Science.gov

Sample records for add considerable weight

  1. Weight Training Adds Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutter, June

    1995-01-01

    Secondary level physical education teachers can have their students use math concepts while working out on the weight-room equipment. The article explains how students can reinforce math skills while weightlifting by estimating their strength, estimating their power, or calculating other formulas. (SM)

  2. Astronomical imaging by filtered weighted-shift-and-add technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ribak, Erez

    1986-01-01

    The weighted-shift-and-add speckle imaging technique is analyzed using simple assumptions. The end product is shown to be a convolution of the object with a typical point-spread function (psf) that is similar in shape to the telescope psf and depends marginally on the speckle psf. A filter can be applied to each data frame before locating the maxima, either to identify the speckle locations (matched filter) or to estimate the instantaneous atmospheric psf (Wiener filter). Preliminary results show the power of the technique when applied to photon-limited data and to extended objects.

  3. Experience with the matched filtered weighted-shift-and-add method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hege, E. Keith; Strobel, Nicolas V.; Ribak, Erez; Christou, Julian C.

    1987-01-01

    It is presently demonstrated that while the matched filter formulated by Ribak (1986) for the extension of the weighted-shift-and-add (WSA) method successfully reduces photon statistics-dominated specklegrams, the iterative method originally proposed by Ribak does not converge in the case of photon-noisy specklegrams for objects having more than one maxima. Attention is accordingly given to methods for rendering the procedure more 'artificially intelligent'. An error matrix is defined that is useful in evaluating the validity of the results produced by the matched filter extension of the WSA method.

  4. Measurement: Five Considerations to Add Even More Impact to Your Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurrell, Derek

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the author looks at some key considerations which have proven to be very useful in the teaching of measurement in the primary classroom. Five ideas that can form the basis of focusing on measurement to access other strands of the mathematics curriculum are then examined.

  5. Want to Add Pizazz to Your Weight Training Class? Try Sport Education!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Tony; Hansen, Andrew; McCollum, Starla

    2014-01-01

    Weight training classes are offered in many secondary level physical education classes. The type of instruction used during weight training is crucial, ensuring students understand the content knowledge and the enjoyment weight training has to offer as a lifetime activity. By using the sport education model (SEM) in weight training classes,…

  6. Maternal Early Life Risk Factors for Offspring Birth Weight: Findings from the Add Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Elaine; Rue, Tessa; Guo, Yuqing

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the pathways that link mothers’ early life socioeconomic status (SES) and mothers’ experience of childhood maltreatment with birth weight among their later born offspring. Data were drawn from a nationally representative longitudinal survey of school-aged respondents, initially enrolled during adolescence in Wave I (1994–1995) and Wave II (1996) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and followed-up in adulthood in Wave III (2001–2002). Data on offspring birth weight were obtained from nulliparous females (N=1,897) who had given birth between Waves II and III. Analyses used structural equation modeling to examine the extent to which early life maternal risk predicted offspring birth weight, and demonstrated that maternal childhood SES and maternal childhood maltreatment predicted offspring birth weight through several mediated pathways. First, maternal adolescent substance use and prenatal cigarette use partially mediated the association between maternal childhood SES and offspring birth weight. Second, maternal adolescent depressive symptoms and adult SES partially mediated the association between maternal childhood SES and offspring birth weight. Third, adult SES partially mediated the association between maternal childhood SES and offspring birth weight. Fourth, maternal adolescent substance use and prenatal cigarette use partially mediated the association between maternal childhood maltreatment and offspring birth weight. Finally, maternal adolescent depressive symptoms and adult SES partially mediated the association between maternal childhood maltreatment and offspring birth weight. To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify maternal childhood maltreatment as an early life risk factor for offspring birth weight among a nationally representative sample of young women, and to demonstrate the mechanisms that link childhood SES and maltreatment to offspring birth weight. These findings

  7. The reliability of in-home measures of height and weight in large cohort studies: Evidence from Add Health

    PubMed Central

    Hussey, Jon M.; Nguyen, Quynh C.; Whitsel, Eric A.; Richardson, Liana J.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Tabor, Joyce W.; Entzel, Pamela P.; Harris, Kathleen Mullan

    2015-01-01

    Background With the emergence of obesity as a global health issue an increasing number of major demographic surveys are collecting measured anthropometric data. Yet little is known about the characteristics and reliability of these data. Objectives We evaluate the accuracy and reliability of anthropometric data collected in the home during Wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), compare our estimates to national standard, clinic-based estimates from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and, using both sources, provide a detailed anthropometric description of young adults in the United States. Methods The reliability of Add Health in-home anthropometric measures was estimated from repeat examinations of a random subsample of study participants. A digit preference analysis evaluated the quality of anthropometric data recorded by field interviewers. The adjusted odds of obesity and central obesity in Add Health vs. NHANES were estimated with logistic regression. Results Short-term reliabilities of in-home measures of height, weight, waist and arm circumference—as well as derived body mass index (BMI, kg/m2)—were excellent. Prevalence of obesity (37% vs. 29%) and central obesity (47% vs. 38%) was higher in Add Health than in NHANES while socio-demographic patterns of obesity and central obesity were comparable in the two studies. Conclusions Properly trained non-medical field interviewers can collect reliable anthropometric data in a nationwide, home visit study. This national cohort of young adults in the United States faces a high risk of early-onset chronic disease and premature mortality. PMID:26146486

  8. Flexible Filter Bank Based on an Improved Weighted Overlap-Add Algorithm for Processing Wide Bandwidth Radio Astronomy Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianhai; Meng, Qiao; Han, J. L.; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Jianwei

    2015-12-01

    Wideband signals from a radio telescope have to be channelized for spectral observations or for dedispersion for pulsar observations. A polyphase filter bank is designed based on the improved weighted overlap-add (IWOLA) algorithm to achieve channelization. The IWOLA algorithm involves applying an equivalent Hilbert transform to the normal WOLA filter bank by shifting the center frequency of every sub-band by a half of the frequency bin, so that the IWOLA filter bank provides K independently output complex subbands instead of the usual K + 1 sub-bands, reducing the subsequent processing units by one set. Performance of the proposed IWOLA filter bank is analyzed by means of MATLAB simulations. We show how the IWOLA filter bank can be used for a two-stage, high-resolution spectrometer, with a much reduced consumption of FPGA on-chip block RAM.

  9. Weight considerations in psychotropic drug prescribing and switching.

    PubMed

    Hasnain, Mehrul; Vieweg, W Victor R

    2013-09-01

    Our review describes potential weight-altering effects of psychotropic medications (antipsychotics, antidepressants, anti-anxiety medications, mood stabilizers, sedative-hypnotics, medications for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and other psychotropic medications) and offers guidance on switching a medication if its weight-altering effect becomes problematic. For second-generation antipsychotics, the risk of weight gain is high with clozapine and olanzapine, low with amisulpride, aripiprazole, and ziprasidone, and medium with other second-generation antipsychotics. Switching from a high-risk antipsychotic to a low-risk antipsychotic usually mitigates or reverses weight gain. For second-generation antidepressants, there may be modest weight loss with bupropion and modest weight gain with mirtazapine and paroxetine. Other second-generation antidepressants are weight neutral but individual variations can occur. If significant change in weight occurs, switching to or adding a low-risk second-generation antidepressant should be considered. Mood stabilizers include lithium, valproate, carbamazepine, lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine, and most second-generation antipsychotics. Risk of weight gain is high with lithium and valproate and low with carbamazepine, lamotrigine, and oxcarbazepine. Given the complexity of bipolar disorder and its management, a switch of a mood stabilizer would be best done by a psychiatrist. Benzodiazepines, non-benzodiazepine and melatonergic hypnotics, doxepin, and trazodone are weight neutral. Diphenhydramine may cause weight-gain and can be switched to a weight-neutral hypnotic if needed. Stimulants can cause varying degrees of weight loss and switching to atomoxetine or bupropion may reverse this problem. If that fails, switching to clonidine or guanfacine can be tried. Switching must be evidence-based and take into account status of the condition being treated, efficacy, side effect profile, potential drug-drug interactions, required

  10. Power and weight considerations in small, agile quadrotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulgaonkar, Yash; Whitzer, Michael; Morgan, Brian; Kroninger, Christopher M.; Harrington, Aaron M.; Kumar, Vijay

    2014-06-01

    The development of autonomous Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) is significantly constrained by their size, weight and power consumption. In this paper, we explore the energetics of quadrotor platforms and study the scaling of mass, inertia, lift and drag with their characteristic length. The effects of length scale on masses and inertias associated with various components are also investigated. Additionally, a study of Lithium Polymer battery performance is presented in terms of specific power and specific energy. Finally, we describe the power and energy consumption for different quadrotors and explore the dependence on size and mass for static hover tests as well as representative maneuvers.

  11. 48 CFR 915.404-4-70-8 - Weighted guidelines application considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Weighted guidelines....404-4-70-8 Weighted guidelines application considerations. The Department has developed internal procedures to aid the contracting officer in the application of weighted guidelines and to assure...

  12. 48 CFR 915.404-4-70-8 - Weighted guidelines application considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Weighted guidelines....404-4-70-8 Weighted guidelines application considerations. The Department has developed internal procedures to aid the contracting officer in the application of weighted guidelines and to assure...

  13. 48 CFR 915.404-4-70-8 - Weighted guidelines application considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Weighted guidelines....404-4-70-8 Weighted guidelines application considerations. The Department has developed internal procedures to aid the contracting officer in the application of weighted guidelines and to assure...

  14. 48 CFR 915.404-4-70-8 - Weighted guidelines application considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Weighted guidelines....404-4-70-8 Weighted guidelines application considerations. The Department has developed internal procedures to aid the contracting officer in the application of weighted guidelines and to assure...

  15. 48 CFR 915.404-4-70-8 - Weighted guidelines application considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Weighted guidelines....404-4-70-8 Weighted guidelines application considerations. The Department has developed internal procedures to aid the contracting officer in the application of weighted guidelines and to assure...

  16. Physical activity, genetic, and nutritional considerations in childhood weight management.

    PubMed

    Bar-Or, O; Foreyt, J; Bouchard, C; Brownell, K D; Dietz, W H; Ravussin, E; Salbe, A D; Schwenger, S; St Jeor, S; Torun, B

    1998-01-01

    Almost one-quarter of U.S. children are now obese, a dramatic increase of over 20% in the past decade. It is intriguing that the increase in prevalence has been occurring while overall fat consumption has been declining. Body mass and composition are influenced by genetic factors, but the actual heritability of juvenile obesity is not known. A low physical activity (PA) is characteristic of obese children and adolescents, and it may be one cause of juvenile obesity. There is little evidence, however, that overall energy expenditure is low among the obese. There is a strong association between the prevalence of obesity and the extent of TV viewing. Enhanced PA can reduce body fat and blood pressure and improve lipoprotein profile in obese individuals. Its effect on body composition, however, is slower than with low-calorie diets. The three main dietary approaches are: protein sparing modified fast, balanced hypocaloric diets, and comprehensive behavioral lifestyle programs. To achieve long-standing control of overweight, one should combine changes in eating and activity patterns, using behavior modification techniques. However, the onus is also on society to reduce incentives for a sedentary lifestyle and over-consumption of food. To address the key issues related to childhood weight management, the American College of Sports Medicine convened a Scientific Roundtable in Indianapolis. PMID:9475638

  17. Considerations for protein intake in managing weight loss in athletes.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Caoileann H; Hector, Amy J; Phillips, Stuart M

    2015-01-01

    A large body of evidence now shows that higher protein intakes (2-3 times the protein Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of 0.8 g/kg/d) during periods of energy restriction can enhance fat-free mass (FFM) preservation, particularly when combined with exercise. The mechanisms underpinning the FFM-sparing effect of higher protein diets remain to be fully elucidated but may relate to the maintenance of the anabolic sensitivity of skeletal muscle to protein ingestion. From a practical point of view, athletes aiming to reduce fat mass and preserve FFM should be advised to consume protein intakes in the range of ∼1.8-2.7 g kg(-1) d(-1) (or ∼2.3-3.1 g kg(-1) FFM) in combination with a moderate energy deficit (-500 kcal) and the performance of some form of resistance exercise. The target level of protein intake within this recommended range requires consideration of a number of case-specific factors including the athlete's body composition, habitual protein intake and broader nutrition goals. Athletes should focus on consuming high-quality protein sources, aiming to consume protein feedings evenly spaced throughout the day. Post-exercise consumption of 0.25-0.3 g protein meal(-1) from protein sources with high leucine content and rapid digestion kinetics (i.e. whey protein) is recommended to optimise exercise-induced muscle protein synthesis. When protein is consumed as part of a mixed macronutrient meal and/or before bed slightly higher protein doses may be optimal. PMID:25014731

  18. "That camera adds ten pounds!:" women's reactions to visual weight-related feedback and the role of trait body checking.

    PubMed

    Mills, Jennifer S; Shikatani, Bethany A; Tiggemann, Marika; Hollitt, Sarah J

    2014-09-01

    In Study 1 women were randomly assigned to viewing: (1) no photo of themselves, (2) an accurate, full-body photo, (3) a photo modified to make them appear thinner than usual, or (4) a photo modified to make them appear heavier than usual. Measures of mood, state self-esteem, and body dissatisfaction were completed. There were no main effects of photo condition; participants were generally poor at perceiving weight change. The heavier that participants thought they looked in their photo as compared to usual, the worse their appearance self-esteem and body dissatisfaction. Study 2 replicated these results and found that participants with higher levels of trait body checking were more likely to report that they looked heavier than usual in the photo. Study 3 replicated these results and found that the correlation between body parts checking and how participants thought they looked in the photo held true even after controlling for appearance investment. PMID:25173668

  19. Considerations affecting the additional weight required in mass balance of ailerons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, W S

    1937-01-01

    This paper is essentially a consideration of mass balance of ailerons from a preliminary design standpoint, in which the extra weight of the mass counterbalance is the most important phase of the problem. Equations are developed for the required balance weight for a simple aileron and this weight is correlated with the mass-balance coefficient. It is concluded the location of the c.g. of the basic aileron is of paramount importance and that complete mass balance imposes no great weight penalty if the aileron is designed to have its c.g. inherently near to the hinge axis.

  20. Operational considerations in specifying legal weight vehicles for the highway transport of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, C V; Rutenkroger, E O; Ratledge, J E

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a research project in which tractor manufacturers and carrier companies were interviewed to gather information on operational concerns in specifying a tractor to haul legal weight spent fuel casks. The system was assumed to operate very close to the 80,000 pound legal weight limit. Safety, performance, reliability, and maintainability of equipment were factors given particular attention. The interaction between driver fatigue, safety, and equipment was also discussed. Innovative operating strategies that could save weight were discussed. The paper concluded that operational considerations require that planners working with standard off-the-shelf tractor equipment should allow at least 17,350 pounds for the weight of the tractor as a starting point from which further weight reduction analysis can proceed. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Increasing scientific confidence in adverse outcome pathways: Application of tailored Bradford-Hill considerations for evaluating weight of evidence

    EPA Science Inventory

    Systematic consideration of scientific support is a critical element in developing and, ultimately, using adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) for various regulatory applications. Though weight of evidence (WoE) analysis has been proposed as a basis for assessment of the maturity and...

  2. In silico tools and transcriptomics analyses in the mutagenicity assessment of cosmetic ingredients: a proof-of-principle on how to add weight to the evidence.

    PubMed

    Ates, Gamze; Raitano, Giuseppa; Heymans, Anja; Van Bossuyt, Melissa; Vanparys, Philippe; Mertens, Birgit; Chesne, Christophe; Roncaglioni, Alessandra; Milushev, Dimiter; Benfenati, Emilio; Rogiers, Vera; Doktorova, Tatyana Y

    2016-07-01

    Prior to the downstream development of chemical substances, including pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, their influence on the genetic apparatus has to be tested. Several in vitro and in vivo assays have been developed to test for genotoxicity. In a first tier, a battery of two to three in vitro tests is recommended to cover mutagenicity, clastogenicity and aneugenicity as main endpoints. This regulatory in vitro test battery is known to have a high sensitivity, which is at the expense of the specificity. The high number of false positive in vitro results leads to excessive in vivo follow-up studies. In the case of cosmetics it may even induce the ban of the particular compound since in Europe the use of experimental animals is no longer allowed for cosmetics. In this article, an alternative approach to derisk a misleading positive Ames test is explored. Hereto we first tested the performance of five existing computational tools to predict the potential mutagenicity of a data set of 132 cosmetic compounds with a known genotoxicity profile. Furthermore, we present, as a proof-of-principle, a strategy in which a combination of computational tools and mechanistic information derived from in vitro transcriptomics analyses is used to derisk a misleading positive Ames test result. Our data shows that this strategy may represent a valuable tool in a weight-of-evidence approach to further evaluate a positive outcome in an Ames test. PMID:26980085

  3. Socioeconomic Gradients and Low Birth-Weight: Empirical and Policy Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Finch, Brian Karl

    2003-01-01

    Objective To examine whether socioeconomic status (SES) gradients emerge in health outcomes as early as birth and to examine the magnitude, potential sources, and explanations of any observed SES gradients. Data Sources The National Maternal and Infant Health Survey conducted in 1988. Study Design A multinomial logistic regression of trichotomized birth-weight categories was conducted for normal birth-weight (2,500–5,500 grams), low birth-weight (LBWT; <2,500 grams), and heavy birth-weight (>5,500 grams). Key variables included income, education, occupational grade, state-level income inequality, and length of participation in Women-Infants-Children (WIC) for pregnant mothers. Principal Findings A socioeconomic gradient for low birth-weight was discovered for an adjusted household income measure, net of all covariates in the unrestricted models. A gross effect of maternal education was explained by maternal smoking behaviors, while no effect of occupational grade was observed, net of household income. There were no significant state-level income inequality effects (Gini coefficient) for any of the models. In addition, participation in WIC was discovered to substantially flatten income gradients for short-term participants and virtually eliminate an income gradient among long-term participants. Conclusions Although a materialist explanation for early-life SES gradients seems the most plausible (vis-à-vis psychosocial and occupational explanations), more research is needed to discover potential interventions. In addition, the notion of a monotonic gradient in which income is salutary across the full range of the distribution is challenged by these data such that income may cease to be beneficial after a given threshold. Finally, the success of WIC participation in flattening SES gradients argues for either: (a) the experimental efficacy of WIC, or (b) the biasing selection characteristics of WIC participants; either conclusion suggests that interventions or

  4. Considering Patient Diet Preference to Optimize Weight Loss: Design Considerations of a Randomized Trial Investigating the Impact of Choice

    PubMed Central

    Yancy, William S.; Coffman, Cynthia J.; Geiselman, Paula J.; Kolotkin, Ronette L.; Almirall, Daniel; Oddone, Eugene Z.; Mayer, Stephanie B.; Gaillard, Leslie A.; Turner, Marsha; Smith, Valerie A.; Voils, Corrine I.

    2015-01-01

    A variety of diet approaches achieve moderate weight loss in many individuals. Yet, most diet interventions fail to achieve meaningful weight loss in more than a few individuals, likely due to inadequate adherence to the diet. It is widely conjectured that targeting the diet to an individual's food preferences will enhance adherence, thereby improving weight loss. This article describes the design considerations of a study protocol aimed at testing this hypothesis. The study is a 2-arm randomized trial recruiting 216 medical outpatients with BMI ≥30 kg/m2 followed for 48 weeks. Participants in the experimental arm (Choice) select from two of the most widely studied diets for weight loss, a low-carbohydrate, calorie-unrestricted diet (LCD) or a low-fat, reduced-calorie diet (LFD). The participant's choice is informed by results from a validated food preference questionnaire and a discussion of diet options with trained personnel. Choice participants are given the option to switch to the other diet after three months, if desired. Participants in the Control arm are randomly assigned to follow one of the two diets for the duration of follow-up. The primary outcome is weight assessed every 2-4 weeks for 48 weeks. Secondary outcomes include adherence to diet by food frequency questionnaire and obesity-specific health-related quality of life. If assisting patients to choose their diet enhances adherence and increases weight loss, the results will support the provision of diet options to patients who desire weight loss, and bring us one step closer to remediating the obesity epidemic faced by our healthcare systems. PMID:23506974

  5. Philanthropies Add Weight to "i3" Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.; McNeil, Michele

    2010-01-01

    The author reports on a new effort by 12 major education philanthropies that aims to dovetail with the Education Department's "i3" agenda, raising complex issues. The decision by a dozen major education grantmakers to team up on an initiative designed to dovetail with the federal "Investing in Innovation" grant competition is being seen by…

  6. Growth stanzas in an Epinephelidae-Lutjanidae complex: considerations to length-weight relationships.

    PubMed

    Renán, Ximena; Trejo-Martínez, Jorge; Caballero-Arango, Doralice; Brulé, Thierry

    2015-03-01

    Growth stanzas or abrupt changes in growth rates are present throughout the life span of fish. Identifying growth stanzas will help to adequately described growth taking into account that fishes are indeterminate growers. In this study, we used length-weight (L-W) relationships to analyze the growth stanzas in the Grouper-Snapper complex of Southern Gulf of Mexico. For this, the type of sexuality, sex and different sexual maturity phase were considered in the analyses of three species of gonochoric Snappers (Lutjanidae) and six species of protogynous hermaphrodite Groupers (Epinephelidae). Welch ANOVA tests were carried out to deter- mine the existence of differences in length and weight between juveniles and adults per sex. According to the observed differences, L-W relationship parameters (a and b), standard error (SE b) and coefficients of determination (R2) were calculated for all species separately by sex and sexual maturity phase. Snappers' juvenile-females b-value ranged from 2.44-2.77, juvenile-males from 2.16-2.94, adult-females from 2.63-2.80 and adult-males from 2.63-2.98. Groupers' b-value ranged for juvenile-females 2.66-3.20, adult-females from 2.73-3.31 and for adult-males 2.93-3.29. For each relationship b-value was 1-tested (-Student) to explore differences from the allometric coefficient (b=3), which indicated changes in body form. Hypothesis test, for regression slopes (b) between Snappers' juvenile-females vs. adult-females and juvenile-males vs. adult-males and Groupers' juvenile-females vs. adult-females and adult-females vs. adult-males, indicated different growth stanzas related to gonadal development for Snappers, and to gonadal development and sex change in Groupers. The identification of growth stanzas is crucial to avoid an overestimation or misleading growth rate which is used in fisheries management to establish some target reference points, such as maximum sustainable yield or yield-per-recruit. PMID:26299123

  7. Body Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... heart failure, and kidney disease. Good nutrition and exercise can help in losing weight. Eating extra calories within a well-balanced diet and treating any underlying medical problems can help to add weight.

  8. Body Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... to medicines, thyroid problems, heart failure, and kidney disease. Good nutrition and exercise can help in losing weight. Eating extra calories within a well-balanced diet and treating any underlying medical problems can help to add weight.

  9. Empirical analysis of gross vehicle weight and free flow speed and consideration on its relation with differential speed limit.

    PubMed

    Saifizul, Ahmad Abdullah; Yamanaka, Hideo; Karim, Mohamed Rehan

    2011-05-01

    Most highly motorized countries in the world have implemented different speed limits for light weight and heavy weight vehicles. The heavy vehicle speed limit is usually chosen to be lower than that of passenger cars due to the difficulty for the drivers to safely maneuver the heavy vehicle at high speed and greater impact during a crash. However, in many cases, the speed limit for heavy vehicle is set by only considering the vehicle size or category, mostly due to simplicity in enforcement. In this study, traffic and vehicular data for all vehicle types were collected using a weigh-in-motion system installed at Federal Route 54 in Malaysia. The first finding from the data showed that the weight variation for each vehicle category is considerable. Therefore, the effect of gross vehicle weight (GVW) and category of heavy vehicle on free flow speed and their interaction were analyzed using statistical techniques. Empirical analysis results showed that statistically for each type of heavy vehicle, there was a significant relationship between free flow speed of a heavy vehicle and GVW. Specifically, the results suggest that the mean and variance of free flow speed decrease with an increase GVW by the amount unrelated to size and shape for all GVW range. Then, based on the 85th percentile principle, the study proposed a new concept for setting the speed limit for heavy vehicle by incorporating GVW where a different speed limit is imposed to the heavy vehicle, not only based on vehicle classification, but also according to its GVW. PMID:21376903

  10. ADD psychosis as a separate entity.

    PubMed

    Bellak, L

    1985-01-01

    "Attention deficit disorder (ADD) psychosis" merits delineation as a separate entity. It constitutes the end result of the effects of a certain particular neurological deficit (ADD) on personality organization. It is my belief that about 10 percent of psychoses currently diagnosed most often schizophrenic and sometimes affective psychosis must best be considered a separate organic psychosis, i.e., an ADD psychosis. This ADD psychosis, then, is not merely a subgroup of schizophrenia, as I once thought. It merits a separate designation because its etiology, pathogenesis, and life history are different from those of the schizophrenic syndrome. The family histories are also different, as are the psychological findings. The treatment response is so different that it merits urgent consideration. Prognosis, both short range and long range, also seems different from those of the other psychoses. PMID:4081648

  11. Frequency-Weighting Filter Selection, for H2 Control of Microgravity Isolation Systems: A Consideration of the "Implicit Frequency Weighting" Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampton, Roy David; Whorton, Mark S.

    1999-01-01

    Many space-science experiments need an active isolation system to provide them with the requisite microgravity environment. The isolation systems planned for use with the International Space Station (ISS) have been appropriately modeled using relative position, relative velocity, and acceleration states. In theory, frequency-weighting design filters can be applied to these state-space models, in order to develop optimal H2 or mixed-norm controllers with desired stability and performance characteristics. In practice, however, since there is a kinematic relationship among the various states, any frequency weighting applied to one state will implicitly weight other states. These implicit frequency-weighting effects must be considered, for intelligent frequency-weighting filter assignment. This paper suggests a rational approach to the assignment of frequency-weighting design filters, in the presence of the kinematic coupling among states that exists in the microgravity vibration isolation problem.

  12. Shift-and-add for astronomical imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ribak, Erez; Hege, E. Keith; Strobel, Nicolas V.; Christou, Julian C.

    1989-01-01

    Diffraction-limited astronomical images have been obtained utilizing a variant of the shift-and-add method. It is shown that the matched filter approach for extending the weighted shift-and-add method reduces specklegrams from extended objects and from an object dominated by photon noise. The method is aberration-insensitive and yields very high dynamic range results. The iterative method for arriving at the matched filter does not automatically converge in the case of photon-noisy specklegrams for objects with more than one maximum.

  13. Weighting Tasks from Job Analysis Data To Derive Test Specifications for Licensure Examinations: Some Methodological and Statistical Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Leslie; Kalohn, John C.

    Test specifications dictate the kind of content that should be included on each form of an examination, and the relative weight that each content domain should contribute to the determination of examinees' test scores by specifying the proportion of items to be included in each content area. This paper addresses a step in the development of…

  14. Diabetes Steals Years, Adds Disabilities

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_158312.html Diabetes Steals Years, Adds Disabilities Middle-aged adults will lose more than 3 ... with diabetes die earlier and suffer longer with disabilities than men and women without the blood-sugar ...

  15. Selecting an Architecture for a Safety-Critical Distributed Computer System with Power, Weight and Cost Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo

    2014-01-01

    This report presents an example of the application of multi-criteria decision analysis to the selection of an architecture for a safety-critical distributed computer system. The design problem includes constraints on minimum system availability and integrity, and the decision is based on the optimal balance of power, weight and cost. The analysis process includes the generation of alternative architectures, evaluation of individual decision criteria, and the selection of an alternative based on overall value. In this example presented here, iterative application of the quantitative evaluation process made it possible to deliberately generate an alternative architecture that is superior to all others regardless of the relative importance of cost.

  16. Fundamental considerations in the effect of molecular weight on the glass transition of the gelatin/cosolute system.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bin; Kasapis, Stefan; Kontogiorgos, Vassilis

    2012-05-01

    Four molecular fractions of gelatin produced by alkaline hydrolysis of collagen were investigated in the presence of cosolute to record the mechanical properties of the glass transition in high-solid preparations. Dynamic oscillatory and stress relaxation moduli in shear were recorded from 40°C to temperatures as low as -60°C. The small-deformation behavior of these linear polymers was separated by the method of reduced variables into a basic function of time alone and a basic function of temperature alone. The former allowed the reduction of isothermal runs into a master curve covering 17 orders of magnitude in the time domain. The latter follows the passage from the rubbery plateau through the glass transition region to the glassy state seen in the variation of shift factor, a(T) , as a function of temperature. The mechanical glass transition temperature (T(g) ) is pinpointed at the operational threshold of the free volume theory and the predictions of the reaction rate theory. Additional insights into molecular dynamics are obtained via the coupling model of cooperativity, which introduces the concept of coupling constant or interaction strength of local segmental motions that govern structural relaxation at the vicinity of T(g) . The molecular weight of the four gelatin fractions appears to have a profound effect on the transition temperature or coupling constant of vitrified matrices, as does the protein chemistry in relation to that of amorphous synthetic polymers or gelling polysaccharides. PMID:22189701

  17. Firefox add-ons for medical reference.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Matthew B

    2010-07-01

    Firefox is a Web browser created by the Mozilla project, an open-source software group. Features of the browser include automated updates, advanced security and standards compliance, and the ability to add functionality through add-ons and extensions. First introduced in 2004, Firefox now accounts for roughly 30% of the browser market. This article will focus primarily on add-ons and extensions available for the browser that are useful to medical researchers. PMID:20677067

  18. Inviting Calm Within: ADD, Neurology, and Mindfulness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riner, Phillip S.; Tanase, Madalina

    2014-01-01

    The fourth edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" ("DSM IV") describes ADD as behaviorally observed impairments in attention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Officially known as AD/HD, we use ADD here because we are dealing primarily with attention, organizational, and impulsivity issues. A more…

  19. ADD Teacher Inservice Project. Final Grant Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Mark C.; Schulz, Eldon G.

    The report describes activities and achievements of the Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) Teacher Inservice Project. The inservice program was developed using a formal process to identify the critical issues related to ADD awareness, assessment, and intervention. Program content was designed to address critical issues identified in the research…

  20. 76 FR 47240 - ``Add Us In'' Initiative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... of Disability Employment Policy ``Add Us In'' Initiative AGENCY: Office of Disability Employment.... Department of Labor (``DOL'' or ``Department''), Office of Disability Employment Policy (ODEP) announces the... historically excluded communities, to employ youth and adults with disabilities. Add Us In aims to...

  1. Congruence of Behavioral Symptomatology in Children with ADD/H, ADD/WO, and Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford, Lisa D.; Hynd, George W.

    1994-01-01

    This study compared parent and teacher behavioral ratings for 77 children (ages 5-16) diagnosed as having attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADD/H), attention deficit disorder without hyperactivity (ADD/WO), or learning disabilities (LD). ADD/WO and LD children were rated similarly on symptoms of withdrawal and impulsivity but differed…

  2. Some optimal considerations in attitude control systems. [evaluation of value of relative weighting between time and fuel for relay control law

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boland, J. S., III

    1973-01-01

    The conventional six-engine reaction control jet relay attitude control law with deadband is shown to be a good linear approximation to a weighted time-fuel optimal control law. Techniques for evaluating the value of the relative weighting between time and fuel for a particular relay control law is studied along with techniques to interrelate other parameters for the two control laws. Vehicle attitude control laws employing control moment gyros are then investigated. Steering laws obtained from the expression for the reaction torque of the gyro configuration are compared to a total optimal attitude control law that is derived from optimal linear regulator theory. This total optimal attitude control law has computational disadvantages in the solving of the matrix Riccati equation. Several computational algorithms for solving the matrix Riccati equation are investigated with respect to accuracy, computational storage requirements, and computational speed.

  3. Considerations for the use of restricted, soaked grass hay diets to promote weight loss in the management of equine metabolic syndrome and obesity.

    PubMed

    Argo, Caroline McG; Dugdale, Alexandra H A; McGowan, Catherine M

    2015-11-01

    The addition of hay soaking to current nutritional advice for weight loss management for equine obesity lacks clinical evidence. Twelve overweight/obese horses and ponies were used to test the hypothesis that feeding soaked hay at 1.25% of body mass (BM) daily as dry matter (DM) before soaking would elicit weight losses within the target 0.5-1.0% of BM weekly. Six animals were used to evaluate the impact of nutrient-leaching on the digestibility and daily intakes of dietary energy and nutrients. Soaked hay DM was corrected in accordance with the 'insoluble' ADF content of fresh and soaked hays. The ADF-based method was validated using a test-soaking protocol. Animals fed soaked hay for 6 weeks lost 0.98 ± 0.10% of BM weekly. The most weight loss sensitive animal lost ~2% of BM weekly. Soaking hay did not alter DM gross energy concentrations, incurred losses of water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) and ash and increased acid detergent fibre (ADF) concentrations. Digestibilities of GE, DM, ash and WSC were unaltered but soaking increased uncorrected values for crude protein (+12%) and ADF (+13.5%) digestibility. Corrected DM provision was only 1% of BM daily, providing 64% of maintenance DE requirements, a 23.5% increase in the intended magnitude of energy restriction. Hay soaking leached nutrients, reduced DM and DE provision and was associated with accelerated weight losses over those expected had fresh-hay been fed to the same level. The ADF-based method will allow the predictive evaluation of individual hays to direct feeding management and prevent inadvertently severe DM and energy restriction. PMID:26403956

  4. Image restoration by the shift-and-add algorithm.

    PubMed

    Bagnuolo, W G

    1985-05-01

    A new method for image restoration based on the shift-and-add (SAA) algorithm is presented, the main advantages of which appear to be speed and simplicity. The SAA pattern produced by an object is given by the object correlated by a nonlinear replica of itself whose intensity distribution is strongly weighted toward the brighter pixels. A method of successive substitutions analogous to Fienup's algorithm can then be used to decorrelate the SAA pattern and recover the object. The method is applied to the case of the extended chromosphere of Betelgeuse. PMID:19724393

  5. Nonreciprocal photonic crystal add-drop filter

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Keyu; Xiao, Jun-Jun; Yin, Xiaobo

    2014-11-24

    We present a versatile add-drop integrated photonic filter (ADF) consisting of nonreciprocal waveguides in which the propagation of light is restricted in one predetermined direction. With the bus and add/drop waveguides symmetrically coupled through a cavity, the four-port device allows each individual port to add and/or drop a signal of the same frequency. The scheme is general and we demonstrate the nonreciprocal ADF with magneto-optical photonic crystals. The filter is immune to waveguide defects, allowing straightforward implementation of multi-channel ADFs by cascading the four-port designs. The results should find applications in wavelength-division multiplexing and related integrated photonic techniques.

  6. Consideration of the ICRP 2006 revised tissue weighting factors on age-dependent values of the effective dose for external photons.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choonsik; Lee, Choonik; Han, Eun Young; Bolch, Wesley E

    2007-01-01

    The effective dose recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is the sum of organ equivalent doses weighted by corresponding tissue weighting factors, w(T). ICRP is in the process of revising its 1990 recommendations on the effective dose where new values of organs and tissue weighting factors have been proposed and published in draft form for consultation by the radiological protection community. In its 5 June 2006 draft recommendations, new organs and tissues have been introduced in the effective dose which do not exist within the 1987 Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) phantom series (e.g., salivary glands). Recently, the investigators at University of Florida have updated the series of ORNL phantoms by implementing new organ models and adopting organ-specific elemental composition and densities. In this study, the effective dose changes caused by the transition from the current recommendation of ICRP Publication 60 to the 2006 draft recommendations were investigated for external photon irradiation across the range of ICRP reference ages (newborn, 1-year, 5-year, 10-year, 15-year and adult) and for six idealized irradiation geometries: anterior-posterior (AP), posterior-anterior (PA), left-lateral (LLAT), right-lateral (RLAT), rotational (ROT) and isotropic (ISO). Organ-absorbed doses were calculated by implementing the revised ORNL phantoms in the Monte Carlo radiation transport code, MCNPX2.5, after which effective doses were calculated under the 1990 and draft 2006 evaluation schemes of the ICRP. Effective doses calculated under the 2006 draft scheme were slightly higher than estimated under ICRP Publication 60 methods for all irradiation geometries exclusive of the AP geometry where an opposite trend was observed. The effective doses of the adult phantom were more greatly affected by the change in tissue weighting factors than that seen within the paediatric members of the phantom series. Additionally, dose conversion

  7. Educational Interventions for Students with ADD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salend, Spencer J.; Elhoweris, Hala; van Garderen, Delinda

    2003-01-01

    Principles of educational interventions for students with attention deficit disorder (ADD) include: (1) giving complete and thorough directions; (2) individualizing in-class and homework assignments; (3) motivating students; (4) promoting active responding and monitoring understanding; (5) employing content enhancements; (6) offering learning…

  8. 76 FR 49508 - ``Add Us In'' Initiative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... Federal Register on August 4, 2011 at 76 FR 150. Specifically, we are correcting the Funding Opportunity... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of Disability Employment Program ``Add Us In'' Initiative AGENCY: Office of Disability...

  9. User's manual for Axisymmetric Diffuser Duct (ADD) code. Volume 1: General ADD code description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, O. L.; Hankins, G. B., Jr.; Edwards, D. E.

    1982-01-01

    This User's Manual contains a complete description of the computer codes known as the AXISYMMETRIC DIFFUSER DUCT code or ADD code. It includes a list of references which describe the formulation of the ADD code and comparisons of calculation with experimental flows. The input/output and general use of the code is described in the first volume. The second volume contains a detailed description of the code including the global structure of the code, list of FORTRAN variables, and descriptions of the subroutines. The third volume contains a detailed description of the CODUCT code which generates coordinate systems for arbitrary axisymmetric ducts.

  10. User's manual for Axisymmetric Diffuser Duct (ADD) code. Volume 3: ADD code coordinate generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, O. L.; Hankins, G. B., Jr.; Edwards, D. E.

    1982-01-01

    This User's Manual contains a complete description of the computer codes known as the Axisymmetric Diffuser Duct (ADD) code. It includes a list of references which describe the formulation of the ADD code and comparisons of calculation with experimental flows. The input/output and general use of the code is described in the first volume. The second volume contains a detailed description of the code including the global structure of the code, list of FORTRAN variables, and descriptions of the subroutines. The third volume contains a detailed description of the CODUCT code which generates coordinate systems for arbitrary axisymmetric ducts.

  11. Independents add gas reserves, forego romance

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, D.

    1981-08-01

    Incentive pricing for low-permeability reservoirs and tax advantages for drilling them are 2 big reasons why more independents may start making a special effort to add gas reserves to their inventories. If so, it will be a change from past practices, which saw independents build up big gas positions by circumstance rather than by intention. There are always major refiners ready and willing to buy whole crude oil reservoirs from small producers, but purchasers willing to take gas fields in a single investment are few and far between. Lower-than-normal return on equity during the first 20 years, plus the heavy front-end cost of a frac necessary to produce the tight gas might dissuade independents from drilling tight gas sands, but those liabilities are offset by the higher price tight gas gets and the peculiar tax advantages of exploring for it that make a nice fit with the small operator's way of doing business.

  12. Using Joint Interviews to Add Analytic Value.

    PubMed

    Polak, Louisa; Green, Judith

    2016-10-01

    Joint interviewing has been frequently used in health research, and is the subject of a growing methodological literature. We review this literature, and build on it by drawing on a case study of how people make decisions about taking statins. This highlights two ways in which a dyadic approach to joint interviewing can add analytic value compared with individual interviewing. First, the analysis of interaction within joint interviews can help to explicate tacit knowledge and to illuminate the range of often hard-to-access resources that are drawn upon in making decisions. Second, joint interviews mitigate some of the weaknesses of interviewing as a method for studying practices; we offer a cautious defense of the often-tacit assumption that the "naturalness" of joint interviews strengthens their credibility as the basis for analytic inferences. We suggest that joint interviews are a particularly appropriate method for studying complex shared practices such as making health decisions. PMID:25850721

  13. User's manual for Axisymmetric Diffuser Duct (ADD) code. Volume II. Detailed ADD code description

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, O.L.; Hankins, G.B. Jr.; Edwards, D.E.

    1982-02-01

    This section of the manual is intended for the special user who wishes to modify the ADD code or adopt the ADD code to a different computer. An overview of the code is provided in terms of the principal tasks. These principal tasks are clearly labeled in the main program ALTMN and agree with the tasks listed in the Global Task Chart and the Global Tree Structure. Internal flags, as opposed to input options, are described. These flags are set by the code and control the calculation flow between different subroutines. Flags used only within a subroutine are described in the detailed subroutine descriptions. Special problems associated with machine specific language are also described in this Section. The operation of a general I/O routine, which uses UNIVAC library I/O routine NTRAN, and a description of the data files is given. This general I/O routine has been developed to allow NTRAN compatibility with ANSI standard DEFINE FILE for easy conversion. The ADD code also uses a standard spline smoothing routine ICSVKU provided by International Mathematical and Statistical Libraries, Inc. The use of this subroutine is described. All labelled COMMON block and DIMENSION statements are set by INCLUDE statements. Block sizes and EQUIVALENCE statements are set by PARAMETER statements. The use of these in the code is described.

  14. Weight gain after quitting smoking: What to do

    MedlinePlus

    ... are at greater risk of putting on extra weight. Control your drinking. Alcohol, sugary sodas, and sweetened juices may go down easy, but they add up, and can lead to weight gain. Try sparkling water with 100% fruit juice or ...

  15. Anthocyanins and weight loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review evaluated the available scientific literature relative to anthocyanins and weight loss and/or obesity with mention of other effects of anthocyanins on pathologies that are closely related to obesity. Although there is considerable popular press concerning anthocyanins and weight loss, th...

  16. Social Capital: Does It Add to the Health Inequalities Debate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Neena L.; Funk, Laura M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper empirically examines the relationship between advantage, social capital and health status to assess (a) whether social capital adds explanatory power to what we already know about the relationship between advantage and health and (b) whether social capital adds anything beyond its component parts, namely social participation and trust.…

  17. Discovering Focus: Helping Students with ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valkenburg, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a neurological disorder which effects learning and that has a confusing set of diagnostic symptoms and an even more confusing set of remedies ranging from medication to meditation to nothing at all. Current neurological research suggests, however, that there are strategies that the individual with ADD can use to…

  18. Linagliptin as add-on therapy to insulin for patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    von Websky, Karoline; Reichetzeder, Christoph; Hocher, Berthold

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a highly prevalent, progressive disease that often is poorly controlled. The combination of an incretin-based therapy and insulin is a promising approach to optimize the management of glycemic control without hypoglycemia and weight gain. Linagliptin, a recently approved oral dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, has a unique pharmacological profile. The convenient, once-daily dosing does not need adjustment in patients with hepatic and/or renal impairment. In clinical studies linagliptin shows an important reduction of blood glucose with an overall safety profile similar to that of placebo. So far, the combination of linagliptin and insulin has been tested in three major clinical studies in different populations. It has been shown that linagliptin is an effective and safe add-on therapy to insulin in patients with T2DM. The efficacy and safety of this combination was also shown in vulnerable, elderly T2DM patients and in patients with T2DM and renal impairment. Favorable effects regarding the counteraction of hypoglycemia make linagliptin especially interesting as an add-on therapy to insulin. This review aims to present the existing clinical studies on the efficacy and safety of linagliptin as add-on therapy to insulin in patients with T2DM in the context of current literature. Additionally, the possible advantages of linagliptin as an add-on therapy to insulin in relation to cardiovascular safety, patient-centered therapy and the prevention of hypoglycemia, are discussed. PMID:24204157

  19. Bioethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Leyser-Whalen, Ophra; Lawson, Erma; Macdonald, Arlene; Temple, Jeff R; Phelps, John Y

    2014-11-01

    The clinical literature notes that pregnancy has become an expected benefit of solid organ transplant. Establishing "best practices" in the management of this particular transplant population requires careful consideration of the ethical dimensions, broadly speaking, of posttransplant pregnancies and these women's lived experiences. In this article, we present the current clinical and social science posttransplant pregnancy research. We specifically address the psychosocial and ethical issues surrounding preconception counseling and posttransplant health quality of life and mothering and suggest areas for future research. PMID:25151472

  20. Weighted aggregation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiveson, A. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The use of a weighted aggregation technique to improve the precision of the overall LACIE estimate is considered. The manner in which a weighted aggregation technique is implemented given a set of weights is described. The problem of variance estimation is discussed and the question of how to obtain the weights in an operational environment is addressed.

  1. Top 5 Ways to Help Students with ADD/ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    This article suggests five ways to help students with ADD/ADHD. These are: (1) Integrate the primitive reflexes; (2) Diet; (3) Visual attention; (4) Help for auditory attention; and (5) Cognitive training.

  2. Poor Sleep May Not Add to Cholesterol Problems, Study Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157561.html Poor Sleep May Not Add to Cholesterol Problems, Study Finds ... disease risk factors such as high cholesterol, because sleep apnea -- another type of sleep disorder -- has been ...

  3. TDRS-K to Add to Vital Space Network

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA officials discuss the launch of the TDRS-K spacecraft to add to the space network that enables communications between the International Space Station and Earth-orbiting satellites and ground c...

  4. Weight Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... obese. Achieving a healthy weight can help you control your cholesterol, blood pressure and blood sugar. It ... use more calories than you eat. A weight-control strategy might include Choosing low-fat, low-calorie ...

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION: ADD-ON NOX CONTROLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the environmental technology verification (ETV) of add-on nitrogen oxide (NOx) controls. Research Triangle Institute (RTI) is EPA's cooperating partner for the Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) Program, one of a dozen ETV pilot programs. Verification of ...

