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Sample records for add health study

  1. Associations between Dopamine and Serotonin Genes and Job Satisfaction: Preliminary Evidence from the Add Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Zhaoli; Li, Wendong; Arvey, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    Previous behavioral genetic studies have found that job satisfaction is partially heritable. We went a step further to examine particular genetic markers that may be associated with job satisfaction. Using an oversample from the National Adolescent Longitudinal Study (Add Health Study), we found 2 genetic markers, dopamine receptor gene DRD4 VNTR…

  2. Marriage and Health in the Transition to Adulthood: Evidence for African Americans in the Add Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Lee, Hedwig; DeLeone, Felicia Yang

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the relationships among early marriage (before age 26 years), cohabitation, and health for African Americans and Whites during the transition to adulthood using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The study examines three categories of health outcomes relevant to young adulthood: physical…

  3. The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) Sibling Pairs Genome-Wide Data

    PubMed Central

    McQueen, Matthew B.; Boardman, Jason D.; Domingue, Benjamin W.; Smolen, Andrew; Tabor, Joyce; Killeya-Jones, Ley; Halpern, Carolyn T.; Whitsel, Eric A.; MullanHarris, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Here we provide a detailed description of the genome-wide information available on the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) sibling pair subsample (Harris et al., 2012). A total of 2020 samples were genotyped (including duplicates) arising from 1946 Add Health individuals from the sibling pairs subsample. After various steps for quality control (QC) and quality assurance (QA), we have high quality genome-wide data available on 1,888 individuals. In this report, we first highlight theQC and QA steps that were taken to prune the data of poorly performing samples and genetic markers. We further estimate the pairwise biological relationships using genome-wide data and compare those estimates to the assumed relationships in Add Health. Additionally, using genome-wide data from knownregional reference populations from Europe, West Africa, North and South America, Japan and China, weestimate the relative genetic ancestry of the respondents. Finally, rather than conducting a traditional cross-sectional genome-wide association study (GWAS) of body mass index (BMI), we opted to utilize the extensivepublicly available genome-wide information to conduct a weighted genome-wide association study (GWAS) of longitudinal BMI while accounting for both family and ethnic variation. PMID:25378290

  4. The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) sibling pairs genome-wide data.

    PubMed

    McQueen, Matthew B; Boardman, Jason D; Domingue, Benjamin W; Smolen, Andrew; Tabor, Joyce; Killeya-Jones, Ley; Halpern, Carolyn T; Whitsel, Eric A; Harris, Kathleen Mullan

    2015-01-01

    Here we provide a detailed description of the genome-wide information available on the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) sibling pair subsample (Harris et al. in Twin Res Hum Genet 16:391-398, 2013). A total of 2,020 samples were genotyped (including duplicates) arising from 1946 Add Health individuals from the sibling pairs subsample. After various steps for quality control (QC) and quality assurance (QA), we have high quality genome-wide data available on 1,888 individuals. In this report, we first highlight the QC and QA steps that were taken to prune the data of poorly performing samples and genetic markers. We further estimate the pairwise biological relationships using genome-wide data and compare those estimates to the assumed relationships in Add Health. Additionally, using genome-wide data from known regional reference populations from Europe, West Africa, North and South America, Japan and China, we estimate the relative genetic ancestry of the respondents. Finally, rather than conducting a traditional cross-sectional genome-wide association study (GWAS) of body mass index (BMI), we opted to utilize the extensive publicly available genome-wide information to conduct a weighted GWAS of longitudinal BMI while accounting for both family and ethnic variation.

  5. The reliability of in-home measures of height and weight in large cohort studies: Evidence from Add Health

    PubMed Central

    Hussey, Jon M.; Nguyen, Quynh C.; Whitsel, Eric A.; Richardson, Liana J.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Tabor, Joyce W.; Entzel, Pamela P.; Harris, Kathleen Mullan

    2015-01-01

    Background With the emergence of obesity as a global health issue an increasing number of major demographic surveys are collecting measured anthropometric data. Yet little is known about the characteristics and reliability of these data. Objectives We evaluate the accuracy and reliability of anthropometric data collected in the home during Wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), compare our estimates to national standard, clinic-based estimates from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and, using both sources, provide a detailed anthropometric description of young adults in the United States. Methods The reliability of Add Health in-home anthropometric measures was estimated from repeat examinations of a random subsample of study participants. A digit preference analysis evaluated the quality of anthropometric data recorded by field interviewers. The adjusted odds of obesity and central obesity in Add Health vs. NHANES were estimated with logistic regression. Results Short-term reliabilities of in-home measures of height, weight, waist and arm circumference—as well as derived body mass index (BMI, kg/m2)—were excellent. Prevalence of obesity (37% vs. 29%) and central obesity (47% vs. 38%) was higher in Add Health than in NHANES while socio-demographic patterns of obesity and central obesity were comparable in the two studies. Conclusions Properly trained non-medical field interviewers can collect reliable anthropometric data in a nationwide, home visit study. This national cohort of young adults in the United States faces a high risk of early-onset chronic disease and premature mortality. PMID:26146486

  6. Religion and Early Marriage in the United States: Evidence from the Add Health Study.

    PubMed

    Uecker, Jeremy

    2014-06-01

    Early marriage has important consequences for individuals in the United States. Several studies have linked religion to early marriage but have not examined this relationship in depth. Using data from Waves 1, 3, and 4 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, I conduct multilevel event-history analysis to examine how religion, at both individual and contextual levels, is associated with early marriage. Further, I test mediators of the religion-early marriage relationship. I find significant variation in early marriage by religious tradition, religious service attendance, religious salience, belief in scriptural inerrancy, and religious context in high school. The individual religious effects-but not the school context effects-are explained in part by differential attitudes toward marriage and cohabitation.

  7. Religion and Early Marriage in the United States: Evidence from the Add Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Uecker, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Early marriage has important consequences for individuals in the United States. Several studies have linked religion to early marriage but have not examined this relationship in depth. Using data from Waves 1, 3, and 4 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, I conduct multilevel event-history analysis to examine how religion, at both individual and contextual levels, is associated with early marriage. Further, I test mediators of the religion-early marriage relationship. I find significant variation in early marriage by religious tradition, religious service attendance, religious salience, belief in scriptural inerrancy, and religious context in high school. The individual religious effects—but not the school context effects—are explained in part by differential attitudes toward marriage and cohabitation. PMID:25045173

  8. US adolescents' friendship networks and health risk behaviors: a systematic review of studies using social network analysis and Add Health data.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Kwon Chan; Goodson, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Background. Documented trends in health-related risk behaviors among US adolescents have remained high over time. Studies indicate relationships among mutual friends are a major influence on adolescents' risky behaviors. Social Network Analysis (SNA) can help understand friendship ties affecting individual adolescents' engagement in these behaviors. Moreover, a systematic literature review can synthesize findings from a range of studies using SNA, as well as assess these studies' methodological quality. Review findings also can help health educators and promoters develop more effective programs. Objective. This review systematically examined studies of the influence of friendship networks on adolescents' risk behaviors, which utilized SNA and the Add Health data (a nationally representative sample). Methods. We employed the Matrix Method to synthesize and evaluate 15 published studies that met our inclusion and exclusion criteria, retrieved from the Add Health website and 3 major databases (Medline, Eric, and PsycINFO). Moreover, we assigned each study a methodological quality score (MQS). Results. In all studies, friendship networks among adolescents promoted their risky behaviors, including drinking alcohol, smoking, sexual intercourse, and marijuana use. The average MQS was 4.6, an indicator of methodological rigor (scale: 1-9). Conclusion. Better understanding of risky behaviors influenced by friends can be useful for health educators and promoters, as programs targeting friendships might be more effective. Additionally, the overall MQ of these reviewed studies was good, as average scores fell above the scale's mid-point.

  9. US adolescents’ friendship networks and health risk behaviors: a systematic review of studies using social network analysis and Add Health data

    PubMed Central

    Goodson, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Background. Documented trends in health-related risk behaviors among US adolescents have remained high over time. Studies indicate relationships among mutual friends are a major influence on adolescents’ risky behaviors. Social Network Analysis (SNA) can help understand friendship ties affecting individual adolescents’ engagement in these behaviors. Moreover, a systematic literature review can synthesize findings from a range of studies using SNA, as well as assess these studies’ methodological quality. Review findings also can help health educators and promoters develop more effective programs. Objective. This review systematically examined studies of the influence of friendship networks on adolescents’ risk behaviors, which utilized SNA and the Add Health data (a nationally representative sample). Methods. We employed the Matrix Method to synthesize and evaluate 15 published studies that met our inclusion and exclusion criteria, retrieved from the Add Health website and 3 major databases (Medline, Eric, and PsycINFO). Moreover, we assigned each study a methodological quality score (MQS). Results. In all studies, friendship networks among adolescents promoted their risky behaviors, including drinking alcohol, smoking, sexual intercourse, and marijuana use. The average MQS was 4.6, an indicator of methodological rigor (scale: 1–9). Conclusion. Better understanding of risky behaviors influenced by friends can be useful for health educators and promoters, as programs targeting friendships might be more effective. Additionally, the overall MQ of these reviewed studies was good, as average scores fell above the scale’s mid-point. PMID:26157622

  10. Social Capital: Does It Add to the Health Inequalities Debate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Neena L.; Funk, Laura M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper empirically examines the relationship between advantage, social capital and health status to assess (a) whether social capital adds explanatory power to what we already know about the relationship between advantage and health and (b) whether social capital adds anything beyond its component parts, namely social participation and trust.…

  11. Measuring Narcissism within Add Health: The Development and Validation of a New Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Mark S.; Brunell, Amy B.

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the development of a measure of narcissism within the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) data set. In Study 1, items were selected from Wave III to form the Add Health Narcissism Scale (AHNS). These were factor analyzed, yielding a single factor comprised of five subscales. We correlated the AHNS and…

  12. Depression, Stressful Life Events, and the Impact of Variation in the Serotonin Transporter: Findings from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health)

    PubMed Central

    Haberstick, Brett C.; Boardman, Jason D.; Wagner, Brandon; Smolen, Andrew; Hewitt, John K.; Killeya-Jones, Ley A.; Tabor, Joyce; Halpern, Carolyn T.; Brummett, Beverly H.; Williams, Redford B.; Siegler, Ilene C.; Hopfer, Christian J.; Mullan Harris, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Background The low transcriptionally efficient short-allele of the 5HTTLPR serotonin transporter polymorphism has been implicated to moderate the relationship between the experience of stressful life events (SLEs) and depression. Despite numerous attempts at replicating this observation, results remain inconclusive. Methods We examined this relationship in young-adult Non-Hispanic white males and females between the ages of 22 and 26 (n = 4724) participating in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) with follow-up information every six years since 1995. Results Linear and logistic regression models, corrected for multiple testing, indicated that carriers of one or more of the S-alleles were more sensitive to stress than those with two L-alleles and at a higher risk for depression. This relationship behaved in a dose-response manner such that the risk for depression was greatest among those who reported experiencing higher numbers of SLEs. In post-hoc analyses we were not able to replicate an interaction effect for suicide ideation but did find suggestive evidence that the effects of SLEs and 5HTTLPR on suicide ideation differed for males and females. There were no effects of childhood maltreatment. Discussion Our results provide partial support for the original hypothesis that 5-HTTLPR genotype interacts with the experience of stressful life events in the etiology of depression during young adulthood. However, even with this large sample, and a carefully constructed a priori analysis plan, the results were still not definitive. For the purposes of replication, characterizing the 5HTTLPR in other large data sets with extensive environmental and depression measures is needed. PMID:26938215

  13. A Longitudinal Examination of Childhood Maltreatment and Adolescent Obesity: Results from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Miller, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: We sought to explore the association between childhood maltreatment (e.g., neglect, physical and sexual abuse) and longitudinal growth trajectories of body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods: We used latent curve modeling to examine data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 8,471),…

  14. Marriage and Health in the Transition to Adulthood: Evidence for African Americans in Add Health.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Lee, Hedwig; Deleone, Felicia Yang

    2010-08-01

    This paper examines the relationship between early marriage (before age 26), cohabitation, and health for African Americans and whites during the transition to adulthood using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). We examine three categories of health outcomes relevant to young adulthood: physical health, mental health, and health risk behaviors. Lagged dependent variable models are used to examine the health effects of early marriage and cohabitation accounting for potential health selection into unions. Our results indicate that early marriage by young adults does not have protective effects for African Americans, and finds more negative effects for African American men than women. There are mixed results for whites with some protective effects of marriage for binge drinking. Early marriage for both African Americans and whites is associated with increased Body Mass Index (BMI). Cohabitation is uniformly associated with negative health outcomes for all race and sex groups.

  15. Evidence for Association between SH2B1 Gene Variants and Glycated Hemoglobin in Nondiabetic European American Young Adults: The Add Health Study.

    PubMed

    Lange, Leslie A; Graff, Mariaelisa; Lange, Ethan M; Young, Kristin L; Richardson, Andrea S; Mohlke, Karen L; North, Kari E; Harris, Kathleen M; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2016-09-01

    Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is used to classify glycaemia and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Body mass index (BMI) is a predictor of HbA1c levels and T2D. We tested 43 established BMI and obesity loci for association with HbA1c in a nationally representative multiethnic sample of young adults from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health [Add Health: age 24-34 years; n = 5641 European Americans (EA); 1740 African Americans (AA); 1444 Hispanic Americans (HA)] without T2D, using two levels of covariate adjustment (Model 1: age, sex, smoking, and geographic region; Model 2: Model 1 covariates plus BMI). Bonferroni adjustment was made for 43 SNPs and we considered P < 0.0011 statistically significant. Means (SD) for HbA1c were 5.4% (0.3) in EA, 5.7% (0.4) in AA, and 5.5% (0.3) in HA. We observed significant evidence for association with HbA1c for two variants near SH2B1 in EA (rs4788102, P = 2.2 × 10(-4) ; rs7359397, P = 9.8 × 10(-4) ) for Model 1. Both results were attenuated after adjustment for BMI (rs4788102, P = 1.7 × 10(-3) ; rs7359397, P = 4.6 × 10(-3) ). No variant reached Bonferroni-corrected significance in AA or HA. These results suggest that SH2B1 polymorphisms are associated with HbA1c, largely independent of BMI, in EA young adults. PMID:27530450

  16. Evidence for Association between SH2B1 Gene Variants and Glycated Hemoglobin in Nondiabetic European American Young Adults: The Add Health Study.

    PubMed

    Lange, Leslie A; Graff, Mariaelisa; Lange, Ethan M; Young, Kristin L; Richardson, Andrea S; Mohlke, Karen L; North, Kari E; Harris, Kathleen M; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2016-09-01

    Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is used to classify glycaemia and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Body mass index (BMI) is a predictor of HbA1c levels and T2D. We tested 43 established BMI and obesity loci for association with HbA1c in a nationally representative multiethnic sample of young adults from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health [Add Health: age 24-34 years; n = 5641 European Americans (EA); 1740 African Americans (AA); 1444 Hispanic Americans (HA)] without T2D, using two levels of covariate adjustment (Model 1: age, sex, smoking, and geographic region; Model 2: Model 1 covariates plus BMI). Bonferroni adjustment was made for 43 SNPs and we considered P < 0.0011 statistically significant. Means (SD) for HbA1c were 5.4% (0.3) in EA, 5.7% (0.4) in AA, and 5.5% (0.3) in HA. We observed significant evidence for association with HbA1c for two variants near SH2B1 in EA (rs4788102, P = 2.2 × 10(-4) ; rs7359397, P = 9.8 × 10(-4) ) for Model 1. Both results were attenuated after adjustment for BMI (rs4788102, P = 1.7 × 10(-3) ; rs7359397, P = 4.6 × 10(-3) ). No variant reached Bonferroni-corrected significance in AA or HA. These results suggest that SH2B1 polymorphisms are associated with HbA1c, largely independent of BMI, in EA young adults.

  17. Impact of maternal and paternal preconception health on birth outcomes using prospective couples’ data in Add Health

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Jennifer L.; Harris, Kathleen Mullan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Retrospective studies of preconception health have demonstrated that parents’ health conditions and behaviors can impact a newborn’s birth outcomes and, subsequently, future health status. This study sought to examine the impact of preconception health, measured prospectively, among both mothers and fathers, on two important birth outcomes: birthweight and gestational age. Methods Data came from Add Health (the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health), which included interviews with original participants and a subsample of their partners in 2001–02. In 2008, the original respondents again completed an interview for Add Health. For 372 eligible infants born to these couples, birth outcomes (measured in 2008) were regressed on preconception health conditions and behaviors among non-pregnant heterosexual partners (measured in 2001–02). Results Mean birthweight was 3399 grams, and mean gestational age was 39 weeks. Birthweight was higher for infants born to mothers with diabetes or high blood pressure, and for mothers who drank alcohol at least once per month, and lower for infants born to fathers with diabetes (p < .05). Infant gestational age was marginally lower for infants born to mothers with higher levels of depression (p < .10), and lower for infants born to fathers with diabetes and with higher levels of fast food consumption (p < .05). Conclusions Both maternal and paternal preconception health conditions and behaviors influenced infant birth outcomes. Interventions to promote preconception health should focus on prevention of diabetes and high blood pressure, as well as minimizing consumption of alcohol and fast food. PMID:25367598

  18. Health information: what can mobile phone assessments add?

    PubMed

    Stomberg, Margareta Warrén; Platon, Birgitta; Widén, Annette; Wallner, Ingegerd; Karlsson, Ove

    2012-01-01

    In healthcare, pain assessment is a key factor in effectively treating postoperative pain and reducing the risk of developing chronic pain. The overall aim of this study was to investigate whether a mobile phone support system can be used as a basis to continuously document patients' health information in real time and provide conditions for optimal, individual pain management after cholecystectomy and hysterectomy procedures.In this pilot study, two randomly selected groups of patients provided information about their pain for one week postoperatively. One group responded via cell phones, and the other, a control group, responded using paper-based questionnaires.The mobile phone system was found to provide a fast and safe basis for reporting pain postoperatively in real time. The results indicate that on days 3 and 4 the mobile phone group reported significantly higher levels of pain than the control group, and the cholecystectomy patients reported significantly more pain at movement on days 3 and 4 than the hysterectomy patients.The mobile phone approach is an adaptation to modern technology and the mobility of individuals. This technology is user friendly and requires minimal support. However, as the sample size was small (n = 37), further studies are needed before additional conclusions can be drawn.

  19. Health information: what can mobile phone assessments add?

    PubMed

    Stomberg, Margareta Warrén; Platon, Birgitta; Widén, Annette; Wallner, Ingegerd; Karlsson, Ove

    2012-01-01

    In healthcare, pain assessment is a key factor in effectively treating postoperative pain and reducing the risk of developing chronic pain. The overall aim of this study was to investigate whether a mobile phone support system can be used as a basis to continuously document patients' health information in real time and provide conditions for optimal, individual pain management after cholecystectomy and hysterectomy procedures.In this pilot study, two randomly selected groups of patients provided information about their pain for one week postoperatively. One group responded via cell phones, and the other, a control group, responded using paper-based questionnaires.The mobile phone system was found to provide a fast and safe basis for reporting pain postoperatively in real time. The results indicate that on days 3 and 4 the mobile phone group reported significantly higher levels of pain than the control group, and the cholecystectomy patients reported significantly more pain at movement on days 3 and 4 than the hysterectomy patients.The mobile phone approach is an adaptation to modern technology and the mobility of individuals. This technology is user friendly and requires minimal support. However, as the sample size was small (n = 37), further studies are needed before additional conclusions can be drawn. PMID:23209453

  20. Predictors of life satisfaction among Asian American adolescents- analysis of add health data.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jui-Yen; Wang, Kuan-Yuan; Ringel-Kulka, Tamar

    2015-01-01

    Life satisfaction correlates with adolescent risk taking behavior and their outcomes in adulthood. Despite the fast rise in numbers of Asian adolescents in the U.S., the predictors of their life satisfaction are not well understood. This study examined the relationship between several demographic and contextual factors and global life satisfaction among this population. Data were derived from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative probability sample of US adolescents. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression was conducted to evaluate hypothesized predictors of global life satisfaction of Asian American adolescents. All analyses were conducted using STATA version 11. After exclusion of cases with missing values, 1021 Asian American adolescents were studied. Self- rated health, self-esteem, perceived neighborhood quality, parental support and peer support were significantly and positively related to better global life satisfaction. However, after controlling for other factors, only self-esteem (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 4.76; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.86-8.33) and perceived peer support (aOR: 2.76; 95% CI: 1.33-5.76) significantly predicted higher life satisfaction. Peer support and adolescents' self-concept are strongly correlated with Asian American adolescents' subjective well-being. To promote the wellness of this population, culturally sensitive strategies in developing peer relationship and healthy self-concept may be effective. More studies are needed for subgroup comparison of various ethnicities among Asian American adolescents. PMID:25992312

  1. Predictors of life satisfaction among Asian American adolescents- analysis of add health data.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jui-Yen; Wang, Kuan-Yuan; Ringel-Kulka, Tamar

    2015-01-01

    Life satisfaction correlates with adolescent risk taking behavior and their outcomes in adulthood. Despite the fast rise in numbers of Asian adolescents in the U.S., the predictors of their life satisfaction are not well understood. This study examined the relationship between several demographic and contextual factors and global life satisfaction among this population. Data were derived from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative probability sample of US adolescents. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression was conducted to evaluate hypothesized predictors of global life satisfaction of Asian American adolescents. All analyses were conducted using STATA version 11. After exclusion of cases with missing values, 1021 Asian American adolescents were studied. Self- rated health, self-esteem, perceived neighborhood quality, parental support and peer support were significantly and positively related to better global life satisfaction. However, after controlling for other factors, only self-esteem (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 4.76; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.86-8.33) and perceived peer support (aOR: 2.76; 95% CI: 1.33-5.76) significantly predicted higher life satisfaction. Peer support and adolescents' self-concept are strongly correlated with Asian American adolescents' subjective well-being. To promote the wellness of this population, culturally sensitive strategies in developing peer relationship and healthy self-concept may be effective. More studies are needed for subgroup comparison of various ethnicities among Asian American adolescents.

  2. The dubious assessment of gay, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents of add health.

    PubMed

    Savin-Williams, Ritch C; Joyner, Kara

    2014-04-01

    In this essay, we argue that researchers who base their investigations of nonheterosexuality derived from reports of romantic attractions of adolescent participants from Wave 1 of Add Health must account for their disappearance in future waves of data collection. The high prevalence of Wave 1 youth with either both-sex or same-sex romantic attractions was initially striking and unexpected. Subsequent data from Add Health indicated that this prevalence sharply declined over time such that over 70 % of these Wave 1 adolescents identified as exclusively heterosexual as Wave 4 young adults. Three explanations are proposed to account for the high prevalence rate and the temporal inconsistency: (1) gay adolescents going into the closet during their young adult years; (2) confusion regarding the use and meaning of romantic attraction as a proxy for sexual orientation; and (3) the existence of mischievous adolescents who played a "jokester" role by reporting same-sex attraction when none was present. Relying on Add Health data, we dismissed the first explanation as highly unlikely and found support for the other two. Importantly, these "dubious" gay, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents may have led researchers to erroneously conclude from the data that sexual-minority youth are more problematic than heterosexual youth in terms of physical, mental, and social health.

  3. Space station systems technology study (add-on task). Volume 2: Trade study and technology selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The current Space Station Systems Technology Study add on task was an outgrowth of the Advanced Platform Systems Technology Study (APSTS) that was completed in April 1983 and the subsequent Space Station System Technology Study completed in April 1984. The first APSTS proceeded from the identification of 106 technology topics to the selection of five for detailed trade studies. During the advanced platform study, the technical issues and options were evaluated through detailed trade processes, individual consideration was given to costs and benefits for the technologies identified for advancement, and advancement plans were developed. An approach similar to that was used in the subsequent study, with emphasis on system definition in four specific technology areas to facilitate a more in depth analysis of technology issues.

  4. Add+VantageMR® Assessments: A Case Study of Teacher and Student Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briand, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    This case study analyzes the effect of the Add+VantageMRRTM (AVMR) program on a teacher's pedagogy and on her students' progress in mathematics. AVMR, a professional development program in early mathematics, trains teachers to assess their students' progress and apply those insights to their teaching pedagogy. The AVMR assessment uses a…

  5. The Integration of the Neurosciences, Child Public Health, and Education Practice: Hemisphere-Specific Remediation Strategies as a Discipline Partnered Rehabilitation Tool in ADD/ADHD.

    PubMed

    Leisman, Gerry; Mualem, Raed; Machado, Calixto

    2013-01-01

    ADD/ADHD is the most common and most studied neurodevelopmental problem. Recent statistics from the U.S. Center for Disease Control state that 11% or approximately one out of every nine children in the US and one in five high school boys are diagnosed with ADD/ADHD. This number is thought to be increasing at around 15-20% per year. The US National Institute of Mental Health's Multi-modal Treatment Study has shown that medication has no long-term benefit for those with ADHD. To effectively address ADD/ADHD from within the framework of child public health, an interdisciplinary strategy is necessary that is based on a neuroeducational model that can be readily implemented on a large-scale within the educational system. This study is based on previous findings that ADD/ADHD children possess underactivity between sub-cortical and cortical regions. An imbalance of activity or arousal in one area can result in functional disconnections similar to that seen in split-brain patients. Since ADD/ADHD children exhibit deficient performance on tests developed to measure perceptual laterality, evidence of weak laterality or failure to develop laterality has been found across various modalities (auditory, visual, tactile). This has reportedly resulted in abnormal cerebral organization and ineffective cortical specialization necessary for the development of language and non-language function. This pilot study examines groups of ADD/ADHD and control elementary school children all of whom were administered all of the subtests of the Wechsler Individual Achievement Tests, the Brown Parent Questionnaire, and given objective performance measures on tests of motor and sensory coordinative abilities. Results measured after a 12-week remediation program aimed at increasing the activity of the hypothesized underactive right hemisphere function, yielded significant improvement of greater than 2 years in grade level in all domains except in mathematical reasoning. The treated group also

  6. Development and Validation of a Unidimensional Maltreatment Scale in the Add Health Data Set

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marszalek, Jacob M.; Hamilton, Jessica L.

    2012-01-01

    Four maltreatment items were examined from Wave III (N = 13,516) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Item analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, cross-validation, reliability estimates, and convergent validity coefficients strongly supported the validity of using the four items as a unidimensional composite. Implications for…

  7. Study protocol for the randomised controlled trial: Antiglucocorticoid augmentation of anti-Depressants in Depression (The ADD Study)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Some patients with depression do not respond to first and second line conventional antidepressants and are therefore characterised as suffering from treatment refractory depression (TRD). On-going psychosocial stress and dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are both associated with an attenuated clinical response to antidepressants. Preclinical data shows that co-administration of corticosteroids leads to a reduction in the ability of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors to increase forebrain 5-hydroxytryptamine, while co-administration of antiglucocorticoids has the opposite effect. A Cochrane review suggests that antiglucocorticoid augmentation of antidepressants may be effective in treating TRD and includes a pilot study of the cortisol synthesis inhibitor, metyrapone. The Antiglucocorticoid augmentation of anti-Depressants in Depression (The ADD Study) is a multicentre randomised placebo controlled trial of metyrapone augmentation of serotonergic antidepressants in a large population of patients with TRD in the UK National Health Service. Methods/design Patients with moderate to severe treatment refractory Major Depression aged 18 to 65 will be randomised to metyrapone 500 mg twice daily or placebo for three weeks, in addition to on-going conventional serotonergic antidepressants. The primary outcome will be improvement in Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale score five weeks after randomisation (i.e. two weeks after trial medication discontinuation). Secondary outcomes will include the degree of persistence of treatment effect for up to 6 months, improvements in quality of life and also safety and tolerability of metyrapone. The ADD Study will also include a range of sub-studies investigating the potential mechanism of action of metyrapone. Discussion Strengths of the ADD study include broad inclusion criteria meaning that the sample will be representative of patients with TRD treated within the UK National Health

  8. Using the PhenX Toolkit to Add Standard Measures to a Study.

    PubMed

    Hendershot, Tabitha; Pan, Huaqin; Haines, Jonathan; Harlan, William R; Marazita, Mary L; McCarty, Catherine A; Ramos, Erin M; Hamilton, Carol M

    2015-07-01

    The PhenX (consensus measures for Phenotypes and eXposures) Toolkit (https://www.phenxtoolkit.org/) offers high-quality, well-established measures of phenotypes and exposures for use by the scientific community. The goal is to promote the use of standard measures, enhance data interoperability, and help investigators identify opportunities for collaborative and translational research. The Toolkit contains 395 measures drawn from 22 research domains (fields of research), along with additional collections of measures for Substance Abuse and Addiction (SAA) research, Mental Health Research (MHR), and Tobacco Regulatory Research (TRR). Additional measures for TRR that are expected to be released in 2015 include Obesity, Eating Disorders, and Sickle Cell Disease. Measures are selected by working groups of domain experts using a consensus process that includes input from the scientific community. The Toolkit provides a description of each PhenX measure, the rationale for including it in the Toolkit, protocol(s) for collecting the measure, and supporting documentation. Users can browse measures in the Toolkit or can search the Toolkit using the Smart Query Tool or a full text search. PhenX Toolkit users select measures of interest to add to their Toolkit. Registered Toolkit users can save their Toolkit and return to it later to revise or complete. They then have options to download a customized Data Collection Worksheet that specifies the data to be collected, and a Data Dictionary that describes each variable included in the Data Collection Worksheet. The Toolkit also has a Register Your Study feature that facilitates cross-study collaboration by allowing users to find other investigators using the same PhenX measures.

