistical trajectory correction maneuvers during the first approximately 27 months of post-launch operations that defined the "Inner Cruise" phase of the Juno mission. Topics of emphasis include the two deep space maneuvers, Earth flyby altitude biasing strategy, and the sequence of trajectory correction maneuvers executed in the weeks prior to the successful Earth gravity assist.

  13. Cruise aerodynamics of USB nacelle/wing geometric variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braden, J. A.; Hancock, J. P.; Burdges, K. P.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental results are presented on aerodynamic effects of geometric variations in upper surface blown nacelle configurations at high speed cruise conditions. Test data include both force and pressure measurements on two and three dimensional models powered by upper surface blowing nacelles of varying geometries. Experimental results are provided on variations in nozzle aspect ratio, nozzle boattail angle, and multiple nacelle installations. The nacelles are ranked according to aerodynamic drag penalties as well as overall installed drag penalties. Sample effects and correlations are shown for data obtained with the pressure model.

  14. Flying qualities design criteria applicable to supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chalk, C. R.

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive set of flying qualities design criteria was prepared for use in the supersonic cruise research program. The framework for stating the design criteria is established and design criteria are included which address specific failures, approach to dangerous flight conditions, flight at high angle of attack, longitudinal and lateral directional stability and control, the primary flight control system, and secondary flight controls. Examples are given of lateral directional design criteria limiting lateral accelerations at the cockpit, time to roll through 30 deg of bank, and time delay in the pilot's command path. Flight test data from the Concorde certification program are used to substantiate a number of the proposed design criteria.

  15. Engine/airframe compatibility studies for supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Technology assessment studies were conducted to provide an updated technology base from which an advanced supersonic cruise aircraft can be produced with a high probability of success. An assessment of the gains available through the application of advanced technologies in aerodynamics, propulsion, acoustics, structures, materials, and active controls is developed. The potential market and range requirements as well as economic factors including payload, speed, airline operating costs, and airline profitability are analyzed. The conceptual design of the baseline aircraft to be used in assessing the technology requirements is described.

  16. Variability of cloudiness at airline cruise altitudes from GASP measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasperson, W. H.; Nastrom, G. D.; Davis, R. E.; Holdeman, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    Additional statistics relating to the climatology of cloud cover at airline cruise altitudes are presented. The data were obtained between 1975 and 1979 from commercial airliners participating in the Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP). The statistics describe the seasonal, latitudinal and altitudinal variation in cloudiness parameters as well as differences in the high-altitude cloud structure attributed to cyclone and convective-cloud generation processes. The latitudinal distribution of cloud cover derived form the GASP data was found to agree with high-altitude satellite observations. The relationships between three different measures of cloudiness and the relative vorticity at high altitudes is also discussed.

  17. NASA/Navy life/cruise fan preliminary design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Preliminary design studies were performed to define a turbotip lift/cruise fan propulsion system for a Navy multimission aircraft. The fan is driven by the exhausts of the YJ97-GE-100 turbojet or a 20 percent Growth J97 configuration as defined during the studies. The LCF459 fan configuration defined has a tip diameter of 1.50 meters (59.0 inches) and develops a design point thrust of 75,130 N (16,890 lbs) at a fan pressure ratio of 1.319. The fan has an estimated weight of 386 kg (850 lbs). Trade studies performed to define the selected configuration are described.

  18. 14 CFR 91.159 - VFR cruising altitude or flight level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false VFR cruising altitude or flight level. 91... Flight Rules § 91.159 VFR cruising altitude or flight level. Except while holding in a holding pattern of... flight more than 3,000 feet above the surface shall maintain the appropriate altitude or flight...

  19. 14 CFR 91.159 - VFR cruising altitude or flight level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false VFR cruising altitude or flight level. 91... Flight Rules § 91.159 VFR cruising altitude or flight level. Except while holding in a holding pattern of... flight more than 3,000 feet above the surface shall maintain the appropriate altitude or flight...

  20. 14 CFR 91.159 - VFR cruising altitude or flight level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false VFR cruising altitude or flight level. 91... Flight Rules § 91.159 VFR cruising altitude or flight level. Except while holding in a holding pattern of... flight more than 3,000 feet above the surface shall maintain the appropriate altitude or flight...

  1. 14 CFR 91.159 - VFR cruising altitude or flight level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false VFR cruising altitude or flight level. 91... Flight Rules § 91.159 VFR cruising altitude or flight level. Except while holding in a holding pattern of... flight more than 3,000 feet above the surface shall maintain the appropriate altitude or flight...

  2. 76 FR 30374 - Cruise Vessel Safety and Security Act of 2010, Available Technology

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Cruise Vessel Safety and Security Act of 2010, Available Technology AGENCY: Coast... public comment on the availability of technology to meet certain provisions of the Cruise Vessel Security and Safety Act of 2010(CVSSA), specifically related to video recording and overboard...

  3. 76 FR 31350 - Cruise Vessel Safety and Security Act of 2010, Available Technology

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-31

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Cruise Vessel Safety and Security Act of 2010, Available Technology AGENCY: Coast... technology to meet certain provisions of the Cruise Vessel Security and Safety Act of 2010(CVSSA), specifically related to video recording and overboard detection technologies. The Notice of request...

  4. 29 CFR 788.8 - “Cruising, surveying, or felling timber.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false âCruising, surveying, or felling timber.â 788.8 Section 788... timber.” Employees engaged in “cruising * * * timber” include all those members of a field crew whose purpose is to estimate and report on the volume of marketable timber. Employees engaged in...

  5. 29 CFR 788.8 - “Cruising, surveying, or felling timber.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âCruising, surveying, or felling timber.â 788.8 Section 788... timber.” Employees engaged in “cruising * * * timber” include all those members of a field crew whose purpose is to estimate and report on the volume of marketable timber. Employees engaged in...

  6. NASA/Navy lift/cruise fan. Phase 1: Design summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The initial design of the LCF459 lift/cruise fan system is documented. The LCF459 is a 1.5 meter diameter turbotip lift/cruise fan whose design point pressure ratio is 1.32 at a tip speed of 353 meters per second. The gas source for the tip turbine is the YJ97-GE-100 engine.

  7. 33 CFR 165.1108 - Security Zones; Cruise Ships, Port of San Diego, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Port of San Diego, California. 165.1108 Section 165.1108 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.1108 Security Zones; Cruise Ships, Port of San Diego, California. (a) Definition. “Cruise ship” as... or at a port of call in the San Diego port. (b) Location. The following areas are security zones:...

  8. 33 CFR 165.1108 - Security Zones; Cruise Ships, Port of San Diego, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Diego. (c) Regulations. Under regulations in 33 CFR part 165, subpart D, a person or vessel may not..., Port of San Diego, California. 165.1108 Section 165.1108 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.1108 Security Zones; Cruise Ships, Port of San Diego, California. (a) Definition. “Cruise ship”...

  9. 76 FR 50710 - Security Zones; Cruise Ships, San Pedro Bay, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zones; Cruise Ships, San Pedro Bay, CA AGENCY... CFR 165.1154, Security Zones; Cruise Ships, San Pedro Bay, California, by providing a...

  10. 75 FR 82243 - Security Zones; Moored Cruise Ships, Port of San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zones; Moored Cruise Ships, Port of San Diego... a 100 yard radius around any cruise ship that is moored at any berth within the San Diego port area inside the sea buoys bounding the Port of San Diego. This temporary final rule is necessary to...

  11. Bibliography of Supersonic Cruise Research (SCR) program from 1980 to 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, S.

    1984-01-01

    A bibliography for the Supersonic Cruise Research (SCR) and Variable Cycle Engine (VCE) Programs is presented. An annotated bibliography for the last 123 formal reports and a listing of titles for 44 articles and presentations is included. The studies identifies technologies for producing efficient supersonic commercial jet transports for cruise Mach numbers from 2.0 to 2.7.

  12. 33 CFR 105.290 - Additional requirements-cruise ship terminals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Additional requirements-cruise ship terminals. 105.290 Section 105.290 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Additional requirements—cruise ship terminals. At all MARSEC Levels, in coordination with a vessel moored...

  13. 76 FR 5732 - Security Zones; Cruise Ships, Port of San Diego, CA; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... FR 4833), regarding security zones for cruise ships in the Port of San Diego, California. This..., telephone 202-366-9826. Correction In the notice of proposed rulemaking FR Doc. 2011-1804, beginning on page... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zones; Cruise Ships, Port of San Diego,...

  14. 33 CFR 105.290 - Additional requirements-cruise ship terminals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Additional requirements-cruise ship terminals. 105.290 Section 105.290 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Additional requirements—cruise ship terminals. At all MARSEC Levels, in coordination with a vessel moored...

  15. 33 CFR 105.290 - Additional requirements-cruise ship terminals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional requirements-cruise ship terminals. 105.290 Section 105.290 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Additional requirements—cruise ship terminals. At all MARSEC Levels, in coordination with a vessel moored...

  16. 77 FR 1025 - Security Zones; Cruise Ships, San Pedro Bay, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... Ships, San Pedro Bay, CA in the Federal Register (76 FR 50710). We received no comments on the proposed... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zones; Cruise Ships, San Pedro Bay, CA AGENCY... for cruise ships visiting San Pedro Bay, California by providing a common description of all...

  17. 33 CFR 105.290 - Additional requirements-cruise ship terminals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional requirements-cruise ship terminals. 105.290 Section 105.290 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Additional requirements—cruise ship terminals. At all MARSEC Levels, in coordination with a vessel moored...

  18. 33 CFR 105.290 - Additional requirements-cruise ship terminals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional requirements-cruise ship terminals. 105.290 Section 105.290 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Additional requirements—cruise ship terminals. At all MARSEC Levels, in coordination with a vessel moored...

  19. Hydrographic data from R/V endeavor cruise #90

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stalcup, M. D.; Joyce, T. M.; Barbour, R. L.; Dunworth, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    The final cruise of the NSF sponsored Warm Core Rings Program studied a Warm Core Ring (WCR) in the Fall of 1982 as it formed from a large northward meander of the Gulf Stream. This ring, known as 82-H or the eighth ring identified in 1982, formed over the New England Seamounts near 39.5 deg N, 65 deg W. Surveys using Expendable Bathythermographs, Conductivity-Temperature-Depth-Oxygen stations and Doppler Current Profiling provide a look at the genesis of a WCR. These measurements reveal that WCR 82-H separated from the Gulf Stream sometime between October 2-5. This ring was a typical WCR with a diameter of about 200 km and speeds in the high velocity core of the 175 cm/sec. Satellite imagery of 82-H following the cruise showed that it drifted WSW in the Slope Water region at almost 9 km/day, had at least one interaction with the Gulf Stream and was last observed on February 8, 1983 at 39 deg N, 72 deg W.

  20. Nitrous oxide in the tropical Atlantic Ocean: first results from the german SOLAS cruise M55

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, S.; Bange, H.; Wallace, D.

    2003-04-01

    NITROUS OXIDE IN THE TROPICAL ATLANTIC: FIRST RESULTS FROM THE GERMAN SOLAS CRUISE M55 S. Walter, H.W. Bange, D.W.R. Wallace Marine Biogeochemistry Division, Institute for Marine Research, Düsternbrooker Weg 20, 24105 Kiel, Germany swalter@ifm.uni-kiel.de Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an atmospheric trace gas which received increased attention in recent years because of its relevance for the Earth's climate and stratospheric chemistry. N2O is formed during microbial processes such as nitrification and denitrification in considerable amounts in the subsurface layer of the ocean. Thus, oceanic emissions of N2O play a major role for its atmospheric budget. However, measurements of N2O in the tropical Atlantic are sparse. The spatial distribution of N2O in the tropical Atlantic Ocean was determined during the first German SOLAS (Surface Ocean - Lower Atmosphere Study) cruise Meteor 55 from Willemstad (Curacao, Netherlands Antilles) to Douala (Cameroon) from 12 October to 17 November 2002. At 21 selected stations about 1200 N2O concentrations measurements were performed with a GC/ECD headspace technique. The mean relative error of the measurements was about 2%. Four general features are visible from the N2O depth profiles: (i) N2O is supersaturated throughout the water column. (ii) There is a considerable accumulation of N2O below the euphotic zone with maximum values at 250-400m water depth associated with lower oxygen concentrations. (iii) An increasing trend in the maximum N2O concentrations from the western to the eastern Atlantic which is inversely correlated with dissolved oxygen values in the oxygen minimum zone. (iv) An increasing trend in the N2O concentrations from the western to the eastern Atlantic basin in depths below 2000m which seems to be correlated with the age of the water masses. The inverse correlation with oxygen suggests that N2O in the tropical Atlantic is formed mainly by nitrification. Our results will be discussed in view of global-change induced

  1. Mercury in the Black Sea - results of the 2013 GEOTRACES MEDBlack cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimbürger, L. E.; Sonke, J.; Rijkenberg, M. J. A.; Gerringa, L. J.; De Baar, H. J. W.

    2014-12-01

    Inorganic mercury (Hg), whether of natural or anthropogenic origin, can be converted into the neurotoxin methylmercury (MeHg). Today we believe this conversion occurs during the bacterial remineralization of sinking organic matter in the oceanic water column. The Black Sea with its high organic matter inputs and anoxic deep waters is an excellent study site to investigate in more detail the processes yielding MeHg. To date only one vertical profile of Hg species near the Western shelf and one vertical profile in the Western Gyre are published (Lamborg et al. 2008). We will present new results of the 2013 Dutch-led GEOTRACES MEDBlack cruise in the Black Sea. Research vessel "Pelagia" occupied 12 full depth stations along an east-west transect from 13 to 25 July 2013. High resolution vertical profiles were sampled using a titanium ultraclean CTD frame (de Baar et al., 2008) equipped with 24 x 24L PVDF samplers. Samples were filtered (0.2µm, Sartobran 300), drawn into pre-cleaned 250mL Savillex PFA bottles and acidified to 0.4% (v:v) with double-distilled HCl. Dissolved MeHg, as the sum of monomethylHg and dimethylHg, was analyzed via isotope dilution gas chromatography sector field inductively coupled mass spectrometry. Total dissolved Hg was determined following the US EPA 1631 method. We will present high resolution vertical Hg species profiles, including one ultra-high resolution profile (1 sample every 5m-depth) to understand the dynamics along the chemocline (Luther et al., 1991). We will also present the results of the GEOTRACES international intercalibration exercise for dissolved MeHg and dissolved total Hg in surface seawater that we organized during the same cruise. References De Baar HJW, Timmermans KR, Laan P, De Porto HH, Ober S, Blom JJ, Bakker MC, Schilling J, Sarthou G, Smit MG, Klunder M. Titan: A new facility for ultraclean sampling of trace elements and isotopes in the deep oceans in the international Geotraces program. Mar. Chem. 2008, 111

  2. Computer aided design and manufacturing of composite propfan blades for a cruise missile wind tunnel model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorp, Scott A.; Downey, Kevin M.

    1992-01-01

    One of the propulsion concepts being investigated for future cruise missiles is advanced unducted propfans. To support the evaluation of this technology applied to the cruise missile, a joint DOD and NASA test project was conducted to design and then test the characteristics of the propfans on a 0.55-scale, cruise missile model in a NASA wind tunnel. The configuration selected for study is a counterrotating rearward swept propfan. The forward blade row, having six blades, rotates in a counterclockwise direction, and the aft blade row, having six blades, rotates in a clockwise direction, as viewed from aft of the test model. Figures show the overall cruise missile and propfan blade configurations. The objective of this test was to evaluate propfan performance and suitability as a viable propulsion option for next generation of cruise missiles. This paper details the concurrent computer aided design, engineering, and manufacturing of the carbon fiber/epoxy propfan blades as the NASA Lewis Research Center.

  3. Advanced missile technology. A review of technology improvement areas for cruise missiles. [including missile design, missile configurations, and aerodynamic characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronvich, L. L.; Liepman, H. P.

    1979-01-01

    Technology assessments in the areas of aerodynamics, propulsion, and structures and materials for cruise missile systems are discussed. The cruise missiles considered cover the full speed, altitude, and target range. The penetrativity, range, and maneuverability of the cruise missiles are examined and evaluated for performance improvements.

  4. Acoustic doppler current profiling from the JGOFS Arabian Sea cruises aboard the RV T.G. Thompson

    SciTech Connect

    Flagg, C.N.; Shi, Y.

    1995-04-01

    Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) data from the R/V T.G. THOMPSON is part of the core data for the US JGOFS Arabian Sea project along with hydrographic and nutrient data. Seventeen cruises on the THOMPSON are scheduled to take place between September 1994 and January 1996. The first of these cruises, a transit of the R/V THOMPSON into the northern Arabian Sea area from Singapore, was a calibration and training cruise that took place between September 18 and October 7, 1994. (The cruises on the THOMPSON are numbered consecutively from the ship`s commissioning with the first JOGFS cruise designated TN039.) The remaining cruises have been and will be staged from Muscat, Oman. Seven of these cruises, referred to as process cruises, will follow a set cruise track, making hydrographic, chemical and biological measurements. The remainder of the cruises while not restricted to the set cruise track, will generally stay within the region defined by the track during the deployment and retrieval of moored equipment and the towing of a SeaSoar. Each cruise will last between two weeks and one month. ADCP data will be collected on all the JGOFS Arabian Sea cruises using an autonomous data acquisition system developed for ship-of-opportunity cruises. This system, referred to as the AutoADCP, makes it possible to collect the ADCP data without the constant monitoring usually necessary and assures constant data coverage and uniform data quality. The AutoADCP system is an extension of RD Instrument`s DAS version 2.48 using enhancements made possible with ``user exit`` programs. This data report presents ADCP results from the first four JGOFS cruises, TN039 through TN042, concentrating on the data collection and processing methods.

  5. Head injury in a cruise passenger during a shore excursion.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Eilif

    2016-01-01

    A 66-year-old overweight insulin-dependent male passenger with diabetes and severe arthritis was on a 4-week circle-Pacific cruise. He fell ashore and hit his head. The ship was about to leave on a non-stop voyage - without any evacuation possibilities for the next 8 days. He was examined and had X-rays taken at the local hospital, but as his head injury was considered mild, he returned to the ship "for 48 hours of observation for signs of intracranial bleeding" - against the ship's doctor's advice. Delayed suspicion of a non-displaced cervical fracture caused extra work and worries and could have, but did not complicate matters. When there are no life-saving therapy and no timely evacuation possibilities in case of deterioration, on-board observation is counterproductive. The patient should be kept in - or near - the local hospital during the necessary observation period, followed by safe repatriation. PMID:27681216

  6. Galileo ultraviolet spectrometer experiment - Initial Venus and interplanetary cruise results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hord, C. W.; Barth, C. A.; Esposito, L. W.; Mcclintock, W. E.; Pryor, W. R.; Simmons, K. E.; Stewart, A. I. F.; Thomas, G. E.; Ajello, J. M.; Lane, A. L.

    1991-01-01

    The Galileo Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer obtained a spectrum of Venus atmospheric emissions in the 55.0- to 125.0-nm wavelength region. Emissions of helium (58.4 nm), ionized atomic oxygen (83.4 nm), and atomic hydrogen (121.6 nm), as well as a blended spectral feature of atomic hydrogen (Lyman-beta) and atomic oxygen (102.5 nm), were observed at 3.5-nm resolution. During the Galileo spacecraft cruise from Venus to earth, Lyman-alpha emission from solar system atomic hydrogen (121.6 nm) was measured. The dominant source of the Lyman-alpha emission is atomic hydrogen from the interstellar medium. A model of Galileo observations at solar maximum indicates a decrease in the solar Lyman-alpha flux near the solar poles. A strong day-to-day variation also occurs with the 27-day periodicity of the rotation of the sun.

  7. Active Tailoring of Lift Distribution to Enhance Cruise Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flamm, Jeffrey D. (Technical Monitor); Pfeiffer, Neal J.; Christians, Joel G.

    2005-01-01

    During Phase I of this project, Raytheon Aircraft Company (RAC) has analytically and experimentally evaluated key components of a system that could be implemented for active tailoring of wing lift distribution using low-drag, trailing-edge modifications. Simple systems such as those studied by RAC could be used to enhance the cruise performance of a business jet configuration over a range of typical flight conditions. The trailing-edge modifications focus on simple, deployable mechanisms comprised of extendable small flap panels over portions of the span that could be used to subtly but positively optimize the lift and drag characteristics. The report includes results from low speed wind tunnel testing of the trailing-edge devices, descriptions of potential mechanisms for automation, and an assessment of the technology.

  8. Status of noise technology for advanced supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, J. R.; Gutierrez, O. A.

    1980-01-01

    Developments in acoustic technology applicable to advanced supersonic cruise aircraft, particularly those which relate to jet noise and its suppression are reviewed. The noise reducing potential of high radius ratio, inverted velocity profile coannular jets is demonstrated by model scale results from a wide range of nozzle geometries, including some simulated flight cases. These results were verified statistically at large scale on a variable cycle engine (VCE) testbed. A preliminary assessment of potential VCE noise sources such as fan and core noise is made, based on the testbed data. Recent advances in the understanding of flight effects are reviewed. The status of component noise prediction methods is assessed on the basis of recent test data, and the remaining problem areas are outlined.

  9. Art concept of Magellan spacecraft in cruise configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Magellan spacecraft cruise configuration is illustrated in this artist concept. With solar panels deployed and having jettisoned the inertial upper stage (IUS), Magellan approaches the sun which it will orbit approximately 1.6 times before encountering Venus. Magellan, named after the 16th century Portuguese explorer, will orbit Venus about once every three hours, acquiring radar data for 37 minutes of each orbit when it is closest to the surface. Using an advanced instrument called a synthetic aperture radar (SAR), it will map more than 90 per cent of the surface with resolution ten times better than the best from prior spacecraft. Magellan is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL); Martin Marietta Aerospace is developing the spacecraft and Hughes Aircraft Company, the advanced imaging radar. Magellan will be deployed from payload bay (PLB) of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, during the STS-30 mission.

  10. Connected cruise control: modelling, delay effects, and nonlinear behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orosz, Gábor

    2016-08-01

    Connected vehicle systems (CVS) are considered in this paper where vehicles exchange information using wireless vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication. The concept of connected cruise control (CCC) is established that allows control design at the level of individual vehicles while exploiting V2V connectivity. Due to its high level of modularity the proposed design can be applied to large heterogeneous traffic systems. The dynamics of a simple CVS is analysed in detail while taking into account nonlinearities in the vehicle dynamics as well as in the controller. Time delays that arise due to intermittencies and packet drops in the communication channels are also incorporated. The results are summarised using stability charts which allow one to select control gains to maintain stability and ensure disturbance attenuation when the delay is below a critical value.

  11. Galileo ultraviolet spectrometer experiment: initial venus and interplanetary cruise results.

    PubMed

    Hord, C W; Barth, C A; Esposito, L W; McClintock, W E; Pryor, W R; Simmons, K E; Stewart, A I; Thomas, G E; Ajello, J M; Lane, A L; West, R W; Sandel, B R; Broadfoot, A L; Hunten, D M; Shemansky, D E

    1991-09-27

    The Galileo Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer obtained a spectrum of Venus atmospheric emissions in the 55.0- to 125.0-nanometer (nm) wavelength region. Emissions of helium (58.4 nm), ionized atomic oxygen (83.4 nm), and atomic hydrogen (121.6 nm), as well as a blended spectral feature of atomic hydrogen (Lyman-beta) and atomic oxygen (102.5 nm), were observed at 3.5-nm resolution. During the Galileo spacecraft cruise from Venus to Earth, Lyman-alpha emission from solar system atomic hydrogen (121.6 nm) was measured. The dominant source of the Lyman-alpha emission is atomic hydrogen from the interstellar medium. A model of Galileo observations at solar maximum indicates a decrease in the solar Lyman-alpha flux near the solar poles. A strong day-to-day variation also occurs with the 27-day periodicity of the rotation of the sun.

  12. Structural design studies of a supersonic cruise arrow wing configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski, J.; Mccullers, L. A.; Ricketts, R. H.; Santoro, N. J.; Beskenis, S. D.; Kurtze, W. L.

    1976-01-01

    Structural member cross sections were sized with a system of integrated computer programs to satisfy strength and flutter design requirements for several variants of the arrow wing supersonic cruise vehicle. The resulting structural weights provide a measure of the structural efficiency of the planform geometry, structural layout, type of construction, and type of material including composites. The material distribution was determined for a baseline metallic structure and the results indicate that an approximate fatigue constraint has an important effect on the structural weight required for strength but, in all cases, additional material had to be added to satisfy flutter requirements with lighter mass engines with minimum fuel onboard. The use of composite materials on the baseline configuration was explored and indicated increased structural efficiency. In the strength sizing, the all-composite construction provided a lower weight design than the hybrid construction which contained composites only in the wing cover skins. Subsequent flutter analyses indicated a corresponding lower flutter speed.

  13. First-Order Altitude Effects on the Cruise Efficiency of Subsonic Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynn, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    Aircraft fuel efficiency is a function of many different parameters, including characteristics of the engines, characteristics of the airframe, and the conditions under which the aircraft is operated. For a given vehicle, the airframe and engine characteristics are for the most part fixed quantities and efficiency is primarily a function of operational conditions. One important influence on cruise efficiency is cruise altitude. Various future scenarios have been postulated for cruise altitude, from the freedom to fly at optimum altitudes to altitude restrictions imposed for environmental reasons. This report provides background on the fundamental relationships determining aircraft cruise efficiency and examines the sensitivity of efficiency to cruise altitude. Analytical models of two current aircraft designs are used to derive quantitative results. Efficiency penalties are found to be generally less than 1% when within roughly 2000 ft of the optimum cruise altitude. Even the restrictive scenario of constant altitude cruise is found to result in a modest fuel consumption penalty if the fixed altitude is in an appropriate range.

  14. Diatom community structure on in-service cruise ship hulls.

    PubMed

    Hunsucker, Kelli Zargiel; Koka, Abhishek; Lund, Geir; Swain, Geoffrey

    2014-10-01

    Diatoms are an important component of marine biofilms found on ship hulls. However, there are only a few published studies that describe the presence and abundance of diatoms on ships, and none that relate to modern ship hull coatings. This study investigated the diatom community structure on two in-service cruise ships with the same cruise cycles, one coated with an antifouling (AF) system (copper self-polishing copolymer) and the other coated with a silicone fouling-release (FR) system. Biofilm samples were collected during dry docking from representative areas of the ship and these provided information on the horizontal and vertical zonation of the hull, and intact and damaged coating and niche areas. Diatoms from the genera Achnanthes, Amphora and Navicula were the most common, regardless of horizontal ship zonation and coating type. Other genera were abundant, but their presence was more dependent on the ship zonation and coating type. Samples collected from damaged areas of the hull coating had a similar community composition to undamaged areas, but with higher diatom abundance. Diatom fouling on the niche areas differed from that of the surrounding ship hull and paralleled previous studies that investigated differences in diatom community structure on static and dynamically exposed coatings; niche areas were similar to static immersion and the hull to dynamic immersion. Additionally, diatom richness was greater on the ship with the FR coating, including the identification of several new genera to the biofouling literature, viz. Lampriscus and Thalassiophysa. These results are the first to describe diatom community composition on in-service ship hulls coated with a FR system. This class of coatings appears to have a larger diatom community compared to copper-based AF systems, with new diatom genera that have the ability to stick to ship hulls and withstand hydrodynamic forces, thus creating the potential for new problematic species in the biofilm.

  15. Characterization of aerosol over the Northern South China Sea during two cruises in 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xingying; Zhuang, Guoshun; Guo, Jinghua; Yin, Kedong; Zhang, Peng

    Atmospheric transport of trace elements has been found to be an important pathway for their input to the ocean. TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 aerosol samples were collected over the Northern South China Sea in two cruises in 2003 to estimate the input of aerosol from continent to the ocean. About 23 elements and 14 soluble ions in aerosol samples were measured. The average mass concentration of TSP in Cruise I in January (78 μg m -3) was ˜twice of that in Cruise II in April (37 μg m -3). Together with the crustal component, heavy metals from pollution sources over the land (especially from the industry and automobiles in Guangzhou) were transported to and deposited into the ocean. The atmospheric MSA concentrations in PM2.5 (0.048 μg m -3 in Cruise I and 0.043 μg m -3 in Cruise II) over Northern South China Sea were comparable to those over other coastal regions. The ratio of non-sea-salt (NSS)-sulfate to MSA is 103-655 for Cruise I and 15-440 for Cruise II in PM2.5 samples, which were much higher than those over remote oceans. The estimated anthropogenic sulfate accounts for 83-98% in Cruise I and 63-95% in Cruise II of the total NSS-sulfate. Fe (II) concentration in the aerosols collected over the ocean ranged from 0.1 to 0.9 μg m -3, accounting for 16-82% of the total iron in the aerosol, which could affect the marine biogeochemical cycle greatly.

  16. Acoustic Doppler current profiling from the JGOFS Arabian sea cruises aboard the RV T.G. Thompson

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyun-Sook; Flagg, C.N.; Shi, Yan

    1996-06-01

    Acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) data is part of the core data for the U.S. JGOFS Arabian Sea project, along with hydrographic and nutrient data. Seventeen cruises are scheduled to take place between September 1994 and January 1996 on the R/V T.G. Thompson. They are numbered consecutively from the ship`s commissioning with the first JGOFS cruise designated TN039. Table 1 lists start and end dates of each cruise with its mission. All but the first cruise have been or will be staged from Muscat, Oman. Each cruise is scheduled for a duration of between two weeks and one month. Seven of the cruises, referred to as process cruises, follow a standard cruise track, taking hydrographic, chemical and biological measurements. The rest of the cruises, which take place generally within the standard cruise region defined by a set track, are for the deployment and recovery of moored equipments and towing of a SeaSoar. ADCP data are collected using an autonomous data acquisition system developed for ship-of-opportunity cruises, named the AutoADCP system. The system is an extension of RD instrument`s DAS version 2.48 using enhancements made possible with {open_quotes}user-exit{close_quotes} programs. It makes it possible to collect ADCP data without the constant monitoring usually necessary and insures constant data coverage and uniform data quality.

  17. Acoustic Doppler current profiling from the JGOFS Arabian Sea cruises aboard the RV T.G. Thompson

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, H.S.; Flagg, C.N.; Shi, Y.

    1996-12-01

    Acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) data is part of the core data for the US JGOFS Arabian Sea project, along with hydrographic and nutrient data. Seventeen cruises are scheduled to take place between September 1994 and January 1996 on the R/V T.G. Thompson. Seven of the cruises follow a standard cruise track, taking hydrographic, chemical and biological measurements. The rest of the cruises, which take place generally within the standard cruise region defined by a set track, are for the deployment and recovery of moored equipment and towing of a SeaSoar. Detailed description of ADCP hardware, the AutoADCP data acquisition system, and the collection of navigation and compass data on the Thompson is documented in Section 2. Followed by data collection for each cruise together with a cruise track, Section 3 presents the processing and analysis of velocity and acoustic backscatter intensity data. Section 5 shows results of profile quality diagnosis.

  18. Analysis of various descent trajectories for a hypersonic-cruise, cold-wall research airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawing, P. L.

    1975-01-01

    The probable descent operating conditions for a hypersonic air-breathing research airplane were examined. Descents selected were cruise angle of attack, high dynamic pressure, high lift coefficient, turns, and descents with drag brakes. The descents were parametrically exercised and compared from the standpoint of cold-wall (367 K) aircraft heat load. The descent parameters compared were total heat load, peak heating rate, time to landing, time to end of heat pulse, and range. Trends in total heat load as a function of cruise Mach number, cruise dynamic pressure, angle-of-attack limitation, pull-up g-load, heading angle, and drag-brake size are presented.

  19. Fuel-efficient cruise performance model for general aviation piston engine airplanes

    SciTech Connect

    Parkinson, R.C.H.

    1982-01-01

    The uses and limitations of typical Pilot Operating Handbook cruise performance data, for constructing cruise performance models suitable for maximizing specific range, are first examined. These data are found to be inadequate for constructing such models. A new model of General Aviation piston-prop airplane cruise performance is then developed. This model consists of two subsystem models: the airframe-propeller-atmosphere subsystem model; and the engine-atmosphere subsystem model. The new model facilitates maximizing specific range; and by virtue of its simplicity and low volume data storage requirements, appears suitable for airborne microprocessor implementation.

  20. Estuary and Plume Forecasts in Support of Oceanographic Cruises: Generation, In-Vessel Delivery and Quality Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, A. M.; Zhang, Y.; Turner, P. J.; Seaton, C.; van Matre, E.; Hickey, B. M.; Peterson, W. T.; Casillas, E.

    2005-12-01

    Retrospective and predictive simulations of 3D estuarine and plume circulation are conducted as an integral part of CORIE, a multi-purpose cross-scale coastal-margin observatory for the Columbia River. In 2004 and 2005, daily forecasts provided near real-time support for oceanographic and fisheries cruises, involving a range of scientific goals, vessels, and regions within the estuary and the plume. The focus of this presentation is on the description of the modeling, observation and information infrastructure that was developed to support the cruises. At the core of the infrastructure were two 3D baroclinic circulation models (ELCIRC [1] and SELFE [2]), both of which solve for the shallow equations using semi-implicit, Eulerian-Lagrangian, unstructured-grid, hybrid methods (finite volumes/finite differences and finite elements/finite volumes, respectively). Short-term quality control was enabled through a near real-time observation network, combining fixed stations and vessel instrumentation. Prior to deployment, models were also extensively tested in the context of multi-year simulations and observations (e.g., [3]). Radio-based near real-time telemetry was used to transfer customized forecast products to the vessels, a process that was conducted in background every time the vessels were within radio range of a land-based station. A local web server was set-up in each vessel, allowing scientists on-board to have fast access to information. The freshness of the information available on board varied with the cruise plan (specifically, the distance to the land-based station). Typical information latency ranged from a few minutes to a few days. Forecasts were typically able to predict major features of plume and estuarine dynamics, even if the details of quantitative agreement with observations varied with ocean, wind and river conditions. [1] Y. L. Zhang, A. M. Baptista, and E. P. Myers, "A cross-scale model for 3D baroclinic circulation in estuary

  1. Soluble Manganese(III) in the Marine Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luther, G. W., III; Oldham, V.; Madison, A.; Tebo, B.; Jones, M.; Jensen, L.; Owings, S.; Mucci, A.; Sundby, B.

    2014-12-01

    Recent field studies have confirmed the presence of soluble manganese(III), which along with Mn(II) passes through a 0.2 μm filter, in suboxic marine waters. Here we applied a spectrophotometric method using a soluble porphyrin as a competitive ligand to calculate the concentrations and kinetics of Mn(II) and Mn(III) recovery. Data will be presented from the suboxic porewaters of the Saint Lawrence estuary, the suboxic and anoxic waters of the Chesapeake Bay and the oxygenated surface waters of a coastal waterway bordered by wetlands and salt marshes in Delaware. Soluble Mn(III) accounts for up to 100% of the dissolved Mn pool with concentrations ranging from the detection limit of 50 nM to 80 μM at the oxic/anoxic interface of the non-sulfidic porewaters from the hemipelagic sediments of the St. Lawrence Estuary. Data indicate weak-ligand complexation of Mn(III) formed from Mn(II) oxidation as well as reduction of MnO2. Complexation of Mn(III) in the anoxic waters of Chesapeake Bay appears stronger as the porphyrin could not outcompete the natural ligands binding Mn(III). Mn(III) complexes were reduced in the presence of hydroxylamine or hydrogen sulfide and detected as Mn(II). Soluble Mn(III) comprised up to 52 % of total dissolved Mn. Profiles over the course of a five day cruise showed that high Mn(III) concentrations (7.3 μM) were observed at low H2S (4.9 μM) whereas low Mn(III) (1.1 μM) was detected at high H2S (40 μM). The presence of Mn(III) in sulfidic waters indicated that it is kinetically stabilized in situ by strong ligands so reduction to Mn(II) was incomplete. One electron reductive dissolution of solid MnO2 particles formed at the oxic-anoxic interface appear to be the source of Mn(III). Lastly, soluble Mn(III) was detected in the oxygenated surface waters of a coastal waterway (salinity ranging from freshwater to 31) bordered by wetlands and salt marshes in Delaware. Soluble Mn(III) made up 0-49 % of the total dissolved Mn (maximum of 1.92

  2. Cruise report, RV ocean alert cruise A1-98-HW; January 30 through February 23, 1998, Honolulu to Honolulu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, James V.; Hughes-Clarke, John E.

    1998-01-01

    The major objective of cruise A1-98 was to map portions of the insular slopes of Oahu, Kauai, Maui, Molokai, and Hawaii and to survey in detail US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) ocean dumping sites using a Simrad EM300 high-resolution multibeam mapping system. The cruise was a jointly funded project between the US Army Corps of Engineers (USCOE), USEPA, and the US Geological Survey (USGS). The USACOE and EPA are interested in these areas because of a series of ocean dump sites off Oahu, Kauai, Maui, and Hawaii (Fig. 1) that require high-resolution base maps for site monitoring purposes. The USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program has several on-going projects off Oahu and Maui that lack high-precision base maps for a variety of ongoing geological studies. The cruise was conducted under a Cooperative Agreement between the USGS and the Ocean Mapping Group, University of New Brunswick, Canada.

  3. Detection of new in-path targets by drivers using Stop & Go Adaptive Cruise Control.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Neville A; Dunoyer, Alain; Leatherland, Adam

    2011-05-01

    This paper reports on the design and evaluation of in-car displays used to support Stop & Go Adaptive Cruise Control. Stop & Go Adaptive Cruise Control is an extension of Adaptive Cruise Control, as it is able to bring the vehicle to a complete stop. Previous versions of Adaptive Cruise Control have only operated above 26 kph. The greatest concern for these technologies is the appropriateness of the driver's response in any given scenario. Three different driver interfaces were proposed to support the detection of modal, spatial and temporal changes of the system: an iconic display, a flashing iconic display, and a representation of the radar. The results show that drivers correctly identified more changes detected by the system with the radar display than with the other displays, but higher levels of workload accompanied this increased detection.

  4. Bound for Sydney town: health surveillance on international cruise vessels visiting the Port of Sydney.

    PubMed

    Ferson, Mark J; Ressler, Kelly-Anne

    2005-04-18

    A program for routine health surveillance on international cruise ships visiting the Port of Sydney has been developed since 1998. Before introduction of this program, ships only reported quarantinable diseases and were not aware of the Australian requirement to report other infectious diseases. Voluntary routine reporting, developed in partnership with the cruise ship industry, provides timely information on all infectious diseases of public health interest during every cruise. During 1999-2003, the program resulted in detection of and response to 14 outbreaks of gastroenteritis or acute respiratory infection, affecting more than 1400 passengers and crew. The program has improved preventive action, and risk communication and management by cruise ship operators, and led to more timely investigation and support by public health authorities.

  5. Lesbians and Gay Men's Vacation Motivations, Perceptions, and Constraints: A Study of Cruise Vacation Choice.

    PubMed

    Weeden, Clare; Lester, Jo-Anne; Jarvis, Nigel

    2016-08-01

    This study explores the push-pull vacation motivations of gay male and lesbian consumers and examines how these underpin their perceptions and purchase constraints of a mainstream and LGBT(1) cruise. Findings highlight a complex vacation market. Although lesbians and gay men share many of the same travel motivations as their heterosexual counterparts, the study reveals sexuality is a significant variable in their perception of cruise vacations, which further influences purchase constraints and destination choice. Gay men have more favorable perceptions than lesbians of both mainstream and LGBT cruises. The article recommends further inquiry into the multifaceted nature of motivations, perception, and constraints within the LGBT market in relation to cruise vacations. PMID:26983585

  6. R2R Eventlogger: Community-wide Recording of Oceanographic Cruise Science Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maffei, A. R.; Chandler, C. L.; Stolp, L.; Lerner, S.; Avery, J.; Thiel, T.

    2012-12-01

    Methods used by researchers to track science events during a science research cruise - and to note when and where these occur - varies widely. Handwritten notebooks, printed forms, watch-keeper logbooks, data-logging software, and customized software have all been employed. The quality of scientific results is affected by the consistency and care with which such events are recorded and integration of multi-cruise results is hampered because recording methods vary widely from cruise to cruise. The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program has developed an Eventlogger system that will eventually be deployed on most vessels in the academic research fleet. It is based on the open software package called ELOG (http://midas.psi.ch/elog/) originally authored by Stefan Ritt and enhanced by our team. Lessons have been learned in its development and use on several research cruises. We have worked hard to find approaches that encourage cruise participants to use tools like the eventlogger. We examine these lessons and several eventlogger datasets from past cruises. We further describe how the R2R Science Eventlogger works in concert with the other R2R program elements to help coordinate research vessels into a coordinated mobile observing fleet. Making use of data collected on different research cruises is enabled by adopting common ways of describing science events, the science instruments employed, the data collected, etc. The use of controlled vocabularies and the practice of mapping these local vocabularies to accepted oceanographic community vocabularies helps to bind shipboard research events from different cruises into a more cohesive set of fleet-wide events that can be queried and examined in a cross-cruise manner. Examples of the use of the eventlogger during multi-cruise oceanographic research programs along with examples of resultant eventlogger data will be presented. Additionally we will highlight the importance of vocabulary use strategies to the success of the

  7. Cruise Report for G1-03-GM, USGS Gas Hydrates Cruise, R/V Gyre, 1-14 May 2003, Northern Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Hart, Patrick E.

    2004-01-01

    This report gives a summary of the field program and instrumentation used on the R/V Gyre in the Gulf of Mexico in May, 2003, to collect multichannel seismic data in support of USGS and Department of Energy gas hydrate studies. Tabulated statistics, metadata, figures and maps are included to show the breadth of data collected and preliminary interpretations made during the field program. Geophysical data collected during this cruise will be released in a separate report. At the start of the cruise, three test lines were run to compare different source configurations in order to optimize data quality for the objectives of the cruise. The source chosen was the 13/13 in3 Generator-Injector (GI) Gun. Following these tests, a total of 101 lines (approximately 1033 km) of 24-channel high-resolution seismic reflection data were collected in the northern Gulf of Mexico. 59 lines (about 600 km) were collected in and around lease block Keathley Canyon 195. An additional 4 lines (85 km) provided a seismic tie between the Keathley Canyon data and USGS multichannel data collected in 1999. About 253 km of data were collected along 35 short lines in and around lease block Atwater Valley 14 on the floor of the Mississippi Canyon. Three lines (53 km) completed the cruise and provided a seismic tie to USGS multichannel data collected in 1998. Two on-board trained marine-mammal observers fulfilled the requirements determined by NOAA/National Marine Fisheries Service to avoid incidental harassment of marine mammals as established in the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA). A total of three species of dolphins were observed during the cruise and one basking shark. No sperm whales were sighted. During the cruise, seismic operations were not delayed or terminated because of marine mammal activity.

  8. Study on a human guidance method for autonomous cruise of indoor robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Bao-Zhi; Zhu, Ming

    2011-12-01

    This paper describes a method of human guidance for autonomous cruise of indoor robot. A low-cost robot follows a person in a room and notes the path for autonomous cruise using its monocular vision. A method of video-based object detection and tracking is taken to detect the target by the video received from the robot's camera. The validity of the human guidance method is proved by the experiment.

  9. Ship's doctors qualifications required for cruise ships: Recruiter's comments on the German-Norwegian debate.

    PubMed

    Ottomann, Christian

    2015-01-01

    This contribution is intended to fertilise the current discussion of ship's doctors qualifications required for cruise ships. Therefore 10 points are added to the debate containing different considerations focussing on the recommendations of the German Society of Maritime Medicine, the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP's) Health Care Guidelines for Cruise Ship Medical Facilities and the different skills a ship's doctor should have from the perspective of the recruiter. PMID:26394316

  10. Ship's doctors qualifications required for cruise ships: Recruiter's comments on the German-Norwegian debate.

    PubMed

    Ottomann, Christian

    2015-01-01

    This contribution is intended to fertilise the current discussion of ship's doctors qualifications required for cruise ships. Therefore 10 points are added to the debate containing different considerations focussing on the recommendations of the German Society of Maritime Medicine, the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP's) Health Care Guidelines for Cruise Ship Medical Facilities and the different skills a ship's doctor should have from the perspective of the recruiter.

  11. Novel approach for designing a hypersonic gliding-cruising dual waverider vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jun; Ding, Feng; Huang, Wei; Jin, Liang

    2014-09-01

    For a hypersonic gliding-cruising vehicle, the gliding Mach number is larger than the cruising Mach number. It may be useful to design the inlet shroud to act as the compression surface of the waverider, to ensure that the vehicle rides on the shock wave, during both the gliding and cruising phases. A new design concept, namely a gliding-cruising dual waverider, is proposed in the current study. During the gliding phase, the hypersonic vehicle rides on the shock wave at the design gliding Mach number, as the inlet shroud is designed to act as waverider's compression surface. During the cruising phase, when the inlet shroud is cast away or jettisoned, the hypersonic vehicle rides on the shock wave at the design cruising Mach number, as the forebody is designed to act as waverider's compression surface. Thus, the design methodology of the dual-cone-derived waverider is described based on the theory of conical flow. Finally, the numerical methods are utilized to verify the new design method of the aerodynamic configuration. This methodology proposed is useful to design a hypersonic vehicle for two regimes of flight.

  12. Shelf Edge Exchange Processes, II: SEEP2-08, R/V ENDEAVOR cruise 188

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, C.; Behrens, W.J.; Flagg, C.N.; Wallace, D.W.R.; Wilke, R.J.; Wyman, K.D.

    1989-12-01

    The Shelf Edge Exchange Processes (SEEP) program sponsored by the United States Department of Energy is a multi-institutional effort designed to investigate the flux of suspended material from the continental shelf to the waters of the upper slope, and then possibly into the slope sediments. Phase I of SEEP consisted of a series of nine cruises and a mooring array across the outer continental shelf of New England during 1983--1984 (Behrens and Flagg, 1986). Phase II focused specifically on the shelf/slope frontal region of the mid-Atlantic bight off the Delmarva Peninsula. This project consisted of a series of ten cruises, a mooring array, and a series of over-flights by NASA aircraft. Hydrographic data were collected on eight of the cruises, six of which were primarily mooring deployment or recovery cruises. The cruises were consecutively designated SEEP2-01 to SEEP2-10. Two cruises (SEEP2-04 and SEEP2-07) were dedicated to investigating benthic processes and hydrographic data were not collected.

  13. SAFARI cruise: Mapping river discharge effects on Southern Brazilian shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavialov, P. O.; Kostianoy, A. G.; Möller, O. O.

    2003-11-01

    We report results of a hydrographic cruise organized within the framework of the Russian-Brazilian joint project SAFARI (Southwestern Atlantic Freshwater Assimilation and River Inputs) and aimed at mapping special features of salinity and temperature distributions connected with the freshwater discharges from the Plata river and Patos-Mirim lagoon estuaries on the Southern Brazilian shelf. Apart from the low salinity tongue in the inner shelf that has not been mapped in detail before, the intense river runoff results in strong temperature inversions (up to 4°C per 20-30 m) seen in the upper layer in winter. We argue that these inversions cannot result from the advective mechanism alone and should also be attributed to the freshwater related increase of vertical stability that leads to reduced mixing and thus enhanced winter cooling of the sea surface. Spatial distributions of salinity, inversion layer thickness and inversion magnitude over the shelf and continental slope are presented. In a belt extending for hundreds kilometers northward from the Plata estuary in the inner part of the shelf, salinity is up to 10 psu lower than that in the adjacent ocean beyond the river plumes. The spatial extent of the Patos-Mirim lagoon plume is determined and the fine structure of the salinity distribution near the lagoon mouth is described.

  14. Control integration concept for hypersonic cruise-turn maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, David L.; Lallman, Frederick J.

    1992-01-01

    Piloting difficulties associated with conducting aircraft maneuvers in hypersonic flight are caused in part by the nonintuitive nature of the aircraft response and the stringent constraints anticipated on allowable angle of attack and dynamic pressure variations. An approach is documented that provides precise, coordinated maneuver control during excursions from a hypersonic cruise flight path and the necessary flight condition constraints. The approach is to achieve specified guidance commands by resolving altitude and cross range errors into a load factor and bank angle command by using a coordinate transformation that acts as an interface between outer and inner loop flight controls. This interface, referred to as a 'resolver', applies constraints on angle of attack and dynamic pressure perturbations while prioritizing altitude regulation over cross range. An unpiloted test simulation, in which the resolver was used to drive inner loop flight controls, produced time histories of responses to guidance commands and atmospheric disturbances at Mach numbers of 6, 10, 15, and 20. Angle of attack and throttle perturbation constraints, combined with high speed flight effects and the desire to maintain constant dynamic pressure, significantly impact the maneuver envelope for a hypersonic vehicle.

  15. Research combines with public outreach on a cruise ship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Elizabeth; Prager, Ellen; Wilson, Doug

    An innovative partnership among academia, government, and private industry has created a unique opportunity for oceanographic and meteorological research on a cruise ship. The University of Miami's Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, Royal Caribbean International, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory the National Science Foundation, and the U.S. Office of Naval Research have collaborated to establish two modern laboratories for oceanic and atmospheric research on the 142,000-ton Royal Caribbean ship Explorer of the Seas.The Explorer of the Seas combines extensive research capabilities with public outreach. Hundreds of passengers experience the planet's atmosphere-ocean systems through laboratory tours and presentations given by experienced guest scientists and graduate students. In addition to weekly public lectures, guided tours of the ocean and atmospheric laboratories are available, and ocean-related films are shown during selected afternoons. Two interactive eco-learning areas onboard are equipped with a series of interactive displays and large informational touch screens that illustrate marine and atmospheric concepts as well as the onboard research program.

  16. Rapid Deployment of a RESTful Service for Oceanographic Research Cruises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Linyun; Arko, Robert; Leadbetter, Adam

    2014-05-01

    The Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP) seeks to increase data sharing across scientific domains and international boundaries, by providing a forum to harmonize diverse regional data systems. ODIP participants from the US include the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program, whose mission is to capture, catalog, and describe the underway/environmental sensor data from US oceanographic research vessels and submit the data to public long-term archives. R2R publishes information online as Linked Open Data, making it widely available using Semantic Web standards. Each vessel, sensor, cruise, dataset, person, organization, funding award, log, report, etc, has a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI). Complex queries that federate results from other data providers are supported, using the SPARQL query language. To facilitate interoperability, R2R uses controlled vocabularies developed collaboratively by the science community (eg. SeaDataNet device categories) and published online by the NERC Vocabulary Server (NVS). In response to user feedback, we are developing a standard programming interface (API) and Web portal for R2R's Linked Open Data. The API provides a set of simple REST-type URLs that are translated on-the-fly into SPARQL queries, and supports common output formats (eg. JSON). We will demonstrate an implementation based on the Epimorphics Linked Data API (ELDA) open-source Java package. Our experience shows that constructing a simple portal with limited schema elements in this way can significantly reduce development time and maintenance complexity.

  17. Structural concept trends for commercial supersonic cruise aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakat, I. F.; Davis, G. W.; Saelman, B.