  6. Mode-routed fiber-optic add-drop filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moslehi, Behzad (Inventor); Black, Richard James (Inventor); Shaw, Herbert John (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    New elements mode-converting two-mode grating and mode-filtering two-mode coupler are disclosed and used as elements in a system for communications, add-drop filtering, and strain sensing. Methods of fabrication for these new two-mode gratings and mode-filtering two-mode couplers are also disclosed.

  7. ADD and ADHD: An Overview for School Counselors. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pledge, Deanna S.

    School counselors are often consultants for parents and teachers on problems that children and adolescents face. Attention deficit disorder (ADD) is one such problem. It is frequently misunderstood, presenting a challenge for parents and teachers alike. The counselor is a resource for initial identification and interventions at home and in the…

  8. Four Simple Ways to Add Movement in Daily Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helgeson, John

    2011-01-01

    Adding movement to classroom activities not only engages students, but also may improve the classroom climate and reduce disruptions. In this article, the author discusses four simple activities to add movement in daily lessons. These activities are: (1) Vocabulary/Notes around the Room; (2) Cooperative Learning: Posting Task Assignments; (3)…

  9. ERDA's portfolio: solar add-on device construction manuals

    SciTech Connect

    Barron, J.J.; Cole, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (ERDA) has developed a portfolio of eight (8) instructional manuals for the construction of the following solar add-on devices: thermosiphoning hot water system; standard domestic hot water system; bread box type hot water system; add-on greenhouse space heating system (with mass); add-on sunspace space heating system (without mass); thermosiphoning air panel space heating system; fan assisted air panel space heating system; Trombe wall space heating system. In addition to step-by-step instructions and illustrations of device construction, each manual contains a list of materials and specifications (including estimated costs in 1980 dollars and sources of supply), guidelines for appropriate siting and installation, and energy performance estimates under optimal and non-optimal conditions. This portfolio of solar add-on devices is directed toward the do-it-yourself homeowner, builders and home improvement contractors, and weatherization organizations. Each instruction manual is a complete, self-contained module suitable for distribution separately or as part of the portfolio. Each manual also has an educational module associated with it including color slides, which is designed for use by community colleges, industrial high schools and adult educational programs. An outline is presented of the content of the design packages,as well as a description of ERDA's plans for distribution of the designs and educating the public on their use, and information on how to obtain individual construction manuals or the entire portfolio.

  10. How HR Leaders Can Add Value to an Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smallwood, Norm; Ulrich, Dave

    2006-01-01

    Generally speaking, it is safe to say that human resource leaders whole-heartedly believe that the HR function should add value to an organization. However, many wonder where to start. In this article, the authors outline three ways in which the HR function, and the HR leader, can create sustained value for an organization and its stakeholders.

  11. Medicalised Pupils: The Case of ADD/ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansson, Kristjan

    2009-01-01

    Recent decades have seen an increasing number of life's problems conceptualised and interpreted through the prism of disease; among them are those affecting pupils at school. Witness the cases of hyperactivity and deficient attention, so often diagnosed as ADD/ADHD. Research indicates that there is at least some tendency towards overdiagnosis of…

  12. Enhancing Teaching using MATLAB Add-Ins for Excel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Paul V.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper I will illustrate how to extend the capabilities of Microsoft Excel spreadsheets with add-ins created by MATLAB. Excel provides a broad array of fundamental tools but often comes up short when more sophisticated scenarios are involved. To overcome this short-coming of Excel while retaining its ease of use, I will describe how…

  13. Accommodating College Students with Learning Disabilities: ADD, ADHD, and Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vickers, Melana Zyla

    2010-01-01

    Universities are providing extra time on tests, quiet exam rooms, in-class note-takers, and other assistance to college students with modest learning disabilities. But these policies are shrouded in secrecy. This paper, "Accommodating College Students with Learning Disabilities: ADD, ADHD, and Dyslexia," by Melana Zyla Vickers, examines the nature…

  14. Weight Management

    MedlinePlus

    ... Quit Smoking Benefits of Quitting Health Effects of Smoking Secondhand Smoke Withdrawal Ways to Quit QuitGuide Pregnancy & Motherhood Pregnancy & Motherhood Before Your Baby is Born From Birth to 2 Years Quitting for Two SmokefreeMom Healthy Kids Parenting & ... Weight Management Weight Management ...

  15. Feasibility study of veterinary antibiotic consumption in Germany - comparison of ADDs and UDDs by animal production type, antimicrobial class and indication

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Within a feasibility study the use of antibiotics in pigs and cattle was determined in 24 veterinary practices in Lower Saxony and on 66 farms in North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany. Focus was laid on the comparison of the Used Daily Doses (UDD) (dose per animal and day prescribed by the veterinarians) with the Defined Animal Daily Doses (ADD) (dose per animal and day calculated by means of recommended dosages and estimated live weights). Results For piglets and calves most of the UDD (50% and 46% of nUDD, respectively) were above the ADD (i.e. UDD/ADD-ratio above 1.25). Regarding sows, fattening pigs, dairy and beef cattle, most of the UDDs (49% to 65% of nUDD) were lower than the respective ADD (i.e. UDD/ADD-ratio below 0.8). In pigs, the UDDs of beta-lactams, fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins, and in cattle, those of macrolides and beta-lactams were often below the ADDs. Tetracyclines were frequently used above the recommended dose. Enteric diseases were more often treated below the recommended dose than respiratory diseases, possibly due to overestimation of the live weight (diarrhea in young animals, respiratory diseases in elder animals) and consequently overestimation of the recommended dose. Conclusion Comparisons between UDD and ADD can be used to observe differences between antimicrobials and trends in the usage of antibiotics. But individual treatment comparisons of UDD and ADD must be interpreted carefully, because they may be due to lower live weights than estimated. Correlating such data with data on the occurrence of resistant bacteria in future may help to improve resistance prevention and control. PMID:24401194

  16. Higher Curvature Effects in the ADD and RS Models

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzo, Thomas G.; /SLAC

    2006-07-05

    Over the last few years several extra-dimensional models have been introduced in attempt to deal with the hierarchy problem. These models can lead to rather unique and spectacular signatures at Terascale colliders such as the LHC and ILC. The ADD and RS models, though quite distinct, have many common feature including a constant curvature bulk, localized Standard Model(SM) fields and the assumption of the validity of the EH action as a description of gravitational interactions.

  17. Stereovision Imaging in Smart Mobile Phone Using Add on Prisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Magen Numhauser, Jonathan; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2014-03-01

    In this work we present the use of a prism-based add on component installed on top of a smart phone to achieve stereovision capabilities using iPhone mobile operating system. Through these components and the combination of the appropriate application programming interface and mathematical algorithms the obtained results will permit the analysis of possible enhancements for new uses to such system, in a variety of areas including medicine and communications.

  18. Randomized Controlled Trials of Add-On Antidepressants in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Joffe, Grigori; Stenberg, Jan-Henry

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite adequate treatment with antipsychotics, a substantial number of patients with schizophrenia demonstrate only suboptimal clinical outcome. To overcome this challenge, various psychopharmacological combination strategies have been used, including antidepressants added to antipsychotics. Methods: To analyze the efficacy of add-on antidepressants for the treatment of negative, positive, cognitive, depressive, and antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal symptoms in schizophrenia, published randomized controlled trials assessing the efficacy of adjunctive antidepressants in schizophrenia were reviewed using the following parameters: baseline clinical characteristics and number of patients, their on-going antipsychotic treatment, dosage of the add-on antidepressants, duration of the trial, efficacy measures, and outcomes. Results: There were 36 randomized controlled trials reported in 41 journal publications (n=1582). The antidepressants used were the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, duloxetine, imipramine, mianserin, mirtazapine, nefazodone, reboxetin, trazodone, and bupropion. Mirtazapine and mianserin showed somewhat consistent efficacy for negative symptoms and both seemed to enhance neurocognition. Trazodone and nefazodone appeared to improve the antipsychotics-induced extrapyramidal symptoms. Imipramine and duloxetine tended to improve depressive symptoms. No clear evidence supporting selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors’ efficacy on any clinical domain of schizophrenia was found. Add-on antidepressants did not worsen psychosis. Conclusions: Despite a substantial number of randomized controlled trials, the overall efficacy of add-on antidepressants in schizophrenia remains uncertain mainly due to methodological issues. Some differences in efficacy on several schizophrenia domains seem, however, to exist and to vary by the antidepressant subgroups—plausibly due to differences in the mechanisms of action. Antidepressants may not worsen

  19. Weight simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, W. H.; Young, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    Device applies compressive force to bone to minimize loss of bone calcium during weightlessness or bedrest. Force is applied through weights, or hydraulic, pneumatic or electrically actuated devices. Device is lightweight and easy to maintain and operate.

  20. Add-on unidirectional elastic metamaterial plate cloak

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Min Kyung; Kim, Yoon Young

    2016-01-01

    Metamaterial cloaks control the propagation of waves to make an object invisible or insensible. To manipulate elastic waves in space, a metamaterial cloak is typically embedded in a base system that includes or surrounds a target object. The embedding is undesirable because it structurally weakens or permanently alters the base system. In this study, we propose a new add-on metamaterial elastic cloak that can be placed over and mechanically coupled with a base structure without embedding. We designed an add-on type annular metamaterial plate cloak through conformal mapping, fabricated it and performed cloaking experiments in a thin-plate with a hole. Experiments were performed in a thin plate by using the lowest symmetric Lamb wave centered at 100 kHz. As a means to check the cloaking performance of the add-on elastic plate cloak, possibly as a temporary stress reliever or a so-called “stress bandage”, the degree of stress concentration mitigation and the recovery from the perturbed wave field due to a hole were investigated. PMID:26860896

  1. Optical add/drop filter for wavelength division multiplexed systems

    DOEpatents

    Deri, Robert J.; Strand, Oliver T.; Garrett, Henry E.

    2002-01-01

    An optical add/drop filter for wavelength division multiplexed systems and construction methods are disclosed. The add/drop filter includes a first ferrule having a first pre-formed opening for receiving a first optical fiber; an interference filter oriented to pass a first set of wavelengths along the first optical fiber and reflect a second set of wavelengths; and, a second ferrule having a second pre-formed opening for receiving the second optical fiber, and the reflected second set of wavelengths. A method for constructing the optical add/drop filter consists of the steps of forming a first set of openings in a first ferrule; inserting a first set of optical fibers into the first set of openings; forming a first set of guide pin openings in the first ferrule; dividing the first ferrule into a first ferrule portion and a second ferrule portion; forming an interference filter on the first ferrule portion; inserting guide pins through the first set of guide pin openings in the first ferrule portion and second ferrule portion to passively align the first set of optical fibers; removing material such that light reflected from the interference filter from the first set of optical fibers is accessible; forming a second set of openings in a second ferrule; inserting a second set of optical fibers into the second set of openings; and positioning the second ferrule with respect to the first ferrule such that the second set of optical fibers receive the light reflected from the interference filter.

  2. Add-on unidirectional elastic metamaterial plate cloak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Min Kyung; Kim, Yoon Young

    2016-02-01

    Metamaterial cloaks control the propagation of waves to make an object invisible or insensible. To manipulate elastic waves in space, a metamaterial cloak is typically embedded in a base system that includes or surrounds a target object. The embedding is undesirable because it structurally weakens or permanently alters the base system. In this study, we propose a new add-on metamaterial elastic cloak that can be placed over and mechanically coupled with a base structure without embedding. We designed an add-on type annular metamaterial plate cloak through conformal mapping, fabricated it and performed cloaking experiments in a thin-plate with a hole. Experiments were performed in a thin plate by using the lowest symmetric Lamb wave centered at 100 kHz. As a means to check the cloaking performance of the add-on elastic plate cloak, possibly as a temporary stress reliever or a so-called “stress bandage”, the degree of stress concentration mitigation and the recovery from the perturbed wave field due to a hole were investigated.

  3. Add-on unidirectional elastic metamaterial plate cloak.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min Kyung; Kim, Yoon Young

    2016-01-01

    Metamaterial cloaks control the propagation of waves to make an object invisible or insensible. To manipulate elastic waves in space, a metamaterial cloak is typically embedded in a base system that includes or surrounds a target object. The embedding is undesirable because it structurally weakens or permanently alters the base system. In this study, we propose a new add-on metamaterial elastic cloak that can be placed over and mechanically coupled with a base structure without embedding. We designed an add-on type annular metamaterial plate cloak through conformal mapping, fabricated it and performed cloaking experiments in a thin-plate with a hole. Experiments were performed in a thin plate by using the lowest symmetric Lamb wave centered at 100 kHz. As a means to check the cloaking performance of the add-on elastic plate cloak, possibly as a temporary stress reliever or a so-called "stress bandage", the degree of stress concentration mitigation and the recovery from the perturbed wave field due to a hole were investigated. PMID:26860896

  4. Cystic fibrosis - nutritional considerations

    MedlinePlus

    ... or beverages. Enriched milk has nonfat dry milk powder added to it. Spread peanut butter on bread ... to sauces or use on waffles. Skim milk powder adds protein. Try adding 2 tablespoons of dry ...

  5. What’s next after metformin? focus on sulphonylurea: add-on or combination therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Phei C.; Chong, Chee P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) mainly focused on insulin resistance and insulin deficiency over the past decades. Currently, the pathophysiologies expanded to ominous octet and guidelines were updated with newer generation of antidiabetic drug classes. However, many patients had yet to achieve their target glycaemic control. Although all the guidelines suggested metformin as first line, there was no definite consensus on the second line drug agents as variety of drug classes were recommended. Objectives: The aim of this review was to evaluate the drug class after metformin especially sulphonylurea and issues around add-on or fixed dose combination therapy. Methods: Extensive literature search for English language articles, clinical practice guidelines and references was performed using electronic databases. Results: Adding sulphonylurea to metformin targeted both insulin resistance and insulin deficiency. Sulphonylurea was efficacious and cheaper than thiazolidinedione, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, glucagon-like peptide 1 analogue and insulin. The main side effect of sulphonylurea was hypoglycaemia but there was no effect on the body weight when combining with metformin. Fixed dose sulphonylurea/metformin was more efficacious at lower dose and reported to have fewer side effects with better adherence. Furthermore, fixed dose combination was cheaper than add-on therapy. In conclusion, sulphonylurea was feasible as the second line agent after metformin as the combination targeted on two pathways, efficacious, cost-effective and had long safety history. Fixed dose combination tablet could improve patient’s adherence and offered an inexpensive and more efficacious option regardless of original or generic product as compared to add-on therapy. PMID:26445623

  6. Gantry and isocenter displacements of a linear accelerator caused by an add-on micromultileaf collimator

    SciTech Connect

    Riis, Hans L.; Zimmermann, Sune J.; Hjelm-Hansen, Mogens

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: The delivery of high quality stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) treatments to the patient requires knowledge of the position of the isocenter to submillimeter accuracy. To meet the requirements the deviation between the radiation and mechanical isocenters must be less than 1 mm. The use of add-on micromultileaf collimators ({mu}MLCs) in SRS and SRT is an additional challenge to the anticipated high-level geometric and dosimetric accuracy of the treatment. The aim of this work was to quantify the gantry excursions during rotation with and without an add-on {mu}MLC attached to the gantry head. In addition, the shift in the position of the isocenter and its correlation to the kV beam center of the cone-beam CT system was included in the study. Methods: The quantification of the gantry rotational performance was done using a pointer supported by an in-house made rigid holder attached to the gantry head of the accelerator. The pointer positions were measured using a digital theodolite. To quantify the effect of an {mu}MLC of 50 kg, the measurements were repeated with the {mu}MLC attached to the gantry head. The displacement of the isocenter due to an add-on {mu}MLC of 50 kg was also investigated. In case of the pointer measurement the {mu}MLC was simulated by weights attached to the gantry head. A method of least squares was applied to determine the position and displacement of the mechanical isocenter. Additionally, the displacement of the radiation isocenter was measured using a ball-bearing phantom and the electronic portal image device system. These measurements were based on 8 MV photon beams irradiated onto the ball from the four cardinal angles and two opposed collimator angles. The measurements and analysis of the data were carried out automatically using software delivered by the manufacturer. Results: The displacement of the mechanical isocenter caused by a 50 kg heavy {mu}MLC was found to be (-0.01 {+-} 0.05, -0

  7. Space station systems technology study (add-on task). Volume 2: Trade study and technology selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The current Space Station Systems Technology Study add on task was an outgrowth of the Advanced Platform Systems Technology Study (APSTS) that was completed in April 1983 and the subsequent Space Station System Technology Study completed in April 1984. The first APSTS proceeded from the identification of 106 technology topics to the selection of five for detailed trade studies. During the advanced platform study, the technical issues and options were evaluated through detailed trade processes, individual consideration was given to costs and benefits for the technologies identified for advancement, and advancement plans were developed. An approach similar to that was used in the subsequent study, with emphasis on system definition in four specific technology areas to facilitate a more in depth analysis of technology issues.

  8. ACOs: time for ED managers to get involved, shape how their departments will add value.

    PubMed

    2011-06-01

    Even with a proposed rule outlining how accountable care organizations (ACO) will be structured under fee-for-service Medicare, emergency medicine experts are concerned about how ACOs will impact patient access to the ED. Further, some see a clear need to beef-up case management staff, while others say ED managers need to get involved with ACO-development now so their interests and concerns are represented. Under a proposed rule unveiled by the Department of Health and Human Services, a handful of quality indicators will require the tracking of ED visits related to certain ambulatory care-sensitive conditions; experts say it could be a challenge for ED staff to differentiate between appropriate and inappropriate use of the ED. EDs that figure out how to contribute value under the ACO mission will be better positioned to prosper under the new model. The ACO model is likely to add considerable complexity to billing and reimbursement. PMID:21675150

  9. Implementation of reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Lei; Huang, Zhaoxiang; Zhang, Minglun; Huang, Yongqing; Li, Ling

    2005-11-01

    A detailed management system implementation process for a realized reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer (ROADM) is presented. The ROADM is capable of freely adding/dropping any of 40 wavelengths within C-band at ITU_T standard spacing according to the user's configuration demand from the management system. SNMP and Java language are used in the deployment of the management system. The management system framework and its implementation process are introduced in template-based form, so they are generic enough to be deployed in managing such reconfigurable elements in optical transport network, and be of value to others who are contemplating managing such kind of reconfigurable elements.

  10. Add/Compare/Select Circuit For Rapid Decoding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budinger, James M.; Becker, Neal D.; Johnson, Peter N.

    1993-01-01

    Prototype decoding system operates at 200 Mb/s. ACS (add/compare/select) gate array is highly integrated emitter-coupled-logic circuit implementing arithmetic operations essential to Viterbi decoding of convolutionally encoded data signals. Principal advantage of circuit is speed. Operates as single unit performing eight additions and finds minimum of eight sums, or operates as two independent units, each performing four additions and finding minimum of four sums. Flexibility enables application to variety of different codes. Includes built-in self-testing circuitry, enabling unit to be tested at full speed with help of only simple test fixture.

  11. Using the SARs to add policy value to household projections.

    PubMed

    King, D; Bolsdon, D

    1998-05-01

    "Household projections are at the centre of the debate about future housing requirements in England. The Census of Population Sample of Anonymised Records offers actual and potential opportunities to ¿add value' to traditional projections. This article gives examples of such added value, including testing definitional sensitivity of projection outcomes, assisting further detailed disaggregation of projected components, assisting the matching of household projections to dwelling supply, and offering scope to explore via data linkage the relationships between household projections and ¿backlog' housing needs, affordability, dwelling size, and tenure." PMID:12293875

  12. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors or sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors as an add-on to insulin therapy: A comparative review

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Awadhesh Kumar; Singh, Ritu

    2016-01-01

    The gradual decline in β-cell function is inevitable in type 2 diabetes mellitus and therefore, substantial proportions of patients require insulin subsequently, in order to achieve optimal glucose control. While weight gain, hypoglycemia, and fluid retention especially during dose intensification is a known limitation to insulin therapy, these adverse effects also reduce patient satisfaction and treatment adherence. It is also possible that the benefits of intensive control achieved by insulin therapy, perhaps get nullified by the weight gain and hypoglycemia. In addition, improvement in plasma glucose or glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) itself is associated with weight gain. Notably, studies have already suggested that reduction in body weight by ~3–5%, may allow a significantly better glycemic control. Thus, a class of drugs, which can reduce HbA1c effectively, yet are weight neutral or preferably reduce body weight, could be the most sought out strategy as an add-on therapy to insulin. While sulfonylureas (SUs) are associated with weight gain and hypoglycemia, pioglitazone increases body weight and fluid retention. Moreover, SUs are not recommended once premix or prandial insulin is commenced. The addition of newer agents, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist to insulin certainly appears to be an effective tool in reducing both HbA1c and body weight as is evident across the studies; however, this approach incurs an additional injection as well as cost. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4I) and sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2I) are other exciting options, as an add-on to insulin therapy primarily because these are oral drugs and do not possess any intrinsic potential of hypoglycemia. Furthermore, these are either weight neutral or induce significant weight loss. This review article aims to comparatively analyze the safety and efficacy of DPP-4I and SGLT-2I, as an add-on therapy to insulin. PMID:26904466

  13. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors or sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors as an add-on to insulin therapy: A comparative review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Awadhesh Kumar; Singh, Ritu

    2016-01-01

    The gradual decline in β-cell function is inevitable in type 2 diabetes mellitus and therefore, substantial proportions of patients require insulin subsequently, in order to achieve optimal glucose control. While weight gain, hypoglycemia, and fluid retention especially during dose intensification is a known limitation to insulin therapy, these adverse effects also reduce patient satisfaction and treatment adherence. It is also possible that the benefits of intensive control achieved by insulin therapy, perhaps get nullified by the weight gain and hypoglycemia. In addition, improvement in plasma glucose or glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) itself is associated with weight gain. Notably, studies have already suggested that reduction in body weight by ~3-5%, may allow a significantly better glycemic control. Thus, a class of drugs, which can reduce HbA1c effectively, yet are weight neutral or preferably reduce body weight, could be the most sought out strategy as an add-on therapy to insulin. While sulfonylureas (SUs) are associated with weight gain and hypoglycemia, pioglitazone increases body weight and fluid retention. Moreover, SUs are not recommended once premix or prandial insulin is commenced. The addition of newer agents, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist to insulin certainly appears to be an effective tool in reducing both HbA1c and body weight as is evident across the studies; however, this approach incurs an additional injection as well as cost. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4I) and sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2I) are other exciting options, as an add-on to insulin therapy primarily because these are oral drugs and do not possess any intrinsic potential of hypoglycemia. Furthermore, these are either weight neutral or induce significant weight loss. This review article aims to comparatively analyze the safety and efficacy of DPP-4I and SGLT-2I, as an add-on therapy to insulin. PMID:26904466

  14. Using patient lists to add value to integrated data repositories.

    PubMed

    Wade, Ted D; Zelarney, Pearlanne T; Hum, Richard C; McGee, Sylvia; Batson, Deborah H

    2014-12-01

    Patient lists are project-specific sets of patients that can be queried in integrated data repositories (IDR's). By allowing a set of patients to be an addition to the qualifying conditions of a query, returned results will refer to, and only to, that set of patients. We report a variety of use cases for such lists, including: restricting retrospective chart review to a defined set of patients; following a set of patients for practice management purposes; distributing "honest-brokered" (deidentified) data; adding phenotypes to biosamples; and enhancing the content of study or registry data. Among the capabilities needed to implement patient lists in an IDR are: capture of patient identifiers from a query and feedback of these into the IDR; the existence of a permanent internal identifier in the IDR that is mappable to external identifiers; the ability to add queryable attributes to the IDR; the ability to merge data from multiple queries; and suitable control over user access and de-identification of results. We implemented patient lists in a custom IDR of our own design. We reviewed capabilities of other published IDRs for focusing on sets of patients. The widely used i2b2 IDR platform has various ways to address patient sets, and it could be modified to add the low-overhead version of patient lists that we describe. PMID:24534444

  15. Using Patient Lists to Add Value to Integrated Data Repositories

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Ted D.; Zelarney, Pearlanne T.; Hum, Richard C.; McGee, Sylvia; Batson, Deborah H.

    2014-01-01

    Patient lists are project-specific sets of patients that can be queried in integrated data repositories (IDR’s). By allowing a set of patients to be an addition to the qualifying conditions of a query, returned results will refer to, and only to, that set of patients. We report a variety of use cases for such lists, including: restricting retrospective chart review to a defined set of patients; following a set of patients for practice management purposes; distributing “honest-brokered” (deidentified) data; adding phenotypes to biosamples; and enhancing the content of study or registry data. Among the capabilities needed to implement patient lists in an IDR are: capture of patient identifiers from a query and feedback of these into the IDR; the existence of a permanent internal identifier in the IDR that is mappable to external identifiers; the ability to add queryable attributes to the IDR; the ability to merge data from multiple queries; and suitable control over user access and de-identification of results. We implemented patient lists in a custom IDR of our own design. We reviewed capabilities of other published IDRs for focusing on sets of patients. The widely used i2b2 IDR platform has various ways to address patient sets, and it could be modified to add the low-overhead version of patient lists that we describe. PMID:24534444

  16. Rituximab add-on therapy for breakthrough relapsing multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Naismith, R.T.; Piccio, L.; Lyons, J.A.; Lauber, J.; Tutlam, N.T.; Parks, B.J.; Trinkaus, K.; Song, S.K.; Cross, A.H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: B cells and the humoral immune system have been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). This study sought to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of add-on therapy with rituximab, a monoclonal antibody that depletes circulating B cells, in subjects with relapsing MS with breakthrough disease defined by clinical and MRI activity (Class III evidence). Methods: Thirty subjects with a relapse within the past 18 months despite use of an injectable disease-modifying agent, and with at least 1 gadolinium-enhancing (GdE) lesion on any of 3 pretreatment MRIs, received rituximab administered at 375 mg/m2 weekly × 4 doses. Three monthly posttreatment brain MRI scans were obtained beginning 12 weeks after the first infusion. Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC) and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) were obtained at baseline and throughout the posttreatment follow-up. Results: GdE lesions were reduced after treatment with rituximab, with 74% of posttreatment MRI scans being free of GdE activity compared with 26% free of GdE activity at baseline (p < 0.0001). Median GdE lesions were reduced from 1.0 to 0, and mean number was reduced from 2.81 per month to 0.33 after treatment (88% reduction). MSFC improved as well (p = 0.02). EDSS remained stable. Conclusion: Rituximab add-on therapy was effective based upon blinded radiologic endpoints in this phase II study. In combination with standard injectable therapies, rituximab was well-tolerated with no serious adverse events. B-cell–modulating therapy remains a potential option for treatment of patients with relapsing MS with an inadequate response to standard injectable therapies. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that add-on rituximab reduces gadolinium-enhancing brain lesions in multiple sclerosis. GLOSSARY DMT = disease-modifying therapy; EDSS = Expanded Disability Status Scale; FOV = field of view; GdE = gadolinium-enhancing; HACA = human

  17. A subsurface add-on for standard atomic force microscopes

    SciTech Connect

    Verbiest, G. J.; Zalm, D. J. van der; Oosterkamp, T. H.; Rost, M. J.

    2015-03-15

    The application of ultrasound in an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) gives access to subsurface information. However, no commercially AFM exists that is equipped with this technique. The main problems are the electronic crosstalk in the AFM setup and the insufficiently strong excitation of the cantilever at ultrasonic (MHz) frequencies. In this paper, we describe the development of an add-on that provides a solution to these problems by using a special piezo element with a lowest resonance frequency of 2.5 MHz and by separating the electronic connection for this high frequency piezo element from all other connections. In this sense, we support researches with the possibility to perform subsurface measurements with their existing AFMs and hopefully pave also the way for the development of a commercial AFM that is capable of imaging subsurface features with nanometer resolution.

  18. Scuba Weights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Attitude Adjuster is a system for weight repositioning corresponding to a SCUBA diver's changing positions. Compact tubes on the diver's air tank permit controlled movement of lead balls within the Adjuster, automatically repositioning when the diver changes position. Manufactured by Think Tank Technologies, the system is light and small, reducing drag and energy requirements and contributing to lower air consumption. The Mid-Continent Technology Transfer Center helped the company with both technical and business information and arranged for the testing at Marshall Space Flight Center's Weightlessness Environmental Training Facility for astronauts.

  19. Add More Vegetables to Your Day: 10 Tips to Help You Eat More Vegetables

    MedlinePlus

    ... Department of Agriculture 10 tips Nutrition Education Series add more vegetables to your day 10 tips to ... microwave for a quick-and-easy dish to add to any meal. Steam green beans, carrots, or ...

  20. U.S. Pediatricians to Add Poverty to Well-Visit Checklist

    MedlinePlus

    ... 157694.html U.S. Pediatricians to Add Poverty to Well-Visit Checklist One simple question might help families ... milestones. Soon, they'll add poverty to the well-visit checklist. Poverty can significantly harm a child's ...

  1. The Source for ADD/ADHD: Attention Deficit Disorder and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Gail J.; Russell, Joy L.

    This book is intended for professionals who are responsible for designing and implementing educational programs for children with attention deficit disorders and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD). Chapters address: (1) myths and realities about ADD/ADHD; (2) definitions, disorders associated with ADD/ADHD, and federal educational…

  2. 12 CFR 502.60 - When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate... TREASURY ASSESSMENTS AND FEES Fees § 502.60 When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee? Under unusual circumstances, the Director may deem it necessary or appropriate to adjust, add, waive,...

  3. 12 CFR 502.60 - When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a... ASSESSMENTS AND FEES Fees § 502.60 When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee? Under unusual circumstances, the Director may deem it necessary or appropriate to adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee....

  4. 5 CFR 330.105 - Instructions on how to add a vacancy announcement to USAJOBS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Instructions on how to add a vacancy... Service § 330.105 Instructions on how to add a vacancy announcement to USAJOBS. An agency can find the instructions to add a vacancy announcement to USAJOBS on OPM's Web site at http://www.usajobs.gov....

  5. 24 CFR 983.206 - HAP contract amendments (to add or substitute contract units).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false HAP contract amendments (to add or... Contract § 983.206 HAP contract amendments (to add or substitute contract units). (a) Amendment to... substitute unit and must determine the reasonable rent for such unit. (b) Amendment to add contract units....

  6. 5 CFR 330.105 - Instructions on how to add a vacancy announcement to USAJOBS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Instructions on how to add a vacancy... Service § 330.105 Instructions on how to add a vacancy announcement to USAJOBS. An agency can find the instructions to add a vacancy announcement to USAJOBS on OPM's Web site at http://www.usajobs.gov....

  7. 12 CFR 502.60 - When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a... ASSESSMENTS AND FEES Fees § 502.60 When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee? Under unusual circumstances, the Director may deem it necessary or appropriate to adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee....

  8. 5 CFR 330.105 - Instructions on how to add a vacancy announcement to USAJOBS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Instructions on how to add a vacancy... Service § 330.105 Instructions on how to add a vacancy announcement to USAJOBS. An agency can find the instructions to add a vacancy announcement to USAJOBS on OPM's Web site at http://www.usajobs.gov....

  9. 12 CFR 502.60 - When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate... TREASURY ASSESSMENTS AND FEES Fees § 502.60 When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee? Under unusual circumstances, the Director may deem it necessary or appropriate to adjust, add, waive,...

  10. 12 CFR 502.60 - When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate... TREASURY ASSESSMENTS AND FEES Fees § 502.60 When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee? Under unusual circumstances, the Director may deem it necessary or appropriate to adjust, add, waive,...

  11. Does aquaculture add resilience to the global food system?

    PubMed

    Troell, Max; Naylor, Rosamond L; Metian, Marc; Beveridge, Malcolm; Tyedmers, Peter H; Folke, Carl; Arrow, Kenneth J; Barrett, Scott; Crépin, Anne-Sophie; Ehrlich, Paul R; Gren, Asa; Kautsky, Nils; Levin, Simon A; Nyborg, Karine; Österblom, Henrik; Polasky, Stephen; Scheffer, Marten; Walker, Brian H; Xepapadeas, Tasos; de Zeeuw, Aart

    2014-09-16

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector and continues to expand alongside terrestrial crop and livestock production. Using portfolio theory as a conceptual framework, we explore how current interconnections between the aquaculture, crop, livestock, and fisheries sectors act as an impediment to, or an opportunity for, enhanced resilience in the global food system given increased resource scarcity and climate change. Aquaculture can potentially enhance resilience through improved resource use efficiencies and increased diversification of farmed species, locales of production, and feeding strategies. However, aquaculture's reliance on terrestrial crops and wild fish for feeds, its dependence on freshwater and land for culture sites, and its broad array of environmental impacts diminishes its ability to add resilience. Feeds for livestock and farmed fish that are fed rely largely on the same crops, although the fraction destined for aquaculture is presently small (∼4%). As demand for high-value fed aquaculture products grows, competition for these crops will also rise, as will the demand for wild fish as feed inputs. Many of these crops and forage fish are also consumed directly by humans and provide essential nutrition for low-income households. Their rising use in aquafeeds has the potential to increase price levels and volatility, worsening food insecurity among the most vulnerable populations. Although the diversification of global food production systems that includes aquaculture offers promise for enhanced resilience, such promise will not be realized if government policies fail to provide adequate incentives for resource efficiency, equity, and environmental protection. PMID:25136111

  12. The IRBIT domain adds new functions to the AHCY family.

    PubMed

    Devogelaere, Benoit; Sammels, Eva; De Smedt, Humbert

    2008-07-01

    During the past few years, the IRBIT domain has emerged as an important add-on of S-adenosyl-L-homocystein hydrolase (AHCY), thereby creating the new family of AHCY-like proteins. In this review, we discuss the currently available data on this new family of proteins. We describe the IRBIT domain as a unique part of these proteins and give an overview of its regulation via (de)phosphorylation and proteolysis. The second part of this review is focused on the potential functions of the AHCY-like proteins. We propose that the IRBIT domain serves as an anchor for targeting AHCY-like proteins towards cytoplasmic targets. This leads to regulation of (i) intracellular Ca2+ via the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R), (ii) intracellular pH via the Na+/HCO3 - cotransporters (NBCs); whereas inactivation of the IRBIT domain induces (iii) nuclear translocation and regulation of AHCY activity. Dysfunction of AHCY-like proteins will disturb these three important functions, with various biological implications. PMID:18536033

  13. Does aquaculture add resilience to the global food system?

    PubMed Central

    Troell, Max; Naylor, Rosamond L.; Metian, Marc; Beveridge, Malcolm; Tyedmers, Peter H.; Folke, Carl; Arrow, Kenneth J.; Barrett, Scott; Crépin, Anne-Sophie; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Gren, Åsa; Kautsky, Nils; Levin, Simon A.; Nyborg, Karine; Österblom, Henrik; Polasky, Stephen; Scheffer, Marten; Walker, Brian H.; Xepapadeas, Tasos; de Zeeuw, Aart

    2014-01-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector and continues to expand alongside terrestrial crop and livestock production. Using portfolio theory as a conceptual framework, we explore how current interconnections between the aquaculture, crop, livestock, and fisheries sectors act as an impediment to, or an opportunity for, enhanced resilience in the global food system given increased resource scarcity and climate change. Aquaculture can potentially enhance resilience through improved resource use efficiencies and increased diversification of farmed species, locales of production, and feeding strategies. However, aquaculture’s reliance on terrestrial crops and wild fish for feeds, its dependence on freshwater and land for culture sites, and its broad array of environmental impacts diminishes its ability to add resilience. Feeds for livestock and farmed fish that are fed rely largely on the same crops, although the fraction destined for aquaculture is presently small (∼4%). As demand for high-value fed aquaculture products grows, competition for these crops will also rise, as will the demand for wild fish as feed inputs. Many of these crops and forage fish are also consumed directly by humans and provide essential nutrition for low-income households. Their rising use in aquafeeds has the potential to increase price levels and volatility, worsening food insecurity among the most vulnerable populations. Although the diversification of global food production systems that includes aquaculture offers promise for enhanced resilience, such promise will not be realized if government policies fail to provide adequate incentives for resource efficiency, equity, and environmental protection. PMID:25136111

  14. ADD and the College Student: A Guide for High School and College Students with Attention Deficit Disorder. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Patricia O., Ed.

    This handbook contains practical information and advice to help students with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) transition from high school to college. Part 1 provides an introduction to ADD and includes a questionnaire identifying the characteristics of a person with ADD. Part 2 describes life with ADD. It explains how ADD can affect high school…

  15. Rapid weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... loss-rapid weight loss; Overweight-rapid weight loss; Obesity-rapid weight loss; Diet-rapid weight loss ... for people who have health problems because of obesity. For these people, losing a lot of weight ...

  16. Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator You are here Home / Online Tools Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator Print Share Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator Pregnancy Weight Gain Intro ...

  17. Link Prediction in Weighted Networks: A Weighted Mutual Information Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Boyao; Xia, Yongxiang

    2016-01-01

    The link-prediction problem is an open issue in data mining and knowledge discovery, which attracts researchers from disparate scientific communities. A wealth of methods have been proposed to deal with this problem. Among these approaches, most are applied in unweighted networks, with only a few taking the weights of links into consideration. In this paper, we present a weighted model for undirected and weighted networks based on the mutual information of local network structures, where link weights are applied to further enhance the distinguishable extent of candidate links. Empirical experiments are conducted on four weighted networks, and results show that the proposed method can provide more accurate predictions than not only traditional unweighted indices but also typical weighted indices. Furthermore, some in-depth discussions on the effects of weak ties in link prediction as well as the potential to predict link weights are also given. This work may shed light on the design of algorithms for link prediction in weighted networks. PMID:26849659

  18. Link Prediction in Weighted Networks: A Weighted Mutual Information Model.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Boyao; Xia, Yongxiang

    2016-01-01

    The link-prediction problem is an open issue in data mining and knowledge discovery, which attracts researchers from disparate scientific communities. A wealth of methods have been proposed to deal with this problem. Among these approaches, most are applied in unweighted networks, with only a few taking the weights of links into consideration. In this paper, we present a weighted model for undirected and weighted networks based on the mutual information of local network structures, where link weights are applied to further enhance the distinguishable extent of candidate links. Empirical experiments are conducted on four weighted networks, and results show that the proposed method can provide more accurate predictions than not only traditional unweighted indices but also typical weighted indices. Furthermore, some in-depth discussions on the effects of weak ties in link prediction as well as the potential to predict link weights are also given. This work may shed light on the design of algorithms for link prediction in weighted networks. PMID:26849659

  19. Integrated add/drop multiplexer (ADM) using micromachined mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Zhang, Q. X.; Balasubramanian, N.; Huang, J.-M.; Liu, Ai Q.

    2001-10-01

    High speed, low insertion loss optical add/drop multiplexer (ADM) is designed and fabricated. The optical vertical micromirror is fabricated by deep dry etching, the aspect ratio reaches as high as 20. A thin aluminum film is deposited on the sidewall of the micromirror to increase the reflectivity. The anchors and pads are fabricated firstly, followed by the comb drive, micromirror and fiber grooves. Refilling technique is introduced to electrically insulate the anchors and pads from the substrate while still maintaining the mechanical support. The anchors and pads are strong enough to sustain the floating structures (micromirror and moving comb) and also assure good electrical connection to the electrostatic comb drive so that the external voltage can be applied. By improving dry etching, the finger width is only 2micrometers and the gap is only 2.5micrometers . A typical electrostatic comb drive is fabricated by the deep reactive ion etching (RIE) and underneath releasing. Folded suspension beams of 800micrometers long, 2.0 micrometers wide and 35micrometers deep are employed to support the movable micromirror. The stiffness along the desired lateral direction is 0.21N/m. Comb drive using three electrodes is employed. Its applied voltage is decreased by a ratio of 0.707 compared with that of the two electrodes system, and the switching speed is also increased. To simply the optical fiber assembly, fiber grooves are fabricated along with the other structures. This device has a typical of optical ADM that can be widely used in all optical networks. All of the processes are compatible with IC technology and can be integrated with control circuits in a single chip.

  20. Cumulative Weight Exposure Is Associated with Different Weight Loss Strategies and Weight Loss Success in Adults Age 50 or Above

    PubMed Central

    Sénéchal, Martin; Slaght, Jana; Bouchard, Danielle R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate if cumulative weight exposure is associated with weight loss strategy choices and weight loss success. Methods. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used; a total of 4,562 people age 50 years or older who reported trying to lose weight in the last year were studied. Cumulative weight exposure (CWE) score was defined as the sum of body mass index points above 25 kg/m2 at the age of 25, 10 years ago, 1 year ago, and now. Weight loss strategies were self-reported and weight loss success was defined as reaching a 5% weight loss in the last year. Results. Chosen strategies for weight loss vary across tertiles of CWE. Participants in the highest CWE tertile were about 4 to 20 times more likely to lose at least 5% of body weight in the past year compared to those in the lowest CWE tertile (P < 0.05).  Discussion. Strategies used to lose weight and weight loss success using different weight loss strategies vary considerably across cumulative weight exposure. Thus, cumulative weight exposure might be a variable worth considering when intervening with this population. PMID:26161269

  1. Embedding objects during 3D printing to add new functionalities.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Po Ki

    2016-07-01

    A novel method for integrating and embedding objects to add new functionalities during 3D printing based on fused deposition modeling (FDM) (also known as fused filament fabrication or molten polymer deposition) is presented. Unlike typical 3D printing, FDM-based 3D printing could allow objects to be integrated and embedded during 3D printing and the FDM-based 3D printed devices do not typically require any post-processing and finishing. Thus, various fluidic devices with integrated glass cover slips or polystyrene films with and without an embedded porous membrane, and optical devices with embedded Corning(®) Fibrance™ Light-Diffusing Fiber were 3D printed to demonstrate the versatility of the FDM-based 3D printing and embedding method. Fluid perfusion flow experiments with a blue colored food dye solution were used to visually confirm fluid flow and/or fluid perfusion through the embedded porous membrane in the 3D printed fluidic devices. Similar to typical 3D printed devices, FDM-based 3D printed devices are translucent at best unless post-polishing is performed and optical transparency is highly desirable in any fluidic devices; integrated glass cover slips or polystyrene films would provide a perfect optical transparent window for observation and visualization. In addition, they also provide a compatible flat smooth surface for biological or biomolecular applications. The 3D printed fluidic devices with an embedded porous membrane are applicable to biological or chemical applications such as continuous perfusion cell culture or biocatalytic synthesis but without the need for any post-device assembly and finishing. The 3D printed devices with embedded Corning(®) Fibrance™ Light-Diffusing Fiber would have applications in display, illumination, or optical applications. Furthermore, the FDM-based 3D printing and embedding method could also be utilized to print casting molds with an integrated glass bottom for polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) device replication

  2. Technology management-An effective tool to add competitiveness to the business

    SciTech Connect

    Layrisse, I.; Izquierdo, A.

    1996-08-01

    Petreleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) and its affiliated companies, aware of the importance of the technology to sustain the viability of a successful corporation in global markets with increasing competition and stringent economies, are devoting important efforts in technology as an effective tool to add competitiveness to its core businesses. These efforts are based in the conception of the technology as a structural aspect of the corporation integrated to each one of its businesses. In this sense technology is considered in an integrated way together with markets, operations, infrastructure, resources, etc., across the value chain of the company, from the conception of its vision and mission to the formulation and execution of its operating plans. In this presentation, the conceptual and methodological aspects employed by PDVSA in the establishment of its technology strategy integrated to its business plan, and subsequent project portfolio definition, are summarized. The experience acquired through this corporative exercise conducted by PDVSA confirms that technology and its management are highly linked to the culture of the companies and of the countries where they operate. The technology management best practices are very helpful in establishing processes and specific methodologies; however, the consideration of other aspects such as leadership, management style, shared values, etc., need to be taken into account with the same emphasis, in order to accomplish the changes needed to create a technology culture fitted to a given setting and ideology.