  9. Alcohol consumption and social network ties among adolescents: evidence from Add Health.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mir M; Amialchuk, Aliaksandr; Nikaj, Silda

    2014-05-01

    Although many studies have estimated the influence of peers on risky health behaviors, few have estimated the gains that adolescents receive from such behaviors, particularly in terms of social payoffs for complying with peer behavior. In this paper, we explore the extent to which alcohol consumption increases popularity of adolescents. Using data from a nationally-representative sample of adolescents, we estimate endogeneity-corrected models with school-level fixed effects to identify the effect of alcohol consumption on social network ties. We find that alcohol consumption leads to an increase in popularity, with the largest gains experienced by white males and females. Our results provide new evidence on the motivation behind adolescent drinking and have important implications for substance abuse interventions.

  10. How a housing advocacy coalition adds health: A culture of claims-making.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Kushan; Lichterman, Paul

    2016-09-01

    Organizations that pursue health advocacy often tackle other issues too. How do these multi-issue organizations articulate and combine health with other issues? We examine how a Los Angeles coalition focused primarily on housing took up health in its 2008-2011 campaign against a residential development. Participant observation and archival data reveal that cultural context influenced how the coalition made claims about health, in two ways. First, advocates shared two major symbolic categories, which oriented the great bulk of their appeals regarding health. Second, advocates crafted rhetorical appeals that reflected their shared sense of social identity and obligation as spokespersons for a distinctive kind of community. These two kinds of cultural context influenced advocates' claims in public, formal settings as well more internal communication. These distinct, cultural influences on claims-making create challenges for socioeconomically diverse coalitions collaborating on health problems. PMID:27139006

  11. A single competency-based education and training and competency-based career framework for the Australian health workforce: discussing the potential value add

    PubMed Central

    Brownie, Sharon Mary; Thomas, Janelle

    2014-01-01

    This brief discusses the policy implications of a research study commissioned by Health Workforce Australia (HWA) within its health workforce innovation and reform work program. The project explored conceptually complex and operationally problematic concepts related to developing a whole-of-workforce competency-based education and training and competency-based career framework for the Australian health workforce and culminated with the production of three reports published by HWA. The project raised important queries as to whether such a concept is desirable, feasible or implementable – in short what is the potential value add and is it achievable? In setting the scene for discussion, the foundation of the project’s genesis and focus of the study are highlighted. A summary of key definitions related to competency-based education and training frameworks and competency-based career frameworks are provided to further readers’ commonality of understanding. The nature of the problem to be solved is explored and the potential value-add for the Australian health workforce and its key constituents proposed. The paper concludes by discussing relevance and feasibility issues within Australia’s current and changing healthcare context along with the essential steps and implementation realities that would need to be considered and actioned if whole-of-workforce frameworks were to be developed and implemented. PMID:25279384

  12. A single competency-based education and training and competency-based career framework for the Australian health workforce: discussing the potential value add.

    PubMed

    Brownie, Sharon Mary; Thomas, Janelle

    2014-09-01

    This brief discusses the policy implications of a research study commissioned by Health Workforce Australia (HWA) within its health workforce innovation and reform work program. The project explored conceptually complex and operationally problematic concepts related to developing a whole-of-workforce competency-based education and training and competency-based career framework for the Australian health workforce and culminated with the production of three reports published by HWA. The project raised important queries as to whether such a concept is desirable, feasible or implementable - in short what is the potential value add and is it achievable? In setting the scene for discussion, the foundation of the project's genesis and focus of the study are highlighted. A summary of key definitions related to competency-based education and training frameworks and competency-based career frameworks are provided to further readers' commonality of understanding. The nature of the problem to be solved is explored and the potential value-add for the Australian health workforce and its key constituents proposed. The paper concludes by discussing relevance and feasibility issues within Australia's current and changing healthcare context along with the essential steps and implementation realities that would need to be considered and actioned if whole-of-workforce frameworks were to be developed and implemented.

  13. A study of high repetition rate pulse generation and all-optical add/drop multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongmin

    Ultra high-speed optical time-division-multiplexed (OTDM) transmission technologies are essential for the construction of ultra high-speed all-optical networks needed in the information era. In this Ph. D thesis dissertation, essential mechanisms associated with ultra high speed OTDM transmission systems, such as, high speed ultra short pulse generation, all optical demultiplexing and all optical add/drop multiplexing, have been studied. Both experimental demonstrations and numerical simulations have been performed. In order to realize high-speed optical TDM systems, high repetition rate, ultra short pulses are needed. A rational harmonic mode-locked ring fiber laser has been used to produce ultrashort pulses, the pulse jitter will be eliminated using a Phase-Locked-Loop (PLL), and the self-pulsation has been suppressed using a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). Sub pico-second pulses are very important for all optical sampling in the ultrahigh-speed OTDM transmission system. In this thesis, a two stage compression scheme utilizing the nonlinearity and dispersion of the optical fibers has been constructed and used to compress the gain switched DFB laser pulses. Also a nonlinear optical loop mirror has been constructed to suppress the wings associated with nonlinear compression. Pedestal free, transform-limited pulses with pulse widths in range of 0.2 to 0.4 ps have been generated. LiNbO3 modulators play a very important role in fiber optical communication systems. In this thesis, LiNbO3 modulators have been used to perform high repetition rate pulse generation, all optical demultiplexing and all optical add/drop for the TDM transmission system.

  14. [A Triage Scale for Mental Health, an Emerging Practice, a Value-Add for Measuring Demand for Mental Health Services].

    PubMed

    Boucher, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The article aims to present two studies supporting the development of l'Échelle brève de triage RIFCAS en santé mentale 0-99 ans, a measuring instrument used to determine - based on the level of customer demand, seriousness, and urgent need for intervention - the priority of a mental health service across all age groups.Methods Both versions have been subject to a measurement interjudge agreement that is compared against the judgment of professionals and other comparison tools.Results The results produced by the interjudge agreement reflect significant correlations with the priorities established by l'Échelle brève de triage RIFCAS en santé mentale 0-99 ans, the judgment of professional experts and the usual instruments used.Conclusion The final version of the triage scale provides an objective measure for the priority that should be given to all mental health service requests - these encompass all recognized and essential clinical information. Clinicians can rely on a reliable and proven instrument to prioritize service requests before placing them on the waiting list. The use of this instrument facilitates the development of a common procedure between professionals and ensures a fair and safe treatment of users.

  15. [A Triage Scale for Mental Health, an Emerging Practice, a Value-Add for Measuring Demand for Mental Health Services].

    PubMed

    Boucher, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The article aims to present two studies supporting the development of l'Échelle brève de triage RIFCAS en santé mentale 0-99 ans, a measuring instrument used to determine - based on the level of customer demand, seriousness, and urgent need for intervention - the priority of a mental health service across all age groups.Methods Both versions have been subject to a measurement interjudge agreement that is compared against the judgment of professionals and other comparison tools.Results The results produced by the interjudge agreement reflect significant correlations with the priorities established by l'Échelle brève de triage RIFCAS en santé mentale 0-99 ans, the judgment of professional experts and the usual instruments used.Conclusion The final version of the triage scale provides an objective measure for the priority that should be given to all mental health service requests - these encompass all recognized and essential clinical information. Clinicians can rely on a reliable and proven instrument to prioritize service requests before placing them on the waiting list. The use of this instrument facilitates the development of a common procedure between professionals and ensures a fair and safe treatment of users. PMID:27570963

  16. Family Numeracy Adds on: The Follow-Up Study of the Basic Skills Agency's Pilot Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Greg; Hutchison, Dougal

    2002-01-01

    In 1998 the authors published research with NFER (National Foundation for Educational Research) "Family Numeracy Adds Up" showing how parents and children had gained from fourteen pilot family numeracy programmes. It showed strong evidence of the double benefits of work with families. Children have an early boost in their learning and parents, who…

  17. The Prostate Health Index adds predictive value to multi-parametric MRI in detecting significant prostate cancers in a repeat biopsy population

    PubMed Central

    Gnanapragasam, V. J.; Burling, K.; George, A.; Stearn, S.; Warren, A.; Barrett, T.; Koo, B.; Gallagher, F. A.; Doble, A.; Kastner, C.; Parker, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    Both multi-parametric MRI (mpMRI) and the Prostate Health Index (PHI) have shown promise in predicting a positive biopsy in men with suspected prostate cancer. Here we investigated the value of combining both tests in men requiring a repeat biopsy. PHI scores were measured in men undergoing re-biopsy with an mpMRI image-guided transperineal approach (n = 279, 94 with negative mpMRIs). The PHI was assessed for ability to add value to mpMRI in predicting all or only significant cancers (Gleason ≥7). In this study adding PHI to mpMRI improved overall and significant cancer prediction (AUC 0.71 and 0.75) compared to mpMRI + PSA alone (AUC 0.64 and 0.69 respectively). At a threshold of ≥35, PHI + mpMRI demonstrated a NPV of 0.97 for excluding significant tumours. In mpMRI negative men, the PHI again improved prediction of significant cancers; AUC 0.76 vs 0.63 (mpMRI + PSA). Using a PHI≥35, only 1/21 significant cancers was missed and 31/73 (42%) men potentially spared a re-biopsy (NPV of 0.97, sensitivity 0.95). Decision curve analysis demonstrated clinically relevant utility of the PHI across threshold probabilities of 5–30%. In summary, the PHI adds predictive performance to image-guided detection of clinically significant cancers and has particular value in determining re-biopsy need in men with a negative mpMRI. PMID:27748407

  18. Standard Setting in Specific-Purpose Language Testing: What Can a Qualitative Study Add?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manias, Elizabeth; McNamara, Tim

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the views of nursing and medical domain experts in considering the standards for a specific-purpose English language screening test, the Occupational English Test (OET), for professional registration for immigrant health professionals. Since individuals who score performances in the test setting are often language experts…

  19. [Does the elicitation of stakeholder attitudes and preferences add valuable information to small-area analyses? A health policy perspective].

    PubMed

    Stock, S; Danner, M

    2014-02-01

    Small-area analyses are increasingly valuable for health-policy planning given the observed regional variation in health care. The combination of data from different sources enables researchers to describe and analyze structural, procedural, and outcome-related variation in health care. For variation that cannot be explained by these data, the attitudes, behaviors, and preferences of important stakeholders in health care-physicians and patients-might play an explanatory role. In this paper, we outline why stakeholder preference elicitation appears to be an important addition to small-area health-care analyses. Its inclusion in various decision-making contexts may help to explain and decrease unwarranted variation in health care. At the individual level, this could happen within any decision on health service use that is taken by physicians, patients, or-within a shared decision-making context-by both. At an aggregate level, the elicitation of preferences in guideline or health program development may increase stakeholder acceptance and consistent implementation. Different approaches to the elicitation of stakeholder preferences and potential areas for application within small-area research are outlined. The role of attitudes and preferences in explaining regional variation should be acknowledged by health-care policy makers and initiatives to include these in health-care decision-making at various levels should be supported.

  20. Analysis of the add-on effect of α-glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose in insulin therapy: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Feng-Fei; Fu, Li-Yuan; Xu, Xiao-Hua; Su, Xiao-Fei; Wu, Jin-Dan; Ye, Lei; Ma, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the add-on effect of acarbose therapy in oxidative stress, and the lipid and inflammatory profiles of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treated with insulin. This was an open and unblended study. Patients (n=134) with T2DM (haemoglobin A1c range, 9.0–12.0%) were recruited. After continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion for 7 days for initial rapid correction of hyperglycaemia, a premixed insulin titration period (duration, 4–6 days) subsequently followed. Patients were then randomized (1:1) into two groups as follows: An acarbose plus pre-mixed 30/70 insulin group or a pre-mixed 30/70 insulin only group; each group received treatment for 2 weeks. Plasma high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP), 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso PGF2α), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 levels were measured before and after therapy. Patients that received acarbose plus insulin demonstrated greater reduction in 8-iso PGF2α, Hs-CRP, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 levels when compared with the insulin only patients. Thus, acarbose add-on insulin therapy was identified to be associated with greater improvements in oxidative stress and inflammation in patients with T2DM when compared with those that received insulin only therapy.

  1. 'High profile health facilities can add to your trouble': Women, stigma and un/safe abortion in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Izugbara, Chimaraoke O; Egesa, Carolyne; Okelo, Rispah

    2015-09-01

    Public health discourses on safe abortion assume the term to be unambiguous. However, qualitative evidence elicited from Kenyan women treated for complications of unsafe abortion contrasted sharply with public health views of abortion safety. For these women, safe abortion implied pregnancy termination procedures and services that concealed their abortions, shielded them from the law, were cheap and identified through dependable social networks. Participants contested the notion that poor quality abortion procedures and providers are inherently dangerous, asserting them as key to women's preservation of a good self, management of stigma, and protection of their reputation, respect, social relationships, and livelihoods. Greater public health attention to the social dimensions of abortion safety is urgent.

  2. Counting on Working Memory when Learning to Count and to Add: A Preschool Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel, Marie-Pascale

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the author aimed at measuring how much limited working memory capacity constrains early numerical development before any formal mathematics instruction. To that end, 4- and 5-year-old children were tested for their memory skills in the phonological loop (PL), visuo-spatial sketchpad (VSSP), and central executive (CE); they also…

  3. Case Studies Add Value to a Diverse Teaching Portfolio in Science Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camill, Philip

    2006-01-01

    Together with lectures and labs, case studies assist students in acquiring content knowledge, process skills, and an understanding of the context and application of science to their daily lives. Cases make the process of scientific learning more genuine and rigorous, bringing alive classroom learning and helping students apply concepts to…

  4. Space station systems technology study (add-on task). Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    System concepts were characterized in order to define cost versus benefits for autonomous functional control and for controls and displays for OMV, OTV, and spacecraft servicing and operation. The attitude control topic focused on characterizing the Space Station attitude control problem through simulation of control system responses to structural disturbances. The first two topics, mentioned above, focused on specific technology items that require advancement in order to support an early 1990s initial launch of a Space Station, while the attitude control study was an exploration of the capability of conventional controller techniques.

  5. Using the PhenX Toolkit to Add Standard Measures to a Study.

    PubMed

    Hendershot, Tabitha; Pan, Huaqin; Haines, Jonathan; Harlan, William R; Junkins, Heather A; Ramos, Erin M; Hamilton, Carol M

    2011-10-01

    The PhenX (consensus measures for Phenotypes and eXposures) Toolkit (https://www.phenxtoolkit.org/) offers high-quality, well-established measures of phenotypes and exposures for use by the scientific community. The Toolkit contains 295 measures drawn from 21 research domains (fields of research). The measures were selected by Working Groups of domain experts using a consensus process that included input from the scientific community. The Toolkit provides a description of each PhenX measure, the rationale for including it in the Toolkit, protocol(s) for collecting the measure, and supporting documentation. Users can browse by measures, domains, or collections, or can search the Toolkit using the Smart Query Tool. Once users have selected some measures, they can download a customized Data Collection Worksheet that specifies what information needs to be collected, and a Data Dictionary that describes each variable included in their Data Collection Worksheet. To help researchers find studies with comparable data, PhenX measures and variables are being mapped to studies in the database of Genotypes and Phenotypes (dbGaP).

  6. 'High profile health facilities can add to your trouble': Women, stigma and un/safe abortion in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Izugbara, Chimaraoke O; Egesa, Carolyne; Okelo, Rispah

    2015-09-01

    Public health discourses on safe abortion assume the term to be unambiguous. However, qualitative evidence elicited from Kenyan women treated for complications of unsafe abortion contrasted sharply with public health views of abortion safety. For these women, safe abortion implied pregnancy termination procedures and services that concealed their abortions, shielded them from the law, were cheap and identified through dependable social networks. Participants contested the notion that poor quality abortion procedures and providers are inherently dangerous, asserting them as key to women's preservation of a good self, management of stigma, and protection of their reputation, respect, social relationships, and livelihoods. Greater public health attention to the social dimensions of abortion safety is urgent. PMID:26233296

  7. Parametric study of dielectric loaded surface plasmon polariton add-drop filters for hybrid silicon/plasmonic optical circuitry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dereux, A.; Hassan, K.; Weeber, J.-C.; Djellali, N.; Bozhevolnyi, S. I.; Tsilipakos, O.; Pitilakis, A.; Kriezis, E.; Papaioannou, S.; Vyrsokinos, K.; Pleros, N.; Tekin, T.; Baus, M.; Kalavrouziotis, D.; Giannoulis, G.; Avramopoulos, H.

    2011-01-01

    Surface plasmons polaritons are electromagnetic waves propagating along the surface of a conductor. Surface plasmons photonics is a promising candidate to satisfy the constraints of miniaturization of optical interconnects. This contribution reviews an experimental parametric study of dielectric loaded surface plasmon waveguides ring resonators and add-drop filters within the perspective of the recently suggested hybrid technology merging plasmonic and silicon photonics on a single board (European FP7 project PLATON "Merging Plasmonic and Silicon Photonics Technology towards Tb/s routing in optical interconnects"). Conclusions relevant for dielectric loaded surface plasmon switches to be integrated in silicon photonic circuitry will be drawn. They rely on the opportunity offered by plasmonic circuitry to carry optical signals and electric currents through the same thin metal circuitry. The heating of the dielectric loading by the electric current enables to design low foot-print thermo-optical switches driving the optical signal flow.

  8. Articulation Assistance for Columbus State Community College. Add-on Task #2: Pre-Tech for Allied Health. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goff, S. Judith; And Others

    This guide is intended for use in helping high school and entry-level community college students in acquiring the practical science skills necessary to ensure successful completion of an associate-level allied health program. The guide was originally developed to provide an articulation model for high school students interested in entering the…

  9. Feasibility study of veterinary antibiotic consumption in Germany - comparison of ADDs and UDDs by animal production type, antimicrobial class and indication

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Within a feasibility study the use of antibiotics in pigs and cattle was determined in 24 veterinary practices in Lower Saxony and on 66 farms in North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany. Focus was laid on the comparison of the Used Daily Doses (UDD) (dose per animal and day prescribed by the veterinarians) with the Defined Animal Daily Doses (ADD) (dose per animal and day calculated by means of recommended dosages and estimated live weights). Results For piglets and calves most of the UDD (50% and 46% of nUDD, respectively) were above the ADD (i.e. UDD/ADD-ratio above 1.25). Regarding sows, fattening pigs, dairy and beef cattle, most of the UDDs (49% to 65% of nUDD) were lower than the respective ADD (i.e. UDD/ADD-ratio below 0.8). In pigs, the UDDs of beta-lactams, fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins, and in cattle, those of macrolides and beta-lactams were often below the ADDs. Tetracyclines were frequently used above the recommended dose. Enteric diseases were more often treated below the recommended dose than respiratory diseases, possibly due to overestimation of the live weight (diarrhea in young animals, respiratory diseases in elder animals) and consequently overestimation of the recommended dose. Conclusion Comparisons between UDD and ADD can be used to observe differences between antimicrobials and trends in the usage of antibiotics. But individual treatment comparisons of UDD and ADD must be interpreted carefully, because they may be due to lower live weights than estimated. Correlating such data with data on the occurrence of resistant bacteria in future may help to improve resistance prevention and control. PMID:24401194

  10. Prospective open-label study of add-on and monotherapy topiramate in civilians with chronic nonhallucinatory posttraumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Berlant, Jeffrey L

    2004-01-01

    Background In order to confirm therapeutic effects of topiramate on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) observed in a prior study, a new prospective, open-label study was conducted to examine acute responses in chronic, nonhallucinatory PTSD. Methods Thirty-three consecutive newly recruited civilian adult outpatients (mean age 46 years, 85% female) with DSM-IV-diagnosed chronic PTSD, excluding those with concurrent auditory or visual hallucinations, received topiramate either as monotherapy (n = 5) or augmentation (n = 28). The primary measure was a change in the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) score from baseline to 4 weeks, with response defined as a ≥ 30% reduction of PTSD symptoms. Results For those taking the PCL-C at both baseline and week 4 (n = 30), total symptoms declined by 49% at week 4 (paired t-test, P < 0.001) with similar subscale reductions for reexperiencing, avoidance/numbing, and hyperarousal symptoms. The response rate at week 4 was 77%. Age, sex, bipolar comorbidity, age at onset of PTSD, duration of symptoms, severity of baseline PCL-C score, and monotherapy versus add-on medication administration did not predict reduction in PTSD symptoms. Median time to full response was 9 days and median dosage was 50 mg/day. Conclusions Promising open-label findings in a new sample converge with findings of a previous study. The use of topiramate for treatment of chronic PTSD, at least in civilians, warrants controlled clinical trials. PMID:15315714

  11. Lithium as add-on to quetiapine XR in adult patients with acute mania: a 6-week, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Bourin, Michel S; Severus, Emanuel; Schronen, Juan P; Gass, Peter; Szamosi, Johan; Eriksson, Hans; Chandrashekar, Hongally

    2014-01-01

    Quetiapine extended release (XR) and lithium are treatments with proven efficacy in acute mania. This randomized study evaluated the efficacy and safety of lithium or placebo as add-on to quetiapine XR in adult patients with manic or mixed symptoms of bipolar I disorder. In this 6-week, double-blind study (Trial D144AC00003), adult patients with DSM-IV-TR-diagnosed bipolar I disorder (current episode manic or mixed), a Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) total score ≥20, and score ≥4 on two of four core YMRS items were administered quetiapine XR (400 to 800 mg/day) and randomly assigned to receive add-on lithium (600 to 1,800 mg/day) or placebo. The primary efficacy end point was change in the YMRS total score from baseline to day 43, analyzed using a mixed-model for repeated measures (MMRM) approach. Secondary efficacy and safety end points were also measured. Rating scales were administered by trained staff. Three hundred fifty-six patients treated with quetiapine XR were randomized to add-on lithium (n = 173) or placebo (n = 183). Two hundred ninety-one patients (81.7%) completed the study. At day 43, least squares mean change in YMRS total score was -22.8 for add-on lithium and -20.1 for add-on placebo, a statistically significant treatment group difference of -2.69 (p < 0.001). On secondary measures, add-on lithium was associated with significant improvements in response, remission, illness severity, and overall illness versus add-on placebo (p < 0.05). The number needed to treat was 9.1 for response and 7.9 for remission for add-on lithium compared with add-on placebo. Lithium in combination with quetiapine XR was generally well tolerated, with a similar profile to quetiapine XR in combination with placebo. The addition of lithium to quetiapine XR therapy was associated with significantly greater efficacy than placebo as add-on and was generally well tolerated in patients with acute bipolar I mania. This study was registered under Clinicaltrials

  12. Can intermittent theta burst stimulation as add-on to psychotherapy improve nicotine abstinence? Results from a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Dieler, Alica C; Dresler, Thomas; Joachim, Kathrin; Deckert, Jürgen; Herrmann, Martin J; Fallgatter, Andreas J

    2014-01-01

    Smoking is among the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Discontinuing smoking can increase life expectancy to the presmoking level. Unaided attempts are often ineffective, strengthening the necessity of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), nicotine replacement or pharmacotherapy. Still, relapse rates are high. Recently, a modulation of nicotine craving, which predicts relapse, through transcranial magnetic stimulation to the prefrontal cortex was shown. In a pilot study, we investigated whether 4 sessions of intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) as add-on treatment to CBT reduces nicotine craving and improves long-term abstinence (at 3, 6 and 12 months). Smokers were randomly assigned to a treatment (n = 38) or a sham group (n = 36). Although we did not find reduced craving, we could show higher abstinence rates in the treatment group at 3 months. At 6 and 12 months abstinence rates did not differ significantly. Results at 12 months, however, have to be interpreted cautiously due to significant differences in the dropout rates between the two groups at this time point. We provide first evidence for a beneficial effect of additional iTBS on intermediate nicotine abstinence; however, the low number of iTBS sessions might have prevented longer effects. More lasting effects might be achieved by iTBS maintenance sessions in analogy to the treatment of depression. PMID:24924851

  13. Effects of add-on mirtazapine on neurocognition in schizophrenia: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Stenberg, Jan-Henry; Terevnikov, Viatcheslav; Joffe, Marina; Tiihonen, Jari; Tchoukhine, Evgueni; Burkin, Mark; Joffe, Grigori

    2010-05-01

    Mirtazapine added to antipsychotics appears to improve the clinical picture of schizophrenia, including both negative and positive symptoms. This study explored the effect of adjunctive mirtazapine on neurocognition in patients with schizophrenia who had shown an insufficient response to first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs). Thirty-seven schizophrenia patients, who were at least moderately ill despite their FGA treatment, received add-on mirtazapine (n=19) or placebo (n=18) in a 6-wk double-blind, randomized trial. Widely used neuropsychological tests were performed to explore visual-spatial functions, verbal and visual memory, executive functions, verbal fluency and general mental and psychomotor speed. The data were analysed on the modified intent-to-treat basis with last observation carried forward. False discovery rate was applied to correct for multiple testing. Mirtazapine outperformed placebo in the domains of visual-spatial ability and general mental speed/attentional control as assessed by, correspondingly, Block Design and Stroop dots. The difference in the degree of change (i.e. change while on mirtazapine minus that on placebo) was 18.6% (p=0.044) and 11.1% (p=0.044), respectively. Adjunctive mirtazapine might offer a safe, effective and cost-saving option as a neurocognitive enhancer for FGA-treated schizophrenia patients. Mirtazapine+FGA combinations may become especially useful in light of the currently increasing attention towards FGAs. Larger and longer studies that incorporate functional outcomes, as well as comparisons with second-generation antipsychotics are, however, still needed for more definite conclusions. PMID:19941694

  14. An Improved Equation for TBS and ADD: Establishing a Reliable Postmortem Interval Framework for Casework and Experimental Studies.

    PubMed

    Moffatt, Colin; Simmons, Tal; Lynch-Aird, Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    Megyesi et al.'s (J Forensic Sci, 2005, 50, 618) paper was important to forensic anthropology as it introduced a quantitative framework for estimating time since death in human cadavers, based upon physical appearance by way of scoring on a novel scale. However, errors concerning rounding, temperature scale, and incorrect use of a statistical regression model render their predictive formula unusable. Based upon only their more reliable data, a more appropriate regression model to predict accumulated degree days (ADD) from total body score (TBS) is presented. The new model is also a superior fit (r(2)  = 0.91) and produces markedly narrower confidence intervals than the original, which also allowed impossible, negative ADD values. Explanations of the shortcomings in the original analysis and calculations are presented, which it is hoped will help forensic scientists avoid making similar mistakes.

  15. Using Joint Interviews to Add Analytic Value.

    PubMed

    Polak, Louisa; Green, Judith

    2016-10-01

    Joint interviewing has been frequently used in health research, and is the subject of a growing methodological literature. We review this literature, and build on it by drawing on a case study of how people make decisions about taking statins. This highlights two ways in which a dyadic approach to joint interviewing can add analytic value compared with individual interviewing. First, the analysis of interaction within joint interviews can help to explicate tacit knowledge and to illuminate the range of often hard-to-access resources that are drawn upon in making decisions. Second, joint interviews mitigate some of the weaknesses of interviewing as a method for studying practices; we offer a cautious defense of the often-tacit assumption that the "naturalness" of joint interviews strengthens their credibility as the basis for analytic inferences. We suggest that joint interviews are a particularly appropriate method for studying complex shared practices such as making health decisions. PMID:25850721

  16. Cataloguing and displaying Web feeds from French language health sites: a Web 2.0 add-on to a health gateway.

    PubMed

    Kerdelhué, G; Thirion, B; Dahamna, B; Darmoni, S J

    2008-01-01

    Among the numerous new functionalities of the Internet, commonly called Web 2.0, Web syndication illustrates the trend for better and faster information sharing. Web feeds (a.k.a RSS feeds), which were used mostly on weblogs at first, are now also widely used in academic, scientific and institutional websites such as PubMed. As very few French language feeds were listed or catalogued in the Health field by the year of 2007, it was decided to implement them in the quality-controlled health gateway CISMeF ([French] acronym for Catalogue and Index of French Language Health Resources on the Internet). Furthermore, making full use of the nature of Web syndication, a Web feed aggregator was put online in to provide a dynamic news gateway called "CISMeF actualités" (http://www.chu-rouen.fr/actualites/). This article describes the process to retrieve and implement the Web feeds in the catalogue and how its terminology was adjusted to describe this new content. It also describes how the aggregator was put online and the features of this news gateway. CISMeF actualités was built accordingly to the editorial policy of CISMeF. Only a part of the Web feeds of the catalogue were included to display the most authoritative sources. Web feeds were also grouped by medical specialties and by countries using the prior indexing of websites with MeSH terms and the so-called metaterms. CISMeF actualités now displays 131 Web feeds across 40 different medical specialities, coming from 5 different countries. It is one example, among many, that static hypertext links can now easily and beneficially be completed, or replaced, by dynamic display of Web content using syndication feeds. PMID:18487704

  17. What Peer Mentoring Adds to Already Good Patient Care: Implementing the Carpeta Roja Peer Mentoring Program in a Well-Resourced Health Care System

    PubMed Central

    Knox, Lyndee; Huff, Jessica; Graham, Deborah; Henry, Michelle; Bracho, America; Henderson, Cynthia; Emsermann, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a peer support program on the health outcomes of patients already receiving well-organized, comprehensive diabetes care. METHODS We used a mixed-methods, nonrandomized, control-group design to evaluate the impact of a peer-mentoring program on the health outcomes and self-management behaviors of adults with type 2 diabetes in 15 primary care practices in San Antonio. Propensity score analysis, t-tests, and multivariable repeated analyses were used to evaluate impact. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 15 participants in the intervention group and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. RESULTS Both intervention and control groups showed significant improvement on all health indicators from baseline to 6-month follow-up (P<.001). Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) decreased slightly faster for patients in the intervention group (P=.04). Self-management behaviors improved significantly from baseline to 6-month follow-up for the intervention group. Interviewed participants also reported reductions in social isolation and extension of impact of health behavior changes to multiple generations of family members. CONCLUSIONS The addition of peer mentoring to already well-organized comprehensive diabetes care does not improve outcomes. However, findings suggest that the impact of the program extends to members of the participants’ families, which is an intriguing finding that deserves further study. PMID:26304973

  18. Antiproteinuric effect of add-on paricalcitol in CKD patients under maximal tolerated inhibition of renin-angiotensin system: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Whether paricalcitol (PCT) reduces proteinuria in the presence of intensified inhibition of Renin-Angiotensin-System (RAS) is poorly studied. We evaluated the antiproteinuric effect of PCT in non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with proteinuria greater than 0.5 g/24 h persisting despite anti-RAS therapy titrated to minimize proteinuria in the absence of adverse effects. Methods Forty-eight CKD patients were studied in the first six months of add-on oral PCT (1 mcg/day) and three months after drug withdrawal. Results Males were 87.5%, age 63 ± 14 yrs, systolic/diastolic blood pressure (BP) 143 ± 22/78 ± 11 mmHg, eGFR 29.7 ± 14.5 mL/min/1.73 m2, diabetes 40%, and cardiovascular disease 38%. At referral in the center (28 months prior to study baseline), proteinuria was 2.44 (95% CI 1.80-3.04) g/24 h with 6 patients not receiving any anti-RAS and 42 treated with a single agent, at low dosage in most cases. At study baseline, twenty patients were under 2–3 anti-RAS drugs while twenty-eight received 1 agent at full dose and proteinuria resulted to be reduced versus referral to 1.23 g/24 h (95%CI 1.00-1.51). Six months of add-on PCT significantly decreased proteinuria to 0.61 g/24 h (95%CI 0.40-0.93), with levels less than 0.5 g/24 h achieved in 37.5% patients, in the absence of changes of BP and GFR. Proteinuria recovered to basal value after drug withdrawal. The extent of antiproteinuric response to PCT was positively associated with diabetes, eGFR and daily Na excretion (R2 = 0.459, P < 0.0001). PTH decreased from 201 (IQR 92–273) to 83 (IQR 50–189) pg/mL. Conclusions In CKD patients, add-on PCT induces a significant reduction of proteinuria that is evident despite intensified anti-RAS therapy and larger in the presence of diabetes, higher GFR and unrestricted salt intake. PMID:23167771

  19. Study downplays health concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Stringer, J.

    1996-03-13

    A government-funded study has concluded that reformulated gasoline containing methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) does not increase short-term health risks when compared with gasoline that does not contain the additive. The study, performed by the Health Effects Institute (Cambridge, MA), compared data from dozens of animal, human, and epidemiological studies of health effects linked to oxygenates, including MTBE and ethanol, but did not find enough evidence to warrant an immediate reduction in oxygenate use. However, the study did recommend that additional research be conducted on possible health consequences associated with the gasoline additives, including neurotoxic effects, if oxygenates continue to be used long term. Oxygenates have been used in gasoline since 1992, when EPA mandated that several municipalities use MTBE or other oxygenates in reformulated gasoline to reduce carbon monoxide emissions and meet Clean Air Act requirements. Shortly after the program began, residents in areas where the oxygenates were used complained of nausea, headaches, and dizziness. The institute says the study--funded by EPA and the Centers for Disease Control--will be used for a broader review of gasoline oxygenates by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy.