    1980-01-01

    Structural concept trends for future commercial supersonic transport aircraft are considered. Highlights, including the more important design conditions and requirements, of two studies are discussed. Knowledge of these design parameters, as determined through studies involving the application of flexible mathematical models, enabled inclusion of aeroelastic considerations in the structural-material concepts evaluation. The design trends and weight data of the previous contractual study of Mach 2.7 cruise aircraft were used as the basis for incorporating advanced materials and manufacturing approaches to the airframe for reduced weight and cost. Structural studies of design concepts employing advanced aluminum alloys, advanced composites, and advanced titanium alloy and manufacturing techniques are compared for a Mach 2.0 arrow-wing configuration concept. Appraisals of the impact of these new materials and manufacturing concepts to the airframe design are shown and compared. The research and development to validate the potential sources of weight and cost reduction identified as necessary to attain a viable advanced commercial supersonic transport are discussed.

  18. An autonomous rendezvous and docking system using cruise missile technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Ruel Edwin

    1991-01-01

    In November 1990 the Autonomous Rendezvous & Docking (AR&D) system was first demonstrated for members of NASA's Strategic Avionics Technology Working Group. This simulation utilized prototype hardware from the Cruise Missile and Advanced Centaur Avionics systems. The object was to show that all the accuracy, reliability and operational requirements established for a space craft to dock with Space Station Freedom could be met by the proposed system. The rapid prototyping capabilities of the Advanced Avionics Systems Development Laboratory were used to evaluate the proposed system in a real time, hardware in the loop simulation of the rendezvous and docking reference mission. The simulation permits manual, supervised automatic and fully autonomous operations to be evaluated. It is also being upgraded to be able to test an Autonomous Approach and Landing (AA&L) system. The AA&L and AR&D systems are very similar. Both use inertial guidance and control systems supplemented by GPS. Both use an Image Processing System (IPS), for target recognition and tracking. The IPS includes a general purpose multiprocessor computer and a selected suite of sensors that will provide the required relative position and orientation data. Graphic displays can also be generated by the computer, providing the astronaut / operator with real-time guidance and navigation data with enhanced video or sensor imagery.

  19. Laser rangefinders for autonomous intelligent cruise control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Journet, Bernard A.; Bazin, Gaelle

    1998-01-01

    THe purpose of this paper is to show to what kind of application laser range-finders can be used inside Autonomous Intelligent Cruise Control systems. Even if laser systems present good performances the safety and technical considerations are very restrictive. As the system is used in the outside, the emitted average output power must respect the rather low level of 1A class. Obstacle detection or collision avoidance require a 200 meters range. Moreover bad weather conditions, like rain or fog, ar disastrous. We have conducted measurements on laser rangefinder using different targets and at different distances. We can infer that except for cooperative targets low power laser rangefinder are not powerful enough for long distance measurement. Radars, like 77 GHz systems, are better adapted to such cases. But in case of short distances measurement, range around 10 meters, with a minimum distance around twenty centimeters, laser rangefinders are really useful with good resolution and rather low cost. Applications can have the following of white lines on the road, the target being easily cooperative, detection of vehicles in the vicinity, that means car convoy traffic control or parking assistance, the target surface being indifferent at short distances.

  20. Investigation of a supersonic cruise fighter model flow field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reubush, D. E.; Bare, E. A.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to survey the flow field around a model of a supersonic cruise fighter configuration. Local values of angle of attack, side flow, Mach number, and total pressure ratio were measured with a single multi-holed probe in three survey areas on a model previously used for nacelle/nozzle integration investigations. The investigation was conducted at Mach numbers of 0.6, 0.9, and 1.2, and at angles of attack from 0 deg to 10 deg. The purpose of the investigation was to provide a base of experimental data with which theoretically determined data can be compared. To that end the data are presented in tables as well as graphically, and a complete description of the model geometry is included as fuselage cross sections and wing span stations. Measured local angles of attack were generally greater than free stream angle of attack above the wing and generally smaller below. There were large spanwise local angle-of-attack and side flow gradients above the wing at the higher free stream angles of attack.

  1. Cruise report RV Inland Surveyer Cruise IS-98; the bathymetry of Lake Tahoe, California-Nevada, August 2 through August 17, 1998, Lake Tahoe, California and Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, James V.; Mayer, Larry A.; Hughes-Clarke, John

    1998-01-01

    The major objective of cruise IS-98 was to map the bathymetry of Lake Tahoe, California-Nevada (Fig. 1) to fulfill a commitment made during the Lake Tahoe Presidential Forum in 1997. The only existing bathymetry of Lake Tahoe, collected in 1923, was recently compiled by Rowe and Stone (1997), but the data density is inadequate for the level of scientific studies ongoing and anticipated in the near future for Lake Tahoe. Recent advances in marine multibeam-sonar capabilities now permit a cost-effective way, to precisely map the bathymetry of large areas of the ocean floor with 100% coverage. Cruise IS-98 applied this state-of-the-art ocean technology to Lake Tahoe. The newest of these high-resolution multibeam mapping systems also simultaneously collects backscatter (similar to sidescan sonar) imagery that results in a complimentary and co-registered data set that is related to the distribution of lake-floor materials and textures. The two types of maps that resulted from this cruise provide the multidisiplinary Lake Tahoe research community an unprecedented set of base maps upon which to build their studies. This report describes the high-resolution multibeam mapping system used at Lake Tahoe, outlines the data-processing steps used to produce the maps, and includes the daily log of the cruise.

  2. Overview of Hydrographic Data From the GEOTRACES EPZT Cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    German, C. R.; Swift, J. H.; Moffett, J. W.; Cutter, G. A.; Becker, S. M.; Johnson, M. C.; Miller, M. T.; Palomares, R.

    2014-12-01

    During the US GEOTRACES East Pacific Zonal Transect (EPZT) cruise extensive use was made of the hydrographic data collected by the SIO Shipboard Technical Support team aboard ship to select suitable depths for water column sampling at all stations. Across the eastern half of the section, starting from the Peru Margin and spanning the Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ), attention was paid to not only the standard hydrographic sensors but also the fluorometer and dissolved oxygen sensors interfaced to the CTD, for example to select depths associated with the chlorophyll maximum in the uppermost water column and also the underlying low oxygen waters which formed a primary focus for sampling to investigate redox-cycling within the OMZ. In the western half of the section, attention turned toward the extensive hydrothermal plume which was first intercepted directly above the southern East Pacific Rise ridge axis near 15°S. There, the depth and intensity of the hydrothermal plume was revealed by a combination of the standard sensor suite interfaced to the CTD/rosette, augmented with an Oxygen Reduction Potential (ORP) probe provided by NOAA-PMEL and a SeaPoint optical back scatter sensor provided by WHOI. Thorough on-board salinity, dissolved oxygen, and nutrient analyses provided key data for CTD calibration, quality control and hydrographic interpretation including clear evidence for dissolved phosphate scavenging in the near-field hydrothermal plume. We will compare the EPZT CTD/hydrographic data with WOCE-era (1991-1994) sections including zonal section P21, which parallels the new transect, and crossovers with WOCE meridional sections P16, P17, P18, and P19.

  3. Interpopulation study of medical attendance aboard a cruise ship.

    PubMed

    Tomaszewski, Ryszard; Nahorski, Wacław Leszek

    2008-01-01

    The study carried out aboard a cruise ship in the years 1993-1998 involved ship passengers of various nationalities including 3872 Germans aged 23-94 years and 1281 Americans aged 25-94 years. Both nationality groups were divided into two age subgroups: till 64, and 65-94 years. The German younger age subgroup (mean age 53.2 years) consisted of 59% of the passengers, whereas the 65-94 years subgroup (mean age 72 years) was made up of 41% of the ships passengers. On the other hand, 73% of the Americans belonged to the 65-94 years subgroup (mean age 73,4 years), whereas 27% to the younger one (mean age 52.8 years). The number of onboard consultations and their causes were determined. The occurrence of chronic illnesses in both 65-94 years subgroups was assessed by means of a questionnaire. A higher frequency of consultations was found in the Germans (24.38%) than in the Americans (14.05%) (p=0.001). The difference was particularly striking in the people over 65 years of age (30.87% of the Germans as compared with 14.22% of the Americans, p=0.001). The Germans were nearly 4-times more frequently seen than the Americans for cardio-vascular diseases and almost 3-times more often because of gastrointestinal disorders. The discrepancies in the consultation rates were mainly caused by the different insurance systems of both nations. Chronic illnesses as estimated by means of the questionnaire prevailed in the German passengers. The statistically significant differences (13.3% versus 20%, p=0.01 and 0.001) regarded the locomotor system, urinary tract diseases and a group of illnesses including neurological, ophthalmological, ear, skin, malignant diseases and diabetes.

  4. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Research Cruise Event Logger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, C. L.; Maffei, A. R.; Stolp, L.; Dubois, D. L.

    2011-12-01

    Scientific event logs, used by the science party to record scientific sampling events that occur during a research cruise, have been used in various ways for decades. An event log is very important for documenting the occurrence of a sampling event and its location, time, relative sequence, and related details. Event logging, done well, can provide important documentation about scientific data collected during a cruise, and enable more efficient use of those data by cruise participants and future researchers. When the resultant event log is a digital data file, with content generated programmatically and controlled by term vocabularies, it becomes an even more valuable addition to the full complement of data sets generated during the cruise. However, such a tool is only effective if it is used. Through field testing, several key factors were identified that encourage the use of such a tool: the ability to customize the tool to represent the science implementation plan, proposed sampling scheme, cruise personnel and instrumentation; the ability to retrieve date, time and location data automatically from the shipboard network and the ability to enter events quickly and from any location on the ship. This presentation provides an overview of both the current version 1 and soon to be released version 2 of the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) research cruise Event Logger system. The R2R Event Logger application is built upon a pre-existing, open-source, weblog product called ELOG (ELOG URL: http://midas.psi.ch/elog/). We provide an oceanographer's view of the full process by which: 1) the R2R Event Logger application is configured and tested to meet the unique needs of a research cruise; 2) the R2R project works with the ship operator to install the Event Logger on the ship designated for the cruise, 3) the Event Logger is configured to automatically retrieve location, time, and other pertinent information from the shipboard network; 4) a copy of the event log file is

  5. The Acid Horizon Cruise: Expanding scientific outreach by crowd-funding a film project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordes, E. E.

    2014-12-01

    During a cruise in April - May, 2014 on the R/V Atlantis with the DSV Alvin to study ocean acidification in the Gulf of Mexico, we carried out a number of outreach efforts, the most significant of which was filming a documentary. The documentary is about the impact of ocean acidification, but is told as a personal story and extends well beyond the cruise itself. This documentary was an independent effort supported entirely by a Kickstarter crowd-funding campaign that ran from Nov - Dec, 2013. The campaign attracted over 200 donors and was ultimately successful in raising the funds necessary to bring the film crew on board. By involving so many people in the funding of the project, we attracted a core audience for the outreach efforts during the cruise. These efforts included daily posts on various social media sites, both personal and scientific, as well as exclusive "sneak peeks" of the film for the Kickstarter backers. In addition, live interactions from the cruise included an interview with public radio from the submersible, and a public seminar from the back deck of the ship. All of these efforts resulted in the development of an audience that remains engaged in the progress of the science and the film, long after the cruise has concluded.

  6. Preliminary design of a supersonic cruise aircraft high-pressure turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aceto, L. D.; Calderbank, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Development of the supersonic cruise aircraft engine continued in this National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sponsored Pratt and Whitney program for the Preliminary Design of an Advanced High-Pressure Turbine. Airfoil cooling concepts and the technology required to implement these concepts received particular emphasis. Previous supersonic cruise aircraft mission studies were reviewed and the Variable Stream Control Engine (VSCE) was chosen as the candidate or the preliminary turbine design. The design was evaluated for the supersonic cruise mission. The advanced technology to be generated from these designs showed benefits in the supersonic cruise application and subsonic cruise application. The preliminary design incorporates advanced single crystal materials, thermal barrier coatings, and oxidation resistant coatings for both the vane and blade. The 1990 technology vane and blade designs have cooled turbine efficiency of 92.3 percent, 8.05 percent Wae cooling and a 10,000 hour life. An alternate design with 1986 technology has 91.9 percent efficiency and 12.43 percent Wae cooling at the same life. To achieve these performance and life results, technology programs must be pursued to provide the 1990's technology assumed for this study.

  7. Subduction experiment. Cruise report, R/V oceanus, cruise number 250 legs 1 and 2. Subduction 2 mooring deployment and recovery cruise, 25 January-26 February 1992. Technical report, 25 January-26 February 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Trask, R.P.; Brink, N.J.; Regier, L.; McPhee, N.

    1993-03-01

    Subduction is the mechanism by which water masses formed in the mixed layer and near the surface of the ocean find their way into the upper thermocline. The subduction process and its underlying mechanisms were studied through a combination of Eulerian and Langrangian measurements of velocity, measurements of tracer distributions and hydrographic properties and modeling. An array of five surface moorings carrying meteorological and oceanographic instrumentation were deployed for a period of two years beginning in June 1991 as part of an Office of Naval Research (ONR) funded Subduction experiment. Three eight month deployments were planned. The initial deployment of five surface moorings took place during the third leg of R/V Oceanus cruise number 240. The moorings were deployed at 18 deg N 34 deg W, 18 deg N 22 deg W, 25.5 deg N 29 deg W, 33 deg N 22 deg W and 33 deg N 34 deg W. A Vector Averaging Wind Recorder (VAWR) and an Improved Meteorological Recorder (IMET) collected wind speed and wind direction, sea surface temperature, air temperature, short wave radiation, barometric pressure and relative humidity. The IMET also measured precipitation. The moorings were heavily instrumented below the surface with Vector Measuring Current Meters (VMCM) and single point temperature recorders. Expendable bathythermograph (XBT) data were collected and meteorological observations were made while transitting between mooring locations. This report describes the work that took place during R/V Oceanus cruise 250 which was the second scheduled Subduction mooring cruise. During this cruise the first setting of the moorings were recovered and redeployed for a second eight month period.

  8. Cruise report for A1-00-SC southern California earthquake hazards project, part A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gutmacher, Christina E.; Normark, William R.; Ross, Stephanie L.; Edwards, Brian D.; Sliter, Ray; Hart, Patrick; Cooper, Becky; Childs, Jon; Reid, Jane A.

    2000-01-01

    A three-week cruise to obtain high-resolution boomer and multichannel seismic-reflection profiles supported two project activities of the USGS Coastal and Marine Geology (CMG) Program: (1) evaluating the earthquake and related geologic hazards posed by faults in the near offshore area of southern California and (2) determining the pathways through which sea-water is intruding into aquifers of Los Angeles County in the area of the Long Beach and Los Angeles harbors. The 2000 cruise, A1-00-SC, is the third major data-collection effort in support of the first objective (Normark et al., 1999a, b); one more cruise is planned for 2002. This report deals primarily with the shipboard operations related to the earthquake-hazard activity. The sea-water intrusion survey is confined to shallow water and the techniques used are somewhat different from that of the hazards survey (see Edwards et al., in preparation).

  9. Emergence of new norovirus variants on spring cruise ships and prediction of winter epidemics.

    PubMed

    Verhoef, Linda; Depoortere, Evelyn; Boxman, Ingeborg; Duizer, Erwin; van Duynhoven, Yvonne; Harris, John; Johnsen, Christina; Kroneman, Annelies; Le Guyader, Soizick; Lim, Wilina; Maunula, Leena; Meldal, Hege; Ratcliff, Rod; Reuter, Gábor; Schreier, Eckart; Siebenga, Joukje; Vainio, Kirsti; Varela, Carmen; Vennema, Harry; Koopmans, Marion

    2008-02-01

    In June 2006, reported outbreaks of norovirus on cruise ships suddenly increased; 43 outbreaks occurred on 13 vessels. All outbreaks investigated manifested person-to-person transmission. Detection of a point source was impossible because of limited investigation of initial outbreaks and data sharing. The most probable explanation for these outbreaks is increased norovirus activity in the community, which coincided with the emergence of 2 new GGII.4 variant strains in Europe and the Pacific. As in 2002, a new GGII.4 variant detected in the spring and summer corresponded with high norovirus activity in the subsequent winter. Because outbreaks on cruise ships are likely to occur when new variants circulate, an active reporting system could function as an early warning system. Internationally accepted guidelines are needed for reporting, investigating, and controlling norovirus illness on cruise ships in Europe.

  10. Measured far-field flight noise of a counterrotation turboprop at cruise conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodward, Richard P.; Loeffler, Irvin J.; Dittmar, James H.

    1989-01-01

    Modern high speed propeller (advanced turboprop) aircraft are expected to operate on 50 to 60 percent less fuel than the 1980 vintage turbofan fleet while at the same time matching the flight speed and performance of those aircraft. Counterrotation turboprop engines offer additional fuel savings by means of upstream propeller swirl recovery. This paper presents acoustic sideline results for a full-scale counterrotation turboprop engine at cruise conditions. The engine was installed on a Boeing 727 aircraft in place of the right-side turbofan engine. Acoustic data were taken from an instrumented Learjet chase plane. Sideline acoustic results are presented for 0.50 and 0.72 Mach cruise conditions. A scale model of the engine propeller was tested in a wind tunnel at 0.72 Mach cruise conditions. The model data were adjusted to flight acquisition conditions and were in general agreement with the flight results.

  11. MARS PATHFINDER ENTRY VEHICLE MATED TO CRUISE STAGE IN SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The critical task of mating the Mars Pathfinder entry vehicle with its cruise stage is under way in KSC's Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2). Mechanical mating is completed first and then electrical connections between the two elements are established. The cone-shaped aeroshell is being moved upward into the cruise stage, the uppermost element. Inside the protective aeroshell is the Pathfinder lander, and inside the lander is the Sojourner rover that will explore the Martian terrain. The aeroshell, lander and rover together comprise the entry vehicle. The cruise stage will deliver the entry vehicle directly to Mars, a journey expected to last approximately seven months, and then is jettisoned before the entry vehicle makes its final descent to the Martian surface. The Mars Pathfinder is being prepared for launch aboard a Delta II expendable launch vehicle during a 24-day launch period that opens Dec. 2, 1996.

  12. CITY III Operator's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Envirometrics, Inc., Washington, DC.

    CITY III is a computer-assisted simulation game of an urban system involving player operation of and interaction with economic, social, and government components. The role of operator in the game is to take the handwritten inputs (decisions) from the CITY III participants, process them, and return output which initiates the next round of…

  13. SUPERSTARS III: K-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Education, Raleigh.

    SUPERSTARS III is a K-8 program designed as an enrichment opportunity for self-directed learners in mathematics. The basic purpose of SUPERSTARS III is to provide the extra challenge that self-motivated students need in mathematics and to do so in a structured, long-term program that does not impinge on the normal classroom routine or the…

  14. Volume 35, AMT-1 Cruise Report and Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Robins, David B.; Bale, Anthony J.; Moore, Gerald F.; Rees, Nigel W.; Gallienne, Christopher P.; Westbrooke, Anthony G.; Maranon, Emilio; Spooner, William H.; Laney, Samuel R.

    1996-01-01

    This report documents the scientific activities on board the Royal Research Ship (RRS) 'James Clark Ross' during the irst Atlantic Meridional Transect (AMT-1), 21 September to 24 October 1995. The ship sailed from Grimsby (England) for Montevideo (Uruguay) and then continued on to Stanley (Falkland Islands). The primary objective of the AMT program is to investigate basic biological processes in the open Atlantic Ocean over very broad spatial scales. For AMT-1, the meridional range covered was approximately 50 deg N to 50 deg S or nearly 8,000 nmi. The measurements to be taken during the AMT cruises are fundamental for the calibration, validation, and continuing understanding of remotely sensed observations of biological oceanography. They are also important for understanding plankton community structure over latitudinal scales and the role of the world ocean in global carbon cycles. During AMT-1 a variety of instruments were used to map the physical, chemical, and biological structure of the upper 200 m of the water column. Ocean color measurements were made using state-of-the-art sensors, whose calibration was traceable to the highest international standards. New advances in fluorometry were used to measure photosynthetic activity, which was then used to further interpret primary productivity. A unique set of samples and data were collected for the planktonic assemblages that vary throughout the range of the transect. These data will yield new interpretations on community composition and their role in carbon cycling. While the various provinces of the Atlantic Ocean were being crossed, the partial pressure of CO2 was related to biological productivity. This comparison revealed the areas of drawdown of atmospheric CO2 and how these areas relate to the surrounding biological productivity. These data, plus the measurements of light attenuation and phytoplankton optical properties, will be used as a primary input for basin-scale biological productivity models to help

  15. K1-95-HW, cruise report 1995: preliminary results. Phase III: sediment chemistry and biological sampling survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torresan, M.E.; Hampton, M.A.; Barber, J.H.; Wong, F.L.

    1995-01-01

    Mamala Bay, off the south shore of the island of Oahu, has been used as a repository of dredged material primarily from Pearl and Honolulu Harbors for over a century. The U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are conducting an integrated study on the distribution and character of dredged materials as well as the effects of dredged material on the marine environment. A three phase study is providing information to evaluate the effects on seafloor substrate and the benthic fauna. The studies include geophysical profiling and imaging, bottom photography, sampling, chemical and physical analyses of sediment, and evaluations of the benthic population, population density, and adverse impacts to the benthic fauna. Phase 1, conducted in 1993, inventoried the seafloor via remote sensing. Sidescan sonar and subbottom profilers characterized the seafloor in and around the disposal sites, and the resulting products reveal the character and extent of the dredged material. These data were used to plan Phase 2 in 1994, a sampling program that employed subbottom profilers, video and still photography, and seafloor sampling to ground truth the sonar mosaic and identify the seafloor substrates responsible for the various acoustic signatures on the sonar images and subbottom profiles. Box coring provided the samples necessary to distinguish dredged material from native sediment, and for the chemical analyses used to determine contaminant concentrations. Phase 3 studies conducted in June of 1995 consisted of box core sampling for chemical and biological analyses. Specific studies include: infaunal taxonomy and population density, bioassay/bioaccumulation, sediment chemistry, and post-disposal resuspension and transport. The 1995 survey, conducted June 14 through 17, resulted in the collection of 39 box cores from 20 different stations. Multiple box cores were composited at 7 different locations occupied in 1994, to provide the material required for the 7 bioassay and bioaccumulation analyses currently underway (Figure 1). Seventeen of the 20 stations occupied provided the biological samples for the benthic infaunal identification and population density study conducted by Dr. Julie Brock of the University of Hawaii, and the sediment chemistry analyses conducted (and completed) by Quanterra Environmental Laboratories (Figure 1). Seven of the 20 stations occupied in 1995 were occupied in 1994, and provide the data for direct comparison of sediment chemistry at the same sites from two consecutive years. The sum total of the data collected from all three phases of the monitoring program will provide the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency with the information required to make informed decisions as to the management of the South Oahu disposal site in Mamala Bay.

  16. 78 FR 10172 - Lisa Anne Cornell and G. Ware Cornell, Jr. v. Princess Cruise Lines, Ltd. (Corp), Carnival PLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... Lisa Anne Cornell and G. Ware Cornell, Jr. v. Princess Cruise Lines, Ltd. (Corp), Carnival PLC, and..., Jr., hereinafter ``Complainants,'' against Princess Cruise Lines, Ltd (Corp), Carnival plc, and... common carrier for hire of passengers from ports in the United States;'' Respondent Carnival plc ``is...

  17. 77 FR 29254 - Safety Zones, Large Cruise Ships; Lower Mississippi River, Southwest Pass Sea Buoy to Mile Marker...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... when the safety zone is in place. The pilot onboard the large cruise ship will be authorized to allow... arrangements with the pilot onboard the large cruise ship may enter into this safety zone in accordance...

  18. Shelf edge exchange processes-II SEEP2-06, R/V Endeavor cruise 186

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, C.; Behrens, W.J.; Flagg, C.N.; Wallace, D.W.R.; Wilke, R.J.; Wyman, K.D.

    1989-12-01

    The Shelf Edge Exchange Processes (SEEP) program sponsored by the United States Department of Energy is a multi-institutional effort designed to investigate the flux of suspended material from the continental shelf to the waters of the upper slope, and then possibly into the slope sediments. Phase I of SEEP consisted of a series of nine cruises and a mooring array across the outer continental shelf of New England during 1983--1984. Phase II focused specifically on the shelf/slope frontal region of the mid-Atlantic bight off the Delmarva Peninsula. Hydrographic data were collected on eight of the six cruises.

  19. 3-D Navier-Stokes Analysis of Blade Root Aerodynamics for a Tiltrotor Aircraft In Cruise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romander, Ethan

    2006-01-01

    The blade root area of a tiltrotor aircraft's rotor is constrained by a great many factors, not the least of which is aerodynamic performance in cruise. For this study, Navier-Stokes CFD techniques are used to study the aerodynamic performance in cruise of a rotor design as a function of airfoil thickness along the blade and spinner shape. Reducing airfoil thickness along the entire blade will be shown to have the greatest effect followed by smaller but still significant improvements achieved by reducing the thickness of root airfoils only. Furthermore, altering the shape of the spinner will be illustrated as a tool to tune the aerodynamic performance very near the blade root.

  20. An analysis of life expectancy of airplane wings in normal cruising flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, Abbott A

    1945-01-01

    In order to provide a basis for judging the relative importance of wing failure by fatigue and by single intense gusts, an analysis of wing life for normal cruising flight was made based on data on the frequency of atmospheric gusts. The independent variables considered in the analysis included stress-concentration factor, stress-load relation, wing loading, design and cruising speeds, design gust velocity, and airplane size. Several methods for estimating fatigue life from gust frequencies are discussed. The procedure selected for the analysis is believed to be simple and reasonably accurate, though slightly conservative.

  1. Advanced structures technology applied to a supersonic cruise arrow-wing configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.; Davis, G. W.

    1976-01-01

    The application of advanced technology to a promising aerodynamic configuration was explored to investigate the improved payload range characteristics over the configuration postulated during the National SST Program. The results of an analytical study performed to determine the best structural approach for design of a Mach number 2.7 arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft are highlighted. The data conducted under the auspices of the Structures Directorate of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Langley Research Center, established firm technical bases from which further trend studies were conducted to quantitatively assess the benefits and feasibility of using advanced structures technology to arrive at a viable advanced supersonic cruise aircraft.

  2. Bryozoans from RV Sonne deep-sea cruises SO 167 'Louisville' and SO 205 'Mangan'.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Kei; Janssen, Annika; Arbizu, Pedro Martínez; Martha, Silviu O; Freiwald, André

    2014-08-21

    The German research vessel Sonne is operating in the Pacific, Southern and Indian Oceans. In the current stage of development in Pacific deep-sea mining projects, prior understanding of biodiversity patterns in the affected regions is one of the major research goals of the RV Sonne cruises. In the present study, nine bryozoan species are reported from the Equatorial East Pacific and the Kermadec-Tonga Ridge, collected during RV Sonne cruises SO 167 "Louisville" and SO 205 "Mangan", from 356-4007 m. Two new species, Raxifabia oligopora n. sp. and Opaeophora triangula n. sp., are described.

  3. Study of the impact of cruise speed on scheduling and productivity of commercial transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, E. Q.; Carroll, E. A.; Flume, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    A comparison is made between airplane productivity and utilization levels derived from commercial airline type schedules which were developed for two subsonic and four supersonic cruise speed aircraft. The cruise speed component is the only difference between the schedules which are based on 1995 passenger demand forecasts. Productivity-to-speed relationships were determined for the three discrete route systems: North Atlantic, Trans-Pacific, and North-South America. Selected combinations of these route systems were also studied. Other areas affecting the productivity-to-speed relationship such as aircraft design range and scheduled turn time were examined.

  4. Deep Impact 9P/TEMPEL Cruise - Raw its Nav Images V1.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carcich, B.; Shaw, A. S.; Desnoyer, M.; McLaughlin, S. A.; Mastrodemos, N.; Klaasen, K. P.

    2010-01-01

    This data set contains raw calibration and test images acquired by the Deep Impact Impactor Targeting Sensor Visible CCD during the cruise phase of the mission. These observations were used for optical and autonomous navigation (NAV) of the impactor spacecraft. These data were collected from 7 April to 30 April 2005. The comet was not imaged during cruise. In this version 1.1 of the data set, the values for the INTEGRATION_DURATION keyword in the PDS data labels were corrected. This revised data set supersedes version 1.0.

  5. Bryozoans from RV Sonne deep-sea cruises SO 167 'Louisville' and SO 205 'Mangan'.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Kei; Janssen, Annika; Arbizu, Pedro Martínez; Martha, Silviu O; Freiwald, André

    2014-01-01

    The German research vessel Sonne is operating in the Pacific, Southern and Indian Oceans. In the current stage of development in Pacific deep-sea mining projects, prior understanding of biodiversity patterns in the affected regions is one of the major research goals of the RV Sonne cruises. In the present study, nine bryozoan species are reported from the Equatorial East Pacific and the Kermadec-Tonga Ridge, collected during RV Sonne cruises SO 167 "Louisville" and SO 205 "Mangan", from 356-4007 m. Two new species, Raxifabia oligopora n. sp. and Opaeophora triangula n. sp., are described. PMID:25284647

  6. Model aerodynamic test results for a refined actuated inlet ejector nozzle at simulated takeoff and cruise conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, D. P.

    1983-01-01

    Wind tunnel model tests were conducted to demonstrate the aerodynamic performance improvements of a refined actuated inlet ejector nozzle. Models of approximately one-tenth scale were configured to simulate nozzle operation at takeoff, subsonic cruise, transonic cruise and supersonic cruise. Variations of model components provided a performance evaluation of ejector inlet and exit area, forebody boattail angle and ejector inlet operation in the open and closed mode. Approximately 700 data points were acquired at Mach numbers of 0, 0.36, 0.9, 1.2, and 2.0 for a wide range of nozzle flow conditions. Results show that relative to two ejector nozzles previously tested performance was improved significantly at takeoff and subsonic cruise performance, a C sub f of 0.982, was attained equal to the high performance of the previous tests. The established advanced supersonic transport propulsion study performance goals were met or closely approached at takeoff and supersonic cruise.

  7. Cruise report for a seismic investigation of gas hydrates in the Mississippi Canyon region, northern Gulf of Mexico; cruise M1-98-GM

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, Alan K.; Hart, Patrick E.; Pecher, Ingo

    1998-01-01

    During the cruise about 850 km of multichannel and single-channel seismic data were recorded. Seismic measurements at nine ocean-bottom seismometer (OBS) stations were recorded for several of the multichannel tracklines (see Fig. 3 in report). The following report describes the field operations and equipment systems employed, gives two examples of ship-board seismic records, and outlines a few preliminary results.

  8. Antithrombin III blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... be due to: Bone marrow transplant Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) AT III deficiency, an inherited condition Liver ... Schmaier AH, Miller JL. Coagulation and fibrinolysis. In: McPherson ... Management by Laboratory Methods . 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  9. The Effect of "Career Cruising" on the Self-Efficacy of Students Deciding on Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Karen; Smothers, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the impact of a self-assessment instrument on the self-efficacy of those deciding on majors in a university setting. Using a pre- and post-test methodology, we employed "Career Cruising" to measure career decision-making self-efficacy. Participants completed the "Career Decision Self-Efficacy-Short Form" (CDSE-SF)…

  10. Summary of Lift and Lift/Cruise Fan Powered Lift Concept Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Woodrow L.

    1993-01-01

    A summary is presented of some of the lift and lift/cruise fan technology including fan performance, fan stall, ground effects, ingestion and thrust loss, design tradeoffs and integration, control effectiveness and several other areas related to vertical short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) aircraft conceptual design. The various subjects addressed, while not necessarily pertinent to specific short takeoff/vertical landing (STOVL) supersonic designs being considered, are of interest to the general field of lift and lift/cruise fan aircraft designs and may be of importance in the future. The various wind tunnel and static tests reviewed are: (1) the Doak VZ-4 ducted fan, (2) the 0.57 scale model of the Bell X-22 ducted fan aircraft, (3) the Avrocar, (4) the General Electric lift/cruise fan, (5) the vertical short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) lift engine configurations related to ingestion and consequent thrust loss, (6) the XV-5 and other fan-in-wing stall consideration, (7) hybrid configurations such as lift fan and lift/cruise fan or engines, and (8) the various conceptual design studies by air-frame contractors. Other design integration problems related to small and large V/STOL transport aircraft are summarized including lessons learned during more recent conceptual design studies related to a small executive V/STOL transport aircraft.

  11. The Primi Project: August-September 2009 Validation Cruise On Oil Spill Detection And Fate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoleri, R.; Bignami, F.; Bohm, E.; Nichio, F.; De Dominicis, M.; Ruggieri, G.; Marulllo, S.; Trivero, P.; Zambianchi, E.; Archetti, R.; Adamo, M.; Biamino, W.; Borasi, M.; Buongiorno Nardelli, B.; Cavagnero, M.; Colao, F.; Colella, S.; Coppini, G.; Debettio, V.; De Carolis, G.; Forneris, V.; Griffa, A.; Iacono, R.; Lombardi, E.; Manzella, G.; Mercantini, A.; Napolitano, E.; Pinardi, N.; Pandiscia, G.; Pisano, A.; Rupolo, V.; Reseghetti, F.; Sabia, L.; Sorgente, R.; Sprovieri, M.; Terranova, G.; Trani, M.; Volpe, G.

    2010-04-01

    In the framework of the ASI PRIMI Project, CNR- ISAC, in collaboration with the PRIMI partners, organized a validation cruise for the PRIMI oil spill monitoring and forecasting system on board the CNR R/V Urania. The cruise (Aug. 6 - Sept. 7 2009) took place in the Sicily Strait, an area affected by large oil tanker traffic. The cruise plan was organized in order to have the ship within the selected SAR image frames at acquisition time so that the ship could move toward the oil slick and verify it via visual and instrumental inspection. During the cruise, several oil spills, presumably being the result of illegal tank washing, were detected by the PRIMI system and were verified in situ. Preliminary results indicate that SAR and optical satellites are able to detect heavy and thin film oil spills, the maturity of oil spill forecasting models and that further work combining satellite, model and in situ data is necessary to assess the spill severity from the signature in satellite imagery.

  12. Measuring surface salinity in the N. Atlantic subtropical gyre. The SPURS-MIDAS cruise, spring 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Font, Jordi; Ward, Brian; Emelianov, Mikhail; Morisset, Simon; Salvador, Joaquin; Busecke, Julius

    2014-05-01

    SPURS-MIDAS (March-April 2013) on board the Spanish R/V Sarmiento de Gamboa was a contribution to SPURS (Salinity Processes in the Upper ocean Regional Study) focused on the processes responsible for the formation and maintenance of the salinity maximum associated to the North Atlantic subtropical gyre. Scientists from Spain, Ireland, France and US sampled the mesoscale and submesoscale structures in the surface layer (fixed points and towed undulating CTD, underway near surface TSG) and deployed operational and experimental drifters and vertical profilers, plus additional ocean and atmospheric data collection. Validation of salinity maps obtained from the SMOS satellite was one of the objectives of the cruise. The cruise included a joint workplan and coordinated sampling with the US R/V Endeavor, with contribution from SPURS teams on land in real time data and analysis exchange. We present here an overview of the different kinds of measurements made during the cruise, as well as a first comparison between SMOS-derived sea surface salinity products and salinity maps obtained from near-surface sampling in the SPURS-MIDAS area and from surface drifters released during the cruise.

  13. Traveler's diarrhea at sea: three outbreaks of waterborne enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli on cruise ships.

    PubMed

    Daniels, N A; Neimann, J; Karpati, A; Parashar, U D; Greene, K D; Wells, J G; Srivastava, A; Tauxe, R V; Mintz, E D; Quick, R

    2000-04-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) has become the leading bacterial cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks on cruise ships. Investigation of recent outbreaks of ETEC gastroenteritis on 3 cruise ships indicated that all were associated with consuming beverages with ice cubes on board the ship (relative risk [RR], 1.4, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-1.9, P=.02; RR, 1.9, 95% CI, 1.3-2. 9, P<.001; and RR, 1.3, 95% CI, 1.0-1.6, P<.01), and 2 were associated with drinking unbottled water (RR, 2.7, 95% CI, 1.8-4.1, P<.001; RR, 1.7, 95% CI, 1.3-2.3, P<.001). Multiple ETEC serotypes were detected in patients' stool specimens in each of the 3 outbreaks, and 12 (38%) of 32 isolates were resistant to > or =3 antimicrobial agents. ETEC appears to be emerging as a waterborne pathogen on cruise ships. Water bunkered in overseas ports was the likely source of ETEC infection in these outbreaks. To ensure passenger safety, cruise ships that take on water in foreign ports must ensure that water treatment and monitoring systems function properly. PMID:10762583

  14. Computation of aerodynamic interference between lifting surfaces and lift- and cruise-fans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillenius, M. F. E.; Mendenhall, M. R.; Spangler, S. B.

    1974-01-01

    Sequence of three computer programs predicts aerodynamic interference on lifting surfaces of transport-type aircraft which are equipped with lift and cruise fans; for example, high-bypass-ratio engine and wing-pylon tail configuration or fuselage-mounted lift-fan and wing-tail configuration.

  15. Using a Macroalgal δ15N Bioassay to Detect Cruise Ship Waste Water Effluent Inputs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen stable isotopes are a powerful tool for tracking sources of N to marine ecosystems. I used green macroalgae as a bioassay organism to evaluate if the δ15N signature of cruise ship waste water effluent (CSWWE) could be detected in Skagway Harbor, AK. Opportunistic green...

  16. A collision model for safety evaluation of autonomous intelligent cruise control.

    PubMed

    Touran, A; Brackstone, M A; McDonald, M

    1999-09-01

    This paper describes a general framework for safety evaluation of autonomous intelligent cruise control in rear-end collisions. Using data and specifications from prototype devices, two collision models are developed. One model considers a train of four cars, one of which is equipped with autonomous intelligent cruise control. This model considers the car in front and two cars following the equipped car. In the second model, none of the cars is equipped with the device. Each model can predict the possibility of rear-end collision between cars under various conditions by calculating the remaining distance between cars after the front car brakes. Comparing the two collision models allows one to evaluate the effectiveness of autonomous intelligent cruise control in preventing collisions. The models are then subjected to Monte Carlo simulation to calculate the probability of collision. Based on crash probabilities, an expected value is calculated for the number of cars involved in any collision. It is found that given the model assumptions, while equipping a car with autonomous intelligent cruise control can significantly reduce the probability of the collision with the car ahead, it may adversely affect the situation for the following cars. PMID:10440554

  17. A collision model for safety evaluation of autonomous intelligent cruise control.

    PubMed

    Touran, A; Brackstone, M A; McDonald, M

    1999-09-01

    This paper describes a general framework for safety evaluation of autonomous intelligent cruise control in rear-end collisions. Using data and specifications from prototype devices, two collision models are developed. One model considers a train of four cars, one of which is equipped with autonomous intelligent cruise control. This model considers the car in front and two cars following the equipped car. In the second model, none of the cars is equipped with the device. Each model can predict the possibility of rear-end collision between cars under various conditions by calculating the remaining distance between cars after the front car brakes. Comparing the two collision models allows one to evaluate the effectiveness of autonomous intelligent cruise control in preventing collisions. The models are then subjected to Monte Carlo simulation to calculate the probability of collision. Based on crash probabilities, an expected value is calculated for the number of cars involved in any collision. It is found that given the model assumptions, while equipping a car with autonomous intelligent cruise control can significantly reduce the probability of the collision with the car ahead, it may adversely affect the situation for the following cars.

  18. Cosmic Rays with Portable Geiger Counters: From Sea Level to Airplane Cruise Altitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, Francesco; La Rocca, Paola; Riggi, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    Cosmic ray count rates with a set of portable Geiger counters were measured at different altitudes on the way to a mountain top and aboard an aircraft, between sea level and cruise altitude. Basic measurements may constitute an educational activity even with high school teams. For the understanding of the results obtained, simulations of extensive…

  19. Extensive Nosocomial Transmission of Measles Originating in Cruise Ship Passenger, Sardinia, Italy, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Bella, Antonino; Cadeddu, Giovanna; Milia, Maria Rafaela; Del Manso, Martina; Rota, Maria Cristina; Magurano, Fabio; Nicoletti, Loredana; Declich, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    We report a measles outbreak in Sardinia, Italy, that originated in a cruise ship passenger. The outbreak showed extensive nosocomial transmission (44 of 80 cases). To minimize nosocomial transmission, health care facilities should ensure that susceptible health care workers are vaccinated against measles and should implement effective infection control procedures. PMID:26196266

  20. 29 CFR 788.8 - “Cruising, surveying, or felling timber.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false âCruising, surveying, or felling timber.â 788.8 Section 788.8 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR...

  1. 29 CFR 788.8 - “Cruising, surveying, or felling timber.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false âCruising, surveying, or felling timber.â 788.8 Section 788.8 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR...

  2. 29 CFR 788.8 - “Cruising, surveying, or felling timber.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false âCruising, surveying, or felling timber.â 788.8 Section 788.8 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR...

  3. DCIXS Science During The Cruise Phase of the SMART-1 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellett, B. J.; Huovelin, J.

    2001-05-01

    The D-CIXS X-ray fluorescent spectrometer on SMART-1 is specifically designed to carry out a complete global survey of the Moon to derive absolute elemental abundances of the major rock-forming elements (Si, Al, Mg, Fe). However, the major portion of the baseline two-year mission is actually the transition phase between low-Earth orbit and lunar orbit insertion. This so-called "cruise phase" is expected to last 15-18 months (depending on the exact launch date of SMART-1). The D-CIXS instrument will be able to carry out important astronomical observations during this cruise phase of the mission. The astronomical targets chosen for these observations will be bright active galactic nuclei (AGNs), very bright galactic X-ray binary sources, and several galactic supernova remnants (SNRs). The SNRs will be used to calibrate the D-CIXS detectors and monitor their long-term performance during the extended cruise phase. The primary scientific goal of these observations will be to monitor the spectrum and overall brightness of these targets on time scales of a few days up to a maximum of 5 months. Other "unpredictable" targets could also be included in the final target selection. These could include bright comets and/or the X-ray fireball from gamma-ray bursters. We will also monitor the solar X-ray emission throughout the cruise phase in the 1-20 keV energy range with good energy and time resolution.

  4. A fuselage/tank structure study for actively cooled hypersonic cruise vehicles: Aircraft design evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nobe, T.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of fuselage cross sections and structural members on the performance of hypersonic cruise aircraft are evaluated. Representative fuselage/tank area structure was analyzed for strength, stability, fatigue and fracture mechanics. Various thermodynamic and structural tradeoffs were conducted to refine the conceptual designs with the primary objective of minimizing weight and maximizing aircraft range.

  5. Features of airplane vortex wake decay in cruise flight and in land proximity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosnyakov, I. S.; Sudakov, G. G.

    2016-10-01

    The cases of the vortex wake decay after the large aircraft are considered for the case of cruise flight and near the ground. It is shown that the scenarios of destruction process are principally different from each other. The physical features of the phenomenon are described and the two models for description of such phenomenon are compared.

  6. Extensive Nosocomial Transmission of Measles Originating in Cruise Ship Passenger, Sardinia, Italy, 2014.

    PubMed

    Filia, Antonietta; Bella, Antonino; Cadeddu, Giovanna; Milia, Maria Rafaela; Del Manso, Martina; Rota, Maria Cristina; Magurano, Fabio; Nicoletti, Loredana; Declich, Silvia

    2015-08-01

    We report a measles outbreak in Sardinia, Italy, that originated in a cruise ship passenger. The outbreak showed extensive nosocomial transmission (44 of 80 cases). To minimize nosocomial transmission, health care facilities should ensure that susceptible health care workers are vaccinated against measles and should implement effective infection control procedures.

  7. 77 FR 65621 - Security Zone; Cruise Ships, Santa Barbara Harbor, Santa Barbara, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-30

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice... the Federal Register on June 20, 2012 (77 FR 36955). Previously, temporary security zones had been... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone; Cruise Ships, Santa Barbara Harbor,...

  8. Experiencing Work: Supporting the Undergraduate Hospitality, Tourism and Cruise Management Student on an Overseas Work Placement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Philip; Busby, Graham

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a funded research project into the experiences of tourism, hospitality and cruise management students on internship outside the UK as part of their British university degree between 2007 and 2009. The research reflected on the perceptions of students, course managers, placement officers and members of university placement…

  9. CARINA data synthesis project: pH data scale unification and cruise adjustments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velo, A.; Pérez, F. F.; Lin, X.; Key, R. M.; Tanhua, T.; de La Paz, M.; Olsen, A.; van Heuven, S.; Jutterström, S.; Ríos, A. F.

    2010-05-01

    Data on carbon and carbon-relevant hydrographic and hydrochemical parameters from 188 previously non-publicly available cruise data sets in the Artic Mediterranean Seas (AMS), Atlantic Ocean and Southern Ocean have been retrieved and merged to a new database: CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic Ocean). These data have gone through rigorous quality control (QC) procedures to assure the highest possible quality and consistency. The data for most of the measured parameters in the CARINA database were objectively examined in order to quantify systematic differences in the reported values. Systematic biases found in the data have been corrected in the data products, three merged data files with measured, calculated and interpolated data for each of the three CARINA regions; AMS, Atlantic Ocean and Southern Ocean. Out of a total of 188 cruise entries in the CARINA database, 59 reported pH measured values. All reported pH data have been unified to the Sea-Water Scale (SWS) at 25 °C. Here we present details of the secondary QC of pH in the CARINA database and the scale unification to SWS at 25 °C. The pH scale has been converted for 36 cruises. Procedures of quality control, including crossover analysis between cruises and inversion analysis are described. Adjustments were applied to the pH values for 21 of the cruises in the CARINA dataset. With these adjustments the CARINA database is consistent both internally as well as with the GLODAP data, an oceanographic data set based on the World Hydrographic Program in the 1990s. Based on our analysis we estimate the internal consistency of the CARINA pH data to be 0.005 pH units. The CARINA data are now suitable for accurate assessments of, for example, oceanic carbon inventories and uptake rates, for ocean acidification assessment and for model validation.

  10. Dissolved lead in the deep Southeast Pacific Ocean: results of the 2013 US GEOTRACES cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, E. A.; Lee, J. M.; Zhang, J.; Echegoyen, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Lead (Pb) in the modern ocean is dominated by anthropogenic Pb, which has been evidenced by highly elevated seawater Pb concentrations and Pb stable isotope ratios (204Pb, 206Pb, 207Pb, and 208Pb) altered from pre-anthropogenic values. A number of studies have shown the human impact on oceanic Pb in many parts of the world ocean, but little Pb data has been available for the Southeast Pacific Ocean. In this presentation, we will show the dissolved Pb (<0.2µm) results from the US GEOTRACES cruise in October - December 2013, which sailed from Manta, Ecuador, to Tahiti along around 12 degrees south. Dissolved Pb concentrations from all 36 surface stations and deep (>1000m) Pb profiles from 18 stations will be presented, and the results will be also compared to our unpublished data from the BiG RAPA cruise in 2010, whose cruise track from Arica, Peru, to Easter Island is slightly south of the US GEOTRACES cruise. The BiG RAPA data showed that dissolved Pb concentrations of the southeast Pacific Ocean are relatively low, varying in the range of 8-20 pmol/kg at the surface with a slight maximum (14-22 pmol/kg) at around 400m depth, and 2-10 pmol/kg in deep waters below 1000m depth. The Pb concentrations were found to be higher at a marginal station off Peru, reaching 45 pmol/kg at the surface and 65 pmol/kg in the subsurface maximum at 150m depth, and varying between 17 and 23 pmol/kg in deep waters. Our dataset, along with the results from the BiG RAPA cruise, will provide the first overview on the dissolved Pb distribution of the southeast Pacific Ocean, which will further our understanding on the human impact on the global ocean.

  11. Comparison of Hygroscopicity, Volatility, and Mixing State of Submicrometer Particles between Cruises over the Arctic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gibaek; Cho, Hee-Joo; Seo, Arom; Kim, Dohyung; Gim, Yeontae; Lee, Bang Yong; Yoon, Young Jun; Park, Kihong

    2015-10-20

    Ship-borne measurements of ambient aerosols were conducted during an 11 937 km cruise over the Arctic Ocean (cruise 1) and the Pacific Ocean (cruise 2). A frequent nucleation event was observed during cruise 1 under marine influence, and the abundant organic matter resulting from the strong biological activity in the ocean could contribute to the formation of new particles and their growth to a detectable size. Concentrations of particle mass and black carbon increased with increasing continental influence from polluted areas. During cruise 1, multiple peaks of hygroscopic growth factor (HGF) of 1.1-1.2, 1.4, and 1.6 were found, and higher amounts of volatile organic species existed in the particles compared to that during cruise 2, which is consistent with the greater availability of volatile organic species caused by the strong oceanic biological activity (cruise 1). Internal mixtures of volatile and nonhygroscopic organic species, nonvolatile and less-hygroscopic organic species, and nonvolatile and hygroscopic nss-sulfate with varying fractions can be assumed to constitute the submicrometer particles. On the basis of elemental composition and morphology, the submicrometer particles were classified into C-rich mixture, S-rich mixture, C/S-rich mixture, Na-rich mixture, C/P-rich mixture, and mineral-rich mixture. Consistently, the fraction of biological particles (i.e., P-containing particles) increased when the ship traveled along a strongly biologically active area. PMID:26389581

  12. Comparison of Hygroscopicity, Volatility, and Mixing State of Submicrometer Particles between Cruises over the Arctic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gibaek; Cho, Hee-Joo; Seo, Arom; Kim, Dohyung; Gim, Yeontae; Lee, Bang Yong; Yoon, Young Jun; Park, Kihong

    2015-10-20

    Ship-borne measurements of ambient aerosols were conducted during an 11 937 km cruise over the Arctic Ocean (cruise 1) and the Pacific Ocean (cruise 2). A frequent nucleation event was observed during cruise 1 under marine influence, and the abundant organic matter resulting from the strong biological activity in the ocean could contribute to the formation of new particles and their growth to a detectable size. Concentrations of particle mass and black carbon increased with increasing continental influence from polluted areas. During cruise 1, multiple peaks of hygroscopic growth factor (HGF) of 1.1-1.2, 1.4, and 1.6 were found, and higher amounts of volatile organic species existed in the particles compared to that during cruise 2, which is consistent with the greater availability of volatile organic species caused by the strong oceanic biological activity (cruise 1). Internal mixtures of volatile and nonhygroscopic organic species, nonvolatile and less-hygroscopic organic species, and nonvolatile and hygroscopic nss-sulfate with varying fractions can be assumed to constitute the submicrometer particles. On the basis of elemental composition and morphology, the submicrometer particles were classified into C-rich mixture, S-rich mixture, C/S-rich mixture, Na-rich mixture, C/P-rich mixture, and mineral-rich mixture. Consistently, the fraction of biological particles (i.e., P-containing particles) increased when the ship traveled along a strongly biologically active area.