  3. MRI measures of Alzheimer's disease and the AddNeuroMed study.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Andrew; Westman, Eric; Muehlboeck, Sebastian; Mecocci, Patrizia; Vellas, Bruno; Tsolaki, Magda; Kłoszewska, Iwona; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Soininen, Hilkka; Lovestone, Simon; Evans, Alan; Spenger, Christian

    2009-10-01

    Here we describe the AddNeuroMed multicenter magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study for longitudinal assessment in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The study is similar to a faux clinical trial and has been established to assess longitudinal MRI changes in AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and healthy control subjects using an image acquisition protocol compatible with the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). The approach consists of a harmonized MRI acquisition protocol across centers, rigorous quality control, a central data analysis hub, and an automated image analysis pipeline. Comprehensive quality control measures have been established throughout the study. An intelligent web-accessible database holds details on both the raw images and data processed using a sophisticated image analysis pipeline. A total of 378 subjects were recruited (130 AD, 131 MCI, 117 healthy controls) of which a high percentage (97.3%) of the T1-weighted volumes passed the quality control criteria. Measurements of normalized whole brain volume, whole brain cortical thickness, and point-by-point group-based cortical thickness measurements, demonstrating the power of the automated image analysis techniques employed, are reported. PMID:19906260

  4. Body Weight and Matching with a Physically Attractive Romantic Partner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmalt, Julie H.; Cawley, John; Joyner, Kara; Sobal, Jeffery

    2008-01-01

    Matching and attribute trade are two perspectives used to explain mate selection. We investigated patterns of matching and trade, focusing on obesity, using Add Health Romantic Pair data (N = 1,405 couples). Obese individuals, relative to healthy weight individuals, were less likely to have physically attractive partners, with this disadvantage…

  5. Familiarity adds to attractiveness in matters of siskin mate choice.

    PubMed

    Senar, J C; Mateos-Gonzalez, F; Uribe, F; Arroyo, L

    2013-12-22

    There is currently considerable controversy in evolutionary ecology revolving around whether social familiarity brings attraction when a female chooses a mate. The topic of familiarity is significant because by avoiding or preferring familiar individuals as mates, the potential for local adaptation may be reduced or favoured. The topic becomes even more interesting if we simultaneously analyse preferences for familiarity and sexual ornaments, because when familiarity influences female mating preferences, this could very significantly affect the strength of sexual selection on male ornamentation. Here, we have used mate-choice experiments in siskins Carduelis spinus to analyse how familiarity and patterns of ornamentation (i.e. the size of wing patches) interact to influence mating success. Our results show that females clearly prefer familiar individuals when choosing between familiar and unfamiliar males with similar-sized wing patches. Furthermore, when females were given the choice between a highly ornamented unfamiliar male and a less ornamented familiar male, half of the females still preferred the socially familiar birds as mates. Our finding suggests that male familiarity may be as important as sexual ornaments in affecting female behaviour in mate choice. Given that the potential for local adaptation may be favoured by preferring familiar individuals as mates, social familiarity as a mate-choice criterion may become a potential area of fruitful research on sympatric speciation processes. PMID:24174112

  6. Familiarity adds to attractiveness in matters of siskin mate choice

    PubMed Central

    Senar, J. C.; Mateos-Gonzalez, F.; Uribe, F.; Arroyo, L.

    2013-01-01

    There is currently considerable controversy in evolutionary ecology revolving around whether social familiarity brings attraction when a female chooses a mate. The topic of familiarity is significant because by avoiding or preferring familiar individuals as mates, the potential for local adaptation may be reduced or favoured. The topic becomes even more interesting if we simultaneously analyse preferences for familiarity and sexual ornaments, because when familiarity influences female mating preferences, this could very significantly affect the strength of sexual selection on male ornamentation. Here, we have used mate-choice experiments in siskins Carduelis spinus to analyse how familiarity and patterns of ornamentation (i.e. the size of wing patches) interact to influence mating success. Our results show that females clearly prefer familiar individuals when choosing between familiar and unfamiliar males with similar-sized wing patches. Furthermore, when females were given the choice between a highly ornamented unfamiliar male and a less ornamented familiar male, half of the females still preferred the socially familiar birds as mates. Our finding suggests that male familiarity may be as important as sexual ornaments in affecting female behaviour in mate choice. Given that the potential for local adaptation may be favoured by preferring familiar individuals as mates, social familiarity as a mate-choice criterion may become a potential area of fruitful research on sympatric speciation processes. PMID:24174112

  7. Right Hemisphere Deficit Syndrome: Similarities with Subtypes of Children with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matazow, Gail S.; Hynd, George W.

    Children with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) often exhibit problems in visual spatial perception, math achievement, and social skills, and it has been postulated that this constellation of behaviors may constitute Right Hemisphere Deficit Syndrome (RHDS). This study examined 21 children with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADD/H),…

  8. Cognitive Control and Attentional Selection in Adolescents with ADHD versus ADD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Laurie; Henderson, John; Nigg, Joel T.

    2010-01-01

    An important research question is whether Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is related to early- or late-stage attentional control mechanisms and whether this differentiates a nonhyperactive subtype (ADD). This question was addressed in a sample of 145 ADD/ADHD and typically developing comparison adolescents (aged 13-17). Attentional…

  9. Prevalence of Aggression and Defiance in Children with ADD/ADHD Tendencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Janella

    2011-01-01

    Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) appear to have become more prevalent in the past few years. Many children who display ADD/ADHD tendencies also display behaviors which cause problems in a classroom setting. Considering the fact that these behaviors could be displayed by the student population as…

  10. 7 CFR 360.500 - Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. 360... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.500 Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. A person may petition the Administrator to have a...

  11. 7 CFR 360.500 - Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. 360... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.500 Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. A person may petition the Administrator to have a...

  12. 7 CFR 360.500 - Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. 360... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.500 Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. A person may petition the Administrator to have a...

  13. 7 CFR 360.500 - Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. 360... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.500 Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. A person may petition the Administrator to have a...

  14. Measuring Narcissism within Add Health: The Development and Validation of a New Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Mark S.; Brunell, Amy B.

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the development of a measure of narcissism within the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) data set. In Study 1, items were selected from Wave III to form the Add Health Narcissism Scale (AHNS). These were factor analyzed, yielding a single factor comprised of five subscales. We correlated the AHNS and…

  15. 40 CFR Table 1b to Subpart Dddd of... - Add-on Control Systems Compliance Options

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Add-on Control Systems Compliance Options 1B Table 1B to Subpart DDDD of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Products Pt. 63, Subpt. DDDD, Table 1B Table 1B to Subpart DDDD of Part 63—Add-on Control...

  16. 40 CFR Table 1b to Subpart Dddd of... - Add-on Control Systems Compliance Options

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Add-on Control Systems Compliance Options 1B Table 1B to Subpart DDDD of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Products Pt. 63, Subpt. DDDD, Table 1B Table 1B to Subpart DDDD of Part 63—Add-on Control...

  17. 40 CFR Table 1b to Subpart Dddd of... - Add-on Control Systems Compliance Options

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Add-on Control Systems Compliance Options 1B Table 1B to Subpart DDDD of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Products Pt. 63, Subpt. DDDD, Table 1B Table 1B to Subpart DDDD of Part 63—Add-on Control...

  18. 20 Ways To...Collaborate with Families of Children with ADD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathur, Smita; Smith, Robin M.

    2003-01-01

    Twenty ideas for collaborating with families of children with attention deficit disorder (ADD) include: (1) providing information about ADD to families; (2) planning meetings to accommodate family members; (3) addressing the language needs of families; (4) helping family members develop their advocacy skills; and (5) helping families network with…

  19. Power Parenting for Children with ADD/ADHD: A Practical Parent's Guide for Managing Difficult Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flick, Grad L.

    The first step in dealing with an attention deficit disorder (ADD/ADHD) child's difficult behavior is to understand its origins. This book presents behavior management techniques to help parents care for their ADD child while ensuring that the child continues to develop positive, healthy self-esteem. The guide shows how to: (1) ensure an accurate…

  20. 75 FR 73075 - Notice of Motion To Add Exhibit to Petition for Declaratory Order and Complaint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Motion To Add Exhibit to Petition for Declaratory Order and... of Pella, Iowa (Complainant) filed a motion to add a document as Exhibit P-28 to its July 2, 2010... wishing to become a party must file a notice of intervention or motion to intervene, as appropriate....

  1. DOE handbook: Design considerations

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    The Design Considerations Handbook includes information and suggestions for the design of systems typical to nuclear facilities, information specific to various types of special facilities, and information useful to various design disciplines. The handbook is presented in two parts. Part 1, which addresses design considerations, includes two sections. The first addresses the design of systems typically used in nuclear facilities to control radiation or radioactive materials. Specifically, this part addresses the design of confinement systems and radiation protection and effluent monitoring systems. The second section of Part 1 addresses the design of special facilities (i.e., specific types of nonreactor nuclear facilities). The specific design considerations provided in this section were developed from review of DOE 6430.1A and are supplemented with specific suggestions and considerations from designers with experience designing and operating such facilities. Part 2 of the Design Considerations Handbook describes good practices and design principles that should be considered in specific design disciplines, such as mechanical systems and electrical systems. These good practices are based on specific experiences in the design of nuclear facilities by design engineers with related experience. This part of the Design Considerations Handbook contains five sections, each of which applies to a particular engineering discipline.

  2. Radio Telescopes Will Add to Cassini-Huygens Discoveries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-12-01

    When the European Space Agency's Huygens spacecraft makes its plunge into the atmosphere of Saturn's moon Titan on January 14, radio telescopes of the National Science Foundation's National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) will help international teams of scientists extract the maximum possible amount of irreplaceable information from an experiment unique in human history. Huygens is the 700-pound probe that has accompanied the larger Cassini spacecraft on a mission to thoroughly explore Saturn, its rings and its numerous moons. The Green Bank Telescope The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on image for GBT gallery) The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia and eight of the ten telescopes of the continent-wide Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), located at Pie Town and Los Alamos, NM, Fort Davis, TX, North Liberty, IA, Kitt Peak, AZ, Brewster, WA, Owens Valley, CA, and Mauna Kea, HI, will directly receive the faint signal from Huygens during its descent. Along with other radio telescopes in Australia, Japan, and China, the NRAO facilities will add significantly to the information about Titan and its atmosphere that will be gained from the Huygens mission. A European-led team will use the radio telescopes to make extremely precise measurements of the probe's position during its descent, while a U.S.-led team will concentrate on gathering measurements of the probe's descent speed and the direction of its motion. The radio-telescope measurements will provide data vital to gaining a full understanding of the winds that Huygens encounters in Titan's atmosphere. Currently, scientists know little about Titan's winds. Data from the Voyager I spacecraft's 1980 flyby indicated that east-west winds may reach 225 mph or more. North-south winds and possible vertical winds, while probably much weaker, may still be significant. There are competing theoretical models of Titan's winds, and the overall picture is best summarized as

  3. Effect of clothing weight on body weight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: In clinical settings, it is common to measure weight of clothed patients and estimate a correction for the weight of clothing, but we can find no papers in the medical literature regarding the variability in clothing weight with weather, season, and gender. Methods: Fifty adults (35 wom...

  4. Peginterferon add-on results in more HBsAg decline compared to monotherapy in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, W P; Sonneveld, M J; Xie, Q; Guo, S; Zhang, N; Zeuzem, S; Tabak, F; Zhang, Q; Simon, K; Akarca, U S; Streinu-Cercel, A; Hansen, B E; Janssen, H L A

    2016-06-01

    It is unknown whether peginterferon (PEG-IFN) add-on to entecavir (ETV) leads to more HBsAg decline compared to PEG-IFN monotherapy or combination therapy, and whether ETV therapy may prevent HBsAg increase after PEG-IFN cessation. We performed a post hoc analysis of 396 HBeAg-positive patients treated for 72 weeks with ETV + 24 weeks PEG-IFN add-on from week 24 to 48 (add-on, n = 85), 72 weeks with ETV monotherapy (n = 90), 52 weeks with PEG-IFN monotherapy (n = 111) and 52 weeks PEG-IFN + lamivudine (combination, n = 110) within 2 randomized trials. HBsAg decline was assessed at the end of PEG-IFN (EOP) and 6 months after PEG-IFN (EOF) discontinuation. Differences in baseline characteristics were accounted for using inversed probability of treatment weights. At EOP, a HBsAg reduction of ≥1log10 IU/mL was more frequently achieved for patients in the add-on or combination therapy arms (both 36%), compared to PEG-IFN mono (20%) or ETV (8%) (add-on vs PEG-IFN mono P = 0.050). At EOF, the HBsAg reduction ≥1log10 IU/mL was only sustained in patients treated with ETV consolidation (add-on vs combination and PEG-IFN mono: 40% vs 23% and 18%, P = 0.029 and P = 0.003, respectively). For add-on, combination, PEG-IFN mono and ETV, the mean HBsAg-level change at EOF was -0.84, -0.81, -0.68 and -0.33 log10 IU/mL, respectively (P > 0.05 for PEG-IFN arms). HBeAg loss at EOF was 36%, 31%, 33% and 20%, respectively (P > 0.05). PEG-IFN add-on for 24 weeks results in more on-treatment HBsAg decline than does 52 weeks of PEG-IFN monotherapy. ETV therapy may maintain the HBsAg reduction achieved with PEG-IFN. PMID:26403919

  5. Informed Test Component Weighting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence M.

    2001-01-01

    Identifies and evaluates alternative methods for weighting tests. Presents formulas for composite reliability and validity as a function of component weights and suggests a rational process that identifies and considers trade-offs in determining weights. Discusses drawbacks to implicit weighting and explicit weighting and the difficulty of…

  6. What can neuromorphic event-driven precise timing add to spike-based pattern recognition?

    PubMed

    Akolkar, Himanshu; Meyer, Cedric; Clady, Zavier; Marre, Olivier; Bartolozzi, Chiara; Panzeri, Stefano; Benosman, Ryad

    2015-03-01

    This letter introduces a study to precisely measure what an increase in spike timing precision can add to spike-driven pattern recognition algorithms. The concept of generating spikes from images by converting gray levels into spike timings is currently at the basis of almost every spike-based modeling of biological visual systems. The use of images naturally leads to generating incorrect artificial and redundant spike timings and, more important, also contradicts biological findings indicating that visual processing is massively parallel, asynchronous with high temporal resolution. A new concept for acquiring visual information through pixel-individual asynchronous level-crossing sampling has been proposed in a recent generation of asynchronous neuromorphic visual sensors. Unlike conventional cameras, these sensors acquire data not at fixed points in time for the entire array but at fixed amplitude changes of their input, resulting optimally sparse in space and time-pixel individually and precisely timed only if new, (previously unknown) information is available (event based). This letter uses the high temporal resolution spiking output of neuromorphic event-based visual sensors to show that lowering time precision degrades performance on several recognition tasks specifically when reaching the conventional range of machine vision acquisition frequencies (30-60 Hz). The use of information theory to characterize separability between classes for each temporal resolution shows that high temporal acquisition provides up to 70% more information that conventional spikes generated from frame-based acquisition as used in standard artificial vision, thus drastically increasing the separability between classes of objects. Experiments on real data show that the amount of information loss is correlated with temporal precision. Our information-theoretic study highlights the potentials of neuromorphic asynchronous visual sensors for both practical applications and theoretical

  7. The importance of postprandial glycemic control: optimizing add-on therapy to basal insulin.

    PubMed

    Shaefer, Charles F; Anderson, John

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes, mainly type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), is associated with a growing clinical and economic burden in the United States, which is expected to increase in association with an aging population. Sufficient glycemic control in patients with T2DM, in order to reduce the risk of micro- and macrovascular complications associated with diabetes, is mediated by lifestyle modifications and a regimen of increasingly intensive antidiabetes drugs. Several treatments and strategies are available for primary care physicians to select from when choosing the most appropriate therapy for their individual patients with T2DM, but, ultimately, due to the progressive nature of the disease, most of these patients will require insulin therapy to maintain glycemic control. Regimens containing basal and postprandial insulins are widely used, but there is still widespread reluctance to initiate insulin treatment due to fear of weight gain and hypoglycemia. Furthermore, as patients approach recommended glycated hemoglobin targets, postprandial hyperglycemia becomes the main contributor to hyperglycemic exposure, necessitating the timely initiation of prandial treatment. Finally, insulin treatment can be limited by factors like the number of injections, mealtime restrictions, complex titration algorithms and patient adherence. Recent developments in antidiabetes drug research have brought more convenient basal and postprandial regimens closer. Clinical evaluation of the efficacy and safety of basal insulins plus add-on glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) has yielded promising results. Primary care physicians are continually challenged to optimize insulin treatment strategies to maximize patient outcomes. Emerging strategies such as long-acting basal insulin analogs and short-acting GLP-1 RAs are particularly appealing to address this challenge. PMID:26548422

  8. Chandra Adds to Story of the Way We Were

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-05-01

    consisting of two pairs of stars, called HD 98800A and HD 98800B. These pairs, each of which is about an Earth-Sun distance apart, orbit each other at about the same distance as Pluto orbits the Sun. "Our X-ray results are fully consistent with other observations that show that accretion of matter from a disk in HD 98800A has dropped to a low level," said Kastner. "So Chandra has thrown new weight behind the evidence that any disk in this system has been greatly diminished or destroyed in ten million years, perhaps by the ongoing formation of planets or by the companion stars." The new X-ray technique for studying disks around stars relies on the ability of Chandra's spectrometers to measure the energies of individual X-rays very precisely. By comparing the number of X-rays emitted by hot gas at specific energies from ions such as oxygen and neon, the temperature and density of particles can be determined. This new technique will help astronomers to distinguish between an accretion disk and a stellar corona as the origin of intense X-ray emission from a young star. Other members of the research team are David Huenemoerder, Norbert Schulz, and Claude Canizares from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and David Weintraub from Vanderbilt University. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program, and TRW, Inc., Redondo Beach, Calif., is the prime contractor for the spacecraft. The Smithsonian's Chandra X-ray Center controls science and flight operations from Cambridge, Mass., for the Office of Space Science at NASA Headquarters, Washington. The image and additional information are available at: http://chandra.harvard.edu and http://chandra.nasa.gov

  9. Assessing Your Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Measure and Interpret Weight Status Adult Body Mass Index or BMI Body Mass Index (BMI) is a person's weight in kilograms divided ... finding your height and weight in this BMI Index Chart 1 . If your BMI is less than ...

  10. Low-power microelectromechanically tunable silicon photonic ring resonator add-drop filter.

    PubMed

    Errando-Herranz, Carlos; Niklaus, Frank; Stemme, Göran; Gylfason, Kristinn B

    2015-08-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a microelectromechanically (MEMS) tunable photonic ring resonator add-drop filter, fabricated in a simple silicon-on-insulator (SOI) based process. The device uses electrostatic parallel plate actuation to perturb the evanescent field of a silicon waveguide, and achieves a 530 pm resonance wavelength tuning, i.e., more than a fourfold improvement compared to previous MEMS tunable ring resonator add-drop filters. Moreover, our device has a static power consumption below 100 nW, and a tuning rate of -62  pm/V, i.e., the highest reported rate for electrostatic tuning of ring resonator add-drop filters. PMID:26258356

  11. Philosophical Considerations and Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    This paper explores the philosophical considerations involved in literacy. It explains that one concept that is emphasized in discussions of literacy is "the basics," which are defined as essential skills, such as the association of phonemes with graphemes. This paper notes that "the basics" movement presently stresses the importance of statewide…

  12. The Medium Term Schooling and Health Effects of Low Birth Weight: Evidence from Siblings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Jason M.

    2011-01-01

    Research has shown that low birth weight is linked to infant mortality as well as longer term outcomes. This paper examines the medium term outcomes that may link low birth weight to adult disadvantage using a national longitudinal sample with a large sample of siblings (Add Health). Results show strong effects on several educational outcomes,…

  13. Body Weight Relationships in Early Marriage: Weight Relevance, Weight Comparisons, and Weight Talk

    PubMed Central

    Bove, Caron F.; Sobal, Jeffery

    2011-01-01

    This investigation uncovered processes underlying the dynamics of body weight and body image among individuals involved in nascent heterosexual marital relationships in Upstate New York. In-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 34 informants, 20 women and 14 men, just prior to marriage and again one year later were used to explore continuity and change in cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors relating to body weight and body image at the time of marriage, an important transition in the life course. Three major conceptual themes operated in the process of developing and enacting informants’ body weight relationships with their partner: weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk. Weight relevance encompassed the changing significance of weight during early marriage and included attracting and capturing a mate, relaxing about weight, living healthily, and concentrating on weight. Weight comparisons between partners involved weight relativism, weight competition, weight envy, and weight role models. Weight talk employed pragmatic talk, active and passive reassurance, and complaining and critiquing criticism. Concepts emerging from this investigation may be useful in designing future studies of and approaches to managing body weight in adulthood. PMID:21864601

  14. 47 CFR 73.9006 - Add-in covered demodulator products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... passed to an output (e.g., where a demodulator add-in card in a personal computer passes such content to an associated software application installed in the same computer), it shall pass such content:...

  15. Pharmacodynamics of drug-induced weight gain.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, S. K.; Kaur, Gurpreet

    2001-08-01

    Body weight gain during treatment with drugs for any kind of disease may represent improvement of the disease itself. However, sometimes these drug-induced alterations of the body's appetite-regulating mechanisms result in excessive weight gain, thus jeopardizing compliance with prescribed medication. A number of drugs are capable of changing body weight as an adverse consequence of their therapeutic effect. Included in this category are the psychotropic drugs such as antipsychotics, antidepressants and mood stabilizers. Antipsychotics are well-known culprits of weight gain. The low-potency (e.g., chlorpromazine and thioridazine) and atypical agents (e.g., clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine and risperidone) are most often associated with weight gain. Antidepressants such as tricyclic antidepressants and monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors are most often associated with significant weight gain. The tertiary tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline is thought to induce the most weight gain. Mood stabilizers such as lithium carbonate, valproic acid and carbamazepine also induce weight gain in a considerable number of patients. Treatment with corticosteroids is associated with dose-dependent body weight gain in many patients and corticosteroid-induced obesity aggravates other corticosteroid-associated health risks. Insulin therapy in diabetic patients usually increases body weight. Finally, sulfonylurea derivatives, antineoplastic agents used for the treatment of breast cancer and several drugs used in migraine prophylaxis may cause body weight gain as well. (c) 2001 Prous Science. All rights reserved. PMID:12743638

  16. All-fiber zero-insertion-loss add-drop filter for wavelength-division multiplexing.

    PubMed

    Kewitsch, A S; Rakuljic, G A; Willems, P A; Yariv, A

    1998-01-15

    We developed and fabricated an all-fiber add-drop filter by recording a Bragg grating in the waist of an asymmetric mode converter-coupler formed by adiabatic tapering and fusing of two locally dissimilar, single-mode optical fibers. The insertion loss of the device was ~0.1 dB .A narrow spectral bandwidth (<1 nm) and a large add-drop efficiency (>90%) were also demonstrated. In addition, the filter was polarization independent. PMID:18084427

  17. LANDSAT-D project ADDS/LAS. Scrounge interface control document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The content and format of all data to be exchanged between the Applications Developmental data System (ADDS) and the LANDSAT-D Assessment System (LAS) for satisfaction of early access thematic mapper product generation requirements is specified. The ADDS provides partially processed TM data tapes on CCT's. The LANDSAT-D Assessment System processes the TM data to fully processed data tapes on 6250 bpi computer compatible tapes and provides required film data products.

  18. Proven Weight Loss Methods

    MedlinePlus

    Fact Sheet Proven Weight Loss Methods What can weight loss do for you? Losing weight can improve your health in a number of ways. It can lower ... at www.hormone.org/Spanish . Proven Weight Loss Methods Fact Sheet www.hormone.org

  19. Weight Loss Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Weight loss surgery helps people with extreme obesity to lose weight. It may be an option if you cannot lose weight through diet and exercise or have serious health problems caused by obesity. There are different types of weight loss surgery. They often limit the ...

  20. Effect and Potential Mechanism of Electroacupuncture Add-On Treatment in Patients with Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Sun, Li; Zhang, Xiao-Zhe; Jia, Jun; Liu, Zhuo; Huang, Xi-Yan; Yu, Shu-Yang; Zuo, Li-Jun; Cao, Chen-Jie; Wang, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To explore effectiveness and mechanisms of electroacupuncture (EA) add-on treatment in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Methods. Fifty PD patients were randomly assigned to drug plus EA (D + EA) group and drug alone (D) group. Subjects in D + EA group received stimulation in points of bilateral fengfu, fengchi, hegu, and central dazhui. Participants were evaluated by scales for motor and nonmotor symptoms. Levels of neuroinflammatory factors and neurotransmitters in serum were detected. Results. EA add-on treatment remarkably reduced scores of Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) III and its subitems of tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia and conspicuously decreased UPDRS III scores in patients with bradykinesia-rigidity and mixed types and mild severity. Depression and sleep disturbances were eased, which were reflected by decreased scores of Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and elevated noradrenaline level. Effects of EA add-on treatment on motor symptoms and sleep disturbances were superior to drug alone treatment, markedly improving life quality of PD patients. EA add-on treatment decreased nitric oxide level in serum. Conclusions. EA add-on treatment is effective on most motor symptoms and some nonmotor symptoms and is particularly efficacious in PD patients at early stage. Antineuroinflammation may be a mechanism of EA add-on treatment. PMID:26351515

  1. Human factors workplace considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1988-01-01

    Computer workstations assume many different forms and play different functions today. In order for them to assume the effective interface role which they should play they must be properly designed to take into account the ubiguitous human factor. In addition, the entire workplace in which they are used should be properly configured so as to enhance the operational features of the individual workstation where possible. A number of general human factors workplace considerations are presented. This ongoing series of notes covers such topics as achieving comfort and good screen visibility, hardware issues (e.g., mouse maintenance), screen symbology features (e.g., labels, cursors, prompts), and various miscellaneous subjects. These notes are presented here in order to: (1) illustrate how one's workstation can be used to support telescience activities of many other people working within an organization, and (2) provide a single complete set of considerations for future reference.

  2. PREVENTING WEIGHT REGAIN AFTER WEIGHT LOSS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For most dieters, a regaining of lost weight is an all too common experience. Indeed, virtually all interventions for weight loss show limited or even poor long-term effectiveness. This sobering reality was reflected in a comprehensive review of nonsurgical treatments of obesity conducted by the Ins...

  3. Considerations for Multiprocessor Topologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrd, Gregory T.; Delagi, Bruce A.

    1987-01-01

    Choosing a multiprocessor interconnection topology may depend on high-level considerations, such as the intended application domain and the expected number of processors. It certainly depends on low-level implementation details, such as packaging and communications protocols. The authors first use rough measures of cost and performance to characterize several topologies. They then examine how implementation details can affect the realizable performance of a topology.

  4. Assessing weight perception accuracy to promote weight loss among U.S. female adolescents: A secondary analysis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity have become a global epidemic. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among U.S. adolescents has almost tripled in the last 30 years. Results from recent systematic reviews demonstrate that no single, particular intervention or strategy successfully assists overweight or obese adolescents in losing weight. An understanding of factors that influence healthy weight-loss behaviors among overweight and obese female adolescents promotes effective, multi-component weight-loss interventions. There is limited evidence demonstrating associations between demographic variables, body-mass index, and weight perception among female adolescents trying to lose weight. There is also a lack of previous studies examining the association of the accuracy of female adolescents' weight perception with their efforts to lose weight. This study, therefore, examined the associations of body-mass index, weight perception, and weight-perception accuracy with trying to lose weight and engaging in exercise as a weight-loss method among a representative sample of U.S. female adolescents. Methods A nonexperimental, descriptive, comparative secondary analysis design was conducted using data from Wave II (1996) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Data representative of U.S. female adolescents (N = 2216) were analyzed using STATA statistical software. Descriptive statistics and survey weight logistic regression were performed to determine if demographic and independent (body-mass index, weight perception, and weight perception accuracy) variables were associated with trying to lose weight and engaging in exercise as a weight-loss method. Results Age, Black or African American race, body-mass index, weight perception, and weight perceptions accuracy were consistently associated with the likeliness of trying to lose weight among U.S. female adolescents. Age, body-mass index, weight perception, and weight-perception accuracy were

  5. Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors as add-on therapy to insulin: rationale and evidences.

    PubMed

    Singh, Awadhesh Kumar; Singh, Ritu

    2016-01-01

    Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2I) are recently approved class of anti-hyperglycaemic agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). SGLT-2I inhibits renal glucose reabsorption, thereby ensuing urinary glucose excretion in a dose-dependent manner. This caloric loss and osmotic diuresis, secondary to increased urinary glucose excretion, has a unique potential to counter insulin induced weight gain and fluid retention, with little potential of hypoglycemic exacerbation. Also, as these agents act independently of insulin secretion or action, they are effective even in long-standing diabetes with depleted β-cell reserve. Improvement in insulin sensitivity, as observed with SGLT-2I can also facilitate insulin action. Furthermore, significant reduction in total daily insulin dosage and reduction of body weight as observed during combination therapy renders SGLT-2I, a near-ideal partner to insulin. This review aims to evaluate the safety and efficacy of currently used SGLT-2I as an add-on to insulin therapy in the treatment of T2DM. PMID:26732230

  6. Gender and genetic contributions to weight identity among adolescents and young adults in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Wedow, Robbee; Briley, Daniel A; Short, Susan E; Boardman, Jason D

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the possibility that genetic variation contributes to self-perceived weight status among adolescents and young adults in the U.S. Using samples of identical and fraternal twins across four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) study, we calculate heritability estimates for objective body mass index (BMI) that are in line with previous estimates. We also show that perceived weight status is heritable (h(2) ∼ 0.47) and most importantly that this trait continues to be heritable above and beyond objective BMI (h(2) ∼ 0.25). We then demonstrate significant sex differences in the heritability of weight identity across the four waves of the study, where h(2)women = 0.39, 0.35, 0.40, and 0.50 for each wave, respectively, and h(2)men = 0.10, 0.10, 0.23, and 0.03. These results call for a deeper consideration of both identity and gender in genetics research. PMID:27500942

  7. Nutritional considerations for ultraendurance performance.

    PubMed

    Applegate, E A

    1991-06-01

    The nutritional considerations of the ultraendurance athlete center around proper caloric and nutrient intake during training as well as adequate energy and fluid replacement during competition to maintain optimal performance. Energy needs of ultraendurance athletes during training vary widely, depending upon duration, intensity, and type of exercise training. These athletes may train several hours daily, thus risking inadequate caloric intake that can lead to chronic fatigue, weight loss, and impaired physical performance. It is not known whether protein needs are increased in ultraendurance athletes as a result of extended exercise training. Additionally, micronutrient needs may be altered for these athletes while dietary intake is generally over the RDA because of high caloric intake. Prior to competition, ultraendurance athletes should consider glycogen supercompensation and a prerace meal eaten 4 hrs before as a means of improving performance. Carbohydrate feedings during prolonged exercise can significantly affect performance. During events lasting over several hours, sodium sweat losses and/or the consumption of sodium-free fluids may precipitate hyponatremia. PMID:1844990

  8. Real-Time Access to Meteosat Data Using the ADDE Server Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, M.; Gaertner, V. K.

    2006-05-01

    The McIDAS ADDE technology is used by EUMETSAT to provide access to real-time Meteosat-8 image data to globally foster training activities within and outside classroom courses. (McIDAS - Man computer Interactive Data Access System, ADDE - Abstract Data Distribution Environment). The advanced imaging capabilities of Meteosat-8 - a satellite of the Meteosat Second Generation series - provides full disk Earth coverage in 11 spectral channels every 15 minutes. A further 12th channel covers the land surfaces in a 1 km spatial resolution in a solar wavelength. Real-time operational services use the EUMETCast dissemination mechanism for timely access to the image data. EUMETCast covers the geographic area of Europe, Africa, South America and parts of North America and Asia. Details of the EUMETCast system are given in a separate presentation by Gaertner and Koenig in this conference. In addition to EUMETCast, however, for training purposes, access is also made available in near real-time on the basis of the ADDE technology. This is an internet based data access, i.e. it is globally available. ADDE offers the possibility to retrieve only the area of interest, e.g. a special geographic area and only selected channels. This implies that the actual data transfer is small so that the internet is used very efficiently. ADDE was developed as part of the McIDAS software, and is now also freely available in the OpenADDE package (http://www.ssec.wisc.edu/mcidas/software/openadde). Other than McIDAS itself, there is a variety of application packages that are ADDE enabled, as e.g. McIDAS-Lite, the Unidata Integrated Data Viewer, Hydra, IDL, or Matlab. These tools also offer further analysis concepts. Examples will be shown during the presentation. The user community of the ADDE access also needs to be licensed according to the EUMETSAT data policy. After the successful commissioning of Meteosat-9, the data of this satellite will of course be incorporated into the ADDE data provision.

  9. Analytical Fuselage and Wing Weight Estimation of Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, Mark C.; Ardema, Mark D.; Patron, Anthony P.; Hahn, Andrew S.; Miura, Hirokazu; Moore, Mark D.

    1996-01-01

    A method of estimating the load-bearing fuselage weight and wing weight of transport aircraft based on fundamental structural principles has been developed. This method of weight estimation represents a compromise between the rapid assessment of component weight using empirical methods based on actual weights of existing aircraft, and detailed, but time-consuming, analysis using the finite element method. The method was applied to eight existing subsonic transports for validation and correlation. Integration of the resulting computer program, PDCYL, has been made into the weights-calculating module of the AirCraft SYNThesis (ACSYNT) computer program. ACSYNT has traditionally used only empirical weight estimation methods; PDCYL adds to ACSYNT a rapid, accurate means of assessing the fuselage and wing weights of unconventional aircraft. PDCYL also allows flexibility in the choice of structural concept, as well as a direct means of determining the impact of advanced materials on structural weight. Using statistical analysis techniques, relations between the load-bearing fuselage and wing weights calculated by PDCYL and corresponding actual weights were determined.

  10. Continuing the Discussion: A Commentary on "Wilderness Therapy--Ethical Considerations for Mental Health Professionals"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, David A.; Duerson, Lauren M.

    2010-01-01

    Wilderness therapy programs continue to be a possible treatment modality for at-risk youth who require out-of-home care. Issues associated with wilderness therapy also continue to be a spirited topic with professionals in the field and the general public. This commentary will add additional considerations, and continue the discussion concerning…

  11. Weight-loss medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000346.htm Weight-loss medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Several weight-loss medicines are available. Ask your health care provider ...

  12. Weight Loss & Acute Porphyria

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sale You are here Home Diet and Nutrition Weight loss & acute Porphyria Being overweight is a particular problem ... one of these diseases before they enter a weight-loss program. Also, they should not participate in a ...

  13. Losing weight after pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... below the minimum number of calories you need. Breastfeeding If you are breastfeeding, you will want to lose weight slowly. Weight ... not affect your milk supply or your health. Breastfeeding makes your body burn calories. It helps you ...

  14. Weighted network modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farkas, Illés; Ábel, Dániel; Palla, Gergely; Vicsek, Tamás

    2007-06-01

    The inclusion of link weights into the analysis of network properties allows a deeper insight into the (often overlapping) modular structure of real-world webs. We introduce a clustering algorithm clique percolation method with weights (CPMw) for weighted networks based on the concept of percolating k-cliques with high enough intensity. The algorithm allows overlaps between the modules. First, we give detailed analytical and numerical results about the critical point of weighted k-clique percolation on (weighted) Erdos Rényi graphs. Then, for a scientist collaboration web and a stock correlation graph we compute three-link weight correlations and with the CPMw the weighted modules. After reshuffling link weights in both networks and computing the same quantities for the randomized control graphs as well, we show that groups of three or more strong links prefer to cluster together in both original graphs.

  15. Pregnancy and Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Division (HMD) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine released updated guidelines for weight gain ... Division (HMD) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine: Weight Gain During Pregnancy: Reexamining the ...

  16. Watching Your Weight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Doug

    1993-01-01

    Describes an activity shared at an inservice teacher workshop and suitable for middle school in which students predict their ideal weight in kilograms based on tables giving ideal weights for given heights. (MDH)

  17. Gradient Weight in Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Kevin Michael

    2011-01-01

    Research on syllable weight in generative phonology has focused almost exclusively on systems in which weight is treated as an ordinal hierarchy of clearly delineated categories (e.g. light and heavy). As I discuss, canonical weight-sensitive phenomena in phonology, including quantitative meter and quantity-sensitive stress, can also treat weight…

  18. Sensitivity analysis of add-on price estimate for select silicon wafering technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mokashi, A. R.

    1982-01-01

    The cost of producing wafers from silicon ingots is a major component of the add-on price of silicon sheet. Economic analyses of the add-on price estimates and their sensitivity internal-diameter (ID) sawing, multiblade slurry (MBS) sawing and fixed-abrasive slicing technique (FAST) are presented. Interim price estimation guidelines (IPEG) are used for estimating a process add-on price. Sensitivity analysis of price is performed with respect to cost parameters such as equipment, space, direct labor, materials (blade life) and utilities, and the production parameters such as slicing rate, slices per centimeter and process yield, using a computer program specifically developed to do sensitivity analysis with IPEG. The results aid in identifying the important cost parameters and assist in deciding the direction of technology development efforts.

  19. Improving the Laboratory Add-On Process and Increasing Housestaff Satisfaction with an EMR Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Shahnazarian, Vahe; Mehta, Parag

    2016-01-01

    At a community hospital in Brooklyn, New York, the process for ordering add-on testing to drawn blood tubes involved filling out a paper sheet, then faxing and bulleting that sheet to the lab. It was a very inefficient, cumbersome, and unsatisfactory way of completing the process. In light of this, an EMR intervention was implemented in which the add-on order was placed as an EMR order. The study spanned over almost five years, over a year of which was post-intervention. There was a statistically significant increase in the number of add-on orders being placed as a result of the intervention. This has greatly improved housestaff satisfaction with the overall process. In conclusion, the project was a great success and met its goals of simplifying a difficult and cumbersome process while increasing user satisfaction. PMID:27239309

  20. Add/drop multiplexing and TDM signal transmission in an optical CDMA ring network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Biao; Guo, Changjian; Chen, Jiajia; Zhang, Linjian; Jiang, Qiong; He, Sailing

    2007-08-01

    It is shown that a ring topology is better than a star topology for an optical-code-division multiple access (OCDMA) network as an optical metropolitan or local area network in terms of security and capacity. Each node in an OCDMA ring network requires an OCDMA add/drop multiplexer. We present what we believe to be a novel OCDMA add/drop multiplexer that can simultaneously add and drop multiple code channels, and a proof-of-feasibility experiment is demonstrated. An OCDMA ring may also adapt code channels for time domain multiplexing and other digital signal transmission systems. An experiment for the synchronized digital hierarchy (SDH) signal over a OCDMA link is demonstrated.

  1. Four-channel optical add-drop multiplexer based on dual racetrack micro-ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Danning; Wu, Yuanda; Wang, Yue; An, Junming; Hu, Xiongwei

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we report on a four-channel optical add-drop multiplexer based on dual racetrack micro-ring resonators in submicron SOI rib waveguides. The free spectral range (FSR) is about 18.6 nm. The device can add/drop four optical channels in half C-band. When the device acts as an optical drop multiplexer, the channel spacing is about 1.5 nm, maximum extinction ratio is 23.75 dB, the minimum insertion loss 9.94 dB and the maximum adjacent channels crosstalk is -12.12 dB. When the device acts as an optical add multiplexer, the maximum extinction ratio is 28.72 dB and the minimum insertion loss 7.35 dB. The fabricated device has effectively and perfectly realized the signals upload and download.

  2. Tunable Fano resonance in a single-ring-resonator-based add/drop interferometer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kaiyang; Liu, Xiaoqi; Yu, Changqiu; Zhang, Yundong

    2013-07-10

    We theoretically study a single-ring-resonator-based add/drop interferometer to achieve tunable Fano resonance. The Fano resonance results from the interference of two resonant beams propagating in the ring resonator. The line shapes of the Fano resonance are tunable by controlling the coupling coefficients between the waveguide and ring resonator. The spectra of the drop port and through port of the add/drop interferometer are horizontally mirror-symmetric. A box-like spectral response can be produced with the proper coupling coefficient owing to the double resonances. When the phase difference between the two light inputs to the add/drop interferometer is compensated, a doubled free spectral range can be obtained. PMID:23852203

  3. Photothermally tunable silicon-microring-based optical add-drop filter through integrated light absorber.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Shi, Yuechun; Lou, Fei; Chen, Yiting; Yan, Min; Wosinski, Lech; Qiu, Min

    2014-10-20

    An optically pumped thermo-optic (TO) silicon ring add-drop filter with fast thermal response is experimentally demonstrated. We propose that metal-insulator-metal (MIM) light absorber can be integrated into silicon TO devices, acting as a localized heat source which can be activated remotely by a pump beam. The MIM absorber design introduces less thermal capacity to the device, compared to conventional electrically-driven approaches. Experimentally, the absorber-integrated add-drop filter shows an optical response time of 13.7 μs following the 10%-90% rule (equivalent to a exponential time constant of 5 μs) and a wavelength shift over pump power of 60 pm/mW. The photothermally tunable add-drop filter may provide new perspectives for all-optical routing and switching in integrated Si photonic circuits. PMID:25401557

  4. Structural features of Chi recognition in AddAB with implications for RecBCD

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Martin; Wigley, Dale B

    2014-01-01

    AddAB and RecBCD-type helicase-nuclease complexes control the first stage of bacterial homologous recombination (HR) – the resection of double strand DNA breaks. A switch in the activities of the complexes to initiate repair by HR is regulated by a short, species-specific DNA sequence known as a Crossover Hotspot Instigator (Chi) site. It has been shown that, upon encountering Chi, AddAB and RecBCD pause translocation before resuming at a reduced rate. Recently, the structure of B.subtilis AddAB in complex with its regulatory Chi sequence revealed the nature of Chi binding and the paused translocation state. Here the structural features associated with Chi binding are described in greater detail and discussed in relation to the related E.coli RecBCD system. PMID:25486468

  5. Molecular weight determinations of biosolubilized coals

    SciTech Connect

    Linehan, J.C.; Clauss, S.; Bean, R.; Campbell, J.

    1991-05-01

    We have compared several different methods for determining the molecular weight of biosolubilized coals: Aqueous gel permeation Chromatography (GPC), organic GPC, preparative GPC, dynamic laser light scattering (LLS), static LLS, static LLS, mass spectrometry, vapor phase osmometry (VPO) and ultrafiltration. We have found that careful consideration must be given to the molecular weight result obtained from each method. The average molecular weight and the molecular weight distribution were found to be dependent upon many factors, including the technique used; molecular weight standards, pH, and the percentage of sample analyzed. Weight average molecular weights, M{sub w}, obtained for biosolubilized leonardite range from 800,000 daltons for neutral pH aqueous GPC based on polyethylene glycol molecular weight standards to 570 daltons for pH 11.5 buffered aqueous GPC based on a fulvic acid standard. It is clear that the state of association of the biocoal analyte, as well as the interactions of sample with the separation matrix, can have large influence of the observed result, and these must be understood before reliable GPC measurements can be made. Furthermore, a uniform set of molecular weight standards for biodegraded coals is needed. 10 refs., 1 tab.

  6. Sensitivity and specificity of the amer dizziness diagnostic scale (adds) for patients with vestibular disorders

    PubMed Central

    Al Saif, Amer; Alsenany, Samira

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the sensitivity and specificity of a newly developed diagnostic tool, the Amer Dizziness Diagnostic Scale (ADDS), to evaluate and differentially diagnose vestibular disorder and to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the scale and its usefulness in clinical practice. [Subjects and Methods] Two hundred subjects of both genders (72 males, 128 females) aged between 18 to 60 (49.5±7.8) who had a history of vertigo and/or dizziness symptoms for this previous two weeks or less were recruited for the study. All subjects were referred by otolaryngologists, neurologists or family physicians in and around Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. On the first clinic visit, all the patients were evaluated once using the ADDS, following which they underwent routine testing of clinical signs and symptoms, audiometry, and a neurological examination, coupled with tests of Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex function, which often serves as the “gold standard” for determining the probability of a vestibular deficit. [Results] The results show that the ADDS strongly correlated with “true-positive” and “true-negative” responses for determining the probability of a vestibular disorder (r =0.95). A stepwise linear regression was conducted and the results indicate that the ADDS was a significant predictor of “true-positive” and “true-negative” responses in vestibular disorders (R2 =0.90). Approximately 90% of the variability in the vestibular gold standard test was explained by its relationship to the ADDS. Moreover, the ADDS was found to have a sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 96%. [Conclusion] This study showed that the Amer Dizziness Diagnostic Scale has high sensitivity and specificity and that it can be used as a method of differential diagnosis for patients with vestibular disorders. PMID:25642046

  7. Comparison of vildagliptin as an add-on therapy and sulfonylurea dose-increasing therapy in patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes using metformin and sulfonylurea (VISUAL study): A randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Hong, A Ram; Lee, Jeun; Ku, Eu Jeong; Hwangbo, Yul; Kim, Kyoung Min; Moon, Jae Hoon; Choi, Sung Hee; Jang, Hak Chul; Lim, Soo

    2015-07-01

    The aim of present study is to compare the efficacy and safety of adding vildagliptin with sulfonylurea dose-increasing as an active comparator in patients who had inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using metformin plus sulfonylurea in real clinical practice. Patients using metformin plus sulfonylurea were assigned to either vildagliptin add-on (50 mg twice a day, n=172) or sulfonylurea dose-increasing by 50% (n=172) treatment groups. The primary endpoint was a change in HbA(1c) after 24 weeks. The secondary endpoints were patients achieving HbA(1c)≤7.0% (53 mmol/mol) and changes in the fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h postprandial glucose (2pp), lipid profiles, and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio. Body weight and hypoglycemia were also investigated. The mean HbA(1c) at baseline was 8.6% (70 mmol/mol) in both groups. At week 24, the adjusted mean HbA(1c) levels decreased by -1.19% (-13.09 mmol/mol) with vildagliptin add-on and -0.46% (-5.06 mmol/mol) with sulfonylurea (P<0.001). Significantly more vildagliptin add-on patients achieved HbA(1c)≤7.0% (53 mmol/mol) than did sulfonylurea patients (40.1% vs. 7.9%; P<0.001). Greater reductions in FPG and 2pp were observed with vildagliptin add-on than with sulfonylurea (P<0.001). The vildagliptin add-on group exhibited no clinically relevant weight gain and had a lower incidence of hypoglycemia compared with the sulfonylurea group. Vildagliptin add-on therapy might be a suitable option for patients with T2DM that is controlled inadequately by metformin and sulfonylurea, based on its greater glucose control and better safety profile (ClinicalTrial.gov: NCT01099137). PMID:26003889

  8. Kriging without negative weights

    SciTech Connect

    Szidarovszky, F.; Baafi, E.Y.; Kim, Y.C.