  20. Add-on clinical effects of simvastatin and ondansetron in patients with schizophrenia stabilized on antipsychotic treatment: pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, Imran B.; Husain, Nusrat; Drake, Richard; Dunn, Graham; Kazmi, Ajmal; Hamirani, Munir M.; Rahman, Raza; Stirling, John; Deakin, William

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: There is some evidence that anti-inflammatory treatment may have beneficial effects in schizophrenia and major depression. Statins are cholesterol-lowering agents but have been found to be anti-inflammatory and also decrease C-reactive protein (CRP). Ondansetron is a serotonin (5-HT3) receptor antagonist widely used to prevent nausea and vomiting in patients receiving chemotherapy for cancer. Small studies have suggested that adjunctive ondansetron is efficacious against schizophrenia symptoms. We carried out a feasibility study in schizophrenia patients (within 5 years of first diagnosis) to explore the adjunctive use of simvastatin and ondansetron on positive, negative and general psychopathology. Methods: This was a 12-week rater-blind placebo-controlled study. A total of 36 patients with DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia were recruited, 12 in each arm. Patients were assessed at baseline and at 12 weeks using Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scale, Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS). Results: Both simvastatin and ondansetron provide some evidence of a reduction in symptoms compared with treatment as usual (TAU) on PANSS total score, although this was not statistically significant. In the secondary analyses, no significant differences were seen on CGI, GAF and AIMS. Conclusions: Anti-inflammatory treatments have been shown to have some beneficial effects in schizophrenia. Both simvastatin and ondansetron provide some evidence of a reduction in symptoms compared with TAU. This study has led to a larger Stanley Medical Research Institute (SMRI)-funded, double-blind, randomized control trial. PMID:25057343

  1. Double-blind, randomized sham controlled study of deep-TMS add-on treatment for negative symptoms and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Rabany, Liron; Deutsch, Lisa; Levkovitz, Yechiel

    2014-07-01

    Negative symptoms and cognitive deficits are considered core symptoms of schizophrenia, yet treatment for them remains inadequate. Deep-transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a novel technology that enables non-invasive stimulation of deep layers of the prefrontal cortex. Preliminary evidence suggests that deep-TMS could be effective in the treatment of negative symptoms and cognitive deficits. The current study is the first double-blind, randomized sham-controlled study to examine the feasibility of deep-TMS add-on treatment for negative symptoms and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Twenty daily H1 deep-TMS treatments (20Hz, 120% MT) were delivered, in a double-blind, randomized sham-controlled design (n=30). Extensive clinical and cognitive assessments were carried out throughout the study and for an additional one month follow-up period. The results indicate that at the end of the treatment period, negative symptoms (as indicated by the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS)) significantly reduced in the TMS group (-7.7), but not in the sham group (-1.9). Differences between the groups were not statistically significant.

  2. Business conversion. Catholic Healthcare West ends formal ties to church and hopes as Dignity Health that it can more easily add non-Catholic hospitals.

    PubMed

    Selvam, Ashok

    2012-01-30

    Catholic Healthcare West is now rechristened Dignity Health. Freed from its formal ties with the Roman Catholic Church, it's seeking to expand east by more easily adding hospitals that may have previously been apprehensive about adopting Catholic ethical directives. "I would say our vision has not changed and neither has our mission as being a voice for the voiceless," says Lloyd Dean, left, the system's president and CEO.

  3. A Study to Determine if Addition of Palatal Petechiae to Centor Criteria Adds More Significance to Clinical Diagnosis of Acute Strep Pharyngitis in Children.

    PubMed

    Nibhanipudi, Kumara V

    2016-01-01

    Objective. A study to determine if addition of palatal petechiae to Centor criteria adds more value for clinical diagnosis of acute strep pharyngitis in children. Hypothesis. In children, Centor Criteria does not cover all the symptoms and signs of acute strep pharyngitis. We hypothesize that addition of palatal petechiae to Centor Criteria will increase the possibility of clinical diagnosis of group A streptococcal pharyngitis in children. Methods. One hundred patients with a complaint of sore throat were enrolled in the study. All the patients were examined clinically using the Centor Criteria. They were also examined for other signs and symptoms like petechial lesions over the palate, abdominal pain, and skin rash. All the patients were given rapid strep tests, and throat cultures were sent. No antibiotics were given until culture results were obtained. Results. The sample size was 100 patients. All 100 had fever, sore throat, and erythema of tonsils. Twenty of the 100 patients had tonsillar exudates, 85/100 had tender anterior cervical lymph nodes, and 86/100 had no cough. In total, 9 out of the 100 patients had positive throat cultures. We observed that petechiae over the palate, a very significant sign, is not included in the Centor Criteria. Palatal petechiae were present in 8 out of the 100 patients. Six out of these 8 with palatal petechiae had positive throat culture for strep (75%). Only 7 out of 20 with exudates had positive strep culture. Sixteen out of the 100 patients had rapid strep test positive. Those 84/100 who had negative rapid strep also had negative throat culture. Statistics. We used Fisher's exact test, comparing throat culture positive and negative versus presence of exudates and palatal hemorrhages with positive and negative throat cultures and the resultant P value <.0001. Conclusion. Our study concludes that addition of petechiae over the palate to Centor Criteria will increase the possibility of diagnosing acute group A streptococcal

  4. A Study to Determine if Addition of Palatal Petechiae to Centor Criteria Adds More Significance to Clinical Diagnosis of Acute Strep Pharyngitis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Nibhanipudi, Kumara V.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. A study to determine if addition of palatal petechiae to Centor criteria adds more value for clinical diagnosis of acute strep pharyngitis in children. Hypothesis. In children, Centor Criteria does not cover all the symptoms and signs of acute strep pharyngitis. We hypothesize that addition of palatal petechiae to Centor Criteria will increase the possibility of clinical diagnosis of group A streptococcal pharyngitis in children. Methods. One hundred patients with a complaint of sore throat were enrolled in the study. All the patients were examined clinically using the Centor Criteria. They were also examined for other signs and symptoms like petechial lesions over the palate, abdominal pain, and skin rash. All the patients were given rapid strep tests, and throat cultures were sent. No antibiotics were given until culture results were obtained. Results. The sample size was 100 patients. All 100 had fever, sore throat, and erythema of tonsils. Twenty of the 100 patients had tonsillar exudates, 85/100 had tender anterior cervical lymph nodes, and 86/100 had no cough. In total, 9 out of the 100 patients had positive throat cultures. We observed that petechiae over the palate, a very significant sign, is not included in the Centor Criteria. Palatal petechiae were present in 8 out of the 100 patients. Six out of these 8 with palatal petechiae had positive throat culture for strep (75%). Only 7 out of 20 with exudates had positive strep culture. Sixteen out of the 100 patients had rapid strep test positive. Those 84/100 who had negative rapid strep also had negative throat culture. Statistics. We used Fisher’s exact test, comparing throat culture positive and negative versus presence of exudates and palatal hemorrhages with positive and negative throat cultures and the resultant P value <.0001. Conclusion. Our study concludes that addition of petechiae over the palate to Centor Criteria will increase the possibility of diagnosing acute group A streptococcal

  5. Cumulative abuse: do things add up? An evaluation of the conceptualization, operationalization, and methodological approaches in the study of the phenomenon of cumulative abuse.

    PubMed

    Scott-Storey, Kelly

    2011-07-01

    For women, any one type of abuse rarely occurs in isolation of other types, and a single abusive experience is often the exception rather than the norm. The importance of this concept of the cumulative nature of abuse and its negative impact on health has been well recognized within the empirical literature, however there has been little consensus on what to call this phenomenon or how to study it. For the most part researchers have operated on the premise that it is the sheer number of different types of cumulating abuse experiences that is primarily responsible for worse health outcomes among women. And although this simplistic 'more is worse' approach to conceptualizing and operationalizing cumulative abuse has proven to be a powerful predictor of poorer health, it contradicts growing empirical evidence that suggests not all victimizations are created equal and that some victimizations may have a more deleterious effect on health than others. Embedded in abuse histories are individual and abuse characteristics as well as other life adversities that need to be considered in order to fully understand the spectrum and magnitude of cumulative abuse and its impact on women's health. Furthermore, given the long-term and persistent effects of abuse on health it becomes imperative to not only evaluate recent abusive experiences, but rather all abuse experiences occurring across the lifespan. This review highlights and evaluates the conceptual, operational, and methodological challenges posed by our current methods of studying and understanding the phenomenon of cumulative abuse and suggests that this phenomenon and its relationship to health is much more complex than research is currently portraying. This paper calls for the urgent need for interdisciplinary collaboration in order to more effectively and innovatively study the phenomenon of cumulative abuse. PMID:21511684

  6. Replicative phenotyping adds value to genotypic resistance testing in heavily pre-treated HIV-infected individuals - the Swiss HIV Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Replicative phenotypic HIV resistance testing (rPRT) uses recombinant infectious virus to measure viral replication in the presence of antiretroviral drugs. Due to its high sensitivity of detection of viral minorities and its dissecting power for complex viral resistance patterns and mixed virus populations rPRT might help to improve HIV resistance diagnostics, particularly for patients with multiple drug failures. The aim was to investigate whether the addition of rPRT to genotypic resistance testing (GRT) compared to GRT alone is beneficial for obtaining a virological response in heavily pre-treated HIV-infected patients. Methods Patients with resistance tests between 2002 and 2006 were followed within the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS). We assessed patients' virological success after their antiretroviral therapy was switched following resistance testing. Multilevel logistic regression models with SHCS centre as a random effect were used to investigate the association between the type of resistance test and virological response (HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL or ≥1.5log reduction). Results Of 1158 individuals with resistance tests 221 with GRT+rPRT and 937 with GRT were eligible for analysis. Overall virological response rates were 85.1% for GRT+rPRT and 81.4% for GRT. In the subgroup of patients with >2 previous failures, the odds ratio (OR) for virological response of GRT+rPRT compared to GRT was 1.45 (95% CI 1.00-2.09). Multivariate analyses indicate a significant improvement with GRT+rPRT compared to GRT alone (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.31-2.15). Conclusions In heavily pre-treated patients rPRT-based resistance information adds benefit, contributing to a higher rate of treatment success. PMID:21255386

  7. Micronutrient Sprinkles Add More Bioavailable Iron to some Kenyan Complementary Foods: Studies Using an In Vitro Digestion/Caco-2 Cell Culture Model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Iron deficiency anemia is arguably the most important public health problem in developing countries. Home-fortification of complementary foods using micronutrient Sprinkles has been shown to reduce iron deficiency anemia in many resource poor settings. In this study, the benefit of using the micronu...

  8. Psychometric Properties and Norms of the German ABC-Community and PAS-ADD Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeilinger, Elisabeth L.; Weber, Germain; Haveman, Meindert J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to standardize and generate psychometric evidence of the German language versions of two well-established English language mental health instruments: the "Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community" (ABC-C) and the "Psychiatric Assessment Schedule for Adults with Developmental Disabilities" (PAS-ADD) Checklist. New…

  9. Low-dose add-on memantine treatment may improve cognitive performance and self-reported health conditions in opioid-dependent patients undergoing methadone-maintenance-therapy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Chen, Shiou-Lan; Lee, Sheng-Yu; Chen, Po See; Wang, Tzu-Yun; Lee, I Hui; Chen, Kao Chin; Yang, Yen Kuang; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Lu, Ru-Band

    2015-01-01

    An important interaction between opioid and dopamine systems has been indicated, and using opioids may negatively affect cognitive functioning. Memantine, a medication for Alzheimer's disease, increasingly is being used for several disorders and maybe important for cognitive improvement. Opioid-dependent patients undergoing methadone-maintenance-therapy (MMT) and healthy controls (HCs) were recruited. Patients randomly assigned to the experimental (5 mg/day memantine (MMT+M) or placebo (MMT+P) group: 57 in MMT+M, 77 in MMT+P. Those completed the cognitive tasks at the baseline and after the 12-week treatment were analyzed. Thirty-seven age- and gender-matched HCs, and 42 MMT+P and 39 MMT+M patients were compared. The dropout rates were 49.4% in the MMT+P and 26.3% in the MMT+M. Both patient groups' cognitive performances were significantly worse than that of the HCs. After the treatment, both patient groups showed improved cognitive performance. We also found an interaction between the patient groups and time which indicated that the MMT+M group's post-treatment improvement was better than that of the MMT+P group. Memantine, previously reported as neuroprotective may attenuate chronic opioid-dependence-induced cognitive decline. Using such low dose of memantine as adjuvant treatment for improving cognitive performance in opioid dependents; the dose of memantine might be a worthy topic in future studies. PMID:25989606

  10. Low-dose add-on memantine treatment may improve cognitive performance and self-reported health conditions in opioid-dependent patients undergoing methadone-maintenance-therapy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Chen, Shiou-Lan; Lee, Sheng-Yu; Chen, Po See; Wang, Tzu-Yun; Lee, I Hui; Chen, Kao Chin; Yang, Yen Kuang; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Lu, Ru-Band

    2015-05-19

    An important interaction between opioid and dopamine systems has been indicated, and using opioids may negatively affect cognitive functioning. Memantine, a medication for Alzheimer's disease, increasingly is being used for several disorders and maybe important for cognitive improvement. Opioid-dependent patients undergoing methadone-maintenance-therapy (MMT) and healthy controls (HCs) were recruited. Patients randomly assigned to the experimental (5 mg/day memantine (MMT+M) or placebo (MMT+P) group: 57 in MMT+M, 77 in MMT+P. Those completed the cognitive tasks at the baseline and after the 12-week treatment were analyzed. Thirty-seven age- and gender-matched HCs, and 42 MMT+P and 39 MMT+M patients were compared. The dropout rates were 49.4% in the MMT+P and 26.3% in the MMT+M. Both patient groups' cognitive performances were significantly worse than that of the HCs. After the treatment, both patient groups showed improved cognitive performance. We also found an interaction between the patient groups and time which indicated that the MMT+M group's post-treatment improvement was better than that of the MMT+P group. Memantine, previously reported as neuroprotective may attenuate chronic opioid-dependence-induced cognitive decline. Using such low dose of memantine as adjuvant treatment for improving cognitive performance in opioid dependents; the dose of memantine might be a worthy topic in future studies.

  11. Skylab oral health studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, L. R.; Frome, W. J.; Handler, S.; Wheatcroft, M. G.; Rider, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    Evaluation of Skylab crewmembers for mission related effects on oral health in relation to possible dental injuries provided the following distinctive changes: (1) increased counts of specific anaerobic and streptococcal components; (2) elevations in levels of secretory IgA concurrent with diminutions of salivary lysozyme; and (3) increases in dental calculus and gingival inflammations. The clinical changes are considered to be more influenced by the preexisting state of dental health than by any mission related effects.

  12. Acarbose improves glycemic control as add-on or monotherapy in Indian type-2 diabetes: Findings from the GlucoVIP multinational observational study

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Elizabeth; Sundaram, Meenakshi L.; Das, Rupam; Chauhan, Sushil Kumar; Deshpande, Sandeep; Ambhore, Sanjay; Rathod, Rahul; Manjrekar, Pravin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the efficacy and tolerability of the anti-diabetic agent acarbose (Glucobay®) as add-on or monotherapy in a range of patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), including those with cardiovascular morbidities in India. Materials and Methods: This was a part of a prospective, non-interventional, non-controlled, multicentre, multinational, observational study. The study included patients of either gender if they were aged at least 18 years and had untreated or pre-treated type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) or impaired glucose tolerance and no acarbose treatment within the 3 months before study inclusion. Results: In total, 1996 Indian patients were included in the effectiveness and 2010 in the safety analysis. Patients received acarbose (25-150 mg/day). The mean age of the patients was 50.1 years and the mean BMI was 27.2 kg/m2. Mean 2-h post-prandial plasma glucose (PPG) value and fasting blood glucose (FBG) decreased from 243.9 to 169.5 mg/dl and 158.3 to 120.4 mg/dl, respectively after the last follow-up of 12.4 weeks. The mean HbA1c value at initial visit was 8.4% and was 7.4% at the last follow-up visit. FBG, PPG and HbA1c deceased in 90.6%, 94.4% and 52.4% patients respectively, by the last follow-up visit. The mean decrease in weight and waist circumference was 1.4 kg and 1.6 cm, respectively by the last follow-up visit. Physicians assessed the efficacy of drug as positive response in “very good to good” in 91.08%, “sufficient” in 7.92% and “insufficient” in 0.90% of patients. Also, continuation of Acarbose was reported in 97.09% of patients. Adverse events were reported in 2.74% and drug-related adverse events were reported in 2.19% of patients. Majority of them were gastrointestinal adverse events but were not serious. Conclusion: Acarbose is effective and safe in Indian patients with T2DM. Further, it helps in weight reduction and has very good compliance in patients with T2DM. PMID:24910836

  13. How much sugar do consumers add to plain yogurts? Insights from a study examining French consumer behavior and self-reported habits.

    PubMed

    Saint-Eve, Anne; Leclercq, Hélène; Berthelo, Sébastien; Saulnier, Benjamin; Oettgen, Walther; Delarue, Julien

    2016-04-01

    In France, 50% of consumers sweeten plain yogurts prior to consumption. This study measured how much sugar consumers added under contextualized testing conditions. Participants (199 French adults who regularly consume plain yogurt adding sugar) were given a plain yogurt (125 g) at the end of a full meal and were allowed to sweeten it with their usual sweetener (caster sugar, honey, or jam). The quantities added were measured indirectly by weighing the sweetener containers before and after use; they were then converted into equivalent quantities of sucrose, or "added sugar." Participants were asked to describe their relative hunger, thirst, and liking for plain yogurt and to estimate the quantity of sweetener they had added. On average, participants added 13.6 g of sugar to their yogurts, which is higher than the 10.2 g of sugar contained in pre-sweetened commercial yogurts (125 g). More sugar was added when subjects used jam (24.4 g/yogurt, n = 36) as opposed to caster sugar (11.0 g/yogurt, n = 134) or honey (12.1 g/yogurt, n = 29). Age, socio-professional category, and BMI had a significant influence on added-sugar quantity. Based on behavior and attitude, participants could be separated into three evenly sized groups: "low sugar users" (n = 67, median = 6.1 g/yogurt), who tended to control their food intake, "medium sugar users" (n = 66, median = 11.4 g/yogurt), and "heavy sugar users" (n = 66, median = 19.9 g/yogurt) who sought immediate satisfaction. To our knowledge, this study is the first to provide robust data on the amount of sugar consumers add to plain yogurts in contextualized conditions (self preparation during a real meal). Our findings show that consumers underestimated by half the quantity of sweetener they added.

  14. Inhaled and systemic corticosteroid response in severe asthma assessed by alveolar nitric oxide: a randomized crossover pilot study of add-on therapy

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Peter A; Short, Philip M; Vaidyanathan, Sriram; Lipworth, Brian J

    2013-01-01

    AIMS Alveolar nitric oxide (CANO) is a potential biomarker of small airway inflammation. We investigated effects on CANO of the addition of coarse and fine particle inhaled corticosteroids to standard therapy in severe asthma. METHODS Severe asthmatics taking ≥1600 µg day−1 budesonide or equivalent performed a randomized open-label crossover study. Subjects with FEV1 < 80%, gas trapping and CANO≥2 ppb entered a 6 week dose-ramp run-in of fluticasone/salmeterol(FPSM) 250/50 µg twice daily for 3 weeks, then 500/50 µg twice daily for 3 weeks. Patients then received additional HFA-beclomethasone diproprionate (BDP) 200 µg twice daily or FP 250 µg twice daily for 3 weeks in a crossover. Participants then received prednisolone(PRED) 25 mg day−1 for 1 week. Nitric oxide, lung function, mannitol challenge, systemic inflammatory markers and urinary cortisol were measured. RESULTS Fifteen completed per protocol: mean (SD) age 51 (12) years, FEV1 58 (13)% predicted, residual volume 193 (100)% predicted and mannitolPD10 177 (2.8) µg. There was no significant difference between FPSM and add-on therapy for CANO. FPSM/BDP and FPSM/PRED suppressed broncial flux (JawNO) and FENO compared with FPSM alone, but there was no significant difference between FPSM/BDP and FPSM/FP. ECP, e-selectin and ICAM-1 were suppressed by FPSM/PRED compared with FPSM and FPSM/FP but not FPSM/BDP. Plasma cortisol was significantly suppressed by FPSM/PRED. CONCLUSION In severe asthma, CANO is insensitive to changes in dose and delivery of inhaled corticosteroids and is not suppressed by systemic corticosteroids. Additional inhaled HFA-BDP reduced FENO and JawNO without adrenal suppression. There was a trend to reduction in FENO and JawNO with additional FP but this did not reach statistical significance. PRED reduced FENO and JawNO with suppression of systemic inflammatory markers and urinary cortisol. PMID:22568828

  15. Study Guide in Health Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, George; Jablon, Bert

    Prepared to assist students at Empire State College in developing learning contracts for the study of the economics of health care delivery, this study guide discusses various aspects of the topic, suggests student projects, and provides an extensive bibliography. First, introductory material discusses the relationship of economics to health care…

  16. Agricultural Health Study

    Cancer.gov

    A prospective cohort study of commercial pesticide applicators, farmers and farmers' spouses in Iowa and North Carolina conducted in collaboration between the NIH and the U.S. Evironmental Protection Agency

  17. Time to add a new priority target for child injury prevention? The case for an excess burden associated with sport and exercise injury: population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Finch, Caroline F; Wong Shee, Anna; Clapperton, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the population-level burden of sports injuries compared with that for road traffic injury for children aged <15 years in Victoria, Australia. Design Retrospective observational study. Setting Analysis of routinely collected data relating to non-fatal hospital-treated sports injury and road traffic injury cases for children aged <15 years in Victoria, Australia, over 2004–2010, inclusive. Participants 75 413 non-fatal hospital-treated sports injury and road traffic injury cases in children aged <15 years. Data included: all Victorian public and private hospital hospitalisations, using the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Health Related Problems, 10th Revision, Australian Modification (ICD-10-AM) activity codes to identify sports-related cases and ICD-10-AM cause and location codes to identify road traffic injuries; and injury presentations to 38 Victorian public hospital emergency departments, using a combination of activity, cause and location codes. Main outcome measures Trends in injury frequency and rate were analysed by log-linear Poisson regression and the population-level injury burden was assessed in terms of years lived with disability (YLD), hospital bed-days and direct hospital costs. Results Over the 7-year period, the annual frequency of non-fatal hospital-treated sports injury increased significantly by 29% (from N=7405 to N=9923; p<0.001) but the frequency of non-fatal hospital-treated road traffic injury decreased by 26% (from N=1841 to N=1334; p<0.001). Sports injury accounted for a larger population health burden than did road traffic injury on all measures: 3-fold the number of YLDs (7324.8 vs 2453.9); 1.9-fold the number of bed-days (26 233 vs 13 886) and 2.6-fold the direct hospital costs ($A5.9 millions vs $A2.2 millions). Conclusions The significant 7-year increase in the frequency of hospital-treated sports injury and the substantially higher injury population-health burden (direct

  18. How can planning add value to obesity prevention programmes? A qualitative study of planning and planners in the Healthy Towns programme in England.

    PubMed

    May Goodwin, Denise; Mapp, Fiona; Sautkina, Elena; Jones, Andy; Ogilvie, David; White, Martin; Petticrew, Mark; Cummins, Steven

    2014-11-01

    The planning profession has been advocated as an untapped resource for obesity prevention, but little is known about how planners view their roles and responsibilities in this area. This paper investigates the role of planners in the Healthy Towns programme in England, and explores the limits and potential for obesity prevention within planning policy and practice. Using a qualitative approach, 23 planning stakeholders were interviewed, identifying the potential for planning in public health, particularly the 'health proofing' of local planning policy. National and local governments should better align planning and health policies to support collaboration between planners and public health practitioners.

  19. ADDE: Application Development for the Distributed Enterprise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franckson, Marcel; Hall, John; Helmerich, Alfred; Canadas, Rafael; Dehn, Martin

    1998-01-01

    Describes the Application Development for the Distributed Enterprise (ADDE) project, a methodological set that supports the design of distributed business processes and information and communication technologies. Discusses principles behind ADDE, guidance on definition and planning of application development, guidance on distributed application…

  20. Inviting Calm Within: ADD, Neurology, and Mindfulness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riner, Phillip S.; Tanase, Madalina

    2014-01-01

    The fourth edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" ("DSM IV") describes ADD as behaviorally observed impairments in attention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Officially known as AD/HD, we use ADD here because we are dealing primarily with attention, organizational, and impulsivity issues. A more…

  1. ADD Teacher Inservice Project. Final Grant Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Mark C.; Schulz, Eldon G.

    The report describes activities and achievements of the Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) Teacher Inservice Project. The inservice program was developed using a formal process to identify the critical issues related to ADD awareness, assessment, and intervention. Program content was designed to address critical issues identified in the research…

  2. 42 CFR 82.16 - How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy limitations of individual monitoring and missed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy... PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Dose Reconstruction Process § 82.16 How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy... to add this to the total dose estimate. For monitoring periods where external dosimetry data...

  3. Therapeutic Jurisprudence in Health Research: Enlisting Legal Theory as a Methodological Guide in an Interdisciplinary Case Study of Mental Health and Criminal Law.

    PubMed

    Ferrazzi, Priscilla; Krupa, Terry

    2015-09-01

    Studies that seek to understand and improve health care systems benefit from qualitative methods that employ theory to add depth, complexity, and context to analysis. Theories used in health research typically emerge from social science, but these can be inadequate for studying complex health systems. Mental health rehabilitation programs for criminal courts are complicated by their integration within the criminal justice system and by their dual health-and-justice objectives. In a qualitative multiple case study exploring the potential for these mental health court programs in Arctic communities, we assess whether a legal theory, known as therapeutic jurisprudence, functions as a useful methodological theory. Therapeutic jurisprudence, recruited across discipline boundaries, succeeds in guiding our qualitative inquiry at the complex intersection of mental health care and criminal law by providing a framework foundation for directing the study's research questions and the related propositions that focus our analysis.

  4. Demineralized Bone Matrix Add-On for Acceleration of Bone Healing in Atypical Subtrochanteric Femoral Fracture: A Consecutive Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Kulachote, Noratep; Sirisreetreerux, Norachart; Chanplakorn, Pongsthorn; Fuangfa, Praman; Suphachatwong, Chanyut; Wajanavisit, Wiwat

    2016-01-01

    Background. Delayed union and nonunion are common complications in atypical femoral fractures (AFFs) despite having good fracture fixation. Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) is a successfully proven method for enhancing fracture healing of the long bone fracture and nonunion and should be used in AFFs. This study aimed to compare the outcome after subtrochanteric AFFs (ST-AFFs) fixation with and without DBM. Materials and Methods. A prospective study was conducted on 9 ST-AFFs patients using DBM (DBM group) during 2013-2014 and compared with a retrospective consecutive case series of ST-AFFs patients treated without DBM (2010–2012) (NDBM group, 9 patients). All patients were treated with the same standard guideline and followed up until fractures completely united. Postoperative outcomes were then compared. Results. DBM group showed a significant shorter healing time than NDBM group (28.1 ± 14.4 versus 57.9 ± 36.8 weeks, p = 0.04). Delayed union was found in 4 patients (44%) in DBM group compared with 7 patients (78%) in NDBM group (p > 0.05). No statistical difference of nonunion was demonstrated between both groups (DBM = 1 and NDBM = 2, p > 0.05). Neither postoperative infection nor severe local tissue reaction was found. Conclusions. DBM is safe and effective for accelerating the fracture healing in ST-AFFx and possibly reduces nonunion after fracture fixation. Trial registration number is TCTR20151021001. PMID:27022610

  5. 7 CFR 360.500 - Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. 360... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.500 Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. A person may petition the Administrator to have a...