  13. The origin, composition, and reactivity of dissolved iron(III) complexes in coastal organic- and iron-rich sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckler, Jordon S.; Jones, Morris E.; Taillefert, Martial

    2015-03-01

    The redox chemistry and speciation of Fe in both solid and dissolved phases were characterized in the organic- and Fe-rich sediments of the Satilla River estuary in South-East Georgia (USA) on a series of four cruises between July 2007 and January 2008. Results indicate that dissolved Fe is present in relatively high concentration in the overlying waters at the freshwater end of the estuary and flocculates along the river as the salinity increases downstream. Soluble organic-Fe(III) complexes comprise the majority of dissolved Fe (<0.2 μm) in the suboxic pore waters of the upriver stations that are characterized by high concentrations of poorly crystalline Fe(III) (oxy)hydroxides. In contrast, SO42--reducing conditions downstream prevent the accumulation of organic-Fe(III) in the pore waters by titrating Fe from the sediment. Separation of dissolved Fe by size exclusion chromatography revealed that Fe(II) is complexed by organic ligands in the pore waters while the organic-Fe(III) complexes are either small or highly reactive with the column matrix. Finally, dissimilatory Fe(III) reduction, stimulated by inoculating anaerobic sediments with a Fe(III)-reducing bacterium (FeRB), Shewanella putrefaciens strain 200, increased production of soluble organic-Fe(III) complexes, and addition of reactive Fe(III) hydroxides accelerated the non-reductive dissolution of Fe(III) (oxy)hydroxides irrespective of the presence of exogenous FeRB. These findings suggest soluble organic-Fe(III) complexes in suboxic pore waters may be produced both as intermediates during the dissimilatory reduction of Fe(III) (oxy)hydroxides by Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms and during the oxidation of organic-Fe(II) complexes by Fe(III) (oxy)hydroxides. These soluble organic-Fe(III) complexes are stable in pore waters and may flux from the sediments to the continental shelf.

  14. Self-Reported Stomach Upset in Travellers on Cruise-Based and Land-Based Package Holidays

    PubMed Central

    Launders, Naomi J.; Nichols, Gordon L.; Cartwright, Rodney; Lawrence, Joanne; Jones, Jane; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2014-01-01

    Background International travellers are at a risk of infectious diseases not seen in their home country. Stomach upsets are common in travellers, including on cruise ships. This study compares the incidence of stomach upsets on land- and cruise-based holidays. Methods A major British tour operator has administered a Customer Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ) to UK resident travellers aged 16 or more on return flights from their holiday abroad over many years. Data extracted from the CSQ was used to measure self-reported stomach upset in returning travellers. Results From summer 2000 through winter 2008, 6,863,092 questionnaires were completed; 6.6% were from cruise passengers. A higher percentage of land-based holiday-makers (7.2%) reported stomach upset in comparison to 4.8% of cruise passengers (RR = 1.5, p<0.0005). Reported stomach upset on cruises declined over the study period (7.1% in 2000 to 3.1% in 2008, p<0.0005). Over 25% of travellers on land-based holidays to Egypt and the Dominican Republic reported stomach upset. In comparison, the highest proportion of stomach upset in cruise ship travellers were reported following cruises departing from Egypt (14.8%) and Turkey (8.8%). Conclusions In this large study of self-reported illness both demographic and holiday choice factors were shown to play a part in determining the likelihood of developing stomach upset while abroad. There is a lower cumulative incidence and declining rates of stomach upset in cruise passengers which suggest that the cruise industry has adopted operations (e.g. hygiene standards) that have reduced illness over recent years. PMID:24427271

  15. A fuel-efficient cruise performance model for general aviation piston engine airplanes. Ph.D. Thesis. Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, R. C. H.

    1983-01-01

    A fuel-efficient cruise performance model which facilitates maximizing the specific range of General Aviation airplanes powered by spark-ignition piston engines and propellers is presented. Airplanes of fixed design only are considered. The uses and limitations of typical Pilot Operating Handbook cruise performance data, for constructing cruise performance models suitable for maximizing specific range, are first examined. These data are found to be inadequate for constructing such models. A new model of General Aviation piston-prop airplane cruise performance is then developed. This model consists of two subsystem models: the airframe-propeller-atmosphere subsystem model; and the engine-atmosphere subsystem model. The new model facilitates maximizing specific range; and by virtue of its implicity and low volume data storge requirements, appears suitable for airborne microprocessor implementation.

  16. Toward a second generation fuel efficient supersonic cruise aircraft performance characteristics and benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vachal, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    The need for greatly improved fuel efficiency and off-design subsonic characteristics is discussed. Engine-airframe matching studies are presented which show the benefits of a configuration designed for much lower supersonic drag levels (blended wing-fuselage) and how well this airframe matches with the new advanced variable-cycle engines. The benefits of advanced takeoff procedures and systems together with the co-annular noise effect in achieving low noise levels with a small cruise-sized engine are discussed. It is concluded that the technology advances when carefully integrated through detailed engine-airframe matching studies on a validated baseline airplane lead to a much improved supersonic cruise aircraft, i.e., more range, less fuel consumption, noise flexibility and satisfactory off-design characteristics.

  17. Heavy ion observations by MARIE in cruise phase and Mars orbit.

    PubMed

    Lee, K T; Cleghorn, T; Cucinotta, F; Pinsky, L; Zeitlin, C

    2004-01-01

    The charged particle spectrum for nuclei from protons to neon, (charge Z=10) was observed during the cruise phase and orbit around Mars by the MARIE charged particle spectrometer on the Odyssey spacecraft. The cruise data were taken between April 23, 2001 and mid-August 2001. The Mars orbit data were taken March 5, 2002 through May 2002 and are scheduled to continue until August 2004. Charge peaks are clearly separated for charges up to Z=10. Especially prominent are the carbon and oxygen peaks, with boron and nitrogen also clearly visible. Although heavy ions are much less abundant than protons in the cosmic ray environment, it is important to determine their abundances because their ionization energy losses (proportional to Z2) are far more dangerous to humans and to instruments. Thus the higher charged nuclei make a significant contribution to dose and dose equivalent received in space. Results of the charged particle spectrum measurements will be reported.

  18. Daily forecast of Columbia River plume: a tale of two cruises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, A. M.; Zhang, Y. J.; Chawla, A.; Seaton, C.; Turner, P.; Wilkin, M.; Racicot, A.; Peterson, B.; Morgan, C. A.; Hickey, B.; Kosro, M.; Wesson, J.; Jay, D.

    2004-12-01

    The Columbia River plume has a very dynamic and complex response to external forcings such as wind, freshwater discharge, and tides. In May and July 2004, the CORIE (http://www.ccalmr.ogi.edu/CORIE/) forecasting technology was used to provide daily predictions of baroclinic plume circulation in support of multi-vessel NOAA Fisheries and NSF RISE cruises. Model simulations were transferred real-time or daily to the vessels, and the results were contrasted against data from the CORIE real-time observation network and the Oregon State University coastal radar network, as well as against selected data from the vessels and (in May) airborne remote sensors. The forecasts proved effective in capturing major characteristics of the plume including its response to shifting winds. Post cruise simulations added quality to the quantitative characterization of the plume.

  19. Acute gastroenteritis and video camera surveillance: a cruise ship case report.

    PubMed

    Diskin, Arthur L; Caro, Gina M; Dahl, Eilif

    2014-01-01

    A 'faecal accident' was discovered in front of a passenger cabin of a cruise ship. After proper cleaning of the area the passenger was approached, but denied having any gastrointestinal symptoms. However, when confronted with surveillance camera evidence, she admitted having the accident and even bringing the towel stained with diarrhoea back to the pool towels bin. She was isolated until the next port where she was disembarked. Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) caused by Norovirus is very contagious and easily transmitted from person to person on cruise ships. The main purpose of isolation is to avoid public vomiting and faecal accidents. To quickly identify and isolate contagious passengers and crew and ensure their compliance are key elements in outbreak prevention and control, but this is difficult if ill persons deny symptoms. All passenger ships visiting US ports now have surveillance video cameras, which under certain circumstances can assist in finding potential index cases for AGE outbreaks.

  20. Cruise ships as a source of avian mortality during fall migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bocetti, C.I.

    2011-01-01

    Avian mortality during fall migration has been studied at many anthropogenic structures, most of which share the common feature of bright lighting. An additional, unstudied source of avian mortality during fall migration is recreational cruise ships that are brightly lit throughout the night. I documented a single mortality event of eight Common Yellowthroats (Geothlypis trichas) on one ship during part of one night in fall 2003, but suggest this is a more wide-spread phenomenon. The advertised number of ship-nights for 50 cruise ships in the Caribbean Sea during fall migration in 2003 was 2,981. This may pose a significant, additional, anthropogenic source of mortality that warrants further investigation, particularly because impacts could be minimized if this source of avian mortality is recognized. ?? 2011 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  1. Cruise observation and numerical modeling of turbulent mixing in the Pearl River estuary in summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Jiayi; Gu, Yanzhen

    2016-06-01

    The turbulent mixing in the Pearl River estuary and plume area is analyzed by using cruise data and simulation results of the Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS). The cruise observations reveal that strong mixing appeared in the bottom layer on larger ebb in the estuary. Modeling simulations are consistent with the observation results, and suggest that inside the estuary and in the near-shore water, the mixing is stronger on ebb than on flood. The mixing generation mechanism analysis based on modeling data reveals that bottom stress is responsible for the generation of turbulence in the estuary, for the re-circulating plume area, internal shear instability plays an important role in the mixing, and wind may induce the surface mixing in the plume far-field. The estuary mixing is controlled by the tidal strength, and in the re-circulating plume bulge, the wind stirring may reinforce the internal shear instability mixing.

  2. Evaluation of structural design concepts for an arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.; Davis, G. W.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical study was performed to determine the best structural approach for design of primary wing and fuselage structure of a Mach 2.7 arrow wing supersonic cruise aircraft. Concepts were evaluated considering near term start of design. Emphasis was placed on the complex interactions between thermal stress, static aeroelasticity, flutter, fatigue and fail safe design, static and dynamic loads, and the effects of variations in structural arrangements, concepts and materials on these interactions. Results indicate that a hybrid wing structure incorporating low profile convex beaded and honeycomb sandwich surface panels of titanium alloy 6Al-4V were the most efficient. The substructure includes titanium alloy spar caps reinforced with boron polyimide composites. The fuselage shell consists of hat stiffened skin and frame construction of titanium alloy 6Al-4V. A summary of the study effort is presented, and a discussion of the overall logic, design philosophy and interaction between the analytical methods for supersonic cruise aircraft design are included.

  3. Shelf Edge Exchange Processes, II: SEEP2-08, R/V ENDEAVOR cruise 188. Hydrographic data report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, C.; Behrens, W.J.; Flagg, C.N.; Wallace, D.W.R.; Wilke, R.J.; Wyman, K.D.

    1989-12-01

    The Shelf Edge Exchange Processes (SEEP) program sponsored by the United States Department of Energy is a multi-institutional effort designed to investigate the flux of suspended material from the continental shelf to the waters of the upper slope, and then possibly into the slope sediments. Phase I of SEEP consisted of a series of nine cruises and a mooring array across the outer continental shelf of New England during 1983--1984 (Behrens and Flagg, 1986). Phase II focused specifically on the shelf/slope frontal region of the mid-Atlantic bight off the Delmarva Peninsula. This project consisted of a series of ten cruises, a mooring array, and a series of over-flights by NASA aircraft. Hydrographic data were collected on eight of the cruises, six of which were primarily mooring deployment or recovery cruises. The cruises were consecutively designated SEEP2-01 to SEEP2-10. Two cruises (SEEP2-04 and SEEP2-07) were dedicated to investigating benthic processes and hydrographic data were not collected.

  4. Mariner 9 propulsion subsystem performance during interplanetary cruise and Mars orbit insertion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cork, M. J.; French, R. L.; Leising, C. J.; Schmit, D. D.

    1972-01-01

    On 14 November 1971 the Mariner 9 1334-N-(300-lbf)-thrust rocket engine was fired for just over 15 min to place the first man-made satellite into orbit about Mars. Propulsion subsystem data gathered during the 5-month interplanetary cruise and orbit insertion are of significance to future missions of this type. Specific results related to performance predictability, zero g heat transfer, and nitrogen permeation, diffusion, and solubility values are presented.

  5. Aero acoustic analysis and community noise. HSCT climb to cruise noise assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mortlock, Alan K.

    1992-01-01

    The widely accepted industry High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) design goal for exterior noise is to achieve Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) Part 36 Stage 3 noise limits currently required for new subsonic aircraft. The three phases of the concern are as follows: (1) airport noise abatement at communities close to the airport, (2) climb power opening-up procedures, and (3) the climb to cruise phase affecting communities far from the airport.

  6. Nearfield Unsteady Pressures at Cruise Mach Numbers for a Model Scale Counter-Rotation Open Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, David B.

    2012-01-01

    An open rotor experiment was conducted at cruise Mach numbers and the unsteady pressure in the nearfield was measured. The system included extensive performance measurements, which can help provide insight into the noise generating mechanisms in the absence of flow measurements. A set of data acquired at a constant blade pitch angle but various rotor speeds was examined. The tone levels generated by the front and rear rotor were found to be nearly equal when the thrust was evenly balanced between rotors.

  7. Design definition study of a lift/cruise fan technology V/STOL airplane: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zabinsky, J. M.; Higgins, H. C.

    1975-01-01

    A two-engine three-fan V/STOL airplane was designed to fulfill naval operational requirements. A multimission airplane was developed from study of specific point designs. Based on the multimission concept, airplanes were designed to demonstrate and develop the technology and operational procedures for this class of aircraft. Use of interconnected variable pitch fans led to a good balance between high thrust with responsive control and efficient thrust at cruise speeds. The airplanes and their characteristics are presented.

  8. CARINA data synthesis project: pH data scale unification and cruise adjustments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velo, A.; Pérez, F. F.; Lin, X.; Key, R. M.; Tanhua, T.; de La Paz, M.; van Heuven, S.; Jutterström, S.; Ríos, A. F.

    2009-10-01

    Data on carbon and carbon-relevant hydrographic and hydrochemical parameters from previously non-publicly available cruise data sets in the Artic Mediterranean Seas (AMS), Atlantic and Southern Ocean have been retrieved and merged to a new database: CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic). These data have gone through rigorous quality control (QC) procedures to assure the highest possible quality and consistency. The data for most of the measured parameters in the CARINA database were objectively examined in order to quantify systematic differences in the reported values, i.e. secondary quality control. Systematic biases found in the data have been corrected in the data products, i.e. three merged data files with measured, calculated and interpolated data for each of the three CARINA regions; AMS, Atlantic and Southern Ocean. Out of a total of 188 cruise entries in the CARINA database, 59 reported pH measured values. Here we present details of the secondary QC on pH for the CARINA database. Procedures of quality control, including crossover analysis between cruises and inversion analysis of all crossover data are briefly described. Adjustments were applied to the pH values for 21 of the cruises in the CARINA dataset. With these adjustments the CARINA database is consistent both internally as well as with GLODAP data, an oceanographic data set based on the World Hydrographic Program in the 1990s. Based on our analysis we estimate the internal accuracy of the CARINA pH data to be 0.005 pH units. The CARINA data are now suitable for accurate assessments of, for example, oceanic carbon inventories and uptake rates and for model validation.

  9. Bibliography of Supersonic Cruise Aircraft Research (SCAR) Program from 1972 to Mid-1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, S.

    1977-01-01

    This bibliography documents publications of the supersonic cruise aircraft research (SCAR) program that were generated during the first 5 years of effort. The reports are arranged according to systems studies and five SCAR disciplines: propulsion, stratospheric emissions impact, structures and materials, aerodynamic performance, and stability and control. The specific objectives of each discipline are summarized. Annotation is included for all NASA inhouse and low-number contractor reports. There are 444 papers and articles included.

  10. Cosmic rays with portable Geiger counters: from sea level to airplane cruise altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, Francesco; La Rocca, Paola; Riggi, Francesco

    2009-07-01

    Cosmic ray count rates with a set of portable Geiger counters were measured at different altitudes on the way to a mountain top and aboard an aircraft, between sea level and cruise altitude. Basic measurements may constitute an educational activity even with high school teams. For the understanding of the results obtained, simulations of extensive air showers induced by high-energy primary protons in the atmosphere were also carried out, involving undergraduate and graduate teaching levels.

  11. Calculation of vertical and ramp-assisted takeoffs for supersonic cruise fighters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, G. C.

    1984-01-01

    A procedure that allows rapid preliminary evaluations of the vertical, short, and normal takeoff performance of supersonic cruise aircraft concepts was developed into a numerical computer program. The program is used to determine the effects on takeoff performance of various parameters, such as thrust-weight ratio, wing loading, thrust vector angle, and flap setting. Ramp-assisted takeoffs for overloaded configurations typical of a ground-attack mission are included. The effects of wind on the takeoff performance are also considered.

  12. Conceptual design studies of lift/cruise fans for military transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A study program for conceptual design studies of remote lift and lift/cruise fan systems to meet the requirements of military V/STOL aircraft was conducted. Parametric performance and design data are presented for fans covering a range of pressure ratios, including both single and two stage fan concepts. The gas generator selected for these fan systems was the J101-GE-100 engine. Noise generation and transient response were determined for selected fan systems.

  13. Evolution of Fuel-Air and Contaminant Clouds Resulting from a Cruise Missile Explosion Scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, A S; Kul, A L

    2005-06-22

    A low-mach-number hydrodynamics model has been used to simulate the evolution of a fuel-air mixture and contaminant cloud resulting from the detonation of a cruise missile. The detonation has been assumed to be non-nuclear. The cloud evolution has been carried out to a time of 5.5 seconds. At this time the contaminant has completely permeated the initial fuel-air mixture cloud.

  14. Supersonic Cruise Research 1979, part 2. [airframe structures and materials, systems integration, economic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Advances in airframe structure and materials technology for supersonic cruise aircraft are reported with emphasis on titanium and composite structures. The operation of the Concorde is examined as a baseline for projections into the future. A market survey of U.S. passenger attitudes and preferences, the impact of advanced air transport technology and the integration of systems for the advanced SST and for a smaller research/business jet vehicle are also discussed.

  15. Aero acoustic analysis and community noise. HSCT climb to cruise noise assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortlock, Alan K.

    1992-04-01

    The widely accepted industry High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) design goal for exterior noise is to achieve Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) Part 36 Stage 3 noise limits currently required for new subsonic aircraft. The three phases of the concern are as follows: (1) airport noise abatement at communities close to the airport, (2) climb power opening-up procedures, and (3) the climb to cruise phase affecting communities far from the airport.

  16. Hydrothermal fountains imaged by high resolution side-scan sonar equipped on a cruising AUV, URASHIMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, H.; Tsukioka, S.; Yamamoto, H.; Shitashima, K.; Yamamoto, F.; Sawa, T.; Hyakudome, T.; Kasaya, T.; Kinoshita, M.

    2007-12-01

    Mapping of an area and intensities of activity at a particular hydrothermal field has required huge effort so far, typically several tens of dives of manned submersibles and/or ROVs to obtain detailed locality map with needed resolutions. Thus, appropriate remote sensing techniques have been desired since the discovery of seafloor hydrothermal field. A series of successful trials has been performed by ABE of WHOI equipped with a Eh-sensor (Yoerger et al., Oceanography, 2007). A 100kHz side-scan sonar (SSS) equipped on a cruising AUV, URASHIMA, caught detailed structural image of hydrothermal fountains rooting active chimneys during YK07-07 Cruise off Okinawa Isl. (May 6-18, 2007). The URASHIMA AUV is a 10-m-length cylindrical-shaped one that originally optimized to long distance cruise. In the expedition, she cruised near the sea floor with 50-100 m altitude, at the area of 1000-1500 m in WD. She has currently basic oceanographic/CTD sensors, a 400kHz echo-sounder and sonars of 100400 kHz side-scan sonar and up to 6 kHz sub-bottom profiler. In this operation, pH and ORP sensors (CRIEPI) were also attached in front of AUV. On the pre-processing image of SSS, numbers of filament-shape echoes were recorded within water column zone. The reason why they should be the echo from hydrothermal plumes are as folows; 1) the echoes in the water column were limitedly recorded above the active hydrothermal field; 2) CTD and pH sensors show temperature and pH anomaly corresponding to the record of echoes; 3) some of the root of the filament-shape echoes correspond to the hydrothermal mound recognized in the detailed bathymetry obtained with SeaBat7125 MNBES. This-like technique should revolute the mapping work prior to the sampling at the particular hydrothermal site.

  17. Low Noise Cruise Efficient Short Take-Off and Landing Transport Vehicle Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyun D.; Berton, Jeffrey J.; Jones, Scott M.

    2007-01-01

    The saturation of the airspace around current airports combined with increasingly stringent community noise limits represents a serious impediment to growth in world aviation travel. Breakthrough concepts that both increase throughput and reduce noise impacts are required to enable growth in aviation markets. Concepts with a 25 year horizon must facilitate a 4x increase in air travel while simultaneously meeting community noise constraints. Attacking these horizon issues holistically is the concept study of a Cruise Efficient Short Take-Off and Landing (CESTOL) high subsonic transport under the NASA's Revolutionary Systems Concepts for Aeronautics (RSCA) project. The concept is a high-lift capable airframe with a partially embedded distributed propulsion system that takes a synergistic approach in propulsion-airframe-integration (PAI) by fully integrating the airframe and propulsion systems to achieve the benefits of both low-noise short take-off and landing (STOL) operations and efficient high speed cruise. This paper presents a summary of the recent study of a distributed propulsion/airframe configuration that provides low-noise STOL operation to enable 24-hour use of the untapped regional and city center airports to increase the capacity of the overall airspace while still maintaining efficient high subsonic cruise flight capability.

  18. A two element laminar flow airfoil optimized for cruise. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steen, Gregory Glen

    1994-01-01

    Numerical and experimental results are presented for a new two-element, fixed-geometry natural laminar flow airfoil optimized for cruise Reynolds numbers on the order of three million. The airfoil design consists of a primary element and an independent secondary element with a primary to secondary chord ratio of three to one. The airfoil was designed to improve the cruise lift-to-drag ratio while maintaining an appropriate landing capability when compared to conventional airfoils. The airfoil was numerically developed utilizing the NASA Langley Multi-Component Airfoil Analysis computer code running on a personal computer. Numerical results show a nearly 11.75 percent decrease in overall wing drag with no increase in stall speed at sailplane cruise conditions when compared to a wing based on an efficient single element airfoil. Section surface pressure, wake survey, transition location, and flow visualization results were obtained in the Texas A&M University Low Speed Wind Tunnel. Comparisons between the numerical and experimental data, the effects of the relative position and angle of the two elements, and Reynolds number variations from 8 x 10(exp 5) to 3 x 10(exp 6) for the optimum geometry case are presented.

  19. North Atlantic air traffic within the lower stratosphere: Cruising times and corresponding emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Hoinka, K.P.; Reinhardt, M.E.; Metz, W. |

    1993-12-01

    This study estimates cruising times and related pollutant emissions (NO(x), CO, HC) and H2O of today`s aircraft fleet within the troposphere and stratosphere performed for the North Atlantic region in between 45 deg N, 65 deg N, 10 deg W, and 50 deg W for the years 1989, 1990, and 1991. The tropopause surface distribution is determined through analysis of assimilated data. Both conventional lapse rate and potential vorticity criteria are employed to determine the location of the tropopause surface. These data combined with air traffic statistics are used to evaluate cruising times within the troposphere and stratosphere separately. The study shows an average of about 44% of the cruising time of the aircraft above the North Atlantic flown within the stratosphere. Based on emission indices of aircraft engines, the emission rates of NO(x) (in mass units of NO2) into the stratosphere and troposphere in the given region result in 0.26 and 0.33 x 10(exp -12) kg/sq m/s, respectively.

  20. Cruise Speed Characteristics of a Self--Propelled Pulsed-Jet Underwater Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moslemi, Ali; Nichols, Justin; Krueger, Paul

    2007-11-01

    Steady-jet propulsion has been widely used for air and marine vehicles. This system has a high propulsive efficiency for high vehicle velocities, but it ceases to be efficient as the vehicle velocity or Reynolds number (Re) decreases. One alternative for low Re propulsion is pulsed-jet propulsion similar to that utilized by squid and jellyfish. We have developed a self-propelled pulsed-jet underwater vehicle (``Robosquid'') to investigate the effectiveness of pulsed-jet propulsion as Re decreases. A piston-cylinder mechanism is used for generating pulsed flow. The system allows control of piston velocity program, pulsing frequency, and piston stroke-to-nozzle diameter ratio (L/D). In this preliminary study, the effects of L/D and time-averaged jet mass flow rate on the vehicle cruise speed are investigated. The results for cruise speed are presented for L/D = 3,5,,15 at the same mass flow rate and increasing mass flow rate at the same L/D. The vehicle Re varied from 12000 to 14000 and results show that the mass flow rate is a dominant factor in vehicle cruise speed.

  1. Shared Semantics for Oceanographic Research: Development of Standard ``Cruise-Level'' Metadata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arko, R. A.; Milan, A.; Chandler, C. L.; Miller, S. P.; Ferrini, V.; Mesick, S.; Mize, J.; Paver, C.; Sullivan, B.; Sweeney, A.

    2010-12-01

    There is a general need in the ocean science community for a widely accepted standards-based “cruise-level” metadata profile that describes the basic elements of a seagoing expedition (e.g. cruise identifier, vessel name, operating institution, dates/ports, navigation track, survey targets, science party, funding sources, scientific instruments, daughter platforms, and data sets). The need for such a profile is increasingly urgent as seagoing programs become more complex and interdisciplinary; funding agencies mandate public dissemination of the resulting data; and data centers link post-field/derived products to original field data sets. We are developing a standard implementation for cruise-level metadata that serves the needs of multiple U.S. programs, in an effort to promote interoperability and facilitate collaboration. Testbed development has focused on the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) and Extended Continental Shelf (ECS) programs - both tasked with routinely documenting and archiving large volumes of data from a wide array of U.S. research vessels - and draws from the cruise-level metadata profile published by the University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System (UNOLS) Data Management Best Practices Committee in 2008. Our XML implementation is based on the ISO 19115-2:2009 standard for geospatial metadata, with controlled vocabulary terms directly embedded as Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) references that can be validated in e.g. ISO Schematron. Our choice of the ISO standard reflects ANSI's adoption of the ISO 19115 North American Profile in 2009, and the adoption of ISO 19115 by related programs including the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) and the SeaDataNet program in Europe. We envision a hierarchical framework where a single “cruise-level” record is linked to multiple “dataset-level” records that may be published independently. Our results published online will include a best practices guide for authoring records

  2. Plutonium (III) and uranium (III) nitrile complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Enriquez, A. E.; Matonic, J. H.; Scott, B. L.; Neu, M. P.

    2002-01-01

    Iodine oxidation of uranium and plutonium metals in tetrahydrofuran and pyridine form AnI{sub 3}(THF){sub 4} and AnI{sub 3}(py){sub 4} (An = Pu, U). These compounds represent convenient entries Into solution An(III) chemistry in organic solvents. Extensions of the actinide metal oxidation methodology in nitrile solvents by I{sub 2}, AgPF{sub 6}, and TIPF{sub 6} are presented here. Treatment of Pu{sup 0} in acetonitrile with iodine yields a putative PuI{sub 3}(NCMe){sub x} intermediate which can be trapped with the tripodal nitrogen donor ligand tpza (tpza = (tris[(2-pyrazinyl)methyl]amine)) and forms the eight-coordinate complex (tpza)PuI{sub 3}(NCMe). Treatment of excess U{sup 0} metal by iodine in acetonitrile afforded a brown crystalline mixed valence complex, [U(NCMe){sub 9}][UI{sub 6}][I], instead of UI{sub 3}(NCMe){sub 4}. The analogous reaction in bezonitrile forms red crystalline UI{sub 4}(NCPh){sub 4}. In contrast, treatment of UI{sub 3}(THF){sub 4} with excess acetonitrile cleanly generates [U(NCMe){sub 9}][I]{sub 3}. Oxidation of Pu{sup 0} by either TI(I) or Ag(I) hexafluorophosphate salts generates a nine-coordinate homoleptic acetonitrile adduct [Pu(NCMe){sub 9}][PF{sub 6}]{sub 3}. Attempts to oxidize U{sub 0} with these salts were unsuccessful.

  3. Cranial mononeuropathy III - diabetic type

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/000692.htm Cranial mononeuropathy III - diabetic type To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cranial mononeuropathy III -- diabetic type -- is usually a complication of diabetes that causes ...

  4. Norovirus outbreaks on commercial cruise ships: a systematic review and new targets for the public health agenda.

    PubMed

    Bert, Fabrizio; Scaioli, Giacomo; Gualano, Maria Rosaria; Passi, Stefano; Specchia, Maria Lucia; Cadeddu, Chiara; Viglianchino, Cristina; Siliquini, Roberta

    2014-06-01

    Noroviruses are recognized as the leading cause of human acute viral gastroenteritis worldwide. The rate of outbreaks on cruise ships has grown significantly in recent years. Given the potentially harmful consequences of outbreaks for passengers and crewmembers and the subsequently high costs for cruise companies, disease outbreaks on cruise ships represent a serious public health issue. The aim of our study was to systematically review published studies related to Norovirus outbreaks on commercial cruise ships. We searched the PubMed and Scopus scientific databases. We included eligible studies published from January 1990 to July 2013 that were written in English and described infectious episodes involving at least two passengers and/or crewmembers on a commercial cruise ship. As a result, 15 studies and seven reviews met the inclusion criteria, describing a total of 127 outbreaks. The majority of the cases were reported in Europe and the USA, affecting <1 to 74% of the embarked passengers. In the majority of the studies, stool samples and/or serum specimens from ill passengers were collected and tested for laboratory confirmation. Twelve studies reported that an ad-hoc questionnaire was administered. Fifteen studies investigated the possible source of infection which was contaminated food in the majority of cases. Our findings suggest a strong need for the monitoring and implementation of preventive measures in semi-closed communities, such as cruise ships. It would be advisable to strengthen all relevant initiatives in order to improve the detection of, response to and control of Norovirus outbreaks on cruise ships.

  5. Type III Hyperlipoproteinaemia

    PubMed Central

    Borrie, Peter

    1969-01-01

    Eighteen patients with type III hyperlipoproteinaemia, diagnosed on the basis of skin lesions, serum lipids, and lipoprotein electrophoresis, have been fully investigated over a period of 15 years. The incidence of coronary artery disease was only slightly increased, and was not increased at all among first-degree relatives. Peripheral occlusive arterial disease was probably more common. An increased incidence of carbohydrate intolerance was found in neither the patients nor their relatives. The effects of treatment on the skin were uniformly good. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:5783124

  6. POPULATION III HYPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Smidt, Joseph; Whalen, Daniel J.; Wiggins, Brandon K.; Even, Wesley; Fryer, Chris L.; Johnson, Jarrett L.

    2014-12-20

    Population III supernovae have been of growing interest of late for their potential to directly probe the properties of the first stars, particularly the most energetic events that are visible near the edge of the observable universe. Until now, hypernovae, the unusually energetic Type Ib/c supernovae that are sometimes associated with gamma-ray bursts, have been overlooked as cosmic beacons at the highest redshifts. In this, the latest of a series of studies on Population III supernovae, we present numerical simulations of 25-50 M {sub ☉} hypernovae and their light curves done with the Los Alamos RAGE and SPECTRUM codes. We find that they will be visible at z = 10-15 to the James Webb Space Telescope and z = 4-5 to the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope, tracing star formation rates in the first galaxies and at the end of cosmological reionization. If, however, the hypernova crashes into a dense shell ejected by its progenitor, it is expected that a superluminous event will occur that may be seen at z ∼ 20 in the first generation of stars.

  7. Cruise report: RV Ocean Alert Cruise A2-98-SC: mapping the southern California continental margin; March 26 through April 11, 1998; San Diego to Long Beach, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, James V.; Mayer, Larry A.

    1998-01-01

    The major objective of cruise A2-98 was to map portions of the southern California continental margin, including mapping in detail US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) ocean dumping sites. Mapping was accomplished using a high-resolution multibeam mapping system. The cruise was a jointly funded project between the USEPA and the US Geological Survey (USGS). The USEPA is specifically interested in a series of ocean dump sites off San Diego, Newport Beach, and Long Beach (see Fig. 1 in report) that require high-resolution base maps for site monitoring purposes. The USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program has several on-going projects off southern California that lack high-precision base maps for a variety of ongoing geological studies. The cruise was conducted under a Cooperative Agreement between the USGS and the Ocean Mapping Group, University of New Brunswick, Canada.

  8. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Building a Reference Cruise Catalog for the Research Fleet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arko, R. A.; Clark, P. D.; Chandler, C. L.; Smith, S. R.

    2012-12-01

    The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program is developing infrastructure to ensure the underway sensor data from NSF-supported oceanographic research vessels are routinely and consistently documented, preserved in long-term archives, and disseminated to the science community. A core element of this infrastructure is a master catalog of research vessels, cruises, sensor systems, underway datasets, navigation products, field reports, event logs, file formats, people, organizations, and funding awards that is maintained uniformly across the research fleet. All NSF-supported vessel operators now submit their underway cruise data and documentation directly to R2R, per the revised Division of Ocean Sciences (OCE) Sample and Data Policy published in 2011. R2R ingests this content into the fleet catalog, assigning globally unique and persistent identifiers at the cruise, dataset, and file (granule) levels. The catalog is aligned with community-standard vocabularies, working collaboratively with the NOAA Data Centers, UNOLS Office, and pan-European SeaDataNet project; and includes links to related data at other inter/national repositories. In response to community demand, we are extending the catalog to include instrument-specific metadata such as installation details, patch tests, and calibration results. The entire R2R catalog is published on the Web as "Linked Data", making it easily accessible to encourage integration with other repositories. Selected content is also published in formal metadata records according to ISO and W3C standards, suitable for submission to long-term archives. We are deploying both faceted (classification/filter) and Web map-based browse and search interfaces.

  9. Optimal energy-utilization ratio for long-distance cruising of a model fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Geng; Yu, Yong-Liang; Tong, Bing-Gang

    2012-07-01

    The efficiency of total energy utilization and its optimization for long-distance migration of fish have attracted much attention in the past. This paper presents theoretical and computational research, clarifying the above well-known classic questions. Here, we specify the energy-utilization ratio (fη) as a scale of cruising efficiency, which consists of the swimming speed over the sum of the standard metabolic rate and the energy consumption rate of muscle activities per unit mass. Theoretical formulation of the function fη is made and it is shown that based on a basic dimensional analysis, the main dimensionless parameters for our simplified model are the Reynolds number (Re) and the dimensionless quantity of the standard metabolic rate per unit mass (Rpm). The swimming speed and the hydrodynamic power output in various conditions can be computed by solving the coupled Navier-Stokes equations and the fish locomotion dynamic equations. Again, the energy consumption rate of muscle activities can be estimated by the quotient of dividing the hydrodynamic power by the muscle efficiency studied by previous researchers. The present results show the following: (1) When the value of fη attains a maximum, the dimensionless parameter Rpm keeps almost constant for the same fish species in different sizes. (2) In the above cases, the tail beat period is an exponential function of the fish body length when cruising is optimal, e.g., the optimal tail beat period of Sockeye salmon is approximately proportional to the body length to the power of 0.78. Again, the larger fish's ability of long-distance cruising is more excellent than that of smaller fish. (3) The optimal swimming speed we obtained is consistent with previous researchers’ estimations.

  10. Calabrian Arc Hazards in Ionian and Tyrrhenian Seas: First results from the CHIANTI cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranero, Cesar R.; Sallares, Valenti; Grevemeyer, Ingo; Zitellini, Nevio; Scientific Parties, Chianti

    2016-04-01

    The main objective of the CHIANTI cruise was to collect geophysical marine data to determine the deep crustal structure and plate geometry across the subduction system of the Ionian and Tyrrhenian Seas, from the frontal wedge to the arc and back-arc. The goal is to study the processes that operated during the subduction of the Ionian slab of oceanic crust under Calabria, which lead to the development of the Aeolian volcanic arc, and the subsequent opening of the Tyrrhenian basin, and are responsible of the geological hazards that threaten the region. The CHIANTI cruise onboard the Spanish R/V BO Sarmiento de Gamboa started in Barcelona (Spain) on July 12, and finished in Catania (Italy), on August 28, 2015. It consisted of four legs devoted to acquisition of data with different seismic/acoustic techniques in the Tyrrhenian and Ionian Seas. Leg 1 and 2 were focused on the acquisition of deep penetrating Wide-Angle Reflection and Refraction Seismic (WAS) data, Leg 3 on Multichannel Seismic (MCS) Reflection data and finally Leg 4 was devoted to sidescan imaging, coring and single channel seismic acquisition. During the entire cruise, complementary acoustic data (i.e. multibeam bathymetry and sub-bottom profiler) were acquired simultaneously. In this presentation we focus on the seafloor mapping and processed multichannel seismic reflection grid collected on the IONIAN prism. The data show abundant evidence of ongoing widespread deformation across the entire region from the deformation front to the uppermost slope and extending into the Calabrian emerged region. The seafloor mapping shows numerous mud volcanoes associated to fault activity. The seismic images display deformational features active across the entire prims at different locations extending the definition of structures described in previous works of the region with fewer areal coverage. The data show a prism tectonic structure that is distinct from the structure of prism in other subduction systems

  11. Intercomparison of carbonate chemistry measurements on a cruise in northwestern European shelf seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribas-Ribas, M.; Rérolle, V. M. C.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Kitidis, V.; Lee, G. A.; Brown, I.; Achterberg, E. P.; Hardman-Mountford, N. J.; Tyrrell, T.

    2014-08-01

    Four carbonate system variables were measured in surface waters during a cruise aimed at investigating ocean acidification impacts traversing northwestern European shelf seas in the summer of 2011. High-resolution surface water data were collected for partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2; using two independent instruments) and pH using the total pH scale (pHT), in addition to discrete measurements of total alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon. We thus overdetermined the carbonate system (four measured variables, two degrees of freedom), which allowed us to evaluate the level of agreement between the variables on a cruise whose main aim was not intercomparison, and thus where conditions were more representative of normal working conditions. Calculations of carbonate system variables from other measurements generally compared well with direct observations of the same variables (Pearson's correlation coefficient always greater than or equal to 0.94; mean residuals were similar to the respective accuracies of the measurements). We therefore conclude that four of the independent data sets of carbonate chemistry variables were of high quality. A diurnal cycle with a maximum amplitude of 41 μatm was observed in the difference between the pCO2 values obtained by the two independent analytical pCO2 systems, and this was partly attributed to irregular seawater flows to the equilibrator and partly to biological activity inside the seawater supply and one of the equilibrators. We discuss how these issues can be addressed to improve carbonate chemistry data quality on future research cruises.

  12. The real-time complex cruise scene motion detection system based on DSP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhi-guo; Wang, Ming-jia

    2014-11-01

    Dynamic target recognition is an important issue in the field of image processing research. It is widely used in photoelectric detection, target tracking, video surveillance areas. Complex cruise scene of target detection, compared to the static background, since the target and background objects together and both are in motion, greatly increases the complexity of moving target detection and recognition. Based on the practical engineering applications, combining an embedded systems and real-time image detection technology, this paper proposes a real-time movement detection method on an embedded system based on the FPGA + DSP system architecture on an embedded system. The DSP digital image processing system takes high speed digital signal processor DSP TMS320C6416T as the main computing components. And we take large capacity FPGA as coprocessor. It is designed and developed a high-performance image processing card. The FPGA is responsible for the data receiving and dispatching, DSP is responsible for data processing. The FPGA collects image data and controls SDRAM according to the digital image sequence. The SDRAM realizes multiport image buffer. DSP reads real-time image through SDRAM and performs scene motion detection algorithm. Then we implement the data reception and data processing parallelization. This system designs and realizes complex cruise scene motion detection for engineering application. The image edge information has the anti-light change and the strong anti-interference ability. First of all, the adjacent frame and current frame image are processed by convolution operation, extract the edge images. Then we compute correlation strength and the value of movement offset. We can complete scene motion parameters estimation by the result, in order to achieve real-time accurate motion detection. We use images in resolution of 768 * 576 and 25Hz frame rate to do the real-time cruise experiment. The results show that the proposed system achieves real

  13. Effect of emerging technology on a convertible, business/interceptor, supersonic-cruise jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beissner, F. L., Jr.; Lovell, W. A.; Robins, A. W.; Swanson, E. E.

    1986-01-01

    This study was initiated to assess the feasibility of an eight-passenger, supersonic-cruise long range business jet aircraft that could be converted into a military missile carrying interceptor. The baseline passenger version has a flight crew of two with cabin space for four rows of two passenger seats plus baggage and lavatory room in the aft cabin. The ramp weight is 61,600 pounds with an internal fuel capacity of 30,904 pounds. Utilizing an improved version of a current technology low-bypass ratio turbofan engine, range is 3,622 nautical miles at Mach 2.0 cruise and standard day operating conditions. Balanced field takeoff distance is 6,600 feet and landing distance is 5,170 feet at 44,737 pounds. The passenger section from aft of the flight crew station to the aft pressure bulkhead in the cabin was modified for the interceptor version. Bomb bay type doors were added and volume is sufficient for four advanced air-to-air missiles mounted on a rotary launcher. Missile volume was based on a Phoenix type missile with a weight of 910 pounds per missile for a total payload weight of 3,640 pounds. Structural and equipment weights were adjusted and result in a ramp weight of 63,246 pounds with a fuel load of 30,938 pounds. Based on a typical intercept mission flight profile, the resulting radius is 1,609 nautical miles at a cruise Mach number of 2.0.

  14. Propulsion/airframe integration considerations for high altitude hypersonic cruise vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weidner, J. P.

    1980-01-01

    A study has been conducted to determine the implications of top-mounted inlet nacelles on propulsion performance and cruise range. The top-mounted nacelle would be less visible from ground-based radar below and ahead of the aircraft. For this study, the nacelle is integrated with a high altitude Mach 5 turbojet/ramjet-powered airplane concept requiring a large nacelle. Results of the study suggest nacelle installation advantages and improved inlet mass flow ratio for the top-mounted nacelle, but at the expense of a higher installed drag at transonic and supersonic speeds.

  15. Technology for controlling emissions of oxides of nitrogen from supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reck, G. M.; Rudey, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    Various experiments are sponsored and conducted by NASA to explore the potential of advanced combustion techniques for controlling aircraft engine emissions into the upper atmosphere. Of particular concern are the oxide of nitrogen (NOx) emissions into the stratosphere. The experiments utilize a wide variety of approaches varying from advanced combustor concepts to fundamental flame tube experiments. Results are presented which indicate that substantial reductions in cruise NOx emissions should be achievable in future aircraft engines. A major NASA program is described which focuses the many fundamental experiments into a planned evolution and demonstration of the prevaporized-premixed combustion technique in a full-scale engine.

  16. Propulsion system mathematical model for a lift/cruise fan V/STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, G. L.; Sellers, J. F.; Tinling, B. E.

    1980-01-01

    A propulsion system mathematical model is documented that allows calculation of internal engine parameters during transient operation. A non-realtime digital computer simulation of the model is presented. It is used to investigate thrust response and modulation requirements as well as the impact of duty cycle on engine life and design criteria. Comparison of simulation results with steady-state cycle deck calculations showed good agreement. The model was developed for a specific 3-fan subsonic V/STOL aircraft application, but it can be adapted for use with any similar lift/cruise V/STOL configuration.

  17. Arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft structural design concepts evaluation. Volume 2: Sections 7 through 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.; Davis, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    The materials and advanced producibility methods that offer potential structural mass savings in the design of the primary structure for a supersonic cruise aircraft are identified and reported. A summary of the materials and fabrication techniques selected for this analytical effort is presented. Both metallic and composite material systems were selected for application to a near-term start-of-design technology aircraft. Selective reinforcement of the basic metallic structure was considered as the appropriate level of composite application for the near-term design.

  18. Calibration of Seismic Sources during a Test Cruise with the new RV SONNE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engels, M.; Schnabel, M.; Damm, V.

    2015-12-01

    During autumn 2014, several test cruises of the brand new German research vessel SONNE were carried out before the first official scientific cruise started in December. In September 2014, BGR conducted a seismic test cruise in the British North Sea. RV SONNE is a multipurpose research vessel and was also designed for the mobile BGR 3D seismic equipment, which was tested successfully during the cruise. We spend two days for calibration of the following seismic sources of BGR: G-gun array (50 l @ 150 bar) G-gun array (50 l @ 207 bar) single GI-gun (3.4 l @ 150 bar) For this experiment two hydrophones (TC4042 from Reson Teledyne) sampling up to 48 kHz were fixed below a drifting buoy at 20 m and 60 m water depth - the sea bottom was at 80 m depth. The vessel with the seismic sources sailed several up to 7 km long profiles around the buoy in order to cover many different azimuths and distances. We aimed to measure sound pressure level (SPL) and sound exposure level (SEL) under the conditions of the shallow North Sea. Total reflections and refracted waves dominate the recorded wave field, enhance the noise level and partly screen the direct wave in contrast to 'true' deep water calibration based solely on the direct wave. Presented are SPL and RMS power results in time domain, the decay with distance along profiles, and the somehow complicated 2D sound radiation pattern modulated by topography. The shading effect of the vessel's hull is significant. In frequency domain we consider 1/3 octave levels and estimate the amount of energy in frequency ranges not used for reflection seismic processing. Results are presented in comparison of the three different sources listed above. We compare the measured SPL decay with distance during this experiment with deep water modeling of seismic sources (Gundalf software) and with published results from calibrations with other marine seismic sources under different conditions: E.g. Breitzke et al. (2008, 2010) with RV Polarstern

  19. A fuselage/tank structure study for actively cooled hypersonic cruise vehicles: Structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, A. H.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of fuselage cross-section (circular and elliptical) and structural arrangement (integral and nonintegral tanks) on the performance of actively cooled hypersonic cruise vehicles was evaluated. It was found that integrally machined stiffening of the tank walls, while providing the most weight-efficient use of materials, results in higher production costs. Fatigue and fracture mechanics appeared to have little effect on the weight of the three study aircraft. The need for thermal strain relief through insulation is discussed. Aircraft size and magnitude of the internal pressure are seen to be significant factors in tank design.

  20. Fatigue of titanium alloys in a supersonic-cruise airplane environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imig, L. A.

    1976-01-01

    The test programs conducted by several aerospace companies and NASA, summarized in this paper, studied several titanium materials previously identified as having high potential for application to supersonic cruise airplane structures. These studies demonstrate that the temperature (560 K) by itself produced no significant degradation of the materials. However, the fatigue resistance of titanium-alloy structures, in which thermal and loading effects are combined, has been studied insufficiently. The predominant topic for future study of fatigue problems in Mach 3 structures should be the influences of thermal stress particularly, the effects of thermal stress on failure location.

  1. Application of an advanced computerized structural design system to an arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, J. C.; Yates, E. C., Jr.; Turner, M. J.; Grande, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    A structural design study of an arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft has been made using the integrated design system, ATLAS, and a relatively large analytical finite-element model containing 8500 degrees of freedom. This paper focuses on structural design methods developed and used in support of the study with emphasis on aeroelasticity. The use of ATLAS permitted (1) automatic resizing of the wing structure for multiple load conditions, (2) rapid evaluation of aeroelastic effects, and (3) an iterative approach to the correction of flutter deficiencies. The significant results of the study are discussed along with the advantages derived from the use of an advanced structural design system in preliminary design studies.

  2. Arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft structural design concepts evaluation. Volume 1: Sections 1 through 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.; Davis, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    The structural approach best suited for the design of a Mach 2.7 arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft was investigated. Results, procedures, and principal justification of results are presented. Detailed substantiation data are given. In general, each major analysis is presented sequentially in separate sections to provide continuity in the flow of the design concepts analysis effort. In addition to the design concepts evaluation and the detailed engineering design analyses, supporting tasks encompassing: (1) the controls system development; (2) the propulsion-airframe integration study; and (3) the advanced technology assessment are presented.

  3. Charts for determining potential minimum sonic-boom overpressures for supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darden, C. M.

    1981-01-01

    Charts which give an estimation of minimum achievable sonic-boom levels for supersonic cruise aircraft are presented. A minimization method based on modified linear theory was analyzed. Results show several combinations of Mach number, altitude, and aircraft length and weight. Overpressure and impulse values are given for two types of sonic boom signatures for each of these conditions: (1) a flat top or minimum overpressure signature which has a pressure plateau behind the initial shock, and (2) a minimum shock signature which allows a pressure rise after the initial shock. Results are given for the effects of nose shape.

  4. Engaging Middle School Students in Authentic Research based on a summer research cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manley, J.; Ellins, K. K.; Conte, M. H.

    2011-12-01

    In summer 2010, as a participant in the TXESS Revolution, a National Science Foundation (NSF)-sponsored professional development program for teachers in support of Earth and Space Science, I participated in a scientific research cruise led by Dr. Maureen Conte of the Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences (BIOS). The primary purpose of the cruise was to collect water samples from different ocean depths, make temperature and conductivity measurements, and retrieve biologic particle debris collection equipment deployed as part of the NSF-sponsored Oceanic Flux Program to measure particle fluxes in the deep Sargasso Sea. A secondary objective involved the collection of plastic debris floating within the sargassum grass trapped in the North Atlantic gyre in order to investigate plastic pollution. As a member of the science team I worked alongside of Dr. Conte, scientists and graduate students, giving me a personal experience to inspire my students' interest in the marine ecosystem. In the classroom, I used a Project Based Learning (PBL) approach to translate my experience and knowledge gained into productive learning for my students. With Project Based Learning, teams of students solve a real world, open-ended challenge problem through research and experimentation. In this Problem, the challenge was to design a virtual product to motivate ordinary people to change their habits regarding their use and improper disposal of plastics. Team products included websites, social network pages, and in-school announcements to create awareness about plastic pollution in the ocean. Fulfilling one of the basic principles of the PBL approach to provide student access to experts, cruise participant and University of North Carolina graduate student Bonnie Monteleone dedicated an entire day to speak with each of my classes about her experiences studying ocean plastics and answer their questions via SKYPE. In addition, Ms. Monteleone used her extensive contacts to post the best of my

  5. Study of aerodynamic technology for single-cruise-engine V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mark, L.

    1982-01-01

    Conceptual designs and analyses were conducted on two V/STOL supersonic fighter/attack aircraft. These aircraft feature low footprint temperature and pressure thrust augmenting ejectors in the wings for vertical lift, combined with a low wing loading, low wave drag airframe for outstanding cruise and supersonic performance. Aerodynamic, propulsion, performance, and mass properties were determined and are presented for each aircraft. Aerodynamic and Aero/Propulsion characteristics having the most significant effect on the success of the up and away flight mode were identified, and the certainty with which they could be predicted was defined. A wind tunnel model and test program are recommended to resolve the identified uncertainties.

  6. Computer-aided methods for analysis and synthesis of supersonic cruise aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, G. L.

    1976-01-01

    Computer-aided methods are reviewed which are being developed by Langley Research Center in-house work and by related grants and contracts. Synthesis methods to size structural members to meet strength and stiffness (flutter) requirements are emphasized and described. Because of the strong interaction among the aerodynamic loads, structural stiffness, and member sizes of supersonic cruise aircraft structures, these methods are combined into systems of computer programs to perform design studies. The approaches used in organizing these systems to provide efficiency, flexibility of use in an iterative process, and ease of system modification are discussed.

  7. MARS PATHFINDER LANDER IS INSPECTED IN SAEF-2 WITH CRUISE STAGE IN BACKGROUND

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    At the SAEF-2 spacecraft checkout facility at Kennedy Space Center, engineers from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory begin checkout of the lander portion of the Mars Pathfinder spacecraft. Later the small rover known as 'Sojourner' will be integrated with the lander before it is enclosed in the aeroshell and mated to the cruise stage (background) for the journey to Mars. Pictured are JPL personnel Lorraine Garcia, Don Benson, Larry Broms, Chuck Foehlinger, Linda Robeck and James Pierson. Mars Pathfinder is planned to be launched aboard a McDonnell Douglas Delta II rocket from Pad 17-B at Cape Canaveral on December 2, 1996.