    1987-08-01

    Under a constant drift, the linear kriging estimator is considered as a weighted average of n available sample values. Kriging weights are determined such that the estimator is unbiased and optimal. To meet these requirements, negative kriging weights are sometimes found. Use of negative weights can produce negative block grades, which makes no practical sense. In some applications, all kriging weights may be required to be nonnegative. In this paper, a derivation of a set of nonlinear equations with the nonnegative constraint is presented. A numerical algorithm also is developed for the solution of the new set of kriging equations.

  9. Patient considerations in type 2 diabetes – role of combination dapagliflozin–metformin XR

    PubMed Central

    Kuecker, Catherine M; Vivian, Eva M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this review article is to provide guidance to health care providers regarding the use of dapagliflozin–metformin XR (extended release) as a therapeutic option for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods The PubMed database was searched through August 2015 to identify clinical trials and meta-analyses evaluating the use of the sodium–glucose cotransporter type 2 inhibitor dapagliflozin administered as monotherapy or in combination with metformin. Results Fourteen studies were included for this review, six of which evaluated dapagliflozin in combination with metformin, one of which evaluated dapagliflozin monotherapy, and four of which evaluated dapagliflozin as an add-on therapy to other antidiabetic agents. The combination of dapagliflozin and metformin resulted in an A1C decrease of up to 2%, weight loss of 2–3 kg, and modest systolic blood pressure decrease of 3–5 mmHg. However, long-term effects on cancer and cardiovascular health are still being investigated. Providing patients with a fixed-dose combination therapy such as dapagliflozin-metformin XR can increase medication adherence and patient satisfaction, and improve glycemic control. Dapagliflozin–metformin XR is ideal because it can be administered orally once a day, is associated with a low risk of hypoglycemia, and provides the added benefit of weight reduction and modest blood pressure lowering. Conclusion The unique combined mechanism of action and favorable efficacy and safety profile of dapagliflozin–metformin XR support consideration of this fixed-dose combination as a treatment option for patients with T2DM. PMID:26966383

  10. Weight, gravitation, inertia, and tides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujol, Olivier; Lagoute, Christophe; Pérez, José-Philippe

    2015-11-01

    This paper deals with the factors that influence the weight of an object near the Earth's surface. They are: (1) the Earth's gravitational force, (2) the centrifugal force due to the Earth's diurnal rotation, and (3) tidal forces due to the gravitational field of the Moon and Sun, and other solar system bodies to a lesser extent. Each of these three contributions is discussed and expressions are derived. The relationship between weight and gravitation is thus established in a direct and pedagogical manner readily understandable by undergraduate students. The analysis applies to the Newtonian limit of gravitation. The derivation is based on an experimental (or operational) definition of weight, and it is shown that it coincides with the Earth’s gravitational force modified by diurnal rotation around a polar axis and non-uniformity of external gravitational bodies (tidal term). Two examples illustrate and quantify these modifications, respectively the Eötvös effect and the oceanic tides; tidal forces due to differential gravitation on a spacecraft and an asteroid are also proposed as examples. Considerations about inertia are also given and some comments are made about a widespread, yet confusing, explanation of tides based on a centrifugal force. Finally, the expression of the potential energy of the tide-generating force is established rigorously in the appendix.

  11. Project DyAdd: Visual Attention in Adult Dyslexia and ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laasonen, Marja; Salomaa, Jonna; Cousineau, Denis; Leppamaki, Sami; Tani, Pekka; Hokkanen, Laura; Dye, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    In this study of the project DyAdd, three aspects of visual attention were investigated in adults (18-55 years) with dyslexia (n = 35) or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, n = 22), and in healthy controls (n = 35). Temporal characteristics of visual attention were assessed with Attentional Blink (AB), capacity of visual attention…

  12. Neural Biomarkers for Dyslexia, ADHD, and ADD in the Auditory Cortex of Children.

    PubMed

    Serrallach, Bettina; Groß, Christine; Bernhofs, Valdis; Engelmann, Dorte; Benner, Jan; Gündert, Nadine; Blatow, Maria; Wengenroth, Martina; Seitz, Angelika; Brunner, Monika; Seither, Stefan; Parncutt, Richard; Schneider, Peter; Seither-Preisler, Annemarie

    2016-01-01

    Dyslexia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and attention deficit disorder (ADD) show distinct clinical profiles that may include auditory and language-related impairments. Currently, an objective brain-based diagnosis of these developmental disorders is still unavailable. We investigated the neuro-auditory systems of dyslexic, ADHD, ADD, and age-matched control children (N = 147) using neuroimaging, magnetencephalography and psychoacoustics. All disorder subgroups exhibited an oversized left planum temporale and an abnormal interhemispheric asynchrony (10-40 ms) of the primary auditory evoked P1-response. Considering right auditory cortex morphology, bilateral P1 source waveform shapes, and auditory performance, the three disorder subgroups could be reliably differentiated with outstanding accuracies of 89-98%. We therefore for the first time provide differential biomarkers for a brain-based diagnosis of dyslexia, ADHD, and ADD. The method allowed not only allowed for clear discrimination between two subtypes of attentional disorders (ADHD and ADD), a topic controversially discussed for decades in the scientific community, but also revealed the potential for objectively identifying comorbid cases. Noteworthy, in children playing a musical instrument, after three and a half years of training the observed interhemispheric asynchronies were reduced by about 2/3, thus suggesting a strong beneficial influence of music experience on brain development. These findings might have far-reaching implications for both research and practice and enable a profound understanding of the brain-related etiology, diagnosis, and musically based therapy of common auditory-related developmental disorders and learning disabilities. PMID:27471442

  13. How to Add Philosophy Dimensions in Your Basic International Business Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thanopoulos, John

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to assist professors in introducing concepts of self, philosophy, religions, the universe, existential dilemmas, etc., in their basic international business classes. Using active learning and five-member student teams, a student organized and administered conference adds a very useful dimension of knowledge sacrificing only one…

  14. Practices of Special Education Teachers for Dealing with Students with ADD/ADHD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askew, Barbara L.

    This study surveyed 300 Illinois special education teachers concerning their views on effective practices for intervention with students having attention deficit disorder (ADD) and their suggestions for regular classroom teachers with such students. Introductory material defines the problem and terminology and identifies assumptions and…

  15. ATRX ADD domain links an atypical histone methylation recognition mechanism to human mental-retardation syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Iwase, Shigeki; Xiang, Bin; Ghosh, Sharmistha; Ren, Ting; Lewis, Peter W.; Cochrane, Jesse C.; Allis, C. David; Picketts, David J.; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Li, Haitao; Shi, Yang

    2011-07-19

    ATR-X (alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation, X-linked) syndrome is a human congenital disorder that causes severe intellectual disabilities. Mutations in the ATRX gene, which encodes an ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeler, are responsible for the syndrome. Approximately 50% of the missense mutations in affected persons are clustered in a cysteine-rich domain termed ADD (ATRX-DNMT3-DNMT3L, ADD{sub ATRX}), whose function has remained elusive. Here we identify ADD{sub ATRX} as a previously unknown histone H3-binding module, whose binding is promoted by lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) but inhibited by lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3). The cocrystal structure of ADD{sub ATRX} bound to H3{sub 1-15}K9me3 peptide reveals an atypical composite H3K9me3-binding pocket, which is distinct from the conventional trimethyllysine-binding aromatic cage. Notably, H3K9me3-pocket mutants and ATR-X syndrome mutants are defective in both H3K9me3 binding and localization at pericentromeric heterochromatin; thus, we have discovered a unique histone-recognition mechanism underlying the ATR-X etiology.

  16. ATRX ADD Domain Links an Atypical Histone Methylation Recognition Mechanism to Human Mental-Retardation Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    S Iwase; B Xiang; S Ghosh; T Ren; P Lewis; J Cochrane; C Allis; D Picketts; D Patel; et al.

    2011-12-31

    ATR-X (alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation, X-linked) syndrome is a human congenital disorder that causes severe intellectual disabilities. Mutations in the ATRX gene, which encodes an ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeler, are responsible for the syndrome. Approximately 50% of the missense mutations in affected persons are clustered in a cysteine-rich domain termed ADD (ATRX-DNMT3-DNMT3L, ADD{sub ATRX}), whose function has remained elusive. Here we identify ADD{sub ATRX} as a previously unknown histone H3-binding module, whose binding is promoted by lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) but inhibited by lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3). The cocrystal structure of ADD{sub ATRX} bound to H3{sub 1-15}K9me3 peptide reveals an atypical composite H3K9me3-binding pocket, which is distinct from the conventional trimethyllysine-binding aromatic cage. Notably, H3K9me3-pocket mutants and ATR-X syndrome mutants are defective in both H3K9me3 binding and localization at pericentromeric heterochromatin; thus, we have discovered a unique histone-recognition mechanism underlying the ATR-X etiology.

  17. Psychometric Properties and Norms of the German ABC-Community and PAS-ADD Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeilinger, Elisabeth L.; Weber, Germain; Haveman, Meindert J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to standardize and generate psychometric evidence of the German language versions of two well-established English language mental health instruments: the "Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community" (ABC-C) and the "Psychiatric Assessment Schedule for Adults with Developmental Disabilities" (PAS-ADD) Checklist. New…

  18. 24 CFR 990.190 - Other formula expenses (add-ons).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Other formula expenses (add-ons). 990.190 Section 990.190 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT THE PUBLIC...

  19. Alcohol and Drug Defense Program (ADD) 1994-95. Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dulaney, Charles N.

    The Wake County Public School System used Alcohol and Drug Defense Program (ADD) federal funds in 1994-95 to reduce the impact of drugs and alcohol on the system's 12 high schools by implementing a Student Assistance Program (SAP). SAP provides intervention and support for students identified as being at risk of substance abuse because of academic…

  20. Demonstration of an optical packet add/drop with wavelength-coded header

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsushima, H.; Shabeer, M.; Barnsley, P.; Pitcher, D.

    1995-02-01

    An optical self-routing add/drop packet network using wavelength coded header control signals is described. Experimental results for 2.5 Gbit/s 53-byte data packets transmitted through 50 km of standard step-index single-mode fiber are presented.

  1. TEST DESIGN FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) OF ADD-ON NOX CONTROL UTILIZING OZONE INJECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the test design for environmental technology verification (ETV) of add-0n nitrogen oxides (NOx) control utilizing ozone injection. (NOTE: ETV is an EPA-established program to enhance domestic and international market acceptance of new or improved commercially...

  2. Project DyAdd: Implicit Learning in Adult Dyslexia and ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laasonen, Marja; Väre, Jenni; Oksanen-Hennah, Henna; Leppämäki, Sami; Tani, Pekka; Harno, Hanna; Hokkanen, Laura; Pothos, Emmanuel; Cleeremans, Axel

    2014-01-01

    In this study of the project DyAdd, implicit learning was investigated through two paradigms in adults (18-55 years) with dyslexia (n?=?36) or with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, n?=?22) and in controls (n?=?35). In the serial reaction time (SRT) task, there were no group differences in learning. However, those with ADHD exhibited…

  3. Strategies for Successfully Teaching Students with ADD or ADHD in Instrumental Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melago, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Teachers can easily encounter students with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in the instrumental lesson setting. Applicable to instrumental lesson settings in the public or private schools, private studios, or college studios, this article focuses on specific strategies ranging from the…

  4. In Building a Script for an Emotion, Do Preschoolers Add Its Cause before Its Behavior Consequence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widen, Sherri C.; Russell, James A.

    2011-01-01

    An emotion concept is a script in which an emotion event is an ordered sequence of subevents from situational cause through bodily changes to behavioral consequence. As children build a script for each emotion, in what order do they add each subevent? Preschoolers (N = 108, three to five years), were asked to name the protagonist's emotion in…

  5. 76 FR 28885 - Brucellosis in Swine; Add Texas to List of Validated Brucellosis-Free States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 78 Brucellosis in Swine; Add Texas to List of Validated Brucellosis- Free... comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the brucellosis regulations concerning the interstate movement of swine... restrictions on the interstate movement of breeding swine from Texas. DATES: This interim rule is effective...

  6. 40 CFR 75.34 - Units with add-on emission controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... assurance/quality control program for the unit, required by section 1 in appendix B of this part. To provide... parametric data to verify the proper operation of the SO2 or NOX add-on emission controls during each hour, as described in paragraph (d) of this section. For any missing data hour(s) in which such...

  7. 40 CFR 75.34 - Units with add-on emission controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... assurance/quality control program for the unit, required by section 1 in appendix B of this part. To provide... parametric data to verify the proper operation of the SO2 or NOX add-on emission controls during each hour, as described in paragraph (d) of this section. For any missing data hour(s) in which such...

  8. 40 CFR 75.34 - Units with add-on emission controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... assurance/quality control program for the unit, required by section 1 in appendix B of this part. To provide... parametric data to verify the proper operation of the SO2 or NOX add-on emission controls during each hour, as described in paragraph (d) of this section. For any missing data hour(s) in which such...

  9. 40 CFR 75.34 - Units with add-on emission controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... assurance/quality control program for the unit, required by section 1 in appendix B of this part. To provide... parametric data to verify the proper operation of the SO2 or NOX add-on emission controls during each hour, as described in paragraph (d) of this section. For any missing data hour(s) in which such...

  10. Civic Engagement and Global Citizenship in a University Context: Core Business or Desirable Add-On?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munck, Ronaldo

    2010-01-01

    Can civic engagement become a "core business" of the contemporary university, or is it an attractive "add-on" that is not affordable in the current economic climate? Contemporary universities often play an important role in local community development and, as such, have the opportunity to develop civic engagement strategies to sit alongside…

  11. Numerical investigation of all-optical add-drop multiplexing for spectrally overlapping OFDM signals.

    PubMed

    Sygletos, S; Fabbri, S; Giacoumidis, E; Sorokina, M; Marom, D M; Stephens, M F C; Klonidis, D; Tomkos, I; Ellis, A D

    2015-03-01

    We propose a novel architecture for all-optical add-drop multiplexing of OFDM signals. Sub-channel extraction is achieved by means of waveform replication and coherent subtraction from the OFDM super-channel. Numerical simulations have been carried out to benchmark the performance of the architecture against critical design parameters. PMID:25836815

  12. Associations between Dopamine and Serotonin Genes and Job Satisfaction: Preliminary Evidence from the Add Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Zhaoli; Li, Wendong; Arvey, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    Previous behavioral genetic studies have found that job satisfaction is partially heritable. We went a step further to examine particular genetic markers that may be associated with job satisfaction. Using an oversample from the National Adolescent Longitudinal Study (Add Health Study), we found 2 genetic markers, dopamine receptor gene DRD4 VNTR…

  13. 24 CFR 983.206 - HAP contract amendments (to add or substitute contract units).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... new PBV request for proposals is not required. The anniversary and expiration dates of the HAP contract for the additional units must be the same as the anniversary and expiration dates of the HAP... execution date of the HAP contract to add additional PBV contract units in the same building. An...

  14. 24 CFR 983.206 - HAP contract amendments (to add or substitute contract units).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false HAP contract amendments (to add or substitute contract units). 983.206 Section 983.206 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  15. 24 CFR 983.206 - HAP contract amendments (to add or substitute contract units).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... new PBV request for proposals is not required. The anniversary and expiration dates of the HAP contract for the additional units must be the same as the anniversary and expiration dates of the HAP... execution date of the HAP contract to add additional PBV contract units in the same building. An...

  16. 24 CFR 983.206 - HAP contract amendments (to add or substitute contract units).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... new PBV request for proposals is not required. The anniversary and expiration dates of the HAP contract for the additional units must be the same as the anniversary and expiration dates of the HAP... execution date of the HAP contract to add additional PBV contract units in the same building. An...

  17. Neural Biomarkers for Dyslexia, ADHD, and ADD in the Auditory Cortex of Children

    PubMed Central

    Serrallach, Bettina; Groß, Christine; Bernhofs, Valdis; Engelmann, Dorte; Benner, Jan; Gündert, Nadine; Blatow, Maria; Wengenroth, Martina; Seitz, Angelika; Brunner, Monika; Seither, Stefan; Parncutt, Richard; Schneider, Peter; Seither-Preisler, Annemarie

    2016-01-01

    Dyslexia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and attention deficit disorder (ADD) show distinct clinical profiles that may include auditory and language-related impairments. Currently, an objective brain-based diagnosis of these developmental disorders is still unavailable. We investigated the neuro-auditory systems of dyslexic, ADHD, ADD, and age-matched control children (N = 147) using neuroimaging, magnetencephalography and psychoacoustics. All disorder subgroups exhibited an oversized left planum temporale and an abnormal interhemispheric asynchrony (10–40 ms) of the primary auditory evoked P1-response. Considering right auditory cortex morphology, bilateral P1 source waveform shapes, and auditory performance, the three disorder subgroups could be reliably differentiated with outstanding accuracies of 89–98%. We therefore for the first time provide differential biomarkers for a brain-based diagnosis of dyslexia, ADHD, and ADD. The method allowed not only allowed for clear discrimination between two subtypes of attentional disorders (ADHD and ADD), a topic controversially discussed for decades in the scientific community, but also revealed the potential for objectively identifying comorbid cases. Noteworthy, in children playing a musical instrument, after three and a half years of training the observed interhemispheric asynchronies were reduced by about 2/3, thus suggesting a strong beneficial influence of music experience on brain development. These findings might have far-reaching implications for both research and practice and enable a profound understanding of the brain-related etiology, diagnosis, and musically based therapy of common auditory-related developmental disorders and learning disabilities. PMID:27471442

  18. Add-on fluvoxamine treatment for schizophrenia: an updated meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Taro; Hirota, Tomoya; Iwata, Nakao

    2013-12-01

    We performed an updated meta-analysis of fluvoxamine add-on therapy in patients with schizophrenia treated with antipsychotics based on two previous meta-analyses (Sepehry et al., in J Clin Psychiatry 68:604-610, 2007 and Singh et al., in Br J Psychiatry J Mental Sci 197:174-179, 2010). We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library database, and PsycINFO up to January 2013. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data from randomized controlled trials comparing fluvoxamine add-on therapy with placebo. The risk ratio (RR), 95 % confidence intervals (CI), and standardized mean difference (SMD) were calculated. Seven studies (total n = 272) were identified. These included two clozapine studies, one olanzapine study, one second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) monotherapy study, and three first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) monotherapy studies. There were significant effect of fluvoxamine add-on therapy on overall (SMD = -0.46, CI = -0.75 to -0.16, p = 0.003, I (2) = 0 %, 5 studies, n = 180) and negative symptoms (SMD = -0.44, CI = -0.74 to -0.14, p = 0.004, I (2) = 0 %, 5 studies, n = 180). However, fluvoxamine add-on therapy showed no significant effects on positive symptoms, depressive symptoms, and discontinuations from any cause or adverse events. Fluvoxamine add-on therapy in patients primarily treated with SGAs improved overall (p = 0.02) but not negative symptoms (p = 0.31). On the other hand, fluvoxamine add-on therapy in patients primarily treated with FGAs improved both overall (p = 0.04) and negative symptoms (p = 0.004) compared with control groups. Our results suggest that fluvoxamine add-on therapy is more beneficial on the psychopathology (especially negative symptoms) than controls in patients with schizophrenia who are primarily treated with FGAs. Given that a small number of studies were included in this meta-analysis, the results should be treated with caution. PMID:23605347

  19. A Phosphorylation-Related Variant ADD1-rs4963 Modifies the Risk of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Na; Liu, Cheng; Li, Jiaoyuan; Chen, Xueqin; Yang, Yang; Zhu, Ying; Gong, Yajie; Gong, Jing; Zhong, Rong; Cheng, Liming; Miao, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    It is well-established that abnormal protein phosphorylation could play an essential role in tumorgenesis by disrupting a variety of physiological processes such as cell growth, signal transduction and cell motility. Moreover, increasing numbers of phosphorylation-related variants have been identified in association with cancers. ADD1 (α-adducin), a versatile protein expressed ubiquitously in eukaryotes, exerts an important influence on membrane cytoskeleton, cell proliferation and cell-cell communication. Recently, a missense variant at the codon of ADD1’s phosphorylation site, rs4963 (Ser586Cys), was reported to modify the risk of non-cardia gastric cancer. To explore the role of ADD1-rs4963 in colorectal cancer (CRC), we conducted a case-control study with a total of 1054 CRC cases and 1128 matched controls in a Chinese population. After adjustment for variables including age, gender, smoking and drinking, it was demonstrated that this variant significantly conferred susceptibility to CRC (G versus C: OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.03–1.31, P = 0.016; CG versus CC: OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.02–1.55, P = 0.036; GG versus CC: OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.06–1.72, P = 0.015). We further investigated the interaction of ADD1-rs4963 with smoking or drinking exposure, but found no significant result. This study is the first report of an association between ADD1 and CRC risk, promoting our knowledge of the genetics of CRC. PMID:25816007

  20. Manufacturability considerations for DSA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Richard A.; Hosler, Erik R.; Schmid, Gerard M.; Xu, Ji; Preil, Moshe E.; Rastogi, Vinayak; Mohanty, Nihar; Kumar, Kaushik; Cicoria, Michael J.; Hetzer, David R.; DeVilliers, Anton

    2014-03-01

    Implementation of Directed Self-Assembly (DSA) as a viable lithographic technology for high volume manufacturing will require significant efforts to co-optimize the DSA process options and constraints with existing work flows. These work flows include established etch stacks, integration schemes, and design layout principles. The two foremost patterning schemes for DSA, chemoepitaxy and graphoepitaxy, each have their own advantages and disadvantages. Chemoepitaxy is well suited for regular repeating patterns, but has challenges when non-periodic design elements are required. As the line-space polystyrene-block-polymethylmethacrylate chemoepitaxy DSA processes mature, considerable progress has been made on reducing the density of topological (dislocation and disclination) defects but little is known about the existence of 3D buried defects and their subsequent pattern transfer to underlayers. In this paper, we highlight the emergence of a specific type of buried bridging defect within our two 28 nm pitch DSA flows and summarize our efforts to characterize and eliminate the buried defects using process, materials, and plasma-etch optimization. We also discuss how the optimization and removal of the buried defects impacts both the process window and pitch multiplication, facilitates measurement of the pattern roughness rectification, and demonstrate hard-mask open within a back-end-of-line integration flow. Finally, since graphoepitaxy has intrinsic benefits in terms of design flexibility when compared to chemoepitaxy, we highlight our initial investigations on implementing high-chi block copolymer patterning using multiple graphoepitaxy flows to realize sub-20 nm pitch line-space patterns and discuss the benefits of using high-chi block copolymers for roughness reduction.

  1. [Success in maintaining weight loss in Portugal: the Portuguese Weight Control Registry].

    PubMed

    Vieira, Paulo Nuno; Teixeira, Pedro; Sardinha, Luís Bettencourt; Santos, Teresa; Coutinho, Sílvia; Mata, Jutta; Silva, Marlene Nunes

    2014-01-01

    The scope of this article is to describe the Portuguese Weight Control Registry (PWCR) methodology and the participants currently enrolled specifically with respect to their individual and family weight history, previous weight loss attempts, and psychosocial characteristics. One hundred and ninety-eight adults (age: 39.7±11.1 years; BMI: 26.0±3.9 kg/m2), 59% women, filled out a questionnaire about demographics, health-related behaviors and motivation, and methods and strategies used to lose and/or maintain weight loss. Participants reported an average weight loss of 17.4 kg for an average of 29 months. Concerning the number of weight loss attempts, 73% of participants reported a maximum of three attempts of going on a diet, and 34% indicated only one attempt to lose weight in the past. The PWCR now features a considerable number of successful long-term weight loss maintainers in Portugal. Participants will be followed over the next years to learn about their characteristics and weight loss strategies in further detail, as well as to identify predictors of continued weight loss maintenance. PMID:24473606

  2. Characterization of an add-on multileaf collimator for electron beam therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauer, T.; Sokoll, J.; Cremers, F.; Harmansa, R.; Luzzara, M.; Schmidt, R.

    2008-02-01

    An add-on multileaf collimator for electrons (eMLC) has been developed that provides computer-controlled beam collimation and isocentric dose delivery. The design parameters result from the design study by Gauer et al (2006 Phys. Med. Biol. 51 5987-6003) and were configured such that a compact and light-weight eMLC with motorized leaves can be industrially manufactured and stably mounted on a conventional linear accelerator. In the present study, the efficiency of an initial computer-controlled prototype was examined according to the design goals and the performance of energy- and intensity-modulated treatment techniques. This study concentrates on the attachment and gantry stability as well as the dosimetric characteristics of central-axis and off-axis dose, field size dependence, collimator scatter, field abutment, radiation leakage and the setting of the accelerator jaws. To provide isocentric irradiation, the eMLC can be placed either 16 or 28 cm above the isocentre through interchangeable holders. The mechanical implementation of this feature results in a maximum field displacement of less than 0.6 mm at 90° and 270° gantry angles. Compared to a 10 × 10 cm applicator at 6-14 MeV, the beam penumbra of the eMLC at a 16 cm collimator-to-isocentre distance is 0.8-0.4 cm greater and the depth-dose curves show a larger build-up effect. Due to the loss in energy dependence of the therapeutic range and the much lower dose output at small beam sizes, a minimum beam size of 3 × 3 cm is necessary to avoid suboptimal dose delivery. Dose output and beam symmetry are not affected by collimator scatter when the central axis is blocked. As a consequence of the broader beam penumbra, uniform dose distributions were measured in the junction region of adjacent beams at perpendicular and oblique beam incidence. However, adjacent beams with a high difference in a beam energy of 6 to 14 MeV generate cold and hot spots of approximately 15% in the abutting region. In order to

  3. Weighting in digital synthetic aperture radar processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicenzo, A.

    1979-01-01

    Weighting is employed in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) processing to reduce the sidelobe response at the expense of peak center response height and mainlobe resolution. The weighting effectiveness in digital processing depends not only on the choice of weighting function, but on the fineness of sampling and quantization, on the time bandwidth product, on the quadratic phase error, and on the azimuth antenna pattern. The results of simulations conducted to uncover the effect of these parameters on azimuth weighting effectiveness are presented. In particular, it is shown that multilook capabilities of future SAR systems may obviate the need for consideration of the antenna pattern, and that azimuth time-bandwidth products of over 200 are probably required before the digital results begin to approach the ideal results.

  4. How we capitalised on casual PBL facilitators' expertise and experience to add value to our medical programme.

    PubMed

    McLean, Michelle; Arrigoni, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    While problem-based learning (PBL) has been widely implemented in medical education, it has been acknowledged to be resource-intensive, particularly in terms of academics' time. In some institutions, such as Bond University (Australia), casual facilitators have been employed (paid hourly) to oversee the PBL tutorials. Apart from considerable experience as PBL facilitators, they also have expertise as allied health professionals or biomedical scientists. Several facilitators have educational qualifications. Recognising that their roles have expanded beyond the PBL tutorial room, we canvassed PBL facilitators in terms of their contributions to Bond University's medical programme. We can report that our facilitators have contributed to the renewal of Bond's medical programme, from design (e.g. curriculum structure, case-writing) to PBL case reviews. They are also involved in formative and summative assessment. Facilitators identified that, because of their prolonged involvement with the students in small groups, they consider themselves more than facilitators of student learning. They are role models and personal guides. Recognising the value these casually employed facilitators have added to our medical programme, we will continue to develop their skills in, for example, reviewing cases and assessment. We recommend that if institutions do employ casual facilitators, their expertise and experience can add value to the curriculum and to students' experience. PMID:26067374

  5. Confirmation of Down syndrome critical region by FISH analysis in a patient with add(21)(p11)

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Naomichi; Niikawa, Norio; Mikawa, Makoto

    1995-12-04

    We have studied a patient with clinical Down syndrome (DS) who has a mosaic 46, XX/46, XX, 21p+ karyotype. The patient was born at 39 weeks of gestation with a birth weight of 3,025 g to healthy parents. At age 2 months, she was diagnosed clinically to have DS; she had flat facies, upslanted palpebral fissures, epicanthal folds, telecanthus, flat nasal bridge, abnormal dentition, malformed ears, short neck, short fingers, clinodactyly with single flexion crease of the fifth fingers, hyperextension of joints, pes planus, distal axial triradii, and bilateral tibial arch patterns. Chromosome analysis showed mosaicism consisting of a normal 46,XX cell line and a line with a 21p+ chromosome, the final karyotype being mos46,XX[57]/46,XX,add(21)(p11)[43]. Although the origin of an additional segment on chromosome 21 was not identified with conventional banding analyses, it was suspected to represent partial trisomy 21 on the basis of clinical manifestations. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Weight gain - unintentional

    MedlinePlus

    ... trying to do so can have many causes. Metabolism slows down as you age . This can cause weight gain if you eat too much, eat the wrong foods, or do not get enough exercise. Drugs that can cause weight gain include: Birth control ...

  7. Weight loss and alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... weight gain in a couple of ways. First, alcohol is high in calories. Some mixed drinks can contain as many calories as a meal, but without the nutrients. You also may make poor food choices ... to cut out all alcohol if you are trying to lose weight, you ...

  8. Marijuana and body weight.

    PubMed

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2014-07-01

    Acute marijuana use is classically associated with snacking behavior (colloquially referred to as "the munchies"). In support of these acute appetite-enhancing effects, several authorities report that marijuana may increase body mass index in patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus and cancer. However, for these medical conditions, while appetite may be stimulated, some studies indicate that weight gain is not always clinically meaningful. In addition, in a study of cancer patients in which weight gain did occur, it was less than the comparator drug (megestrol). However, data generally suggest that acute marijuana use stimulates appetite, and that marijuana use may stimulate appetite in low-weight individuals. As for large epidemiological studies in the general population, findings consistently indicate that users of marijuana tend to have lower body mass indices than nonusers. While paradoxical and somewhat perplexing, these findings may be explained by various study confounds, such as potential differences between acute versus chronic marijuana use; the tendency for marijuana use to be associated with other types of drug use; and/or the possible competition between food and drugs for the same reward sites in the brain. Likewise, perhaps the effects of marijuana are a function of initial weight status-i.e., maybe marijuana is a metabolic regulatory substance that increases body weight in low-weight individuals but not in normal-weight or overweight individuals. Only further research will clarify the complex relationships between marijuana and body weight. PMID:25337447

  9. Exercise and Weight Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katch, Victor L.

    This paper describes a number of factors which go into determining weight. The paper describes what calories are, how caloric expenditure is measured, and why caloric expenditure is different for different people. The paper then outlines the way the body tends to adjust food intake and exercise to maintain a constant body weight. It is speculated…

  10. Mathematics in Weighting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Richard L.

    1992-01-01

    Presents the template method developed by Galileo for calculating areas of geometric shapes constructed of uniform density and thickness. The method compares the weight of a shape of known area to the weight of a shape of unknown area. Applies this hands-on method to problems involving calculus, Pythagorean's theorem, and cycloids. (MDH)

  11. Weight and Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... in a person's diabetes management plan. Weight and Type 1 Diabetes If a person has type 1 diabetes but hasn't been treated yet, he or she often loses weight. In type 1 diabetes, the body can't use glucose (pronounced: GLOO- ...

  12. Labor Supply and Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakdawalla, Darius; Philipson, Tomas

    2007-01-01

    We use panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to investigate on-the-job exercise and weight. For male workers, job-related exercise has causal effects on weight, but for female workers, the effects seem primarily selective. A man who spends 18 years in the most physical fitness-demanding occupation is about 25 pounds (14…

  13. Rapid weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... 22990030 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22990030 . Weight-control Information NetworkNational Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and ... www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/weight-control/very-low-calorie-diets/Pages/very-low-calorie- ...

  14. Weight discrimination and bullying.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Rebecca M; King, Kelly M

    2013-04-01

    Despite significant attention to the medical impacts of obesity, often ignored are the negative outcomes that obese children and adults experience as a result of stigma, bias, and discrimination. Obese individuals are frequently stigmatized because of their weight in many domains of daily life. Research spanning several decades has documented consistent weight bias and stigmatization in employment, health care, schools, the media, and interpersonal relationships. For overweight and obese youth, weight stigmatization translates into pervasive victimization, teasing, and bullying. Multiple adverse outcomes are associated with exposure to weight stigmatization, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, suicidal ideation, poor academic performance, lower physical activity, maladaptive eating behaviors, and avoidance of health care. This review summarizes the nature and extent of weight stigmatization against overweight and obese individuals, as well as the resulting consequences that these experiences create for social, psychological, and physical health for children and adults who are targeted. PMID:23731874

  15. Analysis of reconfigurable multi-channel wavelength add drop multiplexer for intelligent optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponmalar, S.; Sundaravadivelu, S.

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents design of an electro-optically tunable polymer multi-channel wavelength add drop multiplexer (WADM). The proposed WADM with trapezoidal waveguide geometry and poled electro-optical polymer material in the waveguide cores enables the wavelength tuning speed of WADM as 7.5 ps at the resonance wavelength of 1550 nm and coupling length of 1.5 mm. The device can be electro-optically tuned to add/drop multiple channels. Transmission spectra of the device with varying device parameters are simulated. The proposed WADM with high speed, small size and varying tuning capability makes this device, an important element in faster provisioning and routing of light paths in intelligent optical network.

  16. Chip-scale fully reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexing subsystem in polymer microphotonic circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izuhara, Tomoyuki; Fujita, Junichiro; Radojevic, Antonije; Gerhardt, Reinald; Eldada, Louay A.

    2004-10-01

    We report on a highly integrated photonic circuit using a polymer-based planar waveguide system. The properties of the materials used in this work such as ultra-low optical loss, widely tunable refractive index, and large thermo-optic coefficient, enable a multi-functional chip-scale microphotonic circuit. We discuss the application of this technology to the fabrication of a fully reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexer. This subsystem includes channel switching, power monitoring, load balancing, and wavelength shuffling functionalities that are required for agile wavelength-division multiplexing optical networks. Optical properties of our material systems and performance characteristics of the implemented optical passive/active elements are presented, and the integration schemes of the devices to achieve a fully integrated reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexer are discussed.

  17. Add on testosterone therapy in negative symptoms of schizophrenia with gonadal trauma: Hitting the bull's eye.

    PubMed

    Jha, Shailesh; Garg, Amit

    2016-06-30

    The coincidence or causal incidence of hormonal dysregulation leading to psychotic manifestation had been a point of debate. The interplay of these hormones in pathogenesis of psychotic symptom domains is still inconclusive along with some symptom domains which worsen with antipsychotics. Early detection and treatment with liaison approach is of great help to such patients. We report a case of schizophrenia with primary hypogonadism that responded dramatically to add on testosterone supplement. PMID:27138816

  18. Low crosstalk Bragg grating/Mach-Zehnder interferometer optical add-drop multiplexer in silicon photonics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junjia; Chen, Lawrence R

    2015-10-01

    We characterize the interferometric crosstalk and system performance of two optical add-drop multiplexer (OADM) designs based on Bragg grating/Mach-Zehnder interferometers implemented in silicon-on-insulator. Both OADM designs exhibit low crosstalk and negligible crosstalk-induced power penalties over their 3 dB bandwidths. The devices are tolerant to wavelength drift and misalignment between the transmitter and OADM; moreover, their designs can be optimized further to enable high performance operation in WDM systems. PMID:26480158

  19. Drell-Yan, , production in SM & ADD model to NLOPS accuracy at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederix, R.; Mandal, M. K.; Mathews, P.; Ravindran, V.; Seth, S.

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we present the next-to-leading order QCD corrections for di-lepton, di-electroweak boson (, ) production in both the SM and the ADD model, matched to the HERWIG parton shower using the aMC@NLO framework. A selection of results at the 8 TeV LHC, which exhibit deviations from the SM as a result of the large extra-dimension scenario, are presented.

  20. Diphoton production in the ADD model to NLO + parton shower accuracy at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederix, R.; Mandal, Manoj K.; Mathews, Prakash; Ravindran, V.; Seth, Satyajit; Torrielli, P.; Zaro, M.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we present the next-to-leading order predictions for diphoton production in the ADD model, matched to the HERWIG parton shower using the MC@NLO formalism. A selection of the results is presented for d = 2-6 extra dimensions, using generic cuts as well as analysis cuts mimicking the search strategies as pursued by the ATLAS and CMS experiments.

  1. Board Adds Two New Members With Expertise in Communication and Science Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEntee, Christine W.

    2010-11-01

    AGU's Board of Directors approved two new members during a special teleconference on 8 November. The appointments are related to AGU's strategic plan goal of addressing science and society. Specifically, they add to AGU's expertise in science communication and policy outreach. Author Chris Mooney and policy advisor Floyd DesChamps join AGU's Board of Directors immediately and will serve the remainder of the 2010-2012 term.

  2. radEq Add-On Module for CFD Solver Loci-CHEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCloud, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Loci-CHEM to be applied to flow velocities where surface radiation due to heating from compression and friction becomes significant. The module adds a radiation equilibrium boundary condition to the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code to produce accurate results. The module expanded the upper limit for accurate CFD solutions of Loci-CHEM from Mach 4 to Mach 10 based on Space Shuttle Orbiter Re-Entry trajectories. Loci-CHEM already has a very promising architecture and performance, but absence of radiation equilibrium boundary condition limited the application of Loci-CHEM to below Mach 4. The immediate advantage of the add-on module is that it allows Loci-CHEM to work with supersonic flows up to Mach 10. This transformed Loci-CHEM from a rocket engine- heritage CFD code with general subsonic and low-supersonic applications, to an aeroheating code with hypersonic applications. The follow-on advantage of the module is that it is a building block for additional add-on modules that will solve for the heating generated at Mach numbers higher than 10.

  3. Light-weight plastination.

    PubMed

    Steinke, Hanno; Rabi, Suganthy; Saito, Toshiyuki; Sawutti, Alimjan; Miyaki, Takayoshi; Itoh, Masahiro; Spanel-Borowski, Katharina

    2008-11-20

    Plastination is an excellent technique which helps to keep the anatomical specimens in a dry, odourless state. Since the invention of plastination technique by von Hagens, research has been done to improve the quality of plastinated specimens. In this paper, we have described a method of producing light-weight plastinated specimens using xylene along with silicone and in the final step, substitute xylene with air. The finished plastinated specimens were light-weight, dry, odourless and robust. This method requires less use of resin thus making the plastination technique more cost-effective. The light-weight specimens are easy to carry and can easily be used for teaching. PMID:18752934

  4. The MMPI-168(L) and ADD in Assessing Psychopathology in Individuals with Mental Retardation: Between and within Instrument Associations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, William F.; Passmore, Corie E.; Sewell, Hollie M.

    2003-01-01

    A study involving 58 adults with mental retardation and mental disorders found few correlations between the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and the Assessment of Dual Diagnosis (ADD). The major exception was the Mania scale of the MMPI, which correlated moderately well with the ADD Schizophrenia and Dementia scales. (Contains…

  5. 42 CFR 82.16 - How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy limitations of individual monitoring and missed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy limitations of individual monitoring and missed dose? 82.16 Section 82.16 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Dose Reconstruction Process § 82.16 How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to...

  6. 42 CFR 82.16 - How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy limitations of individual monitoring and missed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy limitations of individual monitoring and missed dose? 82.16 Section 82.16 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Dose Reconstruction Process § 82.16 How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to...

  7. 76 FR 37115 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: HHS gives notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from the Chapman Valve Manufacturing Company (i.e., Building 23 and...

  8. 78 FR 64502 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from the Pantex Plant...

  9. 76 FR 37114 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: HHS gives notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from the Dow Chemical Company in Madison, Illinois, to the...

  10. 78 FR 64501 - Determination Concerning a Petition to Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition to Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from Baker Brothers,...

  11. 76 FR 70147 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: HHS gives notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from the Piqua Organic Moderated Reactor, Piqua, Ohio, to the...

  12. 76 FR 37115 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: HHS gives notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from the Bliss & Laughlin Steel Company located at 110 Hopkins...

  13. 76 FR 37115 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: HHS gives notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from the Wah Chang facility in Albany, Oregon, to the Special...

  14. 76 FR 70148 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: HHS gives notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from the Norton Co. (or a subsequent owner), Worcester, Massachusetts,...

  15. 36 CFR 1011.5 - What interest, penalty charges and administrative costs will the Presidio Trust add to a debt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What interest, penalty charges and administrative costs will the Presidio Trust add to a debt? 1011.5 Section 1011.5 Parks... § 1011.5 What interest, penalty charges and administrative costs will the Presidio Trust add to a...

  16. 36 CFR 1011.5 - What interest, penalty charges and administrative costs will the Presidio Trust add to a debt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What interest, penalty charges and administrative costs will the Presidio Trust add to a debt? 1011.5 Section 1011.5 Parks... § 1011.5 What interest, penalty charges and administrative costs will the Presidio Trust add to a...

  17. 15 CFR 19.5 - How will Commerce entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Commerce...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... administrative costs on Commerce debts in accordance with the provisions of 31 U.S.C. 3717 and 31 CFR 901.9... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How will Commerce entities add... Debts § 19.5 How will Commerce entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to...

  18. 15 CFR 19.5 - How will Commerce entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Commerce...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... administrative costs on Commerce debts in accordance with the provisions of 31 U.S.C. 3717 and 31 CFR 901.9... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false How will Commerce entities add... Debts § 19.5 How will Commerce entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to...

  19. 15 CFR 19.5 - How will Commerce entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Commerce...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... administrative costs on Commerce debts in accordance with the provisions of 31 U.S.C. 3717 and 31 CFR 901.9... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How will Commerce entities add... Debts § 19.5 How will Commerce entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to...

  20. 43 CFR 3283.4 - When may the unit operator add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false When may the unit operator add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement? 3283.4 Section 3283.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement? (a) The unit operator may request BLM to...

  1. 43 CFR 3283.4 - When may the unit operator add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false When may the unit operator add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement? 3283.4 Section 3283.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement? (a) The unit operator may request BLM to...

  2. 36 CFR 1011.5 - What interest, penalty charges and administrative costs will the Presidio Trust add to a debt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What interest, penalty charges and administrative costs will the Presidio Trust add to a debt? 1011.5 Section 1011.5 Parks... § 1011.5 What interest, penalty charges and administrative costs will the Presidio Trust add to a...

  3. 78 FR 18351 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from General Steel...

  4. 31 CFR 5.5 - How will Treasury entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Treasury...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... administrative costs on Treasury debts in accordance with the provisions of 31 U.S.C. 3717 and 31 CFR 901.9, on... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How will Treasury entities add... Debts § 5.5 How will Treasury entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to...

  5. 36 CFR 1011.5 - What interest, penalty charges and administrative costs will the Presidio Trust add to a debt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What interest, penalty charges and administrative costs will the Presidio Trust add to a debt? 1011.5 Section 1011.5 Parks, Forests... What interest, penalty charges and administrative costs will the Presidio Trust add to a debt?...

  6. 43 CFR 3283.4 - When may the unit operator add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false When may the unit operator add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement? 3283.4 Section 3283.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement? (a) The unit operator may request BLM to...

  7. 15 CFR 19.5 - How will Commerce entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Commerce...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... administrative costs on Commerce debts in accordance with the provisions of 31 U.S.C. 3717 and 31 CFR 901.9... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false How will Commerce entities add... Debts § 19.5 How will Commerce entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to...

  8. 43 CFR 3283.4 - When may the unit operator add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false When may the unit operator add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement? 3283.4 Section 3283.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement? (a) The unit operator may request BLM to...

  9. 77 FR 76490 - Determination Concerning a Petition to Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition to Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from the Weldon Spring...

  10. 15 CFR 19.5 - How will Commerce entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Commerce...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... administrative costs on Commerce debts in accordance with the provisions of 31 U.S.C. 3717 and 31 CFR 901.9... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false How will Commerce entities add... Debts § 19.5 How will Commerce entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to...

  11. 36 CFR 1011.5 - What interest, penalty charges and administrative costs will the Presidio Trust add to a debt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What interest, penalty charges and administrative costs will the Presidio Trust add to a debt? 1011.5 Section 1011.5 Parks... § 1011.5 What interest, penalty charges and administrative costs will the Presidio Trust add to a...

  12. 42 CFR 82.16 - How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy limitations of individual monitoring and missed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy limitations of individual monitoring and missed dose? 82.16 Section 82.16 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Dose Reconstruction Process § 82.16 How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to...

  13. 42 CFR 82.16 - How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy limitations of individual monitoring and missed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy limitations of individual monitoring and missed dose? 82.16 Section 82.16 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Dose Reconstruction Process § 82.16 How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to...

  14. 42 CFR 82.16 - How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy limitations of individual monitoring and missed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy limitations of individual monitoring and missed dose? 82.16 Section 82.16 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Dose Reconstruction Process § 82.16 How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to...

  15. Prizes for weight loss.

    PubMed Central

    Englberger, L.

    1999-01-01

    A programme of weight loss competitions and associated activities in Tonga, intended to combat obesity and the noncommunicable diseases linked to it, has popular support and the potential to effect significant improvements in health. PMID:10063662

  16. Thyroid and Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Differences in BMRs are associated with changes in energy balance. Energy balance reflects the difference between the amount of ... such as amphetamines, animals often have a negative energy balance which leads to weight loss. Based on ...

  17. Losing weight after pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... behavioral guidelines for post-partum weight control. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth . 2014;14. Accessed Nov. 24, 2014. Mottola MF. Exercise prescription for overweight and obese women: pregnancy and ...