  6. 7 CFR 360.500 - Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. 360... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.500 Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. A person may petition the Administrator to have a...

  7. 7 CFR 360.500 - Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. 360... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.500 Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. A person may petition the Administrator to have a...

  8. 7 CFR 360.500 - Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. 360... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS § 360.500 Petitions to add a taxon to the noxious weed list. A person may petition the Administrator to have a...

  9. Safinamide as Add-On Therapy to Levodopa in Mid- to Late-Stage Parkinson’s Disease Fluctuating Patients: Post hoc Analysesof Studies 016 and SETTLE

    PubMed Central

    Cattaneo, Carlo; Sardina, Marco; Bonizzoni, Ermino

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies 016 and SETTLE showed that safinamide was safe and effective as adjunct therapy in patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD) and motor fluctuations. The addition of safinamide to a stable dose of levodopa alone or with other antiparkinsonian medications significantly increased ON time with no/non-troublesome dyskinesia, decreased OFF time and improved Parkinson’s symptoms. Objective: To evaluate the clinical effects of safinamide 100 mg/day on motor fluctuations and cardinal Parkinson’s symptoms in specific patient subgroups using pooled data from Studies 016 and SETTLE. Methods: Both studies were double blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, phase 3 trials which enrolled patients with mid- to late-stage PD experiencing motor fluctuations while receiving optimized and stable doses of levodopa, alone or with other dopaminergic treatments. The present post-hoc analyses assessed the change from baseline in ON time (with no or non-troublesome dyskinesia) and OFF time in subgroups of patients who were receiving only levodopa at baseline, who were classified as “mild fluctuators” (daily OFF time ≤4 h), and who were receiving concomitant dopaminergic therapy, with or without amantadine, and the effects of safinamide versus placebo on individual cardinal PD symptoms during ON time. Results: Safinamide significantly increased mean ON time (with no or non-troublesome dyskinesia) and reduced mean OFF time when used as first adjunct therapy in levodopa-treated patients and patients with mild motor fluctuations. Mean daily ON time (with no or non-troublesome dyskinesia) and OFF time were favorably changed, compared with placebo, to similar extents regardless of whether patients were receiving concomitant dopamine agonists, catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitors and amantadine. Additionally, safinamide improved bradykinesia, rigidity, tremor and gait. Conclusions: Safinamide was a safe and effective first adjunct therapy in levodopa

  10. How to add more "family" to the work-life-balance? - family friendliness in medical under- and postgraduate studies and the workplace.

    PubMed

    De Ridder, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Today universities have to compete for the best brains more than ever before. The issues of reconciliation of work/study and family and the work-life balance have become increasingly important recently in higher education policy development as higher education institutions in the competition for the best minds are already forced to tackle these issues, some of which are still novel to them, as they are faced with demographic change. High dropout rates among students with children, increasing shortages of physicians and high sector emigration and high levels of childlessness among graduates serve as indicators for urgent action towards more family-oriented university and faculty strategies. But how can medical schools, hospitals and (teaching) hospitals achieve a family-oriented profile? Which key players, which areas of higher education management are relevant to management and decision-making structures? What exemplary measures for designing family-friendly medical studies and work places offer success? The underrepresentation of women in the next generation of scientists also poses an additional challenge to the development of an innovative higher education policy if it is to be sustainable. Thus strategies promoting the next generation and family orientation are key factors for a future-oriented higher education policy. These factors should therefore be seen as leadership strategies which will introduce measures that will make (re)design the university's profile. To this end, a holistic approach which will lead to fundamental reforms of higher education structures which are outlined below and illustrated with examples are a prerequisite for successful implementation. PMID:22558028

  11. How to add more "Family" to the Work-Life-Balance? – Family Friendliness in Medical Under- and Postgraduate Studies and the Workplace

    PubMed Central

    De Ridder, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Today universities have to compete for the best brains more than ever before. The issues of reconciliation of work/study and family and the work-life balance have become increasingly important recently in higher education policy development as higher education institutions in the competition for the best minds are already forced to tackle these issues, some of which are still novel to them, as they are faced with demographic change. High dropout rates among students with children, increasing shortages of physicians and high sector emigration and high levels of childlessness among graduates serve as indicators for urgent action towards more family-oriented university and faculty strategies. But how can medical schools, hospitals and (teaching) hospitals achieve a family-oriented profile? Which key players, which areas of higher education management are relevant to management and decision-making structures? What exemplary measures for designing family-friendly medical studies and work places offer success? The underrepresentation of women in the next generation of scientists also poses an additional challenge to the development of an innovative higher education policy if it is to be sustainable. Thus strategies promoting the next generation and family orientation are key factors for a future-oriented higher education policy. These factors should therefore be seen as leadership strategies which will introduce measures that will make (re)design the university’s profile. To this end, a holistic approach which will lead to fundamental reforms of higher education structures which are outlined below and illustrated with examples are a prerequisite for successful implementation. PMID:22558028

  12. [Economic evaluation studies in health].

    PubMed

    Rovira-Forns, Joan; Antoñanzas-Villar, Fernando

    2005-12-01

    Clinical journals often publish economic evaluation studies of health technologies and programs. To improve the peer review process and, hence, the quality and validity of published studies, the British Medical Journal (BMJ) established publication guidelines for the publication of economic evaluations aimed at authors, reviewers and editors. The present article analyzes the opportunity of adopting the BMJ's or similar guidelines by Medicina Clínica and the probable effectiveness of this measure. The article concludes that although this initiative would probably improve the review process and the quality of the papers published, it might be worthwhile to review, up-date and adapt the BMJ guidelines to the Spanish context by means of a consensus-forming process. Finally, this article discusses the limitations of the peer review process in improving the quality and validity of economic evaluations and suggests some complementary measures, drawing on lessons and experiences from the field of clinical research.

  13. A future without health? Health dimension in global scenario studies.

    PubMed Central

    Martens, Pim; Huynen, Maud

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the health dimension and sociocultural, economic, and ecological determinants of health in existing global scenario studies. Not even half of the 31 scenarios reviewed gave a good description of future health developments and the different scenario studies did not handle health in a consistent way. Most of the global driving forces of health are addressed adequately in the selected scenarios, however, and it therefore would have been possible to describe the future developments in health as an outcome of these multiple driving forces. To provide examples on how future health can be incorporated in existing scenarios, we linked the sociocultural, economic, and environmental developments described in three sets of scenarios (special report on emission scenarios (SRES), global environmental outlook-3 (GEO3), and world water scenarios (WWS)) to three potential, but imaginary, health futures ("age of emerging infectious diseases", "age of medical technology", and "age of sustained health"). This paper provides useful insights into how to deal with future health in scenarios and shows that a comprehensive picture of future health evolves when all important driving forces and pressures are taken into account. PMID:14997242

  14. Reading Disabled and ADD Children: Similarities and Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykman, Roscoe A.; And Others

    This paper covers selected findings from three studies that compared different diagnostic groups: boys with attention deficit disorder (ADD) with or without hyperactivity (HY) but normal reading ability; boys with reading disability (RD) but not HY; and boys with both RD and HY. Studies examined an adapted task to assess frontal and temporal lobe…

  15. Alabama Allied Health Needs Assessment Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Libby V.

    This study assessed the supply of and demand for allied health professionals in Alabama, focusing on the relationship between supply and demand in various workplace settings in the context of Alabama's demographics, current educational programs, and projected changes in health care. The health care professions included in the study were all fields…

  16. Nonreciprocal photonic crystal add-drop filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Keyu; Xiao, Jun-Jun; Yin, Xiaobo

    2014-11-01

    We present a versatile add-drop integrated photonic filter (ADF) consisting of nonreciprocal waveguides in which the propagation of light is restricted in one predetermined direction. With the bus and add/drop waveguides symmetrically coupled through a cavity, the four-port device allows each individual port to add and/or drop a signal of the same frequency. The scheme is general and we demonstrate the nonreciprocal ADF with magneto-optical photonic crystals. The filter is immune to waveguide defects, allowing straightforward implementation of multi-channel ADFs by cascading the four-port designs. The results should find applications in wavelength-division multiplexing and related integrated photonic techniques.

  17. Nonreciprocal photonic crystal add-drop filter

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Keyu; Xiao, Jun-Jun; Yin, Xiaobo

    2014-11-24

    We present a versatile add-drop integrated photonic filter (ADF) consisting of nonreciprocal waveguides in which the propagation of light is restricted in one predetermined direction. With the bus and add/drop waveguides symmetrically coupled through a cavity, the four-port device allows each individual port to add and/or drop a signal of the same frequency. The scheme is general and we demonstrate the nonreciprocal ADF with magneto-optical photonic crystals. The filter is immune to waveguide defects, allowing straightforward implementation of multi-channel ADFs by cascading the four-port designs. The results should find applications in wavelength-division multiplexing and related integrated photonic techniques.

  18. The Care Tradition: Beyond "Add Women and Stir."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noddings, Nel

    2001-01-01

    Examines problems of curricular inclusion, emphasizing ways of including the interests and contributions of women in social studies curricula. After describing the inadequacy of the "add women and stir" approach to inclusion, the paper discusses the tradition of care long identified with female life, then explores ways to preserve and extend this…

  19. Shift-and-add for astronomical imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ribak, Erez; Hege, E. Keith; Strobel, Nicolas V.; Christou, Julian C.

    1989-01-01

    Diffraction-limited astronomical images have been obtained utilizing a variant of the shift-and-add method. It is shown that the matched filter approach for extending the weighted shift-and-add method reduces specklegrams from extended objects and from an object dominated by photon noise. The method is aberration-insensitive and yields very high dynamic range results. The iterative method for arriving at the matched filter does not automatically converge in the case of photon-noisy specklegrams for objects with more than one maximum.

  20. 76 FR 49508 - ``Add Us In'' Initiative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... Federal Register on August 4, 2011 at 76 FR 150. Specifically, we are correcting the Funding Opportunity... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of Disability Employment Program ``Add Us In'' Initiative AGENCY: Office of Disability...

  1. Challenges of health measurement in studies of health disparities.

    PubMed

    Burgard, Sarah A; Chen, Patricia V

    2014-04-01

    Health disparities are increasingly studied in and across a growing array of societies. While novel contexts and comparisons are a promising development, this commentary highlights four challenges to finding appropriate and adequate health measures when making comparisons across groups within a society or across distinctive societies. These challenges affect the accuracy with which we characterize the degree of inequality, limiting possibilities for effectively targeting resources to improve health and reduce disparities. First, comparisons may be challenged by different distributions of disease and second, by variation in the availability and quality of vital events and census data often used to measure health. Third, the comparability of self-reported information about specific health conditions may vary across social groups or societies because of diagnosis bias or diagnosis avoidance. Fourth, self-reported overall health measures or measures of specific symptoms may not be comparable across groups if they use different reference groups or interpret questions or concepts differently. We explain specific issues that make up each type of challenge and show how they may lead to underestimates or inflation of estimated health disparities. We also discuss approaches that have been used to address them in prior research, note where further innovation is needed to solve lingering problems, and make recommendations for improving future research. Many of our examples are drawn from South Africa or the United States, societies characterized by substantial socioeconomic inequality across ethnic groups and wide disparities in many health outcomes, but the issues explored throughout apply to a wide variety of contexts and inquiries.

  2. 42 CFR 90.11 - Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... health effects studies. 90.11 Section 90.11 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND... assessments and health effects studies. (a) ATSDR shall provide a report of the results of a health......

  3. 42 CFR 90.11 - Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... health effects studies. 90.11 Section 90.11 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND... assessments and health effects studies. (a) ATSDR shall provide a report of the results of a health......

  4. 42 CFR 90.11 - Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... health effects studies. 90.11 Section 90.11 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND... assessments and health effects studies. (a) ATSDR shall provide a report of the results of a health......

  5. 42 CFR 90.8 - Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.8 Section 90.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND...

  6. 42 CFR 90.11 - Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.11 Section 90.11 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES...

  7. 42 CFR 90.11 - Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.11 Section 90.11 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES...

  8. 42 CFR 90.8 - Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.8 Section 90.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND...

  9. 42 CFR 90.8 - Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.8 Section 90.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND...

  10. 42 CFR 90.8 - Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.8 Section 90.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND...

  11. 42 CFR 90.8 - Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.8 Section 90.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND...

  12. Cohort Profile: The Yorkshire Health Study.

    PubMed

    Green, Mark A; Li, Jessica; Relton, Clare; Strong, Mark; Kearns, Benjamin; Wu, Mengjun; Bissell, Paul; Blackburn, Joanna; Cooper, Cindy; Goyder, Elizabeth; Loban, Amanda; Smith, Christine

    2016-06-01

    The Yorkshire Health Study is a longitudinal observational regional health study collecting health information on the residents from the Yorkshire and Humberside region in England. The second wave of data collection is currently under way. The study aims to inform National Health Service (NHS) and local authority health-related decision making in Yorkshire, with wider implications from findings as well. The first wave contains records for 27 806 individuals (2010-12), aged between 16 and 85, from one part of Yorkshire (South Yorkshire), with the second wave expanding data collection to the whole of the Yorkshire and Humberside region. Data were collected on current and long-standing health, health care usage and health-related behaviours, with a particular focus on weight and weight management. The majority of individuals have also given consent for record linkage with routine clinical data, allowing the linking to disease diagnosis, medication use and health care usage. The study encourages researchers to utilize the sample through the embedding of randomized controlled trials, other controlled trials and qualitative studies. To access the anonymized data or use the sample to recruit participants to studies, researchers should contact Clare Relton (c.relton@sheffield.ac.uk). PMID:25011455

  13. A Pilot Study of the Tongue Pull-Back Exercise for Improving Tongue-Base Retraction and Two Novel Methods to Add Resistance to the Tongue Pull-Back.

    PubMed

    Slovarp, Laurie; King, Lauren; Off, Catherine; Liss, Julie

    2016-06-01

    This pilot study investigated the tongue pull-back (TPB) exercise to improve tongue-base retraction as well as two methods to add resistance to the TPB. Surface electromyography (sEMG) to the submental triangle was used as an indication of tongue-base activity on 13 healthy adults during: (1) saliva swallow, (2) 15 mL water swallow, (3) effortful swallow, (4) unassisted TPB, (5) TPB with added resistance by holding the tongue with gauze (finger-resisted TPB), and (6) TPB with the tongue clipped to a spring-loaded tension resistance device (device-resisted TPB). Order of the exercises was randomized. The exercises fell into two groups-weak and intense. Weak exercises included saliva swallow, water swallow, and unassisted TPB (mean sEMG = 19.07 μV, p = .593). Intense exercises included effortful swallow, finger-resisted TPB, and device-resisted TPB (mean sEMG = 36.44 μV, p = .315). Each intense exercise resulted in significantly higher mean sEMG peak amplitude than each weak exercise (p < .05), with one exception; the effortful swallow was not significantly different than the unassisted TPB (p = .171). This study provides preliminary evidence that the unassisted TPB may not be any more helpful for improving tongue-base retraction than normal swallowing. Adding resistance to the TPB by holding the tongue with gauze may be an effective alternative. This study also demonstrates proof-of-concept for creating a device to attach to the tongue and provide tension resistance during the TPB exercise. Further research with a more sophisticated design is needed before such a device can be fully developed and implemented clinically. PMID:26857465

  14. A Pilot Study of the Tongue Pull-Back Exercise for Improving Tongue-Base Retraction and Two Novel Methods to Add Resistance to the Tongue Pull-Back.

    PubMed

    Slovarp, Laurie; King, Lauren; Off, Catherine; Liss, Julie

    2016-06-01

    This pilot study investigated the tongue pull-back (TPB) exercise to improve tongue-base retraction as well as two methods to add resistance to the TPB. Surface electromyography (sEMG) to the submental triangle was used as an indication of tongue-base activity on 13 healthy adults during: (1) saliva swallow, (2) 15 mL water swallow, (3) effortful swallow, (4) unassisted TPB, (5) TPB with added resistance by holding the tongue with gauze (finger-resisted TPB), and (6) TPB with the tongue clipped to a spring-loaded tension resistance device (device-resisted TPB). Order of the exercises was randomized. The exercises fell into two groups-weak and intense. Weak exercises included saliva swallow, water swallow, and unassisted TPB (mean sEMG = 19.07 μV, p = .593). Intense exercises included effortful swallow, finger-resisted TPB, and device-resisted TPB (mean sEMG = 36.44 μV, p = .315). Each intense exercise resulted in significantly higher mean sEMG peak amplitude than each weak exercise (p < .05), with one exception; the effortful swallow was not significantly different than the unassisted TPB (p = .171). This study provides preliminary evidence that the unassisted TPB may not be any more helpful for improving tongue-base retraction than normal swallowing. Adding resistance to the TPB by holding the tongue with gauze may be an effective alternative. This study also demonstrates proof-of-concept for creating a device to attach to the tongue and provide tension resistance during the TPB exercise. Further research with a more sophisticated design is needed before such a device can be fully developed and implemented clinically.

  15. CHALLENGES OF HEALTH MEASUREMENT IN STUDIES OF HEALTH DISPARITIES

    PubMed Central

    Burgard, Sarah A.; Chen, Patricia V.

    2014-01-01

    Health disparities are increasingly studied in and across a growing array of societies. While novel contexts and comparisons are a promising development, this commentary highlights four challenges to finding appropriate and adequate health measures when making comparisons across groups within a society or across distinctive societies. These challenges affect the accuracy with which we characterize the degree of inequality, limiting possibilities for effectively targeting resources to improve health and reduce disparities. First, comparisons may be challenged by different distributions of disease and second, by variation in the availability and quality of vital events and census data often used to measure health. Third, the comparability of self-reported information about specific health conditions may vary across social groups or societies because of diagnosis bias or diagnosis avoidance. Fourth, self-reported overall health measures or measures of specific symptoms may not be comparable across groups if they use different reference groups or interpret questions or concepts differently. We explain specific issues that make up each type of challenge and show how they may lead to underestimates or inflation of estimated health disparities. We also discuss approaches that have been used to address them in prior research, note where further innovation is needed to solve lingering problems, and make recommendations for improving future research. Many of our examples are drawn from South Africa or the United States, societies characterized by substantial socioeconomic inequality across ethnic groups and wide disparities in many health outcomes, but the issues explored throughout apply to a wide variety of contexts and inquiries. PMID:24561776

  16. CANCER INCIDENCE IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) was undertaken to ascertain the etiology of cancers observed to be elevated in agricultural populations. Methods: The AHS is a large prospective, cohort study of private applicators and commercial applicators licensed to apply restricted use ...

  17. Cohort studies in health sciences librarianship

    PubMed Central

    Eldredge, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Question: What are the key characteristics of the cohort study design and its varied applications, and how can this research design be utilized in health sciences librarianship? Data Sources: The health, social, behavioral, biological, library, earth, and management sciences literatures were used as sources. Study Selection: All fields except for health sciences librarianship were scanned topically for either well-known or diverse applications of the cohort design. The health sciences library literature available to the author principally for the years 1990 to 2000, supplemented by papers or posters presented at annual meetings of the Medical Library Association. Data Extraction: A narrative review for the health, social, behavioral, biological, earth, and management sciences literatures and a systematic review for health sciences librarianship literature for the years 1990 to 2000, with three exceptions, were conducted. The author conducted principally a manual search of the health sciences librarianship literature for the years 1990 to 2000 as part of this systematic review. Main Results: The cohort design has been applied to answer a wide array of theoretical or practical research questions in the health, social, behavioral, biological, and management sciences. Health sciences librarianship also offers several major applications of the cohort design. Conclusion: The cohort design has great potential for answering research questions in the field of health sciences librarianship, particularly evidence-based librarianship (EBL), although that potential has not been fully explored. PMID:12398244

  18. Follow Up Study of Health Science Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Joan D.; Peregoy, Stephen

    This document reports on a study conducted to assess (1) the status of health science graduates of Towson State University (Maryland) and (2) their impressions of the value of courses offered within the department as they pertained to their present health education job positions. Seventy-three graduates from the period 1971 to 1976, grouped…

  19. Organizational capacities for health promotion implementation: results from an international hospital study.

    PubMed

    Röthlin, Florian; Schmied, Hermann; Dietscher, Christina

    2015-06-01

    In this article, organizational structures in hospitals are discussed as possible capacities for hospital health promotion (HP) implementation, based on data from the PRICES-HPH study. PRICES-HPH is a cross-sectional evaluation study of the International Network of Health Promoting Hospitals & Health Services (HPH-Network) and was conducted in 2008-2012. Data from 159 acute care hospitals were used in the analysis. Twelve organizational structures, which were denoted as possible organizational health promotion capacities in previous literature, were tested for their association with certain strategic HP implementation approaches. Four organizational structures were significantly (p = 0.05) associated with one or more elaborate and comprehensive strategic HP implementation approaches: (1) a health promotion specific quality assessment routine; (2) an official hospital health promotion team; (3) a fulltime hospital health promotion coordinator; and (4) officially documented health promotion policies, strategies or standards. The results add further evidence to the importance of organizational capacity structures for hospital health promotion and identify four tangible structures as likely candidates for organizational HP capacities in hospitals.

  20. Health parties for African American study recruitment.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Georgia Robins; York, Crystal; Madlensky, Lisa; Gibson, Kathi; Wasserman, Linda; Rosenthal, Eric; Barbier, Leslie; Newman, Vicky A; Tso, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    Innovative strategies are needed to increase minorities' research participation. Using existing social networks within the African American community, "home health parties" were tested as a way to recruit African American women to a breast cancer control study. Parties included social, educational, and recruitment components. All women attending health parties consented, completed a survey, and received the study's preliminary breast cancer risk assessment. There were no differences in rates of participation for subsequent study components between women recruited via parties versus other methods. Health parties are viable recruitment strategies, reduce barriers to participation, provide a supportive environment, and are relatively inexpensive. PMID:17020516

  1. Local public health cost study in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Hadley, Carol L; Feldman, Lynne; Toomey, Kathleen E

    2004-01-01

    Development of a uniform cost study methodology for local health department services in Georgia began with a desire to negotiate cost-based reimbursement from Medicaid. Managed care and the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act requirements for common coding standards added impetus to Georgia's efforts to document the cost of local public health. With a determination that the result was achievable, the Division of Public Health contracted with a medical practice management firm. What followed included a major team effort with active working groups of county, district, and state representatives. A template was developed by the consultants to compile the cost report and automated applications were installed. Statewide training engaged the local public health workforce and led to a successful pilot project. This article describes the interactive process that led ultimately to the ability of every county in the state to produce a valid cost report. The cost of direct services provided for individuals by county health departments can now be calculated with a cost per relative value unit. The cost report also includes the cost of environmental health, dental health, population-based services and all other local public health services. A brief description of the methodology is presented.

  2. Add-on unidirectional elastic metamaterial plate cloak

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Min Kyung; Kim, Yoon Young

    2016-01-01

    Metamaterial cloaks control the propagation of waves to make an object invisible or insensible. To manipulate elastic waves in space, a metamaterial cloak is typically embedded in a base system that includes or surrounds a target object. The embedding is undesirable because it structurally weakens or permanently alters the base system. In this study, we propose a new add-on metamaterial elastic cloak that can be placed over and mechanically coupled with a base structure without embedding. We designed an add-on type annular metamaterial plate cloak through conformal mapping, fabricated it and performed cloaking experiments in a thin-plate with a hole. Experiments were performed in a thin plate by using the lowest symmetric Lamb wave centered at 100 kHz. As a means to check the cloaking performance of the add-on elastic plate cloak, possibly as a temporary stress reliever or a so-called “stress bandage”, the degree of stress concentration mitigation and the recovery from the perturbed wave field due to a hole were investigated. PMID:26860896

  3. Add-on unidirectional elastic metamaterial plate cloak.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min Kyung; Kim, Yoon Young

    2016-01-01

    Metamaterial cloaks control the propagation of waves to make an object invisible or insensible. To manipulate elastic waves in space, a metamaterial cloak is typically embedded in a base system that includes or surrounds a target object. The embedding is undesirable because it structurally weakens or permanently alters the base system. In this study, we propose a new add-on metamaterial elastic cloak that can be placed over and mechanically coupled with a base structure without embedding. We designed an add-on type annular metamaterial plate cloak through conformal mapping, fabricated it and performed cloaking experiments in a thin-plate with a hole. Experiments were performed in a thin plate by using the lowest symmetric Lamb wave centered at 100 kHz. As a means to check the cloaking performance of the add-on elastic plate cloak, possibly as a temporary stress reliever or a so-called "stress bandage", the degree of stress concentration mitigation and the recovery from the perturbed wave field due to a hole were investigated. PMID:26860896

  4. Add-on unidirectional elastic metamaterial plate cloak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Min Kyung; Kim, Yoon Young

    2016-02-01

    Metamaterial cloaks control the propagation of waves to make an object invisible or insensible. To manipulate elastic waves in space, a metamaterial cloak is typically embedded in a base system that includes or surrounds a target object. The embedding is undesirable because it structurally weakens or permanently alters the base system. In this study, we propose a new add-on metamaterial elastic cloak that can be placed over and mechanically coupled with a base structure without embedding. We designed an add-on type annular metamaterial plate cloak through conformal mapping, fabricated it and performed cloaking experiments in a thin-plate with a hole. Experiments were performed in a thin plate by using the lowest symmetric Lamb wave centered at 100 kHz. As a means to check the cloaking performance of the add-on elastic plate cloak, possibly as a temporary stress reliever or a so-called “stress bandage”, the degree of stress concentration mitigation and the recovery from the perturbed wave field due to a hole were investigated.

  5. Contributions of the Nurses’ Health Studies to Reproductive Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Gaskins, Audrey J.; Farland, Leslie V.; Terry, Kathryn L.; Zhang, Cuilin; Missmer, Stacey A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To review the Nurses’ Health Study’s (NHS’s) contribution to identifying risk factors and long-term health consequences of reproductive events. Methods. We performed a narrative review of the NHS I, NHS II, NHS3, and Growing Up Today Study (GUTS) publications between 1976 and 2016. Results. Collection of detailed reproductive history to identify breast cancer risk factors allowed the NHS to document an association between menstrual irregularities, a proxy for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The NHS II found that infertility associated with ovulation problems and gestational diabetes are largely preventable through diet and lifestyle modification. It also identified developmental and nutritional risk factors for pregnancy loss, endometriosis, and uterine leiomyomata. As women in NHS II age, it has become possible to address questions regarding long-term health consequences of pregnancy complications and benign gynecologic conditions on chronic disease risk. Furthermore, the NHS3 and GUTS are allowing new lines of research into human fertility, PCOS, and transgenerational effects of environmental exposures. Conclusions. The multigenerational resources of the NHSs and GUTS, including linkages of related individuals across cohorts, can improve women’s health from preconception through late adulthood and onto the next generation. PMID:27459445

  6. [Studies on tea and health].

    PubMed

    Han, Chi

    2011-11-01

    Many studies, both national and international, have shown that tea has protective effects on many chronic diseases and their risk factors. In cancer prevention, our studies indicated that tea drinking could inhibit the carcinogenicity of various chemical carcinogens, including oral tumors induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) in Golden hamsters, esophageal tumors in rats by blocking in vivo synthesis of N-Nitroso-methylbenzylamine (NMBzA), esophageal cancer induced by NMBzA in rats, precancerous liver lesions (r-GT and GST-P) induced by diethylnitrosamine (DENA) in rats, intestinal preneoplastic lesion (ACF) and intestinal tumors induced by 1,2-dimethyl-hydrazine (DMH) in rats, lung carcinoma induced by nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone(NNK) in A/J mice. Our studies have also shown that the protective effects of tea against cancer is a combined effects of various tea ingredients, among which the major ones are polyphenols and tea pigments. Based on animal studies, antioxidant properties, protection against DNA damage and modulation of immune functions were found to be the main mechanisms of anticancer effects of tea. In human trials, tea drinking showed protective effects against oxidative damage and DNA damage caused by cigarette smoking. Mixed tea drinking significantly blocked lesion progress in patients with oral mucosa leukoplakia, therefore, demonstrated its protective effects on oral cancer. Our studies have also shown effects of tea on prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). For example, tea pigments was found to significantly inhibit LDL oxidation induced by Cu2+, Fe2+ in in vitro studies. In vivo studies showed that tea could prevent blood coagulation, facilitate fibrinogen dissolution, inhibit platelet aggregation, lower endothelin levels, enhance GSH-Px activities, protect against oxidated LDL-induced damage in endothelium cells, and prevent atherosclerosis of coronary arteries. The mechanisms of these protective

  7. 78 FR 98 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from the United...

  8. 77 FR 76490 - Determination Concerning a Petition to Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition to Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from the Weldon Spring...

  9. 78 FR 18351 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from the Hanford site...

  10. 77 FR 58383 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from Titanium...

  11. 77 FR 76490 - Determination Concerning a Petition to Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition to Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from the Mound Plant...

  12. 78 FR 64502 - Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition To Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from the Pantex Plant...

  13. 78 FR 64501 - Determination Concerning a Petition to Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition to Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure... notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from Baker Brothers,...