  8. Thermal management for a Mach 5 cruise aircraft using endothermic fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petley, Dennis H.; Jones, Stuart C.

    1990-01-01

    The present thermal management system for a carrier-based Mach 5 cruise-capable aircraft whose propulsion system does not entail cryogenic fuels is predicated on the use of the catalytic endothermic reaction of a petroleum-derived hydrocarbon fuel as the heat sink for engine cooling. The insulation of engine flowpath surfaces reduces cooling requirements. The primary elements of this closed-cycle cooling system are a fuel preheater, a catalytic fuel reactor, and engine wall-cooling panels; a silicone-based liquid polymer is used as the coolant. Structural, weight, and thermal analysis results are presented for each of the primary components.

  9. Deep Impact 9P/TEMPEL Cruise - Raw MRI Nav Images V1.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carcich, B.; Shaw, A. S.; Desnoyer, M.; McLaughlin, S. A.; Mastrodemos, N.; Klaasen, K. P.

    2010-01-01

    This data set contains raw calibration and test images acquired by the Deep Impact Medium Resolution Instrument Visible CCD during the cruise phase of the mission. These observations were used for optical and autonomous navigation (NAV) of the flyby spacecraft. These data were collected from 14 January to 25 April 2005. Test images of comet 9P/Tempel 1 were acquired on 25 April. In this version 1.1 of the data set, the values for the INTEGRATION_DURATION keyword in the PDS data labels were corrected. This revised data set supersedes version 1.0.

  10. A fuselage/tank structure study for actively cooled hypersonic cruise vehicles: Active cooling system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of fuselage cross section and structural arrangement on the performance of actively cooled hypersonic cruise vehicles are investigated. An active cooling system which maintains the aircraft's entire surface area at temperatures below 394 K at Mach 6 is developed along with a hydrogen fuel tankage thermal protection system. Thermodynamic characteristics of the actively cooled thermal protection systems established are summarized. Design heat loads and coolant flowrate requirements are defined for each major structural section and for the total system. Cooling system weights are summarized at the major component level. Conclusions and recommendations are included.

  11. Arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft structural design concepts evaluation. Volume 3: Sections 12 through 14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.; Davis, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    The design of an economically viable supersonic cruise aircraft requires the lowest attainable structural-mass fraction commensurate with the selected near-term structural material technology. To achieve this goal of minimum structural-mass fraction, various combinations of promising wing and fuselage primary structure were analyzed for the load-temperature environment applicable to the arrow wing configuration. This analysis was conducted in accordance with the design criteria specified and included extensive use of computer-aided analytical methods to screen the candidate concepts and select the most promising concepts for the in-depth structural analysis.

  12. Arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft structural design concepts evaluation. Volume 4: Sections 15 through 21

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.; Davis, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    The analyses performed to provide structural mass estimates for the arrow wing supersonic cruise aircraft are presented. To realize the full potential for structural mass reduction, a spectrum of approaches for the wing and fuselage primary structure design were investigated. The objective was: (1) to assess the relative merits of various structural arrangements, concepts, and materials; (2) to select the structural approach best suited for the Mach 2.7 environment; and (3) to provide construction details and structural mass estimates based on in-depth structural design studies. Production costs, propulsion-airframe integration, and advanced technology assessment are included.

  13. A study of the prediction of cruise noise and laminar flow control noise criteria for subsonic air transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, G.; Mungur, P.

    1979-01-01

    General procedures for the prediction of component noise levels incident upon airframe surfaces during cruise are developed. Contributing noise sources are those associated with the propulsion system, the airframe and the laminar flow control (LFC) system. Transformation procedures from the best prediction base of each noise source to the transonic cruise condition are established. Two approaches to LFC/acoustic criteria are developed. The first is a semi-empirical extension of the X-21 LFC/acoustic criteria to include sensitivity to the spectrum and directionality of the sound field. In the second, the more fundamental problem of how sound excites boundary layer disturbances is analyzed by deriving and solving an inhomogeneous Orr-Sommerfeld equation in which the source terms are proportional to the production and dissipation of sound induced fluctuating vorticity. Numerical solutions are obtained and compared with corresponding measurements. Recommendations are made to improve and validate both the cruise noise prediction methods and the LFC/acoustic criteria.

  14. Thermal design study of an air-cooled plug-nozzle system for a supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, J. S.; Lieberman, A.

    1972-01-01

    A heat-transfer design analysis has been made of an air-cooled plug-nozzle system for a supersonic-cruise aircraft engine. The proposed 10deg half-angle conical plug is sting supported from the turbine frame. Plug cooling is accomplished by convection and film cooling. The flight profile studied includes maximum afterburning from takeoff to Mach 2.7 and supersonic cruise at Mach 2.7 with a low afterburner setting. The calculations indicate that, for maximum afterburning, about 2 percent of the engine primary flow, removed after the second stage of the nine-stage compressor, will adequately cool the plug and sting support. Ram air may be used for cooling during supersonic-cruise operations, however. Therefore, the cycle efficiency penalty paid for air cooling the plug and sting support should be low.

  15. Pseudo Class III malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hummayani, Fadia M.

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of deep anterior crossbite is technically challenging due to the difficulty of placing traditional brackets with fixed appliances. This case report represents a none traditional treatment modality to treat deep anterior crossbite in an adult pseudo class III malocclusion complicated by severely retruded, supraerupted upper and lower incisors. Treatment was carried out in 2 phases. Phase I treatment was performed by removable appliance “modified Hawley appliance with inverted labial bow,” some modifications were carried out to it to suit the presented case. Positive overbite and overjet was accomplished in one month, in this phase with minimal forces exerted on the lower incisors. Whereas, phase II treatment was performed with fixed appliances (braces) to align teeth and have proper over bite and overjet and to close posterior open bite, this phase was accomplished within 11 month. PMID:27052290

  16. Evaluation of a ducted-fan power plant designed for high output and good cruise fuel economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behun, M; Rom, F E; Hensley, R V

    1950-01-01

    Theoretical analysis of performance of a ducted-fan power plant designed both for high-output, high-altitude operation at low supersonic Mach numbers and for good fuel economy at lower fight speeds is presented. Performance of ducted fan is compared with performance (with and without tail-pipe burner) of two hypothetical turbojet engines. At maximum power, the ducted fan has propulsive thrust per unit of frontal area between thrusts obtained by turbojet engines with and without tail-pipe burners. At cruise, the ducted fan obtains lowest thrust specific fuel consumption. For equal maximum thrusts, the ducted fan obtains cruising flight duration and range appreciably greater than turbojet engines.

  17. Cold-flow performance of several variations of a ram-air-cooled plug nozzle for supersonic-cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrington, D. E.; Nosek, S. M.; Straight, D. M.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental data were obtained with a 21.59 cm (8.5 in.) diameter cold-flow model in a static altitude facility to determine the thrust and pumping characteristics of several variations of a ram-air-cooled plug nozzle. Tests were conducted over a range of nozzle pressure ratios simulating supersonic cruise and takeoff conditions. Primary throat area was also varied to simulate afterburner on and off. Effect of plug size, outer shroud length, primary nozzle geometry, and varying amounts of secondary flow were investigated. At a supersonic cruise pressure ratio of 27, nozzle efficiencies were 99.7 percent for the best configurations.

  18. Shelf edge exchange processes-II SEEP2-06, R/V Endeavor cruise 186. Hydrographic data report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, C.; Behrens, W.J.; Flagg, C.N.; Wallace, D.W.R.; Wilke, R.J.; Wyman, K.D.

    1989-12-01

    The Shelf Edge Exchange Processes (SEEP) program sponsored by the United States Department of Energy is a multi-institutional effort designed to investigate the flux of suspended material from the continental shelf to the waters of the upper slope, and then possibly into the slope sediments. Phase I of SEEP consisted of a series of nine cruises and a mooring array across the outer continental shelf of New England during 1983--1984. Phase II focused specifically on the shelf/slope frontal region of the mid-Atlantic bight off the Delmarva Peninsula. Hydrographic data were collected on eight of the six cruises.

  19. The effects of vehicular gap changes with memory on traffic flow in cooperative adaptive cruise control strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shaowei; Shi, Zhongke

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the impacts of new influence factor in cooperative adaptive cruise control strategy on the dynamic characteristics of traffic flow, an improved cooperative car-following model considering multiple vehicular gap changes with memory is developed to study the influences of multiple vehicular gap changes with memory on each car's speed, acceleration and relative distance. Some numerical simulations are carried out and the results show that considering multiple vehicular gap changes with memory in designing the cooperative adaptive cruise control strategy can improve the stability of traffic flow and reduce the accidental probability.

  20. Cruise-based Multi-factorial Investigation of the Impact of Ocean Acidification on the Pelagic Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, J. R.; Tyrell, T.

    2012-12-01

    The pelagic ecosystem is a critical component of the earth's biosphere and biogeochemistry. It is also, however, a complex and in many respects poorly understood system. In consequence predicting the likely impact of ocean acidification on the pelagic realm is problematic and predicting the possible secondary biogeochemical effects of these impacts is "challenging". Nonetheless there is a major societal need to predict these impacts and outcomes. Within the UK Ocean Acidification Programme our consortium is tasked with "improving the understanding of the impact of ocean acidification on surface ocean biology, community structure, biogeochemistry and on feedbacks to the climate." To ensure complimentarity with other programmes we have adopted a cruise-based approach. Two cruises have been undertaken; Cruise D366 in summer 2011 around the north west european shelf and Cruise JR271 summer 2012 to the Arctic Ocean. A final cruise, to the Antarctic will be undertaken in January/February 2013. On each cruise we are combining extensive environmental observations, with deck-board incubation experiments. The environmental observations are being made with both continuous sampling techniques and CTD sampling. The cruise tracks have been designed to cross environmental gradients in ocean chemistry and especially in carbonate chemistry. The objective here is to produce a high quality matrix of multiple environmental parameters including fully characterised carbonate chemistry (pH, CO2, DIC and alkalinity are all measured), nutrient chemistry, trace elements, climatically active gases, and TEP, phytoplankton and zooplankton composition and biocalcification. The biocalcification studies include microfabric study of pteropods, in situ calcification rates and integrated morphometric and assemblage composition analysis of coccolithophores. The incubation experiments are being conducted using a dedicated culture facility constructed in a shipping-container lab. This allows large

  1. Inlet design studies for a Mach 2.2 advanced supersonic cruise vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimabukuro, K. M.; Welge, H. R.; Lee, A. C.

    1979-01-01

    Various inlet-engine combinations have been studied to find a preferred inlet concept for integration with an advanced technology Mach 2.2 cruise vehicle having a cruise lift-to-drag ratio of 9.6. For the purposes of this study, the range capability for a fixed takeoff gross weight was used to assess the various inlet-engine combinations. Inlet concept selection studies are described which indicated that an axisymmetric, mixed compression inlet was preferred. This study considered four inlet and three engine cycle combinations where the engine airflow was tailored to the inlet airflow delivery capability. Detailed design studies of two mixed compression inlet types are discussed. These were a translating centerbody inlet and a collapsing centerbody bicone inlet. The aerodynamic and mechanical design of each inlet is described. These inlets were also matched to different engine cycles tailored to the inlet airflow capability. The range increments favored the bicone inlet concept primarily because of lighter weight, reduced bleed air, and greater transonic airflow/thrust capability.

  2. Flying and swimming animals cruise at a Strouhal number tuned for high power efficiency.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Graham K; Nudds, Robert L; Thomas, Adrian L R

    2003-10-16

    Dimensionless numbers are important in biomechanics because their constancy can imply dynamic similarity between systems, despite possible differences in medium or scale. A dimensionless parameter that describes the tail or wing kinematics of swimming and flying animals is the Strouhal number, St = fA/U, which divides stroke frequency (f) and amplitude (A) by forward speed (U). St is known to govern a well-defined series of vortex growth and shedding regimes for airfoils undergoing pitching and heaving motions. Propulsive efficiency is high over a narrow range of St and usually peaks within the interval 0.2 < St < 0.4 (refs 3-8). Because natural selection is likely to tune animals for high propulsive efficiency, we expect it to constrain the range of St that animals use. This seems to be true for dolphins, sharks and bony fish, which swim at 0.2 < St < 0.4. Here we show that birds, bats and insects also converge on the same narrow range of St, but only when cruising. Tuning cruise kinematics to optimize St therefore seems to be a general principle of oscillatory lift-based propulsion.

  3. Heavy ion observations by MARIE in cruise phase and Mars orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, K. T.; Cleghorn, T.; Cucinotta, F.; Pinsky, L.; Zeitlin, C.

    2004-01-01

    The charged particle spectrum for nuclei from protons to neon, (charge Z=10) was observed during the cruise phase and orbit around Mars by the MARIE charged particle spectrometer on the Odyssey spacecraft. The cruise data were taken between April 23, 2001 and mid-August 2001. The Mars orbit data were taken March 5, 2002 through May 2002 and are scheduled to continue until August 2004. Charge peaks are clearly separated for charges up to Z=10. Especially prominent are the carbon and oxygen peaks, with boron and nitrogen also clearly visible. Although heavy ions are much less abundant than protons in the cosmic ray environment, it is important to determine their abundances because their ionization energy losses (proportional to Z2) are far more dangerous to humans and to instruments. Thus the higher charged nuclei make a significant contribution to dose and dose equivalent received in space. Results of the charged particle spectrum measurements will be reported. c2003 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Flying and swimming animals cruise at a Strouhal number tuned for high power efficiency.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Graham K; Nudds, Robert L; Thomas, Adrian L R

    2003-10-16

    Dimensionless numbers are important in biomechanics because their constancy can imply dynamic similarity between systems, despite possible differences in medium or scale. A dimensionless parameter that describes the tail or wing kinematics of swimming and flying animals is the Strouhal number, St = fA/U, which divides stroke frequency (f) and amplitude (A) by forward speed (U). St is known to govern a well-defined series of vortex growth and shedding regimes for airfoils undergoing pitching and heaving motions. Propulsive efficiency is high over a narrow range of St and usually peaks within the interval 0.2 < St < 0.4 (refs 3-8). Because natural selection is likely to tune animals for high propulsive efficiency, we expect it to constrain the range of St that animals use. This seems to be true for dolphins, sharks and bony fish, which swim at 0.2 < St < 0.4. Here we show that birds, bats and insects also converge on the same narrow range of St, but only when cruising. Tuning cruise kinematics to optimize St therefore seems to be a general principle of oscillatory lift-based propulsion. PMID:14562101

  5. Cruise report for A1-02-SC southern California CABRILLO project, Earthquake Hazards Task

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Normark, William R.; Fisher, Michael A.; Gutmacher, Christina E.; Sliter, Ray; Hibbeler, Lori; Feingold, Beth; Reid, Jane A.

    2003-01-01

    A two-week marine geophysical survey obtained sidescan-sonar images and multiple sets of high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles in the southern California offshore area between Point Arguello and Point Dume. The data were obtained to support two project activities of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology (CMG) Program: (1) the evaluation of the geologic hazards posed by earthquake faults and landslides in the offshore areas of Santa Barbara Channel and western Santa Monica Basin and (2) determine the location of active hydrocarbon seeps in the vicinity of Point Conception as part of a collaborative study with the Minerals Management Service (MMS). The 2002 cruise, A1-02- SC, is the fourth major data-collection effort in support of the first objective (Normark et al., 1999a, b; Gutmacher et al., 2000). A cruise to obtain sediment cores to constrain the timing of deformation interpreted from the geophysical records is planned for the summer of 2003.

  6. Exploratory studies of the cruise performance of upper surface blown configurations. [wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braden, J. A.; Hancock, J. P.; Hackett, J. E.; Burdges, K. P.; Lyman, V.

    1980-01-01

    The data and major conclusions obtained from an experimental/analytical study of upper-surface blown (USB) configurations at cruise are summarized. The high-speed (subsonic) experimental work, studying the aerodynamic effects of wing-nacelle geometric variations, was conducted around semi-span model configurations composed of diversified, interchangeable components. Power simulation was provided by high pressure air ducted through closed forebody nacelles. Nozzle geometry was varied across size, exit aspect ratio, exit position and boattail angle. Both 3-D force and 2-D pressure measurements were obtained at cruise Mach numbers from 0.5 to 0.8 and at nozzle pressure ratios up to about 3.0. The experimental investigation was supported by an analytical synthesis of the system using a vortex lattice representation with first-order power effects. Results are also presented from a compatibility study in which a short-haul transport is designed on the basis of the aerodynamic findings in the experimental study as well as acoustical data obtained in a concurrent program. High-lift test data are used to substantiate the projected performance of the selected transport design.

  7. Selected CFC and HCFC Tracers Observed During the Gulf of Mexico East Coast Carbon (GOMECC) Cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yvon-Lewis, S. A.; Liu, Y.; Hu, L.; O'Hern, J.

    2008-12-01

    While the coastal ocean is small in area, it is the bridge between the terrestrial environment and the deep ocean. Research on the role of this region in the cycling of carbon and the air-sea flux of CO2 has been increasing. In order to understand the biogeochemical cycling involved in this region, it is necessary to examine the potential movement of water masses onto or off of the continental shelf. The recent observation of acidic water upwelling onto the shelf on the west coast of the US is evidence of the potentially significant interaction between shelf waters and deeper open ocean waters [Feely et al., 2008]. During the Gulf of Mexico and East Coast Carbon (GOMECC) cruise in 2007, we measured depth profiles and saturation anomalies of the tracers: CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, HCFC-22, and HCFC-142b. This cruise was the first comprehensive survey of inorganic carbon, nutrients and other biogeochemical parameters along the Gulf of Mexico and East coasts of the US. We are using the tracer data to examine the circulation of water masses between the shelf region and the open ocean. We will present the results from the depth profile and saturation anomaly measurements of these tracers. Feely, R.A., C.L. Sabine, J.M. Hernandez-Ayon, D. Ianson, and B. Hales (2008) Science, 320(5882), doi: 10.1126/science.1155676, 1490-1492.

  8. Trace gas measurements over the northwest Pacific during the 2002 IOC cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Shungo; Ui, Takeshi; Uematsu, Mitsuo; Kajii, Yoshizumi

    2007-06-01

    The R/V Melville cruised from Osaka (Japan) on 1 May and reached Hawaii on 5 June on a project for the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) in 2002. During this cruise, the concentrations of atmospheric trace gases (O3, CO, DMS, hydrocarbons, and halocarbons) were measured. Air at high latitudes and low latitudes exhibited starkly different characteristics regarding their chemical composition. The concentrations of anthropogenic species clearly decreased from high latitude to low latitude. On the other hand, biogenic species such as DMS and alkenes were highly abundant at lower latitudes. Backward air trajectories show that the northwestern continental air mass was dominant at higher latitudes and the eastern marine air mass was dominant at lower latitudes. However, the long-range transport of pollutants to clean regions near Hawaii was also observed. The ratios of ethane to CO decreased from high latitude to low latitude. On the basis of a VOC ratio analysis, the benzene concentration is relatively higher at low latitudes. DMS concentrations and wind speed at low latitudes have good correlation. This indicates that at low latitudes, the DMS concentration at the ocean surface is roughly uniform.

  9. Sensitivity of transport aircraft performance and economics to advanced technology and cruise Mach number

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, M. D.

    1974-01-01

    Sensitivity data for advanced technology transports has been systematically collected. This data has been generated in two separate studies. In the first of these, three nominal, or base point, vehicles designed to cruise at Mach numbers .85, .93, and .98, respectively, were defined. The effects on performance and economics of perturbations to basic parameters in the areas of structures, aerodynamics, and propulsion were then determined. In all cases, aircraft were sized to meet the same payload and range as the nominals. This sensitivity data may be used to assess the relative effects of technology changes. The second study was an assessment of the effect of cruise Mach number. Three families of aircraft were investigated in the Mach number range 0.70 to 0.98: straight wing aircraft from 0.70 to 0.80; sweptwing, non-area ruled aircraft from 0.80 to 0.95; and area ruled aircraft from 0.90 to 0.98. At each Mach number, the values of wing loading, aspect ratio, and bypass ratio which resulted in minimum gross takeoff weight were used. As part of the Mach number study, an assessment of the effect of increased fuel costs was made.

  10. Design study of structural concepts for an arrow-wing supersonic-cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.; Davis, G. W.; Robinson, J. C.; Yates, E. C., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    An analytical study was performed to determine the best structural approach for design of primary wing and fuselage structure of a Mach number 2.7 arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft. Concepts were evaluated considering near-term start-of-design. Emphasis was placed on the complex interactions between thermal stress, static aeroelasticity, flutter, fatigue and fail-safe design, static and dynamic loads, and the effects of variations in structural arrangements, concepts and materials on these interactions. Results indicate that a hybrid wing structure incorporating low-profile convex-beaded and honeycomb sandwich surface panels of titanium alloy 6Al-4V were the most efficient. The substructure includes titanium alloy spar caps reinforced with Boron-polyimide composites. The fuselage shell is a closed-hat stiffened skin and frame construction of titanium alloy 6Al-4V. This paper presents an executive summary of the study effort, and includes a discussion of the overall study logic, design philosophy and interaction between the analytical methods for supersonic cruise aircraft design.

  11. Data report of the DOE-sponsored Northwest Marine Sciences Group July-August 1979 cruise

    SciTech Connect

    Postel, J.R.; Peterson, W.K.; Kitchen, J.C.; Menzies, D.W.

    1980-11-01

    This cruise was part of a continuing program to collect detailed information on the processes affecting plankton productivity, abundance, and distribution off the Washington coast, and on the chemistry, distribution, and flux of particulate material in these waters. The sampling program for this cruise was designed to determine the effect of the Quinault Canyon on the biology, chemistry, hydrography, and flux of particulate material in Washington coastal waters. The field program had two major components: Leg I, predominantly a transect or survey phase; and Leg II, intensive sampling at a smaller number of sites to investigate important processes and rates. The transect phase provided an overview of biological and hydrographic parameters over a large region of the coastal zone. The information collected during Leg I provided the bases for selecting sites for intensive sampling on Leg II and also provided a broader geographical data base for interpreting and extrapolating the results of the intensive studies of Leg II. The intensive investigations focused on rates of important processes involved in transfer of energy and biomass in pelagic ecosystems and includes measures of phytoplankton productivity, zooplankton grazing rates, microbial activity, flux of organic matter and suspended particulates, and concentrations of trace metals and hydrocarbons.

  12. SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series. Volume 2; AMT-5 Cruise Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Aiken, James; Cummings, Denise G.; Gibb, Stuart W.; Rees, Nigel W.; Woodd-Walker, Rachel; Woodward, E. Malcolm S.; Woolfenden, James; Berthon, Jean-Francois; Dempsey, Cyril D.; Suggett, David J.; Wood, Peter; Donlon, Craig; Gonzalez-Benitez, Natalia; Huskin, Ignacio; Quevedo, Mario; Barciela-Fernandez, Rosa; deVargas, Colomban; McKee, Connor

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the scientific activities on board the Royal Research Ship (RRS) James Clark Ross (JCR) during the fifth Atlantic Meridional Transect (AMT-5), 14 September to 17 October 1997. There are three objectives of the AMT Program. The first is to derive an improved understanding of the links between biogeochemical processes, biogenic gas exchange, air-sea interactions, and the effects on, and responses of, oceanic ecosystems to climate change. The second is to investigate the functional roles of biological particles and processes that influence ocean color in ecosystem dynamics. The Program relates directly to algorithm development and the validation of remotely-sensed observations of ocean color. Because the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) instrument achieved operational status during the cruise (on 18 September), AMT-5 was designated the SeaWiFS Atlantic Characterization Experiment (SeaACE) and was the only major research cruise involved in the validation of SeaWiFS data during the first 100 days of operations. The third objective involved the near-real time reporting of in situ light and pigment observations to the SeaWiFS Project, so the performance of the satellite sensor could be determined.

  13. Fundamental Aeronautics Program: Overview of Project Work in Supersonic Cruise Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castner, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    The Supersonics Project, part of NASA?s Fundamental Aeronautics Program, contains a number of technical challenge areas which include sonic boom community response, airport noise, high altitude emissions, cruise efficiency, light weight durable engines/airframes, and integrated multi-discipline system design. This presentation provides an overview of the current (2011) activities in the supersonic cruise efficiency technical challenge, and is focused specifically on propulsion technologies. The intent is to develop and validate high-performance supersonic inlet and nozzle technologies. Additional work is planned for design and analysis tools for highly-integrated low-noise, low-boom applications. If successful, the payoffs include improved technologies and tools for optimized propulsion systems, propulsion technologies for a minimized sonic boom signature, and a balanced approach to meeting efficiency and community noise goals. In this propulsion area, the work is divided into advanced supersonic inlet concepts, advanced supersonic nozzle concepts, low fidelity computational tool development, high fidelity computational tools, and improved sensors and measurement capability. The current work in each area is summarized.

  14. Fundamental Aeronautics Program: Overview of Propulsion Work in the Supersonic Cruise Efficiency Technical Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castner, Ray

    2012-01-01

    The Supersonics Project, part of NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program, contains a number of technical challenge areas which include sonic boom community response, airport noise, high altitude emissions, cruise efficiency, light weight durable engines/airframes, and integrated multi-discipline system design. This presentation provides an overview of the current (2012) activities in the supersonic cruise efficiency technical challenge, and is focused specifically on propulsion technologies. The intent is to develop and validate high-performance supersonic inlet and nozzle technologies. Additional work is planned for design and analysis tools for highly-integrated low-noise, low-boom applications. If successful, the payoffs include improved technologies and tools for optimized propulsion systems, propulsion technologies for a minimized sonic boom signature, and a balanced approach to meeting efficiency and community noise goals. In this propulsion area, the work is divided into advanced supersonic inlet concepts, advanced supersonic nozzle concepts, low fidelity computational tool development, high fidelity computational tools, and improved sensors and measurement capability. The current work in each area is summarized.

  15. MARS PATHFINDER ENTRY VEHICLE MATED TO CRUISE STAGE IN SAEF-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder is being transformed into its final preflight configuration as the entry vehicle and cruise stage are mated together in KSC's Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility- 2 (SAEF-2). Here, workers complete mechanical and electrical connections between the two elements. The cruise stage will perform the important task of delivering the entry vehicle directly to Mars from Earth. The entry vehicle includes the Sojourner small rover, the lander in which it is housed, and the aeroshell -- the white cone-shaped structure visible in this view -- encasing the lander. The aeroshell will protect the lander and rover from the intense heat of entry into the thin Martian atmosphere on landing day, scheduled for July 4, 1997. Its outside is covered with an ablative material first developed for the Viking missions to Mars more than 20 years ago. The Mars Pathfinder is being prepared for launch aboard a Delta II expendable launch vehicle during a 24-day launch period that opens Dec. 2, 1996.

  16. Reducing The Climate Change Impact of Aviation By Restricting Cruise Altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, V.; Noland, R. B.; Toumi, R.

    Aviation has the potential to influence the global climate. The total annual fuel burned by aircraft contributes a small but significant proportion of global anthropogenic car- bon dioxide emissions, with this proportion set to increase with the projected rise in demand for air travel. Additionally, the emission of nitrogen oxides at altitude can have a much greater impact on ozone, and in turn on the atmospheric radiation bud- get, than emission at the surface. A third mechanism for the influence of aviation on climate is through the production of contrails. Contrails cover 0.1 Cruise altitude restrictions could severely constrain air space capacity, especially in parts of Europe. In addition, carbon emissions may increase due to less efficient air- craft operation at lower cruise altitudes, which would offset some of the benefits of eliminating contrail formation. An analysis of these trade-offs is presented, using the RAMS air space simulation model as applied to European airspace. This model sim- ulates the flight paths and altitudes of each aircraft and is here used to calculate emis- sions of carbon dioxide and changes in the journey time. Our analysis demonstrates that altitude restrictions on commercial aircraft could be an effective means of re- ducing climate change impacts, though it will be necessary to mitigate the increased controller workload conflicts that this will generate.

  17. Initiation of Long-Wave Instability of Vortex Pairs at Cruise Altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, Vernon J.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have usually attributed the initiation of the long-wave instability of a vortex pair to turbulence in the atmosphere or in the wake of the aircraft. The purpose here is to show by use of observations and photographs of condensation trails shed by aircraft at cruise altitudes that another initiating mechanism is not only possible but is usually the mechanism that initiates the long-wave instability at cruise altitudes. The alternate initiating mechanism comes about when engine thrust is robust enough to form an array of circumferential vortices around each jet-engine-exhaust stream. In those cases, initiation begins when the vortex sheet shed by the wing has rolled up into a vortex pair and descended to the vicinity of the inside bottom of the combined shear-layer vortex arrays. It is the in-and-out (up and down) velocity field between sequential circumferential vortices near the bottom of the array that then impresses disturbance waves on the lift-generated vortex pair that initiate the long-wave instability. A time adjustment to the Crow and Bate estimate for vortex linking is then derived for cases when thrust-based linking occurs.

  18. Impact of Interstellar Vehicle Acceleration and Cruise Velocity on Total Mission Mass and Trip Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisbee, Robert H.

    2006-01-01

    Far-term interstellar missions, like their near-term solar system exploration counterparts, seek to minimize overall mission trip time and transportation system mass. Trip time is especially important in interstellar missions because of the enormous distances between stars and the finite limit of the speed of light (c). In this paper, we investigate the impact of vehicle acceleration and maximum or cruise velocity (Vcruise) on the total mission trip time. We also consider the impact that acceleration has on the transportation system mass (M) and power (P) (e.g., acceleration approx. power/mass and mass approx. power), as well as the impact that the cruise velocity has on the vehicle mass (e.g., the total mission change in velocity ((Delta)V) approx. Vcruise). For example, a Matter-Antimatter Annihilation Rocket's wet mass (Mwet) with propellant (Mp) will be a function of the dry mass of the vehicle (Mdry) and (Delta)V through the Rocket Equation. Similarly, a laser-driven LightSail's sail mass and laser power and mass will be a function of acceleration, Vcruise, and power-beaming distance (because of the need to focus the laser beam over interstellar distances).

  19. Optimum Climb to Cruise Noise Trajectories for the High Speed Civil Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.

    2003-01-01

    By entraining large quantities of ambient air into advanced ejector nozzles, the jet noise of the proposed High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) is expected to be reduced to levels acceptable for airport-vicinity noise certification. Away from the airport, however, this entrained air is shut off and the engines are powered up from their cutback levels to provide better thrust for the climb to cruise altitude. Unsuppressed jet noise levels propagating to the ground far from the airport are expected to be high. Complicating this problem is the HSCT's relative noise level with respect to the subsonic commercial fleet of 2010, which is expected to be much quieter than it is today after the retirement of older, louder, domestic stage II aircraft by the year 2000. In this study, the classic energy state approximation theory is extended to calculate trajectories that minimize the climb to cruise noise of the HSCT. The optimizer dynamically chooses the optimal altitude velocity trajectory, the engine power setting, and whether the ejector should be stowed or deployed with respect to practical aircraft climb constraints and noise limits.

  20. The Teachers at Sea program during the CIRCEA cruise of the R/V Marion Dufresne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laj, Carlo; Sanchez Morante, Ana; Kissel, Catherine; Leau, Hélène

    2015-04-01

    With the support of the French Polar Institute (IPEV) and EGU, two teachers from Spain and France were able to participate to the CIRCEA (CIRCulation in East Asian seas) cruise of the R/V Marion Dufresne in the South China Sea, departing and arriving in Singapore. On board, the two teachers participated to all the scientific activities, including together with the scientists and technicians, to two 4-hours shifts per day (8h total per day). During these shifts, they were involved in every step of the process of obtaining the cores, cutting, opening and labelling them, archiving, and measuring some of the physical parameters, and finally sediment description. It was possible to establish almost daily reports of the scientific progress of the cruise and to send regular logs to the participating land-based teachers in different schools mainly in Europe and in the USA, taking advantage of a list of addresses of teachers having participated to the Geosciences Information for teachers (GIFT) workshops of the European Geosciences Union. This should bring authentic science in the classroom, and indeed we received enthusiastic responses from many teachers. Also, a video report of the different aspects of the life on board was realized by Ana Morante (the teacher from Spain) and Carlo Laj (Chair of the Committee on Education of EGU) which will be shown during the GIFT workshop and during the General Assembly of EGU at the IPEV booth.

  1. Tectonics at the Southeast Indian Ridge 79 to 99 E. Results from the GEISEIR cruises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briais, A.; Hemond, C.; Maia, M. A.; Hanan, B. B.; Graham, D. W.; Geiseir Scientific Team; Geiseir2 Scientific Team

    2011-12-01

    During the GEISEIR (Géochimie Isotopique de la SEIR) and GEISEIR2 cruises on N/O Marion Dufresne in 2009 and 2010, we collected geophysical data, high-density wax-core or dredge basalt samples, and water column profiles along the Southeast Indian Ridge (SEIR) between 79E and 99E. This section of the intermediate-spreading SEIR is located between the St Paul-Amsterdam hotspot plateau and the Australia-Antarctic Discordance. We completed the multibeam bathymetry mapping of the axis and transform faults of the 79-88E and the 96-99E sections, and mapped the axial zone and discontinuities of the 88-96E section up to 800 kyr. These ridge sections were sampled at 20 km, 5 km and 10 km spacing, respectively. This presentation focusses on the results of a structural and geophysical analysis of the axial domain and the off-axis area up to 800 kyr. We merged the bathymetry data collected during the GEISEIR and GEISEIR2 cruises with those of the previous (Westward 9 and 10 and Boomerang 6) cruises. We also compiled the shipborne gravity data and estimated mantle Bouguer anomalies (MBA). The ridge displays large variations in axial depth and morphology, from a rifted axial high to an axial valley, at the scale of ridge segments. Ridge offsets vary in morphology from overlapping-spreading centers, to propagating rifts, to transform faults. Shalllow segments have pronounced axial MBA lows, probably resulting from a thicker ocean crust, and the presence of hotter mantle beneath the ridge axis. Water-column profiling at each wax-core sampling site reveals numerous moderate to strong signals of hydrothermal activity. The distribution of the hydrothermal vent signals does not always coincide with the magmatic robustness of the ridge axis, suggesting that tectonic activity also controls the vent setting. The recent evolution of the ridge discontinuities is marked by southeastward propagators at 92E and 95E, and by the eastward migration of the 96E transform fault. These areas

  2. SUPERSTARS III: 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Education, Raleigh.

    SUPERSTARS III is a K-8 program designed as an enrichment opportunity for self-directed learners in mathematics. The basic purpose of SUPERSTARS III is to provide the extra challenge that self-motivated students need in mathematics and to do so in a structured, long-term program that does not impinge on the normal classroom routine or the…

  3. SUPERSTARS III: 6-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Education, Raleigh.

    SUPERSTARS III is a K-8 program designed as an enrichment opportunity for self-directed learners in mathematics. The basic purpose of SUPERSTARS III is to provide the extra challenge that self-motivated students need in mathematics and to do so in a structured, long-term program that does not impinge on the normal classroom routine or the…

  4. Using dBase III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Janet; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Four articles on dBASE III include three on library applications: a photocopy invoicing system for interlibrary loan, a vertical file subject headings list program, and a subject index to statistical resources. Another article explains the differences between interpreters and compilers and the advantages of the Clipper compiler for dBASE III. (EM)

  5. 33 CFR 165.1324 - Safety and Security Zone; Cruise Ship Protection, Elliott Bay and Pier-91, Seattle, Washington.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 CFR Part 165, Subpart D, no person or vessel may enter or remain in either Safety and Security... Cruise Vessel does not include vessels inspected and certificated under 46 CFR, Chapter I, Subchapter T... rules contained in this section pursuant to 33 CFR 6.04-11. In addition, the Captain of the Port may...

  6. 33 CFR 165.1324 - Safety and Security Zone; Cruise Ship Protection, Elliott Bay and Pier-91, Seattle, Washington.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 CFR Part 165, Subpart D, no person or vessel may enter or remain in either Safety and Security... Cruise Vessel does not include vessels inspected and certificated under 46 CFR, Chapter I, Subchapter T... rules contained in this section pursuant to 33 CFR 6.04-11. In addition, the Captain of the Port may...

  7. 33 CFR 165.1324 - Safety and Security Zone; Cruise Ship Protection, Elliott Bay and Pier-91, Seattle, Washington.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 CFR Part 165, Subpart D, no person or vessel may enter or remain in either Safety and Security... Cruise Vessel does not include vessels inspected and certificated under 46 CFR, Chapter I, Subchapter T... rules contained in this section pursuant to 33 CFR 6.04-11. In addition, the Captain of the Port may...

  8. 33 CFR 165.1324 - Safety and Security Zone; Cruise Ship Protection, Elliott Bay and Pier-91, Seattle, Washington.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 CFR Part 165, Subpart D, no person or vessel may enter or remain in either Safety and Security... Cruise Vessel does not include vessels inspected and certificated under 46 CFR, Chapter I, Subchapter T... rules contained in this section pursuant to 33 CFR 6.04-11. In addition, the Captain of the Port may...

  9. Using macroalgal δ15N bioassay to detect cruise ship waste water effluent inputs in Skagway, AK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen stable isotopes are a powerful tool for tracking sources of N to marine ecosystems. I used green macroalgae as a bioassay organism to evaluate if the δ15N signature of cruise ship waste water effluent (CSWWE) could be detected in Skagway Harbor, AK. Opportunistic green...

  10. 33 CFR 165.1324 - Safety and Security Zone; Cruise Ship Protection, Elliott Bay and Pier-91, Seattle, Washington.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 CFR Part 165, Subpart D, no person or vessel may enter or remain in either Safety and Security... Cruise Vessel does not include vessels inspected and certificated under 46 CFR, Chapter I, Subchapter T... rules contained in this section pursuant to 33 CFR 6.04-11. In addition, the Captain of the Port may...

  11. 75 FR 36455 - SSE Telecom, Inc., Strategic Alliance Group, Inc., (n/k/a CruiseCam International, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... COMMISSION SSE Telecom, Inc., Strategic Alliance Group, Inc., (n/k/a CruiseCam International, Inc.), Stratasec, Inc., Superfly Advertising, Inc. (f/k/a Morlex, Inc.), SVI Media, Inc., Symons International Group, Inc., Synergy Renewable Resources, Inc., and Syntech International, Inc. (n/k/a Avalon...

  12. 33 CFR 165.1183 - Security Zones; tankers, cruise ships, and High Value Assets, San Francisco Bay and Delta Ports...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... vessels carrying CDC as defined in 33 CFR 160.204, deemed by the Captain of Port, or higher authority, as... ships, and High Value Assets, San Francisco Bay and Delta Ports, Monterey Bay and Humboldt Bay... Security Zones; tankers, cruise ships, and High Value Assets, San Francisco Bay and Delta Ports,...

  13. 33 CFR 165.1183 - Security Zones; tankers, cruise ships, and High Value Assets, San Francisco Bay and Delta Ports...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... vessels carrying CDC as defined in 33 CFR 160.204, deemed by the Captain of Port, or higher authority, as... ships, and High Value Assets, San Francisco Bay and Delta Ports, Monterey Bay and Humboldt Bay... Security Zones; tankers, cruise ships, and High Value Assets, San Francisco Bay and Delta Ports,...

  14. 33 CFR 165.1183 - Security Zones; tankers, cruise ships, and High Value Assets, San Francisco Bay and Delta Ports...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... vessels carrying CDC as defined in 33 CFR 160.204, deemed by the Captain of Port, or higher authority, as... ships, and High Value Assets, San Francisco Bay and Delta Ports, Monterey Bay and Humboldt Bay... Security Zones; tankers, cruise ships, and High Value Assets, San Francisco Bay and Delta Ports,...

  15. 33 CFR 165.1183 - Security Zones; Cruise Ships, Tankers and High Interest Vessels, San Francisco Bay and Delta...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Tankers and High Interest Vessels, San Francisco Bay and Delta Ports, Monterey Bay and Humboldt Bay... Security Zones; Cruise Ships, Tankers and High Interest Vessels, San Francisco Bay and Delta Ports... Francisco Bay and Delta port areas shoreward of the line drawn between San Francisco Main Ship Channel...

  16. 33 CFR 165.1183 - Security Zones; tankers, cruise ships, and High Value Assets, San Francisco Bay and Delta Ports...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... vessels carrying CDC as defined in 33 CFR 160.204, deemed by the Captain of Port, or higher authority, as... ships, and High Value Assets, San Francisco Bay and Delta Ports, Monterey Bay and Humboldt Bay... Security Zones; tankers, cruise ships, and High Value Assets, San Francisco Bay and Delta Ports,...

  17. Hydrocarbon gases in Baikal bottom sediments: preliminary results of the Second international Class@Baikal cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidischeva, Olesya; Akhmanov, Grigorii; Khlystov, Oleg; Giliazetdinova, Dina

    2016-04-01

    In July 2015 the research cruise in the waters of Lake Baikal was carried out onboard RV "G.Yu. Vereshchagin". The expedition was organized by Lomonosov Moscow State University and Limnological Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences. The main purpose of the expedition was to study the modern sedimentation and natural geological processes on the bottom of Lake Baikal. One of the tasks of the cruise was to conduct gas-geochemical survey of bottom sediments. The samples of hydrocarbon gases were collected during the cruise. Subsequent study of the composition and origin of the sampled gas was carried out in the laboratories of Moscow State University. 708 samples from 61 bottom sampling stations were studied. Analyzed samples are from seven different areas located in the southern and central depressions of the lake: (1) "Goloustnoe" seepage area; (2) Bolshoy mud volcano; (3) Elovskiy Area; (4) "Krasny Yar" Seep; (5) "St. Petersburg" Seep; (6) Khuray deep-water depositional system; and (7) Kukuy Griva (Ridge) area. The results of molecular composition analysis indicate that hydrocarbon gases in bottom sediments from almost all sampling stations are represented mostly by pure methane. Ethane was detected only in some places within "Krasny Yar", "Goloustnoe" and "St. Petersburg" seepage areas. The highest concentrations of methane were registered in the sediments from the "Krasny Yar" area - 14 457 μl/l (station TTR-BL15-146G) - and from the "St. Petersburg" area - 13 684 μl/l (station TTR-BL15-125G). The sediments with high concentrations of gases were sampled from active fluid discharge areas, which also can be well distinguished on the seismic profiles. Gas hydrates were obtained in the areas of "Krasny Yar", "Goloustnoe", and "St. Petersburg" seeps and in the area of the Bolshoy mud volcano. Isotopic composition δ13C(CH4) was studied for 100 samples of hydrocarbon gases collected in areas with high methane concentration in bottom sediments. The average value is

  18. An Update on the RV Knorr Long Coring System after Seven Cruises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, W. B.; Broda, J. E.

    2010-12-01

    Following sea trials in 2007, the long core system on RV Knorr began scientific operations in 2009 with two cruises to the equatorial Pacific and followed in 2010 with four cruises in the equatorial and North Atlantic. KNR195-3 (D’Hondt Chief Scientist) followed an equatorial Pacific track line from Costa Rica to Hawaii and recovered nineteen piston cores ranging in length from 18 to 41 m. KNR195-5 (Herbert Chief Scientist) cored near the Galapagos, on the Peru margin and near the Carnegie Ridge, recovering nine piston cores ranging in length from 8 to nearly 43 m. KNR197-3 (Oppo/Curry Co-chief Scientists) cored along the northern slope of Demerara Rise in water depths ranging from 550 m to 3100 m and recovered twelve piston cores in lengths from 25 to 32 m. KNR197-4 (Baker Chief Scientist) recovered nine cores in lengths ranging from 24 to 32 m from the Amazon Fan and nearby equatorial Atlantic. KNR197-10 and KNR198-1 (Keigwin Chief Scientist for both) operated near the Mid Atlantic Ridge east of the Azores, the Grand Banks and along the slope SE of New England. Seventeen piston cores were recovered ranging in length from 24 to 39 m. In total (including the sea trials cruise) sixty seven piston cores have been recovered. Of these, three were greater than 40 m in length, fifteen were between 35 and 40 m, thirteen were between 30 and 35 m, twenty eight were between 25 and 30 m, and eight were shorter than 25 m. The longest cores recovered were in Pacific Ocean oozes far from the continents and in sedimentary drift deposits at the Bermuda Rise and Corner Rise in the Atlantic Ocean. Nearer to the continents, core lengths were 25 to 32 m, limited for the most part by poorer core penetration into the coarse-grained continental margin sediments. One long core was lost during operations because of a water column trip which parted a pendant connecting the release system with the core. The core recoveries are comparable to core lengths of the original Giant Piston Core on

  19. PREFACE: Quantum Optics III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orszag, M.; Retamal, J. C.; Saavedra, C.; Wallentowitz, S.

    2007-06-01

    All the 50 years of conscious pondering did not bring me nearer to an answer to the question `what is light quanta?'. Nowadays, every rascal believes, he knows it, however, he is mistaken. (A Einstein, 1951 in a letter to M Besso) Quantum optics has played a key role in physics in the last several decades. On the other hand, in these early decades of the information age, the flow of information is becoming more and more central to our daily life. Thus, the related fields of quantum information theory as well as Bose-Einstein condensation have acquired tremendous importance in the last couple of decades. In Quantum Optics III, a fusion of these fields appears in a natural way. Quantum Optics III was held in Pucón, Chile, in 27-30 of November, 2006. This beautiful location in the south of Chile is near the lake Villarrica and below the snow covered volcano of the same name. This fantastic environment contributed to a relaxed atmosphere, suitable for informal discussion and for the students to have a chance to meet the key figures in the field. The previous Quantum Optics conferences took place in Santiago, Chile (Quantum Optics I, 2000) and Cozumel, Mexico (Quantum Optics II, 2004). About 115 participants from 19 countries attended and participated in the meeting to discuss a wide variety of topics such as quantum-information processing, experiments related to non-linear optics and squeezing, various aspects of entanglement including its sudden death, correlated twin-photon experiments, light storage, decoherence-free subspaces, Bose-Einstein condensation, discrete Wigner functions and many more. There was a strong Latin-American participation from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela and Mexico, as well as from Europe, USA, China, and Australia. New experimental and theoretical results were presented at the conference. In Latin-America a quiet revolution has taken place in the last twenty years. Several groups working in quantum optics and

  20. Hydrodynamic characteristics of the sailfish (Istiophorus platypterus) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius) in gliding postures at their cruise speeds.

    PubMed

    Sagong, Woong; Jeon, Woo-Pyung; Choi, Haecheon

    2013-01-01

    The sailfish and swordfish are known as the fastest sea animals, reaching their maximum speeds of around 100 km/h. In the present study, we investigate the hydrodynamic characteristics of these fishes in their cruise speeds of about 1 body length per second. We install a taxidermy specimen of each fish in a wind tunnel, and measure the drag on its body and boundary-layer velocity above its body surface at the Reynolds number corresponding to its cruising condition. The drag coefficients of the sailfish and swordfish based on the free-stream velocity and their wetted areas are measured to be 0.0075 and 0.0091, respectively, at their cruising conditions. These drag coefficients are very low and comparable to those of tuna and pike and smaller than those of dogfish and small-size trout. On the other hand, the long bill is one of the most distinguished features of these fishes from other fishes, and we study its role on the ability of drag modification. The drag on the fish without the bill or with an artificially-made shorter one is slightly smaller than that with the original bill, indicating that the bill itself does not contribute to any drag reduction at its cruise speed. From the velocity measurement near the body surface, we find that at the cruise speed flow separation does not occur over the whole body even without the bill, and the boundary layer flow is affected only at the anterior part of the body by the bill.

  1. Spatial pattern analysis of cruise ship-humpback whale interactions in and near Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Harris, Karin; Gende, Scott M; Logsdon, Miles G; Klinger, Terrie

    2012-01-01

    Understanding interactions between large ships and large whales is important to estimate risks posed to whales by ships. The coastal waters of Alaska are a summer feeding area for humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) as well as a prominent destination for large cruise ships. Lethal collisions between cruise ships and humpback whales have occurred throughout Alaska, including in Glacier Bay National Park (GBNP). Although the National Park Service (NPS) establishes quotas and operating requirements for cruise ships within GBNP in part to minimize ship-whale collisions, no study has quantified ship-whale interactions in the park or in state waters where ship traffic is unregulated. In 2008 and 2009, an observer was placed on ships during 49 different cruises that included entry into GBNP to record distance and bearing of whales that surfaced within 1 km of the ship's bow. A relative coordinate system was developed in ArcGIS to model the frequency of whale surface events using kernel density. A total of 514 whale surface events were recorded. Although ship-whale interactions were common within GBNP, whales frequently surfaced in front of the bow in waters immediately adjacent to the park (west Icy Strait) where cruise ship traffic is not regulated by the NPS. When ships transited at speeds >13 knots, whales frequently surfaced closer to the ship's midline and ship's bow in contrast to speeds slower than 13 knots. Our findings confirm that ship speed is an effective mitigation measure for protecting whales and should be applied to other areas where ship-whale interactions are common.

  2. Insulation systems for liquid methane fuel tanks for supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, H. F.; Delduca, D.

    1972-01-01

    Two insulation systems for tanks containing liquid methane in supersonic cruise-type aircraft were designed and tested after an extensive materials investigation. One system is an external insulation and the other is an internal wet-type insulation system. Tank volume was maximized by making the tank shape approach a rectangular parallelopiped. One tank was designed to use the external insulation and the other tank to use the internal insulation. Performance of the external insulation system was evaluated on a full-scale tank under the temperature environment of -320 F to 700 F and ambient pressures of ground-level atmospheric to 1 psia. Problems with installing the internal insulation on the test tank prevented full-scale evaluation of performance; however, small-scale testing verified thermal conductivity, temperature capability, and installed density.

  3. Preliminary design-lift/cruise fan research and technology airplane flight control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gotlieb, P.; Lewis, G. E.; Little, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    This report presents the preliminary design of a stability augmentation system for a NASA V/STOL research and technology airplane. This stability augmentation system is postulated as the simplest system that meets handling qualities levels for research and technology missions flown by NASA test pilots. The airplane studied in this report is a T-39 fitted with tilting lift/cruise fan nacelles and a nose fan. The propulsion system features a shaft interconnecting the three variable pitch fans and three power plants. The mathematical modeling is based on pre-wind tunnel test estimated data. The selected stability augmentation system uses variable gains scheduled with airspeed. Failure analysis of the system illustrates the benign effect of engine failure. Airplane rate sensor failure must be solved with redundancy.

  4. Mathematical model for lift/cruise fan V/STOL aircraft simulator programming data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bland, M. P.; Fajfar, B.; Konsewicz, R. K.

    1976-01-01

    Simulation data are reported for the purpose of programming the flight simulator for advanced aircraft for tests of the lift/cruise fan V/STOL Research Technology Aircraft. These simulation tests are to provide insight into problem areas which are encountered in operational use of the aircraft. A mathematical model is defined in sufficient detail to represent all the necessary pertinent aircraft and system characteristics. The model includes the capability to simulate two basic versions of an aircraft propulsion system: (1) the gas coupled configuration which uses insulated air ducts to transmit power between gas generators and fans in the form of high energy engine exhaust and (2) the mechanically coupled power system which uses shafts, clutches, and gearboxes for power transmittal. Both configurations are modeled such that the simulation can include vertical as well as rolling takeoff and landing, hover, powered lift flight, aerodynamic flight, and the transition between powered lift and aerodynamic flight.