  18. Weight loss - unintentional

    MedlinePlus

    ... of laxatives Other causes such as: Eating disorders, anorexia nervosa that have not been diagnosed yet Diabetes that ... do not know the reason. You have other symptoms along with the weight loss.

  19. Weight Gain during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... Zika virus and pregnancy Microcephaly Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  20. Preventing Weight Gain

    MedlinePlus

    ... If this is the case, preventing further weight gain is a worthy goal. As people age, their body composition gradually shifts — the proportion of muscle decreases and the proportion of fat increases. This ...

  1. Your Child's Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... spurts in height and weight gain in both boys and girls. Once these changes start, they continue for several ... or obese . Different BMI charts are used for boys and girls under the age of 20 because the amount ...

  2. Correctly Expressing Atomic Weights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolini, Moreno; Cercignani, Giovanni; Bauer, Carlo

    2000-11-01

    Very often, atomic or molecular weights are expressed as dimensionless quantities, but although the historical importance of their definition as "pure numbers" is acknowledged, it is inconsistent with experimental formulas and with the theory of measure in general. Here, we propose on the basis of clear-cut formulas that, contrary to customary statements, atomic and molecular weights should be expressed as dimensional quantities (masses) in which the Dalton (= 1.663 x 10-24 g) is taken as the unit.

  3. Parenting Style as a Predictor of Adolescent Weight and Weight-Related Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Jerica M.; Wall, Melanie; Loth, Katie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Current research indicates that specific parenting styles are associated with adolescent overweight, dietary intake and physical activity, but the majority of research has been cross-sectional making it difficult to determine the temporal order of these associations. The current study adds to the previous research by examining 5-year longitudinal associations between parenting style and adolescent weight and weight-related behaviors. Methods: Data from Project EAT, a population-based study with adolescents from diverse ethic and socioeconomic backgrounds were used. Adolescents (N = 2516) from 31 Minnesota schools completed in-class assessments in 1999 (Time 1) and mailed surveys in 2004 (Time 2). Multiple linear regression models were used to predict mean levels of adolescent outcomes at Time 2 from parenting style at Time 1. Results: Time 1 maternal authoritative parenting style predicted lower BMI in adolescent sons and daughters at Time 2. Time 1 paternal permissive parenting style predicted more fruits and vegetables intake in daughters at Time 2. Significant associations were not found between parenting style and adolescent physical activity. Conclusions: Findings suggest that authoritative parenting style may play a protective role related to adolescent overweight and that the dimension of warmth/caring in the parent/adolescent relationship may be important in relation to female adolescent healthy dietary intake. Further exploration of opposite sex parent/adolescent dyad patterns related to parenting style and adolescent weight and weight-related behaviors is warranted. PMID:20307821

  4. Clinical Characteristics and Metabolic Predictors of Rapid Responders to Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor as an Add-on Therapy to Sulfonylurea and Metformin

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ye An; Yoo, Won Sang; Hong, Eun Shil; Ku, Eu Jeong; Park, Kyeong Seon; Lim, Soo; Cho, Young Min; Park, Kyong Soo; Jang, Hak Chul

    2015-01-01

    Background Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor add-on therapy is a new option for patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes who are taking combined metformin and sulfonylurea (SU). We evaluated the efficacy and safety of this triple therapy and the characteristics of rapid responders and hypoglycemia-prone patients. Methods We included 807 patients with type 2 diabetes who were prescribed a newly added DPP-4 inhibitor to ongoing metformin and SU in 2009 to 2011. Glycemia and other metabolic parameters at baseline, 12, 24, and 52 weeks, as well as episodes of hypoglycemia were analyzed. Rapid responders were defined as patients with ≥25% reduction in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) within 12 weeks. Results At baseline, while on the submaximal metformin and SU combination, the mean HbA1c level was 8.4%. Twelve weeks after initiation of DPP-4 inhibitor add-on, 269 patients (34.4%) achieved an HbA1c level ≤7%. Sixty-six patients (8.2%, 47 men) were rapid responders. The duration of diabetes was shorter in rapid responders, and their baseline fasting plasma glucose (FPG), HbA1c, C-peptide, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance were significantly higher. Patients who experienced hypoglycemia after taking DPP-4 inhibitor add-on were more likely to be female, to have a lower body weight and lower triglyceride and FPG levels, and to have higher homeostasis model assessment of β-cells. Conclusion An oral hypoglycemic triple agent combination including a DPP-4 inhibitor was effective in patients with uncontrolled diabetes. Proactive dose reduction of SU should be considered when a DPP-4 inhibitor is added for rapid responders and hypoglycemia-prone patients. PMID:26616595

  5. Ethical Considerations in Technology Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froehlich, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    Examines ethical considerations involved in the transfer of appropriate information technology to less developed countries. Approaches to technology are considered; two philosophical frameworks for studying ethical considerations are discussed, i.e., the Kantian approach and the utilitarian perspective by John Stuart Mill; and integration of the…

  6. Advanced LBB methodology and considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, R.; Rahman, S.; Scott, P.

    1997-04-01

    LBB applications have existed in many industries and more recently have been applied in the nuclear industry under limited circumstances. Research over the past 10 years has evolved the technology so that more advanced consideration of LBB can now be given. Some of the advanced considerations for nuclear plants subjected to seismic loading evaluations are summarized in this paper.

  7. Vulnerability of weighted networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Asta, Luca; Barrat, Alain; Barthélemy, Marc; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2006-04-01

    In real networks complex topological features are often associated with a diversity of interactions as measured by the weights of the links. Moreover, spatial constraints may also play an important role, resulting in a complex interplay between topology, weight, and geography. In order to study the vulnerability of such networks to intentional attacks, these attributes must therefore be considered along with the topological quantities. In order to tackle this issue, we consider the case of the worldwide airport network, which is a weighted heterogeneous network whose evolution and structure are influenced by traffic and geographical constraints. We first characterize relevant topological and weighted centrality measures and then use these quantities as selection criteria for the removal of vertices. We consider different attack strategies and different measures of the damage achieved in the network. The analysis of weighted properties shows that centrality driven attacks are capable of shattering the network's communication or transport properties even at a very low level of damage in the connectivity pattern. The inclusion of weight and traffic therefore provides evidence for the extreme vulnerability of complex networks to any targeted strategy and the need for them to be considered as key features in the finding and development of defensive strategies.

  8. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  9. Popular weight reduction diets.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Stella Lucia

    2006-01-01

    The percentage of people who are overweight and obese has increased tremendously over the last 30 years. It has become a worldwide epidemic. This is evident by the number of children are being diagnosed with a body mass index >85th percentile, and the number of children begin diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus, a disease previously reserved for adults. The weight loss industry has also gained from this epidemic; it is a billion dollar industry. People pay large sums of money on diet pills, remedies, and books, with the hope of losing weight permanently. Despite these efforts, the number of individuals who are overweight or obese continues to increase. Obesity is a complex, multifactorial disorder. It would be impossible to address all aspects of diet, exercise, and weight loss in this review. Therefore, this article will review popular weight loss diets, with particular attention given to comparing low fat diets with low carbohydrate diets. In addition, the role that the environment plays on both diet and exercise and how they impact obesity will be addressed. Finally, the National Weight Control Registry will be discussed. PMID:16407735

  10. Lorcaserin for weight management

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, James R; Dietrich, Eric; Powell, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes and obesity commonly occur together. Obesity contributes to insulin resistance, a main cause of type 2 diabetes. Modest weight loss reduces glucose, lipids, blood pressure, need for medications, and cardiovascular risk. A number of approaches can be used to achieve weight loss, including lifestyle modification, surgery, and medication. Lorcaserin, a novel antiobesity agent, affects central serotonin subtype 2A receptors, resulting in decreased food intake and increased satiety. It has been studied in obese patients with type 2 diabetes and results in an approximately 5.5 kg weight loss, on average, when used for one year. Headache, back pain, nasopharyngitis, and nausea were the most common adverse effects noted with lorcaserin. Hypoglycemia was more common in the lorcaserin groups in the clinical trials, but none of the episodes were categorized as severe. Based on the results of these studies, lorcaserin was approved at a dose of 10 mg twice daily in patients with a body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 or ≥27 kg/m2 with at least one weight-related comorbidity, such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, or dyslipidemia, in addition to a reduced calorie diet and increased physical activity. Lorcaserin is effective for weight loss in obese patients with and without type 2 diabetes, although its specific role in the management of obesity is unclear at this time. This paper reviews the clinical trials of lorcaserin, its use from the patient perspective, and its potential role in the treatment of obesity. PMID:23788837

  11. Sensitivity analysis of the add-on price estimate for the silicon web growth process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mokashi, A. R.

    1981-01-01

    The web growth process, a silicon-sheet technology option, developed for the flat plate solar array (FSA) project, was examined. Base case data for the technical and cost parameters for the technical and commercial readiness phase of the FSA project are projected. The process add on price, using the base case data for cost parameters such as equipment, space, direct labor, materials and utilities, and the production parameters such as growth rate and run length, using a computer program developed specifically to do the sensitivity analysis with improved price estimation are analyzed. Silicon price, sheet thickness and cell efficiency are also discussed.

  12. Neurofeedback combined with training in metacognitive strategies: effectiveness in students with ADD.

    PubMed

    Thompson, L; Thompson, M

    1998-12-01

    A review of records was carried out to examine the results obtained when people with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) received 40 sessions of training that combined neurofeedback with the teaching of metacognitive strategies. While not a controlled scientific study, the results, including pre- and post-measures, are consistent with previously published research concerning the use of neurofeedback with children. A significant addition is that a description of procedures is included. The 111 subjects, 98 children (age 5 to 17) and 13 adults (ages 18 to 63), attended forty 50-min sessions, usually twice a week. Feedback was contingent on decreasing slow wave activity (usually 4-7 Hz, occasionally 9-11 Hz) and increasing fast wave activity (15-18 Hz for most subjects but initially 13-15 Hz for subjects with impulsivity and hyperactivity). Metacognitive strategies related to academic tasks were taught when the feedback indicated the client was focused. Some clients also received temperature and/or EDR biofeedback during some sessions. Initially, 30 percent of the children were taking stimulant medications (Ritalin), whereas 6 percent were on stimulant medications after 40 sessions. All charts were included where pre- and post-testing results were available for one or more of the following: the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA, n = 76), Wechsler Intelligence Scales (WISC-R, WISC-III, or WAIS-R, n = 68), Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT 3, n = 99), and the electroencephalogram assessment (QEEG) providing a ratio of theta (4-8 Hz) to beta (16-20 Hz) activity (n = 66). Significant improvements (p < .001) were found in ADD symptoms (inattention, impulsivity, and variability of response times on the TOVA), in both the ACID pattern and the full-scale scores of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales, and in academic performance on the WRAT 3. The average gain for the full scale IQ equivalent scores was 12 points. A decrease in the EEG ratio of theta/beta was also observed. These

  13. Reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer based on thermally tunable micro-ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Danning; Wu, Yuanda; Wang, Yue; An, Junming; Hu, Xiongwei

    2016-05-01

    We report on an eight-channel reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer (ROADM) based on micro-ring resonators (MRRs). The effective footprint of the device is about 1000×760 μm2. The free spectral range (FSR) is about 18 nm. The adjacent channel crosstalk ranges from -19.02 dB to -8.29 dB. With the help of the multi-wire structure heaters, compact footprint and high tuning efficiency are achieved simultaneously. Therefore, the minimum average tuning efficiency is 2.723 mW/nm.

  14. Estimating the postmortem interval (PMI) using accumulated degree-days (ADD) in a temperate region of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Myburgh, Jolandie; L'Abbé, Ericka N; Steyn, Maryna; Becker, Piet J

    2013-06-10

    The validity of the method in which total body score (TBS) and accumulated degree-days (ADD) are used to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI) is examined. TBS and ADD were recorded for 232 days in northern South Africa, which has temperatures between 17 and 28 °C in summer and 6 and 20 °C in winter. Winter temperatures rarely go below 0°C. Thirty pig carcasses, which weighed between 38 and 91 kg, were used. TBS was scored using the modified method of Megyesi et al. [1]. Temperature was acquired from an on site data logger and the weather station bureau; differences between these two sources were not statistically significant. Using loglinear random-effects maximum likelihood regression, an r(2) value for ADD (0.6227) was produced and linear regression formulae to estimate PMI from ADD with a 95% prediction interval were developed. The data of 16 additional pigs that were placed a year later were then used to validate the accuracy of this method. The actual PMI and ADD were compared to the estimated PMI and ADD produced by the developed formulae as well as the estimated PMIs within the 95% prediction interval. A validation of the study produced poor results as only one pig of 16 fell within the 95% interval when using the formulae, showing that ADD has limited use in the prediction of PMI in a South African setting. PMID:23601149

  15. The weight of air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley-Hutchison, Doug

    2014-11-01

    Once a controversial idea, the fact that gases like air have weight can easily be demonstrated using reasonably precise scales in the modern teaching laboratory. But unlike a liquid, where a mechanical model suggests a pile of hard spheres resting on each other, gas molecules are in continual motion and can have minimal interaction. How should we think about the effect these molecules have on the scale? And more importantly, how should we explain it to students? Several models of gas behavior are employed to answer these questions and it is shown how the weight of a gas is, like electric current, an emergent phenomena in contrast to the weight of a liquid which is direct or causal.

  16. Weight management in Ramadan.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Bipin Kumar; Nagesh, V Sri

    2015-05-01

    Ramadan fasting is associated with significant weight loss in both men and women. Reduction in blood pressure, lipids, blood glucose, body mass index and waist and hip circumference may also occur. However, benefits accrued during this month often reverse within a few weeks of cessation of fasting, with most people returning back to their pre-Ramadan body weights and body composition. To ensure maintenance of this fasting induced weight loss, health care professionals should encourage continuation of healthy dietary habits, moderate physical activity and behaviour modification, even after conclusion of fasting. It should be realized that Ramadan is an ideal platform to target year long lifestyle modification, to ensure that whatever health care benefits have been gained during this month, are perpetuated. PMID:26013789

  17. Generalized constructive tree weights

    SciTech Connect

    Rivasseau, Vincent E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org; Tanasa, Adrian E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org

    2014-04-15

    The Loop Vertex Expansion (LVE) is a quantum field theory (QFT) method which explicitly computes the Borel sum of Feynman perturbation series. This LVE relies in a crucial way on symmetric tree weights which define a measure on the set of spanning trees of any connected graph. In this paper we generalize this method by defining new tree weights. They depend on the choice of a partition of a set of vertices of the graph, and when the partition is non-trivial, they are no longer symmetric under permutation of vertices. Nevertheless we prove they have the required positivity property to lead to a convergent LVE; in fact we formulate this positivity property precisely for the first time. Our generalized tree weights are inspired by the Brydges-Battle-Federbush work on cluster expansions and could be particularly suited to the computation of connected functions in QFT. Several concrete examples are explicitly given.

  18. Weight for Stephen Finlay.

    PubMed

    Evers, Daan

    2013-04-01

    According to Stephen Finlay, 'A ought to X' means that X-ing is more conducive to contextually salient ends than relevant alternatives. This in turn is analysed in terms of probability. I show why this theory of 'ought' is hard to square with a theory of a reason's weight which could explain why 'A ought to X' logically entails that the balance of reasons favours that A X-es. I develop two theories of weight to illustrate my point. I first look at the prospects of a theory of weight based on expected utility theory. I then suggest a simpler theory. Although neither allows that 'A ought to X' logically entails that the balance of reasons favours that A X-es, this price may be accepted. For there remains a strong pragmatic relation between these claims. PMID:23576822

  19. Light weight phosphate cements

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, Arun S.; Natarajan, Ramkumar,; Kahn, David

    2010-03-09

    A sealant having a specific gravity in the range of from about 0.7 to about 1.6 for heavy oil and/or coal bed methane fields is disclosed. The sealant has a binder including an oxide or hydroxide of Al or of Fe and a phosphoric acid solution. The binder may have MgO or an oxide of Fe and/or an acid phosphate. The binder is present from about 20 to about 50% by weight of the sealant with a lightweight additive present in the range of from about 1 to about 10% by weight of said sealant, a filler, and water sufficient to provide chemically bound water present in the range of from about 9 to about 36% by weight of the sealant when set. A porous ceramic is also disclosed.

  20. Average Weighted Receiving Time of Weighted Tetrahedron Koch Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Meifeng; Zhang, Danping; Ye, Dandan; Zhang, Cheng; Li, Lei

    2015-07-01

    We introduce weighted tetrahedron Koch networks with infinite weight factors, which are generalization of finite ones. The term of weighted time is firstly defined in this literature. The mean weighted first-passing time (MWFPT) and the average weighted receiving time (AWRT) are defined by weighted time accordingly. We study the AWRT with weight-dependent walk. Results show that the AWRT for a nontrivial weight factor sequence grows sublinearly with the network order. To investigate the reason of sublinearity, the average receiving time (ART) for four cases are discussed.

  1. Weighted Uncertainty Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yunlong; Jing, Naihuan; Li-Jost, Xianqing; Fei, Shao-Ming

    2016-03-01

    Recently, Maccone and Pati have given two stronger uncertainty relations based on the sum of variances and one of them is nontrivial when the quantum state is not an eigenstate of the sum of the observables. We derive a family of weighted uncertainty relations to provide an optimal lower bound for all situations and remove the restriction on the quantum state. Generalization to multi-observable cases is also given and an optimal lower bound for the weighted sum of the variances is obtained in general quantum situation.

  2. Weighted Uncertainty Relations

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yunlong; Jing, Naihuan; Li-Jost, Xianqing; Fei, Shao-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Recently, Maccone and Pati have given two stronger uncertainty relations based on the sum of variances and one of them is nontrivial when the quantum state is not an eigenstate of the sum of the observables. We derive a family of weighted uncertainty relations to provide an optimal lower bound for all situations and remove the restriction on the quantum state. Generalization to multi-observable cases is also given and an optimal lower bound for the weighted sum of the variances is obtained in general quantum situation. PMID:26984295

  3. Regulatory Considerations in Toxicological Neuropathology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pathological assessment of the nervous system is included in several US Environmental Protection Agency [US EPA or Agency] and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development [OECD] testing guidelines for health effects of chemicals. A variety of considerations are importan...

  4. Aim For a Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... oxygen into energy), and behavior or habits. Energy Balance Energy balance is important for maintaining a healthy weight. The ... OUT over time = weight stays the same (energy balance) More energy IN than OUT over time = weight ...

  5. MedlinePlus: Weight Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... Therapy and Weight Management (Nemours Foundation) Also in Spanish Weight Loss: Ready to Change Your Habits? (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) Weight-Loss and Nutrition Myths (National ...

  6. Weight and Diabetes (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Weight and Diabetes KidsHealth > For Parents > Weight and Diabetes Print A ... or type 2 diabetes. Weight and Type 1 Diabetes Undiagnosed or untreated, type 1 diabetes can make ...

  7. Digital Tomosynthesis System Geometry Analysis Using Convolution-Based Blur-and-Add (BAA) Model.

    PubMed

    Wu, Meng; Yoon, Sungwon; Solomon, Edward G; Star-Lack, Josh; Pelc, Norbert; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Digital tomosynthesis is a three-dimensional imaging technique with a lower radiation dose than computed tomography (CT). Due to the missing data in tomosynthesis systems, out-of-plane structures in the depth direction cannot be completely removed by the reconstruction algorithms. In this work, we analyzed the impulse responses of common tomosynthesis systems on a plane-to-plane basis and proposed a fast and accurate convolution-based blur-and-add (BAA) model to simulate the backprojected images. In addition, the analysis formalism describing the impulse response of out-of-plane structures can be generalized to both rotating and parallel gantries. We implemented a ray tracing forward projection and backprojection (ray-based model) algorithm and the convolution-based BAA model to simulate the shift-and-add (backproject) tomosynthesis reconstructions. The convolution-based BAA model with proper geometry distortion correction provides reasonably accurate estimates of the tomosynthesis reconstruction. A numerical comparison indicates that the simulated images using the two models differ by less than 6% in terms of the root-mean-squared error. This convolution-based BAA model can be used in efficient system geometry analysis, reconstruction algorithm design, out-of-plane artifacts suppression, and CT-tomosynthesis registration. PMID:26208308

  8. Adding power to PowerPoint. Add-ons and plug-ins.

    PubMed

    Giannavola, S

    2001-01-01

    Microsoft's PowerPoint (PPT) has been around for about ten years. It works on both the Macintosh and Windows platforms. Many users have a Macintosh at home and a Windows PC in the office and files can be easily transferred. Presentations magazine estimated that 85 percent of all presentations given in the U.S. last year used PPT. These presentations can be done as 35 mm slides, black and white or color overhead transparencies, electronic lectures or the software can be used to produce pages for Web sites. PPT has become the "Swiss Army Knife" for presenters and can be found everywhere. Since PPT has such a large share of the marketplace, a secondary market has developed to cater to PPT users who need something that didn't come in the box. These products are referred to as add-ons or plug-ins. They are available as commercial products, shareware or even directly from Microsoft. This article will look at several of these add-ons and discuss their possible use in a health care media production environment. PMID:11447780

  9. OATools: An ArcMap add-in for the orientation analysis of geological structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kociánová, Lenka; Melichar, Rostislav

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes Orientation Analysis Tools (OATools), a new add-in, which has been developed for ArcGIS software (ESRI) to allow the spatial analysis of structural data. These tools bring a complex approach to structural data analysis that highlights the spatial aspect of oriented data. In this paper we introduce the functionality of this add-in, which allows users to plot selected data in azimuthal projection, calculate and plot fold axes, construct density distribution diagrams and rose histograms, and create maps of spatial averages and fold axes. There is a link between projections and maps; therefore, it is possible to select point data in the projection and see their location on the map, and vice versa. Practical use of these tools is demonstrated in a case study of the Svratka and Polička crystalline units (Eastern margin of the Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic), where a large dataset was collected. Using OATools the structural conditions were explored. Major changes in foliation dip directions were detected and the axial surfaces of the folds were determined. We also demonstrate the benefit of applying these tools, together with the potential of GIS with respect to spatial data queries, storage, and visualization.

  10. Compact add-and-drop and wavelength filter based on microdisk on SOI substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morand, Alain; Phan-Huy, Kien; Martin, Bruno; Bredillot, Fanny; Amans, David; Benech, Pierre; Verbert, Jérémy; Hadji, Emmanuel; Fedeli, Jean-Marc

    2006-02-01

    Recently, integrated optic applications on SOI substrate like add-and-drop structures or wavelength filters based on microdisk resonators have been investigated by many research groups. Microdisks exhibiting high quality-factor thanks to the high refractive index contrast between silica and silicon materials have been already reported. However efficient components usually show few micrometers diameter which is huge compared to photonic crystals ones. In this paper, realization and characterization of efficient and compact components are reported. The dropped-wavelength function, composed of a 1.5 μm radius disk and 0.3 μm x 0.3 μm square section waveguides is demonstrated. 22 dB extinction ratio is measured from spectral measurement while keeping a quality factor of 1000. In this structure, the distance between the microdisk and the waveguide is discussed from experimental point of view. Indeed, the efficiency of the add-and-drop strongly depends on this parameter. Moreover, a wavelength filter based on a 4 μm radius microdisk is also shown. Quality-factors of 92,900 +/- 5500 were measured showing that these filters are more efficient than equivalent microring filters. A 10 dB extinction ratio of the wavelength rejected signal is reported. For some resonance wavelengths, spectral response degeneracy of the filter appears. An explanation of this effect is given in this paper.

  11. Full-optical tunable add/drop filter based on nonlinear photonic crystal ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansouri-Birjandi, Mohammad Ali; Tavousi, Alireza; Ghadrdan, Majid

    2016-09-01

    Here, we propose a full-optical tunable Add/Drop filter based on single (SR) and double-vertically (DR) aligned Kerr-like nonlinear photonic crystal ring resonators (PCRRs). Silicon (Si) nano-crystal is used as the nonlinear material inside and outside of PCRRs. The minimum optical power required to turn-on/turn-off the SR and DR filters are 2000 mW/μm2, and 150 mW/μm2, respectively. We believe since the DR filter has a higher Q-factor rather than SR and also since the optical power reads more nonlinear rods with a longer time to pass the structure, thus the optical power required is much lower (10 folds). In addition, the minimum power required to 1 nm redshift the center operating wavelength of SR filter is 125 mW/μm2 (i.e. ΔnNL = 0.005) and for DR is as low as 8 mW/μm2. Performance of the Add/Drop filter structure is simulated by means of finite difference time domain (FDTD) method, in which the simulations showed an ultra-compact size structure with promising ultrafast tune-ability speeds.

  12. THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY CO-ADD: A GALAXY PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFT CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Reis, Ribamar R. R.; Soares-Santos, Marcelle; Annis, James; Dodelson, Scott; Hao Jiangang; Johnston, David; Kubo, Jeffrey; Lin Huan; Seo, Hee-Jong; Simet, Melanie

    2012-03-01

    We present and describe a catalog of galaxy photometric redshifts (photo-z) for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Co-add Data. We use the artificial neural network (ANN) technique to calculate the photo-z and the nearest neighbor error method to estimate photo-z errors for {approx}13 million objects classified as galaxies in the co-add with r < 24.5. The photo-z and photo-z error estimators are trained and validated on a sample of {approx}83,000 galaxies that have SDSS photometry and spectroscopic redshifts measured by the SDSS Data Release 7 (DR7), the Canadian Network for Observational Cosmology Field Galaxy Survey, the Deep Extragalactic Evolutionary Probe Data Release 3, the VIsible imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph-Very Large Telescope Deep Survey, and the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey. For the best ANN methods we have tried, we find that 68% of the galaxies in the validation set have a photo-z error smaller than {sigma}{sub 68} = 0.031. After presenting our results and quality tests, we provide a short guide for users accessing the public data.

  13. Brief report: Weight dissatisfaction, weight status, and weight loss in Mexican-American children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study objectives were to assess the association between weight dissatisfaction, weight status, and weight loss in Mexican-American children participating in a weight management program. Participants included 265 Mexican American children recruited for a school-based weight management program. Al...

  14. Implicit Bias about Weight and Weight Loss Treatment Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Carels, Robert A; Hinman, Nova G; Hoffmann, Debra A; Burmeister, Jacob M; Borushok, Jessica E.; Marx, Jenna M; Ashrafioun, Lisham

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The goal of the current study was to examine the impact of a weight loss intervention on implicit bias toward weight, as well as the relationship among implicit bias, weight loss behaviors, and weight loss outcomes. Additionally, of interest was the relationship among these variables when implicit weight bias was measured with a novel assessment that portrays individuals who are thin and obese engaged in both stereotypical and nonstereotypical health-related behaviors. Methods Implicit weight bias (stereotype consistent and stereotype inconsistent), binge eating, self-monitoring, and body weight were assessed among weight loss participants at baseline and post-treatment (N=44) participating in two weight loss programs. Results Stereotype consistent bias significantly decreased from baseline to post-treatment. Greater baseline stereotype consistent bias was associated with lower binge eating and greater self-monitoring. Greater post-treatment stereotype consistent bias was associated with greater percent weight loss. Stereotype inconsistent bias did not change from baseline to post-treatment and was generally unrelated to outcomes. Conclusion Weight loss treatment may reduce implicit bias toward overweight individuals among weight loss participants. Higher post-treatment stereotype consistent bias was associated with a higher percent weight loss, possibly suggesting that losing weight may serve to maintain implicit weight bias. Alternatively, great implicit weight bias may identify individuals motivated to make changes necessary for weight loss. PMID:25261809

  15. Consideration of Materials for Aircraft Brakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, M. B.; Ho, T.

    1972-01-01

    An exploratory investigation was conducted concerning materials and their properties for use in aircraft brakes. Primary consideration was given to the heat dissipation and the frictional behavior of materials. Used brake pads and rotors were analyzed as part of the investigation. A simple analysis was conducted in order to determine the most significant factors which affect surface temperatures. It was found that where size and weight restrictions are necessary, the specific heat of the material, and maintaining uniform contact area are the most important factors. A criterion was suggested for optimum sizing of the brake disks. Bench friction tests were run with brake materials. It was found that there is considerable friction variation due to the formation and removal of surface oxide films. Other causes of friction variations are surface softening and melting. The friction behavior at high temperature was found to be more characteristic of the steel surface rather than the copper brake material. It is concluded that improved brake materials are feasible.

  16. 76 FR 37114 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... to add a class of employees from the Linde Ceramics Plant in Tonawanda, New York, to the Special... Department of Energy employees and Atomic Weapons Employees who worked at the Linde Ceramics Plant...

  17. 77 FR 32642 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from Hangar 481 at Kirtland... authorized under EEOICPA: All employees who worked at Hangar 481, Kirtland Air Force Base, from March 1,...

  18. 77 FR 76490 - Determination Concerning a Petition to Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from the Mound Plant in... contractors, or subcontractors who worked in any area at the Mound Plant in Miamisburg, Ohio, during...

  19. Ideal Weight and Weight Satisfaction: Association With Health Practices

    PubMed Central

    Ardern, Chris I.; Church, Timothy S.; Hebert, James R.; Sui, Xuemei; Blair, Steven N.

    2009-01-01

    Evidence suggests that individuals have become more tolerant of higher body weights over time. To investigate this issue further, the authors examined cross-sectional associations among ideal weight, examination year, and obesity as well as the association of ideal weight and body weight satisfaction with health practices among 15,221 men and 4,126 women in the United States. Participants in 1987 reported higher ideal weights than participants in 2001, an effect particularly pronounced from 1987 to 2001 for younger and obese men (85.5 kg to 94.9 kg) and women (62.2 kg to 70.5 kg). For a given body mass index, higher ideal body weights were associated with greater weight satisfaction but lower intentions to lose weight. Body weight satisfaction was subsequently associated with greater walking/jogging, better diet, and lower lifetime weight loss but with less intention to change physical activity and diet or lose weight (P < 0.01). Conversely, body mass index was negatively associated with weight satisfaction (P < 0.01) and was associated with less walking/jogging, poorer diet, and greater lifetime weight loss but with greater intention to change physical activity and diet or lose weight. Although the health implications of these findings are somewhat unclear, increased weight satisfaction, in conjunction with increases in societal overweight/obesity, may result in decreased motivation to lose weight and/or adopt healthier lifestyle behaviors. PMID:19546153

  20. 40 CFR 63.9323 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I determine the add-on control... the add-on control device simultaneously, using either Method 25 or 25A of appendix A to 40 CFR part... than 50 parts per million at the control device outlet. (2) Use Method 25A of appendix A to 40 CFR...

  1. 40 CFR 63.9323 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the add-on control device simultaneously, using either Method 25 or 25A of appendix A to 40 CFR part... both the inlet and outlet measurements. (1) Use Method 25 of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60 if the add-on.... (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select sampling sites...

  2. 40 CFR 63.9323 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the add-on control device simultaneously, using either Method 25 or 25A of appendix A to 40 CFR part... both the inlet and outlet measurements. (1) Use Method 25 of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60 if the add-on.... (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select sampling sites...

  3. 40 CFR 63.9323 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the add-on control device simultaneously, using either Method 25 or 25A of appendix A to 40 CFR part... both the inlet and outlet measurements. (1) Use Method 25 of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60 if the add-on.... (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select sampling sites...

  4. Experimental re-evaluation of flunarizine as add-on antiepileptic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Anamika; Sahai, A. K.; Thakur, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Experimental studies have found several calcium channel blockers with anticonvulsant property. Flunarizine is one of the most potent calcium channel blockers, which has shown anticonvulsant effect against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizures. However, further experimental and clinical trials have shown varied results. We conducted a PTZ model experimental study to re-evaluate the potential of flunarizine for add-on therapy in the management of refractory epilepsy. Materials and Methods: Experiments were conducted in PTZ model involving Swiss strain mice. Doses producing seizures in 50% and 99% mice, i.e. CD50 and CD99 values of PTZ were obtained from the dose-response study. Animals received graded, single dose of sodium valproate (100–300 mg/kg), lamotrigine (3–12 mg/kg) and flunarizine (5–20 mg/kg), and then each group of mice was injected with CD99 dose of PTZ (65mg/kg i.p.). Another group of mice received single ED50 dose (dose producing seizure protection in 50% mice) of sodium valproate and flunarizine separately in left and right side of abdomen. Results were analysed by Kruskal–Wallis ANOVA on Ranks test. Results: As compared to control, sodium valproate at 250 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg produced statistical significant seizure protection. At none of the pre-treatment dose levels of lamotrigine, the seizure score with PTZ differed significantly from that observed in the vehicle-treated group. Pre-treatment with flunarizine demonstrated dose-dependent decrease in the seizure score to PTZ administration. As compared to control group, flunarizine at 20 mg/kg produced statistical significant seizure protection. Conclusion: As combined use of sodium valproate and flunarizine has shown significant seizure protection in PTZ model, flunarizine has a potential for add-on therapy in refractory cases of partial seizures. It is therefore, we conclude that further experimental studies and multicenter clinical trials

  5. Gain weighted eigenspace assignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, John B.; Andrisani, Dominick, II

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the development of the gain weighted eigenspace assignment methodology. This provides a designer with a systematic methodology for trading off eigenvector placement versus gain magnitudes, while still maintaining desired closed-loop eigenvalue locations. This is accomplished by forming a cost function composed of a scalar measure of error between desired and achievable eigenvectors and a scalar measure of gain magnitude, determining analytical expressions for the gradients, and solving for the optimal solution by numerical iteration. For this development the scalar measure of gain magnitude is chosen to be a weighted sum of the squares of all the individual elements of the feedback gain matrix. An example is presented to demonstrate the method. In this example, solutions yielding achievable eigenvectors close to the desired eigenvectors are obtained with significant reductions in gain magnitude compared to a solution obtained using a previously developed eigenspace (eigenstructure) assignment method.

  6. Reducing rotor weight

    SciTech Connect

    Cheney, M.C.

    1997-12-31

    The cost of energy for renewables has gained greater significance in recent years due to the drop in price in some competing energy sources, particularly natural gas. In pursuit of lower manufacturing costs for wind turbine systems, work was conducted to explore an innovative rotor designed to reduce weight and cost over conventional rotor systems. Trade-off studies were conducted to measure the influence of number of blades, stiffness, and manufacturing method on COE. The study showed that increasing number of blades at constant solidity significantly reduced rotor weight and that manufacturing the blades using pultrusion technology produced the lowest cost per pound. Under contracts with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the California Energy Commission, a 400 kW (33m diameter) turbine was designed employing this technology. The project included tests of an 80 kW (15.5m diameter) dynamically scaled rotor which demonstrated the viability of the design.

  7. phMRI: methodological considerations for mitigating potential confounding factors

    PubMed Central

    Bourke, Julius H.; Wall, Matthew B.

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacological Magnetic Resonance Imaging (phMRI) is a variant of conventional MRI that adds pharmacological manipulations in order to study the effects of drugs, or uses pharmacological probes to investigate basic or applied (e.g., clinical) neuroscience questions. Issues that may confound the interpretation of results from various types of phMRI studies are briefly discussed, and a set of methodological strategies that can mitigate these problems are described. These include strategies that can be employed at every stage of investigation, from study design to interpretation of resulting data, and additional techniques suited for use with clinical populations are also featured. Pharmacological MRI is a challenging area of research that has both significant advantages and formidable difficulties, however with due consideration and use of these strategies many of the key obstacles can be overcome. PMID:25999812

  8. The interplay between gender, race and weight status: self perceptions and social consequences.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jason M

    2014-07-01

    This paper uses data from nearly 15,000 young adult respondents to the Add Health survey to examine racial and gender differences in the perceptions and social rewards to weight. The data include information on several typically unmeasured domains: self-perceptions of ideal weight, attractiveness ratings, and measured weight information, along with ties to a series of adult outcomes. Results show important gender and racial differences in ideal weight as well as differences for both self-perceived attractiveness and interviewer rated attractiveness. Findings also suggest the existence of large differences in socio-cultural rewards and sanctions for weight status. Black respondents, particularly women, appear to receive lower "obesity penalties" in both their self-perceived and interviewer accessed attractiveness ratings than other groups. These findings suggest the need to consider new classes of policies directed at shifting relative social benefits and consequences to weight status. PMID:22483443

  9. Weighted Configuration Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano, M. Ángeles; Boguñá, Marián

    2005-06-01

    The configuration model is one of the most successful models for generating uncorrelated random networks. We analyze its behavior when the expected degree sequence follows a power law with exponent smaller than two. In this situation, the resulting network can be viewed as a weighted network with non trivial correlations between strength and degree. Our results are tested against large scale numerical simulations, finding excellent agreement.

  10. Light weight aluminum optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catura, R. C.; Vieira, J. R.

    1985-09-01

    Light weight mirror blanks were fabricated by dip-brazing a core of low mass aluminum foam material to thin face sheets of solid aluminum. The blanks weigh 40% of an equivalent size solid mirror and were diamond turned to provide reflective surfaces. Optical interferometry was used to assess their dimensional stability over 7 months. No changes in flatness are observed (to the sensitivity of the measurements of a half wavelength of red light).

  11. Smartphone applications to support weight loss: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrini, Christine A; Pfammatter, Angela F; Conroy, David E; Spring, Bonnie

    2015-01-01

    Lower cost alternatives are needed for the traditional in-person behavioral weight loss programs to overcome challenges of lowering the worldwide prevalence of overweight and obesity. Smartphones have become ubiquitous and provide a unique platform to aid in the delivery of a behavioral weight loss program. The technological capabilities of a smartphone may address certain limitations of a traditional weight loss program, while also reducing the cost and burden on participants, interventionists, and health care providers. Awareness of the advantages smartphones offer for weight loss has led to the rapid development and proliferation of weight loss applications (apps). The built-in features and the mechanisms by which they work vary across apps. Although there are an extraordinary number of a weight loss apps available, most lack the same magnitude of evidence-based behavior change strategies typically used in traditional programs. As features develop and new capabilities are identified, we propose a conceptual model as a framework to guide the inclusion of features that can facilitate behavior change and lead to reductions in weight. Whereas the conventional wisdom about behavior change asserts that more is better (with respect to the number of behavior change techniques involved), this model suggests that less may be more because extra techniques may add burden and adversely impact engagement. Current evidence is promising and continues to emerge on the potential of smartphone use within weight loss programs; yet research is unable to keep up with the rapidly improving smartphone technology. Future studies are needed to refine the conceptual model’s utility in the use of technology for weight loss, determine the effectiveness of intervention components utilizing smartphone technology, and identify novel and faster ways to evaluate the ever-changing technology. PMID:26236766

  12. (Bessel-) weighted asymmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Bernhard Musch, Alexey Prokudin

    2011-11-01

    Semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering experiments allow us to probe the motion of quarks inside the proton in terms of so-called transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMD PDFs), but the information is convoluted with fragmentation functions (TMD FFs) and soft factors. It has long been known that weighting the measured event counts with powers of the hadron momentum before forming angular asymmetries de-convolutes TMD PDFs and TMD FFs in an elegant way, but this also entails an undesirable sensitivity to high momentum contributions. Using Bessel functions as weights, we find a natural generalization of weighted asymmetries that preserves the de-convolution property and features soft-factor cancellation, yet allows us to be less sensitive to high transverse momenta. The formalism also relates to TMD quantities studied in lattice QCD. We briefly show preliminary lattice results from an exploratory calculation of the Boer-Mulders shift using lattices generated by the MILC and LHP collaborations at a pion mass of 500 MeV.

  13. Design of a reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexer based on tunable Fabry-Perot array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Jiansen; Wang, Xin; Li, Zhuo; Yang, Yang; Xu, Rui; Shi, Rui

    2015-08-01

    With the development of optical fiber communication, dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) system is important for the rapid management of multi-wavelength in the core node of the optical transmission network. In this paper, a reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer (ROADM) based on the tunable Fabry-Perot (F-P) array is proposed. An optical switch with high isolation and low crosstalk is designed by using the characteristics of filtering and tuning for the F-P array. The principle, structure, and function of the tunable F-P array are introduced. The characteristics of filtering and tuning for the F-P filter are also calculated, and the factor for the isolation, crosstalk, response time and insertion loss are analyzed. A single physical channel ROADM with 16 signal channels, which operates in C-band, is designed and optimized by simulation.

  14. How add-on solutions can extend the life of static OADMs and protect carrier investment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queller, Abe; Kronenthal, Guy

    2004-10-01

    While most OADM systems deployed today are static, carriers offering new wavelength services, are looking for ways to migrate towards reconfigurable OADM and dynamically reconfigurable OADM. ROADMs allow carriers to automate service provisioning, wavelength management and failsafe mechanisms, thereby eliminating slow, costly and error-prone manual network configuration. And although next-generation systems offer this flexibility as an integral part of their architecture, carriers must protect their existing investment, extending the life of their existing networks. This article examines the use of add-on optical switching systems, as a cost- and time-effective means for upgrading legacy networks. Two examples are given. In the first, a static OADM is upgraded into a reconfigurable system. The second example shows how existing OADM systems can be upgraded to support dynamic reconfigurability. The article examines also particular advantages of Planar Lightwave Circuits (PLC) for these applications.

  15. Celecoxib Adjunctive Treatment to Antipsychotics in Schizophrenia: A Review of Randomized Clinical Add-On Trials.

    PubMed

    Marini, Stefano; De Berardis, Domenico; Vellante, Federica; Santacroce, Rita; Orsolini, Laura; Valchera, Alessandro; Girinelli, Gabriella; Carano, Alessandro; Fornaro, Michele; Gambi, Francesco; Martinotti, Giovanni; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe, chronic and debilitating mental disorder. Past literature has reported various hypotheses about the psychopathology of schizophrenia. Recently, a growing literature has been trying to explain the role of inflammation in the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia. In the past, numerous immune modulation and anti-inflammatory treatment options have been proposed for schizophrenia, but sometimes the results were inconsistent. Electronic search was carried out in November 2015. PubMed and Scopus databases have been used to find studies to introduce in this review. Only randomized-placebo-controlled add-on trials were taken into account. In this way, six articles were obtained for the discussion. Celecoxib showed beneficial effects mostly in early stages of schizophrenia. In chronic schizophrenia, the data are controversial, possibly in part for methodological reasons. PMID:27524864

  16. SCEW: a Microsoft Excel add-in for easy creation of survival curves.

    PubMed

    Khan, Haseeb Ahmad

    2006-07-01

    Survival curves are frequently used for reporting survival or mortality outcomes of experimental pharmacological/toxicological studies and of clinical trials. Microsoft Excel is a simple and widely used tool for creation of numerous types of graphic presentations however it is difficult to create step-wise survival curves in Excel. Considering the familiarity of clinicians and biomedical scientists with Excel, an algorithm survival curves in Excel worksheet (SCEW) has been developed for easy creation of survival curves directly in Excel worksheets. The algorithm has been integrated in the form of Excel add-in for easy installation and usage. The program is based on modification of frequency data for binary break-up using the spreadsheet formula functions whereas a macro subroutine automates the creation of survival curves. The advantages of this program are simple data input, minimal procedural steps and the creation of survival curves in the familiar confines of Excel. PMID:16777258

  17. Sliding tethered ligands add topological interactions to the toolbox of ligand-receptor design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Martin; Kékicheff, Patrick; Iss, Jean; Fajolles, Christophe; Charitat, Thierry; Daillant, Jean; Marques, Carlos M.

    2015-09-01

    Adhesion in the biological realm is mediated by specific lock-and-key interactions between ligand-receptor pairs. These complementary moieties are ubiquitously anchored to substrates by tethers that control the interaction range and the mobility of the ligands and receptors, thus tuning the kinetics and strength of the binding events. Here we add sliding anchoring to the toolbox of ligand-receptor design by developing a family of tethered ligands for which the spacer can slide at the anchoring point. Our results show that this additional sliding degree of freedom changes the nature of the adhesive contact by extending the spatial range over which binding may sustain a significant force. By introducing sliding tethered ligands with self-regulating length, this work paves the way for the development of versatile and reusable bio-adhesive substrates with potential applications for drug delivery and tissue engineering.

  18. Sliding tethered ligands add topological interactions to the toolbox of ligand–receptor design

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Martin; Kékicheff, Patrick; Iss, Jean; Fajolles, Christophe; Charitat, Thierry; Daillant, Jean; Marques, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Adhesion in the biological realm is mediated by specific lock-and-key interactions between ligand–receptor pairs. These complementary moieties are ubiquitously anchored to substrates by tethers that control the interaction range and the mobility of the ligands and receptors, thus tuning the kinetics and strength of the binding events. Here we add sliding anchoring to the toolbox of ligand–receptor design by developing a family of tethered ligands for which the spacer can slide at the anchoring point. Our results show that this additional sliding degree of freedom changes the nature of the adhesive contact by extending the spatial range over which binding may sustain a significant force. By introducing sliding tethered ligands with self-regulating length, this work paves the way for the development of versatile and reusable bio-adhesive substrates with potential applications for drug delivery and tissue engineering. PMID:26350224

  19. Celecoxib Adjunctive Treatment to Antipsychotics in Schizophrenia: A Review of Randomized Clinical Add-On Trials

    PubMed Central

    De Berardis, Domenico; Vellante, Federica; Santacroce, Rita; Orsolini, Laura; Valchera, Alessandro; Girinelli, Gabriella; Carano, Alessandro; Fornaro, Michele; Gambi, Francesco; Martinotti, Giovanni; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe, chronic and debilitating mental disorder. Past literature has reported various hypotheses about the psychopathology of schizophrenia. Recently, a growing literature has been trying to explain the role of inflammation in the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia. In the past, numerous immune modulation and anti-inflammatory treatment options have been proposed for schizophrenia, but sometimes the results were inconsistent. Electronic search was carried out in November 2015. PubMed and Scopus databases have been used to find studies to introduce in this review. Only randomized-placebo-controlled add-on trials were taken into account. In this way, six articles were obtained for the discussion. Celecoxib showed beneficial effects mostly in early stages of schizophrenia. In chronic schizophrenia, the data are controversial, possibly in part for methodological reasons. PMID:27524864

  20. Flunarizine as add-on therapy in epilepsy. Crossover study vs placebo.

    PubMed

    Moglia, A; Bergamasco, B; Di Perri, R; Mancia, D

    1986-01-01

    The anticonvulsive effect of flunarizine was studied in a multicenter trial, by means of a randomized, double-blind, single crossover design. The subjects who entered the study were 51 males and 39 females, aged 15 to 73 years. They were epileptic patients who suffered from at least two generalized seizures per month or more than 4 partial seizures per month. The patients were already being treated with major antiepileptic drugs. Flunarizine was administered in a single evening dose of 10 mg/die in patients who weighed less than 70 kg and of 15 mg/die in patients who weighed more 70 kg. Our results show that flunarizine, given as add-on therapy, produced a slight but significant decrease in the number of monthly seizures at the end of a 3-month period, while placebo did not significantly change the seizures frequency. PMID:3301560

  1. Nanophotonic graphene-based racetrack-resonator add/drop filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirth L., A.; da Silva, M. G.; Neves, D. M. C.; Sombra, A. S. B.