  14. User's manual for Axisymmetric Diffuser Duct (ADD) code. Volume 1: General ADD code description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, O. L.; Hankins, G. B., Jr.; Edwards, D. E.

    1982-01-01

    This User's Manual contains a complete description of the computer codes known as the AXISYMMETRIC DIFFUSER DUCT code or ADD code. It includes a list of references which describe the formulation of the ADD code and comparisons of calculation with experimental flows. The input/output and general use of the code is described in the first volume. The second volume contains a detailed description of the code including the global structure of the code, list of FORTRAN variables, and descriptions of the subroutines. The third volume contains a detailed description of the CODUCT code which generates coordinate systems for arbitrary axisymmetric ducts.

  15. [Ecological studies in environmental health: Beyond epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Blanco-Becerra, Luis C; Pinzón-Flórez, Carlos E; Idrovo, Álvaro J

    2015-08-01

    Ecological studies provide important and frequent sources of evidence of environmental health, since their unit of analysis is populations. This review summarizes the foundations of ecological studies with the premise that they can be performed using quantitative, qualitative or mixed methods. It presents the logic behind their design, their role in exploring causality, the variables and categories of analysis and the design principles and techniques used to collect data. Examples of ecological studies performed in Latin America are then presented, as well as some common methodological problems and options to address them. Lastly, the relevance of quantitative and qualitative ecological studies to environmental health as a way to overcome the dominance of conceptual and methodological individualism is highlighted, though ecological studies alone do not suffice for studying population health.

  16. [Ecological studies in environmental health: Beyond epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Blanco-Becerra, Luis C; Pinzón-Flórez, Carlos E; Idrovo, Álvaro J

    2015-08-01

    Ecological studies provide important and frequent sources of evidence of environmental health, since their unit of analysis is populations. This review summarizes the foundations of ecological studies with the premise that they can be performed using quantitative, qualitative or mixed methods. It presents the logic behind their design, their role in exploring causality, the variables and categories of analysis and the design principles and techniques used to collect data. Examples of ecological studies performed in Latin America are then presented, as well as some common methodological problems and options to address them. Lastly, the relevance of quantitative and qualitative ecological studies to environmental health as a way to overcome the dominance of conceptual and methodological individualism is highlighted, though ecological studies alone do not suffice for studying population health. PMID:26535754

  17. Independents add gas reserves, forego romance

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, D.

    1981-08-01

    Incentive pricing for low-permeability reservoirs and tax advantages for drilling them are 2 big reasons why more independents may start making a special effort to add gas reserves to their inventories. If so, it will be a change from past practices, which saw independents build up big gas positions by circumstance rather than by intention. There are always major refiners ready and willing to buy whole crude oil reservoirs from small producers, but purchasers willing to take gas fields in a single investment are few and far between. Lower-than-normal return on equity during the first 20 years, plus the heavy front-end cost of a frac necessary to produce the tight gas might dissuade independents from drilling tight gas sands, but those liabilities are offset by the higher price tight gas gets and the peculiar tax advantages of exploring for it that make a nice fit with the small operator's way of doing business.

  18. More Than Half of Americans Have Chronic Health Problem: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... person's health conditions along with poverty and other social factors." The study authors are with the Rollins School of Public Health at Emory University in Atlanta. SOURCE: Psychology, Health & Medicine , news release, Oct. 25, 2016 HealthDay ...

  19. Psychedelics and Mental Health: A Population Study

    PubMed Central

    Krebs, Teri S.; Johansen, Pål-Ørjan

    2013-01-01

    Background The classical serotonergic psychedelics LSD, psilocybin, mescaline are not known to cause brain damage and are regarded as non-addictive. Clinical studies do not suggest that psychedelics cause long-term mental health problems. Psychedelics have been used in the Americas for thousands of years. Over 30 million people currently living in the US have used LSD, psilocybin, or mescaline. Objective To evaluate the association between the lifetime use of psychedelics and current mental health in the adult population. Method Data drawn from years 2001 to 2004 of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health consisted of 130,152 respondents, randomly selected to be representative of the adult population in the United States. Standardized screening measures for past year mental health included serious psychological distress (K6 scale), mental health treatment (inpatient, outpatient, medication, needed but did not receive), symptoms of eight psychiatric disorders (panic disorder, major depressive episode, mania, social phobia, general anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and non-affective psychosis), and seven specific symptoms of non-affective psychosis. We calculated weighted odds ratios by multivariate logistic regression controlling for a range of sociodemographic variables, use of illicit drugs, risk taking behavior, and exposure to traumatic events. Results 21,967 respondents (13.4% weighted) reported lifetime psychedelic use. There were no significant associations between lifetime use of any psychedelics, lifetime use of specific psychedelics (LSD, psilocybin, mescaline, peyote), or past year use of LSD and increased rate of any of the mental health outcomes. Rather, in several cases psychedelic use was associated with lower rate of mental health problems. Conclusion We did not find use of psychedelics to be an independent risk factor for mental health problems. PMID:23976938

  20. The Tuskegee Syphilis Study and women's health.

    PubMed

    Gamble, V N

    1997-01-01

    In May 1997, President Bill Clinton apologized for the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. The President's action underscores that in the 25 years since its public revelation, the study has moved from a singular historical event to a powerful metaphor that symbolizes racism in medicine, misconduct in human research, the arrogance of physicians, and government abuse of black people. The Tuskegee Syphilis Study also has implications for women's health. Discussion of the study usually ignores its impact on the wives of the victims. In addition, African-American women may be more reluctant to participate in clinical trials because of the shadow cast by the syphilis study and other incidents of medical abuse. Finally, the Tuskegee Syphilis Study reminds us that the battle against racism must be an integral part of the campaign to improve women's health.

  1. Attitude change among health educators studying abroad.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, S

    1983-01-01

    This study examined change in attitudes about international health efforts among health educators who participated in graduate study-abroad programs in Japan and Jamaica. No statistically significant changes were found in levels of hostility toward other nations or attitude toward international health cooperation. However, correlations found between individual attitude change and measures of dogmatism and tolerance for ambiguity suggest that participants may vary in their receptiveness to the messages of such programs, and that openness of participant's belief systems may have some role in the success of such programs. The nature of this role is unclear since more dogmatic participants in the Japan group reported greater attitude change than their more open minded peers. This result was opposite to that expected and was not found for the Jamaica group.

  2. Consumer's perceptions of Recovery-oriented mental health services: an Australian case-study analysis.

    PubMed

    Hungerford, Catherine; Fox, Catherine

    2014-06-01

    Recovery approaches to health care now feature in the mental health policies of many Western countries. There are, however, continuing challenges to the operationalization of these approaches. This study aimed to identify the nature of these challenges for a public mental health service organization located in a major urban center in southeastern Australia, where Recovery-oriented services have been implemented; and to develop recommendations to address these challenges. These aims were achieved by asking mental health consumers about their experiences of the implementation of Recovery-oriented services. Research participants described an uncertainty in health professionals and consumers alike about how to practice within a Recovery model, with many health professionals taking a "hands off" approach in the name of Recovery, rather than working in partnership with consumers and other stakeholders, including the community managed organizations. Solutions to these challenges included more targeted, practice-focused education for consumers and health professionals, with this education provided by consumer representatives. Insights derived from this research add to the growing body of evidence related to the implementation of Recovery-oriented services in Western countries.

  3. A Canadian exploratory study to define a measure of health literacy.

    PubMed

    Begoray, Deborah Leslie; Kwan, Brenda

    2012-03-01

    This study undertook a qualitative exploration of an operational definition of health literacy and an examination of quantitative measures of health literacy skills. We interviewed 229 older Canadian adults. First we engaged them in open-ended discussions about their search for information on a self-selected health topic. Next we administered nine self-report items on health literacy skills, and then task-performance items. Task-performance questions were based on two published reading passages on five levels of difficulty to measure 'understanding' of health-related material. The Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM) was also administered as the comparison for criterion-related validity. Our open-ended questions elicited responses about the processes that people undergo when they attempt to access, understand, appraise and communicate health information. Qualitative findings revealed complexities in participants' interpretation of the meaning of all four health literacy skills. These descriptive findings add new knowledge about health literacy as a construct. Participants agreed with most of the self-report statements, thus indicating high belief in their own health literacy. REALM scores ranged from 45 to 66 with an average of 65 and standard deviation of 2.5. Quantitative scores on the reading passages were modestly correlated with scores on the REALM. The sum scale of self-report items, however, did not correlate with task-performance items, suggesting that the different types of items may not be measuring the same construct. We suggest that self-report items need more development and validation. Our study makes a contribution in exploring the complexities of measuring health literacy skills for general health contexts.

  4. Methods: School Health Policies and Programs Study 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyle, Tonja M.; Brener, Nancy D.; Kann, Laura; Ross, James G.; Roberts, Alice M.; Iachan, Ronaldo; Robb, William H.; McManus, Tim

    2007-01-01

    Background: The School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) 2006 examined 8 components of school health programs: health education, physical education and activity, health services, mental health and social services, nutrition services, healthy and safe school environment, faculty and staff health promotion, and family and community…

  5. 42 CFR 83.19 - How can the Secretary cancel or modify a final decision to add a class of employees to the Cohort?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of 42 CFR part 82. (b) Before canceling a final decision to add a class or modifying a final decision... conducting dose reconstructions under 42 CFR part 82; the analysis will be performed consistently with the... decision to add a class of employees to the Cohort? 83.19 Section 83.19 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH...

  6. 42 CFR 83.19 - How can the Secretary cancel or modify a final decision to add a class of employees to the Cohort?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of 42 CFR part 82. (b) Before canceling a final decision to add a class or modifying a final decision... conducting dose reconstructions under 42 CFR part 82; the analysis will be performed consistently with the... decision to add a class of employees to the Cohort? 83.19 Section 83.19 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH...

  7. SHPPS 2006: School Health Policies and Programs Study--Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) is a national survey periodically conducted to assess school health policies and programs at the state, district, school, and classroom levels. This brief reports study results in the following areas, as they relate to nutrition: (1) Health Education; (2) Health Services and Mental Health and…

  8. EVA Health and Human Performance Benchmarking Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abercromby, A. F.; Norcross, J.; Jarvis, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple HRP Risks and Gaps require detailed characterization of human health and performance during exploration extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks; however, a rigorous and comprehensive methodology for characterizing and comparing the health and human performance implications of current and future EVA spacesuit designs does not exist. This study will identify and implement functional tasks and metrics, both objective and subjective, that are relevant to health and human performance, such as metabolic expenditure, suit fit, discomfort, suited postural stability, cognitive performance, and potentially biochemical responses for humans working inside different EVA suits doing functional tasks under the appropriate simulated reduced gravity environments. This study will provide health and human performance benchmark data for humans working in current EVA suits (EMU, Mark III, and Z2) as well as shirtsleeves using a standard set of tasks and metrics with quantified reliability. Results and methodologies developed during this test will provide benchmark data against which future EVA suits, and different suit configurations (eg, varied pressure, mass, CG) may be reliably compared in subsequent tests. Results will also inform fitness for duty standards as well as design requirements and operations concepts for future EVA suits and other exploration systems.

  9. Maternal Health: A Case Study of Rajasthan

    PubMed Central

    Iyengar, Kirti; Gupta, Vikram

    2009-01-01

    This case study has used the results of a review of literature to understand the persistence of poor maternal health in Rajasthan, a large state of north India, and to make some conclusions on reasons for the same. The rate of reduction in Rajasthan's maternal mortality ratio (MMR) has been slow, and it has remained at 445 per 1000 livebirths in 2003. The government system provides the bulk of maternal health services. Although the service infrastructure has improved in stages, the availability of maternal health services in rural areas remains poor because of low availability of human resources, especially midwives and clinical specialists, and their non-residence in rural areas. Various national programmes, such as the Family Planning, Child Survival and Safe Motherhood and Reproductive and Child Health (phase 1 and 2), have attempted to improve maternal health; however, they have not made the desired impact either because of an earlier emphasis on ineffective strategies, slow implementation as reflected in the poor use of available resources, or lack of effective ground-level governance, as exemplified by the widespread practice of informally charging users for free services. Thirty-two percent of women delivered in institutions in 2005-2006. A 2006 government scheme to give financial incentives for delivering in government institutions has led to substantial increase in the proportion of institutional deliveries. The availability of safe abortion services is limited, resulting in a large number of informal abortion service providers and unsafe abortions, especially in rural areas. The recent scheme of Janani Suraksha Yojana provides an opportunity to improve maternal and neonatal health, provided the quality issues can be adequately addressed. PMID:19489421

  10. Novel fiber bottle microresonator add-drop filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil Murugan, Ganapathy; Wilkinson, James S.; Zervas, Michalis N.

    2010-02-01

    Novel bottle microresonators fabricated from standard telecommunications optical fiber were recently shown to support helical whispering gallery modes (WGMs) extending along the bottle length between the bottle necks. Intensity maxima were observed around the turning points on both sides close to the bottle necks where the WGMs are effectively reflected. Selective excitation on one side of the bottle microresonator leads to strong power localization at a symmetrically located turning point for the WGMs and can potentially be exploited to form effective add-drop filters. Channel dropping characteristics have been studied experimentally for the first time in this novel type of microresonator. A tapered optical fiber (drawn down to 2-3 microns in diameter with effective index of approximately 1.2) was placed on one side of the bottle to excite the bottle WGMs. A similar tapered fiber placed symmetrically on the other side of the bottle acted as a probe to extract the excited modes. We have successfully extracted power from all the resonance wavelengths using the probe placed at appropriate positions along the bottle, leading to the potential to construct efficient all fiber add-drop filters.

  11. Using Patient Lists to Add Value to Integrated Data Repositories

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Ted D.; Zelarney, Pearlanne T.; Hum, Richard C.; McGee, Sylvia; Batson, Deborah H.

    2014-01-01

    Patient lists are project-specific sets of patients that can be queried in integrated data repositories (IDR’s). By allowing a set of patients to be an addition to the qualifying conditions of a query, returned results will refer to, and only to, that set of patients. We report a variety of use cases for such lists, including: restricting retrospective chart review to a defined set of patients; following a set of patients for practice management purposes; distributing “honest-brokered” (deidentified) data; adding phenotypes to biosamples; and enhancing the content of study or registry data. Among the capabilities needed to implement patient lists in an IDR are: capture of patient identifiers from a query and feedback of these into the IDR; the existence of a permanent internal identifier in the IDR that is mappable to external identifiers; the ability to add queryable attributes to the IDR; the ability to merge data from multiple queries; and suitable control over user access and de-identification of results. We implemented patient lists in a custom IDR of our own design. We reviewed capabilities of other published IDRs for focusing on sets of patients. The widely used i2b2 IDR platform has various ways to address patient sets, and it could be modified to add the low-overhead version of patient lists that we describe. PMID:24534444

  12. Concepts for NASA longitudinal health studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, A. E.; Pool, S. L.; Leach, C. S.; Moseley, E.; Rambaut, P. C.

    1983-01-01

    Clinical data collected from a 15-year study of the homogenous group of pre-Shuttle astronauts have revealed no significant long-term effects from spaceflight. The current hypothesis suggests that repeated exposures to the space environment in the Shuttle era will similarly have no long-term health effects. However, a much more heterogenous group of astronauts and non-astronaut scientists will fly in Shuttle, and data on this group's adaptation to the space environment and readaptation to earth are currently sparse. In addition, very little information is available concerning the short- and long-term medical consequences of long duration exposure to space and subsequent readaptation to the earth environment. In this paper, retrospective clinical information on astronauts is reviewed and concepts for conducting epidemiological studies examining long-term health effects of spaceflight on humans, including associated occupational risks factors, are presented.

  13. Environmental and health risk studies at HHWCFs

    SciTech Connect

    Kehoe, C.

    1995-09-01

    Sanitary Fill Company is proposing to expand San Francisco`s household hazardous waste facility. This paper describes our proposal and discusses the environmental review and public involvement processes that are now required. Planning this expansion has been long and expensive. To my knowledge we are among the first programs to conduct a detailed study of the potential health risks associated with household facilities. I will present a summary of our planning process and compare the process to the outcome.

  14. Adding liraglutide to the backbone therapy of biguanide in patients with coronary artery disease and newly diagnosed type-2 diabetes (the AddHope2 study): a randomised controlled study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Anholm, Christian; Kumarathurai, Preman; Klit, Malene S; Kristiansen, Ole P; Nielsen, Olav W; Ladelund, Steen; Madsbad, Sten; Sajadieh, Ahmad; Haugaard, Steen B

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) more than doubles the risk of death compared with otherwise matched glucose tolerant patients. The biguanide metformin is the drug of choice in treatment of T2DM and has shown to ameliorate cardiovascular morbidity in patients with T2DM and myocardial infarction (MI). The incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) improves β-cell function, insulin sensitivity and causes weight loss and has been suggested to have beneficial effects on cardiac function. The GLP-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA), liraglutide, is currently used for treatment of T2DM but its potential effect on cardiac function has not been investigated in detail. We hypothesised that liraglutide added to metformin backbone therapy in patients with CAD and newly diagnosed T2DM will improve β-cell function and left ventricular systolic function during dobutamine stress. Methods and analyses 40 patients with CAD and newly diagnosed T2DM will receive the intervention liraglutide+metformin and placebo+metformin in this investigator-initiated, double blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, cross-over 12 plus 12 weeks intervention study with a 2-week washout period. The primary cardiovascular end point is changes in left ventricular ejection fraction during stress echocardiography. The primary endocrine end point is β-cell function evaluated during a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. Secondary end points include heart rate variability, diurnal blood pressure, glucagon suppression and inflammatory response (urine, blood and adipose tissue). Ethics and dissemination This study is approved by the Danish Medicines Agency, the Danish Dataprotection Agency and the Regional Committee on Biomedical Research Ethics of the Capital Region of Denmark. The trial will be carried out under the guidance from the GCP unit at Copenhagen University Hospital of Bispebjerg and in accordance with

  15. Discovering Focus: Helping Students with ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valkenburg, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a neurological disorder which effects learning and that has a confusing set of diagnostic symptoms and an even more confusing set of remedies ranging from medication to meditation to nothing at all. Current neurological research suggests, however, that there are strategies that the individual with ADD can use to…

  16. Partnership lessons from the Global Programme for Health Promotion Effectiveness: a case study.

    PubMed

    Corbin, J Hope; Mittelmark, Maurice B

    2008-12-01

    It is an article of faith in health promotion that health challenges cannot be confronted successfully by actors working in isolation. The synergy produced through collaboration is seen as vital. Yet, collaboration is arduous and many collaborations fade before their goals are met. Research is needed to identify factors and processes that promote as well as inhibit the production of synergistic outcomes. To this end, a case study was undertaken of the Global Programme for Health Promotion Effectiveness (GPHPE). The GPHPE reviews and disseminates evidence for the effectiveness of health promotion. Interviews with 20 GPHPE participants were conducted, transcribed and analyzed, and GPHPE documentation provided additional data. The results were used to develop the Bergen Model of Collaborative Functioning. It is a systems model (input, throughput, output) building on earlier research, that adds three new elements suggested by the findings of this study. First, the partnership's mission--to disseminate evidence of effectiveness--was identified as a significant input (alongside the conventional inputs of partner resources and financing) that affected the GPHPE's functioning in fundamental ways. Second, positive and negative cycles of interaction were identified that simultaneously strengthened and weakened the GPHPE's ability to sustain itself and produce the desired outcomes. Third, the construct 'antagony' was introduced as a unique type of output, in addition to synergy and additive results, representing unwanted and disturbing outcomes. The Model is constructed to have wide applicability, and further research now underway tests its utility in the study of local and national collaborations. PMID:18835888

  17. Neighbourhood renewal and health: evidence from a local case study.

    PubMed

    Blackman, T; Harvey, J; Lawrence, M; Simon, A

    2001-06-01

    This article presents findings from a before-and-after study of the effects of neighbourhood renewal on residents' health. Survey data were analysed using multivariate logistic regression. Before the renewal programme, damp and draughts had significant independent effects on respiratory health problems. Draughts and perceived community safety were associated with mental health problems. Children's mental health was associated with parental mental health. Following the renewal work, improvements occurred in both adults' and children's mental health, and smoking declined sharply. Respiratory health did not improve and there was no change in use of health services. Neighbourhood renewal in deprived areas can have an important role in improving community health. PMID:11470223

  18. A role for α-adducin (ADD-1) in nematode and human memory

    PubMed Central

    Vukojevic, Vanja; Gschwind, Leo; Vogler, Christian; Demougin, Philippe; de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Stetak, Attila

    2012-01-01

    Identifying molecular mechanisms that underlie learning and memory is one of the major challenges in neuroscience. Taken the advantages of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we investigated α-adducin (add-1) in aversive olfactory associative learning and memory. Loss of add-1 function selectively impaired short- and long-term memory without causing acquisition, sensory, or motor deficits. We showed that α-adducin is required for consolidation of synaptic plasticity, for sustained synaptic increase of AMPA-type glutamate receptor (GLR-1) content and altered GLR-1 turnover dynamics. ADD-1, in a splice-form- and tissue-specific manner, controlled the storage of memories presumably through actin-capping activity. In support of the C. elegans results, genetic variability of the human ADD1 gene was significantly associated with episodic memory performance in healthy young subjects. Finally, human ADD1 expression in nematodes restored loss of C. elegans add-1 gene function. Taken together, our findings support a role for α-adducin in memory from nematodes to humans. Studying the molecular and genetic underpinnings of memory across distinct species may be helpful in the development of novel strategies to treat memory-related diseases. PMID:22307086

  19. Linking the National Health Interview Survey with the Florida Cancer Data System: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    McClure, Laura A; Miller, Eric A; Tannenbaum, Stacey L; Hernandez, Monique N; MacKinnon, Jill A; He, Yulei; LeBlanc, William G; Lee, David J

    2016-01-01

    Cancer registry data are vital for the surveillance of cancer trends, but registries are limited in the number of data items that can be collected for hypothesis-driven research. Linkage with other databases can add valuable information and is a potentially effective tool for increasing our understanding of and identifying the causes of cancer and health disparities along the cancer continuum. We conducted a pilot study to link data from the 1981-2010 Florida Cancer Data System (FCDS) with data from the 1986-2009 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). The NHIS data contain important information on sociodemographics, screening behaviors, comorbidities, risk factors, health care access, and quality of life, which are not available from FCDS. The linkage resulted in a total of 6,281 linked cases. After removing cases with a first cancer diagnosis before 1981 (prior to FCDS creation) or missing date of diagnosis information, there were 1,908 cases diagnosed with cancer prior to their NHIS interview and 4,367 cases diagnosed after their NHIS interview. The enriched data set resulting from the linkage allows us to evaluate risk factors associated with developing cancer as well as conduct analyses on cancer survivorship issues and mortality. This pilot study demonstrates the feasibility and utility of a linkage between cancer registries and national health surveys, while also acknowledging the cost and challenges associated with such linkages. PMID:27195994

  20. Efficacy and safety of alirocumab as add-on therapy in high-cardiovascular-risk patients with hypercholesterolemia not adequately controlled with atorvastatin (20 or 40 mg) or rosuvastatin (10 or 20 mg): design and rationale of the ODYSSEY OPTIONS Studies.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jennifer G; Colhoun, Helen M; Bays, Harold E; Jones, Peter H; Du, Yunling; Hanotin, Corinne; Donahue, Stephen

    2014-10-01

    The phase 3 ODYSSEY OPTIONS studies (OPTIONS I, NCT01730040; OPTIONS II, NCT01730053) are multicenter, multinational, randomized, double-blind, active-comparator, 24-week studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of alirocumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody targeting proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, as add-on therapy in ∼ 650 high-cardiovascular (CV)-risk patients whose low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are ≥100 mg/dL or ≥70 mg/dL according to the CV-risk category, high and very high CV risk, respectively, with atorvastatin (20-40 mg/d) or rosuvastatin (10-20 mg/d). Patients are randomized to receive alirocumab 75 mg via a single, subcutaneous, 1-mL injection by prefilled pen every 2 weeks (Q2W) as add-on therapy to atorvastatin (20-40 mg) or rosuvastatin (10-20 mg); or to receive ezetimibe 10 mg/d as add-on therapy to statin; or to receive statin up-titration; or to switch from atorvastatin to rosuvastatin (OPTIONS I only). At week 12, based on week 8 LDL-C levels, the alirocumab dose may be increased from 75 mg to 150 mg Q2W if LDL-C levels remain ≥100 mg/dL or ≥70 mg/dL in patients with high or very high CV risk, respectively. The primary efficacy endpoint in both studies is difference in percent change in calculated LDL-C from baseline to week 24 in the alirocumab vs control arms. The studies may provide guidance to inform clinical decision-making when patients with CV risk require additional lipid-lowering therapy to further reduce LDL-C levels. The flexibility of the alirocumab dosing regimen allows for individualized therapy based on the degree of LDL-C reduction required to achieve the desired LDL-C level. PMID:25269777

  1. Efficacy and Safety of Alirocumab as Add-on Therapy in High–Cardiovascular-Risk Patients With Hypercholesterolemia Not Adequately Controlled With Atorvastatin (20 or 40 mg) or Rosuvastatin (10 or 20 mg): Design and Rationale of the ODYSSEY OPTIONS Studies

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Jennifer G; Colhoun, Helen M; Bays, Harold E; Jones, Peter H; Du, Yunling; Hanotin, Corinne; Donahue, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The phase 3 ODYSSEY OPTIONS studies (OPTIONS I, NCT01730040; OPTIONS II, NCT01730053) are multicenter, multinational, randomized, double-blind, active-comparator, 24-week studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of alirocumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody targeting proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, as add-on therapy in ∼ 650 high-cardiovascular (CV)-risk patients whose low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are ≥100 mg/dL or ≥70 mg/dL according to the CV-risk category, high and very high CV risk, respectively, with atorvastatin (20–40 mg/d) or rosuvastatin (10–20 mg/d). Patients are randomized to receive alirocumab 75 mg via a single, subcutaneous, 1-mL injection by prefilled pen every 2 weeks (Q2W) as add-on therapy to atorvastatin (20–40 mg) or rosuvastatin (10–20 mg); or to receive ezetimibe 10 mg/d as add-on therapy to statin; or to receive statin up-titration; or to switch from atorvastatin to rosuvastatin (OPTIONS I only). At week 12, based on week 8 LDL-C levels, the alirocumab dose may be increased from 75 mg to 150 mg Q2W if LDL-C levels remain ≥100 mg/dL or ≥70 mg/dL in patients with high or very high CV risk, respectively. The primary efficacy endpoint in both studies is difference in percent change in calculated LDL-C from baseline to week 24 in the alirocumab vs control arms. The studies may provide guidance to inform clinical decision-making when patients with CV risk require additional lipid-lowering therapy to further reduce LDL-C levels. The flexibility of the alirocumab dosing regimen allows for individualized therapy based on the degree of LDL-C reduction required to achieve the desired LDL-C level. PMID:25269777

  2. Efficacy and safety of alirocumab as add-on therapy in high-cardiovascular-risk patients with hypercholesterolemia not adequately controlled with atorvastatin (20 or 40 mg) or rosuvastatin (10 or 20 mg): design and rationale of the ODYSSEY OPTIONS Studies.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jennifer G; Colhoun, Helen M; Bays, Harold E; Jones, Peter H; Du, Yunling; Hanotin, Corinne; Donahue, Stephen

    2014-10-01

    The phase 3 ODYSSEY OPTIONS studies (OPTIONS I, NCT01730040; OPTIONS II, NCT01730053) are multicenter, multinational, randomized, double-blind, active-comparator, 24-week studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of alirocumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody targeting proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, as add-on therapy in ∼ 650 high-cardiovascular (CV)-risk patients whose low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are ≥100 mg/dL or ≥70 mg/dL according to the CV-risk category, high and very high CV risk, respectively, with atorvastatin (20-40 mg/d) or rosuvastatin (10-20 mg/d). Patients are randomized to receive alirocumab 75 mg via a single, subcutaneous, 1-mL injection by prefilled pen every 2 weeks (Q2W) as add-on therapy to atorvastatin (20-40 mg) or rosuvastatin (10-20 mg); or to receive ezetimibe 10 mg/d as add-on therapy to statin; or to receive statin up-titration; or to switch from atorvastatin to rosuvastatin (OPTIONS I only). At week 12, based on week 8 LDL-C levels, the alirocumab dose may be increased from 75 mg to 150 mg Q2W if LDL-C levels remain ≥100 mg/dL or ≥70 mg/dL in patients with high or very high CV risk, respectively. The primary efficacy endpoint in both studies is difference in percent change in calculated LDL-C from baseline to week 24 in the alirocumab vs control arms. The studies may provide guidance to inform clinical decision-making when patients with CV risk require additional lipid-lowering therapy to further reduce LDL-C levels. The flexibility of the alirocumab dosing regimen allows for individualized therapy based on the degree of LDL-C reduction required to achieve the desired LDL-C level.

  3. Factors Influencing Teachers' Views of Health and Health Education: A Study in 15 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jourdan, D.; Pironom, J.; Berger, D.; Carvalho, G. S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To analyse teachers' health views in order to obtain general trends in factors influencing health and health education and to fit them into the negative-positive model of health proposed by Downie and collaborators. Method: This large international study involved 15 countries from Western and Eastern Europe, North and Sub-Saharan…

  4. Health Services: Results from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brener, Nancy D.; Burstein, Gale R.; DuShaw, Martha L.; Vernon, Mary E.; Wheeler, Lani; Robinson, Judy

    2001-01-01

    Describes School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000 findings about state- and district-level school health services policies and practices regarding: organization, staffing, and facilities; required services; school based health clinics and other sites; immunizations; screening; medication administration; HIV; student health records; special…

  5. The MMPI-168(L) and ADD in Assessing Psychopathology in Individuals with Mental Retardation: Between and within Instrument Associations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, William F.; Passmore, Corie E.; Sewell, Hollie M.