  5. Preliminary noise tradeoff study of a Mach 2.7 cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mascitti, V. R.; Maglieri, D. J. (Editor); Raney, J. P. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    NASA computer codes in the areas of preliminary sizing and enroute performance, takeoff and landing performance, aircraft noise prediction, and economics were used in a preliminary noise tradeoff study for a Mach 2.7 design supersonic cruise concept. Aerodynamic configuration data were based on wind-tunnel model tests and related analyses. Aircraft structural characteristics and weight were based on advanced structural design methodologies, assuming conventional titanium technology. The most advanced noise prediction techniques available were used, and aircraft operating costs were estimated using accepted industry methods. The 4-engines cycles included in the study were based on assumed 1985 technology levels. Propulsion data was provided by aircraft manufacturers. Additional empirical data is needed to define both noise reduction features and other operating characteristics of all engine cycles under study. Data on VCE design parameters, coannular nozzle inverted flow noise reduction and advanced mechanical suppressors are urgently needed to reduce the present uncertainties in studies of this type.

  6. Fabrication methods for YF-12 wing panels for the Supersonic Cruise Aircraft Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, E. L.; Payne, L.; Carter, A. L.

    1975-01-01

    Advanced fabrication and joining processes for titanium and composite materials are being investigated by NASA to develop technology for the Supersonic Cruise Aircraft Research (SCAR) Program. With Lockheed-ADP as the prime contractor, full-scale structural panels are being designed and fabricated to replace an existing integrally stiffened shear panel on the upper wing surface of the NASA YF-12 aircraft. The program involves ground testing and Mach 3 flight testing of full-scale structural panels and laboratory testing of representative structural element specimens. Fabrication methods and test results for weldbrazed and Rohrbond titanium panels are discussed. The fabrication methods being developed for boron/aluminum, Borsic/aluminum, and graphite/polyimide panels are also presented.

  7. Narrative of an R/V Meiring Naudé Cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gründlingh, Marten Luther

    Sailing at night, not a star is in sight, the vessel is rocked without grace. Thick tomes in our hands nor computer commands quell the sea which is white as the cruise leader's face. We find sigmas and t's, giant eddies, and big seas—Watch the XVI Please, SONAR, don't bug me! Thermohaline inversions, unsuspected divergence and at six every day there's beer and TV.We are up before dawn, 'ere night turns to morn/ There is no place here for the lazy. Where's the Mozambique Ridge? SSB on the bridge play our song. Man, we're all going crazy! For 10 days or more, we manage the chore tapping samples and combing the sea. Just work yourself silly—it's not willy nilly

  8. A Free-Return Earth-Moon Cycler Orbit for an Interplanetary Cruise Ship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genova, Anthony L.; Aldrin, Buzz

    2015-01-01

    A periodic circumlunar orbit is presented that can be used by an interplanetary cruise ship for regular travel between Earth and the Moon. This Earth-Moon cycler orbit was revealed by introducing solar gravity and modest phasing maneuvers (average of 39 m/s per month) which yields close-Earth encounters every 7 or 10 days. Lunar encounters occur every 26 days and offer the chance for a smaller craft to depart the cycler and enter lunar orbit, or head for a Lagrange point (e.g., EM-L2 halo orbit), distant retrograde orbit (DRO), or interplanetary destination such as a near-Earth object (NEO) or Mars. Additionally, return-to-Earth abort options are available from many points along the cycling trajectory.

  9. Feasibility and benefits of laminar flow control on supersonic cruise airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, A. G.; Agrawal, S.; Lacey, T. R.

    1989-01-01

    An evaluation was made of the applicability and benefits of laminar flow control (LFC) technology to supersonic cruise airplanes. Ancillary objectives were to identify the technical issues critical to supersonic LFC application, and to determine how those issues can be addressed through flight and wind-tunnel testing. Vehicle types studied include a Mach 2.2 supersonic transport configuration, a Mach 4.0 transport, and two Mach 2-class fighter concepts. Laminar flow control methodologies developed for subsonic and transonic wing laminarization were extended and applied. No intractible aerodynamic problems were found in applying LFC to airplanes of the Mach 2 class, even ones of large size. Improvements of 12 to 17 percent in lift-drag ratios were found. Several key technical issues, such as contamination avoidance and excresence criteria were identified. Recommendations are made for their resolution. A need for an inverse supersonic wing design methodology is indicated.

  10. Advanced technology payoffs for future rotorcraft, commuter aircraft, cruise missile, and APU propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turk, M. A.; Zeiner, P. K.

    1986-01-01

    In connection with the significant advances made regarding the performance of larger gas turbines, challenges arise concerning the improvement of small gas turbine engines in the 250 to 1000 horsepower range. In response to these challenges, the NASA/Army-sponsored Small Engine Component Technology (SECT) study was undertaken with the objective to identify the engine cycle, configuration, and component technology requirements for the substantial performance improvements desired in year-2000 small gas turbine engines. In the context of this objective, an American turbine engine company evaluated engines for four year-2000 applications, including a rotorcraft, a commuter aircraft, a supersonic cruise missile, and an auxiliary power unit (APU). Attention is given to reference missions, reference engines, reference aircraft, year-2000 technology projections, cycle studies, advanced engine selections, and a technology evaluation.

  11. Titanium and advanced composite structures for a supersonic cruise arrow wing configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, M. J.; Hoy, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    Structural design studies were made, based on current technology and on an estimate of technology to be available in the mid 1980's, to assess the relative merits of structural concepts and materials for an advanced arrow wing configuration cruising at Mach 2.7. Preliminary studies were made to insure compliance of the configuration with general design criteria, integrate the propulsion system with the airframe, and define an efficient structural arrangement. Material and concept selection, detailed structural analysis, structural design and airplane mass analysis were completed based on current technology. Based on estimated future technology, structural sizing for strength and a preliminary assessment of the flutter of a strength designed composite structure were completed. An advanced computerized structural design system was used, in conjunction with a relatively complex finite element model, for detailed analysis and sizing of structural members.

  12. The common case study: Lockheed design of a supersonic cruise vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clauss, J. S., Jr.; Hays, A. P.; Wilson, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The objective was to compare the characteristics of SSTs designed for the same mission by Lockheed, McDonnell Douglas, British Aerospace (U.K.), Aerospatiale (France), and the USSR. This comparison was to be used to calibrate parametric design studies of the tradeoff between SST direct operating cost (DOC) and noise levels at the FAR 36 certification points. The guidelines for this common case study were to design an aircraft with the following mission: payload 23 247 kg (51 250 lbm), range - 7000 km (3780 n. mi.), and cruise Mach number - 2.2. Field length was constrained to 3505 m (11 500 ft). Other airfield constraints and fuel reserves were also specified, but no noise constraints were applied.

  13. Vertical Take-Off and Landing Vehicle with Increased Cruise Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredericks, William J. (Inventor); Moore, Mark D. (Inventor); Busan, Ronald C. (Inventor); Rothhaar, Paul M. (Inventor); North, David D. (Inventor); Langford, William M. (Inventor); Laws, Christopher T. (Inventor); Hodges, William T. (Inventor); Johns, Zachary R. (Inventor); Webb, Sandy R. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems, methods, and devices are provided that combine an advance vehicle configuration, such as an advanced aircraft configuration, with the infusion of electric propulsion, thereby enabling a four times increase in range and endurance while maintaining a full vertical takeoff and landing ("VTOL") and hover capability for the vehicle. Embodiments may provide vehicles with both VTOL and cruise efficient capabilities without the use of ground infrastructure. An embodiment vehicle may comprise a wing configured to tilt through a range of motion, a first series of electric motors coupled to the wing and each configured to drive an associated wing propeller, a tail configured to tilt through the range of motion, a second series of electric motors coupled to the tail and each configured to drive an associated tail propeller, and an electric propulsion system connected to the first series of electric motors and the second series of electric motors.

  14. Average-passage simulation of counter-rotating propfan propulsion systems as applied to cruise missiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulac, Richard A.; Schneider, Jon C.; Adamczyk, John J.

    1989-01-01

    Counter-rotating propfan (CRP) propulsion technologies are currently being evaluated as cruise missile propulsion systems. The aerodynamic integration concerns associated with this application are being addressed through the computational modeling of the missile body-propfan flowfield interactions. The work described in this paper consists of a detailed analysis of the aerodynamic interactions between the control surfaces and the propfan blades through the solution of the average-passage equation system. Two baseline configurations were studied, the control fins mounted forward of the counter-rotating propeller and the control fins mounted aft of the counter-rotating propeller. In both cases, control fin-propfan separation distance and control fin deflection angle were varied.

  15. Meteorological observations from ship cruises during summer to the central Arctic: A comparison with reanalysis data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüpkes, C.; Vihma, T.; Jakobson, E.; König-Langlo, G.; Tetzlaff, A.

    2010-05-01

    Near-surface meteorological observations and rawinsonde soundings from Arctic cruises with the German icebreaker RV Polarstern during August 1996, 2001, and 2007 are compared with each other and with ERA-Interim reanalyses. Although the observations are usually applied in the reanalysis, they differ considerably from ERA data. ERA overestimates the relative humidity and temperature in the atmospheric boundary layer and the base height of the capping inversion. Warm biases of ERA near-surface temperatures amount up to 2 K. The melting point of snow is the most frequent near-surface temperature in ERA, while the observed value is the sea water freezing temperature. Both observations and ERA show that above 400 m, in the North Atlantic sector 0-90 E, the warmest August occurred in 2001, and August 2007 had the highest humidity. In the Eastern Siberian and Beaufort Sea region ERA temperatures along 80 and 85 N were highest in 2007.

  16. Nacelle Integration to Reduce the Sonic Boom of Aircraft Designed to Cruise at Supersonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mack, Robert J.

    1999-01-01

    An empirical method for integrating the engine nacelles on a wing-fuselage-fin(s) configuration has been described. This method is based on Whitham theory and Seebass and George sonic-boom minimization theory, With it, both reduced sonic-boom as well as high aerodynamic efficiency methods can be applied to the conceptual design of a supersonic-cruise aircraft. Two high-speed civil transport concepts were used as examples to illustrate the application of this engine-nacelle integration methodology: (1) a concept with engine nacelles mounted on the aft-fuselage, the HSCT-1OB; and (2) a concept with engine nacelles mounted under an extended-wing center section, the HSCT-11E. In both cases, the key to a significant reduction in the sonic-boom contribution from the engine nacelles was to use the F-function shape of the concept as a guide to move the nacelles further aft on the configuration.

  17. Evaluation of a Guideline by Formal Modelling of Cruise Control System in Event-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeganefard, Sanaz; Butler, Michael; Rezazadeh, Abdolbaghi

    2010-01-01

    Recently a set of guidelines, or cookbook, has been developed for modelling and refinement of control problems in Event-B. The Event-B formal method is used for system-level modelling by defining states of a system and events which act on these states. It also supports refinement of models. This cookbook is intended to systematize the process of modelling and refining a control problem system by distinguishing environment, controller and command phenomena. Our main objective in this paper is to investigate and evaluate the usefulness and effectiveness of this cookbook by following it throughout the formal modelling of cruise control system found in cars. The outcomes are identifying the benefits of the cookbook and also giving guidance to its future users.

  18. Accounting for Laminar Run & Trip Drag in Supersonic Cruise Performance Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodsell, Aga M.; Kennelly, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    An improved laminar run and trip drag correction methodology for supersonic cruise performance testing was derived. This method required more careful analysis of the flow visualization images which revealed delayed transition particularly on the inboard upper surface, even for the largest trip disks. In addition, a new code was developed to estimate the laminar run correction. Once the data were corrected for laminar run, the correct approach to the analysis of the trip drag became evident. Although the data originally appeared confusing, the corrected data are consistent with previous results. Furthermore, the modified approach, which was described in this presentation, extends prior historical work by taking into account the delayed transition caused by the blunt leading edges.

  19. The Radiation Environment on the Martian Surface and during MSL's Cruise to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassler, D. M.; Zeitlin, C.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.

    2012-12-01

    An important part of assessing present and past habitability of Mars is to understand and characterize "life limiting factors" on the surface, such as the radiation environment. Radiation exposure is also a major concern for future human missions and characterizing the radiation environment, both on the surface of Mars and inside the spacecraft during the cruise to Mars, provides critical information to aid in the planning for future human exploration of Mars. RAD was the first MSL instrument to start collecting data, beginning its science investigation during cruise (10 days after launch) and making the first ever measurements of the radiation environment on another planet. RAD is an energetic particle analyzer designed to characterize a broad spectrum of energetic particle radiation including galactic cosmic rays, solar energetic particles, and secondary neutrons created both in the Mars atmosphere and regolith. RAD observations consist of a time series of periodic (typically hourly) measurements of charged particles from protons (Z=1) up to iron (Z=26) for energies above >10 MeV/nucleon, as well as neutrons from 10 to ~ 100 MeV. These synoptic observations are designed to characterize both the short term variability associated with the onset of solar energetic particle events as well as the long term variability of galactic cosmic rays over the solar cycle. RAD measurements will also be used to quantify the flux of biologically hazardous radiation at the surface of Mars today, and determine how these fluxes vary on diurnal, seasonal, solar cycle and episodic (flare, storm) timescales. These measurements will allow calculations of the depth in rock or soil to which this flux, when integrated over long timescales, provides a lethal dose for known terrestrial organisms. Through such measurements, we can learn how deep below the surface life would have to be, or have been in the past, to be protected. This talk will discuss the results obtained during the ~7 months

  20. The Radiation Environment on the Martian Surface and during MSL's Cruise to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassler, Donald M.; Zeitlin, Cary; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Ehresmann, Bent; Rafkin, Scot; Martin, Cesar; Boettcher, Stephan; Koehler, Jan; Guo, Jingnan; Brinza, David E.; Reitz, Guenther; Posner, Arik; the MSL Science Team

    2013-04-01

    An important part of assessing present and past habitability of Mars is to understand and characterize "life limiting factors" on the surface, such as the radiation environment. Radiation exposure is also a major concern for future human missions and characterizing the radiation environment, both on the surface of Mars and inside the spacecraft during the cruise to Mars, provides critical information to aid in the planning for future human exploration of Mars. RAD was the first MSL instrument to start collecting data, beginning its science investigation during cruise (10 days after launch) and making the first ever measurements of the radiation environment on another planet. RAD is an energetic particle analyzer designed to characterize a broad spectrum of energetic particle radiation including galactic cosmic rays, solar energetic particles, and secondary neutrons created both in the Mars atmosphere and regolith. RAD observations consist of a time series of periodic (typically hourly) measurements of charged particles from protons (Z=1) up to iron (Z=26) for energies above >10 MeV/nucleon, as well as neutrons from 10 to ~ 100 MeV. These synoptic observations are designed to characterize both the short term variability associated with the onset of solar energetic particle events as well as the long term variability of galactic cosmic rays over the solar cycle. RAD measurements will also be used to quantify the flux of biologically hazardous radiation at the surface of Mars today, and determine how these fluxes vary on diurnal, seasonal, solar cycle and episodic (flare, storm) timescales. These measurements will allow calculations of the depth in rock or soil to which this flux, when integrated over long timescales, provides a lethal dose for known terrestrial organisms. Through such measurements, we can learn how deep below the surface life would have to be, or have been in the past, to be protected. This talk will discuss the results obtained during the ~7 months

  1. Bibliography of Supersonic Cruise Research (SCR) program from 1977 to mid-1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, S.

    1980-01-01

    The supersonic cruise research (SCR) program, initiated in July 1972, includes system studies and the following disciplines: propulsion, stratospheric emission impact, structures and materials, aerodynamic performance, and stability and control. In a coordinated effort to provide a sound basis for any future consideration that may be given by the United States to the development of an acceptable commercial supersonic transport, integration of the technical disciplines was undertaken, analytical tools were developed, and wind tunnel, flight, and laboratory investigations were conducted. The present bibliography covers the time period from 1977 to mid-1980. It is arranged according to system studies and the above five SCR disciplines. There are 306 NASA reports and 135 articles, meeting papers, and company reports cited.

  2. Study of metallic structural design concepts for an arrow wing supersonic cruise configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, M. J.; Grande, D. L.

    1977-01-01

    A structural design study was made, to assess the relative merits of various metallic structural concepts and materials for an advanced supersonic aircraft cruising at Mach 2.7. Preliminary studies were made to ensure compliance of the configuration with general design criteria, integrate the propulsion system with the airframe, select structural concepts and materials, and define an efficient structural arrangement. An advanced computerized structural design system was used, in conjunction with a relatively large, complex finite element model, for detailed analysis and sizing of structural members to satisfy strength and flutter criteria. A baseline aircraft design was developed for assessment of current technology. Criteria, analysis methods, and results are presented. The effect on design methods of using the computerized structural design system was appraised, and recommendations are presented concerning further development of design tools, development of materials and structural concepts, and research on basic technology.

  3. Outcome of tyrosinaemia type III.

    PubMed

    Ellaway, C J; Holme, E; Standing, S; Preece, M A; Green, A; Ploechl, E; Ugarte, M; Trefz, F K; Leonard, J V

    2001-12-01

    Tyrosinaemia type III is a rare disorder caused by a deficiency of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase, the second enzyme in the catabolic pathway of tyrosine. The majority of the nine previously reported patients have presented with neurological symptoms after the neonatal period, while others detected by neonatal screening have been asymptomatic. All have had normal liver and renal function and none has skin or eye abnormalities. A further four patients with tyrosinaemia type III are described. It is not clear whether a strict low tyrosine diet alters the natural history of tyrosinaemia type III, although there remains a suspicion that treatment may be important, at least in infancy.

  4. Alternative-Fuel Effects on Contrails & Cruise Emissions (ACCESS-2) Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Bruce E.

    2015-01-01

    Although the emission performance of gas-turbine engines burning renewable aviation fuels have been thoroughly documented in recent ground-based studies, there is still great uncertainty regarding how the fuels effect aircraft exhaust composition and contrail formation at cruise altitudes. To fill this information gap, the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate sponsored the ACCESS flight series to make detailed measurements of trace gases, aerosols and ice particles in the near-field behind the NASA DC-8 aircraft as it burned either standard petroleum-based fuel of varying sulfur content or a 50:50 blend of standard fuel and a hydro-treated esters and fatty acid (HEFA) jet fuel produced from camelina plant oil. ACCESS 1, conducted in spring 2013 near Palmdale CA, focused on refining flight plans and sampling techniques and used the instrumented NASA Langley HU-25 aircraft to document DC-8 emissions and contrails on five separate flights of approx.2 hour duration. ACCESS 2, conducted from Palmdale in May 2014, engaged partners from the Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) and National Research Council-Canada to provide additional scientific expertise and sampling aircraft (Falcon 20 and CT-133, respectively) with more extensive trace gas, particle, or air motion measurement capability. Eight, muliti-aircraft research flights of 2 to 4 hour duration were conducted to document the emissions and contrail properties of the DC-8 as it 1) burned low sulfur Jet A, high sulfur Jet A or low sulfur Jet A/HEFA blend, 2) flew at altitudes between 6 and 11 km, and 3) operated its engines at three different fuel flow rates. This presentation further describes the ACCESS flight experiments, examines fuel type and thrust setting impacts on engine emissions, and compares cruise-altitude observations with similar data acquired in ground tests.

  5. Biofuel Blending Impacts on Aircraft Engine Particle Emissions at Cruise Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R.

    2015-12-01

    We present measurements of aerosol emissions indices and microphysical properties measured in-situ behind the CFM56-2-C1 engines of the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the 2014 Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) project. Aircraft engine emissions can have a disproportionately large climatic impact since they are emitted high in the troposphere and in remote regions with otherwise low aerosol concentrations. This has motivated numerous past ground-based studies focused on quantifying the emissions indices of non-volatile and semi-volatile aerosol species, however, it is unclear the extent to which emissions on the ground translate to emissions at cruise conditions. In addition, the ability of engine-emitted aerosols to nucleate ice crystals and form linear contrails or contrail cirrus clouds remains poorly understood. To better understand these effects, two chase plane experiments were carried out in 2013 and 2014. Three different fuel types are discussed: a low-sulfur JP-8 fuel, a 50:50 blend of JP-8 and a camelina-based HEFA fuel, and the JP-8 fuel doped with sulfur. Emissions were sampled using a large number of aerosol and gas instruments integrated on HU-25 and Falcon 20 jets that were positioned in the DC-8 exhaust plume at approximately 50-500 m distance behind the engines. It was found that the biojet fuel blend substantially decreases the aerosol number and mass emissions indices, while the gas phase emission indices were similar across fuels. The magnitude of the effects of these fuel-induced changes of aerosol emissions and implications for future aviation biofuel blending impacts will be discussed.

  6. Smart Cruise Control: UAV sensor operator intent estimation and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hui; Butler, Darren; Kumar, Rakesh

    2006-05-01

    Due to their long endurance, superior mobility and the low risk posed to the pilot and sensor operator, UAVs have become the preferred platform for persistent ISR missions. However, currently most UAV based ISR missions are conducted through manual operation. Event the simplest tasks, such as vehicle tracking, route reconnaissance and site monitoring, need the sensor operator's undivided attention and constant adjustment of the sensor control. The lack of autonomous behaviour greatly limits of the effectiveness and the capability of UAV-based ISR, especially the use of a large number of UAVs simultaneously. Although fully autonomous UAV based ISR system is desirable, it is still a distant dream due to the complexity and diversity of combat and ISR missions. In this paper, we propose a Smart Cruise Control system that can learn UAV sensor operator's intent and use it to complete tasks automatically, such as route reconnaissance and site monitoring. Using an operator attention model, the proposed system can estimate the operator's intent from how they control the sensor (e.g. camera) and the content of the imagery that is acquired. Therefore, for example, from initially manually controlling the UAV sensor to follow a road, the system can learn not only the preferred operation, "tracking", but also the road appearance, "what to track" in real-time. Then, the learnt models of both road and the desired operation can be used to complete the task automatically. We have demonstrated the Smart Cruise Control system using real UAV videos where roads need to be tracked and buildings need to be monitored.

  7. NASA Alternative-Fuel Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) Flight Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, B. E.; Moore, R.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Thornhill, K. L., II; Shook, M.; Winstead, E.; Ziemba, L. D.; Bulzan, D. L.; Brown, A.; Beaton, B.; Schlager, H.

    2014-12-01

    Although the emission performance of gas-turbine engines burning renewable aviation fuels have been thoroughly documented in recent ground-based studies, there is still great uncertainty regarding how the fuels effect aircraft exhaust composition and contrail formation at cruise altitudes. To fill this information gap, the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate sponsored the ACCESS flight series to make detailed measurements of trace gases, aerosols and ice particles in the near-field behind the NASA DC-8 aircraft as it burned either standard petroleum-based fuel of varying sulfur content or a 50:50 blend of standard fuel and a hydro-treated esters and fatty acid (HEFA) jet fuel produced from camelina plant oil. ACCESS 1, conducted in spring 2013 near Palmdale CA, focused on refining flight plans and sampling techniques and used the instrumented NASA Langley HU-25 aircraft to document DC-8 emissions and contrails on five separate flights of ~2 hour duration. ACCESS 2, conducted from Palmdale in May 2014, engaged partners from the Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) and National Research Council-Canada to provide additional scientific expertise and sampling aircraft (Falcon 20 and CT-133, respectively) with more extensive trace gas, particle, or air motion measurement capability. Eight, muliti-aircraft research flights of 2 to 4 hour duration were conducted to document the emissions and contrail properties of the DC-8 as it 1) burned low sulfur Jet A, high sulfur Jet A or low sulfur Jet A/HEFA blend, 2) flew at altitudes between 6 and 11 km, and 3) operated its engines at three different fuel flow rates. This presentation further describes the ACCESS flight experiments, examines fuel type and thrust setting impacts on engine emissions, and compares cruise-altitude observations with similar data acquired in ground-test venues.

  8. Vortex wake and flight kinematics of a swift in cruising flight in a wind tunnel.

    PubMed

    Henningsson, P; Spedding, G R; Hedenström, A

    2008-03-01

    In this paper we describe the flight characteristics of a swift (Apus apus) in cruising flight at three different flight speeds (8.0, 8.4 and 9.2 m s(-1)) in a low turbulence wind tunnel. The wingbeat kinematics were recorded by high-speed filming and the wake of the bird was visualized by digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV). Certain flight characteristics of the swift differ from those of previously studied species. As the flight speed increases, the angular velocity of the wingbeat remains constant, and so as the wingbeat amplitude increases, the frequency decreases accordingly, as though the flight muscles were contracting at a fixed rate. The wings are also comparatively inflexible and are flexed or retracted rather little during the upstroke. The upstroke is always aerodynamically active and this is reflected in the wake, where shedding of spanwise vorticity occurs throughout the wingbeat. Although the wake superficially resembles those of other birds in cruising flight, with a pair of trailing wingtip vortices connected by spanwise vortices, the continuous shedding of first positive vorticity during the downstroke and then negative vorticity during the upstroke suggests a wing whose circulation is gradually increasing and then decreasing during the wingbeat cycle. The wake (and implied wing aerodynamics) are not well described by discrete vortex loop models, but a new wake-based model, where incremental spanwise and streamwise variations of the wake impulse are integrated over the wingbeat, shows good agreement of the vertical momentum flux with the required weight support. The total drag was also estimated from the wake alone, and the calculated lift:drag ratio of approximately 13 for flapping flight is the highest measured yet for birds. PMID:18281334

  9. Insertion devices for Doris III

    SciTech Connect

    Pfluger, J.; Heintze, G. ); Baran, W.; Fernow, D.; Kuntze, K. )

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the mechanical and magnetic layout of the first three insertion devices for DORIS III, an upgraded reconstruction of DORIS II, is described and results of the magnetic characterization are given as well.

  10. Seamounts and ferromanganese crusts within and near the U.S. EEZ off California - Data for RV Farnella cruise F7-87-SC

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, James R.; Reid, Jane A.; Conrad, Tracey A.; Dunham, Rachel E.; Clague, David A.; Schulz, Marjorie S.; Davis, Alice S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present and briefly describe ship-board and laboratory data for a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) research cruise aboard the RV Farnella that took place December 3-21, 1987 (cruise F7-87-SC). The purpose of the cruise was to survey seamounts and ferromanganese crusts within and near the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) off California. Eight seamounts were studied - Rodriguez, San Marcos, Adam, Hoss, Little Joe, Ben, Flint, and Jasper. A geophysical survey of Jasper Seamount took place, but that seamount was not sampled; whereas Adam and Hoss Seamounts were sampled, but not surveyed with geophysics lines.

  11. Impact analysis of Minuteman III Payload Transporter Type III

    SciTech Connect

    Stirbis, P.P.

    1993-12-01

    An analysis of the impact of the Minuteman III Payload Transporter Type III into a nonyielding target at 46 m.p.h. and 30 m.p.h., and into a yielding target at 46 m.p.h. is presented. The analysis considers the structural response of the tiedown system which secures the Minuteman III re-entry system to the floor of the payload transporter. A finite element model of the re-entry system, its tiedown system, which includes tie-rods and shear pins, and the pallet plate which is attached to the transporter floating plate, was constructed. Because accelerations of the payload transporter are not known, acceleration data from one-quarter scale testing of the Safe Secure Trailer was used to investigate the response of the tiedown system. These accelerations were applied to the pallet plate. The ABAQUS computer code was used to predict the forces in the members of the tiedown system.

  12. Cruise report; RV Coastal Surveyor Cruise C1-99; multibeam mapping of the Long Beach, California continental shelf; April 12 through May 19, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, James V.; Hughes-Clarke, John E.; Mayer, Larry A.

    1999-01-01

    The greater Los Angeles area of California is home to more than 10 million people. This large population puts increased pressure on the adjacent offshore continental shelf and margin with activities such as ocean disposal for dredged spoils, explosive disposal, waste-water outfall, and commercial fishing. The increased utilization of the shelf and margin in this area has generated accelerated multi-disciplinary research efforts in all aspects of the environment of the coastal zone. Prior to 1996 there were no highly accurate base maps of the continental shelf and slope upon which the research activities could be located and monitored. In 1996, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Pacific Seafloor Mapping Project began to address this problem by mapping the Santa Monica shelf and margin (Fig. 1) using a state-of-the-art, high-resolution multibeam sonar system (Gardner, et al., 1996; 1999). Additional seafloor mapping in 1998 provided coverage of the continental margin from south of Newport to the proximal San Pedro Basin northwest of Palos Verdes Peninsula (Gardner, et al., 1998) (Fig. 1). The mapping of the seafloor in the greater Los Angeles continental shelf and margin was completed with a 30-day mapping of the Long Beach shelf in April and May 1999, the subject of this report. The objective of Cruise C-1-99-SC was to completely map the broad continental shelf from the eastern end of the Palos Verdes Peninsula to the narrow shelf south of Newport Beach, from the break in slope at about 120-m isobath to the inner shelf at about the 10-m isobath. Mapping the Long Beach shelf was jointly funded by the U.S. Geological Survey and the County of Orange (CA) Sanitation District and was conducted under a Cooperative Agreement with the Ocean Mapping Group from the University of New Brunswick (OMG/UNB). The OMG/UNB contracted with C&C Technologies, Inc. of Lafayette, LA for use of the RV Coastal Surveyor and the latest evolution of high-resolution multibeam sonars, a

  13. Project PROBE Leg I - Report and archive of multibeam bathymetry and acoustic backscatter , CTD/XBT and GPS navigation data collected during USGS Cruise 02051 (NOAA Cruise RB0208) Puerto Rico Trench September 24, 2002 to September 30, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ten Brink, Uri S.; Worley, Charles R.; Smith, Shep; Stepka, Thomas; Williams, Glynn F.

    2006-01-01

    On September 24-30, 2002, six days of scientific surveying to map a section of the Puerto Rico Trench (PRT) took place aboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) ship Ron Brown. The cruise was funded by NOAA's Office of Ocean Exploration. Multibeam bathymetry and acoustic-backscatter data were collected over an area of about 25,000 sq. km of the Puerto Rico trench and its vicinity at water depths of 4000-8400 m. Weather conditions during the entire survey were good; there were light to moderate winds and 1-2 foot swells experiencing minor chop. The roll and pitch of the ship's interaction with the ocean were not conspicuous. Cruise participants included personnel from USGS, NOAA, and University of New Hampshire Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping/Joint Hydrographic Center. The cruise resulted in the discovery of a major active strike-slip fault system close to the trench, submarine slides on the descending North American tectonic plate, and an extinct mud volcano, which was cut by the strike-slip fault system. Another strike-slip fault system closer to Puerto Rico that was previously considered to accommodate much of the relative plate motion appears to be inactive. The seaward continuation of the Mona Rift, a zone of extension between Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic that generated a devastating tsunami in 1918, was mapped for the first time.

  14. The START III bargaining space

    SciTech Connect

    Karas, T.H.

    1998-08-01

    The declining state of the Russian military and precarious Russian economic condition will give the US considerable advantages at the START III bargaining table. Taking the US-RF asymmetries into account, this paper discusses a menu of START III measures the US could ask for, and measures it could offer in return, in attempting to negotiate an equitable treaty. Measures the US might seek in a START III treaty include: further reductions in deployed strategic nuclear warheads, irreversibility of reductions through warhead dismantlement; beginning to bring theater nuclear weapons under mutual control, and increased transparency into the Russian nuclear weapons complex. The US may, however, wish to apply its bargaining advantages to attempting to achieve the first steps toward two long-range goals that would enhance US security: bringing theater nuclear weapons into the US-RF arms control arena, and increasing transparency into the Russian nuclear weapons complex. In exchange for measures relating to these objectives, the US might consider offering to Russia: Further strategic weapons reductions approaching levels at which the Russians believe they could maintain a degree of parity with the US; Measures to decrease the large disparities in potential deliver-system uploading capabilities that appear likely under current START II/START III scenarios; and Financial assistance in achieving START II/START III reductions as rapidly as is technically possible.

  15. Lift cruise fan V/STOL aircraft conceptual design study T-39 modification. Volume 1: Technical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, D. W.

    1976-01-01

    The conversion of two T-39 aircraft into lift cruise fan research and technology vehicles is discussed. The concept is based upon modifying the T-39A (NA265-40) Sabreliner airframe into a V/STOL configuration by incorporating two LCF-459 lift cruise fans and three YJ-97 gas generators. The propulsion concept provides the thrust for horizontal flight or lift for vertical flight by deflection of bifurcated nozzles while maintaining engine out safety throughout the flight envelope. The configuration meets all the study requirements specified for the design with control powers in VTOL and conversion in excess of the requirement making it an excellent vehicle for research and development. The study report consists of two volumes; Volume 1 (Reference a) contains background data detailed description and technical substantiation of the aircraft. Volume 2 includes cost data, scheduling and program planning not addressed in Volume 1.

  16. Legal aspects of cruise medicine - can a non-US ship's doctor be sued for malpractice in Florida?

    PubMed

    Dahl, Eilif

    2014-01-01

    An English ship's doctor treated a non-US female patient for abdominal discomfort on a foreign-flagged cruise ship off the coast of Haiti. In Mexico the patient underwent abdominal surgery, followed by complications, for which her lawyers wanted to take the ship's doctor to court in Florida, USA. A trial court granted their wish, but this decision was reversed on appeal as the factors discussed were insufficient to establish Florida jurisdiction over the ship's doctor. The decision is not about whether malpractice occurred; it is about limiting the possibility of taking the ship's doctor to a court in a location preferred by the plaintiffs' lawyers. The appeal court ruling is important for non-US doctors working as independent contractors on cruise vessels that visit US ports, and it will hopefully prevent some of the more frivolous law suits from being filed in the future. PMID:24677121

  17. Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Thomas G. Thompson Cruise in the Pacific Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Sabine, C.L.; Key, R.M.; Hall, M.; Kozyr, A.

    1999-08-01

    This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO2), total alkalinity (TALK), and radiocarbon (delta 14C), at hydrographic stations, as well as the underway partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) during the R/V Thomas G. Thompson oceanographic cruise in the Pacific Ocean (Section P10). Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the cruise began in Suva, Fiji, on October 5, 1993, and ended in Yokohama, Japan, on November 10, 1993. Measurements made along WOCE Section P10 included pressure, temperature, salinity [measured by conductivity temperature, and depth sensor (CTD)], bottle salinity, bottle oxygen, phosphate, nitrate, silicate, chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-12), TCO2, TALK, delta 14C, and underway pCO2.

  18. In situ observations and model calculations of black carbon emission by aircraft at cruise altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petzold, A.; DöPelheuer, A.; Brock, C. A.; Schröder, F.

    1999-09-01

    The exhaust aerosol of two aircraft at cruise was extensively characterized in the size range from 0.003 to 2 μm for plume ages ≤2 s. The black carbon (BC) exhaust aerosol of an older technology engine (Rolls-Royce/Snecma M45H Mk501) consisted of a primary BC mode with a modal diameter of 0.035 μm and a mode of coagulated BC particles with a peak near 0.15-0.16 μm in diameter. The total number density at the nozzle exit plane was 3×107 cm-3. In contrast, a modern technology engine (CFM International CFM56-3B1) emitted far smaller BC particles with a primary mode at 0.025 μm and a coagulated mode at 0.15 μm, as well as fewer particles by number with a concentration of 9×106 cm-3. The single-scattering albedo of the jet exhaust aerosol was 0.035 ± 0.02 inside the plume, indicating a dominant contribution of ultrafine (D<0.1 μm) BC particles to light extinction. Black carbon number emission indices EI(N) varied from 3.5×1014 (CFM56-3B1) to 1.7×1015 kg-1 (M45H Mk501) with corresponding mass emission indices EI(BC) of 0.011 and 0.1 g kg-1. Previously reported corresponding values for a CF6-80C2A2 engine were 6×1014 kg-1 and 0.023 g kg-1, respectively. A comparison between EI(BC) values calculated by a new correlation method and measured data shows an excellent agreement, with deviations <10% at cruise conditions. By extending the EI(BC) calculation method to a globally operating aircraft fleet, a fleet-averaged emission index EI(BC) = 0.038 g kg-1 is calculated.

  19. Probing Aircraft Flight Test Hazard Mitigation for the Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails & Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) Research Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails & Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) Project Integration Manager requested in July 2012 that the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) form a team to independently assess aircraft structural failure hazards associated with the ACCESS experiment and to identify potential flight test hazard mitigations to ensure flight safety. The ACCESS Project Integration Manager subsequently requested that the assessment scope be focused predominantly on structural failure risks to the aircraft empennage raft empennage.

  20. Improving traffic flow at a 2-to-1 lane reduction with wirelessly connected, adaptive cruise control vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, L. C.

    2016-06-01

    Wirelessly connected vehicles that exchange information about traffic conditions can reduce delays caused by congestion. At a 2-to-1 lane reduction, the improvement in flow past a bottleneck due to traffic with a random mixture of 40% connected vehicles is found to be 52%. Control is based on connected-vehicle-reported velocities near the bottleneck. In response to indications of congestion the connected vehicles, which are also adaptive cruise control vehicles, reduce their speed in slowdown regions. Early lane changes of manually driven vehicles from the terminated lane to the continuous lane are induced by the slowing connected vehicles. Self-organized congestion at the bottleneck is thus delayed or eliminated, depending upon the incoming flow magnitude. For the large majority of vehicles, travel times past the bottleneck are substantially reduced. Control is responsible for delaying the onset of congestion as the incoming flow increases. Adaptive cruise control increases the flow out of the congested state at the bottleneck. The nature of the congested state, when it occurs, appears to be similar under a variety of conditions. Typically 80-100 vehicles are approximately equally distributed between the lanes in the 500 m region prior to the end of the terminated lane. Without the adaptive cruise control capability, connected vehicles can delay the onset of congestion but do not increase the asymptotic flow past the bottleneck. Calculations are done using the Kerner-Klenov three-phase theory, stochastic discrete-time model for manual vehicles. The dynamics of the connected vehicles is given by a conventional adaptive cruise control algorithm plus commanded deceleration. Because time in the model for manual vehicles is discrete (one-second intervals), it is assumed that the acceleration of any vehicle immediately in front of a connected vehicle is constant during the time interval, thereby preserving the computational simplicity and speed of a discrete-time model.

  1. 33 CFR 165.123 - Cruise Ships, Sector Southeastern New England Captain of the Port (COTP) Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... support of the Coast Guard. Southeastern New England COTP Zone is as defined in 33 CFR 3.05-20. (c... in 46 CFR 2.10-25 that are authorized to carry more than 400 passengers and are 200 feet or more in... cruise ship into the navigable waters of the United States (see 33 CFR 2.36(a) to include the 12...

  2. 33 CFR 165.123 - Cruise Ships, Sector Southeastern New England Captain of the Port (COTP) Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... support of the Coast Guard. Southeastern New England COTP Zone is as defined in 33 CFR 3.05-20. (c... in 46 CFR 2.10-25 that are authorized to carry more than 400 passengers and are 200 feet or more in... cruise ship into the navigable waters of the United States (see 33 CFR 2.36(a) to include the 12...

  3. 33 CFR 165.123 - Cruise Ships, Sector Southeastern New England Captain of the Port (COTP) Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... support of the Coast Guard. Southeastern New England COTP Zone is as defined in 33 CFR 3.05-20. (c... in 46 CFR 2.10-25 that are authorized to carry more than 400 passengers and are 200 feet or more in... cruise ship into the navigable waters of the United States (see 33 CFR 2.36(a) to include the 12...

  4. III-Nitride nanowire optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Songrui; Nguyen, Hieu P. T.; Kibria, Md. G.; Mi, Zetian

    2015-11-01

    Group-III nitride nanowire structures, including GaN, InN, AlN and their alloys, have been intensively studied in the past decade. Unique to this material system is that its energy bandgap can be tuned from the deep ultraviolet (~6.2 eV for AlN) to the near infrared (~0.65 eV for InN). In this article, we provide an overview on the recent progress made in III-nitride nanowire optoelectronic devices, including light emitting diodes, lasers, photodetectors, single photon sources, intraband devices, solar cells, and artificial photosynthesis. The present challenges and future prospects of III-nitride nanowire optoelectronic devices are also discussed.

  5. Referring cruise ship patients to specialists in Norway--a welfare state with a national health care system.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Eilif

    2015-01-01

    Northern Europe is a popular cruise destination, but many non-Scandinavian cruise ship's doctors who are used to enthusiastic service from specialists ashore, get frustrated when referring passengers or crew to out-patient medical evaluation. Norway's national health care system is described and used as an example of medical conditions in a welfare state with a relatively well-functioning national health care system: Emergency cases are usually promptly admitted. Out-patient specialist consultations are available in public polyclinics, but waiting time can be considerable, also for patients from ships. Private specialists are fully booked weeks in advance and do not work from Friday to Monday and during holidays. Public and private medical service capacity is significantly reduced during the summer months. Hence, most specialists ashore are not eager to see demanding ship patients. Ship's doctors should limit referral to conditions that require specific procedures that are not available on the vessel but are necessary for the patient to be able to continue cruising or working aboard. Crewmembers who are unfit for work aboard, should instead be signed off and repatriated for diagnostic work-up and follow-up at home. In cases of hospitalisation or necessary referral ashore, the ship's doctor should always confer in advance with the company's ship's port agents and make necessary shore-side arrangements through them. PMID:26119674

  6. Burn Care on Cruise Ships-Epidemiology, international regulations, risk situation, disaster management and qualification of the ship's doctor.

    PubMed

    Ottomann, C; Hartmann, B; Antonic, V

    2016-09-01

    With the increasing numbers of passengers and crew on board vessels that are becoming larger and larger, the demand for ship's doctors who can adequately treat burns on board has also increased. In the cruise ship industry it is usually those doctor's with internal and general medical training who are recruited from an epidemiological point of view. Training content or recommendations for the treatment of thermal lesions with the limited options available in ship's hospitals and where doctors with no surgical training operate do not yet exist. The guidelines recommended by the Cruise Lines International Association (CLIA) regarding medical staff have only included physicians with minor surgical skills until now. With the introduction of the ATLS(®) course developed by the American College of Surgeons, the requirements for the qualification of the ship's doctor on board cruise ships shall change from January 2017. The article discusses the question of whether having completed the ATLS(®) course, the ship's doctor is trained to adequately treat thermal lesions or severe burns persons on-board, and presents the current discussion on the training content for ship's doctors within the International Maritime Health Association (IMHA). It also provides an overview of existing international regulatory frameworks, the risks presented by a fire on board, the problem of treating burns victims out of reach of coastal rescue services, and alternative training concepts for ship's doctors regarding the therapy of thermal lesions on-board. PMID:27344547

  7. Shelf Edge Exchange Processes-2: Seep2-02, R/V CAPE HATTERAS cruise CH01-88

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, C.; Behrens, W.J.; Flagg, C.N.; Wallace, D.W.R.; Wilke, R.J.; Wyman, K.D.

    1989-11-01

    The R/V CAPE HATTERAS cruise CH01-88, SEEP2-02, took place from 3--20 March, 1988 and focused primarily on biological processes in the SEEP2 area. A short term sediment trap mooring was deployed near mooring 1 and recovered during the cruise. The mooring consisted of two 0.07 sq. meter and one 0.7 sq. meter sediment traps. Two time series, approximately 48 hours each, were conducted in the area of the sediment trap mooring. The time series were designed to study primary and secondary productivity and involved sampling nutrients, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll, zooplankton abundance and distribution, and zooplankton fecal pellet distribution. Experiments to estimate grazing rates and fecal pellet production of the dominant copepods were also done. Sediment trap and zooplankton data are not reported here. During this cruise 99 CTD casts were made measuring pressure, temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, fluorescence and light transmission. Discrete samples were taken in rosette-mounted Niskin bottles and analyzed for concentration of nutrients, chlorophyll a, dissolved oxygen, and particulate organic carbon and nitrogen.

  8. Burn Care on Cruise Ships-Epidemiology, international regulations, risk situation, disaster management and qualification of the ship's doctor.

    PubMed

    Ottomann, C; Hartmann, B; Antonic, V

    2016-09-01

    With the increasing numbers of passengers and crew on board vessels that are becoming larger and larger, the demand for ship's doctors who can adequately treat burns on board has also increased. In the cruise ship industry it is usually those doctor's with internal and general medical training who are recruited from an epidemiological point of view. Training content or recommendations for the treatment of thermal lesions with the limited options available in ship's hospitals and where doctors with no surgical training operate do not yet exist. The guidelines recommended by the Cruise Lines International Association (CLIA) regarding medical staff have only included physicians with minor surgical skills until now. With the introduction of the ATLS(®) course developed by the American College of Surgeons, the requirements for the qualification of the ship's doctor on board cruise ships shall change from January 2017. The article discusses the question of whether having completed the ATLS(®) course, the ship's doctor is trained to adequately treat thermal lesions or severe burns persons on-board, and presents the current discussion on the training content for ship's doctors within the International Maritime Health Association (IMHA). It also provides an overview of existing international regulatory frameworks, the risks presented by a fire on board, the problem of treating burns victims out of reach of coastal rescue services, and alternative training concepts for ship's doctors regarding the therapy of thermal lesions on-board.

  9. Referring cruise ship patients to specialists in Norway--a welfare state with a national health care system.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Eilif

    2015-01-01

    Northern Europe is a popular cruise destination, but many non-Scandinavian cruise ship's doctors who are used to enthusiastic service from specialists ashore, get frustrated when referring passengers or crew to out-patient medical evaluation. Norway's national health care system is described and used as an example of medical conditions in a welfare state with a relatively well-functioning national health care system: Emergency cases are usually promptly admitted. Out-patient specialist consultations are available in public polyclinics, but waiting time can be considerable, also for patients from ships. Private specialists are fully booked weeks in advance and do not work from Friday to Monday and during holidays. Public and private medical service capacity is significantly reduced during the summer months. Hence, most specialists ashore are not eager to see demanding ship patients. Ship's doctors should limit referral to conditions that require specific procedures that are not available on the vessel but are necessary for the patient to be able to continue cruising or working aboard. Crewmembers who are unfit for work aboard, should instead be signed off and repatriated for diagnostic work-up and follow-up at home. In cases of hospitalisation or necessary referral ashore, the ship's doctor should always confer in advance with the company's ship's port agents and make necessary shore-side arrangements through them.

  10. Study of advanced composite structural design concepts for an arrow wing supersonic cruise configuration, task 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A structural design study was conducted to assess the relative merits of structural concepts using advanced composite materials for an advanced supersonic aircraft cruising at Mach 2.7. The configuration and structural arrangement developed during Task I and II of the study, was used as the baseline configuration. Allowable stresses and strains were established for boron and advanced graphite fibers based on projected fiber properties available in the next decade. Structural concepts were designed and analyzed using graphite polyimide and boron polyimide, applied to stiffened panels and conventional sandwich panels. The conventional sandwich panels were selected as the structural concept to be used on the wing structure. The upper and lower surface panels of the Task I arrow wing were redesigned using high-strength graphite polyimide sandwich panels over the titanium spars and ribs. The ATLAS computer system was used as the basis for stress analysis and resizing the surface panels using the loads from the Task II study, without adjustment for change in aeroelastic deformation. The flutter analysis indicated a decrease in the flutter speed compared to the baseline titanium wing design. The flutter analysis indicated a decrease in the flutter speed compared to the baseline titanium wing design. The flutter speed was increased to that of the titanium wing, with a weight penalty less than that of the metallic airplane.

  11. Human-Automation Interaction Design for Adaptive Cruise Control Systems of Ground Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Eom, Hwisoo; Lee, Sang Hun

    2015-01-01

    A majority of recently developed advanced vehicles have been equipped with various automated driver assistance systems, such as adaptive cruise control (ACC) and lane keeping assistance systems. ACC systems have several operational modes, and drivers can be unaware of the mode in which they are operating. Because mode confusion is a significant human error factor that contributes to traffic accidents, it is necessary to develop user interfaces for ACC systems that can reduce mode confusion. To meet this requirement, this paper presents a new human-automation interaction design methodology in which the compatibility of the machine and interface models is determined using the proposed criteria, and if the models are incompatible, one or both of the models is/are modified to make them compatible. To investigate the effectiveness of our methodology, we designed two new interfaces by separately modifying the machine model and the interface model and then performed driver-in-the-loop experiments. The results showed that modifying the machine model provides a more compact, acceptable, effective, and safe interface than modifying the interface model. PMID:26076406

  12. Feedback Control of a Morphing Chevron for Takeoff and Cruise Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabell, Randolph H.; Schiller, Noah H.; Mabe, James H.; Ruggeri, Robert T.; Butler, G. W.

    2004-01-01

    Noise from commercial high-bypass ratio turbofan engines is generated by turbulent mixing of the hot jet exhaust, fan stream, and ambient air. Serrated aerodynamic devices, known as chevrons, along the trailing edges of a jet engine primary and secondary exhaust nozzle have been shown to reduce jet noise at takeoff and shock-cell noise at cruise conditions. Their optimum shape is a finely tuned compromise between noise-benefit and thrust-loss. The design of a full scale Variable Geometry Chevron (VGC) fan-nozzle incorporating Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) actuators is described in a companion paper. This paper describes the development and testing of a proportional-integral control system that regulates the heating of the SMA actuators to control the VGC s tip immersion. The VGC and control system were tested under representative flow conditions in Boeing s Nozzle Test Facility (NTF). Results from the NTF test which demonstrate controllable immersion of the VGC are described. The paper also describes the correlation between strains and temperatures on the chevron with a photogrammetric measurement of the chevron's tip immersion.

  13. Human-Automation Interaction Design for Adaptive Cruise Control Systems of Ground Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Eom, Hwisoo; Lee, Sang Hun

    2015-01-01

    A majority of recently developed advanced vehicles have been equipped with various automated driver assistance systems, such as adaptive cruise control (ACC) and lane keeping assistance systems. ACC systems have several operational modes, and drivers can be unaware of the mode in which they are operating. Because mode confusion is a significant human error factor that contributes to traffic accidents, it is necessary to develop user interfaces for ACC systems that can reduce mode confusion. To meet this requirement, this paper presents a new human-automation interaction design methodology in which the compatibility of the machine and interface models is determined using the proposed criteria, and if the models are incompatible, one or both of the models is/are modified to make them compatible. To investigate the effectiveness of our methodology, we designed two new interfaces by separately modifying the machine model and the interface model and then performed driver-in-the-loop experiments. The results showed that modifying the machine model provides a more compact, acceptable, effective, and safe interface than modifying the interface model.

  14. Experimental Sonic Boom Measurements on a Mach 1.6 Cruise Low-Boom Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Floyd J., Jr.; Elmiligui, Alaa, A.; Wayman, Thomas R.; Waithe, Kenrick A.; Howe, Donald C.; Bangert, Linda S.

    2012-01-01

    A wind tunnel test has been conducted by Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation (GAC) to measure the sonic boom pressure signature of a low boom Mach 1.6 cruise business jet in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel at Mach numbers 1.60 and 1.80. Through a cooperative agreement between GAC and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), GAC provided NASA access to some of the experimental data and NASA is publishing these data for the sonic boom research community. On-track and off-track near field sonic boom pressure signatures were acquired at three separation distances (0.5, 1.2, and 1.7 reference body lengths) and three angles of attack (-0.26deg, 0.26deg, and 0.68deg). The model was blade mounted to minimize the sting effects on the sonic boom signatures. Although no extensive data analysis is provided, selected data are plotted to illustrate salient features of the data. All of the experimental sonic boom pressure data are tabulated. Schlieren images of the configuration are also included.