    2016-05-01

    We are presenting and analyzing a graphene-based nanophotonic device to operate as a resonator-add/drop filter, whose control is obtained by varying the graphene chemical potential. That device consists of graphene-based waveguides, two directional couplers and a racetrack resonator with 90° bends. Since the graphene chemical potential provides the achievement of the necessary parameters, the resonance and filtering of the signals are obtained by applying the correct value of the graphene chemical potential in the graphene nanoribbons. The results of this study should help in the development of new graphene-based nanophotonic devices operating in the terahertz and infrared range (including in the C-band of the International Telecommunication Union - ITU), for use in future communications networks.

  2. Top Quarks Spin Correlations with Graviton in ADD and RS Models at the Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Masato; Okada, Nobuchika; Smolek, Karel; Šimák, Vladislav

    2008-03-01

    In LHC physics we study the spin correlation of top-antitop pairs production to investigate the production mechanism of heavy quarks[F. Hubard et al. Eur. Phys. J. C 44 (2006) 13]. The s-channel process mediated by graviton Kaluza-Klein modes in ADD model with several extra dimensions[N. Arkani-Hamed, S. Dimopoulos and G. Dvali, Phys. Lett. 429B (1998) 263, hep-ph/9803315] or in the Randall-Sundrum model with only one extra dimension[L. Randall and R. Sundrum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83 (1999) 3370 hep-ph/9905221] contribute to the top-antitop pair production and affects the resulting top spin correlations. We calculated the full density matrix for the top-antitop pair production. We find a sizable deviation of the top spin correlations from the Standard.

  3. Gravitational scattering in the ADD model at high and low energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafson, G.; Sjödahl, M.

    2008-01-01

    Gravitational scattering in the ADD model is considered at both sub- and transplanckian energies using a common formalism. By keeping a physical cut-off in the KK tower associated with virtual KK exchange, such as the cut-off implied by a finite brane width, troublesome divergences are removed from the calculations in both energy ranges. The scattering behavior depends on three different energy scales: the fundamental Planck mass, the collision energy and the inverse brane width. The result for energies low compared to the effective cut-off (inverse brane width) is a contact-like interaction. At high energies the gravitational scattering associated with the extra dimensional version of Newton’s law is recovered.

  4. Coupled mode theory analysis for circular photonic crystal ring resonator-based add-drop filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Savarimuthu; Nakkeeran, Rangaswamy

    2012-11-01

    A two-dimensional circular photonic crystal ring resonator (PCRR)-based add-drop filter (ADF) is designed for ITU-T G.694.2 eight-channel coarse wavelength division multiplexing systems. The resonant wavelength and pass-band width of the ADF are 1491 and 13 nm, respectively. Close to 100% of coupling and dropping efficiencies and a 114.69 quality factor are observed through simulation. Then the coupled mode theory (CMT) analysis of circular PCRR-based ADF is attempted to compare obtained CMT response into simulated finite difference time domain method response. The overall size of the device is much smaller; that is, 11.4×11.4 μm, which is highly suitable for photonic integrated circuits and all optical photonic network applications.

  5. Addiction surplus: the add-on margin that makes addictive consumptions difficult to contain.

    PubMed

    Adams, Peter J; Livingstone, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Addictive consumptions generate financial surpluses over-and-above non-addictive consumptions because of the excessive consumption of addicted consumers. This add-on margin or 'addiction surplus' provides a powerful incentive for beneficiaries to protect their income by ensuring addicted consumers keep consuming. Not only that, addiction surplus provides the financial base that enables producers to sponsor activities which aim to prevent public health initiatives from reducing consumption. This paper examines the potency of addiction surplus to engage industry, governments and communities in an on-going reliance on addiction surplus. It then explores how neo-liberal constructions of a rational consumer disguise the ethical and exploitative dynamics of addiction surplus by examining ways in which addictive consumptions fail to conform to notions of autonomy and rationality. Four measures are identified to contain the distorting effects of addiction surplus. PMID:25175598

  6. SAPling: a Scan-Add-Print barcoding database system to label and track asexual organisms

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Michael A.; Schötz, Eva-Maria

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY We have developed a ‘Scan-Add-Print’ database system, SAPling, to track and monitor asexually reproducing organisms. Using barcodes to uniquely identify each animal, we can record information on the life of the individual in a computerized database containing its entire family tree. SAPling has enabled us to carry out large-scale population dynamics experiments with thousands of planarians and keep track of each individual. The database stores information such as family connections, birth date, division date and generation. We show that SAPling can be easily adapted to other asexually reproducing organisms and has a strong potential for use in large-scale and/or long-term population and senescence studies as well as studies of clonal diversity. The software is platform-independent, designed for reliability and ease of use, and provided open source from our webpage to allow project-specific customization. PMID:21993779

  7. The CONVEX Liner Add-On to the DIAMOND-FORTUNE event

    SciTech Connect

    Heuze, F.E.; Swift, R.P.; Hill, L.R.; Barrett, W.H.

    1993-11-15

    This report describes the execution of the CONVEX Liner Add-On to the DIAMOND FORTUNE low-yield cavity test of the Defense Nuclear Agency. CONVEX stands for COntained Nuclear Vessel EXperiment. It concerns the design of underground chambers where repeated low-yield nuclear explosions could be conducted. The approach proposed by the first author in the early 1980`s was to engineer a steel-lined rock cavern where the steel liner would be prestressed against the rock by tendons and/or bolts. These would daylight in tunnels surrounding the main cavity. From there, they could be initially tensioned and retensioned, if needed, after each test. The CONVEX Liner Add-On to DIAMOND FORTUNE consisted of anchoring a 1.4-m square, 2.5-cm thick steel plate to the wall of the cavity, using a 5-cm diameter center bolt, and four 2.5-cm diameter comer bolts. The bolts daylighted in a drift surrounding the gallery, and separated from it by a 9-m thick rock pillar. The liner plate, the bolts, and the rock pillar were equipped with 23 gages to describe the thermal and mechanical response of the system during pretensioning, during the dynamic loading phase, and post-test. Particular emphasis was given to obtaining the response both upon loading and during the rebound of the system, in order to determine whether the plate ever separated from the rock. So, the main operational objectives of this project were to acquire response data of the system under nuclear loading and to ascertain the status of contact between the steel plate and the rock, as shown by toadstool data and bolt tension data. The instrumentation and data acquisition system performed extremely well. Data were recorded during the dynamic phase; plate temperature was monitored for several hours after the test; and the remaining tension was obtained for several bolts more than three months after the test, upon re-entry in the runaround drift.

  8. Add Java extensions to your wiki: Java applets can bring dynamic functionality to your wiki pages

    SciTech Connect

    Scarberry, Randall E.

    2008-08-12

    Virtually everyone familiar with today’s world wide web has encountered the free online encyclopedia Wikipedia many times. What you may not know is that Wikipedia is driven by an excellent open-source product called MediaWiki which is available to anyone for free. This has led to a proliferation of wiki sites devoted to just about any topic one can imagine. Users of a wiki can add content -- all that is required of them is that they type in their additions into their web browsers using the simple markup language called wikitext. Even better, the developers of wikitext made it extensible. With a little server-side development of your own, you can add your own custom syntax. Users aware of your extensions can then utilize them on their wiki pages with a few simple keystrokes. These extensions can be custom decorations, formatting, web applications, and even instances of the venerable old Java applet. One example of a Java applet extension is the Jmol extension (REF), used to embed a 3-D molecular viewer. This article will walk you through the deployment of a fairly elaborate applet via a MediaWiki extension. By no means exhaustive -- an entire book would be required for that -- it will demonstrate how to give the applet resize handles using using a little Javascript and CSS coding and some popular Javascript libraries. It even describes how a user may customize the extension somewhat using a wiki template. Finally, it explains a rudimentary persistence mechanism which allows applets to save data directly to the wiki pages on which they reside.

  9. Asbestos Abatement--Practical Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedrel, Roy A.

    Illinois Senate Bill 1644, the recently passed "Asbestos Abatement Act," requires all schools in the state, public and private alike, to remove friable asbestos by whichever comes first: July 1, 1989, or 3 years following the establishment of a system for state funding for corrective action. This document addresses practical considerations in…

  10. Ethical considerations in revision rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Wayne, Ivan

    2012-08-01

    The problems that arise when reviewing another surgeon's work, the financial aspects of revision surgery, and the controversies that present in marketing and advertising will be explored. The technological advances of computer imaging and the Internet have introduced new problems that require our additional consideration. PMID:22872552

  11. LABORATORY DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR SAFETY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Safety Council, Chicago, IL. Campus Safety Association.

    THIS SET OF CONSIDERATIONS HAS BEEN PREPARED TO PROVIDE PERSONS WORKING ON THE DESIGN OF NEW OR REMODELED LABORATORY FACILITIES WITH A SUITABLE REFERENCE GUIDE TO DESIGN SAFETY. THERE IS NO DISTINCTION BETWEEN TYPES OF LABORATORY AND THE EMPHASIS IS ON GIVING GUIDES AND ALTERNATIVES RATHER THAN DETAILED SPECIFICATIONS. AREAS COVERED INCLUDE--(1)…

  12. Basic Considerations in Interviewing Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Rick L.

    This manual summarizes and highlights basic considerations in interviewing children. The relationship between interviewing for data collection and interviewing within the counseling or psychotherapeutic context is discussed. The Interviewer's Functional Checklist is presented to provide a method for self-evaluating interviewer behavior, and for…

  13. 40 CFR 63.3174 - What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... system or add-on control device which is not taken into account when demonstrating compliance with the... system or add-on control device which is not taken into account when demonstrating compliance with the applicable emission limitations? You may have capture systems or add-on control devices which you choose...

  14. 40 CFR 63.3174 - What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into account when demonstrating compliance with... capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into account when demonstrating compliance with the applicable emission limitations? You may have capture systems or add-on control devices which...

  15. 40 CFR 63.3174 - What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into account when demonstrating compliance with... capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into account when demonstrating compliance with the applicable emission limitations? You may have capture systems or add-on control devices which...

  16. 40 CFR 63.3546 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How do I establish the emission capture... Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.3546 How do I establish the emission capture system and add... the emission stream for leakage. (d) Carbon adsorbers. If your add-on control device is a...

  17. 40 CFR 63.4567 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true How do I establish the emission capture... Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4567 How do I establish the emission capture system and add... operating limits for that catalytic oxidizer. (c) Regenerative carbon adsorbers. If your add-on...

  18. 40 CFR 63.3546 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... capture system and add-on control device operating limits during the performance test? 63.3546 Section 63... the Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.3546 How do I establish the emission capture system... the emission stream for leakage. (d) Carbon adsorbers. If your add-on control device is a...

  19. 40 CFR 63.4767 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... capture system and add-on control device operating limits during the performance test? 63.4767 Section 63... capture system and add-on control device operating limits during the performance test? During the... efficiency according to § 63.4766. (c) Carbon adsorbers. If your add-on control device is a carbon...

  20. 40 CFR 63.4567 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... capture system and add-on control device operating limits during the performance test? 63.4567 Section 63... emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during the performance test? During the... operating limits for that catalytic oxidizer. (c) Regenerative carbon adsorbers. If your add-on...

  1. 40 CFR 63.4767 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true How do I establish the emission capture... Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4767 How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on...) Carbon adsorbers. If your add-on control device is a carbon adsorber, establish the operating...

  2. 40 CFR 63.3967 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... capture system and add-on control device operating limits during the performance test? 63.3967 Section 63... establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during the performance test... catalytic oxidizer. (c) Regenerative carbon adsorbers. If your add-on control device is a...

  3. Infectious Considerations in Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddon, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Slightly more than 500 people have flown in space, most of them for short periods of time. The total number of person years in space is small. Given this fact, and given rigorous astronaut screening, it is not surprising that the accumulated infectious disease experience in space is also small, and mostly, theoretical. As the human space presence expands, we may expect mission length, total accumulated person years and the environmental complexity to increase. Add to the mix both changes in human immunity and microbial virulence, and it becomes realistic to consider infectious scenarios and the means to mitigate them. This lecture will cover the inhabited space environment from the perspective of host-microbe interactions, current relevant research, and the current countermeasures used. Future challenges will be discussed and there will be opportunity to ask questions about Space Operations. The audience is encouraged to think about what medical tools you would choose to have in different types of mission, what you would be willing to leave behind, and how you would compensate for the necessary trade offs in mission design.

  4. Anabolic steroid boosts weight.

    PubMed

    1996-09-01

    A randomized study of nandrolone decanoate (Deca-Durabolin) showed that the anabolic steroid can increase weight in people with HIV infections. The group receiving nandrolone experienced a greater increase both in fat-free mass and body cell mass (although the latter measure did not reach statistical significance) than those on placebo. Deca-Durabolin had little to do with two occurrences of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) in the study group, but until further studies are completed, caution is advised when using this steroid in patients with KS. A new study comparing nandrolone to growth hormone in patients with wasting is slated to begin in the next 3 or 4 months. PMID:11363845

  5. Food shopping and weight concern. Balancing consumer and body normality.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Annemette; Holm, Lotte

    2014-11-01

    The desire to achieve a normal, culturally acceptable body is often seen as the main driver of food-consumption practices adopted by individuals who are concerned about their body weight. In social research into weight management self-control is therefore often a central theme. Turning the focus towards practices and values related to food shopping, this study adds to our understanding of central features in perceptions of normality among people with weight concerns. In a qualitative study 25 people who participated in a dietary intervention trial in Denmark were interviewed and five people were observed. The study shows that the aim of achieving a normal body does not eclipse the importance of enacting values linked to ideas of the 'normal consumer'. Using empirical examples, the study illuminates how consumer freedom is attained in ways that are both complementary to, and in conflict with, practices and experiences of controlling food intake. The paper suggests that freedom and control are composite and complementary ideals of normality for people with weight concerns. On the basis of this insight, the authors discuss the contribution the paper makes to existing studies of weight management and food consumption. PMID:25086208

  6. Weighted triangulation adjustment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Walter L.

    1969-01-01

    The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.

  7. Chi hotspots trigger a conformational change in the helicase-like domain of AddAB to activate homologous recombination

    PubMed Central

    Gilhooly, Neville S.; Carrasco, Carolina; Gollnick, Benjamin; Wilkinson, Martin; Wigley, Dale B.; Moreno-Herrero, Fernando; Dillingham, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    In bacteria, the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks is modulated by Chi sequences. These are recognised by helicase-nuclease complexes that process DNA ends for homologous recombination. Chi activates recombination by changing the biochemical properties of the helicase-nuclease, transforming it from a destructive exonuclease into a recombination-promoting repair enzyme. This transition is thought to be controlled by the Chi-dependent opening of a molecular latch, which enables part of the DNA substrate to evade degradation beyond Chi. Here, we show that disruption of the latch improves Chi recognition efficiency and stabilizes the interaction of AddAB with Chi, even in mutants that are impaired for Chi binding. Chi recognition elicits a structural change in AddAB that maps to a region of AddB which resembles a helicase domain, and which harbours both the Chi recognition locus and the latch. Mutation of the latch potentiates the change and moderately reduces the duration of a translocation pause at Chi. However, this mutant displays properties of Chi-modified AddAB even in the complete absence of bona fide hotspot sequences. The results are used to develop a model for AddAB regulation in which allosteric communication between Chi binding and latch opening ensures quality control during recombination hotspot recognition. PMID:26762979

  8. Development of FQ-PCR method to determine the level of ADD1 expression in fatty and lean pigs.

    PubMed

    Cui, J X; Chen, W; Zeng, Y Q

    2015-01-01

    To determine how adipocyte determination and differentiation factor 1 (ADD1), a gene involved in the determination of pork quality, is regulated in Laiwu and Large pigs, we used TaqMan fluorescence quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (FQ-PCR) to detect differential expression in the longissimus muscle of Laiwu (fatty) and Large White (lean) pigs. In this study, the ADD1 and GAPDH cDNA sequences were cloned using a T-A cloning assay, and the clone sequences were consistent with those deposited in GenBank. Thus, the target fragment was successfully recombined into the vector, and its integrity was maintained. The standard curve and regression equation were established through the optimized FQ-PCR protocol. The standard curve of porcine ADD1 and GAPDH cDNA was determined, and its linear range extension could reach seven orders of magnitudes. The results showed that this method was used to quantify ADD1 expression in the longissimus muscle of two breeds of pig, and was found to be accurate, sensitive, and convenient. These results provide information regarding porcine ADD1 mRNA expression and the mechanism of adipocyte differentiation, and this study could help in the effort to meet the demands of consumers interested in the maintenance of health and prevention of obesity. Furthermore, it could lead to new approaches in the prevention and clinical treatment of this disease. PMID:26535708

  9. Nutritional Considerations for Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Angela

    1985-01-01

    Although weight loss is a frequent, though not invariable, component of the cancer syndrome, the associated malnutrition is a poor prognostic sign among both children and adults. This article describes the possible mechanisms of cancer cachexia; reviews the present state of nutritional support in cancer patients; identifies nutritional problems and workable approaches during the pre- and post-treatment periods; discusses the unconventional nutritional practices commonly encountered and lists resource materials for patients and families. PMID:21274086

  10. Add-Ons: The Ultimate Guide to Peripherals for the Blind Computer User.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croft, Diane L., Ed.

    Detailed product information on peripherals for the blind computer user is provided and applications, availability, reliability, price, and selection considerations are described. Chapters address the following topics and product categories: (1) scanners (optical character readers, Kurzweil Reading Machine); (2) a buyer's guide to modems; (3)…

  11. Self-Neglect: Ethical Considerations.

    PubMed

    Day, Mary Rose; Leahy-Warren, Patricia; McCarthy, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    Self-neglect is a significant international public health issue. Estimates suggest that there may be over one million cases per year in the United States. Aging populations will put more people at risk of self-neglect. This chapter presents background literature, self-neglect definitions and policy context, risk factors, and a brief overview of research on perspectives of self-neglect from both clients and community health and social care professionals. A case study is presented from the perspective of an individual and is used to explore ethical issues therein. A person-centered assessment within a multidisciplinary team approach is required for building a therapeutic relationship with clients. Capacity is a central issue in the management of responses to self-neglect. Ethical considerations of importance for community health and social care professionals include beneficence and nonmaleficence, autonomy and capacity, and respect for people's rights and dignity. A model of ethical justification is presented to explain dilemmas, challenges, and actions. Competence of professionals, multidisciplinary team working, informed consent, privacy, confidentiality, and best interest are also critical considerations. Effective decision making by an interdisciplinary team of professionals needs to be person-centered and give due consideration to the best interest of self-neglecting clients. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an in-depth discussion and examination of ethical issues and challenges relating to self-neglecting clients. PMID:26673378

  12. Grappling with Weight Cutting. The Wisconsin Wrestling Minimum Weight Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppliger, Robert A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    In response to a new state rule, the Wisconsin Minimum Weight Project curtails weight cutting among high school wrestlers. The project uses skinfold testing to determine a minimum competitive weight and nutrition education to help the wrestler diet safety. It serves as a model for other states and other sports. (Author/SM)

  13. Modeling operating weight and axle weight distributions for highway vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.; Liang, J.C.

    1988-07-01

    The estimation of highway cost responsibility requires detailed information on vehicle operating weights and axle weights by type of vehicle. Typically, 10--20 vehicle types must be cross-classified by 10--20 registered weight classes and again by 20 or more operating weight categories, resulting in 100--400 relative frequencies to be determined for each vehicle type. For each of these, gross operating weight must be distributed to each axle or axle unit. Given the rarity of many of the heaviest vehicle types, direct estimation of these frequencies and axle weights from traffic classification count statistics and truck weight data may exceed the reliability of even the largest (e.g., 250,000 record) data sources. An alternative is to estimate statistical models of operating weight distributions as functions of registered weight, and models of axle weight shares as functions of operating weight. This paper describes the estimation of such functions using the multinomial logit model (a log-linear model) and the implementation of the modeling framework as a PC-based FORTRAN program. Areas for further research include the addition of highway class and region as explanatory variables in operating weight distribution models, and the development of theory for including registration costs and costs of operating overweight in the modeling framework. 14 refs., 45 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82 Imaging Data: Depth-Optimized Co-adds Over 300 deg$^2$ in Five Filters

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Linhua; Fan, Xiaohui; Bian, Fuyan; McGreer, Ian D.; Strauss, Michael A.; Annis, James; Buck, Zoë; Green, Richard; Hodge, Jacqueline A.; Myers, Adam D.; Rafiee, Alireza; Richards, Gordon

    2014-06-25

    We present and release co-added images of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82. Stripe 82 covers an area of ~300 deg(2) on the celestial equator, and has been repeatedly scanned 70-90 times in the ugriz bands by the SDSS imaging survey. By making use of all available data in the SDSS archive, our co-added images are optimized for depth. Input single-epoch frames were properly processed and weighted based on seeing, sky transparency, and background noise before co-addition. The resultant products are co-added science images and their associated weight images that record relative weights at individual pixels. The depths of the co-adds, measured as the 5σ detection limits of the aperture (3.''2 diameter) magnitudes for point sources, are roughly 23.9, 25.1, 24.6, 24.1, and 22.8 AB magnitudes in the five bands, respectively. They are 1.9-2.2 mag deeper than the best SDSS single-epoch data. The co-added images have good image quality, with an average point-spread function FWHM of ~1'' in the r, i, and z bands. We also release object catalogs that were made with SExtractor. These co-added products have many potential uses for studies of galaxies, quasars, and Galactic structure. We further present and release near-IR J-band images that cover ~90 deg(2) of Stripe 82. These images were obtained using the NEWFIRM camera on the NOAO 4 m Mayall telescope, and have a depth of about 20.0-20.5 Vega magnitudes (also 5σ detection limits for point sources).

  15. THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY STRIPE 82 IMAGING DATA: DEPTH-OPTIMIZED CO-ADDS OVER 300 deg{sup 2} IN FIVE FILTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Linhua; Fan, Xiaohui; McGreer, Ian D.; Green, Richard; Bian, Fuyan; Strauss, Michael A.; Buck, Zoë; Annis, James; Hodge, Jacqueline A.; Myers, Adam D.; Rafiee, Alireza; Richards, Gordon

    2014-07-01

    We present and release co-added images of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82. Stripe 82 covers an area of ∼300 deg{sup 2} on the celestial equator, and has been repeatedly scanned 70-90 times in the ugriz bands by the SDSS imaging survey. By making use of all available data in the SDSS archive, our co-added images are optimized for depth. Input single-epoch frames were properly processed and weighted based on seeing, sky transparency, and background noise before co-addition. The resultant products are co-added science images and their associated weight images that record relative weights at individual pixels. The depths of the co-adds, measured as the 5σ detection limits of the aperture (3.''2 diameter) magnitudes for point sources, are roughly 23.9, 25.1, 24.6, 24.1, and 22.8 AB magnitudes in the five bands, respectively. They are 1.9-2.2 mag deeper than the best SDSS single-epoch data. The co-added images have good image quality, with an average point-spread function FWHM of ∼1'' in the r, i, and z bands. We also release object catalogs that were made with SExtractor. These co-added products have many potential uses for studies of galaxies, quasars, and Galactic structure. We further present and release near-IR J-band images that cover ∼90 deg{sup 2} of Stripe 82. These images were obtained using the NEWFIRM camera on the NOAO 4 m Mayall telescope, and have a depth of about 20.0-20.5 Vega magnitudes (also 5σ detection limits for point sources)

  16. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82 Imaging Data: Depth-optimized Co-adds over 300 deg2 in Five Filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Linhua; Fan, Xiaohui; Bian, Fuyan; McGreer, Ian D.; Strauss, Michael A.; Annis, James; Buck, Zoë; Green, Richard; Hodge, Jacqueline A.; Myers, Adam D.; Rafiee, Alireza; Richards, Gordon

    2014-07-01

    We present and release co-added images of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82. Stripe 82 covers an area of ~300 deg2 on the celestial equator, and has been repeatedly scanned 70-90 times in the ugriz bands by the SDSS imaging survey. By making use of all available data in the SDSS archive, our co-added images are optimized for depth. Input single-epoch frames were properly processed and weighted based on seeing, sky transparency, and background noise before co-addition. The resultant products are co-added science images and their associated weight images that record relative weights at individual pixels. The depths of the co-adds, measured as the 5σ detection limits of the aperture (3.''2 diameter) magnitudes for point sources, are roughly 23.9, 25.1, 24.6, 24.1, and 22.8 AB magnitudes in the five bands, respectively. They are 1.9-2.2 mag deeper than the best SDSS single-epoch data. The co-added images have good image quality, with an average point-spread function FWHM of ~1'' in the r, i, and z bands. We also release object catalogs that were made with SExtractor. These co-added products have many potential uses for studies of galaxies, quasars, and Galactic structure. We further present and release near-IR J-band images that cover ~90 deg2 of Stripe 82. These images were obtained using the NEWFIRM camera on the NOAO 4 m Mayall telescope, and have a depth of about 20.0-20.5 Vega magnitudes (also 5σ detection limits for point sources).

  17. Atomic Weights and Isotopic Compositions

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 144 Atomic Weights and Isotopic Compositions (Web, free access)   The atomic weights are available for elements 1 through 111, and isotopic compositions or abundances are given when appropriate.

  18. Weight-Control Information Network

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... full list of resources . Alternate Language URL Weight-control Information Network (WIN) Page Content The Weight-control ...

  19. Geophysical weight loss diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schatten, Kenneth

    1984-04-01

    Having for numerous reasons acquired a three digit kilogram mass, the author is experienced at the painful struggles that the gourmand must suffer to reduce weight, particularly if he/she enjoys reasonably large amounts of good food. To the avant-garde geophysicist, utilizing the following approach could be pleasurable, rewarding, and may even enable the accomplishment of what Ghengis Khan, Alexander the Great, Napolean, and Hitler could not!The basic approach is the full utilization of Newton's formula for the attraction of two massive bodies: F=GM1M2/r2, where G, is the gravitational constant; r, the distance between the two bodies; and M1 and M2, the masses of the two bodies. Although one usually chooses M1 to be the earth's mass ME and M2 to be the mass of a small object, this unnecessarily restricts the realm of phenomena. The less restrictive assumption is M1 + M2 = ME.

  20. ATOM - an OMERO add-on for automated import of image data

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Modern microscope platforms are able to generate multiple gigabytes of image data in a single experimental session. In a routine research laboratory workflow, these data are initially stored on the local acquisition computer from which files need to be transferred to the experimenter's (remote) image repository (e.g., DVDs, portable hard discs or server-based storage) because of limited local data storage. Although manual solutions for this migration, such as OMERO - a client-server software for visualising and managing large amounts of image data - exist, this import process may be a time-consuming and tedious task. Findings We have developed ATOM, a Java-based and thus platform-independent add-on for OMERO enabling automated transfer of image data from a wide variety of acquisition software packages into OMERO. ATOM provides a graphical user interface and allows pre-organisation of experimental data for the transfer. Conclusions ATOM is a convenient extension of the OMERO software system. An automated interface to OMERO will be a useful tool for scientists working with file formats supported by the Bio-Formats file format library, a platform-independent library for reading the most common file formats of microscope images. PMID:21978452

  1. Acoustic add-drop filters based on phononic crystal ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rostami-Dogolsara, Babak; Moravvej-Farshi, Mohammad Kazem; Nazari, Fakhroddin

    2016-01-01

    We report the design procedure for an acoustic add-drop filter (ADF) composed of two line-defect waveguides coupled through a ring resonator cavity (RRC) all based on a phononic crystal (PnC) platform. Using finite difference time domain and plane wave expansion methods, we study the propagation of acoustic waves through the PnC based ADF structures. Numerical results show that the quality factor for the ADF with a quasisquare ring resonator with a frequency band of 95 Hz centered about 75.21 kHz is Q ˜ 800. We show that the addition of an appropriate scatterer at each RRC corner can reduce the scattering loss, enhancing the quality factor and the transmission efficiency. Moreover, it is also shown that by increasing the coupling gaps between the RRC and waveguides the quality factor can be increased by ˜25 times, at the expense of a significant reduction in the transmission efficiency this is attributed to the enhanced selectivity in expense of weakened coupling. Finally, by varying the effective path length of the acoustic wave in the RRC, via selectively varying the inclusions physical and geometrical properties, we show how one can ultra-fine and fine-tune the resonant frequency of the ADF.

  2. Project DyAdd: Fatty acids in adult dyslexia, ADHD, and their comorbid combination.

    PubMed

    Laasonen, Marja; Hokkanen, Laura; Leppämäki, Sami; Tani, Pekka; Erkkilä, Arja T

    2009-07-01

    In project DyAdd, we compared the fatty acid (FA) profiles of serum phospholipids in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (n=26), dyslexia (n=36), their comorbid combination (n=9), and healthy controls (n=36). FA proportions were analyzed in a 2x2 design with Bonferroni corrected post hoc comparisons. A questionnaire was used to assess dietary fat quality and use of supplements. Results showed that ADHD and dyslexia were not associated with total saturated FAs, monounsaturated FAs, or n-3 polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs). However, those with ADHD had elevated proportions of total n-6 PUFAs (including gamma-linolenic and adrenic acids) as compared to those without ADHD. Dyslexia was related to a higher proportion of monounsaturated nervonic acid and a higher ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs. Among females none of the associations were significant. However in males, all the original associations observed in all subjects remained and ADHD was associated with elevated nervonic acid and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio like dyslexia. Controlling for poorly diagnosed reading difficulties, education, dietary fat quality, or use of FA supplements did not generally remove the originally observed associations. PMID:19523794

  3. Self-collimation-based photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder add-drop filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sun-Goo; Park, Jong-Moon; Kee, Chul-Sik; Lee, Jongjin

    2016-02-01

    Photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder add-drop filters (PC-MZADFs) based on the self-collimation phenomenon in a two-dimensional (2D) PC are proposed and numerically studied using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. Each PC-MZADF is composed of a symmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) with an identical filter in each of its two different optical paths. Zizag-box resonators (ZBRs) and Fano resonators (FRs) are employed as the optical filters in rod-type and hole-type PCs, respectively. It is shown that self-collimated beams with the ZBR and FR resonant frequencies can be dropped or added using multiple-beam interference. We also show that the resonant frequencies of the resonators can be adjusted by varying the radii of their rods or holes. Our results indicate that this device design may constitute an efficient approach to light propagation manipulation and increase the application range of self-collimated beams.

  4. PKSolver: An add-in program for pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data analysis in Microsoft Excel.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Huo, Meirong; Zhou, Jianping; Xie, Shaofei

    2010-09-01

    This study presents PKSolver, a freely available menu-driven add-in program for Microsoft Excel written in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA), for solving basic problems in pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) data analysis. The program provides a range of modules for PK and PD analysis including noncompartmental analysis (NCA), compartmental analysis (CA), and pharmacodynamic modeling. Two special built-in modules, multiple absorption sites (MAS) and enterohepatic circulation (EHC), were developed for fitting the double-peak concentration-time profile based on the classical one-compartment model. In addition, twenty frequently used pharmacokinetic functions were encoded as a macro and can be directly accessed in an Excel spreadsheet. To evaluate the program, a detailed comparison of modeling PK data using PKSolver and professional PK/PD software package WinNonlin and Scientist was performed. The results showed that the parameters estimated with PKSolver were satisfactory. In conclusion, the PKSolver simplified the PK and PD data analysis process and its output could be generated in Microsoft Word in the form of an integrated report. The program provides pharmacokinetic researchers with a fast and easy-to-use tool for routine and basic PK and PD data analysis with a more user-friendly interface. PMID:20176408

  5. Long-acting muscarinic antagonists: a potential add-on therapy in the treatment of asthma?

    PubMed

    Busse, William W; Dahl, Ronald; Jenkins, Christine; Cruz, Alvaro A

    2016-03-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways that is a major global burden on both individuals and healthcare systems. Despite guideline-directed treatment, a significant proportion of patients with asthma do not achieve control. This review focuses on the potential use of long-acting anticholinergics as bronchodilators in the treatment of asthma, with results published from clinical trials of glycopyrrolate, umeclidinium and tiotropium. The tiotropium clinical trial programme is the most advanced, with data available from a number of phase II and III studies of tiotropium as an add-on to inhaled corticosteroid maintenance therapy, with or without a long-acting β2-agonist, in patients across asthma severities. Recent studies using the Respimat Soft Mist inhaler have identified 5 µg once daily as the preferred dosing regimen, which has shown promising results in adults, adolescents and children with asthma. Tiotropium Respimat has recently been incorporated into the Global Initiative for Asthma 2015 treatment strategy as a recommended alternative therapy at steps 4 and 5 in adult patients with a history of exacerbations. The increasing availability of evidence from ongoing and future clinical trials will be beneficial in determining where long-acting anticholinergic agents fit in future treatment guidelines across a variety of patient populations and disease severities. PMID:26929422

  6. Assessing psychological flexibility: what does it add above and beyond existing constructs?

    PubMed

    Gloster, Andrew T; Klotsche, Jens; Chaker, Samia; Hummel, Katrin V; Hoyer, Jürgen

    2011-12-01

    The construct of psychological flexibility (PF) is a central concept in acceptance and commitment therapy. It is defined as the process of contacting the present moment fully as a conscious human being and persisting in or changing behavior in the service of chosen values. PF is hypothesized to be an important aspect of healthy psychological functioning. Despite its potential importance, the distinctness of PF from other constructs has not been adequately demonstrated, and psychometric evaluations of measures designed to assess it are limited. This study aimed at extending current knowledge about PF by examining the construct in 2 help-seeking samples, including panic disorder with agoraphobia (n = 368), clinically relevant social phobia (n = 209), and 2 nonclinical samples including students (n = 495) and individuals visiting an employment office (n = 95). Results across all samples indicate that PF, as measured by the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (2nd version; AAQ-II), is a unitary construct with a 1 factor model. PF correlated with other variables largely consistent with predictions, differentiated patients from healthy controls, and showed preliminary indications of treatment sensitivity. Incremental validity was partially demonstrated, especially for indices of functioning. Surprisingly, PF also explained unique variance above more established measures for some indices of symptomatology. Results suggest that PF adds some incremental clinical validity, yet further and more stringent tests are required to fully elucidate its strengths and limitations. PMID:21767025

  7. Predictors of life satisfaction among Asian American adolescents- analysis of add health data.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jui-Yen; Wang, Kuan-Yuan; Ringel-Kulka, Tamar

    2015-01-01

    Life satisfaction correlates with adolescent risk taking behavior and their outcomes in adulthood. Despite the fast rise in numbers of Asian adolescents in the U.S., the predictors of their life satisfaction are not well understood. This study examined the relationship between several demographic and contextual factors and global life satisfaction among this population. Data were derived from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative probability sample of US adolescents. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression was conducted to evaluate hypothesized predictors of global life satisfaction of Asian American adolescents. All analyses were conducted using STATA version 11. After exclusion of cases with missing values, 1021 Asian American adolescents were studied. Self- rated health, self-esteem, perceived neighborhood quality, parental support and peer support were significantly and positively related to better global life satisfaction. However, after controlling for other factors, only self-esteem (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 4.76; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.86-8.33) and perceived peer support (aOR: 2.76; 95% CI: 1.33-5.76) significantly predicted higher life satisfaction. Peer support and adolescents' self-concept are strongly correlated with Asian American adolescents' subjective well-being. To promote the wellness of this population, culturally sensitive strategies in developing peer relationship and healthy self-concept may be effective. More studies are needed for subgroup comparison of various ethnicities among Asian American adolescents. PMID:25992312

  8. Does large needle aspiration biopsy add pain to the thyroid nodule evaluation?

    PubMed

    Carpi, Angelo; Rossi, Giuseppe; Nicolini, Andrea; Iervasi, Giorgio; Russo, Matteo; Mechanick, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid large needle aspiration biopsy is disregarded because it is thought to be associated with pain. This is in contrast with our 32 years long experience. We surveyed reports of pain in patients examined with fine needle aspiration biopsy (78, 87.2% women, mean age 59 years) or FNAB+large needle aspiration biopsy (48, 87.5% women, mean age 60 years). Each patient was questioned regarding a) no unpleasant sensation (score "0"); b) unpleasant sensation ("1"); c) mild pain (no analgesic used; "2"); or d) pain (analgesic used; "3"). The mean size of the needle used was for FNAB 22.3±0.7 or 20.8±1 gauge in the fine needle aspiration or fine needle aspiration plus large needle aspiration biopsy group, respectively (p<.0001). The number of percutaneous punctures was higher in the fine needle aspiration plus large needle aspiration biopsy group. However, the pain score in the fine needle aspiration biopsy or fine needle aspiration biopsy plus large needle aspiration biopsy group was not significantly different. Large needle aspiration biopsy after fine needle aspiration biopsy does not add any discomfort or pain and therefore in light of the demonstrable benefits, should be included in clinical algorithms for the evaluation of thyroid nodules. PMID:23536779

  9. CosmoCalc: An Excel add-in for cosmogenic nuclide calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeesch, Pieter

    2007-08-01

    As dating methods using Terrestrial Cosmogenic Nuclides (TCN) become more popular, the need arises for a general-purpose and easy-to-use data reduction software. The CosmoCalc Excel add-in calculates TCN production rate scaling factors (using Lal, Stone, Dunai, and Desilets methods); topographic, snow, and self-shielding factors; and exposure ages, erosion rates, and burial ages and visualizes the results on banana-style plots. It uses an internally consistent TCN production equation that is based on the quadruple exponential approach of Granger and Smith (2000). CosmoCalc was designed to be as user-friendly as possible. Although the user interface is extremely simple, the program is also very flexible, and nearly all default parameter values can be changed. To facilitate the comparison of different scaling factors, a set of converter tools is provided, allowing the user to easily convert cut-off rigidities to magnetic inclinations, elevations to atmospheric depths, and so forth. Because it is important to use a consistent set of scaling factors for the sample measurements and the production rate calibration sites, CosmoCalc defines the production rates implicitly, as a function of the original TCN concentrations of the calibration site. The program is best suited for 10Be, 26Al, 3He, and 21Ne calculations, although basic functionality for 36Cl and 14C is also provided. CosmoCalc can be downloaded along with a set of test data from http://cosmocalc.googlepages.com.

  10. The decision to add a second hospital-based EMS helicopter.

    PubMed

    Friedman, R; Leicht, M J; Brotman, S

    1989-11-01

    An analysis of the first seven years of performance of our hospital-based emergency medical services (EMS) helicopter was conducted to evaluate the possible need for a second aircraft. A survey of seven hospitals currently operating two or more helicopters resulted in a consensus that one helicopter can effectively perform only 70 to 90 flights per month. The number of requests for our helicopter service has increased 148% from 610 to 1,512 in seven years while the number of completed missions has increased only 92% from 486 (40.5/month) to 935 (78/month). Requests denied due to inclement weather (265 in 1988) cannot be captured with a second visual-flight-rated (VFR) EMS helicopter; however, those missed due to maintenance requirements of the helicopter and overlapping requests (232 in 1988) can be captured. The need for a second aircraft exists when the number of requests for the service grows while the number of captured flights plateaus. Our data and industry survey suggests this will occur at 75 captured flights per month. Affordability and continued overall growth of trauma and other critical care referrals to the base hospital(s) is mandatory. This study provides a model for hospital-based EMS helicopter operators to apply to the decision whether to add a second aircraft. PMID:10296622

  11. [Nutrition and body weight].

    PubMed

    Gohlke, H

    2002-01-01

    Certain dietary components play a key role for the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). Complex carbohydrates lower the prevalence of CAD. Protein should provide 15% of daily calories. Populations with a high consumption of soy protein have a low coronary event rate and a high life expectancy. Soy protein has a favorable effect on LDL cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL cholesterol. Dietary cholesterol correlates with an increased incidence of CAD. Saturated fats increase cholesterol levels as well as the activity of clotting factor VII and promote progression of CAD. Mono-(MUFA) and poly-unsaturated fatty acids lower LDL-cholesterol to a similar extent. MUFA are contained in rape seed oil, olive oil and pea nut oil, but also in avocados and almonds. Omega-3-fatty acids are in fatty fish like salmon, tuna and herring and improve survival after myocardial infarction. They improve among others endothelial function (adhesion molecules). Eating 1-2 fish meals per week has a preventive effect on CAD and stroke. Dietary fiber decreases the risk for CAD up to 30% and favorably influences carbohydrate metabolism. Antioxidants have a favorable effect in their natural form (fruits and fresh vegetables). The secondary preventive effect of a mediterranean diet after myocardial infarction (probably by a combination of the above effects) has been validated. Body weight correlates with coronary risk, diabetes and use of health care resources. A reduction of body weight is best achieved by calory reduction plus an increase of physical activity. A calory-adjusted diet, low in total fat with a significant proportion of unsaturated fats and omega-3-fatty acids and rich in fiber is of great importance for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Fruits, vegetables and whole grain products are important components of this diet, which lowers the coronary event rate, increases longevity and is associated with a low rate of malignancies and osteoporosis. PMID

  12. Human biology of weight maintenance after weight loss.

    PubMed

    Mariman, Edwin C M

    2012-01-01

    One year after losing weight, most people have regained a significant part of the lost weight. As such, weight regain after weight loss has a negative impact on human health. The risk for weight regain is determined by psychosocial and behavioral factors as well as by various physiological and molecular parameters. Here, the latter intrinsic factors are reviewed and assembled into four functional modules, two related to the energy balance and two related to resistance against weight loss. Reported genetic factors do not reveal additional functional processes. The modules form nodes in a network describing the complex interactions of intrinsically determined weight maintenance. This network indicates that after an initial weight loss persons with a high baseline fat mass will most easily succeed in maintaining weight, because they can lose fat without raising stress in adipocytes and at the same time spare fat-free mass. However, continued weight loss and weight maintenance requires extra measures like increased physical activity, limited energy intake and a fat-free sparing composition of the diet. Eventually, this network may help to design novel therapeutic measures based on preventing the return effect of specific plasma factors or by preventing the accumulation of adipocyte cellular stress. PMID:22472972

  13. The weight of mass or the mass of weight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gat, U.

    1987-06-01

    This paper explores the cause of confusion associated with the words mass and weight, and offers suggestions to correct the problem. It is recommended that in technical and scientific use, weight shall be restricted to mean force of gravity. Technical standards, ASTM and others, and terminology shall clearly reflect and define weight to be force of gravity. Weight should be avoided in technical context because of its imprecision. Legal, formal, and official language shall use weight to mean force only. Under no circumstances should the SI units of mass, the kilogram, or its derivatives, be associated with weight. The term weight should be avoided in any language and wording that intends to convey a precise or important meaning. ASTM should revise all standards and terminology accordingly.

  14. Successful habits of weight losers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the availability of the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans, the prevalence of obesity in adults has increased by 200% since 1980. Although few people have lost weight and maintained weight loss long term, some have and are tracked by the National Weight Control Registry. Results from these ...

  15. Fungible Weights in Multiple Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Niels G.

    2008-01-01

    Every set of alternate weights (i.e., nonleast squares weights) in a multiple regression analysis with three or more predictors is associated with an infinite class of weights. All members of a given class can be deemed "fungible" because they yield identical "SSE" (sum of squared errors) and R[superscript 2] values. Equations for generating…

  16. Correlation Weights in Multiple Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Niels G.; Jones, Jeff A.

    2010-01-01

    A general theory on the use of correlation weights in linear prediction has yet to be proposed. In this paper we take initial steps in developing such a theory by describing the conditions under which correlation weights perform well in population regression models. Using OLS weights as a comparison, we define cases in which the two weighting…

  17. Hypnotherapy in Weight Loss Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochrane, Gordon; Friesen, John

    1986-01-01

    Investigated effects of hypnosis as a treatment for weight loss among women. The primary hypothesis that hypnosis is an effective treatment for weight loss was confirmed, but seven concomitant variables and the use of audiotapes were not significant contributors to weight loss. (Author/ABB)

  18. Weight Training for Wheelchair Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Practical Pointers, 1978

    1978-01-01

    The article examines weight lifting training procedures for persons involved in wheelchair sports. Popular myths about weight training are countered, and guidelines for a safe and sound weight or resistance training program are given. Diagrams and descriptions follow for specific weightlifting activities: regular or standing press, military press,…

  19. Aerodynamic drag reduction tests on a full-scale tractor-trailer combination with several add-on devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montoya, L. C.; Steers, L. L.