    2003-01-01

    A study involving 58 adults with mental retardation and mental disorders found few correlations between the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and the Assessment of Dual Diagnosis (ADD). The major exception was the Mania scale of the MMPI, which correlated moderately well with the ADD Schizophrenia and Dementia scales. (Contains…

  6. Adolescents' health identities: a qualitative and theoretical study of health education courses.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, D; Rasmussen, K K

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we highlight the role of health identity in health education for adolescents. In school-based approaches to health education, it is often difficult to present health information and health communication in ways that make sense and appeal to adolescents. The concept of health identity has the potential of providing an analytical framework as well as practical recommendations for these issues and problem areas. The paper reports on an empirical study of elements of health identity in the context of health courses for adolescents--using interview data, observation studies and a theoretical construction focussing on self-observation, horizons of significance, expectational structures and social imaginaries. We present our findings in four main themes: 1) Adolescents' health identities are observed and developed when things matter, 2) Adolescents' health identities are observed and developed in relational contexts, 3) Adolescents' health identities are developed on the basis of observations of past, present and future health and 4) Adolescents' health identities are clearly defined. The paper provides health practitioners with important knowledge about why and how health-educational approaches should focus on health identity in order to provide conditions that create a significant health educating effect for all adolescents--not just for those who are already healthy.

  7. 42 CFR 82.16 - How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy limitations of individual monitoring and missed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES... PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Dose Reconstruction Process § 82.16 How will NIOSH add to monitoring data to remedy... those described in the NIOSH Research Issues Workshop, 2 to estimate the missing component of dose...

  8. Air Pollution Exposure Model for Individuals (EMI) in Health Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    In health studies, traffic-related air pollution is associated with adverse respiratory effects. Due to cost and participant burden of personal measurements, health studies often estimate exposures using local ambient air monitors. Since outdoor levels do not necessarily reflect ...

  9. Global Health in the Social Studies Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David J.

    2005-01-01

    It may surprise students to realize that health problems in other countries affect them, too. Where people live and the conditions under which they live directly affect their health. The health of a population can also offer insight into a region's social, political, and economic realities. As a powerful lens into how human societies function,…

  10. Formaldehyde exposure and acute health effects study

    SciTech Connect

    Quackenboss, J.J.; Lebowitz, M.D.; Michaud, J.P.; Bronnimann, D. )

    1989-01-01

    To assess the effects of formaldehyde exposures on health, exposure groups were defined using baseline exposure and health questionnaires. Formaldehyde concentrations were poorly correlated with these exposure classifications, perhaps due to the time delay between classification and monitoring. The 151 households reported here had a mean HCHO concentration of 35 (S.E. 1.5 and median 30) {mu}g/m{sup 3}. Passive samplers prepared in our lab were calibrated in a chamber to derive an estimated sampling rate of 0.311 {mu}g/(mg {center dot} m{sup {minus}3} {center dot} hr). They were also compared to commercially available samplers inside of the homes, with a correlation coefficient of 0.896 and mean difference of 2.6 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. In this report of initial findings from an ongoing study, daily symptoms and peak expiratory flow measurements were compared with an HCHO exposure classification based on the median measured concentrations. None of the symptoms groups were related to HCHO exposure when controlling for age and sex. There was a significant relationship between HCHO exposure and variability in peak expiratory flows that was dependent on age group. It may be especially important to assess the variability in reactive individuals and children to determine the short-term effects of HCHO exposures and possible long-term consequences.

  11. Biologists add fuel to Yellowstone fire

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, W.K.

    1990-06-01

    Two scientists associated with the National Park Service have completed a 10 year study of forest fires in Yellowstone National Park. They traced back 200 years by studying trees and the park records of rainfall and fires. They state that the park policy of not fighting fires started by lightning has no effect on the forest ecology. Critics of the policy cite the massive destruction of the forest in the 1988 summer fires in Yellowstone as evidence that the policy is misguided. The researchers state that their findings show that their reconstruction of the forest ecology show fighting the fires has no effect on the overall succession.

  12. Arkansas Pupils' Body Weights Add Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Marianne D.

    2004-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a statewide study evaluating the body weights of nearly all public school students in Arkansas. Researchers in Arkansas analyzed "body-mass index" data for more than 345,000 students at all grade levels in 93 percent of the state's public schools during the 2003-04 school year. Based on the data, the…

  13. ADD, LD and Extended Information Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolzenberg, J. B.; Cherkes-Julkowski, M.

    This study examines executive function and its relationship to attention dysfunction and working memory. It attempts to document the manifestations of executive function problems in school-related extended processing tasks, such as verbal problem-solving in math and reading of extended passages. Subjects (in grades 1-12) included 49 children with…

  14. Women's political participation and health: a health capability study in rural India.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Candace H; Darmstadt, Gary L; Kumar, Vishwajeet; Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the relationship between women's political participation and health has eluded researchers and cannot be adequately studied using traditional epidemiological or social scientific methodologies. We employed a health capability framework to understand dimensions of health agency to illuminate how local political economies affect health. Exploiting a cluster-randomized controlled trial of a community-based behavior change management intervention in northern India, we conducted a qualitative study with semistructured, in-depth focus groups in both intervention and nonintervention villages. We presented scenarios to each group regarding the limitations and motivations involved in women's political participation and health. Thematic analysis focused on four domains of health agency -- participation, autonomy, self-efficacy, and health systems -- relevant for understanding the relationship between political participation and health. Elder women demonstrated the greatest sense of self-efficacy and as a group cited the largest number of successful health advocacy efforts. Participation in an associated community-based neonatal intervention had varying effects, showing some differences in self-efficacy, but only rare improvements in participation, autonomy, or health system functioning. Better understanding of cultural norms surrounding autonomy, the local infrastructure and health system, and male and female perceptions of political participation and self-efficacy are needed to improve women's health agency. For a community-based participatory health intervention to improve health capability effectively, explicit strategies focused on health agency should be as central as health indicators.

  15. A Qualitative Study Exploring Facilitators for Improved Health Behaviors and Health Behavior Programs: Mental Health Service Users' Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Candida; de Leeuw, Sarah; Griffiths, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Mental health service users experience high rates of cardiometabolic disorders and have a 20–25% shorter life expectancy than the general population from such disorders. Clinician-led health behavior programs have shown moderate improvements, for mental health service users, in managing aspects of cardiometabolic disorders. This study sought to potentially enhance health initiatives by exploring (1) facilitators that help mental health service users engage in better health behaviors and (2) the types of health programs mental health service users want to develop. Methods. A qualitative study utilizing focus groups was conducted with 37 mental health service users attending a psychosocial rehabilitation center, in Northern British Columbia, Canada. Results. Four major facilitator themes were identified: (1) factors of empowerment, self-value, and personal growth; (2) the need for social support; (3) pragmatic aspects of motivation and planning; and (4) access. Participants believed that engaging with programs of physical activity, nutrition, creativity, and illness support would motivate them to live more healthily. Conclusions and Implications for Practice. Being able to contribute to health behavior programs, feeling valued and able to experience personal growth are vital factors to engage mental health service users in health programs. Clinicians and health care policy makers need to account for these considerations to improve success of health improvement initiatives for this population. PMID:24895667

  16. Top 5 Ways to Help Students with ADD/ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    This article suggests five ways to help students with ADD/ADHD. These are: (1) Integrate the primitive reflexes; (2) Diet; (3) Visual attention; (4) Help for auditory attention; and (5) Cognitive training.

  17. TDRS-K to Add to Vital Space Network

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA officials discuss the launch of the TDRS-K spacecraft to add to the space network that enables communications between the International Space Station and Earth-orbiting satellites and ground c...

  18. Technology export adds markets for industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-05-01

    Petroleum-related engineering technology, developed as part of North Sea participation is now being marketed throughout the world by Norwegian engineering, construction, manufacturing and service companies. In moving into international competition, Norwegian companies are primarily testing markets which environmentally resemble the North Sea. Oil is recognized as the best opportunity for investment by Norway's businessmen and is important to the Norwegian economy. According to a recent study a major expansion of offshore activity will be required soon if the level of investment is not to decline after 1985. Production from existing fields is expected to peak at 60 million tons of oil equivalent (MTOE) in 1990, dropping to 10 MTOE by 2000.

  19. Qingdao Port Cardiovascular Health Study: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Spatz, Erica S; Jiang, Xianyan; Lu, Jiapeng; Masoudi, Frederick A; Spertus, John A; Wang, Yongfei; Li, Xi; Downing, Nicholas S; Nasir, Khurram; Du, Xue; Li, Jing; Krumholz, Harlan M; Liu, Xiancheng; Jiang, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In China, efforts are underway to respond to rapidly increasing rates of heart disease and stroke. Yet the epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in China may be different from that of other populations. Thus, there is a critical need for population-based studies that provide insight into the risk factors, incidence and outcomes of cardiovascular disease in China. The Qingdao Port Cardiovascular Health Study is designed to investigate the burden of cardiovascular disease and the sociodemographic, biological, environmental and clinical risk factors associated with disease onset and outcomes. Participants For this study, from 2000 through 2013, 32 404 employees aged 18 years or older were recruited from the Qingdao Port Group in China, contributing 221 923 annual health assessments. The mean age at recruitment was 43.4 (SD=12.9); 79% were male. In this ongoing study, annual health assessments, governed by extensive quality control mechanisms, include a questionnaire (capturing demographic and employment information, medical history, medication use, health behaviours and health outcomes), physical examination, ECG, and blood and urine analysis. Additional non-annual assessments include an X-ray, echocardiogram and carotid ultrasound; bio-samples will be collected for future genetic and proteomic analyses. Cardiovascular outcomes are accessed via self-report and are actively being verified with medical insurance claims; efforts are underway to adjudicate outcomes with hospital medical records. Findings to date Early findings reveal a significant increase in cardiovascular risk factors from 2000 to 2010 (hypertension: 26.4–39.4%; diabetes: 3.3–8.9%; hyperlipidaemia: 5.0–33.6%; body mass index >28 m/kg2: 14.1–18.6%). Future Plans We aim to generate novel insights about the epidemiology and outcomes of cardiovascular disease in China, with specific emphasis on the potentially unique risk factor profiles of this Chinese population. Knowledge

  20. Social determinants of health, universal health coverage, and sustainable development: case studies from Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Luiz Odorico Monteiro; Pellegrini Filho, Alberto; Solar, Orielle; Rígoli, Félix; de Salazar, Lígia Malagon; Serrate, Pastor Castell-Florit; Ribeiro, Kelen Gomes; Koller, Theadora Swift; Cruz, Fernanda Natasha Bravo; Atun, Rifat

    2015-04-01

    Many intrinsically related determinants of health and disease exist, including social and economic status, education, employment, housing, and physical and environmental exposures. These factors interact to cumulatively affect health and disease burden of individuals and populations, and to establish health inequities and disparities across and within countries. Biomedical models of health care decrease adverse consequences of disease, but are not enough to effectively improve individual and population health and advance health equity. Social determinants of health are especially important in Latin American countries, which are characterised by adverse colonial legacies, tremendous social injustice, huge socioeconomic disparities, and wide health inequities. Poverty and inequality worsened substantially in the 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s in these countries. Many Latin American countries have introduced public policies that integrate health, social, and economic actions, and have sought to develop health systems that incorporate multisectoral interventions when introducing universal health coverage to improve health and its upstream determinants. We present case studies from four Latin American countries to show the design and implementation of health programmes underpinned by intersectoral action and social participation that have reached national scale to effectively address social determinants of health, improve health outcomes, and reduce health inequities. Investment in managerial and political capacity, strong political and managerial commitment, and state programmes, not just time-limited government actions, have been crucial in underpinning the success of these policies.

  1. Social determinants of health, universal health coverage, and sustainable development: case studies from Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Luiz Odorico Monteiro; Pellegrini Filho, Alberto; Solar, Orielle; Rígoli, Félix; de Salazar, Lígia Malagon; Serrate, Pastor Castell-Florit; Ribeiro, Kelen Gomes; Koller, Theadora Swift; Cruz, Fernanda Natasha Bravo; Atun, Rifat

    2015-04-01

    Many intrinsically related determinants of health and disease exist, including social and economic status, education, employment, housing, and physical and environmental exposures. These factors interact to cumulatively affect health and disease burden of individuals and populations, and to establish health inequities and disparities across and within countries. Biomedical models of health care decrease adverse consequences of disease, but are not enough to effectively improve individual and population health and advance health equity. Social determinants of health are especially important in Latin American countries, which are characterised by adverse colonial legacies, tremendous social injustice, huge socioeconomic disparities, and wide health inequities. Poverty and inequality worsened substantially in the 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s in these countries. Many Latin American countries have introduced public policies that integrate health, social, and economic actions, and have sought to develop health systems that incorporate multisectoral interventions when introducing universal health coverage to improve health and its upstream determinants. We present case studies from four Latin American countries to show the design and implementation of health programmes underpinned by intersectoral action and social participation that have reached national scale to effectively address social determinants of health, improve health outcomes, and reduce health inequities. Investment in managerial and political capacity, strong political and managerial commitment, and state programmes, not just time-limited government actions, have been crucial in underpinning the success of these policies. PMID:25458716

  2. Patients' preferences for treatment outcomes of add-on antiepileptic drugs: a conjoint analysis.

    PubMed

    Manjunath, Ranjani; Yang, Jui-Chen; Ettinger, Alan B

    2012-08-01

    To understand the relative importance of the outcomes of add-on antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and the willingness of patients with epilepsy to accept therapeutic trade-offs between seizure control and tolerability, we administered a Web-enabled, choice-format conjoint survey to patients with a self-reported physician diagnosis of epilepsy and symptoms of partial seizures. Patients answered nine choice questions to evaluate treatment outcomes of two different hypothetical add-on AEDs. Patients were first asked to choose the better of the two medicines and then asked a follow-up question about whether or not they would add the selected AED to their current treatment regimen. Our study demonstrated that patients with epilepsy consider seizure reduction to be the top priority when ranking it against the reduction or elimination of side effects. This study aids in better understanding of patients' AED treatment preferences and may aid in management of epilepsy.

  3. The Lolland-Falster Health Study

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-06

    Impaired Health; Disease; Wellbeing; Mental Disorders; Atherosclerosis; Renal Insufficiency, Chronic; Skin Diseases; Urinary Incontinence; Personality; Coronary Disease; Ear Diseases; Nose Diseases; Pharyngeal Diseases; Chronic Disease

  4. CONSIDERATION OF CHILDREN'S DISTINCTIVE SUSCEPTIBILITY IN ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Consideration of children's distinctive susceptibility in environmental health studies.
    Pauline Mendola (US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711)

    Children are a particularly susceptible subpopulation with ...

  5. One Health and the Environment: Toxic Cyanobacteria, a Case Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study of environmental health typically focuses on human populations. However, companion animals, livestock and wildlife also experience adverse health effects from environmental pollutants. Animals may experience direct exposure to pollutants in ambient exposure situations. ...

  6. Public health accreditation and metrics for ethics: a case study on environmental health and community engagement.

    PubMed

    Bernheim, Ruth Gaare; Stefanak, Matthew; Brandenburg, Terry; Pannone, Aaron; Melnick, Alan

    2013-01-01

    As public health departments around the country undergo accreditation using the Public Health Accreditation Board standards, the process provides a new opportunity to integrate ethics metrics into day-to-day public health practice. While the accreditation standards do not explicitly address ethics, ethical tools and considerations can enrich the accreditation process by helping health departments and their communities understand what ethical principles underlie the accreditation standards and how to use metrics based on these ethical principles to support decision making in public health practice. We provide a crosswalk between a public health essential service, Public Health Accreditation Board community engagement domain standards, and the relevant ethical principles in the Public Health Code of Ethics (Code). A case study illustrates how the accreditation standards and the ethical principles in the Code together can enhance the practice of engaging the community in decision making in the local health department.

  7. AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY: STUDY DESIGN AND PRELIMINARY BIOMARKER RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a collaborative effort between the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to quantify cancer and non-cancer health risks in the agricultural communit...

  8. Comparison of health risk behavior, awareness, and health benefit beliefs of health science and non-health science students: An international study.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Yung, Tony K C; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Rehman, Rehana

    2016-06-01

    This study determines the differences in health risk behavior, knowledge, and health benefit beliefs between health science and non-health science university students in 17 low and middle income countries. Anonymous questionnaire data were collected in a cross-sectional survey of 13,042 undergraduate university students (4,981 health science and 8,061 non-health science students) from 17 universities in 17 countries across Asia, Africa, and the Americas. Results indicate that overall, health science students had the same mean number of health risk behaviors as non-health science university students. Regarding addictive risk behavior, fewer health science students used tobacco, were binge drinkers, or gambled once a week or more. Health science students also had a greater awareness of health behavior risks (5.5) than non-health science students (4.6). Linear regression analysis found a strong association with poor or weak health benefit beliefs and the health risk behavior index. There was no association between risk awareness and health risk behavior among health science students and an inverse association among non-health science students.

  9. Acceptability of Mental Health Apps for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Patj Patj Janama Robert; Dingwall, Kylie Maree; Lowell, Anne; Singer, Judy; Rotumah, Darlene; Bennett-Levy, James; Nagel, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    Background Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians experience high rates of mental illness and psychological distress compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts. E-mental health tools offer an opportunity for accessible, effective, and acceptable treatment. The AIMhi Stay Strong app and the ibobbly suicide prevention app are treatment tools designed to combat the disproportionately high levels of mental illness and stress experienced within the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community. Objective This study aimed to explore Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community members’ experiences of using two culturally responsive e-mental health apps and identify factors that influence the acceptability of these approaches. Methods Using qualitative methods aligned with a phenomenological approach, we explored the acceptability of two culturally responsive e-mental health apps through a series of three 3-hour focus groups with nine Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community members. Thematic analysis was conducted and coresearcher and member checking were used to verify findings. Results Findings suggest strong support for the concept of e-mental health apps and optimism for their potential. Factors that influenced acceptability related to three key themes: personal factors (eg, motivation, severity and awareness of illness, technological competence, and literacy and language differences), environmental factors (eg, community awareness, stigma, and availability of support), and app characteristics (eg, ease of use, content, graphics, access, and security and information sharing). Specific adaptations, such as local production, culturally relevant content and graphics, a purposeful journey, clear navigation, meaningful language, options to assist people with language differences, offline use, and password protection may aid uptake. Conclusions When designed to meet the needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, e-mental health

  10. Healthy Sex and Sexual Health: New Directions for Studying Outcomes of Sexual Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Vasilenko, Sara A.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual behavior is an important aspect of adolescent development with implications for well-being. These chapters highlight important perspectives on studying sexual health from a normative, developmental perspective, such as viewing a range of sexual behaviors as life events; considering potentially positive physical health, mental health, social…

  11. HEALTH AND EXPOSURE RESEARCH FOR THE AGRICULTURAL COMMUNITY: THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a collaborative effort between the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. The AHS is the...

  12. From the School Health Education Study to the National Health Education Standards: Concepts Endure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nobiling, Brandye D.; Lyde, Adrian R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The landmark School Health Education Study (SHES) project influenced by the conceptual approach to teaching and learning provides perspective on modern school health instruction. Conceptual education, the cornerstone of the SHES curriculum framework (CF), "Health Education: A Conceptual Approach to Curriculum Design," fosters…

  13. Study on Student Health Literacy Gained through Health Education in Elementary and Middle Schools in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Xiaoming; Yang, Tubao; Wang, Shumei; Zhang, Xin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Health education in primary and middle schools in China has been implemented for more than two decades since 1990s. This study aims to assess the students' health literacy gained through school health education, and provide scientific base to the concerned government agencies for updating the relevant national policy for school-based…

  14. Multichannel optical add-drop processes in symmetrical waveguide-resonator systems.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; Chen, Ray T

    2003-11-21

    Multichannel optical add-drop processes are studied in a class of symmetric waveguide-resonator systems. With insight gained from group theory, we analyze these systems and show that they can add or drop multiple wavelengths simultaneously, with 100% efficiency. A new mechanism is presented to reduce the remnant light at the dropped wavelengths in the pass-through port. High-order Butterworth filters can also be achieved in these systems. Built upon conventional or photonic-crystal based structures, these systems can be used in optical communication applications.

  15. Feminist health care in a hostile environment: a case study of the Womancare Health Center.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Cheryl A

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a case study of the Womancare Health Center in order to illustrate the development of and challenges to the feminist health movement in the United States. Specific attention is placed on the legislative, fiscal, and direct actions by the New Right against this organization. Analysis focuses on the means through which Womancare survived. The repercussions of constant intimidation and harassment for women's health programs and for health care policy overall are discussed.

  16. Feminist health care in a hostile environment: a case study of the Womancare Health Center.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Cheryl A

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a case study of the Womancare Health Center in order to illustrate the development of and challenges to the feminist health movement in the United States. Specific attention is placed on the legislative, fiscal, and direct actions by the New Right against this organization. Analysis focuses on the means through which Womancare survived. The repercussions of constant intimidation and harassment for women's health programs and for health care policy overall are discussed. PMID:19213480

  17. Welfare state regimes, health and health inequalities in adolescence: a multilevel study in 32 countries.

    PubMed

    Richter, Matthias; Rathman, Katharina; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Zambon, Alessio; Boyce, William; Hurrelmann, Klaus

    2012-07-01

    Comparative research on health and health inequalities has recently started to establish a welfare regime perspective. The objective of this study was to determine whether different welfare regimes are associated with health and health inequalities among adolescents. Data were collected from the 'Health Behaviour in School-aged Children' study in 2006, including 11- to 15-year-old students from 32 countries (N = 141,091). Prevalence rates and multilevel logistic regression models were calculated for self-rated health (SRH) and health complaints. The results show that between 4 per cent and 7 per cent of the variation in both health outcomes is attributable to differences between countries. Compared to the Scandinavian regime, the Southern regime had lower odds ratios for SRH, while for health complaints the Southern and Eastern regime showed high odds ratios. The association between subjective health and welfare regime was largely unaffected by adjusting for individual socioeconomic position. After adjustment for the welfare regime typology, the country-level variations were reduced to 4.6 per cent for SRH and to 2.9 per cent for health complaints. Regarding cross-level interaction effects between welfare regimes and socioeconomic position, no clear regime-specific pattern was found. Consistent with research on adults this study shows that welfare regimes are important in explaining variations in adolescent health across countries.

  18. Healthy sex and sexual health: new directions for studying outcomes of sexual health.

    PubMed

    Lefkowitz, Eva S; Vasilenko, Sara A

    2014-01-01

    Sexual behavior is an important aspect of adolescent development with implications for well-being. These chapters highlight important perspectives on studying sexual health from a normative, developmental perspective, such as viewing a range of sexual behaviors as life events; considering potentially positive physical health, mental health, social health, and identity outcomes; examining both intraindividual and interindividual differences in outcomes; recognizing the romantic relationship context of sexual behavior; and understanding how sexual media may impact sexual health outcomes. We suggest new directions for studying sexual health outcomes, such as studying behaviors beyond vaginal sex and condom use, new methodologies such as latent class analysis, sophisticated longitudinal designs, and collection and analysis of dyadic data. We recommend research on populations underrepresented in sexual health research such as late adolescents who do not attend traditional universities and adolescents from ethnic/racial minorities. Finally, we consider future directions for sexuality education and prevention efforts. PMID:24962364

  19. Healthy sex and sexual health: new directions for studying outcomes of sexual health.

    PubMed

    Lefkowitz, Eva S; Vasilenko, Sara A

    2014-01-01

    Sexual behavior is an important aspect of adolescent development with implications for well-being. These chapters highlight important perspectives on studying sexual health from a normative, developmental perspective, such as viewing a range of sexual behaviors as life events; considering potentially positive physical health, mental health, social health, and identity outcomes; examining both intraindividual and interindividual differences in outcomes; recognizing the romantic relationship context of sexual behavior; and understanding how sexual media may impact sexual health outcomes. We suggest new directions for studying sexual health outcomes, such as studying behaviors beyond vaginal sex and condom use, new methodologies such as latent class analysis, sophisticated longitudinal designs, and collection and analysis of dyadic data. We recommend research on populations underrepresented in sexual health research such as late adolescents who do not attend traditional universities and adolescents from ethnic/racial minorities. Finally, we consider future directions for sexuality education and prevention efforts.

  20. Oral health-related quality of life in diabetic patients: comparison of the Persian version of Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index and Oral Health Impact Profile: A descriptive-analytic study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is one of the systemic disease which is show important oral manifestation and influence oral health. This study describes how diabetes mellitus affects oral health and oral health-related quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the oral health and oral health-related quality of life of diabetic patients and compare the discriminative capability of Persian versions of two GOHAI and OHIP-14 questionnaires in these patients. Methods A total of 350 patients with Type II diabetes mellitus, referring to the Diabetes Clinic, were selected and data were collected by GOHAI and OHIP-14 questionnaires completed by patients and clinical examinations. Oral health parameters (CAL,BI,GI,PLI,DMFT and xerostomia) were measured, also concurrent validity and conformity of two questionnaires were assessed. In order to test Discriminant analysis capabilities of two questionnaires, ADD and SC scores of questionnaires were divided into two parts and a logistic regression model was designed, which included subjective and objective variables. Results Mean patients age was 55 years (with 75.4% female patients). The results showed that some oral conditions such as xerostomia, clinical attachment loss, number of missing teeth and plaque index were correlated to diabetes control level (HbA1c) and type of anti-diabetic medication. ADD and SC scores of two questionnaires were at high level. However, the effect of oral problems on decreasing OHRQoL was evident. Both questionnaires had acceptable concurrent validity and conformity. Moreover, there was a strong correlation between GOHAI and OHIP-14. OHIP-14 questionnaire had a higher discriminant analysis capability compared to GOHAI and better diagnosed patients who needed dental treatments: patients with higher GI, xerostomia and those wearing partial dentures. Conclusion Diabetic patients did not show acceptable oral health status and in some extent, oral problems affected oral health-related quality

  1. The health-care environment on a locked psychiatric ward: an ethnographic study.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Inger M; Skärsäter, Ingela; Danielson, Ella

    2006-12-01

    Recent changes in psychiatric hospital care involving a reduction in the number of beds and time spent in hospital motivated the study of conditions of inpatient care on such wards. An ethnographic study of a locked, acute psychiatric ward in a department of psychiatry was performed with the aim of describing the health-care environment in such a ward. The ward admitted patients on both a voluntarily and involuntarily basis. Data were collected by means of 3.5 months of participant observations. The results showed a health-care environment that was overshadowed by control. Staff were in control but they also lacked control; they attempted to master the situation in line with organizational demands and they sometimes failed. At the same time, the staff tried to share the responsibility of caring for patients and next of kin. Patients were controlled by staff; they were the underdogs and dependent on staff for their care and the freedom to leave the ward. Patients tried to make themselves heard and reacted to the control by developing counter-strategies. What this study adds to earlier research is patients' pressure on staff and sometimes quite an open struggle for more control, which may be an expression for an unacceptable imbalance in power between patients and staff.

  2. Tobacco use transitions in the United States: The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Annette R.; Land, Stephanie; Parascandola, Mark; Augustson, Erik; Backinger, Cathy L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study is to evaluate and describe transitions in cigarette and smokeless tobacco (ST) use, including dual use, prospectively from adolescence into young adulthood. Methods The current study utilizes four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to examine patterns of cigarette and ST use (within 30 days of survey) over time among a cohort in the United States beginning in 7th–12th grade (1995) into young adulthood (2008–2009). Transition probabilities were estimated using Markov modeling. Results Among the cohort (N = 20,774), 48.7% reported using cigarettes, 12.8% reported using ST, and 7.2% reported dual use (cigarettes and ST in the same wave) in at least one wave. In general, the risk for transitioning between cigarettes and ST was higher for males and those who were older. Dual users exhibited a high probability (81%) of continuing dual use over time. Conclusions Findings suggest that adolescents who use multiple tobacco products are likely to continue such use as they move into young adulthood. When addressing tobacco use among adolescents and young adults, multiple forms of tobacco use should be considered. PMID:26361752

  3. Health Literacy among Adults: A Study from Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, H.; Alper, Z.; Uncu, Y.; Bilgel, N.

    2010-01-01

    Patients' health literacy is increasingly recognized as a critical factor affecting health communication and outcomes. We performed this study to assess the levels of health literacy by using Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM) and Newest Vital Sign (NVS) instruments. Patients (n = 456) at a family medicine clinic completed…

  4. Employee health benefit redesign at the academic health center: a case study.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Julie; Weaver, Deirdre C; Splaine, Kevin; Hefner, David S; Kirch, Darrell G; Paz, Harold L

    2013-03-01

    The rapidly escalating cost of health care, including the cost of providing health care benefits, is a significant concern for many employers. In this article, the authors examine a case study of an academic health center that undertook a complete redesign of its health benefit structure to control rising costs, encourage use of its own provider network, and support employee wellness. With the implementation in 2006 of a high-deductible health plan combined with health reimbursement arrangements and wellness incentives, the Penn State Hershey Medical Center (PSHMC) was able to realize significant cost savings and increase use of its own network while maintaining a high level of employee satisfaction. By contracting with a single third-party administrator for its self-insured plan, PSHMC reduced its administrative costs and simplified benefit choices for employees. In addition, indexing employee costs to salary ensured that this change was equitable for all employees, and the shift to a consumer-driven health plan led to greater employee awareness of health care costs. The new health benefit plan's strong focus on employee wellness and preventive health has led to significant increases in the use of preventive health services, including health risk assessments, cancer screenings, and flu shots. PSHMC's experience demonstrates the importance of clear and ongoing communication with employees throughout--before, during, and even after--the process of health benefit redesign. PMID:23348094

  5. Project DyAdd: Visual Attention in Adult Dyslexia and ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laasonen, Marja; Salomaa, Jonna; Cousineau, Denis; Leppamaki, Sami; Tani, Pekka; Hokkanen, Laura; Dye, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    In this study of the project DyAdd, three aspects of visual attention were investigated in adults (18-55 years) with dyslexia (n = 35) or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, n = 22), and in healthy controls (n = 35). Temporal characteristics of visual attention were assessed with Attentional Blink (AB), capacity of visual attention…

  6. Project DyAdd: Implicit Learning in Adult Dyslexia and ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laasonen, Marja; Väre, Jenni; Oksanen-Hennah, Henna; Leppämäki, Sami; Tani, Pekka; Harno, Hanna; Hokkanen, Laura; Pothos, Emmanuel; Cleeremans, Axel

    2014-01-01

    In this study of the project DyAdd, implicit learning was investigated through two paradigms in adults (18-55 years) with dyslexia (n?=?36) or with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, n?=?22) and in controls (n?=?35). In the serial reaction time (SRT) task, there were no group differences in learning. However, those with ADHD exhibited…

  7. Health Literacy Practices and Educational Competencies for Health Professionals: A Consensus Study

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Clifford A.; Hudson, Stan; Maine, Lucinda L.