  15. Source apportionment of PM10 in the Western Mediterranean based on observations from a cruise ship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schembari, C.; Bove, M. C.; Cuccia, E.; Cavalli, F.; Hjorth, J.; Massabò, D.; Nava, S.; Udisti, R.; Prati, P.

    2014-12-01

    Two intensive PM10 sampling campaigns were performed in the summers of 2009 and 2010 on the ship Costa Pacifica during cruises in the Western Mediterranean. Samples, mainly collected on an hourly basis, were analysed with different techniques (Particle Induced X-Ray Emission, PIXE; Energy Dispersive - X Ray Fluorescence, ED-XRF; Ion Chromatography, IC; Thermo-optical analysis) to retrieve the PM10 composition and its time pattern. The data were used for obtaining information about the sources of aerosol, with a focus on ship emissions, through apportionment using chemical marker compounds, correlation analysis and Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) receptor modelling. For the campaign in 2010, 66% of the aerosol sulphate was found to be anthropogenic, only minor contributions of dust and sea salt sulphate were observed while the biogenic contribution, estimated based on the measurements of MSA, was found to be more important (26%), but influenced by large uncertainties. V and Ni were found to be suitable tracers of ship emissions during the campaigns. Four sources of aerosol were resolved by the PMF analysis; the source having the largest impact on PM10, BC and sulphate was identified as a mixed source, comprising emissions from ships. The correlations between sulphate and V and Ni showed the influence of ship emissions on sulphate in marine air masses. For the leg Palma-Tunis crossing a main ship route, the correlations between aerosol sulphate and V and Ni were particularly strong (r2 = 0.9 for both elements).

  16. Molecular characterization of influenza B virus outbreak on a cruise ship in Brazil 2012.

    PubMed

    Borborema, Samanta Etel Treiger; Silva, Daniela Bernardes Borges da; Silva, Kátia Corrêa Oliveira; Pinho, Margarete Aparecida Benega; Curti, Suely Pires; Paiva, Terezinha Maria de; Santos, Cecília Luiza Simões

    2014-01-01

    In February 2012, an outbreak of respiratory illness occurred on the cruise ship MSC Armonia in Brazil. A 31-year-old female crew member was hospitalized with respiratory failure and subsequently died. To study the etiology of the respiratory illness, tissue taken at necropsy from the deceased woman and respiratory specimens from thirteen passengers and crew members with respiratory symptoms were analyzed. Influenza real-time RT-PCR assays were performed, and the full-length hemagglutinin (HA) gene of influenza-positive samples was sequenced. Influenza B virus was detected in samples from seven of the individuals, suggesting that it was the cause of this respiratory illness outbreak. The sequence analysis of the HA gene indicated that the virus was closely related to the B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus, Victoria lineage, a virus contained in the 2011-12 influenza vaccine for the Southern Hemisphere. Since the recommended composition of the influenza vaccine for use during the 2013 season changed, an intensive surveillance of viruses circulating worldwide is crucial. Molecular analysis is an important tool to characterize the pathogen responsible for an outbreak such as this. In addition, laboratory disease surveillance contributes to the control measures for vaccine-preventable influenza.

  17. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF INFLUENZA B VIRUS OUTBREAK ON A CRUISE SHIP IN BRAZIL 2012

    PubMed Central

    Borborema, Samanta Etel Treiger; da Silva, Daniela Bernardes Borges; Silva, Kátia Corrêa Oliveira; Pinho, Margarete Aparecida Benega; Curti, Suely Pires; de Paiva, Terezinha Maria; Santos, Cecília Luiza Simões

    2014-01-01

    In February 2012, an outbreak of respiratory illness occurred on the cruise ship MSC Armonia in Brazil. A 31-year-old female crew member was hospitalized with respiratory failure and subsequently died. To study the etiology of the respiratory illness, tissue taken at necropsy from the deceased woman and respiratory specimens from thirteen passengers and crew members with respiratory symptoms were analyzed. Influenza real-time RT-PCR assays were performed, and the full-length hemagglutinin (HA) gene of influenza-positive samples was sequenced. Influenza B virus was detected in samples from seven of the individuals, suggesting that it was the cause of this respiratory illness outbreak. The sequence analysis of the HA gene indicated that the virus was closely related to the B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus, Victoria lineage, a virus contained in the 2011-12 influenza vaccine for the Southern Hemisphere. Since the recommended composition of the influenza vaccine for use during the 2013 season changed, an intensive surveillance of viruses circulating worldwide is crucial. Molecular analysis is an important tool to characterize the pathogen responsible for an outbreak such as this. In addition, laboratory disease surveillance contributes to the control measures for vaccine-preventable influenza. PMID:24878994

  18. Aeroelastic stability analyses of two counter rotating propfan designs for a cruise missile model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahajan, Aparajit J.; Lucero, John M.; Mehmed, Oral; Stefko, George L.

    1992-01-01

    Aeroelastic stability analyses were performed to insure structural integrity of two counterrotating propfan blade designs for a NAVY/Air Force/NASA cruise missile model wind tunnel test. This analysis predicted if the propfan designs would be flutter free at the operating conditions of the wind tunnel test. Calculated stability results are presented for the two blade designs with rotational speed and Mach number as the parameters. A aeroelastic analysis code ASTROP2 (Aeroelastic Stability and Response of Propulsion Systems - 2 Dimensional Analysis), developed at LeRC, was used in this project. The aeroelastic analysis is a modal method and uses the combination of a finite element structural model and two dimensional steady and unsteady cascade aerodynamic models. This code was developed to analyze single rotation propfans but was modified and applied to counterrotating propfans for the present work. Modifications were made to transform the geometry and rotation of the aft rotor to the same reference frame as the forward rotor, to input a non-uniform inflow into the rotor being analyzed, and to automatically converge to the least stable aeroelastic mode.

  19. Human-Automation Interaction Design for Adaptive Cruise Control Systems of Ground Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Hwisoo; Lee, Sang Hun

    2015-01-01

    A majority of recently developed advanced vehicles have been equipped with various automated driver assistance systems, such as adaptive cruise control (ACC) and lane keeping assistance systems. ACC systems have several operational modes, and drivers can be unaware of the mode in which they are operating. Because mode confusion is a significant human error factor that contributes to traffic accidents, it is necessary to develop user interfaces for ACC systems that can reduce mode confusion. To meet this requirement, this paper presents a new human-automation interaction design methodology in which the compatibility of the machine and interface models is determined using the proposed criteria, and if the models are incompatible, one or both of the models is/are modified to make them compatible. To investigate the effectiveness of our methodology, we designed two new interfaces by separately modifying the machine model and the interface model and then performed driver-in-the-loop experiments. The results showed that modifying the machine model provides a more compact, acceptable, effective, and safe interface than modifying the interface model. PMID:26076406

  20. Quiet Cruise Efficient Short Take-off and Landing Subsonic Transport System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawai, Ron

    2008-01-01

    This NASA funded study conceived a revolutionary airplane concept to enable future traffic growth by using regional air space. This requires a very quiet airplane with STOL capability. Starting with a Blended Wing Body that is cruise efficient with inherent low noise characteristics from forward noise shielding and void of aft downward noise reflections, integration of embedded distributed propulsion enables incorporation of the revolutionary concept for jet noise shielding. Embedded distributed propulsion also enables incorporation of a fan bleed internally blown flap for quiet powered lift. The powered lift provides STOL capability for operation at regional airports with rapid take-off and descent to further reduce flyover noise. This study focused on configuring the total engine noise shielding STOL concept with a BWB airplane using the Boeing Phantom Works WingMOD multidisciplinary optimization code to define a planform that is pitch controllable. The configuration was then sized and mission data developed to enable NASA to assess the flyover and sideline noise. The foundational technologies needed are identified including military dual use benefits.

  1. Analysis of In-Situ of Ozone Measurements in Saharan Mineral Dust during AEROSE Cruises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roper, E. D.; Morris, V. R.; Nalli, N. R.; Joseph, E.

    2012-12-01

    The trans-Atlantic Aerosol and Oceanographic Science Expeditions (AEROSE) are a series of experiments that began in 2004 and take place in the tropical Atlantic Ocean. AEROSE collects a unique set of critical measurements to characterize the microphysical and chemical evolution of the Saharan dust aerosols during long-range transport. Continuous in-situ surface level measurements over the tropical Atlantic allows for accurate determination of lower tropospheric ozone concentrations, and its effects on the regional environment and climate that may be used to validate satellite observations. Ozone is instrumental in regulating the atmosphere's oxidizing capacity and can influence background levels of trace chemical species which affect the composition of the atmosphere and create climatic variations. Several studies have shown that ozone concentrations diminish with increased loading of dust particles from the Sahara. Current theories indicate that decomposition of ozone may be due to NOx titrations, decreased radiation, photocatalysis, interactions with organics, or heterogeneous reactions. In effort to understand the response of marine boundary layer ozone with coarse aerosols, analyses of ozone concentrations and aerosol correlations found in dusty Saharan air masses from various cruises will be presented.

  2. Exhaust Nozzles for Propulsion Systems with Emphasis on Supersonic Cruise Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stitt, Leonard E.

    1990-01-01

    This compendium summarizes the contributions of the NASA-Lewis and its contractors to supersonic exhaust nozzle research from 1963 to 1985. Two major research and technology efforts sponsored this nozzle research work; the U.S. Supersonic Transport (SST) Program and the follow-on Supersonic Cruise Research (SCR) Program. They account for two generations of nozzle technology: the first from 1963 to 1971, and the second from 1971 to 1985. First, the equations used to calculate nozzle thrust are introduced. Then the general types of nozzles are presented, followed by a discussion of those types proposed for supersonic aircraft. Next, the first-generation nozzles designed specifically for the Boeing SST and the second-generation nozzles designed under the SCR program are separately reviewed and then compared. A chapter on throttle-dependent afterbody drag is included, since drag has a major effect on the off-design performance of supersonic nozzles. A chapter on the performance of supersonic dash nozzles follows, since these nozzles have similar design problems, Finally, the nozzle test facilities used at NASA-Lewis during this nozzle research effort are identified and discussed. These facilities include static test stands, a transonic wind tunnel, and a flying testbed aircraft. A concluding section points to the future: a third generation of nozzles designed for a new era of high speed civil transports to produce even greater advances in performance, to meet new noise rules, and to ensure the continuity of over two decades of NASA research.

  3. Estimating Traveler Populations at Airport and Cruise Terminals for Population Distribution and Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Jochem, Warren C; Sims, Kelly M; Bright, Eddie A; Urban, Marie L; Rose, Amy N; Coleman, Phil R; Bhaduri, Budhendra L

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, uses of high-resolution population distribution databases are increasing steadily for environmental, socioeconomic, public health, and disaster-related research and operations. With the development of daytime population distribution, temporal resolution of such databases has been improved. However, the lack of incorporation of transitional population, namely business and leisure travelers, leaves a significant population unaccounted for within the critical infrastructure networks, such as at transportation hubs. This paper presents two general methodologies for estimating passenger populations in airport and cruise port terminals at a high temporal resolution which can be incorporated into existing population distribution models. The methodologies are geographically scalable and are based on, and demonstrate how, two different transportation hubs with disparate temporal population dynamics can be modeled utilizing publicly available databases including novel data sources of flight activity from the Internet which are updated in near-real time. The airport population estimation model shows great potential for rapid implementation for a large collection of airports on a national scale, and the results suggest reasonable accuracy in the estimated passenger traffic. By incorporating population dynamics at high temporal resolutions into population distribution models, we hope to improve the estimates of populations exposed to or at risk to disasters, thereby improving emergency planning and response, and leading to more informed policy decisions.

  4. Environmental swabs as a tool in norovirus outbreak investigation, including outbreaks on cruise ships.

    PubMed

    Boxman, Ingeborg L A; Dijkman, Remco; te Loeke, Nathalie A J M; Hägele, Geke; Tilburg, Jeroen J H C; Vennema, Harry; Koopmans, Marion

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we investigated whether environmental swabs can be used to demonstrate the presence of norovirus in outbreak settings. First, a procedure was set up based on viral RNA extraction using guanidium isothiocyanate buffer and binding of nucleic acids to silica. Subsequently, environmental swabs were taken at 23 Dutch restaurants and four cruise ships involved in outbreaks of gastroenteritis. Outbreaks were selected based on clinical symptoms consistent with viral gastroenteritis and time between consumption of suspected food and onset of clinical symptoms (>12 h). Norovirus RNA was demonstrated by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR in 51 of 86 (59%) clinical specimens from 12 of 14 outbreaks (86%), in 13 of 90 (14%) food specimens from 4 of 18 outbreaks (22%), and in 48 of 119 (40%) swab specimens taken from 14 of 27 outbreaks (52%). Positive swab samples agreed with positive clinical samples in seven outbreaks, showing identical sequences. Furthermore, norovirus was detected on swabs taken from kitchen and bathroom surfaces in five outbreaks in which no clinical samples were collected and two outbreaks with negative fecal samples. The detection rate was highest for outbreaks associated with catered meals and lowest for restaurant-associated outbreaks. The use of environmental swabs may be a useful tool in addition to testing of food and clinical specimens, particularlywhen viral RNA is detected on surfaces used for food preparation.

  5. Computational Analysis of the Effect of Porosity on Shock Cell Strength at Cruise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massey, Steven J.; Elmiligui, Alaa A.; Pao, S. Paul; Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Hunter, Craig A.

    2006-01-01

    A computational flow field analysis is presented of the effect of core cowl porosity on shock cell strength for a modern separate flow nozzle at cruise conditions. The goal of this study was to identify the primary physical mechanisms by which the application of porosity can reduce shock cell strength and hence the broadband shock associated noise. The flow is simulated by solving the asymptotically steady, compressible, Reynoldsaveraged Navier-Stokes equations on a structured grid using an implicit, up-wind, flux-difference splitting finite volume scheme. The standard two-equation k - epsilon turbulence model with a linear stress representation is used with the addition of a eddy viscosity dependence on total temperature gradient normalized by local turbulence length scale. Specific issues addressed in this study were the optimal area required to weaken a shock impinging on the core cowl surface and the optimal level of porosity and placement of porous areas for reduction of the overall shock cell strength downstream. Two configurations of porosity were found to reduce downstream shock strength by approximately 50%.

  6. Effect of adaptive cruise control systems on mixed traffic flow near an on-ramp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, L. C.

    2007-06-01

    Mixed traffic flow consisting of vehicles equipped with adaptive cruise control (ACC) and manually driven vehicles is analyzed using car-following simulations. Simulations of merging from an on-ramp onto a freeway reported in the literature have not thus far demonstrated a substantial positive impact of ACC. In this paper cooperative merging for ACC vehicles is proposed to improve throughput and increase distance traveled in a fixed time. In such a system an ACC vehicle senses not only the preceding vehicle in the same lane but also the vehicle immediately in front in the other lane. Prior to reaching the merge region, the ACC vehicle adjusts its velocity to ensure that a safe gap for merging is obtained. If on-ramp demand is moderate, cooperative merging produces significant improvement in throughput (20%) and increases up to 3.6 km in distance traveled in 600 s for 50% ACC mixed flow relative to the flow of all-manual vehicles. For large demand, it is shown that autonomous merging with cooperation in the flow of all ACC vehicles leads to throughput limited only by the downstream capacity, which is determined by speed limit and headway time.

  7. Gaseous exhaust emissions from a JT8D-109 turbofan engine at simulated cruise flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, L. A.; Holdeman, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    Gaseous emissions from a JT8D-109 turbofan engine were measured in an altitude facility at four simulated cruise flight conditions: Mach 0.8 at altitudes of 9.1, 10, 7, and 12.2 km and Mach 0.9 at 10.7 km. Engine inlet air temperature was held constant at 283 K for all tests. Emissions measurements were made at nominally 6 cm intervals across the horizontal diameter of the engine exhaust nozzle with a single-point traversing gas sample probe. Measured emissions of decreased with increasing altitude from an emission index of 10.4 to one of 8.3, while carbon monoxide increased with increasing altitude from an emission index of 1.6 to one of 4.4. Unburned hydrocarbon emissions were essentially negligible for all flight conditions. Since the engine inlet air temperatures were not correctly simulated, the NOx emission indices were corrected to true altitude conditions by using correlating parameters for changes in combustor inlet temperature, pressure, and temperature rise. The correction was small at the lowest altitude. At the 10.7 and 12.2 km, Mach 0.8 test conditions the correction decreased the measured values by 1 emission index.

  8. Sensor fusion: lane marking detection and autonomous intelligent cruise control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baret, Marc; Baillarin, S.; Calesse, C.; Martin, Lionel

    1995-12-01

    In the past few years MATRA and RENAULT have developed an Autonomous Intelligent Cruise Control (AICC) system based on a LIDAR sensor. This sensor incorporating a charge coupled device was designed to acquire pulsed laser diode emission reflected by standard car reflectors. The absence of moving mechanical parts, the large field of view, the high measurement rate and the very good accuracy for distance range and angular position of targets make this sensor very interesting. It provides the equipped car with the distance and the relative speed of other vehicles enabling the safety distance to be controlled by acting on the throttle and the automatic gear box. Experiments in various real traffic situations have shown the limitations of this kind of system especially on bends. All AICC sensors are unable to distinguish between a bend and a change of lane. This is easily understood if we consider a road without lane markings. This fact has led MATRA to improve its AICC system by providing the lane marking information. Also in the scope of the EUREKA PROMETHEUS project, MATRA and RENAULT have developed a lane keeping system in order to warn of the drivers lack of vigilance. Thus, MATRA have spread this system to far field lane marking detection and have coupled it with the AICC system. Experiments will be carried out on roads to estimate the gain in performance and comfort due to this fusion.

  9. An improved cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) algorithm considering invalid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pangwei; Wang, Yunpeng; Yu, Guizhen; Tang, Tieqiao

    2014-05-01

    For the Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) Algorithm, existing research studies mainly focus on how inter-vehicle communication can be used to develop CACC controller, the influence of the communication delays and lags of the actuators to the string stability. However, whether the string stability can be guaranteed when inter-vehicle communication is invalid partially has hardly been considered. This paper presents an improved CACC algorithm based on the sliding mode control theory and analyses the range of CACC controller parameters to maintain string stability. A dynamic model of vehicle spacing deviation in a platoon is then established, and the string stability conditions under improved CACC are analyzed. Unlike the traditional CACC algorithms, the proposed algorithm can ensure the functionality of the CACC system even if inter-vehicle communication is partially invalid. Finally, this paper establishes a platoon of five vehicles to simulate the improved CACC algorithm in MATLAB/Simulink, and the simulation results demonstrate that the improved CACC algorithm can maintain the string stability of a CACC platoon through adjusting the controller parameters and enlarging the spacing to prevent accidents. With guaranteed string stability, the proposed CACC algorithm can prevent oscillation of vehicle spacing and reduce chain collision accidents under real-world circumstances. This research proposes an improved CACC algorithm, which can guarantee the string stability when inter-vehicle communication is invalid.

  10. Mechatronic design and locomotion control of a robotic thunniform swimmer for fast cruising.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yonghui; Liang, Jianhong; Wang, Tianmiao

    2015-03-30

    This paper presents mechatronic design and locomotion control of a biomimetic robotic fish that swims using thunniform kinematics for fast cruising. Propulsion of the robotic fish is realized with a parallel four-bar propulsive mechanism that delivers combined translational and rotational motion to a lunate caudal fin. A central pattern generator controller, composed of two unidirectionally coupled Hopf oscillators, is employed to generate robust, smooth and coordinated oscillatory control signals for the tail joints. In order to maintain correct phase relation between joints during fast tail beating, a novel phase adjusting mechanism is proposed and incorporated into the controller. The attitude of the robotic fish in fast swimming is stabilized using an attitude and heading reference system unit and a pair of pitching pectoral fins. The maximum speed of the robotic fish can reach 2.0 m s(-1), which is the fastest speed that robotic fishes have achieved. Its outstanding swimming performance presents possibilities for deployment to real-world exploration, probe and survey missions.

  11. Development of an autoflow cruise control system for a centrifugal pump.

    PubMed

    Nishida, H; Beppu, T; Nakajima, M; Nishinaka, T; Nakatani, H; Ihashi, K; Katsumata, T; Kitamura, M; Aomi, S; Endo, M

    1995-07-01

    To improve the ease of driving a centrifugal pump that is afterload dependent, we have developed an automatic flow control system for the Terumo Capiox centrifugal pump system. This system consists of an autoflow cruise control system with a safety cutoff. The Capiox Pump Console 3000 was controlled by a personal computer through a serial communication line. In the usual manual mode, the motor speed knob works as a pump speed control, and in the autoflow mode, the same knob works as a blood flow rate control. After selecting and obtaining the desired flow rate, the mode was changed from manual to autoflow mode. In the autoflow mode, the computer compares the desired flow rate with the actual flow measured by an ultrasonic Doppler flowmeter and adjusts the motor rotational speed accordingly. During both in vivo and in vitro testing, this autoflow mode was able to return the changed flow that was disrupted by either clamping and declamping of the tubing or by the bolus injection of a vasomotor drug to the selected flow rate within 10 s without any significant fluctuation. In conclusion, the newly developed computer controlled autoflow system was able to produce a reliable and effective flow regulation for a centrifugal pump.

  12. Altair Navigation During Trans-Lunar Cruise, Lunar Orbit, Descent and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Todd A.; Heyne, Martin; Riedel, Joseph E.

    2010-01-01

    The Altair lunar lander navigation system is driven by a set of requirements that not only specify a need to land within 100 m of a designated spot on the Moon, but also be capable of a safe return to an orbiting Orion capsule in the event of loss of Earth ground support. These requirements lead to the need for a robust and capable on-board navigation system that works in conjunction with an Earth ground navigation system that uses primarily ground-based radiometric tracking. The resulting system relies heavily on combining a multiplicity of data types including navigation state updates from the ground based navigation system, passive optical imaging from a gimbaled camera, a stable inertial measurement unit, and a capable radar altimeter and velocimeter. The focus of this paper is on navigation performance during the trans-lunar cruise, lunar orbit, and descent/landing mission phases with the goal of characterizing knowledge and delivery errors to key mission events, bound the statistical delta V costs for executing the mission, as well as the determine the landing dispersions due to navigation. This study examines the nominal performance that can be obtained using the current best estimate of the vehicle, sensor, and environment models. Performance of the system under a variety sensor outages and parametric trades is also examined.

  13. Economy-oriented vehicle adaptive cruise control with coordinating multiple objectives function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eben Li, Shengbo; Li, Keqiang; Wang, Jianqiang

    2013-01-01

    A recent design issue of adaptive cruise control systems is how to reduce fuel consumption when following a preceding vehicle. High fuel economy is achievable through reducing acceleration level, however, it is also significantly restrained by two other functional demands, track capability and driver desired response. In the framework of multi-objective coordination, this paper develops and experimentally validates an economy-oriented headway control algorithm for a passenger car with internal combustion engine. The control algorithm is synthesised in a hierarchical structure. The upper controller, undertaking a major coordinating task, is designed based on the model predictive control theory. Fuel economy, tracking capability, and the driver desired response are formulated as its cost function and constraints in a finite prediction horizon. As further analysis indicated, such a design inevitably results in infeasible control inputs in some extreme cases, e.g. urgent situations involving rapid acceleration/deceleration. A constraint softening method is adopted to enlarge the feasible region in the cost of somewhat sacrificing the optimality of the original cost function. Finally, a prototyping controller is developed based on xPC toolbox and equipped in a passenger car. The followed field tests show that, compared to a linear quadratic controller, such an algorithm improves both fuel economy and tracking capability while also being more responsive to driver car-following behaviours.

  14. Theoretical and experimental flow fields for a supersonic cruise fighter forebody

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yaros, S. F.

    1985-01-01

    The capability of two numerical methods to predict the flow field about a representative supersonic cruise aircraft was examined. The two codes were a small-disturbance transonic program of Boppe and a conservative form full-potential transonic program of Shankar and Szema. For the former code, comparisons were made with wind-tunnel data at Mach numbers of 0.6, 0.9, and 1.2 and angles of attack of 0 deg, 5 deg, and 10 deg (7.5 deg instead of 10 deg at a Mach number of 1.2). Predictions from the two codes were compared at a Mach number of 1.2 and an angle of attack of 7.5 deg. The comparison criteria were contours of local angle of attack, local angle of sideslip, and local Mach number. The comparisons indicated that both codes may be considered useful for design applications, depending on the degree of accuracy required by the user's solution. Both solutions show an inaccuracy in their predictions, particularly as Mach number and/or angle of attack increases, because of their lack of viscous effects and any mechanisms to predict vortex development.

  15. Aerodynamic Performance and Flow-Field Characteristics of Two Waverider-Derived Hypersonic Cruise Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, Charles E., Jr.; Huebner, Lawrence D.; Finley, Dennis B.

    1995-01-01

    The component integration of a class of hypersonic high-lift configurations known as waveriders into hypersonic cruise vehicles was evaluated. A wind-tunnel model was developed which integrates realistic vehicle components with two waverider shapes, referred to as the straight-wing and cranked-wing shapes. Both shapes were conical-flow-derived waveriders for a design Mach number of 4.0. Experimental data and limited computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions were obtained over a Mach number range of 1.6 to 4.63 at a Reynolds number of 2.0 x 10(exp 6) per foot. The CFD predictions and flow visualization data confirmed the shock attachment characteristics of the baseline waverider shapes and illustrated the waverider flow-field properties. Experimental data showed that no significant performance degradations, in terms of maximum lift-to-drag ratios, occur at off-design Mach numbers for the waverider shapes and the integrated configurations. A comparison of the fully-integrated waverider vehicles to the baseline shapes showed that the performance was significantly degraded when all of the components were added to the waveriders, with the most significant degradation resulting from aftbody closure and the addition of control surfaces. Both fully-integrated configurations were longitudinally unstable over the Mach number range studied with the selected center of gravity location and for unpowered conditions. The cranked-wing configuration provided better lateral-directional stability characteristics than the straight-wing configuration.

  16. On the main flow features of the SE Levantine (CYBO cruises 1995-2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zodiatis, George; Hayes, Dan; Gertman, Isaac; Poulain, Pierre-Marie; Menna, Milena; Nicolaidis, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    The main characteristic of the circulation in the Eastern Mediterranean Levantine Basin is a general cyclonic flow following more or less the coastline, with several persistent eddies in the open sea. The interaction between all of these dynamical features produces a complicated flow pattern with strong spatial variability on a synoptic, seasonal and inter-annual scales. The continuous seasonal/annual hydrographic survey of the SE Levantine since 1995 within the frame of the Cyprus Basin Oceanography program (CYBO) and the Haifa-section cruises, along with data from project surveys (CYCLOPS, MSM/14) and recent data from autonomous platforms, such as those from Argos floats, drifters and gliders (NEMED, YPOKINOUMODA, GROOM projects) have all provided insight on the three dominating flow features in the SE Levantine Basin. Namely, the two warm core eddies, i.e. the Cyprus and Shikmona, and the open sea flow jet, that of the Mid Mediterranean. After some years of disputes, it is well-documented with all these in-situ data that the Cyprus warm core eddy is the most influential flow feature in the area, with significant fluctuations in time and space, while the generation of the Shikmona eddy was observed for the first time. Moreover, the cross basin flow of the MMJ is also well-document, confirming the relevant POEM results, to transfer also significant amount of AW further to the most-eastern part of the Levantine, after passing between Cyprus and along the northern periphery of the Cyprus warm core eddy.

  17. Transonic Investigation of Two-Dimensional Nozzles Designed for Supersonic Cruise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capone, Francis J.; Deere, Karen A.

    2001-01-01

    An experimental and computational investigation has been conducted to determine the off-design uninstalled drag characteristics a of a two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle designed for a supersonic cruise civil transport. The main objective of this investigation was to determine the effects of varying nozzle external flap curvature and sidewall boattail angle and curvature on nozzle drag The experimental investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel at Mach numbers from 0.80 to 1.20 at nozzle pressure ratios up to nine. Three-dimensional simulations of nozzle performance were obtained with the computational fluid dynamics code PAB using turbulence closure and nonlinear Reynolds stress modeling. The results of this investigation indicate that excellent correlation between experimental and predicted results was obtained for the nozzle with a moderate amount of boattail curvature. The nozzle with an external flap having a sharp shoulder (no curvature) had the lowest nozzle pressure drag. At a Mach number of 1.2, sidewall pressure drag doubled as sidewall boattail angle was increased from 4 to 8 deg. Reducing the height of the sidewall caused large decreases in both the sidewall and flap pressure drags.

  18. Transonic Investigation of Two-Dimensional Nozzles Designed for Supersonic Cruise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capone, Francis J.; Deere, Karen A.

    2015-01-01

    An experimental and computational investigation has been conducted to determine the off-design uninstalled drag characteristics of a two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle designed for a supersonic cruise civil transport. The overall objectives were to: (1) determine the effects of nozzle external flap curvature and sidewall boattail variations on boattail drag; (2) develop an experimental data base for 2D nozzles with long divergent flaps and small boattail angles and (3) provide data for correlating computational fluid dynamic predictions of nozzle boattail drag. The experimental investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel at Mach numbers from 0.80 to 1.20 at nozzle pressure ratios up to 9. Three-dimensional simulations of nozzle performance were obtained with the computational fluid dynamics code PAB3D using turbulence closure and nonlinear Reynolds stress modeling. The results of this investigation indicate that excellent correlation between experimental and predicted results was obtained for the nozzle with a moderate amount of boattail curvature. The nozzle with an external flap having a sharp shoulder (no curvature) had the lowest nozzle pressure drag. At a Mach number of 1.2, sidewall pressure drag doubled as sidewall boattail angle was increased from 4deg to 8deg. Reducing the height of the sidewall caused large decreases in both the sidewall and flap pressure drags. Summary

  19. A comprehensive review of the development of adaptive cruise control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Lingyun; Gao, Feng

    2010-10-01

    It has been 15 years since the first generation of adaptive cruise control (ACC)-equipped vehicles was available on the market and 7 years since the ISO standard for the first generation of ACC systems was produced. Since the next generation of ACC systems and more advanced driver-assistant systems are at the verge of complete introduction and deployment, it is necessary to summarise the development and research achievements of the first generation of ACC systems in order to provide more useful experiential guidance for the new deployment. From multidimensional perspectives, this paper looks into the related development and research achievements to objectively and comprehensively introduce an ACC system to researchers, automakers, governments and consumers. It attempts to simply explain what an ACC system is and how it operates from a systematic perspective. Then, it clearly draws a broad historical picture of ACC development by splitting the entire history into three different phases. Finally, the most significant research findings-related ACC systems have been reviewed and summarised from the human, traffic and social perspectives respectively.

  20. Message Mode Operations for Spacecraft: A Proposal for Operating Spacecraft During Cruise and Mitigating the Network Loading Crunch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, Ed; MacMedan, Marv; Kazz, Greg; Kallemeyn, Pieter

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) is a world-class spacecraft tracking facility with stations located in Spain, Australia and USA, servicing Deep Space Missions of many space agencies. The current system of scheduling spacecraft during cruise for multiple 8 hour tracking sessions per week currently leads to an overcommitted DSN. Studies indicate that future projected mission demands upon the Network will only make the loading problem worse. Therefore, a more efficient scheduling of DSN resources is necessary in order to support the additional network loading envisioned in the next few years: The number of missions is projected to increase from 25 in 1998 to 34 by 2001. In fact given the challenge of the NASA administrator, Dan Goldin, of launching 12 spacecraft per year, the DSN would be tracking approximately 90 spacecraft by 2010. Currently a large amount of antenna time and network resources are subscribed by a project in order to have their mission supported during the cruise phase. The recently completed Mars Pathfinder mission was tracked 3 times a week (8 hours/day) during the majority of its cruise to Mars. This paper proposes an innovative approach called Message Mode Operations (MMO) for mitigating the Network loading problem while continuing to meet the tracking, reporting, time management, and scheduling requirements of these missions during Cruise while occupying very short tracking times. MMO satisfies these requirements by providing the following services: Spacecraft Health and Welfare Monitoring Service Command Delivery Service Adaptive Spacecraft Scheduling Service Orbit Determination Service Time Calibration Service Utilizing more efficient engineering telemetry summarization and filtering techniques on-board the spacecraft and collapsing the navigation requirements for Doppler and Range into shorter tracks, we believe spacecraft can be adequately serviced using short 10 to 30 minute tracking sessions. This claim assumes that certain changes would

  1. Chromium(III), insoluble salts

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Chromium ( III ) , insoluble salts ; CASRN 16065 - 83 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments

  2. Title III hazardous air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, R.

    1995-12-31

    The author presents an overview of the key provisions of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The key provisions include the following: 112(b) -- 189 Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP); 112(a) -- Major Source: 10 TPY/25 TPY; 112(d) -- Application of MACT; 112(g) -- Modifications; 112(I) -- State Program; 112(j) -- The Hammer; and 112(r) -- Accidental Release Provisions.

  3. Organometallic neptunium(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Dutkiewicz, Michał S; Farnaby, Joy H; Apostolidis, Christos; Colineau, Eric; Walter, Olaf; Magnani, Nicola; Gardiner, Michael G; Love, Jason B; Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas; Caciuffo, Roberto; Arnold, Polly L

    2016-08-01

    Studies of transuranic organometallic complexes provide a particularly valuable insight into covalent contributions to the metal-ligand bonding, in which the subtle differences between the transuranium actinide ions and their lighter lanthanide counterparts are of fundamental importance for the effective remediation of nuclear waste. Unlike the organometallic chemistry of uranium, which has focused strongly on U(III) and has seen some spectacular advances, that of the transuranics is significantly technically more challenging and has remained dormant. In the case of neptunium, it is limited mainly to Np(IV). Here we report the synthesis of three new Np(III) organometallic compounds and the characterization of their molecular and electronic structures. These studies suggest that Np(III) complexes could act as single-molecule magnets, and that the lower oxidation state of Np(II) is chemically accessible. In comparison with lanthanide analogues, significant d- and f-electron contributions to key Np(III) orbitals are observed, which shows that fundamental neptunium organometallic chemistry can provide new insights into the behaviour of f-elements.

  4. Terrain Perception for DEMO III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manduchi, R.; Bellutta, P.; Matthies, L.; Owens, K.; Rankin, A.

    2000-01-01

    The Demo III program has as its primary focus the development of autonomous mobility for a small rugged cross country vehicle. In this paper we report recent progress on both stereo-based obstacle detection and terrain cover color-based classification.

  5. Organometallic neptunium(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Dutkiewicz, Michał S; Farnaby, Joy H; Apostolidis, Christos; Colineau, Eric; Walter, Olaf; Magnani, Nicola; Gardiner, Michael G; Love, Jason B; Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas; Caciuffo, Roberto; Arnold, Polly L

    2016-08-01

    Studies of transuranic organometallic complexes provide a particularly valuable insight into covalent contributions to the metal-ligand bonding, in which the subtle differences between the transuranium actinide ions and their lighter lanthanide counterparts are of fundamental importance for the effective remediation of nuclear waste. Unlike the organometallic chemistry of uranium, which has focused strongly on U(III) and has seen some spectacular advances, that of the transuranics is significantly technically more challenging and has remained dormant. In the case of neptunium, it is limited mainly to Np(IV). Here we report the synthesis of three new Np(III) organometallic compounds and the characterization of their molecular and electronic structures. These studies suggest that Np(III) complexes could act as single-molecule magnets, and that the lower oxidation state of Np(II) is chemically accessible. In comparison with lanthanide analogues, significant d- and f-electron contributions to key Np(III) orbitals are observed, which shows that fundamental neptunium organometallic chemistry can provide new insights into the behaviour of f-elements. PMID:27442286

  6. Summer Sea ice in the Pacific Arctic sector from the CHINARE-2010 cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackley, S. F.; Xie, H.; Lei, R.; Huang, W.; Chinare 2010 Arctic Sea Ice Group

    2010-12-01

    N (from August 21 to August 24). In this area, the ice concentration varied from 70-100%, melt pond varied from 20-50% of ice, ridged ice varied from 10-30% of ice, and floe size was dominated by 10’s km to several km’s in one or two dimensions. The overall ice thickness decreased southward from 1.8-2m to 0.6-1m. The ice type of the area is multiyear ice dominated, with small portion of first year ice. In the area from ~85°N to 83.5°N, we see dirty ice (brownish, rich hills and valleys, mostly multiyear ice), varying from 10-20% of ice. Similar dirty ice was only seen from 72°N-75°N in the northward leg (July 24-29), then not seen until the northern region. The ice situation in this cruise will be compared with that from the CHINARE-2008 cruise, in a similar area and season, so change of the two years for this sector of Arctic Ocean during the middle-later summer can be deduced.

  7. Rosetta Lander—After seven years of cruise, prepared for hibernation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulamec, Stephan; Biele, Jens; Fantinati, Cinzia; Fronton, Jean-François; Gaudon, Philippe; Geurts, Koen; Krause, Christian; Küchemann, Oliver; Maibaum, Michael; Pätz, Brigitte; Roll, Reinhard; Willnecker, Rainer; Philae Team

    2012-12-01

    Rosetta is a Cornerstone Mission of the ESA Horizon 2000 programme. It is going to rendezvous with comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko after a 10 year cruise and will study both its nucleus and coma with an orbiting spacecraft and a landed platform. The latter, named Philae, has been designed to land softly on the comet nucleus and is equipped with 10 scientific instruments to perform in-situ studies of the cometary material. Philae has been provided by a large international consortium. Rosetta was successfully launched on March 2, 2004 from Kourou in French Guyana. Philae is operated by the Lander Control Centre (LCC) at DLR, Cologne and the Science Operations and Navigation Centre (SONC) at CNES, Toulouse via the European Spacecraft Operations Centre (ESOC) in Darmstadt. The scientific lead is at the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Science (Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany) and the Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale (Paris). Since launch, the Lander has been operational during commissioning, several checkouts, two planetary swing-bys at the Earth and one at Mars, fly-bys at asteroids Šteins and Lutetia as well as some additional activities for calibration and failure investigation. Payload checkout PC13 was the last Lander activation prior to a deep space hibernation phase of Rosetta, which started in June 2011 and will last until approaching the comet in 2014. The paper describes the various Lander activities over the past seven years and gives an outlook of near- and on-comet operations. Landing is foreseen in November 2014 at a heliocentric distance of 3 AU. Prior to that, detailed characterization of the comet nucleus has to be performed with the Rosetta Orbiter instruments.

  8. Rosetta Lander—After seven years of cruise, prepared for hibernation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    the Philae Team; Ulamec, Stephan; Biele, Jens; Fantinati, Cinzia; Fronton, Jean-François; Gaudon, Philippe; Geurts, Koen; Krause, Christian; Küchemann, Oliver; Maibaum, Michael; Pätz, Brigitte; Roll, Reinhard; Willnecker, Rainer

    2012-12-01

    Rosetta is a Cornerstone Mission of the ESA Horizon 2000 programme. It is going to rendezvous with comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko after a 10 year cruise and will study both its nucleus and coma with an orbiting spacecraft and a landed platform. The latter, named Philae, has been designed to land softly on the comet nucleus and is equipped with 10 scientific instruments to perform in-situ studies of the cometary material. Philae has been provided by a large international consortium.Rosetta was successfully launched on March 2, 2004 from Kourou in French Guyana. Philae is operated by the Lander Control Centre (LCC) at DLR, Cologne and the Science Operations and Navigation Centre (SONC) at CNES, Toulouse via the European Spacecraft Operations Centre (ESOC) in Darmstadt. The scientific lead is at the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Science (Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany) and the Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale (Paris).Since launch, the Lander has been operational during commissioning, several checkouts, two planetary swing-bys at the Earth and one at Mars, fly-bys at asteroids Šteins and Lutetia as well as some additional activities for calibration and failure investigation. Payload checkout PC13 was the last Lander activation prior to a deep space hibernation phase of Rosetta, which started in June 2011 and will last until approaching the comet in 2014.The paper describes the various Lander activities over the past seven years and gives an outlook of near- and on-comet operations. Landing is foreseen in November 2014 at a heliocentric distance of 3 AU. Prior to that, detailed characterization of the comet nucleus has to be performed with the Rosetta Orbiter instruments.

  9. Measurements of HONO, NO, NOy and SO2 in aircraft exhaust plumes at cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurkat, T.; Voigt, C.; Arnold, F.; Schlager, H.; Kleffmann, J.; Aufmhoff, H.; Schäuble, D.; Schaefer, M.; Schumann, U.

    2011-05-01

    Measurements of gaseous nitrogen and sulfur oxide emissions in young aircraft exhaust plumes give insight into chemical oxidation processes inside aircraft engines. Particularly, the OH-induced formation of nitrous acid (HONO) from nitrogen oxide (NO) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) from sulfur dioxide (SO2) inside the turbine which is highly uncertain, need detailed analysis to address the climate impact of aviation. We report on airborne in situ measurements at cruise altitudes of HONO, NO, NOy, and SO2 in 9 wakes of 8 different types of modern jet airliners, including for the first time also an A380. Measurements of HONO and SO2 were made with an ITCIMS (Ion Trap Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer) using a new ion-reaction scheme involving SF5- reagent ions. The measured molar ratios HONO/NO and HONO/NOy with averages of 0.038 ± 0.010 and 0.027 ± 0.005 were found to decrease systematically with increasing NOx emission-index (EI NOx). We calculate an average EI HONO of 0.31 ± 0.12 g NO2 kg-1. Using reliable measurements of HONO and NOy, which are less adhesive than H2SO4 to the inlet walls, we derive the OH-induced conversion fraction of fuel sulfur to sulfuric acid $\\varepsilon$ with an average of 2.2 ± 0.5 %. $\\varepsilon$ also tends to decrease with increasing EI NOx, consistent with earlier model simulations. The lowest HONO/NO, HONO/NOy and $\\varepsilon$ was observed for the largest passenger aircraft A380.

  10. Broadband vehicle-to-vehicle communication using an extended autonomous cruise control sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heddebaut, M.; Rioult, J.; Ghys, J. P.; Gransart, Ch; Ambellouis, S.

    2005-06-01

    For several years road vehicle autonomous cruise control (ACC) systems as well as anti-collision radar have been developed. Several manufacturers currently sell this equipment. The current generation of ACC sensors only track the first preceding vehicle to deduce its speed and position. These data are then used to compute, manage and optimize a safety distance between vehicles, thus providing some assistance to car drivers. However, in real conditions, to elaborate and update a real time driving solution, car drivers use information about speed and position of preceding and following vehicles. This information is essentially perceived using the driver's eyes, binocular stereoscopic vision performed through the windscreens and rear-view mirrors. Furthermore, within a line of vehicles, the frontal road perception of the first vehicle is very particular and highly significant. Currently, all these available data remain strictly on-board the vehicle that has captured the perception information and performed these measurements. To get the maximum effectiveness of all these approaches, we propose that this information be shared in real time with the following vehicles, within the convoy. On the basis of these considerations, this paper technically explores a cost-effective solution to extend the basic ACC sensor function in order to simultaneously provide a vehicle-to-vehicle radio link. This millimetre wave radio link transmits relevant broadband perception data (video, localization...) to following vehicles, along the line of vehicles. The propagation path between the vehicles uses essentially grazing angles of incidence of signals over the road surface including millimetre wave paths beneath the cars.

  11. Indian Ocean radiocarbon: Data from the INDIGO 1, 2, and 3 cruises

    SciTech Connect

    Sepanski, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    This document presents {sup 14}C activities (expressed in the internationally adopted {Delta}{sup 14}C scale) from water samples taken at various locations and depths in the Indian and Southern oceans through the Indien Gaz Ocean (INDIGO) project. These data were collected as part of the INDIGO 1, INDIGO 2, and INDIGO 3 cruises, which took place during the years 1985, 1986, and 1987, respectively. These data have been used to estimate the penetration of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} in the Indian and Southern oceans. The document also presents supporting data for potential temperature, salinity, density (sigma-theta), {delta}{sup 13}C, and total CO{sub 2}. All radiocarbon measurements have been examined statistically for quality of sample counts and stability of counting efficiency and background. In addition, all data have been reviewed by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and assessed for gross accuracy and consistency (absence of obvious outliers and other anomalous values). These data are available free of charge as a numeric data package (NDP) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center. The NDP consists of this document and a magnetic tape containing machine-readable files. This document provides sample listing of the Indian Ocean radiocarbon data as they appear on the magnetic tape, as well as a complete listing of these data in tabular form. This document also offers retrieval program listings, furnishes information on sampling methods and data selection, defines limitations and restrictions of the data, and provides reprints of pertinent literature. 13 refs., 4 tabs.

  12. Telluride, Tom Cruise, and Land Use Codes: Science, Policy, and Community Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raby, K. S.; Williams, M. W.

    2003-12-01

    Mountain areas throughout the western US have experienced a surge in popularity in the last decade, resulting in degradation of the resources that drew people to the area in the first place. Traditional economic interests, recreational users, and environmentalists all have opposing priorities. Thus, resource managers and planners face increasingly critical and controversial decisions regarding development and protection of watersheds. Best Management Practices (BMPs) are generally an attempt to improve land and water quality after degradation. Here we report on our work with local stakeholders in the San Miguel River drainage-home of Telluride Ski Area and Hollywood moguls such as Tom Cruise-to prevent degradation of headwater catchments while providing for reasonable economic and recreational activities. We developed new tools for resource managers by mapping landscape types and associated water quality parameters so as to develop sensitivity criteria that are displayed visually using GIS maps. Using these results, San Miguel County Commissioners adopted land use codes to restrict development, including an 800-sqft building footprint, and bans on septic systems and winter plowing. This case study lays the foundation for science-based policy at the catchment scale, but is dependent on local culture and politics. Preliminary fieldwork was conducted in the summer of 2003 as the first steps toward similar work in adjacent San Juan County, which has a strong mining heritage. The San Juan County Planning Commission identified priority basins for study, and extensive physical field surveys were conducted in these drainages to map spatial distribution and aerial extent of numerous landscape types. Again, water quality parameters will be associated with different land covers to enable alpine sensitivity analysis at the landscape unit scale. Results will be provided to the San Juan Planning Commission to augment current planning tools. However, because of the different

  13. Methane-derived authigenic carbonates from the northern Gulf of Mexico - MD02 Cruise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, Y.; Matsumoto, R.; Paull, C.K.; Ussler, W.; Lorenson, T.; Hart, P.; Winters, W.

    2007-01-01

    Authigenic carbonates were sampled in piston cores collected from both the Tunica Mound and the Mississippi Canyon area on the continental slope of the northern Gulf of Mexico during a Marion Dufresne cruise in July 2002. The carbonates are present as hardgrounds, porous crusts, concretions or nodules and shell fragments with or without carbonate cements. Carbonates occurred at gas venting sites which are likely to overlie gas hydrates bearing sediments. Electron microprobe, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thinsection investigations show that these carbonates are high-Mg calcite (6-21??mol% MgCO3), with significant presence of framboidal pyrite. All carbonates are depleted in 13C (??13C = - 61.9 to - 31.5??? PDB) indicating that the carbon is derived mainly from anaerobic methane oxidation (AMO). Age estimates based on 14C dating of shell fragments and on regional sedimentation rates indicate that these authigenic carbonates formed within the last 1000??yr in the Mississippi Canyon and within 5500??yr at the Tunica Mound. The oxygen isotopic composition of carbonates ranges from + 3.4 to + 5.9??? PDB. Oxygen isotopic compositions and Mg2+ contents of carbonates, and present in-situ temperatures of bottom seawater/sediments, show that some of these carbonates, especially from a core associated with underlying massive gas hydrates precipitated in or near equilibrium with bottom-water. On the other hand, those carbonates more enriched in 18O are interpreted to have precipitated from 18O-rich fluids which are thought to have been derived from the dissociation of gas hydrates. The dissociation of gas hydrates in the northern Gulf of Mexico within the last 5500??yr may be caused by nearby salt movement and related brines. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. NIF Title III engineering plan

    SciTech Connect

    Deis, G

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to define the work that must be accomplished by the NIF Project during Title III Engineering. This definition is intended to be sufficiently detailed to provide a framework for yearly planning, to clearly identify the specific deliverables so that the Project teams can focus on them, and to provide a common set of objectives and processes across the Project. This plan has been preceded by similar documents for Title I and Title II design and complements the Site Management Plan, the Project Control Manual, the Quality Assurance Program Plan, the RM Parsons NIF Title III Configuration Control Plan, the Integrated Project Schedule, the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report, the Configuration Management Plan, and the Transition Plan.

  15. Cruise-Efficient Short Takeoff and Landing (CESTOL): Potential Impact on Air Traffic Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Couluris, G. J.; Signor, D.; Phillips, J.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is investigating technological and operational concepts for introducing Cruise-Efficient Short Takeoff and Landing (CESTOL) aircraft into a future US National Airspace System (NAS) civil aviation environment. CESTOL is an aircraft design concept for future use to increase capacity and reduce emissions. CESTOL provides very flexible takeoff, climb, descent and landing performance capabilities and a high-speed cruise capability. In support of NASA, this study is a preliminary examination of the potential operational impact of CESTOL on airport and airspace capacity and delay. The study examines operational impacts at a subject site, Newark Liberty Intemational Airport (KEWR), New Jersey. The study extends these KEWR results to estimate potential impacts on NAS-wide network traffic operations due to the introduction of CESTOL at selected major airports. These are the 34 domestic airports identified in the Federal Aviation Administration's Operational Evolution Plan (OEP). The analysis process uses two fast-time simulation tools to separately model local and NAS-wide air traffic operations using predicted flight schedules for a 24-hour study period in 2016. These tools are the Sen sis AvTerminal model and NASA's Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES). We use both to simulate conventional-aircraft-only and CESTOL-mixed-with-conventional-aircraft operations. Both tools apply 4-dimension trajectory modeling to simulate individual flight movement. The study applies AvTerminal to model traffic operations and procedures for en route and terminal arrival and departures to and from KEWR. These AvTerminal applications model existing arrival and departure routes and profiles and runway use configurations, with the assumption jet-powered, large-sized civil CESTOL aircraft use a short runway and standard turboprop arrival and departure procedures. With these rules, the conventional jet and CESTOL aircraft are procedurally

  16. Silver europium(III) polyphosphate

    PubMed Central

    Ayadi, Mounir; Férid, Mokhtar; Moine, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Europium(III) silver polyphosphate, AgEu(PO3)4, was prepared by the flux method. The atomic arrangement is built up by infinite (PO3)n chains (periodicity of 4) extending along the c axis. These chains are joined to each other by EuO8 dodeca­hedra. The Ag+ cations are located in the voids of this arrangement and are surrounded by five oxygen atoms in a distorted [4+1] coordination. PMID:21582031

  17. Antithrombin III and the nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, K A; Stoffersen, E

    1979-05-01

    Plasma and urinary antithrombin III (AT-III) was measured in 15 cases of nephrotic syndrome. Plasma AT-III correlated well with serum albumin, but poorly with proteinuria, whereas urinary AT-III correlated well to proteinuria. The plasma AT-III level had a mean similar to 25 healthy controls, but the range was significantly wider. A case with nephrotic syndrome and left renal vein thrombosis is reported. The urinary output of AT-III rose and the plasma level fell with the activity of the disease. Although AT-III and albumin have similar molecule weight, their renal clearance was found to be different. It is suggested that urinary loss of AT-III plays a role in the hypercoagulable state sometimes found in the nephrotic syndrome.