    1974-01-01

    Aerodynamic drag tests were performed on a conventional cab-over-engine tractor with a 45-foot trailer and five commercially available or potentially available add-on devices using the coast-down method. The tests ranged in velocity from approximately 30 miles per hour to 65 miles per hour and included some flow visualization. A smooth, level runway at Edwards Air Force Base was used for the tests, and deceleration measurements were taken with both accelerometers and stopwatches. An evaluation of the drag reduction results obtained with each of the five add-on devices is presented.

  20. Physiological adaptations to weight loss and factors favouring weight regain

    PubMed Central

    Greenway, F L

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a major global health problem and predisposes individuals to several comorbidities that can affect life expectancy. Interventions based on lifestyle modification (for example, improved diet and exercise) are integral components in the management of obesity. However, although weight loss can be achieved through dietary restriction and/or increased physical activity, over the long term many individuals regain weight. The aim of this article is to review the research into the processes and mechanisms that underpin weight regain after weight loss and comment on future strategies to address them. Maintenance of body weight is regulated by the interaction of a number of processes, encompassing homoeostatic, environmental and behavioural factors. In homoeostatic regulation, the hypothalamus has a central role in integrating signals regarding food intake, energy balance and body weight, while an ‘obesogenic' environment and behavioural patterns exert effects on the amount and type of food intake and physical activity. The roles of other environmental factors are also now being considered, including sleep debt and iatrogenic effects of medications, many of which warrant further investigation. Unfortunately, physiological adaptations to weight loss favour weight regain. These changes include perturbations in the levels of circulating appetite-related hormones and energy homoeostasis, in addition to alterations in nutrient metabolism and subjective appetite. To maintain weight loss, individuals must adhere to behaviours that counteract physiological adaptations and other factors favouring weight regain. It is difficult to overcome physiology with behaviour. Weight loss medications and surgery change the physiology of body weight regulation and are the best chance for long-term success. An increased understanding of the physiology of weight loss and regain will underpin the development of future strategies to support overweight and obese individuals in their

  1. Physiological adaptations to weight loss and factors favouring weight regain.

    PubMed

    Greenway, F L

    2015-08-01

    Obesity is a major global health problem and predisposes individuals to several comorbidities that can affect life expectancy. Interventions based on lifestyle modification (for example, improved diet and exercise) are integral components in the management of obesity. However, although weight loss can be achieved through dietary restriction and/or increased physical activity, over the long term many individuals regain weight. The aim of this article is to review the research into the processes and mechanisms that underpin weight regain after weight loss and comment on future strategies to address them. Maintenance of body weight is regulated by the interaction of a number of processes, encompassing homoeostatic, environmental and behavioural factors. In homoeostatic regulation, the hypothalamus has a central role in integrating signals regarding food intake, energy balance and body weight, while an 'obesogenic' environment and behavioural patterns exert effects on the amount and type of food intake and physical activity. The roles of other environmental factors are also now being considered, including sleep debt and iatrogenic effects of medications, many of which warrant further investigation. Unfortunately, physiological adaptations to weight loss favour weight regain. These changes include perturbations in the levels of circulating appetite-related hormones and energy homoeostasis, in addition to alterations in nutrient metabolism and subjective appetite. To maintain weight loss, individuals must adhere to behaviours that counteract physiological adaptations and other factors favouring weight regain. It is difficult to overcome physiology with behaviour. Weight loss medications and surgery change the physiology of body weight regulation and are the best chance for long-term success. An increased understanding of the physiology of weight loss and regain will underpin the development of future strategies to support overweight and obese individuals in their efforts

  2. Commercial considerations in tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Mansbridge, Jonathan

    2006-10-01

    Tissue engineering is a field with immense promise. Using the example of an early tissue-engineered skin implant, Dermagraft, factors involved in the successful commercial development of devices of this type are explored. Tissue engineering has to strike a balance between tissue culture, which is a resource-intensive activity, and business considerations that are concerned with minimizing cost and maximizing customer convenience. Bioreactor design takes place in a highly regulated environment, so factors to be incorporated into the concept include not only tissue culture considerations but also matters related to asepsis, scaleup, automation and ease of use by the final customer. Dermagraft is an allogeneic tissue. Stasis preservation, in this case cryopreservation, is essential in allogeneic tissue engineering, allowing sterility testing, inventory control and, in the case of Dermagraft, a cellular stress that may be important for hormesis following implantation. Although the use of allogeneic cells provides advantages in manufacturing under suitable conditions, it raises the spectre of immunological rejection. Such rejection has not been experienced with Dermagraft. Possible reasons for this and the vision of further application of allogeneic tissues are important considerations in future tissue-engineered cellular devices. This review illustrates approaches that indicate some of the criteria that may provide a basis for further developments. Marketing is a further requirement for success, which entails understanding of the mechanism of action of the procedure, and is illustrated for Dermagraft. The success of a tissue-engineered product is dependent on many interacting operations, some discussed here, each of which must be performed simultaneously and well. PMID:17005024

  3. Circuit considerations for repetitive railguns

    SciTech Connect

    Honih, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    Railgun electromagnetic launchers have significant military and scientific potential. They provide direct conversion of electrical energy to projectile kinetic energy, and they offer the hope of achieving projectile velocities greatly exceeding the limits of conventional guns. With over 10 km/sec already demonstrated, railguns are attracting attention for tactical and strategic weapons systems and for scientific equation-of-state research. The full utilization of railguns will require significant improvements in every aspect of system design - projectile, barrel, and power source - to achieve operation on a large scale. This paper will review fundamental aspects of railguns, with emphasis on circuit considerations and repetitive operation.

  4. No effect of switching to high-dose rosuvastatin, add-on nicotinic acid, or add-on fenofibrate on serum vitamin D levels in patients with mixed dyslipidemia

    PubMed Central

    Makariou, E S; Elisaf, M; Kei, A; Challa, A; DiNicolantonio, J J; Liberopoulos, E

    2015-01-01

    Background Low 25-hydroxy-vitamin D [25(OH)VitD] levels may represent a novel cardiovascular disease risk factor. Several statins may increase 25(OH)VitD concentration. The effect of other lipid-lowering drugs is unknown. Aim To investigate whether switching to high-dose rosuvastatin, add-on-statin nicotinic acid or add-on-statin fenofibrate would alter 25(OH)VitD levels in patients with mixed dyslipidemia who are already on a conventional statin dose. Methods This is a prespecified analysis of a previously published study. Forty-four patients with mixed dyslipidemia not at treatment goal despite treatment with simvastatin 10-40 mg or atorvastatin 10-20 mg or rosuvastatin 5-10 mg were randomly allocated to switch to rosuvastatin 40 mg (n=17), add-on-statin extended release nicotinic acid (ER-NA)/laropiprant (LRPT) (1000/20 mg first four weeks and 2000/40 mg thereafter) (n=14), or add-on-statin micronized fenofibrate (200 mg) for three months. The endpoint for this analysis was between-group difference in changes in 25(OH)VitD levels. Results Serum 25(OH)VitD levels did not significantly change in any group. In the switch to the highest dose of rosuvastatin group and the add-on-statin ER-NA/LRPT group there was an insignificant decrease in 25(OH)VitD levels {-4.7% [from 16.8 (3.2-37) to 16.0 (7.9-51.6)] and -14.8% [from 12.8 (2.0-54.8) to 10.9 (2.4-34)], respectively]}, while in the add-on-statin fenofibrate group there was an insignificant increase [+13% (from 14.5 (1.0-42) to 16.4 (4.4-30.4) ng/mL)]. No significant difference between groups was found. Conclusion In patients already on a conventional statin dose, neither switching to high-dose rosuvastatin (40 mg) nor add-on-statin ER-NA/LRPT or fenofibrate were associated with significant changes in 25(OH)VitD serum levels. Hippokratia 2015; 19 (2):136-140. PMID:27418762

  5. Holiday Weight Management by Successful Weight Losers and Normal Weight Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelan, Suzanne; Wing, Rena R.; Raynor, Hollie A.; Dibello, Julia; Nedeau, Kim; Peng, Wanfeng

    2008-01-01

    This study compared weight control strategies during the winter holidays among successful weight losers (SWL) in the National Weight Control Registry and normal weight individuals (NW) with no history of obesity. SWL (n = 178) had lost a mean of 34.9 kg and had kept greater than or equal to 13.6 kg off for a mean of 5.9 years. NW (n = 101) had a…

  6. Structural design considerations for stretched-membrane heliostat reflector modules with stability and initial imperfection considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, L.M.; Simms, D.; Sallis, D.V.

    1986-10-01

    This report extends the work of several previous reports that present the background leading to the development of stretched-membrane modules and analysis methods to study the structural response of the stretched-membrane module. Specifically, this report presents and discusses the design implications based on our analysis of single- or double-membrane concepts, and the amplification of initial imperfections and deflections caused by loading, which results from stability considerations. In this document, we present analysis results for both single- and double-membrane concepts corresponding to a range of design and loading conditions. Further, we show that stretched-membrane/frame combinations respond quite differently to external loads than can be inferred by studying the decoupled frame and membrane independently. Thus the coupled membrane/frame problem should be considered to assure an accurate description of its response. For idealized configurations and loadings, we discuss the relative merits of various design features for both of these designs. In addition, we studied the structural stability (i.e., the tendency of structural deformation to grow with little increase in applied load) of the tensioned-membrane, compressed-frame combination. Moreover, we demonstrate how stability considerations are important in determining the amplification of both initial displacement imperfection and the deformations caused by wind and weight loading on the structure.

  7. Exercise Ventilatory Inefficiency Adds to Lung Function in Predicting Mortality in COPD.

    PubMed

    Neder, J Alberto; Alharbi, Abdullah; Berton, Danilo C; Alencar, Maria Clara N; Arbex, Flavio F; Hirai, Daniel M; Webb, Katherine A; O'Donnell, Denis E

    2016-08-01

    Severity of resting functional impairment only partially predicts the increased risk of death in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Increased ventilation during exercise is associated with markers of disease progression and poor prognosis, including emphysema extension and pulmonary vascular impairment. Whether excess exercise ventilation would add to resting lung function in predicting mortality in COPD, however, is currently unknown. After an incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test, 288 patients (forced expiratory volume in one second ranging from 18% to 148% predicted) were followed for a median (interquartile range) of 57 (47) months. Increases in the lowest (nadir) ventilation to CO2 output (VCO2) ratio determined excess exercise ventilation. Seventy-seven patients (26.7%) died during follow-up: 30/77 (38.9%) deaths were due to respiratory causes. Deceased patients were older, leaner, had a greater co-morbidity burden (Charlson Index) and reported more daily life dyspnea. Moreover, they had poorer lung function and exercise tolerance (p < 0.05). A logistic regression analysis revealed that ventilation/VCO2 nadir was the only exercise variable that added to age, body mass index, Charlson Index and resting inspiratory capacity (IC)/total lung capacity (TLC) ratio to predict all-cause and respiratory mortality (p < 0.001). Kaplan-Meier analyses showed that survival time was particularly reduced when ventilation/VCO2 nadir > 34 was associated with IC/TLC ≤ 0.34 or IC/TLC ≤ 0.31 for all-cause and respiratory mortality, respectively (p < 0.001). Excess exercise ventilation is an independent prognostic marker across the spectrum of COPD severity. Physiological abnormalities beyond traditional airway dysfunction and lung mechanics are relevant in determining the course of the disease. PMID:27077955

  8. Mozart K.448 acts as a potential add-on therapy in children with refractory epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lung-Chang; Lee, Wei-Te; Wang, Chien-Hua; Chen, Hsiu-Lin; Wu, Hui-Chuan; Tsai, Chin-Lin; Wei, Ruey-Chang; Mok, Hin-Kiu; Weng, Chia-Fen; Lee, Mei-Wen; Yang, Rei-Cheng

    2011-03-01

    Mozart's Sonata for two pianos in D major, K.448 (Mozart K.448), has been shown to improve mental function, leading to what is known as the Mozart effect. Our previous work revealed that epileptiform discharges in children with epilepsy decreased during and immediately after listening to Mozart K.448. In this study, we evaluated the long-term effects of Mozart K.448 on children with refractory epilepsy. Eleven children with refractory epilepsy were enrolled. All of the patients were diagnosed as having had refractory epilepsy for more than 1 year (range =1 year to 6 years 4 months, mean =3 years 11 months) and had been receiving at least two antiepileptic drugs (AED). During the study period, they listened to Mozart K.448 once a day before bedtime for 6 months. Seizure frequencies were recorded 6 months before they started listening to this music and monthly during the study period. All of the patients remained on the same AEDs during the 6-month study period. Frequencies of seizures were compared before and after listening to Mozart K.448. Eight of eleven patients were seizure free (N=2) or had very good responses (N=6) after 6 months of listening to Mozart K.448. The remaining three (27.3%) showed minimal or no effect (effectiveness <50%; unmodified or worsened seizure frequency). The average seizure reduction was 53.6 ± 62.0%. There were no significant differences in seizure reduction with IQ, etiology, or gender. We conclude that Mozart K.448 should be further studied as a potential add-on therapy in the treatment of children with refractory epilepsy. PMID:21292560

  9. Establishing a Near Term Lunar Farside Gravity Model via Inexpensive Add-on Navigation Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Mesarch, Michael; Miller, Ronald; Bell, David; Jedrey, Tom; Butman, Stanley; Asmar, Sami

    2007-01-01

    The Space Communications and Navigation, Constellation Integration Project (SCIP) is tasked with defining, developing, deploying and operating an evolving multi-decade communications and navigation (C/N) infrastructure including services and subsystems that will support both robotic and human exploration activities at the Moon. This paper discusses an early far side gravitational mapping service and related telecom subsystem that uses an existing spacecraft (WIND) and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) to collect data that would address several needs of the SCIP. An important aspect of such an endeavor is to vastly improve the current lunar gravity model while demonstrating the navigation and stationkeeping of a relay spacecraft. We describe a gravity data acquisition activity and the trajectory design of the relay orbit in an Earth-Moon L2 co-linear libration orbit. Several phases of the transfer from an Earth-Sun to the Earth-Moon region are discussed along with transfers within the Earth-Moon system. We describe a proposed, but not integrated, add-on to LRO scheduled to be launched in October of 2008. LRO provided a real host spacecraft against which we designed the science payload and mission activities. From a strategic standpoint, LRO was a very exciting first flight opportunity for gravity science data collection. Gravity Science data collection requires the use of one or more low altitude lunar polar orbiters. Variations in the lunar gravity field will cause measurable variations in the orbit of a low altitude lunar orbiter. The primary means to capture these induced motions is to monitor the Doppler shift of a radio signal to or from the low altitude spacecraft, given that the signal is referenced to a stable frequency reference. For the lunar far side, a secondary orbiting radio signal platform is required. We provide an in-depth look at link margins, trajectory design, and hardware implications. Our approach posed minimum risk to a host mission while

  10. Aromatase inhibitors as add-on treatment for men with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Harden, Cynthia; MacLusky, Neil J

    2005-01-01

    Manipulation of neurosteroids to treat epilepsy has been an area of active research. The effect of testosterone on brain excitability and seizure threshold has been mixed; the estradiol metabolite of testosterone increases brain excitability, while the reduced metabolite of testosterone, 3alpha-androstanediol, decreases brain excitability, likely through an action at the gamma-amino butyric acid A receptor. Therefore, the metabolites of testosterone produce opposite effects on brain excitability in seizure models. Aromatase is the enzyme for the conversion of testosterone to 17beta-estradiol. Aromatase inhibitors could decrease brain excitability by decreasing local estradiol levels and therefore, could be beneficial for the treatment of epilepsy. Aromatase inhibitors are US Food and Drug Administration-approved and have a long history of safe use in menopausal women with breast cancer. This review presents the results of using anastrazole in an open-label, add-on manner in a small group of men with epilepsy in order to improve seizures. The results suggested some effect on reduction of seizures and no side effects. Testosterone levels did increase, but not to above the normal range. Letrozole used in a single case was also beneficial for seizures. It was concluded that aromatase inhibitors may be a useful adjunct to the treatment of epilepsy, but habituation to the treatment may be limiting. Many men with epilepsy have low testosterone, and aromatase inhibition may be helpful in restoring levels to normal. Modulation of reproductive hormones by aromatase inhibition as well as enhancement of the 3alpha-androstanediol pathway may be an avenue of epilepsy treatment that would not produce sedative side effects, which is often a limiting factor with standard antiseizure medications. A further interesting result is that elevated follicle stimulating hormone and luteal stimulating hormone levels were associated with seizure reduction, suggesting that they may be a

  11. Using the PhenX Toolkit to Add Standard Measures to a Study.

    PubMed

    Hendershot, Tabitha; Pan, Huaqin; Haines, Jonathan; Harlan, William R; Marazita, Mary L; McCarty, Catherine A; Ramos, Erin M; Hamilton, Carol M

    2015-01-01

    The PhenX (consensus measures for Phenotypes and eXposures) Toolkit (https://www.phenxtoolkit.org/) offers high-quality, well-established measures of phenotypes and exposures for use by the scientific community. The goal is to promote the use of standard measures, enhance data interoperability, and help investigators identify opportunities for collaborative and translational research. The Toolkit contains 395 measures drawn from 22 research domains (fields of research), along with additional collections of measures for Substance Abuse and Addiction (SAA) research, Mental Health Research (MHR), and Tobacco Regulatory Research (TRR). Additional measures for TRR that are expected to be released in 2015 include Obesity, Eating Disorders, and Sickle Cell Disease. Measures are selected by working groups of domain experts using a consensus process that includes input from the scientific community. The Toolkit provides a description of each PhenX measure, the rationale for including it in the Toolkit, protocol(s) for collecting the measure, and supporting documentation. Users can browse measures in the Toolkit or can search the Toolkit using the Smart Query Tool or a full text search. PhenX Toolkit users select measures of interest to add to their Toolkit. Registered Toolkit users can save their Toolkit and return to it later to revise or complete. They then have options to download a customized Data Collection Worksheet that specifies the data to be collected, and a Data Dictionary that describes each variable included in the Data Collection Worksheet. The Toolkit also has a Register Your Study feature that facilitates cross-study collaboration by allowing users to find other investigators using the same PhenX measures. PMID:26132000

  12. Why Add Value in Assessment? A Pilot Project in Ohio Gains Interest in Value-Added Measurements of Individual Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, James W.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author suggests that good teachers add value in a number of measurable and immeasurable ways. While the gain of a student in mathematics can be measured, it is impossible to measure the impact of a teacher who motivated a child to want to do math. Teachers cannot control how kids enter the classroom and should not be held…

  13. triADD: The Risk for Alcohol Abuse, Depression, and Diabetes Multimorbidity in the American Indian and Alaska Native Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tann, Sheila S.; Yabiku, Scott T.; Okamoto, Scott K.; Yanow, Jessica

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the risk for alcoholism, diabetes, and depression (triADD) in American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations in the U.S. Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a series of descriptive statistics and regression models were used to examine the interrelationships among these disorders in AI/AN populations.…

  14. 31 CFR 5.5 - How will Treasury entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Treasury...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... administrative costs on Treasury debts in accordance with the provisions of 31 U.S.C. 3717 and 31 CFR 901.9, on... interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Treasury debt? 5.5 Section 5.5 Money and Finance... Debts § 5.5 How will Treasury entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to...

  15. 31 CFR 5.5 - How will Treasury entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Treasury...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... administrative costs on Treasury debts in accordance with the provisions of 31 U.S.C. 3717 and 31 CFR 901.9, on... interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Treasury debt? 5.5 Section 5.5 Money and Finance... Debts § 5.5 How will Treasury entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to...

  16. 31 CFR 5.5 - How will Treasury entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Treasury...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... administrative costs on Treasury debts in accordance with the provisions of 31 U.S.C. 3717 and 31 CFR 901.9, on... interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Treasury debt? 5.5 Section 5.5 Money and Finance... Debts § 5.5 How will Treasury entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to...

  17. 78 FR 23192 - Wireline Competition Bureau Adds New Discussion Topic to Connect America Cost Model Virtual Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ... Analysis (IRFA), included as part of the Model Design PN, 77 FR 38804, June 29, 2012, of the possible... System (ECFS). See Electronic Filing of Documents in Rulemaking Proceedings, 63 FR 24121, May 1, 1998... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 54 Wireline Competition Bureau Adds New Discussion Topic to Connect America Cost...

  18. Adult Dyslexia and Attention Deficit Disorder in Finland--Project DyAdd: WAIS-III Cognitive Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laasonen, Marja; Leppamaki, Sami; Tani, Pekka; Hokkanen, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The project Adult Dyslexia and Attention Deficit Disorder in Finland (Project DyAdd) compares adults (n = 119, 18-55 years) with dyslexia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), dyslexia together with ADHD (comorbid), and healthy controls with neuropsychological, psychophysical, and biological methods. The focus of this article is on the…

  19. Marriage and Health in the Transition to Adulthood: Evidence for African Americans in the Add Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Lee, Hedwig; DeLeone, Felicia Yang

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the relationships among early marriage (before age 26 years), cohabitation, and health for African Americans and Whites during the transition to adulthood using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The study examines three categories of health outcomes relevant to young adulthood: physical…

  20. The Ethics of Researching Those Who Are Close to You: The Case of the Abandoned ADD Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puchner, Laurel D.; Smith, Louis M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the ethical issues involved when researchers attempt to study participants who are personally close to them. It describes a case in which two researchers decided to study the experiences respectively of their son and grandson, both with ADD. They had barely initiated the study when ethical concerns led them to abandon the…

  1. Meeting the food, energy, and water demands of nine billion people: Will climate change add a new dimension?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climate change will add a new stress to our ability to produce food and supply water and energy for the expanding population. There is an emerging gap between the current production trends in food commodities around the world and the projected needs to meet the demands for the world population. This...

  2. 75 FR 55381 - Joint Industry Plan; Order Approving Amendment To Add EDGA Exchange, Inc. and EDGX Exchange, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ...), 66 FR 19814 (April 17, 2001). \\4\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 61824 (April 1, 2010), 75 FR 18246 (April 9, 2010). II. Discussion The Joint-SRO Plan establishes procedures for market centers... COMMISSION Joint Industry Plan; Order Approving Amendment To Add EDGA Exchange, Inc. and EDGX Exchange,...

  3. 31 CFR 5.5 - How will Treasury entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Treasury...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... administrative costs on Treasury debts in accordance with the provisions of 31 U.S.C. 3717 and 31 CFR 901.9, on... interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Treasury debt? 5.5 Section 5.5 Money and Finance... Debts § 5.5 How will Treasury entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to...

  4. Helping Students with Disabilities Transition to College: 21 Tips for Students with LD and/or ADD/ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Making the transition from high school to college poses challenges for most students. Moving from a secure, regulated world of secondary education into an unfamiliar environment requiring greater independence can be a destabilizing experience. For students with learning disabilities (LD) and/or Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD), managing this…

  5. How to Combine Objectives and Methods of Evaluation in Iterative ILE Design: Lessons Learned from Designing Ambre-Add

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nogry, S.; Jean-Daubias, S.; Guin, N.

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with evaluating an interactive learning environment (ILE) during the iterative-design process. Various aspects of the system must be assessed and a number of evaluation methods are available. In designing the ILE Ambre-add, several techniques were combined to test and refine the system. In particular, we point out the merits of…

  6. 77 FR 58383 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... Manufacturing in Niagara Falls, New York, to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy...

  7. EEG Power Spectra of Children with Dyslexia, Slow Learners, and Normally Reading Children with ADD during Verbal Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Peggy T.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Electroencephalographic (EEG) power spectra were studied in two poor reader groups (dyslexia and slow learning) and a normal reading group with attention deficit disorder (ADD). In correlational analyses, the combination of greater low beta and less theta power significantly predicted better reading and spelling. Results suggest adequate readers…

  8. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart IIIi of... - Operating Limits for Capture Systems and Add-On Control Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51 i. Collecting the direction of air flow, and either the facial... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Operating Limits for Capture Systems... Subpart IIII of Part 63—Operating Limits for Capture Systems and Add-On Control Devices If you...

  9. The Psychiatric Assessment Schedule for Adult with Developmental Disability (PAS-ADD) Checklist: Reliability and Validity of French Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, F.; Carminati, G. Galli

    2013-01-01

    Background: The lack of psychometric measures of psychopathology especially in intellectual disabilities (ID) population was addressed by creation of the Psychiatric Assessment Schedule for Adult with Developmental Disability (PAS-ADD-10) in Moss et?al. This schedule is a structured interview designed for professionals in psychopathology. The…

  10. Considerations for an exercise prescription

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1989-01-01

    A number of past and most recent research findings that describe some of the physiological responses to exercise in man and their relationship with exposure to various gravitational environments are discussed. Most of the data pertain to adaptations of the cardiovascular and body fluid systems. It should be kept in mind that the data from studies on microgravity simulation in man include exposures of relatively short duration (5 hours to 14 days). However, it is argued that the results may provide important guidelines for the consideration of many variables which are pertinent to the development of exercise prescription for long-duration space flight. The following considerations for exercise prescriptions during long-duration space flight are noted: (1) Relatively high aerobic fitness and strength, especially of the upper body musculature, should be a criterion for selection of astronauts who will be involved in EVA, since endurance and strength appear to be predominant characteristics for work performance. (2) Some degree of upper body strength will probably be required for effective performance of EVA. However, the endurance and strength required by the upper body for EVA can probably be obtained through preflight exercise prescription which involves swimming. (3) Although some degree of arm exercise may be required to maintain preflight endurance and strength, researchers propose that regular EVA will probably be sufficient to maintain the endurance and strength required to effectively perform work tasks during space flight. (4) A minimum of one maximal aerobic exercise every 7 to 10 days during space flight may be all that is necessary for maintenance of normal cardiovascular responsiveness and replacement of body fluids for reentry following prolonged space flight. (5) The possible reduction in the amount of exercise required for maintenance of cardiovascular system and body fluids in combination with the use of electromyostimulation (EMS) or methods other

  11. Infrared target tracking via weighted correlation filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yu-Jie; Li, Min; Zhang, JinLi; Yao, Jun-Ping

    2015-11-01

    Design of an effective target tracker is an important and challenging task for many applications due to multiple factors which can cause disturbance in infrared video sequences. In this paper, an infrared target tracking method under tracking by detection framework based on a weighted correlation filter is presented. This method consists of two parts: detection and filtering. For the detection stage, we propose a sequential detection method for the infrared target based on low-rank representation. For the filtering stage, a new multi-feature weighted function which fuses different target features is proposed, which takes the importance of the different regions into consideration. The weighted function is then incorporated into a correlation filter to compute a confidence map more accurately, in order to indicate the best target location based on the detection results obtained from the first stage. Extensive experimental results on different video sequences demonstrate that the proposed method performs favorably for detection and tracking compared with baseline methods in terms of efficiency and accuracy.

  12. 48 CFR 915.404-4-70-2 - Weighted guidelines system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... bases representative of the prescribed profit factors cited in 48 CFR 15.404-4(d) and paragraph (d) of... Considerations (Weights applied to total of Profits $ for items 4.a. thru 4.e.) −5 to +5. VII....

  13. Number of minimum-weight code words in a product code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    Consideration is given to the number of minimum-weight code words in a product code. The code is considered as a tensor product of linear codes over a finite field. Complete theorems and proofs are presented.

  14. Child versus Parent Report of Parental Influences on Children's Weight-related Attitudes and Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter; Robinson-O’Brien, Ramona

    2008-01-01

    Objective To compare parent and child report of parental weight-related behaviors and examine their respective associations with child's weight-related outcomes. Methods Seventy-three parent–child dyads completed self-administered surveys that assessed parent and child report of parental direct weight-related behaviors (comments to child about weight, encourage child to diet) and indirect behaviors (dieting, comments about own weight/appearance). Outcome variables included child's body dissatisfaction, weight concerns, and dieting. Results Considerable disagreement (21–30%) was found between parent and child report of parental weight-related behaviors. Both the parent and child report of direct parental behaviors were associated with child's outcomes. Child report of parental indirect behaviors was more consistently associated with child's outcomes than parent report. Conclusion Parent weight-related behaviors, both direct and indirect, are positively associated with child's weight-related attitudes and behaviors. PMID:18304997

  15. Drug-induced weight gain.

    PubMed

    Ness-Abramof, Rosane; Apovian, Caroline M

    2005-01-01

    Drug-induced weight gain is a serious side effect of many commonly used drugs leading to noncompliance with therapy and to exacerbation of comorbid conditions related to obesity. Improved glycemic control achieved by insulin, insulin secretagogues or thiazolidinedione therapy is generally accompanied by weight gain. It is a problematic side effect of therapy due to the known deleterious effect of weight gain on glucose control, increased blood pressure and worsening lipid profile. Weight gain may be lessened or prevented by adherence to diet and exercise or combination therapy with metformin. Weight gain is also common in psychotropic therapy. The atypical antipsychotic drugs (clozapine, olanzepine, risperidone and quetiapine) are known to cause marked weight gain. Antidepressants such as amitriptyline, mirtazapine and some serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) also may promote appreciable weight gain that cannot be explained solely by improvement in depressive symptoms. The same phenomenon is observed with mood stabilizers such as lithium, valproic acid and carbamazepine. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) that promote weight gain include valproate, carbamazepine and gabapentin. Lamotrigine is an AED that is weight-neutral, while topiramate and zonisamide may induce weight loss. PMID:16341287

  16. Drug-induced weight gain.

    PubMed

    Ness-Abramof, Rosane; Apovian, Caroline M

    2005-08-01

    Drug-induced weight gain is a serious side effect of many commonly used drugs leading to noncompliance with therapy and to exacerbation of comorbid conditions related to obesity. Improved glycemic control achieved by insulin, insulin secretagogues or thiazolidinedione therapy is generally accompanied by weight gain. It is a problematic side effect of therapy due to the known deleterious effect of weight gain on glucose control, increased blood pressure and worsening lipid profile. Weight gain may be lessened or prevented by adherence to diet and exercise or combination therapy with metformin. Weight gain is also common in psychotropic therapy. The atypical antipsychotic drugs (clozapine, olanzepine, risperidone and quetiapine) are known to cause marked weight gain. Antidepressants such as amitriptyline, mirtazapine and some serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) also may promote appreciable weight gain that cannot be explained solely by improvement in depressive symptoms. The same phenomenon is observed with mood stabilizers such as lithium, valproic acid and carbamazepine. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) that promote weight gain include valproate, carbamazepine and gabapentin. Lamotrigine is an AED that is weight-neutral, while topiramate and zonisamide may induce weight loss. PMID:16234878

  17. Handling Dynamic Weights in Weighted Frequent Pattern Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Chowdhury Farhan; Tanbeer, Syed Khairuzzaman; Jeong, Byeong-Soo; Lee, Young-Koo

    Even though weighted frequent pattern (WFP) mining is more effective than traditional frequent pattern mining because it can consider different semantic significances (weights) of items, existing WFP algorithms assume that each item has a fixed weight. But in real world scenarios, the weight (price or significance) of an item can vary with time. Reflecting these changes in item weight is necessary in several mining applications, such as retail market data analysis and web click stream analysis. In this paper, we introduce the concept of a dynamic weight for each item, and propose an algorithm, DWFPM (dynamic weighted frequent pattern mining), that makes use of this concept. Our algorithm can address situations where the weight (price or significance) of an item varies dynamically. It exploits a pattern growth mining technique to avoid the level-wise candidate set generation-and-test methodology. Furthermore, it requires only one database scan, so it is eligible for use in stream data mining. An extensive performance analysis shows that our algorithm is efficient and scalable for WFP mining using dynamic weights.

  18. Optomechanical considerations for realistic tolerancing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Eric; Sasián, José; Youngworth, Richard N.

    2013-09-01

    Optical tolerancing simulation has improved so that the modeling of optomechanical accuracy can better predict as-built performance. A key refinement being proposed within this paper is monitoring formal interference fits and checking lens elements within their mechanical housings. Without proper checks, simulations may become physically unrealizable and pessimistic, thereby resulting in lower simulated yields. An improved simulation method has been defined and demonstrated in this paper with systems that do not have barrel constraints. The demonstration cases clearly show the trend of the beneficial impact with yield results, as a yield increase of 36.3% to 39.2% is garnered by one example. Considerations in simulating the realistic optomechanical system will assist in controlling cost and providing more accurate simulation results.

  19. Design considerations for slurry bioreactors

    SciTech Connect

    Zappi, M.E.; Banerji, S.K.; Bajpai, R.K.

    1994-12-31

    Slurry treatment is an innovative approach for bioremediation of contaminated soils under controlled conditions of pH, temperature, and nutrients. This treatment of excavated soils permits better control of environmental conditions than in landfarming, composting, and biocell units, and therefore may achieve accelerated rates of decontamination. Bioslurry reactors have been used to remediate a variety of contaminants, such as soils and sludges from refinery wastes, wood-preserving wastes, wastes containing polychlorinated biphenyls and halogenated solvents. Key considerations in design of such reactors involve meeting the oxygen requirements for biodegradation, preventing the settling of soil particles, efficient mixing of additives, and control of foaming. The aspects of reactor design, specifically agitation system have been discussed in this paper.

  20. Translational considerations for cancer nanomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Stephan T.; Hall, Jennifer B.; Yu, Lee L.; Wood, Laura J.; Paciotti, Giulio F.; Tamarkin, Lawrence; Long, Stephen E.; McNeil, Scott E.

    2010-01-01

    There are many important considerations during preclinical development of cancer nanomedicines, including: 1) unique aspects of animal study design; 2) the difficulties in evaluating biological potency, especially for complex formulations; 3) the importance of analytical methods that can determine platform stability in vivo, and differentiate bound and free active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in biological matrices; and 4) the appropriateness of current dose scaling techniques for estimation of clinical first-in-man dose from preclinical data. Biologics share many commonalities with nanotechnology products with regard to complexity and biological attributes, and can, in some cases, provide context for dealing with these preclinical issues. In other instances, such as the case of in vivo stability analysis, new approaches are required. This paper will discuss the significance of these preclinical issues, and present examples of current methods and best practices for addressing them. Where possible, these recommendations are justified using the existing regulatory guidance literature. PMID:20385183

  1. Multi-unit operations considerations.

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmore, Walter E.; Bennett, Thomas C.; Brannon, Nathan Gregory

    2005-09-01

    Several nuclear weapons programs have or are pursuing the implementation of multi-unit operations for tasks such as disassembly and inspection, and rebuild. A multi-unit operation is interpreted to mean the execution of nuclear explosive operating procedures in a single facility by two separate teams of technicians. The institution of a multi-unit operations program requires careful consideration of the tools, resources, and environment provided to the technicians carrying out the work. Therefore, a systematic approach is necessary to produce safe, secure, and reliable processes. In order to facilitate development of a more comprehensive multi-unit operations program, the current work details categorized issues that should be addressed prior to the implementation of multi-unit operations in a given weapons program. The issues have been organized into the following categories: local organizational conditions, work process flow/material handling/workplace configuration, ambient environmental conditions, documented safety analysis, and training.

  2. Circumvertical reduction mastoplasty: new considerations.

    PubMed

    Mottura, A Aldo

    2003-01-01

    The circumvertical technique is a mixture of the periareolar and the vertical techniques in which the skin resection is performed around the areola and is continued in an inverted cone that starts at the infraareolar area and ends 2-4 cm above the submammary crease. Some advantages of this technique are: The glands are removed from the inferior glandular quadrant and from the inferior borders of the lateral and medial quadrants. The areola is moved upward and attached to the gland, preserving the nursing function. There is a harmonious distribution of the pleats around the areola and at the vertical wound. The vertical suture never crosses the submammary crease. The postoperative result is acceptable. Local anesthesia with vasoconstrictor is used minimizing bleeding. Bupivacaine is also included, prolonging the anesthetic effect hours after surgery. This paper describes this simple and rapid surgery and discusses some new, previously unpublished considerations and tricks. PMID:14629057

  3. Nuclear safe orbit basing considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisbee, Robert H.; Leifer, Stephanie D.; Shah, Shishir V.

    1991-01-01

    Consideration is given to one aspect of space nuclear power safety, namely, the radiation dose rate risk due to a reentered reactor. It is found that for nuclear-thermal propulsion NERVA vehicles, the minimum required altitude for initial basing and earth escape is 500 to 600 km; for final end-of-life storage, the required altitude is about 1000 km. For a 10-MWe nuclear-electric propulsion vehicle, the basing node is 800 km and the final end-of-life storage altitude is 1100 km. Radiation levels have been evaluated for both the SP-100 nuclear electric and the NERVA nuclear thermal reactors as a function of operating time, power level, and time after shutdown.

  4. Ethnic Considerations for Metabolic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Morton, John Magaña

    2016-06-01

    Obesity and diabetes represent twin health concerns in the developed world. Metabolic surgery has emerged as an established and enduring treatment for both obesity and diabetes. As the burden of obesity and diabetes varies upon the basis of ethnicity, it is also apparent that there may be differences for indications and outcomes for different ethnic groups after metabolic surgery. Whereas there appears to be evidence for variation in weight loss and complications for different ethnic groups, comorbidity remission particularly for diabetes appears to be free of ethnic disparity after metabolic surgery. The impacts of access, biology, culture, genetics, procedure, and socioeconomic status upon metabolic surgery outcomes are examined. Further refinement of the influence of ethnicity upon metabolic surgery outcomes is likely imminent. PMID:27222553

  5. Nutritional considerations for vegetarian athletes.

    PubMed

    Barr, Susan I; Rideout, Candice A

    2004-01-01

    With the growing interest in the potential health benefits of plant-based diets, it is relevant to consider whether vegetarian dietary practices could influence athletic performance. Accordingly, this review examines whether nutrients that may differ between vegetarian and omnivorous diets could affect physical performance. We also describe recent studies that attempt to assess the effects of a vegetarian diet on performance and comment on other nutritional aspects of vegetarianism of relevance to athletes. Although well-controlled long-term studies assessing the effects of vegetarian diets on athletes have not been conducted, the following observations can be made: 1) well-planned, appropriately supplemented vegetarian diets appear to effectively support athletic performance; 2) provided protein intakes are adequate to meet needs for total nitrogen and the essential amino acids, plant and animal protein sources appear to provide equivalent support to athletic training and performance; 3) vegetarians (particularly women) are at increased risk for non-anemic iron deficiency, which may limit endurance performance; and 4) as a group, vegetarians have lower mean muscle creatine concentrations than do omnivores, and this may affect supramaximal exercise performance. Because their initial muscle creatine concentrations are lower, vegetarians are likely to experience greater performance increments after creatine loading in activities that rely on the adenosine triphosphate/phosphocreatine system. 5) Coaches and trainers should be aware that some athletes may adopt a vegetarian diet as a strategy for weight control. Accordingly, the possibility of a disordered eating pattern should be investigated if a vegetarian diet is accompanied by unwarranted weight loss. PMID:15212753

  6. Weight distributions for turbo codes using random and nonrandom permutations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolinar, S.; Divsalar, D.

    1995-01-01

    This article takes a preliminary look at the weight distributions achievable for turbo codes using random, nonrandom, and semirandom permutations. Due to the recursiveness of the encoders, it is important to distinguish between self-terminating and non-self-terminating input sequences. The non-self-terminating sequences have little effect on decoder performance, because they accumulate high encoded weight until they are artificially terminated at the end of the block. From probabilistic arguments based on selecting the permutations randomly, it is concluded that the self-terminating weight-2 data sequences are the most important consideration in the design of constituent codes; higher-weight self-terminating sequences have successively decreasing importance. Also, increasing the number of codes and, correspondingly, the number of permutations makes it more and more likely that the bad input sequences will be broken up by one or more of the permuters. It is possible to design nonrandom permutations that ensure that the minimum distance due to weight-2 input sequences grows roughly as the square root of (2N), where N is the block length. However, these nonrandom permutations amplify the bad effects of higher-weight inputs, and as a result they are inferior in performance to randomly selected permutations. But there are 'semirandom' permutations that perform nearly as well as the designed nonrandom permutations with respect to weight-2 input sequences and are not as susceptible to being foiled by higher-weight inputs.

  7. Weight reduction, fertility and contraception.

    PubMed

    Van Der Spuy, Z M; Jacobs, H S

    1983-10-01

    The significance of weight and body composition with regard to the fertile menstrual cycle has excited much interest. There is global imbalance of resources and problems of widespread chronic malnutrition in many 3rd world countries. This emphasizes the great importance of the possible effects of diet, body weight, and body composition on fecundity (ability to reproduce), fertility (reproductive performance), and pregnancy outcome. Frisch and Revelle suggested that a critical body weight is required for a girl to progress through puberty, menstruate, and finally develop ovulatory cycles. They postulated a direct relationship between weight and menarche and suggested that before menarche will occur at least 17% of the body weight needs to be made up of fat. The Frisch hypothesis is not universally accepted, and it seems highly unlikely that a single age unrelated body weight is always the trigger for menarche. Many of the data used in Frische's original studies were derived rather than directly observed. It seems likely that both body weight and composition are important and that the peripheral conversion of androgens to estrogens in fat plays a role in pubertal development, but the actual signal whcih triggers the hypothalamic events leading eventually through puberty to menstruation and ovulation remains unkown. Acute malnutrition, as seen during famine, is assoicated with a dramatic decrease in fertility. It is usually secondary to amenorrhea and annovulation. In developing countries weight related amenorrhea and delayed menarche are largely the result of nutritonal deprivation and the demands of lactation on women of boderline body weight, but a different pattern is seen in Western countries. The outstanding example of weight reduction resulting in infertility is seen in patients with anorexia nervosa. These women have extreme self imposed weight loss, a distorted perception of their body image, and disturbance in their attitude towards their feelings of hunger

  8. Dietary adherence during weight loss predicts weight regain.

    PubMed

    Del Corral, Pedro; Bryan, David R; Garvey, W Timothy; Gower, Barbara A; Hunter, Gary R

    2011-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between previous dietary adherence during a low-calorie diet weight loss intervention and subsequent weight change during a 2-year follow-up for weight maintenance. One hundred and sixteen healthy, recently weight reduced (lost ~12 kg, BMI 22-25 kg/m2) premenopausal women were studied. Dietary adherence was assessed by doubly labeled water (DLW) and body composition change. Comparisons were made between the upper and lower tertiles for previous dietary adherence and subsequent weight change at 1- and 2-year follow-up. Percent weight regained was significantly lower (30.9 ± 6.7% vs. 66.7 ± 9.4%; P < 0.05) in the upper compared to the lower adherence tertile for previous weight loss dietary adherence (49.9 ± 8.8% vs. 96.8 ± 12.8% P < 0.05) at 1- and 2-year follow-up, respectively. This difference was partly explained by increases in daily activity-related energy expenditure (AEE) (+95 ± 45 kcal/day vs. -44 ± 42 kcal/day, P < 0.05) and lower daily energy intake (2,066 ± 71 kcal/day vs. 2,289 ± 62 kcal/day, P < 0.05) in the higher tertile for previous dietary adherence, compared to the lower. These findings suggest that higher adherence (i.e., higher tertile) to the previous low-calorie diet predicts lower weight regain over 2-year follow-up for weight maintenance, which is explained by lower energy intake and higher physical activity. Finally, how well an individual adheres to a low-calorie diet intervention during weight loss may be a useful tool for identifying individuals who are particularly vulnerable to subsequent weight regain. PMID:21164500

  9. The weighted random graph model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garlaschelli, Diego

    2009-07-01

    We introduce the weighted random graph (WRG) model, which represents the weighted counterpart of the Erdos-Renyi random graph and provides fundamental insights into more complicated weighted networks. We find analytically that the WRG is characterized by a geometric weight distribution, a binomial degree distribution and a negative binomial strength distribution. We also characterize exactly the percolation phase transitions associated with edge removal and with the appearance of weighted subgraphs of any order and intensity. We find that even this completely null model displays a percolation behaviour similar to what is observed in real weighted networks, implying that edge removal cannot be used to detect community structure empirically. By contrast, the analysis of clustering successfully reveals different patterns between the WRG and real networks.