    2013-01-01

    Health care professionals often lack adequate knowledge about health literacy and the skills needed to address low health literacy among patients and their caregivers. Many promising practices for mitigating the effects of low health literacy are not used consistently. Improving health literacy training for health care professionals has received increasing emphasis in recent years. The development and evaluation of curricula for health professionals has been limited by the lack of agreed-upon educational competencies in this area. This study aimed to identify a set of health literacy educational competencies and target behaviors, or practices, relevant to the training of all health care professionals. The authors conducted a thorough literature review to identify a comprehensive list of potential health literacy competencies and practices, which they categorized into 1 or more educational domains (i.e., knowledge, skills, attitudes) or a practice domain. The authors stated each item in operationalized language following Bloom's Taxonomy. The authors then used a modified Delphi method to identify consensus among a group of 23 health professions education experts representing 11 fields in the health professions. Participants rated their level of agreement as to whether a competency or practice was both appropriate and important for all health professions students. A predetermined threshold of 70% agreement was used to define consensus. After 4 rounds of ratings and modifications, consensus agreement was reached on 62 out of 64 potential educational competencies (24 knowledge items, 27 skill items, and 11 attitude items), and 32 out of 33 potential practices. This study is the first known attempt to develop consensus on a list of health literacy practices and to translate recommended health literacy practices into an agreed-upon set of measurable educational competencies for health professionals. Further work is needed to prioritize the competencies and practices in

  8. Health literacy practices and educational competencies for health professionals: a consensus study.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Clifford A; Hudson, Stan; Maine, Lucinda L

    2013-01-01

    Health care professionals often lack adequate knowledge about health literacy and the skills needed to address low health literacy among patients and their caregivers. Many promising practices for mitigating the effects of low health literacy are not used consistently. Improving health literacy training for health care professionals has received increasing emphasis in recent years. The development and evaluation of curricula for health professionals has been limited by the lack of agreed-upon educational competencies in this area. This study aimed to identify a set of health literacy educational competencies and target behaviors, or practices, relevant to the training of all health care professionals. The authors conducted a thorough literature review to identify a comprehensive list of potential health literacy competencies and practices, which they categorized into 1 or more educational domains (i.e., knowledge, skills, attitudes) or a practice domain. The authors stated each item in operationalized language following Bloom's Taxonomy. The authors then used a modified Delphi method to identify consensus among a group of 23 health professions education experts representing 11 fields in the health professions. Participants rated their level of agreement as to whether a competency or practice was both appropriate and important for all health professions students. A predetermined threshold of 70% agreement was used to define consensus. After 4 rounds of ratings and modifications, consensus agreement was reached on 62 out of 64 potential educational competencies (24 knowledge items, 27 skill items, and 11 attitude items), and 32 out of 33 potential practices. This study is the first known attempt to develop consensus on a list of health literacy practices and to translate recommended health literacy practices into an agreed-upon set of measurable educational competencies for health professionals. Further work is needed to prioritize the competencies and practices in

  9. Religiousness and Mental Health: Systematic Review Study.

    PubMed

    AbdAleati, Naziha S; Mohd Zaharim, Norzarina; Mydin, Yasmin Othman

    2016-12-01

    Many people use religious beliefs and practices to cope with stressful life events and derive peace of mind and purpose in life. The goal of this paper was to systematically review the recent psychological literature to assess the role of religion in mental health outcomes. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using medical and psychological databases on the relationship between religiosity and mental health. Seventy-four articles in the English and Arabic languages published between January 2000 and March 2012 were chosen. Despite the controversial relationship between religion and psychiatry, psychology, and medical care, there has been an increasing interest in the role which spirituality and religion play in mental health. The findings of past research showed that religion could play an important role in many situations, as religious convictions and rules influence the believer's life and health care. Most of the past literature in this area reported that there is a significant connection between religious beliefs and practices and mental health. PMID:27654836

  10. Women Empowerment through Health Information Seeking: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Alireza; Sabzevari, Sakineh; Negahban Bonabi, Tayebeh

    2015-01-01

    Background Today, women empowering is an important issue.  Several methods have been introduced to empower women. Health information seeking is one of the most important activities in this regard. A wide range of capabilities have been reported as outcomes of health information seeking in several studies. As health information seeking is developed within personal-social interactions and also the health system context, it seems that the qualitative paradigm is appropriate to use in studies in this regard. This study aimed to explore how women’s empowerment through health information seeking is done. Methods In this qualitative content analysis study, data collection was done with regard to inclusion criteria, through purposive sampling by semi-structured interviews with 17 women and using documentation and field notes until data saturation. Qualitative data analysis was done constantly and simultaneous with data collection. Results Four central themes were emerged to explain women’s empowerment through health information seeking that included: a) Health concerns management with three subcategories of Better coping, Stress management, Control of situation, b) Collaborative care with two subcategories of Effective interaction with health professions and Participation in health decision making c) Individual development d) Self-protection with four sub- categories of Life style modification,  Preventive behaviors promoting, Self-care promoting, and  medication adherence. Conclusion The results of this study indicate the importance of women empowerment through foraging their health information seeking rights and comprehensive health information management. PMID:26005690

  11. Efficacy and safety of canagliflozin alone or as add-on to other oral antihyperglycemic drugs in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes: A 52-week open-label study

    PubMed Central

    Inagaki, Nobuya; Kondo, Kazuoki; Yoshinari, Toru; Kuki, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction Canagliflozin is a sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor under development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Our aim was to examine its efficacy and safety as monotherapy or in combination with commonly used oral antihyperglycemic drugs in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods Patients on diet/exercise alone or diet/exercise plus an oral antihyperglycemic drug (sulfonylurea, glinide, α-glucosidase inhibitor, biguanide, thiazolidinedione or dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor) were randomized to either 100 or 200 mg canagliflozin while continuing prior therapy. Patients were treated for 52 weeks in an open-label manner. Results Canagliflozin significantly reduced hemoglobin A1c, fasting plasma glucose and bodyweight in all the study groups. Improvements were apparent by 4 weeks of treatment, and were maintained for 52 weeks. The reduction in hemoglobin A1c ranged from −0.80 to −1.06%, and from −0.93 to −1.26% in the 100 and 200 mg canagliflozin groups, respectively. Drug-related adverse events occurred in approximately one-third of patients, and included hypoglycemia/asymptomatic hypoglycemia and pollakiuria. Hypoglycemia/asymptomatic hypoglycemia was most common in patients treated with a sulfonylurea. Most adverse events were classified as mild or moderate in severity. Conclusions The results of the present study confirmed that treatment with canagliflozin resulted in significant reductions in glycemic control and bodyweight that were maintained for 52 weeks of treatment irrespective of whether it was administered as monotherapy or in combination with another oral antihyperglycemic drug. Canagliflozin was well tolerated, with a low incidence of drug-related adverse events. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (no. NCT01387737). PMID:25802729

  12. Metrology in health: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, M.; Matos, A.

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify and analyze some relevant issues which arise when the concept of metrological traceability is applied to health care facilities. Discussion is structured around the results that were obtained through a characterization and comparative description of the practices applied in 45 different Portuguese health entities. Following a qualitative exploratory approach, the information collected was the support for the initial research hypotheses and the development of the questionnaire survey. It was also applied a quantitative methodology that included a descriptive and inferential statistical analysis of the experimental data set.

  13. Public sexual health promotion interventions and strategies: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Khalesi, Zahra Bostani; Simbar, Masoumeh; Azin, Seyed Ali; Zayeri, Farid

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sexual health promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control over their sexual health that should be based on people’s needs and abilities. The aim of this study was to explore public sexual health promotion interventions and strategies. Methods This study was a qualitative content analysis approach. This qualitative study was a qualitative part of an exploratory sequential qualitative-quantitative study that took place between November 2014 and May 2015 and was conducted in Rasht, Iran. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews with 38 engaged and married men and women as well as nine key informants. The data were analyzed by the content analysis method and by using qualitative data analysis software MAXqda 2011. Results Analyzing participants’ perspectives and experiences revealed two main categories, i.e., 1) General actions to promote sexual health (with three sub-categories: public policies promoting sexual health, development of sexual health supporting environments, and removal of barriers to receiving services) and 2) Specific actions in the current health system (with three sub-categories: economic policy, empowering individuals and the society, and reviewing the current health system). Conclusions General actions (public policies, supporting environments developed, and removal of barriers to receiving services) and integration of specific actions in the health system, such as empowering individuals’ needs for promoting sexual health. Achieving these goals necessitates the review of the current health system in Iran. PMID:27504163

  14. Efficacy and safety of a form of cranial electrical stimulation (CES) as an add-on intervention for treatment-resistant major depressive disorder: A three week double blind pilot study.

    PubMed

    Mischoulon, David; De Jong, Marasha F; Vitolo, Ottavio V; Cusin, Cristina; Dording, Christina M; Yeung, Albert S; Durham, Kelley; Parkin, Susannah R; Fava, Maurizio; Dougherty, Darin D

    2015-11-01

    We examined efficacy and safety of one specific cranial electrical stimulator (CES) device at a fixed setting in subjects with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD). Thirty subjects (57% female, mean age 48.1 ± 12.3 years) with MDD and inadequate response to standard antidepressants were randomized to 3 weeks of treatment with CES (15/500/15,000 Hz, symmetrical rectangular biphasic current of 1-4 mAmp, 40 V) or sham CES (device off) for 20 min, 5 days per week. The primary outcome measure was improvement in the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D-17). Adverse effects (AEs) were assessed using the Patient Related Inventory of Side Effects (PRISE). Completion rates were 88% for CES, 100% for sham. Both treatment groups demonstrated improvement of about 3-5 points in HAM-D-17 scores (p < 0.05 for both), and no significant differences were observed between groups. Remission rates were 12% for CES, and 15% for sham, a nonsignificant difference. CES was deemed safe, with good tolerability; poor concentration and malaise were the only distressing AEs that differed significantly between CES and sham (p = 0.019 and p = 0.043, respectively). Limitations include a small sample and lack of an active comparator therapy. Although both treatment groups improved significantly, this CES at the setting chosen did not separate from sham in this sample. Thus we cannot rule out that the benefit from this setting used in this particular form of CES was due to placebo effects. Since this form of CES has other settings, future studies should test these settings and compare it against other CES devices. Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT01325532.

  15. Epidemiological Study of Greek University Students' Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kounenou, Kalliope; Koutra, Aikaterini; Katsiadrami, Aristea; Diacogiannis, Georgios

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, 805 Greek students participated by filling in self-report questionnaires studying depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale), general health status (General Health Questionnaire), general psychopathology (Symptom Checklist-90-R), and personal demographic features. Some of the more prevalent findings…

  16. Ombudsmen in health care: case study of a municipal health ombudsman

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Rita de Cássia Costa; Pedroso, Marcelo Caldeira; Zucchi, Paola

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the role of a Municipal Health Ombudsman and its contribution to the public health management from the perspective of the public health system users and the municipal health counselors. METHODS Qualitative research approach using the case study, descriptive and transversal methods. The unit of analysis was a Municipal Health Ombudsman, in the state of Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil, between May and August 2010. The study was observational in nature and data were collected through interviews with two groups of stakeholders: users and municipal health counselors. We interviewed 44 Brazilian Unified Health System users who had made direct use of the Municipal Health Ombudsman and all 20 municipal health counselors. The data obtained were analyzed based on three issues: (1) nature of the data obtained; (2) discussion of subsidies to qualify the ombudsman’s functioning as a management tool; (3) proposals for actions to improve democratic management in the area of public health. RESULTS The complaints to the ombudsman denoted difficulties in access to health care services running the risk of their being perceived as shortcuts to gaining accessibility, disregarding the principle of social justice. The role of the ombudsman has the citizens’ approval. Users reported the following main functions of the ombudsman: to support the resolution of health problems, to listen and to clarify issues regarding Brazilian Unified Health System operations and procedures. Information was emphasized by health counselors as an instrument of power and access to the rights of Brazilian Unified Health System users. They highlighted that the ombudsman has the role of ensuring justice to foster an effective health policy, besides playing an important mediating role between the board of the municipal health system, its managers and citizens. Furthermore, the ombudsman was shown to have an execution role that transcends its regular functions. CONCLUSIONS The study found

  17. Health Services Mobility Study, Plan of Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    City Univ. of New York Research Foundation, NY.

    To determine ways and means of facilitating horizontal and vertical mobility within New York City's Health Services Administration and selected private hospitals, a systems approach was adopted. Methodology for manpower development and training in an organizational setting related to the educational system and other accrediting institutions will…

  18. Assessing the Need for a New Household Panel Study: Health Insurance and Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Helen

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the availability of data for addressing questions related to health insurance and health care and the potential contribution of a new household panel study. The paper begins by outlining some of the major questions related to policy and concludes that survey data on health insurance, access to care, health spending, and overall economic well-being will likely be needed to answer them. The paper considers the strengths and weaknesses of existing sources of survey data for answering these questions. The paper concludes that either a new national panel study, an expansion in the age range of subjects in existing panel studies, or a set of smaller changes to existing panel and cross-sectional surveys, would significantly enhance our understanding of the dynamics of health insurance, access to health care, and economic well-being. PMID:27279677

  19. Stealing time. Time management techniques add hours to each day.

    PubMed

    Davis, Nadinia

    2003-06-01

    Time not only flies when we're having fun, but also when we're filing paperwork, checking e-mail, and looking for our car keys. But you can add hours to your day by managing yourself rather than time. Here's how.

  20. Enhancing Teaching using MATLAB Add-Ins for Excel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Paul V.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper I will illustrate how to extend the capabilities of Microsoft Excel spreadsheets with add-ins created by MATLAB. Excel provides a broad array of fundamental tools but often comes up short when more sophisticated scenarios are involved. To overcome this short-coming of Excel while retaining its ease of use, I will describe how…

  1. Mode-routed fiber-optic add-drop filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moslehi, Behzad (Inventor); Black, Richard James (Inventor); Shaw, Herbert John (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    New elements mode-converting two-mode grating and mode-filtering two-mode coupler are disclosed and used as elements in a system for communications, add-drop filtering, and strain sensing. Methods of fabrication for these new two-mode gratings and mode-filtering two-mode couplers are also disclosed.

  2. Medicalised Pupils: The Case of ADD/ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansson, Kristjan

    2009-01-01

    Recent decades have seen an increasing number of life's problems conceptualised and interpreted through the prism of disease; among them are those affecting pupils at school. Witness the cases of hyperactivity and deficient attention, so often diagnosed as ADD/ADHD. Research indicates that there is at least some tendency towards overdiagnosis of…

  3. An ethnographic study of three mental health triage programs.

    PubMed

    Grigg, Margaret; Endacott, Ruth; Herrman, Helen; Harvey, Carol

    2004-09-01

    Triage processes are commonly used to manage the interface between demand for, and supply of, health services. This dimension of service provision is particularly pertinent for mental health services in Australia, where demand outweighs services available. This paper draws on the experiences of using participant observation to explore mental health triage processes. Findings highlight the complexities of the researcher role and benefits of using an ethnographic approach to explore mental health triage patterns. Insider participant observation brings many challenges but also, in this study, enabled the researcher to uncover some roles and processes underpinning triage decisions in mental health services.

  4. Women's health bridges and barriers: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Parvizy, Soroor; Kiani, Kiandokht; Ivbijaro, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    The authors aimed to understand the social bridges and social barriers to women's health in Iran. We used a qualitative content analysis method and interviewed 22 women. The participants identified appropriate employment, physical exercise, and cultural and educational development as social bridges to women's health. Social barriers to women's health included gender inequalities, burden of responsibility, and financial difficulties. Based on the results of this study, we suggest an interdisciplinary approach to plan social-based health programs in order to improve women's health outcomes in the developing countries such as Iran.

  5. Health Auctions: a Valuation Experiment (HAVE) study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Kularatna, Sanjeewa; Petrie, Dennis; Scuffham, Paul A; Byrnes, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Quality-adjusted life years are derived using health state utility weights which adjust for the relative value of living in each health state compared with living in perfect health. Various techniques are used to estimate health state utility weights including time-trade-off and standard gamble. These methods have exhibited limitations in terms of complexity, validity and reliability. A new composite approach using experimental auctions to value health states is introduced in this protocol. Methods and analysis A pilot study will test the feasibility and validity of using experimental auctions to value health states in monetary terms. A convenient sample (n=150) from a population of university staff and students will be invited to participate in 30 auction sets with a group of 5 people in each set. The 9 health states auctioned in each auction set will come from the commonly used EQ-5D-3L instrument. At most participants purchase 2 health states, and the participant who acquires the 2 ‘best’ health states on average will keep the amount of money they do not spend in acquiring those health states. The value (highest bid and average bid) of each of the 24 health states will be compared across auctions to test for reliability across auction groups and across auctioneers. A test retest will be conducted for 10% of the sample to assess reliability of responses for health states auctions. Feasibility of conducting experimental auctions to value health states will also be examined. The validity of estimated health states values will be compared with published utility estimates from other methods. This pilot study will explore the feasibility, reliability and validity in using experimental auction for valuing health states. Ethics and dissemination Ethical clearance was obtained from Griffith University ethics committee. The results will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals and major international conferences. PMID:27056589

  6. Assessing landscape health: a case study from northeastern Italy.

    PubMed

    Bertollo, P

    2001-03-01

    This article investigates the concept of biophysical landscape health for what are termed "highly governed landscapes." It proposes a definition of landscape health along with a preliminary diagnostic model and methods. The idea of landscape health derives from the emerging integrative science of ecosystem health, which seeks to diagnose ecosystem condition as humans diagnose human health. Highly governed landscapes, such as the reclaimed areas of coastal northeastern Italy, are landscapes that have been subject to even greater degrees of human manipulation than normal cultural landscapes. These highly altered landscapes are not easily served by existing environmental paradigms and concepts of health are seen to have numerous advantages. This paper condenses a broader investigation of landscape health into three main sections. A brief review of the literature is followed by a case study, which details two different phases of landscape transformation in the Lower Piave area of northeastern Italy. A definition and general parameters of biophysical landscape health are then presented after this background stage. Some key parameters of biophysical health include absence of distress and risk factors, sustainability, biodiversity, resilience, and balance. For certain parameters, a preliminary landscape health diagnostic framework is presented that includes potential diagnostic methods and thresholds based on findings from this case study. At the paper's conclusion, a summary diagnostic model is presented, which suggests a process needed to implement landscape health assessment into practice. PMID:11148762

  7. Client-public health nurse relationships in child health care: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Vehviläinen-Julkunen, K

    1992-08-01

    Client-public health nurse relationships are considered to be important in nursing literature. However, little research in nursing has touched this area. The purpose of this paper is to describe a study of the patterns of interaction in terms of relationships between clients (mother and child under 1 year of age) and public health nurses in child health care at Finnish health centres. The qualitative data were collected by observing client-public health nurse interactions during visits. In total, 1554 interactions were observed over 2 years from 20 visits to child health centres. The grounded theory method was used in this study. Various relationships were identified between child and mother, child and public health nurse and mother and public health nurse. The relationship between child and mother during the visit was called a tender, protective and persuasive relationship. The relationship between child and public health nurse was called a persuasive and entertainment relationship. The main relationship between mother and public health nurse was called relationship supporting self-confidence. Suggestions for nursing practice and further research are made. PMID:1506539

  8. eHealth and mHealth initiatives in Bangladesh: A scoping study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The health system of Bangladesh is haunted by challenges of accessibility and affordability. Despite impressive gains in many health indicators, recent evidence has raised concerns regarding the utilization, quality and equity of healthcare. In the context of new and unfamiliar public health challenges including high population density and rapid urbanization, eHealth and mHealth are being promoted as a route to cost-effective, equitable and quality healthcare in Bangladesh. The aim of this paper is to highlight such initiatives and understand their true potential. Methods This scoping study applies a combination of research tools to explore 26 eHealth and mHealth initiatives in Bangladesh. A screening matrix was developed by modifying the framework of Arksey & O’Malley, further complemented by case study and SWOT analysis to identify common traits among the selected interventions. The WHO health system building blocks approach was then used for thematic analysis of these traits. Results Findings suggest that most eHealth and mHealth initiatives have proliferated within the private sector, using mobile phones. The most common initiatives include tele-consultation, prescription and referral. While a minority of projects have a monitoring and evaluation framework, less than a quarter have undertaken evaluation. Most of the initiatives use a health management information system (HMIS) to monitor implementation. However, these do not provide for effective sharing of information and interconnectedness among the various actors. There are extremely few individuals with eHealth training in Bangladesh and there is a strong demand for capacity building and experience sharing, especially for implementation and policy making. There is also a lack of research evidence on how to design interventions to meet the needs of the population and on potential benefits. Conclusion This study concludes that Bangladesh needs considerable preparation and planning to sustain eHealth

  9. Telecourse Study Guide to "Here's to Your Health."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Donna

    This study guide was prepared to accompany "Here's to Your Health," a telecourse focusing on lifestyle factors influencing health, which was designed to provide the tools necessary for achieving and maintaining an optimal, healthy lifestyle. For each of 27 lessons, the study guide presents learning objectives, an overview of content, study…

  10. ASSESSING EXPOSURE CLASSIFICATION IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiologic study examining cancer and non-cancer health outcomes for over 55,000 pesticide applicators and 34,000 spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Questionnaires were used to collect information about the use of specific ...

  11. Human health risk assessment with spatial analysis: study of a population chronically exposed to arsenic through drinking water from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Navoni, J A; De Pietri, D; Olmos, V; Gimenez, C; Bovi Mitre, G; de Titto, E; Villaamil Lepori, E C

    2014-11-15

    Arsenic (As) is a ubiquitous element widely distributed in the environment. This metalloid has proven carcinogenic action in man. The aim of this work was to assess the health risk related to As exposure through drinking water in an Argentinean population, applying spatial analytical techniques in addition to conventional approaches. The study involved 650 inhabitants from Chaco and Santiago del Estero provinces. Arsenic in drinking water (Asw) and urine (UAs) was measured by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Average daily dose (ADD), hazard quotient (HQ), and carcinogenic risk (CR) were estimated, geo-referenced and integrated with demographical data by a health composite index (HI) applying geographic information system (GIS) analysis. Asw covered a wide range of concentration: from non-detectable (ND) to 2000 μg/L. More than 90% of the population was exposed to As, with UAs levels above the intervention level of 100 μg/g creatinine. GIS analysis described an expected level of exposure lower than the observed, indicating possible additional source/s of exposure to inorganic arsenic. In 68% of the locations, the population had a HQ greater than 1, and the CR ranged between 5·10(-5) and 2,1·10(-2). An environmental exposure area through ADD geo-referencing defined a baseline scenario for space-time risk assessment. The time of residence, the demographic density and the potential health considered outcomes helped characterize the health risk in the region. The geospatial analysis contributed to delimitate and analyze the change tendencies of risk in the region, broadening the scopes of the results for a decision-making process.

  12. Human health risk assessment with spatial analysis: study of a population chronically exposed to arsenic through drinking water from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Navoni, J A; De Pietri, D; Olmos, V; Gimenez, C; Bovi Mitre, G; de Titto, E; Villaamil Lepori, E C

    2014-11-15

    Arsenic (As) is a ubiquitous element widely distributed in the environment. This metalloid has proven carcinogenic action in man. The aim of this work was to assess the health risk related to As exposure through drinking water in an Argentinean population, applying spatial analytical techniques in addition to conventional approaches. The study involved 650 inhabitants from Chaco and Santiago del Estero provinces. Arsenic in drinking water (Asw) and urine (UAs) was measured by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Average daily dose (ADD), hazard quotient (HQ), and carcinogenic risk (CR) were estimated, geo-referenced and integrated with demographical data by a health composite index (HI) applying geographic information system (GIS) analysis. Asw covered a wide range of concentration: from non-detectable (ND) to 2000 μg/L. More than 90% of the population was exposed to As, with UAs levels above the intervention level of 100 μg/g creatinine. GIS analysis described an expected level of exposure lower than the observed, indicating possible additional source/s of exposure to inorganic arsenic. In 68% of the locations, the population had a HQ greater than 1, and the CR ranged between 5·10(-5) and 2,1·10(-2). An environmental exposure area through ADD geo-referencing defined a baseline scenario for space-time risk assessment. The time of residence, the demographic density and the potential health considered outcomes helped characterize the health risk in the region. The geospatial analysis contributed to delimitate and analyze the change tendencies of risk in the region, broadening the scopes of the results for a decision-making process. PMID:25181048

  13. A quantitative approach to perceived health status: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Hunt, S M; McKenna, S P; McEwen, J; Backett, E M; Williams, J; Papp, E

    1980-12-01

    The current recognition of the importance of perceived health status as a predictor of need for, and utilisation of, health services has led to attempts to produce indicators which assess subjective rather than objective health problems. The development of the Nottingham Health Profile is described, together with a study which tested the validity of the instrument on four groups of elderly people differing in health status. The results showed that the profile was capable of discriminating between groups differing in terms of diagnosed chronic illness, number of consultations at primary care level, and physiological fitness. Age, sex, and marital status were not significant overall in affecting scores. In these elderly subjects, perceived health status accorded well with objective health status. Further tests of the profile are now taking place on younger groups of subjects. PMID:7241028

  14. Health Information Management System for Elderly Health Sector: A Qualitative Study in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Shahi, Mehraban; Ahmadi, Maryam; Davaridolatabadi, Nasrin

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are increasing change and development of information in healthcare systems. Given the increase in aging population, managers are in need of true and timely information when making decision. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the current status of the health information management system for the elderly health sector in Iran. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study was conducted in two steps. In the first step, required documents for administrative managers were collected using the data gathering form and observed and reviewed by the researcher. In the second step, using an interview guide, the required information was gathered through interviewing experts and faculty members. The convenience, purposeful and snowball sampling methods were applied to select interviewees and the sampling continued until reaching the data saturation point. Finally, notes and interviews were transcribed and content analysis was used to analyze them. Results: The results of the study showed that there was a health information management system for the elderly health sector in Iran. However, in all primary health care centers the documentation of data was done manually; the data flow was not automated; and the analysis and reporting of data are also manually. Eventually, decision makers are provided with delayed information. Conclusions: It is suggested that the steward of health in Iran, the ministry of health, develops an appropriate infrastructure and finally puts a high priority on the implementation of the health information management system for elderly health sector in Iran. PMID:27186383

  15. Health Literacy Association With Health Behaviors and Health Care Utilization in Multiple Sclerosis: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Salter, Amber; Tyry, Tuula; Fox, Robert J; Cutter, Gary R

    2014-01-01

    Background Low health literacy is generally associated with poor health outcomes; however, health literacy has received little attention in multiple sclerosis (MS). Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the health literacy of persons with MS using the North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis (NARCOMS) Registry. Methods In 2012, we conducted a cross-sectional study of health literacy among NARCOMS participants. Respondents completed the Medical Term Recognition Test (METER) which assesses the ability to distinguish medical and nonmedical words, and the Newest Vital Sign (NVS) instrument which evaluates reading, interpretation, and numeracy skills. Respondents reported their sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviors, comorbidities, visits to the emergency room (ER), and hospitalizations in the last 6 months. We used logistic regression to evaluate the characteristics associated with functional literacy, and the association between functional literacy and health care utilization. Results Of 13,020 eligible participants, 8934 (68.6%) completed the questionnaire and were US residents. Most of them performed well on the instruments with 81.04% (7066/8719) having functional literacy on the METER and 74.62% (6666/8933) having adequate literacy on the NVS. Low literacy on the METER or the NVS was associated with smoking, being overweight or obese (all P<.001). After adjustment, low literacy on the METER was associated with ER visits (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.10-1.48) and hospitalizations (OR 1.19, 95% CI 0.98-1.44). Findings were similar for the NVS. Conclusions In the NARCOMS cohort, functional health literacy is high. However, lower levels of health literacy are associated with adverse health behaviors and greater health care utilization. PMID:24513479

  16. An Exploratory Study of Inactive Health Information Seekers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study aims to identify people who do not actively seek out health information and the demographic characteristics of Inactive Seekers. The possible determinants of inactive seeking behaviors is also explored. Design and Measurements A total of 14,420 survey respondents were drawn from the 2009 Annenberg National Health Communication Survey (ANHCS) data. K-means clustering was used to discriminate Inactive Seekers from Active Seekers. The inactive information seeker group was formed based on their experience with health information seeking. The potential determinants that were tested to predict inactive seeking included the following: health condition, health service use, health media exposure, and computer/Internet activities. Results Within this national survey data, the respondents were more likely to be included in the Inactive Seekers (N=8,312, 58.5%) compared to Active Seekers (N=5,908, 41.5%). The demographic characteristics indicated that the Inactive Seekers were identified as younger, male, highly educated, White, and high household income people. The binary logistic regression results from the study model indicated that healthier people were less likely to seek out health information than their counterparts. In addition, those who were exposed to various media were almost 1.6 times more likely to seek out health information than those who were not exposed to such media. Within this study data, the statistically significant determinants identified were health condition and health media exposure while computer/Internet activities did not show strong indications in predicting inactive seeking behavior. Conclusion The development of more generalizable measures for health literacy or behavioral patterns will bolster advanced study on inactive seeking relating to knowledge of technology and health context. Further study should be directed at estimating the negative aspects of information seeking such as information ignorance or information

  17. Mental health nurses' contributions to community mental health care: An Australian study.

    PubMed

    Heslop, Brett; Wynaden, Dianne; Tohotoa, Jenny; Heslop, Karen

    2016-10-01

    Australian mental health policy is focused on providing mental health care in the community setting and community mental health teams provide services to clients in a shared model with primary care. The historical literature reports that community mental health nurses' experience high levels of stress and are often allocated the most complex and challenging clients managed by the team. Yet information on their specific roles remains limited. This paper reports on research conducted at one Australian public mental health service to identify the components of the community mental health nursing role and to quantify the time nurses spent in each component during the study period. Six focus groups were conducted with community mental health nurses to identify their perceived role within the team. Data analysis identified 18 components of which 10 were related to direct clinical contact with clients and eight covered administrative and care coordination activities. A data collection tool based on the findings of the focus groups was designed and nurses recorded workload data on the tool in 15-min intervals over a 4-week period. Seventeen nurses collected 1528 hours of data. Internal coordination of care was identified as the top workload item followed by clinical documentation and national data collection responsibilities supporting the complexity of the community mental health nursing role. The high rating attached to the internal coordination of care role demonstrates an important contribution that community mental health nurses make to the functioning of the team and the delivery of quality mental health care.