  18. Bursts of Type III and Type V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, S.; Dulk, G. A.

    The observational database on Types III and V solar radio bursts is summarized and used as a basis for developing analytical models of the observed phenomena. Type III events are characterized by a rapid drift from high to low frequencies, a harmonic structure consisting of F-H pairs, and circular polarization. Type V events last longer than Type III bursts and have a broader bandwidth. Both bursts are thought to arise from the same mechanism. Probable sources of the F-H pairs are characterized, along with the brightness temperature, time profiles, and polarization features typical of Type III and IIIb, structureless Type III and storm Type III bursts. Attention is also given to the interaction between Type III bursts and the coronal magnetic field and to similarities between Type III events and inverted-U and J bursts.

  19. Organometallic neptunium(III) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutkiewicz, Michał S.; Farnaby, Joy H.; Apostolidis, Christos; Colineau, Eric; Walter, Olaf; Magnani, Nicola; Gardiner, Michael G.; Love, Jason B.; Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas; Caciuffo, Roberto; Arnold, Polly L.

    2016-08-01

    Studies of transuranic organometallic complexes provide a particularly valuable insight into covalent contributions to the metal-ligand bonding, in which the subtle differences between the transuranium actinide ions and their lighter lanthanide counterparts are of fundamental importance for the effective remediation of nuclear waste. Unlike the organometallic chemistry of uranium, which has focused strongly on UIII and has seen some spectacular advances, that of the transuranics is significantly technically more challenging and has remained dormant. In the case of neptunium, it is limited mainly to NpIV. Here we report the synthesis of three new NpIII organometallic compounds and the characterization of their molecular and electronic structures. These studies suggest that NpIII complexes could act as single-molecule magnets, and that the lower oxidation state of NpII is chemically accessible. In comparison with lanthanide analogues, significant d- and f-electron contributions to key NpIII orbitals are observed, which shows that fundamental neptunium organometallic chemistry can provide new insights into the behaviour of f-elements.

  20. Organometallic neptunium(III) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutkiewicz, Michał S.; Farnaby, Joy H.; Apostolidis, Christos; Colineau, Eric; Walter, Olaf; Magnani, Nicola; Gardiner, Michael G.; Love, Jason B.; Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas; Caciuffo, Roberto; Arnold, Polly L.

    2016-08-01

    Studies of transuranic organometallic complexes provide a particularly valuable insight into covalent contributions to the metal–ligand bonding, in which the subtle differences between the transuranium actinide ions and their lighter lanthanide counterparts are of fundamental importance for the effective remediation of nuclear waste. Unlike the organometallic chemistry of uranium, which has focused strongly on UIII and has seen some spectacular advances, that of the transuranics is significantly technically more challenging and has remained dormant. In the case of neptunium, it is limited mainly to NpIV. Here we report the synthesis of three new NpIII organometallic compounds and the characterization of their molecular and electronic structures. These studies suggest that NpIII complexes could act as single-molecule magnets, and that the lower oxidation state of NpII is chemically accessible. In comparison with lanthanide analogues, significant d- and f-electron contributions to key NpIII orbitals are observed, which shows that fundamental neptunium organometallic chemistry can provide new insights into the behaviour of f-elements.

  1. Low-speed wind-tunnel tests of a 1/10-scale model of an advanced arrow-wing supersonic cruise configuration designed for cruise at Mach 2.2. [Langley Full Scale Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yip, L. P.

    1979-01-01

    The low-speed longitudinal and lateral-directional characteristics of a scale model of an advanced arrow-wing supersonic cruise configuration were investigated in tests conducted at a Reynolds number of 4.19 x 10 to the 6th power based on the mean aerodynamic chord, with an angle of attack range from - 6 deg to 23 deg and sideslip angle range from -15 deg to 20 deg. The effects of segmented leading-edge flaps, slotted trailing-edge flaps, horizontal and vertical tails, and ailerons and spoilers were determined. Extensive pressure data and flow visualization pictures with non-intrusive fluorescent mini-tufts were obtained.

  2. [Clinical aspects of acquired antithrombin III deficiency].

    PubMed

    von Blohn, G; Hellstern, P; Köhler, M; Scheffler, P; Wenzel, E

    1986-02-01

    The significance of acquired antithrombin III (AT III) deficiency must be interpreted in close relation to the underlying disease process. In patients with acute or chronic liver impairment, the AT III activity is related to a decrease of procoagulatory factors, whereas, in protein loss syndromes such as nephrotic syndrome, the AT III indicates an increased risk of thromboembolic events. The effect of oral contraceptives (OC) on AT III levels in young healthy females (n = 30) was determined prospectively. AT III decreases during OC usage could not be related to the estrogen content of the examined oral contraceptives, and there was no parallel decrease of AT III activity and concentration in each type of OC. In a prospective study, the extent of AT III decrease was determined in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass operations (CPB) receiving different anticoagulant schedules during extracorporeal circulation (n = 49). There was no significant influence on the effectiveness of anticoagulation by the observed AT III decreases. AT III deficiency during CPB was primarily the result of hemodilution. However, the AT III kinetics were significantly influenced by the different protamin dosages and were not affected by the different heparin dosages. Correction of diminished AT III levels by substitution of AT III concentrates is beneficial in cases, in which an interruption of an enhanced coagulatory process such as disseminated intravascular coagulation is necessary or in patients requiring high dosage heparinization as in deep vein thrombosis. In those cases the quality of AT III correction correlates to the course of the disease. However, the potency of concentrates as well as the individual AT III recovery and half-life must be considered for an appropriate treatment with AT III substitution. PMID:3718407

  3. Real-time testing of titanium sheet and extrusion coupon specimens subjected to Mach 2.7 supersonic cruise aircraft wing stresses and temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunde, T.

    1977-01-01

    The accuracy of three accelerated flight-by-flight test methods for material selection, and fatigue substantiation of supersonic cruise aircraft structure was studied. The real time stresses and temperatures applied to the specimens were representative of the service conditions in the lower surface of a Mach 2.7 supersonic cruise aircraft wing root structure. Each real time flight lasted about 65 minutes, including about one hour at (500 F) in the cruise condition. Center notched coupon specimens from six titanium materials were tested: mill-annealed, duplex-annealed, and triplex-annealed Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V sheets; mill-annealed Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V extrusion; mill-annealed Ti-6Al-4V sheet; and solution-treated and aged Ti-6Al-4V extrusion. For duplex-annealed Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V sheet, specimens with single spotweld were also tested. The test results were studied in conjunction with other related data from the literature for: material selection, structural fabrication, fatigue resistance of supersonic cruise aircraft structure, and fatigue test acceleration procedures for supersonic cruise aircraft.

  4. The eroticism of Internet cruising as a self-contained behaviour: a multivariate analysis of men seeking men demographics and getting off online

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Brandon Andrew; Moskowitz, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Most studies on men seeking men and who use the Internet for sexual purposes have focused on the epidemiological outcomes of Internet cruising. Other research has only focused on online sexual behaviours such as cybersex. The present study examines men who find the acts of Internet cruising and emailing to be erotic as self-contained behaviours. We surveyed 499 men who used craigslist.org for sexually-oriented purposes, and ran an ordinary least squares multiple regression model to determine the demographic characteristics of men seeking men who found Internet cruising erotic. Our results showed that younger compared to older men seeking men found the acts erotic. Likewise, men seeking men from mid-sized cities and large cities compared to men from smaller cities found Internet cruising and emailing to be erotic. Most notably, bisexual- and heterosexual-identifying men seeking men compared to gay-identifying men found these acts to be more erotic. Our results suggested that self-contained Internet cruising might provide dual functions. For some men (e.g., heterosexual-identifying men), the behaviour provides a sexual outlet in which fantasy and experimentation may be explored without risking stigmatization. For other men (e.g., those from large cities), the behaviour may be an alternative to offset sexual risk while still being able to ‘get off’. PMID:23565985

  5. Impacts of alternative fuels in aviation on microphysical aerosol properties and predicted ice nuclei concentration at aircraft cruise altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinzierl, B.; D'Ascoli, E.; Sauer, D. N.; Kim, J.; Scheibe, M.; Schlager, H.; Moore, R.; Anderson, B. E.; Ullrich, R.; Mohler, O.; Hoose, C.

    2015-12-01

    In the past decades air traffic has been substantially growing affecting air quality and climate. According to the International Civil Aviation Authority (ICAO), in the next few years world passenger and freight traffic is expected to increase annually by 6-7% and 4-5%, respectively. One possibility to reduce aviation impacts on the atmosphere and climate might be the replacement of fossil fuels by alternative fuels. However, so far the effects of alternative fuels on particle emissions from aircraft engines and their ability to form contrails remain uncertain. To study the effects of alternative fuels on particle emissions and the formation of contrails, the Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) field experiment was conducted in California. In May 2014, the DLR Falcon 20 and the NASA HU-25 jet aircraft were instrumented with an extended aerosol and trace gas payload probing different types of fuels including JP-8 and JP-8 blended with HEFA (Hydroprocessed Esters and Fatty Acids) while the NASA DC8 aircraft acted as the source aircraft for ACCESS-2. Emission measurements were taken in the DC8 exhaust plumes at aircraft cruise level between 9-12 km altitude and at distances between 50 m and 20 km behind the DC8 engines. Here, we will present results from the ACCESS-2 aerosol measurements which show a 30-60% reduction of the non-volatile (mainly black carbon) particle number concentration in the aircraft exhaust for the HEFA-blend compared to conventional JP-8 fuel. Size-resolved particle emission indices show the largest reductions for larger particle sizes suggesting that the HEFA blend contains fewer and smaller black carbon particles. We will combine the airborne measurements with a parameterization of deposition nucleation developed during a number of ice nucleation experiments at the AIDA chamber in Karlsruhe and discuss the impact of alternative fuels on the abundance of potential ice nuclei at cruise conditions.

  6. Observation of surface ozone in the marine boundary layer along a cruise through the Arctic Ocean: From offshore to remote

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Pengzhen; Bian, Lingen; Zheng, Xiangdong; Yu, Juan; Sun, Chen; Ye, Peipei; Xie, Zhouqing

    2016-03-01

    Ozone is an important reactive gas in the troposphere; it has been frequently used to estimate atmospheric oxidation capacity. However, there are few data of surface ozone over the Arctic Ocean, especially the central Arctic Ocean. Here, surface ozone in the marine boundary layer along the cruise path during the 5th Chinese Arctic Research Expedition (June to September, 2012) was investigated. The latitudes and longitudes covered in the cruise were 31.1°N-87.7°N and 9.3°E-90°E-168.4°W. The 1-h-averaged ozone varied from 9.4 ppbv to 124.5 ppbv along the cruise. The highest mixing ratios appeared in the East China Sea and the Sea of Japan while the lowest in the Chukchi Sea. The relatively high ozone levels over the East China Sea, the Sea of Japan, and offshore Iceland were caused by transport of precursors and/or ozone from the nearby continent. Ozone mixing ratio decreasing by ~ 2 ppbv/° with increasing latitude was observed during 31-45°N covering the East China Sea and the Sea of Japan, and during 62-69°N covering offshore Iceland. Over the entire Arctic Ocean, ozone levels were relatively low, varying from 9.4 ppbv to 36.1 ppbv with an average of 23.8 ± 4.6 (mean ± standard deviation) ppbv, which was not statistically different with data observed at Barrow observatory during the same period. Unlike ozone over contaminated areas, a slight increasing trend of ozone in 69-87°N was observed. This phenomenon may be ascribed to the role of both vertical transport and chemical processes due to solar radiation.

  7. In-flight Operation of the Dawn Ion Propulsion System Through Year One of Cruise to Ceres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garner, Charles E.; Rayman, Marc D.; Brophy, John R.

    2013-01-01

    The Dawn mission, part of NASA's Discovery Program, has as its goal the scientific exploration of the two most massive main-belt asteroids, 4 Vesta, and the dwarf planet 1 Ceres. The Dawn spacecraft was launched from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on September 27, 2007 on a Delta-II 7925H-9.5 rocket that placed the 1218-kg spacecraft into an Earth-escape trajectory. On-board the spacecraft is an ion propulsion system (IPS) developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory which will provide an additional delta- V of approximately 11 km/s for the heliocentric transfers to each body and for all orbit transfers including orbit capture/escape and transition to the various science orbits. Deterministic thrusting to Vesta began in December 2007 and concluded with orbit capture at Vesta in July 2011. The transfer to Vesta included a Mars gravity assist flyby in February 2009 that provided an additional delta-V of 2.6 km/s and was the only postlaunch mission delta-V not provided by IPS. During the mission at Vesta the IPS was used for all orbit transfers which included six different near-polar science mapping orbits. Thrusting for departure from Vesta and the start of cruise to Ceres began on July 25, 2012 with escape from Vesta occurring on September 5, 2012. To date the IPS has been operated for approximately 31,000 hours, consumed approximately 300 kg of xenon, and provided a delta-V of approximately 8.3 km/s. IPS performance characteristics are very close to the expected performance based on analysis and testing performed prelaunch. Thrusting for cruise to Ceres will continue until the spring of 2015, with a planned arrival date at Ceres in April 2015. This paper provides an overview of Dawn's mission objectives and the results of Dawn IPS mission operations from Vesta departure through the first year of cruise to Ceres.

  8. Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Hesperides Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Millero, F.J.

    2000-06-09

    This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}), total alkalinity (TALK), and pH at hydrographic stations during the R/V Hesperides oceanographic cruise in the Atlantic Ocean (Section A5). Conducted as part of the Work Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the cruise began in Cadiz, Spain, on July 14, 1992, and ended in Miami, Florida, on August 15, 1992. Measurements made along WOCE Section A5 included CTD pressure, temperature, salinity, and oxygen; and bottle salinity, oxygen, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, silicate, TCO{sub 2}, TALK, and pH. The TALK, TCO{sub 2}, and pH were determined from titrations of seawater collected at 33 stations. The titration systems for measuring TALK and TCO{sub 2} were calibrated in the laboratory with certified reference materials (CRMs) before the cruise to ensure traceable results. Standard reference seawater provided by Andrew Dickson of Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) was used at sea to monitor the performance of the titration systems. The results agree with the laboratory results to {+-} 2 {micro}mol/kg for TALK and {+-} 1 {micro}mol/kg for TCO{sub 2}. The titration systems used to measure pH were calibrated with TRIS seawater buffers prepared in the laboratory and measured with an H{sub 2}, Pt/AgCl, Ag electrode. The initial electromotive force (emf) of the titrations was used to determine the pH. The values of pH are thought to be reliable to {+-} 0.01 and are internally consistent with the measured values of TALK and TCO{sub 2} to {+-} 7 {micro}mol/kg. The measured carbon dioxide system parameters have been used to calculate the in situ values of the fugacity of CO{sub 2} (fCO{sub 2}) for the surface water. The surface results are briefly discussed.

  9. Legionella species colonization of water distribution systems, pools and air conditioning systems in cruise ships and ferries

    PubMed Central

    Goutziana, Georgia; Mouchtouri, Varvara A; Karanika, Maria; Kavagias, Antonios; Stathakis, Nikolaos E; Gourgoulianis, Kostantinos; Kremastinou, Jenny; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2008-01-01

    Background Legionnaires' disease continues to be a public health concern in passenger ships. This study was scheduled in order to investigate Legionella spp. colonization of water distribution systems (WDS), recreational pools, and air-conditioning systems on board ferries and cruise ships in an attempt to identify risk factors for Legionella spp. colonization associated with ship water systems and water characteristics. Methods Water systems of 21 ferries and 10 cruise ships including WDS, air conditioning systems and pools were investigated for the presence of Legionella spp. Results The 133 samples collected from the 10 cruise ships WDS, air conditioning systems and pools were negative for Legionella spp. Of the 21 ferries WDS examined, 14 (66.7%) were legionellae-positive. A total of 276 samples were collected from WDS and air conditioning systems. Legionella spp. was isolated from 37.8% of the hot water samples and 17.5% of the cold water samples. Of the total 96 positive isolates, 87 (90.6%) were L. pneumophila. Legionella spp. colonization was positively associated with ship age. The temperature of the hot water samples was negatively associated with colonization of L. pneumophila serogroup (sg) 1 and that of L. pneumophila sg 2 to 14. Increases in pH ≥7.8 and total plate count ≥400 CFU/L, correlated positively with the counts of L. pneumophila sg 2 to 14 and Legionella spp. respectively. Free chlorine of ≥0.2 mg/L inhibited colonization of Legionella spp. Conclusion WDS of ferries can be heavily colonized by Legionella spp. and may present a risk of Legionnaires' disease for passengers and crew members. Guidelines and advising of Legionnaires' disease prevention regarding ferries are needed, in particular for operators and crew members. PMID:19025638

  10. Effect of fuel properties on performance of single aircraft turbojet combustor at simulated idle, cruise, and takeoff conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butze, H. F.; Smith, A. L.

    1977-01-01

    The performance of a single-can JT8D combustor was investigated with a number of fuels exhibiting wide variations in chemical composition and volatility. Performance parameters investigated were combustion efficiency, emissions of CO, unburned hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides, as well as liner temperatures and smoke. The most pronounced effects of changes in fuel composition were observed at simulated cruise and takeoff conditions where smoke and liner temperatures increased significantly as the hydrogen content of the fuel decreased. At the simulated idle condition, emissions of CO and unburned hydrocarbons increased slightly and, accordingly, combustion efficiencies decreased slightly as the hydrogen content of the fuels decreased.

  11. Design definition study of a lift/cruise fan technology V/STOL aircraft. Volume 1: Navy operational aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Aircraft were designed and sized to meet Navy mission requirements. Five missions were established for evaluation: anti-submarine warfare (ASW), surface attack (SA), combat search and rescue (CSAR), surveillance (SURV), and vertical on-board delivery (VOD). All missions were performed with a short takeoff and a vertical landing. The aircraft were defined using existing J97-GE gas generators or reasonable growth derivatives in conjunction with turbotip fans reflecting LF460 type technology. The multipurpose aircraft configuration established for U.S. Navy missions utilizes the turbotip driven lift/cruise fan concept for V/STOL aircraft.

  12. A Contingency in the Rosetta Reaction Control System: Alternative Cruise Trajectory Strategies to Cope with Degraded Delta-V Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauske, Rainer; Companys, Vincente

    2007-01-01

    Since August 2006 a pressure transducer of the Rosetta Reaction Control System (RCS) shows anomalous telemetries indicating a possible leak in a pressurant line. The future operation mode of the RCS may be affected by this problem, resulting in performance degradation. The current propellant budget and its future evolution are evaluated to show the possible states w.r.t. the required mission delta-V. Alternative cruise trajectory strategies are analyzed, providing delta-V savings, to compensate for the expected performance loss of the RCS.

  13. Additional F-Functions Useful for Preliminary Design of Shaped-Signature, Low-Boom, Supersonic-Cruise Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mack, Robert J.

    1999-01-01

    Two additional low-boom F-functions have been described for use in designing low-boom, shaped-pressure-signature, supersonic-cruise aircraft. Based on the minimization studies of Seebass and George, the drag-nose shock strength trade-off modification of Darden, and the practical modification of Haglund, their use can aid in the design of conceptual low-boom aircraft, provide additional flexibility in the shaping of the low-boom aircraft nose section, and extend the applicability of shaped-pressure-signature methodology.

  14. Checklist of recent brachiopod species collected during the Terrasses and Exbodi cruises in the New Caledonian region, SW Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Bitner, Maria Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Twenty species belonging to 16 genera, i.e. Neoancistrocrania, Novocrania, Basiliola, Basiliolella, Ebiscothyris, Stenosarina, Kanakythyris, Xenobrochus, Terebratulina, Eucalathis, Fallax, Frenulina, Septicollarina, Campages, Annuloplatidia, and Thecidellina have been identified in the material collected during the Terrasses and Exbodi cruises in the New Caledonian region, SW Pacific. The species Basiliolella grayi (Woodward, 1855) and Fallax neocaledonensis Laurin, 1997 are the most common in the studied collection, while Eucalathis murrayi (Davidson, 1878) is reported for the first time from the New Caledonian region. PMID:26798235

  15. Air Force F-16 Aircraft Engine Aerosol Emissions Under Cruise Altitude Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Bruce E.; Cofer, W. Randy, III; McDougal, David S.

    1999-01-01

    Selected results from the June 1997 Third Subsonic Assessment Near-Field Interactions Flight (SNIF-III) Experiment are documented. The primary objectives of the SNIF-III experiment were to determine the partitioning and abundance of sulfur species and to examine the formation and growth of aerosol particles in the exhaust of F-16 aircraft as a function of atmospheric and aircraft operating conditions and fuel sulfur concentration. This information is, in turn, being used to address questions regarding the fate of aircraft fuel sulfur impurities and to evaluate the potential of their oxidation products to perturb aerosol concentrations and surface areas in the upper troposphere. SNIF-III included participation of the Vermont and New Jersey Air National Guard F-16's as source aircraft and the Wallops Flight Facility T-39 Sabreliner as the sampling platform. F-16's were chosen as a source aircraft because they are powered by the modern F-100 Series 220 engine which is projected to be representative of future commercial aircraft engine technology. The T-39 instrument suite included sensors for measuring volatile and non-volatile condensation nuclei (CN), aerosol size distributions over the range from 0.1 to 3.0 (micro)m, 3-D winds, temperature, dewpoint, carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), sulfuric acid (H2SO4), and nitric acid (HNO3).

  16. Optical properties of the Eu(III)-La(III)-complex-doped polyolefine film and rod samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogreb, Roman; Popov, Oleg; Lirtsman, Vlad; Pyshkin, Oleg; Kazachkov, Alexander; Musin, Albina; Finkelshtein, Binyamin; Shmukler, Yuri; Davidov, Dan; Bormashenko, Edward

    2005-04-01

    The work is devoted to luminescent properties of trivalent lanthanide complexes dispersed in thermoplastic host matrices. Polyethylene-based film and polypropylene-based rod both doped with these complexes were manufactured using an extrusion technique. Two kinds of dopants were used: Eu(III)-thenoyltrifluoroacetone-1,10-phenanthroline complex (Eu(III)) and Eu(III)-La(III)-1,10-phenanthroline complex (Eu(III)-La(III)). Comparison was made between these samples regarding absorption, excitation, emission and a lifetime of luminescence. Dependence of emission intensity on the excitation energy was determined. Emission spectra of the films were studied at room and helium temperatures. Optical properties of Eu(III) samples are different from Eu(III)-La(III) samples. Significant difference in spectra of these two types of samples may be attributed to the La(III) action.

  17. Development of demographic norms for four new WAIS-III/WMS-III indexes.

    PubMed

    Lange, Rael T; Chelune, Gordon J; Taylor, Michael J; Woodward, Todd S; Heaton, Robert K

    2006-06-01

    Following the publication of the third edition Wechsler scales (i.e., WAIS-III and WMS-III), demographically corrected norms were made available in the form of a computerized scoring program (i.e., WAIS-III/WMS-III/WIAT-II Scoring Assistant). These norms correct for age, gender, ethnicity, and education. Since then, four new indexes have been developed: the WAIS-III General Ability Index, the WMS-III Delayed Memory Index, and the two alternate Immediate and Delayed Memory Indexes. The purpose of this study was to develop demographically corrected norms for the four new indexes using the standardization sample and education oversample from the WAIS-III and WMS-III. These norms were developed using the same methodology as the demographically corrected norms made available in the WAIS-III/WMS-III/WIAT-II Scoring Assistant.

  18. Development of demographic norms for four new WAIS-III/WMS-III indexes.

    PubMed

    Lange, Rael T; Chelune, Gordon J; Taylor, Michael J; Woodward, Todd S; Heaton, Robert K

    2006-06-01

    Following the publication of the third edition Wechsler scales (i.e., WAIS-III and WMS-III), demographically corrected norms were made available in the form of a computerized scoring program (i.e., WAIS-III/WMS-III/WIAT-II Scoring Assistant). These norms correct for age, gender, ethnicity, and education. Since then, four new indexes have been developed: the WAIS-III General Ability Index, the WMS-III Delayed Memory Index, and the two alternate Immediate and Delayed Memory Indexes. The purpose of this study was to develop demographically corrected norms for the four new indexes using the standardization sample and education oversample from the WAIS-III and WMS-III. These norms were developed using the same methodology as the demographically corrected norms made available in the WAIS-III/WMS-III/WIAT-II Scoring Assistant. PMID:16768593

  19. The effects on cruise drag of installing long-duct refan-engine nacelles on the McDonnell Douglas DC-8-50 and -61

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callaghan, J. T.; Donelson, J. E.; Morelli, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    A high-speed wind tunnel test was conducted to determine the effect on cruise performance of installing long-duct refan-engine nacelles on the DC-8-50 and -61 models. Drag data and wing/pylon/nacelle channel pressure data are presented. At a typical cruise condition there exists a very small interference drag penalty of less than one-percent of total cruise data for the Refan installation. Pressure data indicate that some supersonic flow is present in the inboard channel of the inboard refan nacelle installation, but it is not sufficient to cause any wave drag on boundary layer separation. One pylon modification, which takes the form of pylon bumps, was tested. It resulted in a drag penalty, because its design goal of eliminating shock-related interference drag was not required and the bump thus became a source of additional parasite drag.

  20. Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Maurice Ewing Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A17, 4 January - 21 March 1994)

    SciTech Connect

    Kozyr, Alex

    2005-06-30

    This documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO2), total alkalinity (TALK), and pH at hydrographic stations during the R/V Maurice Ewing cruise in the South Atlantic Ocean on the A17 WOCE section. Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), this cruise was also a part of the French WOCE program consisting of three expeditions (CITHER 1, 2, and 3) focused on the South Atlantic Ocean. The A17 section was occupied during the CITHER 2 expedition, which began in Montevideo, Uruguay, on January 4, 1994 and finished in Cayenne, French Guyana, on March 21, 1994. During this period the ship stopped in Salvador de Bahia and Recife, Brazil, to take on supplies and exchange personnel. Upon completion of the cruise the ship transited to Fort de France, Martinique. Instructions for accessing the data are provided.

  1. Wind tunnel and ground static tests of a .094 scale powered model of a modified T-39 lift/cruise fan V/STOL research airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, D.; Clinglan, J.; Salemann, V.; Omar, E.

    1977-01-01

    Ground static and wind tunnel test of a scale model modified T-39 airplane are reported. The configuration in the nose and replacement of the existing nacelles with tilting lift/cruise fans. The model was powered with three 14 cm diameter tip driven turbopowered simulators. Forces and moments were measured by an internal strain guage balance. Engine simulator thrust and mass flow were measured by calibrated pressure and temperature instrumentation mounted downstream of the fans. The low speed handling qualities and general aerodynamic characteristics of the modified T-39 were defined. Test variables include thrust level and thrust balance, forward speed, model pitch and sideslip angle at forward speeds, model pitch, roll, and ground height during static tests, lift/cruise fan tilt angle, flap and aileron deflection angle, and horizonal stabilizer angle. The effects of removing the landing gear, the lift/cruise fans, and the tail surfaces were also investigated.

  2. A three-year follow-up on injuries sustained by cruise ship passengers and crew treated at the Orthopaedic and Traumatology Department at Dubrovnik County Hospital.

    PubMed

    Bekic, Marijo; Mikolaucic, Michele; Golubovic, Marko; Kojic, Niksa; Lenz, Rikard; Lojpur, Jakisa; Bekic, Marijana

    2015-11-01

    Dubrovnik is one of the most popular destinations in the world for cruise ships. Several cruise ship passengers and crew members who have suffered different injuries have been treated at our department. This was a retrospective study to analyse injuries that occurred to crew members and passengers on cruise ships that docked in Dubrovnik over a three-year period from December 2010 to December 2013. During this period, a total of 370 patients suffered trauma that needed medical treatment. A total of 119 of these patients required hospitalisation and received medical help based on the nature of the trauma they suffered. The remaining 251 patients were treated at our outpatient clinic. Female patients in this study were exposed to osteoporotic trauma. Male patients presented mostly with injuries sustained during physical activities or because of the nature of their job on board. The leading cause of trauma accidents in the present study was falls on the same level.

  3. Structural and photophysical studies on ternary Sm(III), Nd(III), Yb(III), Er(III) complexes containing pyridyltriazole ligands

    PubMed Central

    Gusev, Alexey N.; Shul’gin, Victor F.; Meshkova, Svetlana B.; Hasegawa, Miki; Alexandrov, Grigory G.; Eremenko, Igor L.; Linert, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Two bidentate pyridine-triazole ligands (3-(pyridine-2-yl)-5-phenyl-1,2,4-triazole (L1) and 5-phenyl-2-(2′-pyridyl)-7,8-benzo-6,5-dihydro-1,3,6-triazaindolizine (L2)), have been synthesized and used for Ln(Dbm)3 (Ln = Sm(III), Nd(III), Yb(III) and Er(III)) coordination. The structures of the ligands and resulting Sm(III) complex were determined in the solid state by X-ray diffraction. The title complexes were characterized by UV, fluorescent, IR-spectroscopy and thermogravimetric and elemental analyses. Photophysical studies on the Ln(III) complexes were carried out showing luminescence in the region typical for Ln(III). The effect of various factors on the enhancement luminescence of complexes is discussed. PMID:23470984

  4. Implementing Title III -- Air toxics

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, B.W.

    1995-12-31

    The South Coast Air Quality Management District (AQMD) is taking three basic approaches to implementing the new National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) from the Title III program: accept and implement, as written, the NESHAPs where few sources are located in the South Coast Air Basin; incorporate with simplification of the NESHAP requirements into AQMD rules when many sources are involved; then seek equivalency by the US EPA; and incorporate with a market-based rule (VOC RECLAIM), part of many NESHAPs which control volatile organic compound as HAPs. Whatever the approach, emphasis will be placed on: streamlining and simplification; helping sources understand requirements and comply; and common sense.

  5. The Mark III vertex chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, J.; Bolton, T.; Bunnell, K.; Cassell, R.; Cheu, E.; Freese, T.; Grab, C.; Mazaheri, G.; Mir, R.; Odian, A.

    1987-07-01

    The design and construction of the new Mark III vertex chamber is described. Initial tests with cosmic rays prove the ability of track reconstruction and yield triplet resolutions below 50 ..mu..m at 3 atm using argon/ethane (50:50). Also performed are studies using a prototype of a pressurized wire vertex chamber with 8 mm diameter straw geometry. Spatial resolution of 35mm was obtained using dimethyl ether (DME) at 1 atm and 30 ..mu..m using argon/ethane (50/50 mixture) at 4 atm. Preliminary studies indicate the DME to adversely affect such materials as aluminized Mylar and Delrin.

  6. Volatile organic compound production and consumption by microbial plankton communities on the NOAA WACS cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannoni, S. J.; Halsey, K.; Thrash, J. C.; De Gouw, J. A.; Graus, M.

    2013-12-01

    Information about biological sources and sinks of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the ocean surface could result in a better understanding of the underlying causes of variation in air/sea VOC fluxes, and potentially could alter predictions about the impact of climate change on ocean surface ecology and air/sea interactions. The goal of this work was to measure rates of biological production, oxidation and assimilation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by microbial plankton communities along the WACS cruise transect from Boston to Bermuda in August 2013. Tangential flow filtration was used to concentrate microbial plankton communities for incubation in environmentally controlled dynamic stripping chambers under simulated ocean surface layer conditions. Gas streams exiting the chambers were monitored in real time with proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). In separate experiments aliquots of plankton suspensions were incubated with 14C-methanol, 14C-TMAO, and 14C-pyruvate, and the assimilation of 14C into biomass and the production of 14C-CO2 were measured. Results showed that the highly productive George's Bank plankton community has a high capacity for methanol and trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) oxidation. Biomass was estimated by counting cells. The rate of incorporation of methanol-carbon into biomass was only 21% of the rate of methanol oxidation to CO2. Similar results were observed for TMAO. These experiments also allowed estimates of kinetic constants for both compounds. The half-saturation constants (Ks) for methanol oxidation were similar in natural populations collected at George's Bank and the Sargasso Sea (12.8 and 9.9 μM, respectively). Interestingly, the Ks values for TMAO oxidation were an order of magnitude lower than for methanol in plankton communities sampled from both sites (0.5 and 0.3 μM, respectively). These results provide additional evidence that microbial plankton have a high capacity for oxidation of these low

  7. Prevalence study of Legionella spp. contamination in ferries and cruise ships

    PubMed Central

    Azara, Antonio; Piana, Andrea; Sotgiu, Giovanni; Dettori, Marco; Deriu, Maria Grazia; Masia, Maria Dolores; Are, Bianca Maria; Muresu, Elena

    2006-01-01

    Background In the last years, international traffic volume has significantly increased, raising the risk for acquisition of infectious diseases. Among travel-associated infections, increased incidence of legionellosis has been reported among travellers. Aim of our study was: to describe the frequency and severity of Legionella spp. contamination in ferries and cruise ships; to compare the levels of contamination with those indicated by the Italian ministerial guidelines for control and prevention of legionellosis, in order to assess health risks and to adopt control measures. Method A prevalence study was carried out on 9 ships docked at the seaports of northern Sardinia in 2004. Water samples were collected from critical sites: passenger cabins, crew cabins, kitchens, coffee bars, rooms of the central air conditioning system. It was performed a qualitative and quantitative identification of Legionella spp. and a chemical, physical and bacteriological analysis of water samples. Results Forty-two percent (38/90) water samples were contaminated by Legionella spp.. Positive samples were mainly drawn from showers (24/44), washbasins (10/22). L. pneumophila was isolated in 42/44 samples (95.5%), followed by L. micdadei (4.5%). Strains were identified as L. pneumophila serogroup 6 (45.2%; 19 samples), 2–14 (42.9%), 5 (7.1%) and 3 (4.8%). Legionella spp. load was high; 77.8% of the water samples contained > 104 CFU/L. Low residual free chlorine concentration (0–0,2 mg/L) was associated to a contamination of the 50% of the water samples. Conclusion Legionella is an ubiquitous bacterium that could create problems for public health. We identified Legionella spp. in 6/7 ferries. Microbial load was predominantly high (> 104 CFU/L or ranging from 103 to 104 CFU/L). It is matter of concern when passengers are subjects at risk because of Legionella spp. is an opportunist that can survive in freshwater systems; high bacterial load might be an important variable related to

  8. Elastically Shaped Wing Optimization and Aircraft Concept for Improved Cruise Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan; Trinh, Khanh; Reynolds, Kevin; Kless, James; Aftosmis, Michael; Urnes, James, Sr.; Ippolito, Corey

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a study conducted tn 2010 by the NASA Innovation Fund Award project entitled "Elastically Shaped Future Air Vehicle Concept". The study presents three themes in support of meeting national and global aviation challenges of reducing fuel burn for present and future aviation systems. The first theme addresses the drag reduction goal through innovative vehicle configurations via non-planar wing optimization. Two wing candidate concepts have been identified from the wing optimization: a drooped wing shape and an inflected wing shape. The drooped wing shape is a truly biologically inspired wing concept that mimics a seagull wing and could achieve about 5% to 6% drag reduction, which is aerodynamically significant. From a practical perspective, this concept would require new radical changes to the current aircraft development capabilities for new vehicles with futuristic-looking wings such as this concept. The inflected wing concepts could achieve between 3% to 4% drag reduction. While the drag reduction benefit may be less, the inflected-wing concept could have a near-term impact since this concept could be developed within the current aircraft development capabilities. The second theme addresses the drag reduction goal through a new concept of elastic wing shaping control. By aeroelastically tailoring the wing shape with active control to maintain optimal aerodynamics, a significant drag reduction benefit could be realized. A significant reduction in fuel burn for long-range cruise from elastic wing shaping control could be realized. To realize the potential of the elastic wing shaping control concept, the third theme emerges that addresses the drag reduction goal through a new aerodynamic control effector called a variable camber continuous trailing edge flap. Conventional aerodynamic control surfaces are discrete independent surfaces that cause geometric discontinuities at the trailing edge region. These discontinuities promote

  9. Flight Test Results: CTAS Cruise/Descent Trajectory Prediction Accuracy for En route ATC Advisories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, S.; Grace, M.; Williams, D.

    1999-01-01

    The Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS), under development at NASA Ames Research Center, is designed to assist controllers with the management and control of air traffic transitioning to/from congested airspace. This paper focuses on the transition from the en route environment, to high-density terminal airspace, under a time-based arrival-metering constraint. Two flight tests were conducted at the Denver Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC) to study trajectory-prediction accuracy, the key to accurate Decision Support Tool advisories such as conflict detection/resolution and fuel-efficient metering conformance. In collaboration with NASA Langley Research Center, these test were part of an overall effort to research systems and procedures for the integration of CTAS and flight management systems (FMS). The Langley Transport Systems Research Vehicle Boeing 737 airplane flew a combined total of 58 cruise-arrival trajectory runs while following CTAS clearance advisories. Actual trajectories of the airplane were compared to CTAS and FMS predictions to measure trajectory-prediction accuracy and identify the primary sources of error for both. The research airplane was used to evaluate several levels of cockpit automation ranging from conventional avionics to a performance-based vertical navigation (VNAV) FMS. Trajectory prediction accuracy was analyzed with respect to both ARTCC radar tracking and GPS-based aircraft measurements. This paper presents detailed results describing the trajectory accuracy and error sources. Although differences were found in both accuracy and error sources, CTAS accuracy was comparable to the FMS in terms of both meter-fix arrival-time performance (in support of metering) and 4D-trajectory prediction (key to conflict prediction). Overall arrival time errors (mean plus standard deviation) were measured to be approximately 24 seconds during the first flight test (23 runs) and 15 seconds during the second flight test (25 runs). The major

  10. Molecular Characterization of Marine Organic Aerosols Collected during a Round-the-World Cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, P.; Kawamura, K.; Miura, K.

    2010-12-01

    Total suspended particles (TSP) were collected on board the R/V Hakuho Maru during a round-the-world cruise (KH89-2) and were characterized for organic molecular compositions using solvent extraction/derivatization and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry technique. More than 140 organic species were detected in the marine aerosols and were grouped into 11 organic compound classes, including aliphatic lipids, anhydrosugars and sugar alcohols, lignin/resin acids, sterols, hopanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, hydroxy-/polyacids, aromatic acids, as well as secondary organic aerosol (SOA) tracers from the photooxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds. Concentrations of total quantified organics ranged from 0.94 to 98 ng m-3 (average 31 ng m-3) with higher concentrations in coastal regions (California Coast, South China Sea, and Western North Pacific) than in open marine areas (North Pacific and North Atlantic), suggesting that long-range atmospheric transport from the continents is the main source of marine organic aerosols. Isoprene SOA tracers, i.e., 2-methylglyceric acid, C5-alkene triols and 2-methyltetrols, were detected in all the samples (0.11-22 ng m-3, average 3.6 ng m-3) with higher concentrations in the tropical regions. They accounted for 0.48-29% of the total identified organics. Organic compounds were further categorized into several groups to clarify their sources. In the North Pacific and North Atlantic, secondary oxidation products (30-31%), fossil fuel combustion products (27-28%), as well as marine natural emissions (22-34%) were found as major contributors to the marine aerosols. In California Coast, North Indian Ocean and South China Sea, secondary oxidation products can contribute 44-55% of the total identified organics, followed by terrestrial natural emissions (12-27%), while biomass burning emissions were found to contribute only 1-2%. However, in the western North Pacific near the Asian continent, fossil fuel combustion (27%) and

  11. Seismic Evidence for Neogene and Active Shortening Offshore Lebanon (SHALIMAR Cruise)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carton, H.; Singh, S. C.; Tapponnier, P.; Elias, A.; Briais, A.; Sursock, A.; Jomaa, R.; King, G. C.; Daeron, M.; Jacques, E.; Barrier, L.

    2007-12-01

    Lebanon is located on a 160 km long transpressional bend of the left-lateral Levant (Dead Sea) Fault. The main objective of the SHALIMAR (2003) marine survey was to characterize and map active deformation offshore Lebanon using a range of geophysical techniques, particularly seismic reflection profiling. The cruise results clearly establish the presence of submarine thrust faults - likely the source of one of the most devastating submarine historical earthquakes that happened along the Levantine shores - and clarify the structure of this part of the Levant margin. A submarine fold-belt, bounded by thrusts and lateral ramps and extending in places to at least 30 km from the shoreline, is interpreted as the foreland thrust system of the actively growing Mount Lebanon range. There is no large fault extending into the Levant Basin towards Cyprus, which indicates that thrusting only absorbs local transpression resulting from the Lebanese restraining bend. Both the Miocene and Plio-Quaternary sedimentary sequences are affected by shortening, with landward-dipping blind thrusts and associated growth strata. The presence of the Messinian evaporites creates complex deformation patterns, including normal faults due both to folding accommodation and gravity spreading, all well imaged in the seismic reflection profiles. Because the evaporite layer acts as a decollement level, deformation extends farther out seawards through a series of thrust imbricates or duplexes. Shortening is strongest between Beyrut and Batroun and decreases towards the south between Saida and Tyre. North of Tripoli, the passive margin is not affected by Neogene deformation, and is well preserved. We propose that, since the Miocene, the northward propagating Levant Fault interacted with margin structures inherited from the Mesozoic rifting phase, and was deviated away from the more rigid oceanic crust flooring the Levant basin, a process which led to the formation of the Lebanese restraining bend, and

  12. Seismic Evidence for Neogene and Active Shortening Offshore Lebanon (SHALIMAR Cruise)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carton, H.; Singh, S. C.; Tapponnier, P.; Elias, A.; Briais, A.; Sursock, A.; Jomaa, R.; King, G. C.; Daeron, M.; Jacques, E.; Barrier, L.

    2004-12-01

    Lebanon is located on a 160 km long transpressional bend of the left-lateral Levant (Dead Sea) Fault. The main objective of the SHALIMAR (2003) marine survey was to characterize and map active deformation offshore Lebanon using a range of geophysical techniques, particularly seismic reflection profiling. The cruise results clearly establish the presence of submarine thrust faults - likely the source of one of the most devastating submarine historical earthquakes that happened along the Levantine shores - and clarify the structure of this part of the Levant margin. A submarine fold-belt, bounded by thrusts and lateral ramps and extending in places to at least 30 km from the shoreline, is interpreted as the foreland thrust system of the actively growing Mount Lebanon range. There is no large fault extending into the Levant Basin towards Cyprus, which indicates that thrusting only absorbs local transpression resulting from the Lebanese restraining bend. Both the Miocene and Plio-Quaternary sedimentary sequences are affected by shortening, with landward-dipping blind thrusts and associated growth strata. The presence of the Messinian evaporites creates complex deformation patterns, including normal faults due both to folding accommodation and gravity spreading, all well imaged in the seismic reflection profiles. Because the evaporite layer acts as a decollement level, deformation extends farther out seawards through a series of thrust imbricates or duplexes. Shortening is strongest between Beyrut and Batroun and decreases towards the south between Saida and Tyre. North of Tripoli, the passive margin is not affected by Neogene deformation, and is well preserved. We propose that, since the Miocene, the northward propagating Levant Fault interacted with margin structures inherited from the Mesozoic rifting phase, and was deviated away from the more rigid oceanic crust flooring the Levant basin, a process which led to the formation of the Lebanese restraining bend, and

  13. Seismic evidence for Neogene and active shortening offshore of Lebanon (Shalimar cruise)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carton, H.; Singh, S. C.; Tapponnier, P.; Elias, A.; Briais, A.; Sursock, A.; Jomaa, R.; King, G. C. P.; DaëRon, M.; Jacques, E.; Barrier, L.

    2009-07-01

    Lebanon, located on a 160-km-long transpressional bend of the left-lateral Levant (Dead Sea) fault system (LFS), has been the site of infrequent but large earthquakes, including one submarine, tsunamigenic event. The main objective of the Shalimar marine survey was to characterize and map active deformation offshore of Lebanon using a range of geophysical techniques, particularly seismic reflection profiling. The cruise results clearly establish the presence of young submarine thrust faults and folds and clarify the structure of this part of the Levant margin. A submarine fold belt, bounded by thrusts and lateral ramps and extending up to 30 km from the shoreline, is interpreted as the foreland thrust system of the actively growing Mount Lebanon range. There is no large fault extending into the Levant basin toward Cyprus, which indicates that thrusting only absorbs local transpression resulting from the Lebanese restraining bend. Both the Miocene and Plio-Quaternary sedimentary sequences are affected by shortening, with landward dipping blind thrusts and associated growth strata. The presence of the Messinian evaporites creates complex deformation patterns, including normal faults due both to folding accommodation and to gravity spreading, all well imaged in the seismic reflection profiles. Because the evaporite layer acts as a décollement level, shortening extends farther out seaward through a series of thrust imbricates or duplexes. The strongest shortening, observed between Beirut and Batroun, decreases toward the south between Saida and Tyre. North of Tripoli, the passive margin is not affected by Neogene deformation and is well preserved. We propose that since the Miocene, the northward propagating LFS interacted with margin structures inherited from the Mesozoic rifting phase and was deviated along the more rigid oceanic crust flooring the Levant basin, a process which led to the formation of the Lebanese restraining bend of the LFS and consequently to the

  14. Morphotectonics of Hess Deep: Preliminary Results of RRS James Cook Cruise JC21

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLeod, C. J.; Teagle, D. A.; Gillis, K. M.; Shillington, D. J.; Scientific Party, R. J.

    2008-12-01

    Hess Deep (2° 15'N, 101° 30'W), a rifted depression formed by the westward propagation of the Cocos-Nazca plate boundary towards the East Pacific Rise, provides unique exposures of the deeper levels of ocean crust formed at a fast spreading mid-ocean ridge. In January-February 2008, during RRS James Cook cruise JC21, we conducted a site survey of Hess Deep in support of proposed Integrated Ocean Drilling Program operations there. Using the Isis remotely-operated vehicle we acquired microbathymetry and collected 145 samples from an 11 sq km area from the nadir of the Deep (5400m water depth) up and onto the intra-rift ridge (3000m), a horst block within the broader rift valley that had previously been drilled at ODP Sites 894 and 895. From previous investigations it was considered that a continuous section through the lower crust down to the Moho transition zone existed in this region, tilted northwards as a result of extension during opening of the rift. Detachment faulting, perhaps assisted by serpentinite diapirism, had been invoked to explain uplift of the intra-rift ridge (Francheteau et al., 1990; MacLeod et al., 1996). However, our detailed mapping and sampling indicates a significantly more complex distribution of rock types across Hess Deep than previously supposed, and that a re-examination of the existing models for the structure and tectonic evolution of the rift is required. We here present our new geological constraints and propose a revised model for the opening of Hess Deep and uplift of the intra-rift ridge, emphasising the role of previously unsuspected neotectonics in controlling the structure of the rift valley. Francheteau, J. et al., 1990. 1 Ma East Pacific Rise oceanic crust and uppermost mantle exposed by rifting in Hess Deep (equatorial Pacific Ocean). EPSL 101, 281-295. MacLeod, C.J. et al., 1996. Tectonics of Hess Deep: A synthesis of drilling results from Leg 147. Proc. ODP, Sci. Res. 147, College Station TX, 461-475.

  15. A preliminary assessment of the impact of 2-D exhaust-nozzle geometry on the cruise range of a hypersonic aircraft with top-mounted ramjet propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vahl, W. A.; Weidner, J. P.

    1980-01-01

    A theoretical study of full length and shortened, two dimensional, isentropic, exhaust nozzles integrated with top mounted ramjet propulsion nacelles were conducted. Both symmetric and asymmetric contoured nozzles with a range of angular orientations were considered. Performance comparisons to determine optimum installations for a representative hypersonic vehicle at Mach 5 cruise conditions are presented on the basis of cruise range, propulsive specific impulse, inlet area requirements, and overall lift drag ratio. The effect of approximating the nozzle internal contours with planar surfaces and the determination of viscous and frozen flow effects are also presented.

  16. EU legislation on food and potable water safety which could be potentially applied on board ferries and cruise ships: a comparison with US legislation.

    PubMed

    Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Tserkezou, Persefoni; Mouchtouri, Varvara; Kremastinou, Jenny; Nichols, Gordon

    2010-06-01

    The high number of people moving around by ferries and cruise ships in conjunction with great amounts of food and potable water transported (occasionally overloaded) and consumed by passengers constitute a possible risk for communicable diseases. Another issue of equally great importance is the food handlers who come from diverse origin and have a different mentality, habits, and background. In this paper an attempt is made to present comparatively EU and US legislation that could be potentially applicable to passenger ships food premises and potable water supplies. Moreover, food and water related hazards, not currently covered by EU legislation, were assessed together with US legislation and other guidelines for cruise ships.

  17. Model aerodynamic test results for two variable cycle engine coannular exhaust systems at simulated takeoff and cruise conditions. Comprehensive data report. Volume 3: Graphical data book 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, D. P.

    1981-01-01

    A graphical presentation of the aerodynamic data acquired during coannular nozzle performance wind tunnel tests is given. The graphical data consist of plots of nozzle gross thrust coefficient, fan nozzle discharge coefficient, and primary nozzle discharge coefficient. Normalized model component static pressure distributions are presented as a function of primary total pressure, fan total pressure, and ambient static pressure for selected operating conditions. In addition, the supersonic cruise configuration data include plots of nozzle efficiency and secondary-to-fan total pressure pumping characteristics. Supersonic and subsonic cruise data are given.

  18. Atmosphere-ocean ozone fluxes during the TexAQS 2006, STRATUS 2006, GOMECC 2007, GasEx 2008, and AMMA 2008 cruises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmig, D.; Lang, E. K.; Bariteau, L.; Boylan, P.; Fairall, C. W.; Ganzeveld, L.; Hare, J. E.; Hueber, J.; Pallandt, M.

    2012-02-01

    A ship-based eddy covariance ozone flux system was deployed to investigate the magnitude and variability of ozone surface fluxes over the open ocean. The flux experiments were conducted on five cruises on board the NOAA research vesselRonald Brownduring 2006-2008. The cruises covered the Gulf of Mexico, the southern as well as northern Atlantic, the Southern Ocean, and the persistent stratus cloud region off Chile in the eastern Pacific Ocean. These experiments resulted in the first ship-borne open-ocean ozone flux measurement records. The median of 10 min oceanic ozone deposition velocity (vd) results from a combined ˜ 1700 h of observations ranged from 0.009 to 0.034 cm s-1. For the Gulf of Mexico cruise (Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS)) the median vd (interquartile range) was 0.034 (0.009-0.065) cm s-1 (total number of 10 min measurement intervals, Nf = 1953). For the STRATUS cruise off the Chilean coast, the median vd was 0.009 (0.004-0.037) cm s-1 (Nf = 1336). For the cruise from the Gulf of Mexico and up the eastern U.S. coast (Gulf of Mexico and East Coast Carbon cruise (GOMECC)) a combined value of 0.018 (0.006-0.045) cm s-1 (Nf = 1784) was obtained (from 0.019 (-0.014-0.043) cm s-1, Nf = 663 in the Gulf of Mexico, and 0.018 (-0.004-0.045) cm s-1, Nf = 1121 in the North Atlantic region). The Southern Ocean Gas Exchange Experiment (GasEx) and African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA), the Southern Ocean and northeastern Atlantic cruises, respectively, resulted in median ozone vd of 0.009 (-0.005-0.026) cm s-1 (Nf = 2745) and 0.020 (-0.003-0.044) cms-1 (Nf = 1147). These directly measured ozone deposition values are at the lower end of previously reported data in the literature (0.01-0.12 cm s-1) for ocean water. Data illustrate a positive correlation (increase) of the oceanic ozone uptake rate with wind speed, albeit the behavior of the relationship appears to differ during these cruises. The encountered wide range of meteorological and ocean

  19. Seafloor video footage and still-frame grabs from U.S. Geological Survey cruises in Hawaiian nearshore waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, Ann E.; Cochran, Susan A.; Tierney, Peter W.