  10. Loxapine Add-on for Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Irritability

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Gregory; Cain, Sharon E.; Zhou, Xinghua; Barth, Francis X.; Aman, Michael G.; Palaguachi, Gladys I.; Mikhnev, Dmytro; Teng, Rujia; Andridge, Rebecca; Logan, Marilyn; Butler, Merlin G.; Han, Joan C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: Our clinical experience with low dose loxapine (5–15 mg/day) suggests promising efficacy and safety for irritability in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We studied low dose loxapine prospectively in adolescents and adults with ASD and irritability. Additionally, we measured loxapine and metabolite concentrations, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as a biomarker of neuromodulation. Methods: We performed a 12 week open trial of add-on loxapine in subjects, ages 13–65 years, diagnosed with ASD, and Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Irritability (ABC-I) subscale scores >14. Loxapine was dosed flexibly up to 15 mg daily, starting with 5 mg on alternate days. From weeks 1 to 6, other psychoactive medications were tapered if possible; from weeks 6 to 12, all medication doses were held stable. The primary outcome was the Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement subscale (CGI-I), ratings of Much Improved or Very Much Improved. Secondary outcomes were the ABC-I, Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised, and Schalock Quality of Life scale. Serum BDNF and loxapine and metabolite concentrations were assayed. BDNF rs6265 was genotyped. Results: Sixteen subjects were enrolled; 12 completed all visits. Median age was 18 years (range 13–39). Median final loxapine dose was 7.5 mg/day (2.5–15). All 14 subjects (100%) with data at week 12 were rated as Much Improved on CGI-I at 12 weeks. Mean change on ABC-I at 12 weeks was −31%, p=0.01. Mean body mass index (BMI)-Z decreased between weeks 6 and 12, p=0.03. Side effects were minimal, and prolactin elevation occurred in only one subject. BDNF concentrations measured in 11 subjects increased significantly (p=0.04). Subjects with AG genotype for BDNF rs6265 required a lower dose of loxapine at study end, but had similar behavioral and BDNF concentration changes as the GG genotype. Conclusions: Low dose loxapine shows promise as a repurposed drug for irritability in ASD. Loxapine effects on BDNF warrant

  11. Increased inspiratory esophagogastric junction pressure in systemic sclerosis: An add-on to antireflux barrier

    PubMed Central

    Nobre e Souza, Miguel Ângelo; Bezerra, Patrícia Carvalho; Nobre, Rivianny Arrais; Holanda, Esther Studart da Fonseca; dos Santos, Armênio Aguiar

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate crural diaphragm (CD) function in systemic sclerosis (SSc) using high-resolution manometry and standardized inspiratory maneuvers. METHODS: Eight SSc volunteers (average age, 40.1 years; one male) and 13 controls (average age, 32.2 years; six males) participated in the study. A high-resolution manometry/impedance system measured the esophagus and esophagogastric junction (EGJ) pressure profile during swallows and two respiratory maneuvers: sinus arrhythmia maneuver (SAM; the average of six EGJ peak pressures during 5-s deep inhalations) and threshold maneuver (TM; the EGJ peak pressures during forced inhalation under 12 and 24 cmH2O loads). Inspiratory diaphragm lowering (IDL) was taken as the displacement of the EGJ high-pressure zone during the SAM. RESULTS: SSc patients had lower mean lower esophageal sphincter pressure than controls during normal breathing (19.7 ± 2.8 mmHg vs 32.2 ± 2.7 mmHg, P = 0.007). Sinus arrhythmia maneuver pressure was higher in SSc patients than in controls (142.6 ± 9.4 mmHg vs 104.6 ± 13.8 mmHg, P = 0.019). Sinus arrhythmia maneuver pressure normalized to IDL was also higher in SSc patients than in controls (83.8 ± 13.4 mmHg vs 37.5 ± 6.9 mmHg, P = 0.005). Threshold maneuver pressures normalized to IDL were also greater in SSc patients than in controls (TM 12 cmH2O: 85.1 ± 16.4 mmHg vs 43.9 ± 6.3 mmHg, P = 0.039; TM 24 cmH2O: 85.2 ± 16.4 mmHg vs 46.2 ± 6.6 mmHg, P = 0.065). Inspiratory diaphragm lowering in SSc patients was less than in controls (2.1 ± 0.3 cm vs 3 ± 0.2 cm, P = 0.011). CONCLUSION: SSc patients had increased inspiratory EGJ pressure. This is an add-on to EGJ pressure and indicates that the antireflux barrier can be trained. PMID:25717239

  12. DO QUASAR BROAD-LINE VELOCITY WIDTHS ADD ANY INFORMATION TO VIRIAL BLACK HOLE MASS ESTIMATES?

    SciTech Connect

    Croom, Scott M.

    2011-08-01

    We examine how much information measured broad-line widths add to virial black hole (BH) mass estimates for flux-limited samples of quasars. We do this by comparing the BH mass estimates to those derived by randomly reassigning the quasar broad-line widths to different objects and re-calculating the BH mass. For 9000 BH masses derived from the H{beta} line we find that the distributions of original and randomized BH masses in the M{sub BH}-redshift plane and the M{sub BH}-luminosity plane are formally identical. A two-dimensional Kolmogorov-Smirnov test does not find a difference at >90% confidence. For the Mg II line (32,000 quasars) we do find very significant differences between the randomized and original BH masses, but the amplitude of the difference is still small. The difference for the C IV line (14,000 quasars) is 2{sigma}-3{sigma} and again the amplitude of the difference is small. Subdividing the data into redshift and luminosity bins we find that the median absolute difference in BH mass between the original and randomized data is 0.025, 0.01, and 0.04 dex for H{beta}, Mg II, and C IV, respectively. The maximum absolute difference is always {<=}0.1 dex. We investigate whether our results are sensitive to corrections to Mg II virial masses, such as those suggested by Onken and Kollmeier. These corrections do not influence our results, other than to reduce the significance of the difference between original and randomized BH masses to only 1{sigma}-2{sigma} for Mg II. Moreover, we demonstrate that the correlation between mass residuals and Eddington ratio discussed by Onken and Kollmeier is more directly attributable to the slope of the relation between H{beta} and Mg II line width. The implication is that the measured quasar broad-line velocity widths provide little extra information, after allowing for the mean velocity width. In this case virial estimates are equivalent to M{sub BH}{proportional_to}L{sup {alpha}}, with L/L{sub Edd

  13. What is the role of portion control in weight management?

    PubMed Central

    Rolls, B J

    2014-01-01

    Systematic studies have shown that providing individuals with larger portions of foods and beverages leads to substantial increases in energy intake. The effect is sustained over weeks, supporting the possibility that large portions have a role in the development of obesity. The challenge is to find strategies to effectively manage the effects of portion size. One approach involves teaching people to select appropriate portions and to use tools that facilitate portion control. Although tools such as portion-control plates have been shown in several randomized trials to improve weight loss, limited data are available on whether education and tools lead to long-term changes in eating behavior and body weight. Another approach is to use preportioned foods (PPFs) to add structure to meals and minimize decisions about the amount of food to eat. A number of randomized controlled trials have demonstrated the efficacy of both liquid meal replacements and solid PPFs for weight loss and weight loss maintenance, but it is not known if they lead to better understanding of appropriate portions. Although portion control is important for weight management, urging people simply to ‘eat less' of all foods may not be the best approach as high-energy-dense foods disproportionately increase energy intake compared with those lower in energy density. A more effective strategy may be to encourage people to increase the proportion of foods low in energy density in their diets while limiting portions of high-energy-dense foods. If people lower the energy density of their diet, they can eat satisfying portions while managing their body weight. PMID:25033958

  14. Impaired Neonatal Outcome after Emergency Cerclage Adds Controversy to Prolongation of Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Seitz, Christoph; Hertler, Stephanie; Gawlik, Stephanie; Fluhr, Herbert; Gausepohl, Hans-Jürgen; Sohn, Christof; Pöschl, Johannes; Maul, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Objective Emergency cervical cerclage is one of the treatment options for the reduction of preterm birth. The aim of this study is to assess neonatal outcome after cerclage with special focus on adverse effects in very low birth weight infants. Study Design Retrospective cohort study. Classification of cerclages in history-indicated (HIC, n = 38), ultrasound-indicated (UIC, n = 29) and emergency/ physical examination-indicated (PEIC, n = 33) cerclage. Descriptive analysis of pregnancy and neonatal outcome (admission to NICU, duration of hospitalization, respiratory outcome (intubation, CPAP, FiO2max), neonatal complications (ROP, IVH)). Statistical comparison of perinatal parameters and outcome of neonates <1500 g after cerclage with a birth weight matched control group. Results Neonates <1500 g after PEIC show significantly impaired outcome, i.e. prolonged respiratory support (total ventilation in days, CPAP, FiO2max) and higher rates of neonatal complications (IVH ≥ II, ROP ≥ 2). Placental pathologic evaluation revealed a significantly higher rate of chorioamnionitis (CAM) after PEIC. Neonates <1500 g after UIC or HIC show no significant difference in neonatal complications or CAM. Conclusions In our study PEIC is associated with adverse neonatal outcome in infants <1500 g. The high incidence of CAM indicates a potential inflammatory factor in the pathogenesis. Large well-designed RCTs are required to give conclusive answers to the question whether to prolong or to deliver. PMID:26121653

  15. Socioeconomic Disparities in Emerging Adult Weight and Weight Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanKim, Nicole A.; Laska, Melissa N.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To explore weight, weight behaviors, and tobacco and alcohol use among emerging adults by parental education and financial strain. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses of 2010 survey data from an urban Minnesota public 4-year university and 2-year community college (n=1201). Results: Low parental education was associated with lower…

  16. Molecular Weight and Molecular Weight Distributions in Synthetic Polymers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Thomas Carl

    1981-01-01

    Focuses on molecular weight and molecular weight distributions (MWD) and models for predicting MWD in a pedagogical way. In addition, instrumental methods used to characterize MWD are reviewed with emphasis on physical chemistry of each, including end-group determination, osmometry, light scattering, solution viscosity, fractionation, and…

  17. The Healthy Weight Collaborative: quality improvement methods promoting healthy weight.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Marianne E; Vanderkruik, Rachel; Reims, Kathy; Coulouris, Natasha; Anand, Shikha; Linde-Feucht, Sarah; Homer, Charles J

    2012-08-01

    Promoting healthy weight requires innovative approaches and a concerted response across all sectors of society. This commentary features the framework guiding the Healthy Weight Collaborative, a two-phased quality improvement (QI) learning collaborative and key activity of the Collaborate for Healthy Weight initiative. Multi-sector teams from primary care, public health, and community-based organizations use QI to identify, test, and implement program and policy changes in their communities related to promoting healthy weight. We describe the Collaborative's overall design based on the Action Model to Achieve Healthy People 2020 Goals and our approach of applying QI methods to advance implementation of sustainable ways to promote healthy weight and healthy equity. We provide specifics on measurement and change strategies as well as examples of Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles from teams participating in Phase 1 of the Collaborative. These teams will serve as leaders for sustainable, positive change in their communities. PMID:22864485

  18. Space Tourism: Orbital Debris Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoudian, N.; Shajiee, S.; Moghani, T.; Bahrami, M.

    2002-01-01

    Space activities after a phase of research and development, political competition and national prestige have entered an era of real commercialization. Remote sensing, earth observation, and communication are among the areas in which this growing industry is facing competition and declining government money. A project like International Space Station, which draws from public money, has not only opened a window of real multinational cooperation, but also changed space travel from a mere fantasy into a real world activity. Besides research activities for sending man to moon and Mars and other outer planets, space travel has attracted a considerable attention in recent years in the form of space tourism. Four countries from space fairing nations are actively involved in the development of space tourism. Even, nations which are either in early stages of space technology development or just beginning their space activities, have high ambitions in this area. This is worth noting considering their limited resources. At present, trips to space are available, but limited and expensive. To move beyond this point to generally available trips to orbit and week long stays in LEO, in orbital hotels, some of the required basic transportations, living requirements, and technological developments required for long stay in orbit are already underway. For tourism to develop to a real everyday business, not only the price has to come down to meaningful levels, but also safety considerations should be fully developed to attract travelers' trust. A serious hazard to space activities in general and space tourism in particular is space debris in earth orbit. Orbiting debris are man-made objects left over by space operations, hazardous to space missions. Since the higher density of debris population occurs in low earth orbit, which is also the same orbit of interest to space tourism, a careful attention should be paid to the effect of debris on tourism activities. In this study, after a

  19. Tuberous Sclerosis Complex: Perioperative Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Rabito, Matthew J.; Kaye, Alan David

    2014-01-01

    Background Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), also known as Bourneville disease, is an inherited, progressive neurocutaneous disorder characterized by the potential for hamartoma formation throughout the body. TSC is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder, but more than two-thirds of cases are sporadic. Methods Clinical manifestations and treatment options are discussed. Both surgical and anesthetic perioperative considerations are described in this review. Results Routine monitoring is appropriate for minor surgical procedures for patients with TSC who have mild disease manifestations. More extensive monitoring is indicated for major procedures that have the potential for significant blood loss and for patients with more severe pathology. Postoperatively, TSC patients should be admitted for monitoring and treatment after more extensive procedures or if significant organ dysfunction occurs. Postoperative complications, which may be related to either the surgery or the TSC pathology itself, may have origins in many different organs and may include seizures, severe hypertension, and bradyarrhythmias. Conclusion TSC is a rare disease with a highly variable clinical presentation and provides a multitude of challenges for the patient, the family, and the healthcare team. PMID:24940133

  20. Considerations in parathyroid hormone testing.

    PubMed

    Cavalier, Etienne; Plebani, Mario; Delanaye, Pierre; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude

    2015-11-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a major player in phosphocalcic metabolism and its measurement is very important for the correct diagnosis and treatment of several diseases. PTH determination represents the paradigm of quality in laboratory medicine as many variables in the pre-, intra-, and post-analytical phases strongly affect the value of the clinical information. Analytical determination of PTH has been rendered difficult by the presence, in the circulation, of truncated fragments that can cross-react with the antibodies used for its determination. In addition, pre-analytical phase is complicated by the lack of stability of the peptide and the best sample to use for its determination remains controversial, as well as sample handling and storage. PTH secretion is also affected by circadian and seasonal rhythms and by physical exercise. Finally, from the post-analytical perspective, establishment of reliable reference ranges requires further efforts as the selection criteria for reference subjects should take into consideration new variables such as gender, race and vitamin D levels. Finally, clinical guidelines have recently revised and improved the criteria for a correct interpretation of PTH values. PMID:26035114

  1. Hypochondriasis: considerations for ICD-11.

    PubMed

    van den Heuvel, Odile A; Veale, David; Stein, Dan J

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) is currently revisiting the ICD. In the 10th version of the ICD, approved in 1990, hypochondriacal symptoms are described in the context of both the primary condition hypochondriacal disorder and as secondary symptoms within a range of other mental disorders. Expansion of the research base since 1990 makes a critical evaluation and revision of both the definition and classification of hypochondriacal disorder timely. This article addresses the considerations reviewed by members of the WHO ICD-11 Working Group on the Classification of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders in their proposal for the description and classification of hypochondriasis. The proposed revision emphasizes the phenomenological overlap with both anxiety disorders (e.g., fear, hypervigilance to bodily symptoms, and avoidance) and obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (e.g., preoccupation and repetitive behaviors) and the distinction from the somatoform disorders (presence of somatic symptom is not a critical characteristic). This revision aims to improve clinical utility by enabling better recognition and treatment of patients with hypochondriasis within the broad range of global health care settings. PMID:25388609

  2. Food insecurity: special considerations for women1234

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Kimberly A

    2011-01-01

    Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social, and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. Food insecurity is the converse state, is often associated with poverty and low income, and has important implications for the health and nutrition of individuals. Given their contribution to food production and preparation, their role in society as child bearers and caregivers, the increasing number of female-headed households worldwide, and their disproportionately poor economic status, women need special consideration in discussions of food insecurity and its effect on health, nutrition, and behavior. This article reviews the scientific literature on issues related to women and food insecurity. Food insecurity is associated with obesity, anxiety, and depressive symptoms; risky sexual behavior; poor coping strategies; and negative pregnancy outcomes in women, although evidence about the direction and causality of associations is unclear. There is a lack of evidence and understanding of the effects of food insecurity in resource-poor settings, including its effect on weight, nutritional outcomes, and pregnancy outcomes, as well as its effect on progression of diseases such as HIV infection. More research is needed to guide efficient interventions that address food insecurity among women. However, practical experience suggests that both short-term assistance and longer-term strategies that improve livelihoods, address behavioral and coping strategies, acknowledge the mental health components of food insecurity, and attempt to ensure that women have the same economic opportunities, access to land, and economic power as men are important. PMID:22089447

  3. Structural design considerations for a Personnel Launch System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, Lance B.; Lentz, Christopher A.; Robinson, James C.; Macconochie, Ian O.

    1990-01-01

    A vehicle capable of performing the transfer of eight people to and from the Space Station Freedom is currently in the conceptual/preliminary design stages at the NASA Langley Research Center. Structural definition of this Personnel Launch System (PLS) and the considerations leading to it are described. Issues such as cost, technology level, human factors, and maintainability are used as guidelines for the structural definition. A synergistic design technique involving aerodynamics, performance, mission, packaging, and weights and sizing analyses is utilized to evaluate the structural design. A closed-loop design is achieved when the mission requirements are met by each previously mentioned analysis for a particular vehicle weight. Although satisfactory, the structural concept presented herein is not to be treated as a final answer, but one promising solution. An examination of alternative designs and more detailed analyses can be undertaken in order to identify design inadequacies and more efficient approaches.

  4. Psychosocial Correlates of Shape and Weight Concerns in Overweight Pre-Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinton, Meghan M.; Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Aspen, Vandana; Theim, Kelly R.; Stein, Richard I.; Saelens, Brian E.; Epstein, Leonard H.; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2012-01-01

    Shape and weight concerns among overweight pre-adolescents heighten risk for eating disorders and weight gain. Treatment and prevention efforts require consideration of psychosocial factors that co-occur with these concerns. This study involved 200 overweight pre-adolescents, aged 7-12 years (M age = 9.8; SD = 1.4), presenting for family-based…

  5. Nutrition, Weight Control, and Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katch, Frank I.; McArdle, William D.

    This book contains information on nutrition, weight control, and exercise. Some basic information from the biological sciences is included but a specialized background is not necessary to understand the text. The content is appropriate for nutrition, weight control, exercise, and physical fitness courses at the university level, for the various…

  6. Predictors of successful weight loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The identification of variables in the early stages of treatment that are related to successful weight loss provides practitioners with important information. These factors may be assessed to determine the likelihood of future success. Weight loss at the beginning of treatment, depressive symptomato...

  7. 32 CFR 643.53 - Consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Consideration. 643.53 Section 643.53 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Leases § 643.53 Consideration. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by this regulation or directed by the SA, the consideration for a lease of real...

  8. 32 CFR 643.53 - Consideration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Consideration. 643.53 Section 643.53 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Leases § 643.53 Consideration. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by this regulation or directed by the SA, the consideration for a lease of real...

  9. 14 CFR 1203.303 - Dissemination considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dissemination considerations. 1203.303 Section 1203.303 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Classification Principles and Considerations § 1203.303 Dissemination considerations. The...

  10. 14 CFR 1203.303 - Dissemination considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Dissemination considerations. 1203.303 Section 1203.303 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Classification Principles and Considerations § 1203.303 Dissemination considerations. The...

  11. 14 CFR 1203.303 - Dissemination considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dissemination considerations. 1203.303 Section 1203.303 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Classification Principles and Considerations § 1203.303 Dissemination considerations. The...

  12. A method to add richness to the National Landslide Database of Great Britain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Faith; Freeborough, Katy; Malamud, Bruce; Demeritt, David

    2014-05-01

    2012, 72 of these resulted in additions to the BGS NLD and 4 in amendments to previously collected information. This raises the total number of landslides reported in 2012 from 186 to 258. Using the increased presence of landslides in the news and social media, 2012 had already resulted in the largest number of landslides for a given year being recorded by BGS in the NLD. With the additions from this current study to the NLD, we estimate that the annual total number of landslides was around six times higher in 2012 than the average annual total between 2006 and 2011. Years prior to 2012 plan to be revisited using this method, and more broadly, this method of searching newspaper archives could be applied to many other natural hazards to add richness to databases of historical events and improve our understanding of hazard occurrence and impact.

  13. Rotor dynamic considerations for large wind power generator systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ormiston, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    Successful large, reliable, low maintenance wind turbines must be designed with full consideration for minimizing dynamic response to aerodynamic, inertial, and gravitational forces. Much of existing helicopter rotor technology is applicable to this problem. Compared with helicopter rotors, large wind turbines are likely to be relatively less flexible with higher dimensionless natural frequencies. For very large wind turbines, low power output per unit weight and stresses due to gravitational forces are limiting factors. The need to reduce rotor complexity to a minimum favors the use of cantilevered (hingeless) rotor configurations where stresses are relieved by elastic deformations.

  14. [Controlled weight bearing after osteosynthesis].

    PubMed

    Perren, T; Matter, P

    1993-01-01

    Patient compliance with postoperative partial weight bearing can be a difficult management problem. The problem may be intentional or unintentional. There is no objective way to assess the amount of weight placed on the lower extremity by the patient. It is our clinical suspicion that patients place more weight than is desirable on the effected limb. There are few reports in the literature on this topic. One study has confirmed our suspicion of poor patient compliance with postoperative weight bearing. Our goal is to develop a system to accurately assess weight bearing and to improve this aspect of postoperative fracture care. Through an active feedback device we hope to improve patient education and understanding. We plan to study the clinical applications of using a pressure sensitive shoe insert device. Our ultimate goal is to improve upon the present device and to study the clinical application of there use. PMID:8123330

  15. Fungible weights in logistic regression.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jeff A; Waller, Niels G

    2016-06-01

    In this article we develop methods for assessing parameter sensitivity in logistic regression models. To set the stage for this work, we first review Waller's (2008) equations for computing fungible weights in linear regression. Next, we describe 2 methods for computing fungible weights in logistic regression. To demonstrate the utility of these methods, we compute fungible logistic regression weights using data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (2010) Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey, and we illustrate how these alternate weights can be used to evaluate parameter sensitivity. To make our work accessible to the research community, we provide R code (R Core Team, 2015) that will generate both kinds of fungible logistic regression weights. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26651981

  16. Ethical considerations in sex selection.

    PubMed

    Eftekhaari, Tasnim Eghbal; Nejatizadeh, Abdol Azim; Rajaei, Minoo; Soleimanian, Saeede; Fallahi, Soghra; Ghaffarzadegan, Rahman; Mahmoudi, Forough

    2015-01-01

    Advances in modern medicine are resulted from unrestricted and unlimited research disregarding many essentials of a research including ethical issues. Following ethical issues, many of unwanted pregnancies and abortions can be avoided. Several factors such as medical issues including X linked disease, has encouraged couples to select traditional or modern techniques in selecting the gender of their children. Some of these methods are corrected Swim-up method or washing of spermatozoa, Percoll gradient sperm separation method, grass wool column filter method method, albumin separation method, microsort method using FISH (Fluorescence in situ hybridization), free electrophoresis method, Ph adjustment method, pre implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD)/fluorescence in situ hybridization. This technology is confronted with many ethical issues. Ethical considerations PGD in the SEX SELECTION differ in different religions and their perspectives on this issue. In this this review, electronic databases, books and Internet sites were completely searched and full articles including required keywords and techniques were obtained and reviewed. The rites and religions, were different and had legal perspectives and opinions about PGD. In some non-Islamic countries there are strict rules to control the use of technology. Some of these methods are costly and even risky. They also involve ethical issues such as legitimacy of the conceived fetus; recommending final touches in sex selection is still considered a taboo and a big issue in some cultures or mono-sexual families. Islamic views and beliefs are more flexible and the use of these technologies are allowed to preserve the health and lives permit. Islam strongly favors humanity and supports different issues if they are not in conflict with the primary concept of legitimate reproduction and are beneficial to human beings. PMID:26097846

  17. Ethical considerations in orthopaedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Capozzi, J D; Rhodes, R; Springfield, D S

    2000-01-01

    Because our actions as physicians have far-reaching consequences, and because society allows us to do things to others that no one else is free to do, physicians' professional activities fall under the domain of ethical evaluation. We are charged with the obligation to use specialized scientific knowledge, to work in concert with others, and to act for the good of our patients. In fact, acting for the good of our patients is the central tenet of ethical medical behavior. What constitutes the good of the patient, however, is not always clear. In general, we act to limit disease, restore function, alleviate suffering, and prolong life. We understand fully, however, that these goals may conflict with one another. Judgment about what is right for a particular patient leads us to another crucial consideration of ethical behavior, namely, respect for patient autonomy. We recognize that individuals have the right to control their own destiny. Patients have a right, therefore, to make choices about their medical care. As physicians, we must respect those rights. As such, certain ethical behavior is expected of us. We must be honest with our patients. We must provide them with accurate information on which to base their decisions. We must convey to them information about their diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment, even when it is unpleasant to do so. We must be open about our expertise and level of training for a particular procedure. We must respect their privacy and their right to withhold information even from family and friends. In short, we must respect their choices, even if we may disagree with those choices. To truly respect patient autonomy is to understand that, ultimately, the final decision lies with the patient. PMID:10829220

  18. Percutaneous penetration--methodological considerations.

    PubMed

    Holmgaard, Rikke; Benfeldt, Eva; Nielsen, Jesper B

    2014-07-01

    Studies on percutaneous penetration are needed to assess the hazards after unintended occupational skin exposures to industrial products as well as the efficacy after intended consumer exposure to topically applied medicinal or cosmetic products. During recent decades, a number of methods have been developed to replace methods involving experimental animals. The results obtained from these methods are decided not only by the chemical or product tested, but to a significant degree also by the experimental set-up and decisions made by the investigator during the planning phase. The present MiniReview discusses some of the existing and well-known experimental in vitro and in vivo methods for studies of percutaneous penetration together with some more recent and promising methods. After this, some considerations and recommendations about advantages and limitations of the different methods and their relevance for the prediction of percutaneous penetration are given. Which method to prefer will depend on the product to be tested and the question asked. Regulatory guidelines exist for studies on percutaneous penetration, but researchers as well as regulatory bodies need to pay specific attention to the vehicles and solvents used in donor and sampling fluids so that it reflects in-use conditions as closely as possible. Based on available experimental data, mathematical models have been developed to aid predictions of skin penetration. The authors question the general use of the present mathematical models in hazard assessment, as they seem to ignore outliers among chemicals as well as the heterogeneity of skin barrier properties and skin conditions within the exposed populations. PMID:24373389

  19. Ethical considerations in sex selection

    PubMed Central

    Eftekhaari, Tasnim Eghbal; Nejatizadeh, Abdol Azim; Rajaei, Minoo; Soleimanian, Saeede; Fallahi, Soghra; Ghaffarzadegan, Rahman; Mahmoudi, Forough

    2015-01-01

    Advances in modern medicine are resulted from unrestricted and unlimited research disregarding many essentials of a research including ethical issues. Following ethical issues, many of unwanted pregnancies and abortions can be avoided. Several factors such as medical issues including X linked disease, has encouraged couples to select traditional or modern techniques in selecting the gender of their children. Some of these methods are corrected Swim-up method or washing of spermatozoa, Percoll gradient sperm separation method, grass wool column filter method method, albumin separation method, microsort method using FISH (Fluorescence in situ hybridization), free electrophoresis method, Ph adjustment method, pre implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD)/fluorescence in situ hybridization. This technology is confronted with many ethical issues. Ethical considerations PGD in the SEX SELECTION differ in different religions and their perspectives on this issue. In this this review, electronic databases, books and Internet sites were completely searched and full articles including required keywords and techniques were obtained and reviewed. The rites and religions, were different and had legal perspectives and opinions about PGD. In some non-Islamic countries there are strict rules to control the use of technology. Some of these methods are costly and even risky. They also involve ethical issues such as legitimacy of the conceived fetus; recommending final touches in sex selection is still considered a taboo and a big issue in some cultures or mono-sexual families. Islamic views and beliefs are more flexible and the use of these technologies are allowed to preserve the health and lives permit. Islam strongly favors humanity and supports different issues if they are not in conflict with the primary concept of legitimate reproduction and are beneficial to human beings. PMID:26097846

  20. Materials considerations in accelerator targets

    SciTech Connect

    Peacock, H.B. Jr.; Iyer, N.C.; Louthan, M.R. Jr.

    1994-08-01

    Future nuclear materials production and/or the burn-up of long lived radioisotopes may be accomplished through the capture of spallation produced neutrons in accelerators. Aluminum clad-lead and/or lead alloys has been proposed as a spallation target. Aluminum was the cladding choice because of the low neutron absorption cross section, fast radioactivity decay, high thermal conductivity, and excellent fabricability. Metallic lead and lead oxide powders were considered for the target core with the fabrication options being casting or powder metallurgy (PM). Scoping tests to evaluate gravity casting, squeeze casting, and casting and swaging processes showed that, based on fabricability and heat transfer considerations, squeeze casting was the preferred option for manufacture of targets with initial core cladding contact. Thousands of aluminum clad aluminum-lithium alloy core targets and control rods for tritium production have been fabricated by coextrusion processes and successfully irradiated in the SRS reactors. Tritium retention in, and release from the coextruded product was modeled from experimental and operational data. Newly produced tritium atoms were trapped by lithium atoms to form a lithium tritide. The effective tritium pressure required for trap or tritide stability was the equilibrium decomposition pressure of tritium over a lithium tritide-aluminum mixture. The temperature dependence of tritium release was determined by the permeability of the cladding to tritium and the local equilibrium at the trap sites. The model can be used to calculate tritium release from aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy targets during postulated accelerator operational and accident conditions. This paper describes the manufacturing technologies evaluated and presents the model for tritium retention in aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy tritium production targets.

  1. Perceived Weight Discrimination and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Sutin, Angelina R.; Terracciano, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Weight discrimination is prevalent in American society. Although associated consistently with psychological and economic outcomes, less is known about whether weight discrimination is associated with longitudinal changes in obesity. The objectives of this research are (1) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of becoming obese (Body Mass Index≥30; BMI) by follow-up among those not obese at baseline, and (2) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of remaining obese at follow-up among those already obese at baseline. Participants were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative longitudinal survey of community-dwelling US residents. A total of 6,157 participants (58.6% female) completed the discrimination measure and had weight and height available from the 2006 and 2010 assessments. Participants who experienced weight discrimination were approximately 2.5 times more likely to become obese by follow-up (OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.58–4.08) and participants who were obese at baseline were three times more likely to remain obese at follow up (OR = 3.20, 95% CI = 2.06–4.97) than those who had not experienced such discrimination. These effects held when controlling for demographic factors (age, sex, ethnicity, education) and when baseline BMI was included as a covariate. These effects were also specific to weight discrimination; other forms of discrimination (e.g., sex, race) were unrelated to risk of obesity at follow-up. The present research demonstrates that, in addition to poorer mental health outcomes, weight discrimination has implications for obesity. Rather than motivating individuals to lose weight, weight discrimination increases risk for obesity. PMID:23894586

  2. Characterization of the distal polyadenylation site of the ß-adducin (Add2) pre-mRNA.

    PubMed

    Costessi, Luisa; Porro, Fabiola; Iaconcig, Alessandra; Nedeljkovic, Mirjana; Muro, Andrés Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Most genes have multiple polyadenylation sites (PAS), which are often selected in a tissue-specific manner, altering protein products and affecting mRNA stability, subcellular localization and/or translability. Here we studied the polyadenylation mechanisms associated to the beta-adducin gene (Add2). We have previously shown that the Add2 gene has a very tight regulation of alternative polyadenylation, using proximal PAS in erythroid tissues, and a distal one in brain. Using chimeric minigenes and cell transfections we identified the core elements responsible for polyadenylation at the distal PAS. Deletion of either the hexanucleotide motif (Hm) or the downstream element (DSE) resulted in reduction of mature mRNA levels and activation of cryptic PAS, suggesting an important role for the DSE in polyadenylation of the distal Add2 PAS. Point mutation of the UG repeats present in the DSE, located immediately after the cleavage site, resulted in a reduction of processed mRNA and in the activation of the same cryptic site. RNA-EMSA showed that this region is active in forming RNA-protein complexes. Competition experiments showed that RNA lacking the DSE was not able to compete the RNA-protein complexes, supporting the hypothesis of an essential important role for the DSE. Next, using a RNA-pull down approach we identified some of the proteins bound to the DSE. Among these proteins we found PTB, TDP-43, FBP1 and FBP2, nucleolin, RNA helicase A and vigilin. All these proteins have a role in RNA metabolism, but only PTB has a reported function in polyadenylation. Additional experiments are needed to determine the precise functional role of these proteins in Add2 polyadenylation. PMID:23554949

  3. 40 CFR 63.4566 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... appendix A to 40 CFR part 60. (1) Use Method 25 if the add-on control device is an oxidizer and you expect... paragraphs (a)(1) through (5) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as... appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A,...

  4. 40 CFR 63.4566 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... appendix A to 40 CFR part 60. (1) Use Method 25 if the add-on control device is an oxidizer and you expect... paragraphs (a)(1) through (5) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as... appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A,...

  5. 40 CFR 63.4566 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... outlet of the add-on control device simultaneously, using either Method 25 or 25A of appendix A to 40 CFR...) through (5) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to... to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or...

  6. 40 CFR 63.4566 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... appendix A to 40 CFR part 60. (1) Use Method 25 if the add-on control device is an oxidizer and you expect... paragraphs (a)(1) through (5) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as... appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A,...

  7. 38 CFR 4.112 - Weight loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... individual's baseline weight, sustained for three months or longer; and the term “minor weight loss” means a weight loss of 10 to 20 percent of the individual's baseline weight, sustained for three months or...

  8. Selecting a Weight-Loss Program

    MedlinePlus

    ... Weight Tip Choose weight-loss programs that encourage healthy behaviors that help you lose weight gradually and maintain your weight over time. Looking for easy-to-use information for eating healthy on the go? The Maintaining a Healthy ...

  9. Efficacy and safety of muscarinic antagonists as add-on therapy for male lower urinary tract symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinhong; Shi, Qingquan; Bai, Yunjin; Pu, Chunxiao; Tang, Yin; Yuan, Haichao; Wu, Yunjian; Wei, Qiang; Han, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists (alpha-blockers) are widely prescribed to treat lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in men but fail to ameliorate LUTS sufficiently, especially the storage symptoms related to frequency, urgency and nocturia. We performed a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing an alpha-blocker plus muscarinic antagonist with an alpha-blocker alone in male LUTS patients who were treated with alpha-blocker prior to randomisation. The review contained six randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that included a total of 2,208 male patients who were randomised to receive alpha-blocker plus muscarinic antagonist or alpha-blocker alone. The add-on group experienced significantly greater improvement in both total IPSS (International Prostate Symptom Score) and storage IPSS. Adverse events (AEs) were commonly experienced by both groups (41.6 vs. 33.3%) though they were not severe. Our meta-analysis indicated that muscarinic antagonists as add-on therapy alleviate LUTS, especially storage symptoms. The add-on therapy demonstrated safety and tolerability comparable with alpha-blocker monotherapy in male with LUTS. PMID:24492830

  10. Recombination hotspots attenuate the coupled ATPase and translocase activities of an AddAB-type helicase–nuclease

    PubMed Central

    Gilhooly, Neville S.; Dillingham, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    In all domains of life, the resection of double-stranded DNA breaks to form long 3′-ssDNA overhangs in preparation for recombinational repair is catalyzed by the coordinated activities of DNA helicases and nucleases. In bacterial cells, this resection reaction is modulated by the recombination hotspot sequence Chi. The Chi sequence is recognized in cis by translocating helicase–nuclease complexes such as the Bacillus subtilis AddAB complex. Binding of Chi to AddAB results in the attenuation of nuclease activity on the 3′-terminated strand, thereby promoting recombination. In this work, we used stopped-flow methods to monitor the coupling of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis and DNA translocation and how this is affected by Chi recognition. We show that in the absence of Chi sequences, AddAB translocates processively on DNA at ∼2000 bp s−1 and hydrolyses approximately 1 ATP molecule per base pair travelled. The recognition of recombination hotspots results in a sustained decrease in the translocation rate which is accompanied by a decrease in the ATP hydrolysis rate, such that the coupling between these activities and the net efficiency of DNA translocation is largely unchanged by Chi. PMID:24682829

  11. Comparison of weight loss by weight classification in a commercial, community-based weight loss program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of our study was to determine the impact of grade of obesity on weight-loss outcomes of a community-based, intensive behavioral counseling program (Weight Watchers Points-Plus). Previous studies have shown that individuals with a higher body mass index (BMI) at the beginning of treatme...

  12. Rapid Weight Loss in Sports with Weight Classes.

    PubMed

    Khodaee, Morteza; Olewinski, Lucianne; Shadgan, Babak; Kiningham, Robert R

    2015-01-01

    Weight-sensitive sports are popular among elite and nonelite athletes. Rapid weight loss (RWL) practice has been an essential part of many of these sports for many decades. Due to the limited epidemiological studies on the prevalence of RWL, its true prevalence is unknown. It is estimated that more than half of athletes in weight-class sports have practiced RWL during the competitive periods. As RWL can have significant physical, physiological, and psychological negative effects on athletes, its practice has been discouraged for many years. It seems that appropriate rule changes have had the biggest impact on the practice of RWL in sports like wrestling. An individualized and well-planned gradual and safe weight loss program under the supervision of a team of coaching staff, athletic trainers, sports nutritionists, and sports physicians is recommended. PMID:26561763

  13. Correlates of Low Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Hazarika, Jayant; Dutta, Sudip

    2014-01-01

    Background. Low birth weight is the single most important factor that determines the chances of child survival. A recent annual estimation indicated that nearly 8 million infants are born with low birth weight in India. The infant mortality rate is about 20 times greater for all low birth weight babies. Methods. A matched case–control study was conducted on 130 low birth weight babies and 130 controls for 12 months (from August 1, 2007, to July 31, 2008) at the Central Referral Hospital, Tadong, East District of Sikkim, India. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 10.0 for Windows. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were applied. A P value less than .05 was considered as significant. Results. In the first phase of this study, 711 newborn babies, borne by 680 mothers, were screened at the Central Referral Hospital of Sikkim during the 1-year study period, and the proportion of low birth weight babies was determined to be 130 (18.3%). Conclusion. Multiple logistic regression analysis, conducted in the second phase, revealed that low or middle socioeconomic status, maternal underweight, twin pregnancy, previous history of delivery of low birth weight babies, smoking and consumption of alcohol during pregnancy, and congenital anomalies had independent significant association with low birth weight in this study population.

  14. Atomic weights in gas analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Veen, Adriaan M. H.; Hafner, Katarina

    2014-02-01

    The publication of the standard atomic weights of 2009 by IUPAC raised the question of to what extent these changes affect the calculated composition of reference and calibration gas mixtures and the associated measurement uncertainty. The smallest uncertainties are attainable in the gravimetric gas mixture preparation, so the assessment was made for this technique. For the first time, the uncertainty contributions to the overall budget due to weighing, molecular weights, and composition of the parent gases are reported separately. The calculations show that even with the standard atomic weights of 2007, the uncertainty contribution due to the molecular weights can be of the same order as that due to weighing. The standard atomic weights of 2009 and 2011, when used under the same assumptions, increase the uncertainties of the amount-of-substance fractions of the abundant components from high-purity parent gases sometimes appreciably. Based on these calculations and the fact that the atomic weight intervals include sources that are unlikely to be generally relevant for measurements supporting trade, commerce, health and safety, there is a need to make a more in-depth analysis of the atomic weights used in calculations, and to reflect the knowledge about the isotopic composition of relevant materials in the value assignment and uncertainty calculation.

  15. Ethical considerations in cardiovascular prevention.

    PubMed

    Follath, F

    2009-12-01

    patients and healthy subjects for the general population seen in everyday practice? Increasingly, the economic aspects of long-term prevention and problems of a fair allocation of limited healthcare resources are also important issues giving rise to contrasting views among patients, doctors, insurance providers and politicians. What are the priorities and who should decide? Ethical considerations relating to the above questions in CV prevention are discussed in this article. PMID:19500153

  16. Utilizing pigment-producing fungi to add commercial value to American beech (Fagus grandifolia).

    PubMed

    Robinson, Sara C; Tudor, Daniela; Cooper, Paul A

    2012-02-01

    American beech (Fagus grandifolia) is an abundant, underutilized tree in certain areas of North America, and methods to increase its market value are of considerable interest. This research utilized pigment-producing fungi to induce color in American beech to potentially establish its use as a decorative wood. Wood samples were inoculated with Trametes versicolor, Xylaria polymorpha, Inonotus hispidus, and Arthrographis cuboidea to induce fungal pigmentation. Black pigmentation (T. versicolor, X. polymorpha, I. hispidus) was sporadic, occurred primarily on the surfaces of the heartwood, but not internally. Pink pigmentation (A. cuboidea) occurred throughout all of the tested beech samples, but was difficult to see in the heartwood due to the darker color of the wood. To increase the visibility of the pink stain, beech blocks were pretreated with T. versicolor for 4 weeks before being inoculated with A. cuboidea. This method significantly increased the saturation of the pink stain on both beech heartwood and sapwood, creating coloration similar to that found on sugar maple. This value-adding process should be particularly effective for small-scale wood pigmentation, and should help establish a market for this currently underutilized wood species. PMID:21931972

  17. What can particle therapy add to the treatment of prostate cancer?

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Marco; Molinelli, Silvia

    2016-03-01

    The treatment of prostate cancer with either protons or carbon ions is not a novelty, and several thousands of patients were treated with hadrontherapy in the past decades. The standard treatment approach consisted in two lateral opposed fields for both protons and carbon ions, mostly delivered with scattered beams and using conventional fractionation and hypofractionation for protons and carbon ions, respectively. Similar (RBE-weighted and BED) doses to photon therapy (XRT) have been delivered, with comparable results in terms of both local control and toxicity. The advancements in dose deposition and image guidance of the early '00s that improved the quality of XRT treatments and then allowed for hypofractionation, are being matched with some delay by hadrontherapy in these very years. Pencil beam scanning is now the norm in proton therapy, and volumetric image guidance is being developed in all new hadrontherapy facilities. There is therefore the possibility of truly taking advantage of superior dose distributions of hadrons and safely apply it to innovative treatment protocols, such as an intraprostatic boost and the treatment of larger volume for advanced stage disease. This full integration between the best of technology and new clinical approaches is probably necessary in order to obtain clinical results that are truly superior to the current state of the art of XRT. PMID:27061870

  18. Laboratory study of efficient add-on treatments for interior noise control in light aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mixson, J. S.; Roussos, L. A.; Barton, C. K.; Vaicaitist, R.; Slazak, M.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies of the transmission loss (TL) of 1.15 x 1.46 m flat stiffened-skin aluminum panels are described. Panel configurations included panels with no treatment and eight combinations of treatments consisting of a fiberglass-septum layer, a foam-foil damping material, and a plywood double wall trim panel. Measured TL of the untreated panel and the panel with a damping layer showed characteristics of the double mass law: at low frequencies the TL followed a mass law trend associated with the average mass of both skin and stiffness, while at higher frequencies the TL followed a mass law trend associated with skin mass only. A comparison of TL for panels treated with a damping layer, a fiberglass layer, or a trim panel showed that the effects of damping are frequency dependent with some performing better below 500 Hz and others performing better above 500 Hz. Treatment combinations showed that two treatments with the same mass could have TL values different by about 10 dB, while other combinations having weights different by a factor of two could have TL values within a few dB over most of the frequency range. The highest TL values (50 dB at 1000 Hz) were obtained with a treatment consisting of a fiberglass layer, a trim panel, and damping layers on both the stiffened panel and the trim panel.

  19. Long-term weight loss maintenance for obesity: a multidisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Montesi, Luca; El Ghoch, Marwan; Brodosi, Lucia; Calugi, Simona; Marchesini, Giulio; Dalle Grave, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    The long-term weight management of obesity remains a very difficult task, associated with a high risk of failure and weight regain. However, many people report that they have successfully managed weight loss maintenance in the long term. Several factors have been associated with better weight loss maintenance in long-term observational and randomized studies. A few pertain to the behavioral area (eg, high levels of physical activity, eating a low-calorie, low-fat diet; frequent self-monitoring of weight), a few to the cognitive component (eg, reduced disinhibition, satisfaction with results achieved, confidence in being able to lose weight without professional help), and a few to personality traits (eg, low novelty seeking) and patient-therapist interaction. Trials based on the most recent protocols of lifestyle modification, with a prolonged extended treatment after the weight loss phase, have also shown promising long-term weight loss results. These data should stimulate the adoption of a lifestyle modification-based approach for the management of obesity, featuring a nonphysician lifestyle counselor (also called "lifestyle trainer" or "healthy lifestyle practitioner") as a pivotal component of the multidisciplinary team. The obesity physicians maintain a primary role in engaging patients, in team coordination and supervision, in managing the complications associated with obesity and, in selected cases, in the decision for drug treatment or bariatric surgery, as possible more intensive, add-on interventions to lifestyle treatment. PMID:27013897

  20. Long-term weight loss maintenance for obesity: a multidisciplinary approach

    PubMed Central

    Montesi, Luca; El Ghoch, Marwan; Brodosi, Lucia; Calugi, Simona; Marchesini, Giulio; Dalle Grave, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    The long-term weight management of obesity remains a very difficult task, associated with a high risk of failure and weight regain. However, many people report that they have successfully managed weight loss maintenance in the long term. Several factors have been associated with better weight loss maintenance in long-term observational and randomized studies. A few pertain to the behavioral area (eg, high levels of physical activity, eating a low-calorie, low-fat diet; frequent self-monitoring of weight), a few to the cognitive component (eg, reduced disinhibition, satisfaction with results achieved, confidence in being able to lose weight without professional help), and a few to personality traits (eg, low novelty seeking) and patient–therapist interaction. Trials based on the most recent protocols of lifestyle modification, with a prolonged extended treatment after the weight loss phase, have also shown promising long-term weight loss results. These data should stimulate the adoption of a lifestyle modification-based approach for the management of obesity, featuring a nonphysician lifestyle counselor (also called “lifestyle trainer” or “healthy lifestyle practitioner”) as a pivotal component of the multidisciplinary team. The obesity physicians maintain a primary role in engaging patients, in team coordination and supervision, in managing the complications associated with obesity and, in selected cases, in the decision for drug treatment or bariatric surgery, as possible more intensive, add-on interventions to lifestyle treatment. PMID:27013897