    2013-01-01

    Underwater video footage was collected in nearshore waters (<60-meter depth) off the Hawaiian Islands from 2002 to 2011 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program's Pacific Coral Reef Project, to improve seafloor characterization and for the development and ground-truthing of benthic-habitat maps. This report includes nearly 53 hours of digital underwater video footage collected during four USGS cruises and more than 10,200 still images extracted from the videos, including still frames from every 10 seconds along transect lines, and still frames showing both an overview and a near-bottom view from fixed stations. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) shapefiles of individual video and still-image locations, and Google Earth kml files with explanatory text and links to the video and still images, are included. This report documents the various camera systems and methods used to collect the videos, and the techniques and software used to convert the analog video tapes into digital data in order to process the images for optimum viewing and to extract the still images, along with a brief summary of each survey cruise.

  20. Effect of advanced technology and fuel efficient engine on a supersonic-cruise executive jet with a small cabin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beissner, F. L., Jr.; Lovell, W. A.; Robins, A. W.; Swanson, E. E.

    1983-01-01

    An analytical study of a supersonic-cruise, executive, jet aircraft indicated the effects of using advanced technology. The twin-engine, arrow-wing vehicle was configured with a cabin of minimum practical size to hold one pilot, eight passengers, and their baggage. The primary differences between this configuration that of a previous report were the reduction in cabin size and the use of engines that are more fuel-efficient. Both conceptual vehicles are capable of forming the same mission. The current vehicle has a range of 3,350 nautical miles at Mach 2.3 cruise and 2,700 nautical miles at Mach 0.9. The concept description includes configuration definition, aerodynamic and propulsion-system characteristics, and mass properties. Performance analyses are documented for intercontinental and transcontinental flight profiles. In the latter case, a reduction in sonic-boom overpressure from 1.3 to 1.0 pounds per square foot was achieved by varying the flight profile slightly from that for optimum performance.

  1. Improvement of the cruise performances of a wing by means of aerodynamic optimization. Validation with a Far-Field method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Varona, J.; Ponsin Roca, J.

    2015-06-01

    Under a contract with AIRBUS MILITARY (AI-M), an exercise to analyze the potential of optimization techniques to improve the wing performances at cruise conditions has been carried out by using an in-house design code. The original wing was provided by AI-M and several constraints were posed for the redesign. To maximize the aerodynamic efficiency at cruise, optimizations were performed using the design techniques developed internally at INTA under a research program (Programa de Termofluidodinámica). The code is a gradient-based optimizaa tion code, which uses classical finite differences approach for gradient computations. Several techniques for search direction computation are implemented for unconstrained and constrained problems. Techniques for geometry modifications are based on different approaches which include perturbation functions for the thickness and/or mean line distributions and others by Bézier curves fitting of certain degree. It is very e important to afford a real design which involves several constraints that reduce significantly the feasible design space. And the assessment of the code is needed in order to check the capabilities and the possible drawbacks. Lessons learnt will help in the development of future enhancements. In addition, the validation of the results was done using also the well-known TAU flow solver and a far-field drag method in order to determine accurately the improvement in terms of drag counts.

  2. Zinc in +III oxidation state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Devleena; Jena, Puru

    2012-02-01

    The possibility of Group 12 elements, such as Zn, Cd, and Hg existing in an oxidation state of +III or higher has fascinated chemists for decades. Significant efforts have been made in the past to achieve higher oxidation states for the heavier congener mercury (since the 3^rd ionization potential of the elements decrease as we go down the periodic table). It took nearly 20 years before experiment could confirm the theoretical prediction that Hg indeed can exist in an oxidation state of +IV. While this unusual property of Hg is attributed to the relativistic effects, Zn being much lighter than Hg has not been expected to have an oxidation state higher than +II. Using density functional theory we show that an oxidation state of +III for Zn can be realized by choosing specific ligands with large electron affinities i.e. superhalogens. We demonstrate this by a systematic study of the interaction of Zn with F, BO2, and AuF6 ligands whose electron affinities are progressively higher, namely, 3.4 eV, 4.4 eV, and 8.4 eV, respectively. Discovery of higher oxidation states of elements can help in the formulation of new reactions and hence in the development of new chemistry.

  3. Messinian seismic Markers in the Western Tyrrhenian Sea: preliminary results from the "METYSS" Cruise (June 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lofi, Johanna; Gaullier, Virginie; Sage, Françoise; Chanier, Franck; Deverchere, Jacques; Gorini, Christian; Maillard, Agnès.; Pascucci, Vincenzo; Sellier, Nicolas; Thinon, Isabelle

    2010-05-01

    This work has been undertaken in the framework of an integrated study of the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC, Hsu et al., 1973) seismic makers at the scale of the Mediterranean basin. This new approach is based on multi-site comparative studies and on a unified nomenclature for Messinian sedimentary units and surfaces (Lofi et al., accepted). The objectives are to establish the impact of the MSC event on margins and basins that are characterized by various geodynamical, structural and sedimentary settings. In this scientific context, the Tyrrhenian Sea and especially its western part, constitutes a major target because of its geodynamical evolution. This area is a Neogene back-arc basin opened by continental rifting and oceanic spreading related to the eastward migrating Apennine subduction system (Jolivet et al., 2006). Rifting of the Tyrrhenian Sea started first on the Eastern Sardinian margin during the Tortonian-Messinian times, thus including Messinian deposits potentially syn-rift in some places. For these reasons, the western part of the Tyrrhenian basin is a key-area to document relationships between Messinian deposits and tectonic activity. In addition, this geodynamical evolution rises the question of the paleogeography and paleo-connections with the East Corsica basin, that may have worked as an independent lacustrine basin during the MSC, a topic that is questioned (Thinon et al., 2004). The dataset used in this study consists of 15 seismic high-resolution reflection profiles (±1200 km). They have been acquired during the "METYSS" cruise (June 2009) along the Eastern Sardinian and South-Eastern Corsican margins on the R/V "Téthys II" (INSU-CNRS/CIRMED) (Gaullier et al., 2009). These profiles penetrate up to 1 second TWT below the sea-floor, allowing to clearly image the Plio-Quaternary sequence, Messinian Salinity Crisis deposits and erosion surfaces, down to the basement top. Here, we describe the characteristics (seismic facies, geometry

  4. III-Nitride Nanowire Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Jeremy Benjamin

    2014-07-01

    In recent years there has been a tremendous interest in nanoscale optoelectronic devices. Among these devices are semiconductor nanowires whose diameters range from 10-100 nm. To date, nanowires have been grown using many semiconducting material systems and have been utilized as light emitting diodes, photodetectors, and solar cells. Nanowires possess a relatively large index contrast relative to their dielectric environment and can be used as lasers. A key gure of merit that allows for nanowire lasing is the relatively high optical con nement factor. In this work, I discuss the optical characterization of 3 types of III-nitride nanowire laser devices. Two devices were designed to reduce the number of lasing modes to achieve singlemode operation. The third device implements low-group velocity mode lasing with a photonic crystal constructed of an array of nanowires. Single-mode operation is necessary in any application where high beam quality and single frequency operation is required. III-Nitride nanowire lasers typically operate in a combined multi-longitudinal and multi-transverse mode state. Two schemes are introduced here for controlling the optical modes and achieving single-mode op eration. The rst method involves reducing the diameter of individual nanowires to the cut-o condition, where only one optical mode propagates in the wire. The second method employs distributed feedback (DFB) to achieve single-mode lasing by placing individual GaN nanowires onto substrates with etched gratings. The nanowire-grating substrate acted as a distributed feedback mirror producing single mode operation at 370 nm with a mode suppression ratio (MSR) of 17 dB. The usage of lasers for solid state lighting has the potential to further reduce U.S. lighting energy usage through an increase in emitter e ciency. Advances in nanowire fabrication, speci cally a two-step top-down approach, have allowed for the demonstration of a multi-color array of lasers on a single chip that emit

  5. III-nitride nanowire lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Jeremy Benjamin

    In recent years there has been a tremendous interest in nanoscale optoelectronic devices. Among these devices are semiconductor nanowires whose diameters range from 10-100 nm. To date, nanowires have been grown using many semiconducting material systems and have been utilized as light emitting diodes, photodetectors, and solar cells. Nanowires possess a relatively large index contrast relative to their dielectric environment and can be used as lasers. A key figure of merit that allows for nanowire lasing is the relatively high optical confinement factor. In this work, I discuss the optical characterization of 3 types of III-nitride nanowire laser devices. Two devices were designed to reduce the number of lasing modes to achieve single-mode operation. The third device implements low-group velocity mode lasing with a photonic crystal constructed of an array of nanowires. Single-mode operation is necessary in any application where high beam quality and single frequency operation is required. III-Nitride nanowire lasers typically operate in a combined multi-longitudinal and multi-transverse mode state. Two schemes are introduced here for controlling the optical modes and achieving single-mode operation. The first method involves reducing the diameter of individual nanowires to the cut-off condition, where only one optical mode propagates in the wire. The second method employs distributed feedback (DFB) to achieve single-mode lasing by placing individual GaN nanowires onto substrates with etched gratings. The nanowire-grating substrate acted as a distributed feedback mirror producing single mode operation at 370 nm with a mode suppression ratio (MSR) of 17 dB. The usage of lasers for solid state lighting has the potential to further reduce U.S. lighting energy usage through an increase in emitter efficiency. Advances in nanowire fabrication, specifically a two-step top-down approach, have allowed for the demonstration of a multi-color array of lasers on a single chip

  6. Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V John V. Vickers Cruise in the Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section P13, NOAA CGC92 Cruise, August 4 - October 21, 1992)

    SciTech Connect

    Kozyr, A.

    2001-01-11

    This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}) and total alkalinity (TALK) at hydrographic stations during the R/V John V. Vickers oceanographic cruise in the Pacific Ocean (Section P13). Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Climate and Global Change Program, the cruise began in Los Angeles, California, on August 4, 1992, with a transit line (Leg 0) to Dutch Harbor, Alaska. On August 16, the ship departed Dutch Harbor on Leg 1 of WOCE section P13. On September 15, the R/V John V. Vickers arrived in Kwajalein, Marshall Islands, for emergency repairs, and after 11 days in port departed for Leg 2 of Section P13 on September 26. The cruise ended on October 21 in Noumea, New Caledonia. Measurements made along WOCE Section P13 included pressure, temperature, salinity [measured by a conductivity, temperature, and depth sensor (CTD)], bottle salinity, bottle oxygen, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, silicate, chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-12), TCO{sub 2} , and TALK. The TCO{sub 2} was measured by coulometry using a Single-Operator Multiparameter Metabolic Analyzer (SOMMA). The overall precision and accuracy of the analyses was {+-}2 {micro}mol/kg. Samples collected for TALK were measured by potentiometric titration; precision was {+-}2 {micro}mol/kg. The CO{sub 2} -related measurements aboard the R/V John V. Vickers were supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The WOCE Section P13 data set is available free of charge as a numeric data package (NDP) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center. The NDP consists of two oceanographic data files, two FORTRAN 90 data-retrieval routine files, a documentation file, and this printed report, which describes the contents and format of all files as well as the procedures and methods used to obtain the data. Instructions on how to access the data are provided.

  7. DOE/NNSA perspective safeguard by design: GEN III/III+ light water reactors and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Paul Y

    2010-12-10

    An overview of key issues relevant to safeguards by design (SBD) for GEN III/IV nuclear reactors is provided. Lessons learned from construction of typical GEN III+ water reactors with respect to SBD are highlighted. Details of SBD for safeguards guidance development for GEN III/III+ light water reactors are developed and reported. This paper also identifies technical challenges to extend SBD including proliferation resistance methodologies to other GEN III/III+ reactors (except HWRs) and GEN IV reactors because of their immaturity in designs.

  8. The type III secretion injectisome.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, Guy R

    2006-11-01

    The type III secretion injectisome is a complex nanomachine that allows bacteria to deliver protein effectors across eukaryotic cellular membranes. In recent years, significant progress has been made in our understanding of its structure, assembly and mode of operation. The principal structural components of the injectisome, from the base located in the bacterial cytosol to the tip of the needle protruding from the cell surface, have been investigated in detail. The structures of several constituent proteins were solved at the atomic level and important insights into the assembly process have been gained. However, despite the ongoing concerted efforts of molecular and structural biologists, the role of many of the constituent components of this nanomachine remain unknown. PMID:17041629

  9. III-Nitride UV Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asif Khan, M.; Shatalov, M.; Maruska, H. P.; Wang, H. M.; Kuokstis, E.

    2005-10-01

    The need for efficient, compact and robust solid-state UV optical sources and sensors had stimulated the development of optical devices based on III-nitride material system. Rapid progress in material growth, device fabrication and packaging enabled demonstration of high efficiency visible-blind and solar-blind photodetectors, deep-UV light-emitting diodes with emission from 400 to 250 nm, and UV laser diodes with operation wavelengths ranging from 340 to 350 nm. Applications of these UV optical devices include flame sensing; fluorescence-based biochemical sensing; covert communications; air, water and food purification and disinfection; and biomedical instrumentation. This paper provides a review of recent advances in the development of UV optical devices. Performance of state-of-the-art devices as well as future prospects and challenges are discussed.

  10. DSM-III-R and religion.

    PubMed

    Post, S G

    1992-07-01

    The interpretation of religion in DSM-III-R contains considerable negative bias and contributes to unfair stereotypes of religious persons. Particularly new religious movements and religious conversion are unfairly interpreted under the DSM-III-R heading, 'Dissociative Disorder Not Otherwise Specified'. It is suggested that a more balanced and respectful interpretation of religion is needed in DSM-III-R, since psychiatry through its official nomenclature should not contribute to social intolerance of religious nonconformity.

  11. Developments in Stochastic Fuel Efficient Cruise Control and Constrained Control with Applications to Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonough, Kevin K.

    The dissertation presents contributions to fuel-efficient control of vehicle speed and constrained control with applications to aircraft. In the first part of this dissertation a stochastic approach to fuel-efficient vehicle speed control is developed. This approach encompasses stochastic modeling of road grade and traffic speed, modeling of fuel consumption through the use of a neural network, and the application of stochastic dynamic programming to generate vehicle speed control policies that are optimized for the trade-off between fuel consumption and travel time. The fuel economy improvements with the proposed policies are quantified through simulations and vehicle experiments. It is shown that the policies lead to the emergence of time-varying vehicle speed patterns that are referred to as time-varying cruise. Through simulations and experiments it is confirmed that these time-varying vehicle speed profiles are more fuel-efficient than driving at a comparable constant speed. Motivated by these results, a simpler implementation strategy that is more appealing for practical implementation is also developed. This strategy relies on a finite state machine and state transition threshold optimization, and its benefits are quantified through model-based simulations and vehicle experiments. Several additional contributions are made to approaches for stochastic modeling of road grade and vehicle speed that include the use of Kullback-Liebler divergence and divergence rate and a stochastic jump-like model for the behavior of the road grade. In the second part of the dissertation, contributions to constrained control with applications to aircraft are described. Recoverable sets and integral safe sets of initial states of constrained closed-loop systems are introduced first and computational procedures of such sets based on linear discrete-time models are given. The use of linear discrete-time models is emphasized as they lead to fast computational procedures. Examples of

  12. On Type III plessite in chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, R., Jr.

    1980-03-01

    Questions are raised concerning the possible sources of heat necessary for converting martensite to coarse Type III plessite in ordinary chondrites. It is suggested that the unusual Type III plesite in the Kingfisher, Oklahoma black chondrite was formed by partial homogenization of preexisting Type III plessite as a result of shock reheating of the metal into the gamma field of the Fe-Ni phase diagram, rather than by decomposition of shock reheated prior martensite in the alpha + gamma field, as originally proposed by Taylor and Heymann. Because martensite is sporadically distributed within Kingfisher plessite it is suggested that microstructures of this kind be called Type II-III plessite.

  13. Spectrofluorimetric determination of Er (III) with diantipyrylmethane.

    PubMed

    Sungur, S

    2001-02-01

    The optimum fluorescence conditions for erbium (III) are obtained by irradiating this lanthanide at 435 nm in 0.04 microg ml(-1) diantipyrylmethane solution at pH = 8 (lambdaem = 510 nm). The method proposed is satisfactory for the determination of erbium (III) in the range of 0.001 to 1 microg ml(-1). The relative standard deviation 0.02 microg ml(-1) Er (III) in 0.04 microg ml(-1) diantipyrylmethane solution is 1.1%. The effect of other rare earths upon the intensity of the fluorescence emitted by erbium (III) is discussed. PMID:11206569

  14. M(III)Dy(III)3 (M = Fe(III), Co(III)) complexes: three-blade propellers exhibiting slow relaxation of magnetization.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gong-Feng; Gamez, Patrick; Tang, Jinkui; Clérac, Rodolphe; Guo, Yun-Nan; Guo, Yang

    2012-05-21

    [Dy(III)(HBpz(3))(2)](2+) moieties (HBpz(3)(-) = hydrotris(pyrazolyl)borate) and a 3d transition-metal ion (Fe(III) or Co(III)) have been rationally assembled using an dithiooxalato dianion ligand into 3d-4f [MDy(3)(HBpz(3))(6)(dto)(3)]·4CH(3)CN·2CH(2)Cl(2) (M = Fe (1), Co (2) complexes. Single-crystal X-ray studies reveal that three eight-coordinated Dy(III) centers in a square antiprismatic coordination environment are connecting to a central octahedral trivalent Fe or Co ion forming a propeller-type complex. The dynamics of the magnetization in the two isostructural compounds, modulated by the nature of the central M(III) metal ion, are remarkably different despite their analogous direct current (dc) magnetic properties. The slow relaxation of the magnetization observed for 2 mainly originates from isolated Dy ions, since a diamagnetic Co(III) metal ion links the magnetic Dy(III) ions. In the case of 1, the magnetic interaction between S = 1/2 Fe(III) ion and the three Dy(III) magnetic centers, although weak, generates a complex energy spectrum of magnetic states with low-lying excited states that induce a smaller energy gap than for 2 and thus a faster relaxation of the magnetization.

  15. Comparative adsorption of Eu(III) and Am(III) on TPD.

    PubMed

    Fan, Q H; Zhao, X L; Ma, X X; Yang, Y B; Wu, W S; Zheng, G D; Wang, D L

    2015-09-01

    Comparative adsorption behaviors of Eu(III) and Am(III) on thorium phosphate diphosphate (TPD), i.e., Th4(PO4)4P2O7, have been studied using a batch approach and surface complexation model (SCM) in this study. The results showed that Eu(III) and Am(III) adsorption increased to a large extent with the increase in TPD dose. Strong pH-dependence was observed in both Eu(III) and Am(III) adsorption processes, suggesting that inner-sphere complexes (ISCs) were possibly responsible for the adsorption of Eu(III) and Am(III). Meanwhile, the adsorption of Eu(III) and Am(III) decreased to a different extent with the increase in ion strength, which was possibly related to outer-sphere complexes and/or ion exchange. In the presence of fulvic acid (FA), the adsorption of Eu(III) and Am(III) showed high enhancement mainly due to the ternary surface complexes of TPD-FA-Eu(3+) and TPD-FA-Am(3+). The SCM showed that one ion exchange (≡S3Am/Eu) and two ISCs (≡(XO)2Am/EuNO3 and ≡(YO)2Am/EuNO3) seemed more reasonable to quantitatively describe the adsorption edges of both Eu(III) and Am(III). Our findings obviously showed that Eu(III) could be a good analogue to study actinide behaviors in practical terms. However, it should be kept in mind that there are still obvious differences between the characteristics of Eu(III) and Am(III) in some special cases, for instance, the complex ability with organic matter and adsorption affinity to a solid surface. PMID:26198355

  16. Wind tunnel and ground static investigation of a large scale model of a lift/cruise fan V/STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in a 40 foot by 80 foot wind tunnel to determine the aerodynamic/propulsion characteristics of a large scale powered model of a lift/cruise fan V/STOL aircraft. The model was equipped with three 36 inch diameter turbotip X376B fans powered by three T58 gas generators. The lift fan was located forward of the cockpit area and the two lift/cruise fans were located on top of the wing adjacent to the fuselage. The three fans with associated thrust vectoring systems were used to provide vertical, and short, takeoff and landing capability. For conventional cruise mode operation, only the lift/cruise fans were utilized. The data that were obtained include lift, drag, longitudinal and lateral-directional stability characteristics, and control effectiveness. Data were obtained up to speeds of 120 knots at one model height of 20 feet for the conventional aerodynamic lift configuration and at several thrust vector angles for the powered lift configuration.

  17. A Mission-Adaptive Variable Camber Flap Control System to Optimize High Lift and Cruise Lift-to-Drag Ratios of Future N+3 Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urnes, James, Sr.; Nguyen, Nhan; Ippolito, Corey; Totah, Joseph; Trinh, Khanh; Ting, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Boeing and NASA are conducting a joint study program to design a wing flap system that will provide mission-adaptive lift and drag performance for future transport aircraft having light-weight, flexible wings. This Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap (VCCTEF) system offers a lighter-weight lift control system having two performance objectives: (1) an efficient high lift capability for take-off and landing, and (2) reduction in cruise drag through control of the twist shape of the flexible wing. This control system during cruise will command varying flap settings along the span of the wing in order to establish an optimum wing twist for the current gross weight and cruise flight condition, and continue to change the wing twist as the aircraft changes gross weight and cruise conditions for each mission segment. Design weight of the flap control system is being minimized through use of light-weight shape memory alloy (SMA) actuation augmented with electric actuators. The VCCTEF program is developing better lift and drag performance of flexible wing transports with the further benefits of lighter-weight actuation and less drag using the variable camber shape of the flap.

  18. A burn mass casualty event due to boiler room explosion on a cruise ship: preparedness and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Tekin, Akin; Namias, Nicholas; O'Keeffe, Terence; Pizano, Louis; Lynn, Mauricio; Prater-Varas, Robin; Quintana, Olga Delia; Borges, Leda; Ishii, Mary; Lee, Seong; Lopez, Peter; Lessner-Eisenberg, Sharon; Alvarez, Angel; Ellison, Tom; Sapnas, Katherine; Lefton, Jennifer; Ward, Charles Gillon

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to review our experience with a mass casualty incident resulting from a boiler room steam explosion aboard a cruise ship. Experience with major, moderate, and minor burns, steam inhalation, mass casualty response systems, and psychological sequelae will be discussed. Fifteen cruise ship employees were brought to the burn center after a boiler room explosion on a cruise ship. Eleven were triaged to the trauma resuscitation area and four to the surgical emergency room. Seven patients were intubated for respiratory distress or airway protection. Six patients had >80 per cent burns with steam inhalation, and all of these died. One of the 6 patients had 99 per cent burns with steam inhalation and died after withdrawal of support within the first several hours. All patients with major burns required escharotomy on arrival to trauma resuscitation. One patient died in the operating room, despite decompression by laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome and pericardiotomy via thoracotomy for cardiac tamponade. Four patients required crystalloid, 20,000 mls/m2-27,000 ml/m2 body surface area (BSA) in the first 48 hours to maintain blood pressure and urine output. Three of these four patients subsequently developed abdominal compartment syndrome and died in the first few days. The fourth patient of this group died after 26 days due to sepsis. Five patients had 13-20 per cent bums and four patients had less than 10 per cent burns. Two of the patients with 20 per cent burns developed edema of the vocal cords with mild hoarseness. They improved and recovered without intubation. The facility was prepared for the mass casualty event; having just completed a mass casualty drill several days earlier. Twenty-six beds were made available in 50 minutes for anticipated casualties. Fifteen physicians reported immediately to the trauma resuscitation area to assist in initial stabilization. The event occurred at shift change; thus, adequate support

  19. Near-Infrared Photoluminescence and Electroluminescence of Neodymium(III), Erbium(III), and Ytterbium(III) Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Yuichiro; Wada, Yuji; Yanagida, Shozo

    2001-01-01

    Tris(dibenzoylmethanato)(monobathophenanthroline)lanthanide(III) complex [Ln(DBM)3 bath (Ln: Nd, Er and Yb)] both in solutions and thin films at room temperature showed narrow band photoluminescence (PL) due to the f-f transitions in the near-IR region: 890, 1070 and 1350 nm for Nd(III), 980 and 1540 nm for Er(III), and 985 nm for Yb(III). The PL efficiencies in solution were determined [φPL=3.3× 10-3 for Nd(III), 7.0× 10-5 for Er(III), and 1.4× 10-2 for Yb(III)]. Organic electroluminescent (EL) devices having the structure of glass substrate/indium-tin oxide/N,N\\prime-diphenyl-N,N\\prime-di(m-tolyl)benzidine{\\slash}Ln(DBM)3bath(Ln: Nd, Er and Yb)/bathocuproine/Mg:Ag/Ag were fabricated, giving the EL bands around 900-1600 nm at room temperature. The external near-IR EL efficiencies at low current density were estimated by comparing with that of the Eu(III) device having the same structure. The saturation of near-IR EL intensity observed at the high current density suggested that the near-IR EL should suffer the T-T annihilation.

  20. Heterotrimetallic coordination polymers: {Cu(II)Ln(III)Fe(III)} chains and {Ni(II)Ln(III)Fe(III)} layers: synthesis, crystal structures, and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Alexandru, Maria-Gabriela; Visinescu, Diana; Andruh, Marius; Marino, Nadia; Armentano, Donatella; Cano, Joan; Lloret, Francesc; Julve, Miguel

    2015-03-27

    The use of the [Fe(III) (AA)(CN)4](-) complex anion as metalloligand towards the preformed [Cu(II) (valpn)Ln(III)](3+) or [Ni(II) (valpn)Ln(III) ](3+) heterometallic complex cations (AA=2,2'-bipyridine (bipy) and 1,10-phenathroline (phen); H2 valpn=1,3-propanediyl-bis(2-iminomethylene-6-methoxyphenol)) allowed the preparation of two families of heterotrimetallic complexes: three isostructural 1D coordination polymers of general formula {[Cu(II) (valpn)Ln(III) (H2O)3 (μ-NC)2 Fe(III) (phen)(CN)2 {(μ-NC)Fe(III) (phen)(CN)3}]NO3 ⋅7 H2O}n (Ln=Gd (1), Tb (2), and Dy (3)) and the trinuclear complex [Cu(II) (valpn)La(III) (OH2 )3 (O2 NO)(μ-NC)Fe(III) (phen)(CN)3 ]⋅NO3 ⋅H2O⋅CH3 CN (4) were obtained with the [Cu(II) (valpn)Ln(III)](3+) assembling unit, whereas three isostructural heterotrimetallic 2D networks, {[Ni(II) (valpn)Ln(III) (ONO2 )2 (H2 O)(μ-NC)3 Fe(III) (bipy)(CN)]⋅2 H2 O⋅2 CH3 CN}n (Ln=Gd (5), Tb (6), and Dy (7)) resulted with the related [Ni(II) (valpn)Ln(III) ](3+) precursor. The crystal structure of compound 4 consists of discrete heterotrimetallic complex cations, [Cu(II) (valpn)La(III) (OH2)3 (O2 NO)(μ-NC)Fe(III) (phen)(CN)3 ](+), nitrate counterions, and non-coordinate water and acetonitrile molecules. The heteroleptic {Fe(III) (bipy)(CN)4} moiety in 5-7 acts as a tris-monodentate ligand towards three {Ni(II) (valpn)Ln(III)} binuclear nodes leading to heterotrimetallic 2D networks. The ferromagnetic interaction through the diphenoxo bridge in the Cu(II)-Ln(III) (1-3) and Ni(II)-Ln(III) (5-7) units, as well as through the single cyanide bridge between the Fe(III) and either Ni(II) (5-7) or Cu(II) (4) account for the overall ferromagnetic behavior observed in 1-7. DFT-type calculations were performed to substantiate the magnetic interactions in 1, 4, and 5. Interestingly, compound 6 exhibits slow relaxation of the magnetization with maxima of the out-of-phase ac signals below 4.0 K in the lack of a dc field, the values of the pre

  1. Mechanisms of Sb(III) Photooxidation by the Excitation of Organic Fe(III) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Kong, Linghao; He, Mengchang

    2016-07-01

    Organic Fe(III) complexes are widely distributed in the aqueous environment, which can efficiently generate free radicals under light illumination, playing a significant role in heavy metal speciation. However, the potential importance of the photooxidation of Sb(III) by organic Fe(III) complexes remains unclear. Therefore, the photooxidation mechanisms of Sb(III) were comprehensively investigated in Fe(III)-oxalate, Fe(III)-citrate and Fe(III)-fulvic acid (FA) solutions by kinetic measurements and modeling. Rapid photooxidation of Sb(III) was observed in an Fe(III)-oxalate solution over the pH range of 3 to 7. The addition of tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) as an ·OH scavenger quenched the Sb(III) oxidation, suggesting that ·OH is an important oxidant for Sb(III). However, the incomplete quenching of Sb(III) oxidation indicated the existence of other oxidants, presumably an Fe(IV) species in irradiated Fe(III)-oxalate solution. In acidic solutions, ·OH may be formed by the reaction of Fe(II)(C2O4) with H2O2, but a hypothetical Fe(IV) species may be generated by the reaction of Fe(II)(C2O4)2(2-) with H2O2 at higher pH. Kinetic modeling provides a quantitative explanation of the results. Evidence for the existence of ·OH and hypothetical Fe(IV) was also observed in an irradiated Fe(III)-citrate and Fe(III)-FA system. This study demonstrated an important pathway of Sb(III) oxidation in surface waters. PMID:27267512

  2. Lift/cruise fan V/STOL technology aircraft design definition study. Volume 1: Technology flight vehicle definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, W. J.

    1976-01-01

    Concept design is presented for two types of lift/cruise fan technology V/STOL aircraft, turbotip fans and the other using mechanically driven fans. The turbotip research technology aircraft reflects maximum usage of existing airframe components. The propulsion system consists of three turbotip fans pneumatically interconnected to three gas generators. Thrust modulation is accomplished by use of energy transfer and control system and thrust reduction modulation. This system can also be operated in the two engine/three fan mode. The mechanical RTA is virtually identical to the turbotip RTA with the exceptions that a different propulsion system and aft fuselage/tail are used. Both aircraft meet or exceed all of the mission performance guidelines and reflect a low cost, low risk approach.

  3. Jets in the Coral Sea: observation between New Caledonia, Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands during the SECALIS cruises.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganachaud, A.; Gourdeau, L.; Kestenare, E.

    2006-12-01

    The CLIVAR program and many recent publications underline the importance of the oceanic connection between the south subtropical Pacific, where mode waters acquire their properties from the contact with the atmosphere, and the equator, where those same waters emerge after a 10 to 15-year travel-time below the surface. Recent field work and modeling studies have revealed a complex pathway taken by those waters as they cross the Southwest Pacific region. Planetary dynamics and numerous topographic obstacles create oceanic jets, strong zonal currents that cross the Coral Sea before reaching the Australian coast western boundary current system and splitting with an important amount of water heading north towards the Equatorial Undercurrent and finally reaching the equatorial upwelling region. The observations made during SECALIS cruises (2003-2006) between New Caledonia, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu, are presented. The CTD- ADCP sections revealed the existence of narrow jets at the northern and southern tips of Vanuatu and New Caledonia.

  4. A computer program for the prediction of near field noise of aircraft in cruising flight: User's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbetts, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    Detailed instructions for using the near field cruise noise prediction program, a program listing, and a sample case with output are presented. The total noise for free field lossless conditions at selected observer locations is obtained by summing the contributions from up to nine acoustic sources. These noise sources, selected at the user's option, include the fan/compressor, turbine, core (combustion), jet, shock, and airframe (trailing edge and turbulent boundary layers). The effects of acoustic suppression materials such as engine inlet treatment may also be included in the noise prediction. The program is available for use on the NASA/Langley Research Center CDC computer. Comparisons of the program predictions with measured data are also given, and some possible reasons for their lack of agreement presented.

  5. Definition of an ISO 19115 metadata profile for SeaDataNet II Cruise Summary Reports and its XML encoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boldrini, Enrico; Schaap, Dick M. A.; Nativi, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    SeaDataNet implements a distributed pan-European infrastructure for Ocean and Marine Data Management whose nodes are maintained by 40 national oceanographic and marine data centers from 35 countries riparian to all European seas. A unique portal makes possible distributed discovery, visualization and access of the available sea data across all the member nodes. Geographic metadata play an important role in such an infrastructure, enabling an efficient documentation and discovery of the resources of interest. In particular: - Common Data Index (CDI) metadata describe the sea datasets, including identification information (e.g. product title, interested area), evaluation information (e.g. data resolution, constraints) and distribution information (e.g. download endpoint, download protocol); - Cruise Summary Reports (CSR) metadata describe cruises and field experiments at sea, including identification information (e.g. cruise title, name of the ship), acquisition information (e.g. utilized instruments, number of samples taken) In the context of the second phase of SeaDataNet (SeaDataNet 2 EU FP7 project, grant agreement 283607, started on October 1st, 2011 for a duration of 4 years) a major target is the setting, adoption and promotion of common international standards, to the benefit of outreach and interoperability with the international initiatives and communities (e.g. OGC, INSPIRE, GEOSS, …). A standardization effort conducted by CNR with the support of MARIS, IFREMER, STFC, BODC and ENEA has led to the creation of a ISO 19115 metadata profile of CDI and its XML encoding based on ISO 19139. The CDI profile is now in its stable version and it's being implemented and adopted by the SeaDataNet community tools and software. The effort has then continued to produce an ISO based metadata model and its XML encoding also for CSR. The metadata elements included in the CSR profile belong to different models: - ISO 19115: E.g. cruise identification information, including

  6. Near-field noise prediction for aircraft in cruising flight: Methods manual. [laminar flow control noise effects analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbetts, J. G.

    1979-01-01

    Methods for predicting noise at any point on an aircraft while the aircraft is in a cruise flight regime are presented. Developed for use in laminar flow control (LFC) noise effects analyses, they can be used in any case where aircraft generated noise needs to be evaluated at a location on an aircraft while under high altitude, high speed conditions. For each noise source applicable to the LFC problem, a noise computational procedure is given in algorithm format, suitable for computerization. Three categories of noise sources are covered: (1) propulsion system, (2) airframe, and (3) LFC suction system. In addition, procedures are given for noise modifications due to source soundproofing and the shielding effects of the aircraft structure wherever needed. Sample cases, for each of the individual noise source procedures, are provided to familiarize the user with typical input and computed data.

  7. Cruising and e-dates: a new context for sexual encounters among young men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Grau-Muñoz, Arantxa; Pla-Ernst, Eduardo; Belda-Ibáñez, Josefina; Juan-Corrons, Amparo; Fernández-García, Elisa; Doménech-Alonso, Elena; Galán-Rubio, Enrique; Lloria-Paes, Fernando; Zafra-Espinosa, Trinidad; Tasa-Zapater, Teresa; Santos-Rubio, Concepción; Alastrue-Loscos, Ignacio

    2015-11-01

    This article addresses the rapidly growing use of information and communication technologies in mediating new settings for sexual relations. The specific focus is on cruising among young men who have sex with men via e-dating. The study used a qualitative methodology with peer group discussions on sexuality, health, and risk. The new framework provided by technology is marked by (a) increased access to these practices, (b) greater dissemination of them, (c) greater immediacy of encounters, (d) anticipation of what will be offered during dates, (e) anonymous access, allowing bolder proposals, and (f) openness to a wider range of users. These elements converge in a framework that indicates a new social organization of sexual practice. PMID:26840811

  8. Evaluation of the MOZAIC Capacitive Hygrometer during the airborne field study CIRRUS-III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neis, P.; Smit, H. G. J.; Krämer, M.; Spelten, N.; Petzold, A.

    2014-09-01

    The MOZAIC Capacitive Hygrometer (MCH) is usually operated onboard of passenger aircraft in the framework of MOZAIC (Measurement of Ozone by AIRBUS In-Service Aircraft). In order to evaluate the performance of the MCH, it was operated aboard a Learjet 35A aircraft as part of the CIRRUS-III field study together with a closed-cell Lyman-α fluorescence hygrometer (FISH) and an open path tunable diode laser system (OJSTER) for water vapour measurement. After reducing the data set to MOZAIC-relevant conditions, the 1Hz relative humidity (RH) cross correlation between MCH and reference instruments FISH (clear sky) and OJSTER (in-cirrus) yielded a remarkably good agreement of R2 = 0.97 and slope m = 0.96 and provided the MCH uncertainty of 5% RH. Probability distribution functions of RH deduced from MCH and reference instruments agreed well over the entire range of observations. The main limitation for the use of MCH data is related to sensor temperatures below the calibration limit of Tsensor = -40 °C (corresponds to ambient temperature of Tambient = -70 °C at typical cruising speed of long-haul passenger aircraft), which causes a delay in the sensor's time response. Good performance of MCH for clear sky as well as for in-cirrus conditions demonstrated the sensor robustness also for operation inside ice clouds.

  9. Preparation of III-V semiconductor nanocrystals

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Olshavsky, Michael A.

    1996-01-01

    Nanometer-scale crystals of III-V semiconductors are disclosed, They are prepared by reacting a group III metal source with a group V anion source in a liquid phase at elevated temperature in the presence of a crystallite growth terminator such as pyridine or quinoline.

  10. Preparation of III-V semiconductor nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Alivisatos, A.P.; Olshavsky, M.A.

    1996-04-09

    Nanometer-scale crystals of III-V semiconductors are disclosed. They are prepared by reacting a group III metal source with a group V anion source in a liquid phase at elevated temperature in the presence of a crystallite growth terminator such as pyridine or quinoline. 4 figs.

  11. Synthesis, spectroscopic and antimicrobial studies of La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III) Metformin HCl chelates.

    PubMed

    Refat, Moamen S; Al-Azab, Fathi M; Al-Maydama, Hussein M A; Amin, Ragab R; Jamil, Yasmin M S; Kobeasy, Mohamed I

    2015-05-01

    Metal complexes of Metformin hydrochloride were prepared using La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III). The resulting complexes were discussed and synthesized to serve as potential insulin-mimetic. Some physical properties and analytical data of the four complexes were checked. The elemental analysis shows that La(III), Ce(III) Sm(III) and Y(III) formed complexes with Metformin in 1:3 (metal:MF) molar ratio. All the synthesized complexes are white and possess high melting points. These complexes are soluble in dimethylsulfoxide and dimethylformamide, partially soluble in hot methanol and insoluble in water and some other organic solvents. From the spectroscopic (infrared, UV-vis and florescence), effective magnetic moment and elemental analyses data, the formula structures are suggested. The results obtained suggested that Metformin reacted with metal ions as a bidentate ligand through its two imino groups. The molar conductance measurements proved that the Metformin complexes are slightly electrolytic in nature. The kinetic thermodynamic parameters such as: E(∗), ΔH(∗), ΔS(∗) and ΔG(∗) were estimated from the DTG curves. The antibacterial evaluations of the Metformin and their complexes were also performed against some gram positive, negative bacteria as well as fungi.

  12. Synthesis and in vitro microbial evaluation of La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III) metal complexes of vitamin B6 drug.

    PubMed

    Refat, Moamen S; Al-Azab, Fathi M; Al-Maydama, Hussein M A; Amin, Ragab R; Jamil, Yasmin M S

    2014-06-01

    Metal complexes of pyridoxine mono hydrochloride (vitamin B6) are prepared using La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III). The resulting complexes are investigated. Some physical properties, conductivity, analytical data and the composition of the four pyridoxine complexes are discussed. The elemental analysis shows that the formed complexes of La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III) with pyridoxine are of 1:2 (metal:PN) molar ratio. All the synthesized complexes are brown in color and possess high melting points. These complexes are partially soluble in hot methanol, dimethylsulfoxide and dimethylformamide and insoluble in water and some other organic solvents. Elemental analysis data, spectroscopic (IR, UV-vis. and florescence), effective magnetic moment in Bohr magnetons and the proton NMR suggest the structures. However, definite particle size is determined by invoking the X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy data. The results obtained suggested that pyridoxine reacted with metal ions as a bidentate ligand through its phenolate oxygen and the oxygen of the adjacent group at the 4'-position. The molar conductance measurements proved that the pyridoxine complexes are electrolytic in nature. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters such as: Ea, ΔH(*), ΔS(*) and ΔG(*) were estimated from the DTG curves. The antibacterial evaluation of the pyridoxine and their complexes were also performed against some gram positive, negative bacteria as well as fungi.

  13. Modal Profiles for the WISC-III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, David A.; Livingston, Ronald B.; Reynolds, Cecil R.; Moses, James A., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Presents a normative typology for classifying the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III) factor index profiles according to profile shape. Current analyses indicate that overall profile level accounted for a majority of the variance in WISC-III index scores, but a considerable proportion of the variance was because of…

  14. Synthesis, spectroscopic and antimicrobial studies of La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III) Metformin HCl chelates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refat, Moamen S.; Al-Azab, Fathi M.; Al-Maydama, Hussein M. A.; Amin, Ragab R.; Jamil, Yasmin M. S.; Kobeasy, Mohamed I.

    2015-05-01

    Metal complexes of Metformin hydrochloride were prepared using La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III). The resulting complexes were discussed and synthesized to serve as potential insulin-mimetic. Some physical properties and analytical data of the four complexes were checked. The elemental analysis shows that La(III), Ce(III) Sm(III) and Y(III) formed complexes with Metformin in 1:3 (metal:MF) molar ratio. All the synthesized complexes are white and possess high melting points. These complexes are soluble in dimethylsulfoxide and dimethylformamide, partially soluble in hot methanol and insoluble in water and some other organic solvents. From the spectroscopic (infrared, UV-vis and florescence), effective magnetic moment and elemental analyses data, the formula structures are suggested. The results obtained suggested that Metformin reacted with metal ions as a bidentate ligand through its two imino groups. The molar conductance measurements proved that the Metformin complexes are slightly electrolytic in nature. The kinetic thermodynamic parameters such as: E∗, ΔH∗, ΔS∗ and ΔG∗ were estimated from the DTG curves. The antibacterial evaluations of the Metformin and their complexes were also performed against some gram positive, negative bacteria as well as fungi.

  15. Synthesis and in vitro microbial evaluation of La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III) metal complexes of vitamin B6 drug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refat, Moamen S.; Al-Azab, Fathi M.; Al-Maydama, Hussein M. A.; Amin, Ragab R.; Jamil, Yasmin M. S.

    2014-06-01

    Metal complexes of pyridoxine mono hydrochloride (vitamin B6) are prepared using La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III). The resulting complexes are investigated. Some physical properties, conductivity, analytical data and the composition of the four pyridoxine complexes are discussed. The elemental analysis shows that the formed complexes of La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III) with pyridoxine are of 1:2 (metal:PN) molar ratio. All the synthesized complexes are brown in color and possess high melting points. These complexes are partially soluble in hot methanol, dimethylsulfoxide and dimethylformamide and insoluble in water and some other organic solvents. Elemental analysis data, spectroscopic (IR, UV-vis. and florescence), effective magnetic moment in Bohr magnetons and the proton NMR suggest the structures. However, definite particle size is determined by invoking the X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy data. The results obtained suggested that pyridoxine reacted with metal ions as a bidentate ligand through its phenolate oxygen and the oxygen of the adjacent group at the 4‧-position. The molar conductance measurements proved that the pyridoxine complexes are electrolytic in nature. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters such as: Ea, ΔH*, ΔS* and ΔG* were estimated from the DTG curves. The antibacterial evaluation of the pyridoxine and their complexes were also performed against some gram positive, negative bacteria as well as fungi.

  16. Influence of CDOM and particle composition on ocean color of the Eastern New Caledonia Lagoon during the CALIOPE cruises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupouy, Cécile; Röttgers, Rüdiger; Tedetti, Marc; Martias, Chloe; Murakami, Hiroshi; Doxaran, David; Lantoine, Francois; Rodier, Martine; Favareto, Luciane; Kampel, Milton; Goutx, Madeleine; Frouin, Robert J.

    2014-11-01

    Ocean color of tropical lagoons is dependent on bathymetry and bottom type, as well as input of coastal living and mineral particles and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). The New Caledonia lagoon lies in the Southwestern Tropical Pacific around 21° 30'S and 166° 30'E, with a great marine biodiversity in UNESCO Heritage coral reefs, benthic sea grass, and benthic communities. They are largely connected to the open ocean in the southern and eastern parts, but only by narrow passes in the southwest part. The trophic state is linked to spatial variations in flushing times. High run offs due to rain carrying abundant chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and particle loads may greatly impact the functioning of ecosystems while rivers and sewage effluents may induce localized impacts. Two oceanographic cruises (CALIOPE 1 in 2011 and CALIOPE 2 in 2014) were carried out off the Eastern Coast of New Caledonia during a calm dry period and during high winds, respectively. Multi- and hyper-spectral marine reflectance was measured with a SIMBADA instrument and a TRIOS radiometer system, together with inherent optical properties (total and CDOM absorption coefficients with a PSICAM, in situ absorption and scattering with an AC9, backscattering with a Hydroscat-6). Fluorescence of CDOM (EEM/PARAFAC) was measured on collected 0.2 μm filtered samples. In 2014, Satlantic and FieldSpec hyper-spectral radiometers were available for in-water profiling of upwelling radiance and downwelling irradiance and above-water reflectance measurements, respectively. Inherent and apparent optical data from the two cruises are compared and used to estimate ocean color algorithms performance and evaluate a Linear Matrix Inversion method, providing tools for remote sensing on this highly under-sampled coastal region of New Caledonia.

  17. Access of warm Southern Ocean water along the East Antarctic Margin - first results from the NBP1503 cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitsche, F. O.; Guerrero, R.; Williams, G. D.; Porter, D. F.; Cougnon, E.; Fraser, A. D.; Correia, R.; Richardson, D.

    2015-12-01

    The future of the Antarctic Ice Sheet is one of the critical questions in assessing the effects of climate change. The East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) was regarded as relatively stable, and only recently has become the subject of a series of studies to determine if parts of the EAIS might be susceptible to melting if warm ocean masses reach the ice sheet. We are presenting new oceanographic and bathymetry observations from the East Antarctic continental margin between 115° E and 135° E that have been collected as part of the scientific cruise NBP1503 onboard the NB Palmer in early 2015. The goal of the scientific cruise was to determine to what extent warmer ocean water could reach (or is reaching) the inner shelf. Sea ice conditions prevented access to most inner continental shelf areas. Instead, we collected detailed multibeam bathymetry and Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) data from the continental slope, rise and the outer shelf north of the Dibble Glacier, Frost Glacier, Dalton Iceberg Tongue and Totten Glacier. An oceanographic section of 19 CTD stations on the continental slope parallel to the margin shows that modified Circumpolar Deep Water (mCDW) with higher salinity and temperatures is present near the shelf break over large sections of the investigated margin, but is absent in other sections. The shelf break depth varies significantly along the margin between ~300 and ~500 m. The shallower depths are potentially an obstacle for access of mCDW to the shelf. As a result, a ~100 m thick layer of mCDW resides on the ~500 m deep outer shelf north of the Totten Glacier, but there is no indication of mCDW in the Dibble Polynya because the shelf break is shallower. The access and presence of warmer mCDW water, especially north of Totten Glacier and the Moscow University Ice Shelf, has important implications in understanding the observed thinning of this ice stream.

  18. Geological framework of an active hydrothermal site in the North Fiji Basin: Starmer cruise of the submersible Nautile

    SciTech Connect

    Auzende, J. )

    1990-06-01

    During the summer of 1989 the French submersible Nautile carried out a diving cruise on the North Fiji Basin ridge axis in the frame of the Starmer French-Japanese joint project. The diving sites were selected using the Seapso 3, Kaiyo 87, and Kaiyo 88 cruises Seabeam surveys. They are located around 17{degree}S in the axial graben at the northern end of the N15 ridge. The axis consists of an 18 km wide, N15 elongated dome cut by a 2 km wide axial graben. The elevation of the dome with respect to adjacent oceanic floor is 500-600 m. It culminates at less than 1,900 m, which is higher than a normal oceanic ridge. The axial graben width (2 km) is also unusual compared to oceanic ridge with intermediate spreading rates such as the EPR at 21{degree}N. Six Nautile dives have been devoted to the detailed exploration of the axial graben between 16{degree}58'S and 17{degree}00'S in order to locate the hydrothermal vents in the inferred most active part of the axial graben. A structural map has been established on the basis of dive observation. Between 17{degree}S and 16{degree}58'S, the axis shows a succession of N15-trending horsts and grabens paralleling the main orientation of the ridge. Two main lateral grabens and a central graben can be recognized. The central graben shows remarkably constant width (200 m) and depth (2,000 m). It is bounded by two small horsts, few tens of meters wide. Observed tectonic features include N15 normal fault scarps and abundant open fissures with the same direction. The whole area is dusted with sediments indicating that volcanism was not active recently. Evidence of recent hydrothermal activity such as oxide staining, dead munch, dead chimney is abundant all along the central graben.

  19. Title III and toxic torts

    SciTech Connect

    Rodnehausen, G.A.

    1989-07-01

    In July the second annual Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) report under Section 313 of Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), and the computerized, national TRI data-base will be issued. Although the Environmental Protection Agency will not be able to aggregate the July, 1989 reports and issue its own annual report until early next year, we can expect political attention to focus quickly on whether total releases to air, land and water, and in particular total emissions to the air, have increased or decreased from 1987 to 1988. Because the reporting threshold for chemical manufacturing and processing facilities will drop from 75,000 to 50,000 pounds per year, the number of facilities reporting and number of chemicals reported should increase significantly, forcing up total releases. Bringing the totals down will be waste and release reduction efforts already underway in the chemical industry and elsewhere, and perhaps improved accuracy in measurement and estimation of releases. Additions to and deletions from the list of reportable chemicals will also have an effect. Nevertheless, any significant increase in aggregate totals, no matter what the explanation, will be bound to have a political impact on air toxics legislation, and spur public concern with the health risks of air pollution.

  20. DHS Phase III activities underway.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    Activities and improvements in the third round of the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) are described for the first year of the five year DHS-III project during 1992-97. Underway are data quality assessments, identification of data needs, development of a new core questionnaire and modules, and fieldwork survey implementation. Data quality studies are conducted on respondent age, age at first marriage, birth history, knowledge and use of contraception, and health of children aged under 5 years. An analysis of reinterview subsamples for Pakistan and Nigeria will test reliability of data. Emerging data needs for the decade are identified through consultations with data users in the population and health fields. A variety of organizational representatives and recognized experts provide valuable inputs on questionnaire content and module topics. This article also reveals that a shorter questionnaire length will be considered. There will be new questionnaire topics on reliance on breast feeding for contraception, induced abortion and complications, and quality of care. Reductions are made in little used data and retrospective data longer than 3-5 years preceding the survey date. Revisions are made in the Interviewer's and Supervisor's Manuals, the Service Availability Questionnaire, the Male/Husbands Questionnaire, and fifteen modules. Fieldwork is either in progress of completion in Ghana, Kenya, the Philippines, and Turkey. Bangladesh and Bolivia are scheduled for 1993. In 1994 surveys will be administered in Burundi, Central African Republic, Cote d'Ivoire, Guatemala, Haiti, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Mali, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zimbabwe. PMID:12287320