  18. Community involvement in health services at Namayumba and Bobi health centres: A case study

    PubMed Central

    Ndoboli, Fred; Kuule, Julius; Besigye, Innocent

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Community involvement has been employed in the development of both vertical and horizontal health programmes. In Uganda, there is no empirical evidence on whether and how communities are involved in their health services. Aim and Setting The aim of this study was to establish the existence of community involvement in health services and to identify its support mechanisms in Namayumba and Bobi health centres in Wakiso and Gulu districts, respectively. Methods Participants were selected with the help of a community mobiliser. Key informants were selected purposively depending on their expertise and the roles played in their respective communities. The focus group discussions and key informant interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were analysed manually for emerging themes and sub-themes. Results Several themes emerged from the transcripts and we categorised them broadly into those that promote community involvement in health services and those that jeopardise it. Easy community mobilisation and several forms of community and health centre efforts promote community involvement, whilst lack of trust for health workers and poor communication downplay community involvement in their health services. Conclusion Community involvement is low in health services in both Namayumba and Bobi health centres.

  19. PRELIMINARY HEALTH BURDEN ANALYSIS FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC RECREATIONAL WATER STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: The National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational Water Study (NEEAR) offers a rare opportunity for researchers. The study's design involves the collection of health data before and after visiting the beach in conjunction with water quality...

  20. RESPIRATORY HEALTH OF RURAL AND FARM WOMEN IN THE KEOKUK COUNTY RURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    RESPIRATORY HEALTH OF RURAL AND FARM WOMEN IN THE KEOKUK COUNTY RURAL HEALTH STUDY
    Allison L. Naleway*, Nancy L. Sprince?, Erik R. Svendsen?, Ann M. Stromquist?, James A. Merchant?
    *Marshfield Medical Research and Education Foundation, Marshfield, WI; ?University of Iowa Co...

  1. Roles, work, health perceptions and health resources of women: a study in an Egyptian delta hamlet.

    PubMed

    Lane, S D; Meleis, A I

    1991-01-01

    Women's health needs can only be described and programs to address them implemented with an understanding of women's multiple roles and responsibilities. A life-cycle approach to examining women's roles and responsibilities provides a useful framework to achieve such understanding. This paper describes the results of a study conducted in a rural village in Egypt that examines the daily life experiences of women, their work, their family responsibilities, their health perceptions and their health resources. We argue that programs designed to address women's health needs must consider these critical aspects of their lives. This argument is based on the premise that women's health needs have been neglected and efforts to ameliorate this situation should be a top priority in the international health care agenda of the 1990s.

  2. [Mental health, vulnerability and general practice: a study of non-profit health centers in Grenoble].

    PubMed

    Dubois-Fabing, Delphine; Pichon, Philippe; Arnevielhe, Alizée; Suscillon, Marie-Paule; Caron, Bruno; Saillard, Fabienne; François, Patrice

    2011-01-01

    Very little research has been conducted on the role of general practitioners (GPs) in mental health care among socioeconomically disadvantaged populations in France. The non-profit community health care centers in Grenoble provide populations living in sensitive urban zones with high quality primary health care that includes a medico-social and prevention dimension. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of mental health issues diagnosed by GPs in health care centers, to identify the factors associated with these issues and to describe treatment characteristics. This cross-sectional study focused on general practice consultations in the AGECSA Grenoble health care centers over the course of one week. At the end of each consultation, the GP collected information about the patient, including personal data, psychological disorders, vulnerability, and patient health management. Among the 451 patients included in the study, GPs found that 45.2% of patients were in vulnerable situations and 43% of patients suffered from a mental disorder, including 29% of cases of anxiety and 20% of cases of depression. 44% of patients suffered from a psychological disorder (mental disorder and/or psychological suffering). For these patients, 52.8% of the consultations lasted more than 20 minutes. Their treatment generally included a mental health care follow-up (in 76% of cases), including psychological support (59%) and treatment of functional somatic disorders (46%). The study shows the high prevalence of psychological disorders diagnosed in the patients treated by GPs working in health care centers in disadvantaged urban areas. Research shows that GPs play an important and specific role in mental health care and prevention. An analysis of the organizational methods used in health care centers is highly relevant.

  3. Front Range Forest Health Partnership Phase 1 feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Volkin, P

    1998-09-01

    The Front Range Forest Health Partnership is an alliance of individuals, citizen groups, federal, state, private, and nonprofit organizations that formed to promote forest health restoration and reduce fire risks on Colorado's Front Range. The partnership promotes selective thinning to restore forest health and supports economically feasible end uses for wood waste materials. The Phase I study was initiated to determine the environmental and economic feasibility of using wood wastes from forested and urban areas for the production of fuel-grade ethanol.

  4. The role of professional education in developing compassionate practitioners: a mixed methods study exploring the perceptions xof health professionals and pre-registration students.

    PubMed

    Bray, Lucy; O'Brien, Mary R; Kirton, Jennifer; Zubairu, Kate; Christiansen, Angela

    2014-03-01

    Compassionate practice is a public expectation and a core health professional value. However, in the face of growing public and professional unease about a perceived absence of compassion in health care it is essential that the role of education in developing compassionate practitioners is fully understood. The aim of this study was to explore qualified health professionals' and pre-registration students' understanding of compassion and the role of health professional education in promoting compassionate care. A sequential explanatory mixed methods study collected data using surveys and qualitative semi-structured interviews from qualified health professionals (n=155) and pre-registration students (n=197). Participants were from a range of health and social care disciplines and registered at a UK university. The findings indicate a high level of consensus in relation to participants' understanding of compassion in health care. Acting with warmth and empathy, providing individualised patient care and acting in a way you would like others to act towards you, were seen as the most common features of compassionate care. However, ambiguities and contradictions were evident when considering the role of health professional education in promoting compassionate practice. This study adds to the debate and current understanding of the role of education in fostering compassionate health care practice.

  5. A search strategy for occupational health intervention studies

    PubMed Central

    Verbeek, J; Salmi, J; Pasternack, I; Jauhiainen, M; Laamanen, I; Schaafsma, F; Hulshof, C; van Dijk, F

    2005-01-01

    Background: As a result of low numbers and diversity in study type, occupational health intervention studies are not easy to locate in electronic literature databases. Aim: To develop a search strategy that facilitates finding occupational health intervention studies in Medline, both for researchers and practitioners. Methods: A gold standard of articles was created by going through two whole volumes of 19 biomedical journals, both occupational health specialty and non-occupational health journals. Criteria for occupational health intervention studies were: evaluating an intervention with an occupational health outcome and a study design with a control group. Each journal was searched independently by two of the authors. Search terms were developed by asking specialists and counting word frequencies in gold standard articles. Results: Out of 11 022 articles published we found 149 occupational health intervention studies. The most sensitive single terms were work*[tw] (sensitivity 71%, specificity 88%) and effect*[tw] (sensitivity 75%, specificity 63%). The most sensitive string was (effect*[tw] OR control*[tw] OR evaluation*[tw] OR program*[tw]) AND (work*[tw] OR occupation*[tw] OR prevention*[tw] OR protect*[tw]) (sensitivity 89%, specificity 78%). The most specific single terms were "occupational health"[tw] (sensitivity 22%, specificity 98%) and effectiveness[tw] (sensitivity 22%, specificity 98%). The most specific string was (program[tw] OR "prevention and control"[sh]) AND (occupational[tw] OR worker*[tw]) (sensitivity 47%, specificity 98%). Conclusion: No single search terms are available that can locate occupational health intervention studies sufficiently. The authors' search strings have acceptable sensitivity and specificity to be used by researchers and practitioners respectively. Redefinition and elaboration of keywords in Medline could greatly facilitate the location of occupational health intervention studies. PMID:16169913

  6. Add Control: plant virtualization for control solutions in WWTP.

    PubMed

    Maiza, M; Bengoechea, A; Grau, P; De Keyser, W; Nopens, I; Brockmann, D; Steyer, J P; Claeys, F; Urchegui, G; Fernández, O; Ayesa, E

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes part of the research work carried out in the Add Control project, which proposes an extension of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) models and modelling architectures used in traditional WWTP simulation tools, addressing, in addition to the classical mass transformations (transport, physico-chemical phenomena, biological reactions), all the instrumentation, actuation and automation & control components (sensors, actuators, controllers), considering their real behaviour (signal delays, noise, failures and power consumption of actuators). Its ultimate objective is to allow a rapid transition from the simulation of the control strategy to its implementation at full-scale plants. Thus, this paper presents the application of the Add Control simulation platform for the design and implementation of new control strategies at the WWTP of Mekolalde. PMID:23863420

  7. The world health organization multicountry survey on maternal and newborn health: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Effective interventions to reduce mortality and morbidity in maternal and newborn health already exist. Information about quality and performance of care and the use of critical interventions are useful for shaping improvements in health care and strengthening the contribution of health systems towards the Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5. The near-miss concept and the criterion-based clinical audit are proposed as useful approaches for obtaining such information in maternal and newborn health care. This paper presents the methods of the World Health Organization Multicountry Study in Maternal and Newborn Health. The main objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence of maternal near-miss cases in a worldwide network of health facilities, evaluate the quality of care using the maternal near-miss concept and the criterion-based clinical audit, and develop the near-miss concept in neonatal health. Methods/Design This is a large cross-sectional study being implemented in a worldwide network of health facilities. A total of 370 health facilities from 29 countries will take part in this study and produce nearly 275,000 observations. All women giving birth, all maternal near-miss cases regardless of the gestational age and delivery status and all maternal deaths during the study period comprise the study population. In each health facility, medical records of all eligible women will be reviewed during a data collection period that ranges from two to three months according to the annual number of deliveries. Discussion Implementing the systematic identification of near-miss cases, mapping the use of critical evidence-based interventions and analysing the corresponding indicators are just the initial steps for using the maternal near-miss concept as a tool to improve maternal and newborn health. The findings of projects using approaches similar to those described in this manuscript will be a good starter for a more comprehensive dialogue with

  8. Stereovision Imaging in Smart Mobile Phone Using Add on Prisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Magen Numhauser, Jonathan; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2014-03-01

    In this work we present the use of a prism-based add on component installed on top of a smart phone to achieve stereovision capabilities using iPhone mobile operating system. Through these components and the combination of the appropriate application programming interface and mathematical algorithms the obtained results will permit the analysis of possible enhancements for new uses to such system, in a variety of areas including medicine and communications.

  9. Randomized Controlled Trials of Add-On Antidepressants in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Joffe, Grigori; Stenberg, Jan-Henry

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite adequate treatment with antipsychotics, a substantial number of patients with schizophrenia demonstrate only suboptimal clinical outcome. To overcome this challenge, various psychopharmacological combination strategies have been used, including antidepressants added to antipsychotics. Methods: To analyze the efficacy of add-on antidepressants for the treatment of negative, positive, cognitive, depressive, and antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal symptoms in schizophrenia, published randomized controlled trials assessing the efficacy of adjunctive antidepressants in schizophrenia were reviewed using the following parameters: baseline clinical characteristics and number of patients, their on-going antipsychotic treatment, dosage of the add-on antidepressants, duration of the trial, efficacy measures, and outcomes. Results: There were 36 randomized controlled trials reported in 41 journal publications (n=1582). The antidepressants used were the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, duloxetine, imipramine, mianserin, mirtazapine, nefazodone, reboxetin, trazodone, and bupropion. Mirtazapine and mianserin showed somewhat consistent efficacy for negative symptoms and both seemed to enhance neurocognition. Trazodone and nefazodone appeared to improve the antipsychotics-induced extrapyramidal symptoms. Imipramine and duloxetine tended to improve depressive symptoms. No clear evidence supporting selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors’ efficacy on any clinical domain of schizophrenia was found. Add-on antidepressants did not worsen psychosis. Conclusions: Despite a substantial number of randomized controlled trials, the overall efficacy of add-on antidepressants in schizophrenia remains uncertain mainly due to methodological issues. Some differences in efficacy on several schizophrenia domains seem, however, to exist and to vary by the antidepressant subgroups—plausibly due to differences in the mechanisms of action. Antidepressants may not worsen

  10. Family nurse practitioners: "value add" in outpatient chronic disease management.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Lynn

    2012-12-01

    Nurse practitioners are capable leaders in primary care design as practices nationwide move to consider and adopt the patient-centered medical home. The chronic care model provides a structure to enhance the care of chronic illness. Nurse practitioners are instrumental in many areas of this model as both leaders and caregivers. Safety and quality are basic medical home goals; nurse practitioners enhance both. The addition of a nurse practitioner to a practice is an effective "value add" in every way.

  11. Prospective Observational Study of Ocular Health in ISS Crews - The Ocular Health Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otto, C.; Barr, Y.; Platts, S.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Sargsyan, A.; Alexander, D.; Riascos, R.; Gibson, C.; Patel, N.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Visual Impairment Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome is currently NASA's number one human space flight risk. The syndrome, which is related to microgravity exposure, manifests with changes in visual acuity (hyperopic shifts, scotomas), changes in eye structure (optic disc edema, choroidal folds, cotton wool spots, globe flattening, and dilated optic nerve sheaths), and in some cases with documented increased intracranial pressure (ICP) postflight. While the eye appears to be the main affected end organ of this syndrome, the ocular effects are thought to be related to underlying changes in the vascular system and the central nervous system. The leading hypotheses for the development of VIIP involve microgravity-induced head-ward fluid shifts along with a loss of gravity-assisted drainage of venous blood from the brain, leading to cephalic congestion, decreased CSF resorption and increased ICP. Since 70% of ISS crewmembers have manifested clinical signs or symptoms of the VIIP syndrome, it is assumed that the majority have some degree of ICP elevation in-flight compared to the ground. Prolonged elevations of ICP can cause long-term reduced visual acuity and loss of peripheral visual fields, and have been reported to cause mild cognitive impairment in the analog terrestrial population of Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH). These potentially irreversible health consequences underscore the importance of identifying the factors that lead to this syndrome and mitigating them. METHODS: The Ocular Health study expands on the required in-flight medical testing required of long-duration crewmembers assigned to an International Space Station (ISS) mission, to include 13 sessions over a three-year period. Pre- and postflight evaluations include functional eye exams (visual testing), structural eye exams (fundoscopy, ocular ultrasound, optical coherence tomography, optical biometry and biomicroscopy), intraocular pressure (IOP, tonometry

  12. Optical add/drop filter for wavelength division multiplexed systems

    DOEpatents

    Deri, Robert J.; Strand, Oliver T.; Garrett, Henry E.

    2002-01-01

    An optical add/drop filter for wavelength division multiplexed systems and construction methods are disclosed. The add/drop filter includes a first ferrule having a first pre-formed opening for receiving a first optical fiber; an interference filter oriented to pass a first set of wavelengths along the first optical fiber and reflect a second set of wavelengths; and, a second ferrule having a second pre-formed opening for receiving the second optical fiber, and the reflected second set of wavelengths. A method for constructing the optical add/drop filter consists of the steps of forming a first set of openings in a first ferrule; inserting a first set of optical fibers into the first set of openings; forming a first set of guide pin openings in the first ferrule; dividing the first ferrule into a first ferrule portion and a second ferrule portion; forming an interference filter on the first ferrule portion; inserting guide pins through the first set of guide pin openings in the first ferrule portion and second ferrule portion to passively align the first set of optical fibers; removing material such that light reflected from the interference filter from the first set of optical fibers is accessible; forming a second set of openings in a second ferrule; inserting a second set of optical fibers into the second set of openings; and positioning the second ferrule with respect to the first ferrule such that the second set of optical fibers receive the light reflected from the interference filter.

  13. Measuring health workers’ motivation in rural health facilities: baseline results from three study districts in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Health worker motivation can potentially affect the provision of health services. Low morale among the workforce can undermine the quality of service provision and drive workers away from the profession. While the presence of high-quality, motivated staff is a key aspect of health system performance, it is also one of the most difficult factors to measure. Methods We assessed health worker motivation as part of the baseline assessment for a health system strengthening intervention in three rural districts in Zambia. The intervention (Better Health Outcomes Through Mentoring and Assessment (BHOMA)) aims to increase health worker motivation through training, mentoring and support. We assessed motivation by examining underlying issues grouped around relevant outcome constructs such as job satisfaction, general motivation, burnout, organization commitment, conscientiousness and timeliness that collectively measure overall levels of motivation. The tools and the concepts have been used in high-income countries and they were recently applied in African settings to measure health worker motivation. Results Female participants had the highest motivation scores (female: mean 78.5 (SD 7.8) vs male: mean (SD 7.0)). By type of worker, nurses had the highest scores while environmental health technicians had the lowest score (77.4 (SD 7.8 vs 73.2 (SD 9.3)). Health workers who had been in post longer also had higher scores (>7 months). Health workers who had received some form of training in the preceding 12 months were more likely to have a higher score; this was also true for those older than 40 years when compared to those less than 40 years of age. The highest score values were noted in conscientiousness and timeliness, with all districts scoring above 80. Conclusions This study evaluated motivation among rural health workers using a simple adapted tool to measure the concept of motivation. Results showed variation in motivation score by sex, type of health

  14. A prospective study of hope, optimism, and health.

    PubMed

    Scioli, A; Chamberlin, C M; Samor, C M; Lapointe, A B; Campbell, T L; MacLeod, A R; McLenon, J

    1997-12-01

    The present investigation sought to distinguish hope from optimism in the context of a 10-wk. prospective study involving reports of health outcomes. Gottschalk's (1985) Hope Scale and Scheier and Carver's (1987) Life Orientation Test which assesses optimism were given to subjects, along with a health questionnaire. Ten weeks later subjects were given a second health questionnaire. To rule out potential confounds we included measures of neuroticism, depression, extroversion, and social desirability. After controlling for the effects of correlated confounds, we found that lower hope scores (but not optimism) were correlated with several dimensions of reported health, including frequency and severity of illness.

  15. Police and mental health clinician partnership in response to mental health crisis: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Brian; Furness, Trentham; Oakes, Jane; Brown, Steve

    2015-10-01

    Police officers as first responders to acute mental health crisis in the community, commonly transport people in mental health crisis to a hospital emergency department. However, emergency departments are not the optimal environments to provide assessment and care to those experiencing mental health crises. In 2012, the Northern Police and Clinician Emergency Response (NPACER) team combining police and mental health clinicians was created to reduce behavioural escalation and provide better outcomes for people with mental health needs through diversion to appropriate mental health and community services. The aim of this study was to describe the perceptions of major stakeholders on the ability of the team to reduce behavioural escalation and improve the service utilization of people in mental health crisis. Responses of a purposive sample of 17 people (carer or consumer advisors, mental health or emergency department staff, and police or ambulance officers) who had knowledge of, or had interfaced with, the NPACER were thematically analyzed after one-to-one semistructured interviews. Themes emerged about the challenge created by a stand-alone police response, with the collaborative strengths of the NPACER (communication, information sharing, and knowledge/skill development) seen as the solution. Themes on improvements in service utilization were revealed at the point of community contact, in police stations, transition through the emergency department, and admission to acute inpatient units. The NPACER enabled emergency department diversion, direct access to inpatient mental health services, reduced police officer 'down-time', improved interagency collaboration and knowledge transfer, and improvements in service utilization and transition.

  16. Political Economies of Health: A Consideration for International Nursing Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.; Drummond, John S.

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces and explores the concept of political economy. In particular it focuses upon the political economy of health while also considering the implications for international nursing studies in the context of health care more generally. Political economy is not only about budgets, resources and policy. It is also about particular…

  17. Study Guide for TCT in Health and Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullan, Marie R.

    This study guide is designed for those individuals preparing to take the Georgia Teacher Certification Test (TCT) in health and physical education. The test covers nine broad subareas: (1) health, body systems, disease; (2) tennis, handball, fencing, bowling, track, and recreational games; (3) development, hygiene, safety, nutrition; (4) softball,…

  18. Danish Health Professionals' Experiences of Being Coached: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ammentorp, Jette; Jensen, Hanne Irene; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years, coaching, as a supplement to professional development, has received increased attention, especially in nursing. Still, only little is known about how health professionals experience participating in coaching sessions. The purpose of this pilot study was to describe and analyze health professionals' experiences from…

  19. Health Professionals' Perceptions of Sexual Assault Management: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jancey, Jonine; Meuleners, Lynn; Phillips, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore health professionals' perceptions of sexual assault management practices and identify issues related to these practices across Western Australia (WA). Design: A two-round electronic Delphi study was undertaken with health professionals (medical doctors, registered nurses, social workers and managers). Setting: Healthcare…

  20. A Study of Health Policies in Public School Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasch, Henry A.

    This study was undertaken to identify, classify, and interpret extant written school health policies. Furthermore, it was planned to ascertain whether schools were using standardized forms or systematic procedures to formulate school health policies. Administrators in school districts representing every geographical area of the U.S. were asked to…

  1. Nursing III. A Course of Study. Health Occupations Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Helen V.

    This curriculum guide for instructors provides a course of study (Nursing III) requisite for the third and concluding portion of a 1-year practical nursing curriculum designed to continue opportunities for career mobility in the health occupations. Content is in three sections: (1) Medical Surgical Nursing II, (2) Mental Health Nursing, and (3)…

  2. Mortality in the Agricultural Health Study: 1993 - 2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comparing agricultural cohorts with the general population is challenging because the general healthiness of farmers may mask potential adverse health effects of farming. Using data from the Agricultural Health Study, a cohort of 89,656 pesticide applicators and their spouses (

  3. Community Health. Guide to Standards and Implementation. Career & Technology Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Standards Branch.

    With this Career and Technology Studies (CTS) curriculum guide, secondary students in Alberta can do the following: develop skills that can be applied in their daily lives; refine career-planning skills; develop technology-related skills in community health; enhance employability skills, especially in community health; and apply and reinforce…

  4. A case study of health sector reform in Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The impact of conflict on population health and health infrastructure has been well documented; however the efforts of the international community to rebuild health systems in post-conflict periods have not been systematically examined. Based on a review of relevant literature, this paper develops a framework for analyzing health reform in post-conflict settings, and applies this framework to the case study of health system reform in post-conflict Kosovo. The paper examines two questions: first, the selection of health reform measures; and second, the outcome of the reform process. It measures the success of reforms by the extent to which reform achieved its objectives. Through an examination of primary documents and interviews with key stakeholders, the paper demonstrates that the external nature of the reform process, the compressed time period for reform, and weak state capacity undermined the ability of the success of the reform program. PMID:20398389

  5. A qualitative study on adolescence, health and family

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Family is important to both health and adolescence. Adolescence is a time of peak health, but there are some important family based risk factors. The aim of this study was to explore the perspective of adolescent Iranians on issues of family and their health. We used descriptive, qualitative methodology and purposeful sampling and interviews for collecting the data. Forty‐one participants explained their perspectives on health and family. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Analysis revealed three categories of risk factors: a widening generation gap, effective parenting and family financial situation. To have healthy adolescents, both children and parents need more knowledge and better skills about adolescent health and development and about social trends. To understand adolescents in a more realistic way, parents should develop healthy communication to avoid family health problems. PMID:22477907

  6. A nationally representative study of emotional competence and health.

    PubMed

    Mikolajczak, Moïra; Avalosse, Hervé; Vancorenland, Sigrid; Verniest, Rebekka; Callens, Michael; van Broeck, Nady; Fantini-Hauwel, Carole; Mierop, Adrien

    2015-10-01

    Emotional competence (EC; also called "emotional intelligence"), which refers to individual differences in the identification, understanding, expression, regulation, and use of one's emotions and those of others, has been found to be an important predictor of individuals' adaptation to their environment. Higher EC is associated with greater happiness, better mental health, more satisfying social and marital relationships, and greater occupational success. Whereas a considerable amount of research has documented the significance of EC, 1 domain has been crucially under investigated: the relationship between EC and physical health. We examined the relationship between EC and objective health indicators in 2 studies (N1 = 1,310; N2 = 9,616) conducted in collaboration with the largest Mutual Benefit Society in Belgium. These studies allowed us (a) to compare the predictive power of EC with other well-known predictors of health such as age, sex, Body Mass Index, education level, health behaviors (diet, physical activity, smoking and drinking habits), positive and negative affect, and social support; (b) to clarify the relative weight of the various EC dimensions in predicting health; and (c) to determine to what extent EC moderates the effect of already known predictors on health. Results show that EC is a significant predictor of health that has incremental predictive power over and above other predictors. Findings also show that high EC significantly attenuates (and sometimes compensates for) the impact of other risk factors. Therefore, we argue that EC deserves greater interest and attention from health professionals and governments.

  7. 40 CFR 75.34 - Units with add-on emission controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Units with add-on emission controls... add-on emission controls. (a) The owner or operator of an affected unit equipped with add-on SO2 and... which the add-on emission controls are documented to be operating properly, as described in the...

  8. Pesticide Exposure and Self-Reported Incident Depression among Wives in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Beard, John D.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Richards, Marie; Alavanja, Michael C. R.; Blair, Aaron; Sandler, Dale P.; Kamel, Freya

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression in women is a public health problem. Studies have reported positive associations between pesticides and depression, but few studies were prospective or presented results for women separately. Objectives We evaluated associations between pesticide exposure and incident depression among farmers’ wives in the Agricultural Health Study, a prospective cohort study in Iowa and North Carolina. Methods We used data on 16,893 wives who did not report physician-diagnosed depression at enrollment (1993-1997) and who completed a follow-up telephone interview (2005-2010). Among these wives, 1,054 reported physician diagnoses of depression at follow-up. We collected information on potential confounders and on ever use of any pesticide, 11 functional and chemical classes of pesticides, and 50 specific pesticides by wives and their husbands via self-administered questionnaires at enrollment. We used inverse probability weighting to adjust for potential confounders and to account for possible selection bias induced by the death or loss of 10,639 wives during follow-up. We used log-binomial regression models to estimate risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results After weighting for age at enrollment, state of residence, education level, diabetes diagnosis, and not dropping out of the cohort, wives’ incident depression was positively associated with diagnosed pesticide poisoning, but was not associated with ever using any pesticide. Use of individual pesticides or functional or chemical classes of pesticides was generally not associated with wives’ depression. Among wives who never used pesticides, husbands’ ever use of individual pesticides or functional or chemical classes of pesticides was generally not associated with wives’ incident depression. Conclusions Our study adds further evidence that high level pesticide exposure, such as pesticide poisoning, is associated with increased risk of depression and sets a lower bound on the level of

  9. Mental Health Services in Rural China: A Qualitative Study of Primary Health Care Providers

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhenyu; Huang, Hui; Chen, Qiang; Chen, Faqin; Abdullah, Abu S.; Nie, Guanghui; Feng, Qiming; Wei, Bo

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to understand the challenges that primary health care providers faced in the process of delivering mental healthcare and assess their attitudes towards patients with mental health problems. In-depth interviews were conducted among 42 primary health care providers in two counties of Guangxi province, China. All interviews were audio-recorded and analyzed thematically. Primary health care providers in both counties faced the same difficulties: lack of professional knowledge, fear of patients' attack, more extra work, and less subsidies. However, most of primary health care providers (30/42) were still willing to do mental healthcare management. All the interviewees considered that communication skills with patients and their family members, proper attitude (without discrimination), and the professional knowledge of mental health are required. There are still several participants (15/42) who showed negative attitude toward mental disorders. Nearly all the respondents (39/42) emphasized the importance of increasing their income or subsidies by the government. This qualitative study provides insights into mental health services in rural communities of Guangxi and identified issues that could be considered in engaging primary health care providers in the management of mental disorders. PMID:26819947

  10. Pathways through which health influences early retirement: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to the aeging of the population, there is a societal need for workers to prolong their working lives. In the Netherlands, many employees still leave the workforce before the official retirement age of 65. Previous quantitative research showed that poor self-perceived health is a risk factor of (non-disability) early retirement. However, little is known on how poor health may lead to early retirement, and why poor health leads to early retirement in some employees, but not in others. Therefore, the present qualitative study aims to identify in which ways health influences early retirement. Methods Face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 employees (60–64 years) who retired before the official retirement age of 65. Participants were selected from the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation. The interviews were transcribed verbatim, a summary was made including a timeline, and the interviews were open coded. Results In 15 of the 30 persons, health played a role in early retirement. Both poor and good health influenced early retirement. For poor health, four pathways were identified. First, employees felt unable to work at all due to health problems. Second, health problems resulted in a self-perceived (future) decline in the ability to work, and employees chose to retire early. Third, employees with health problems were afraid of a further decline in health, and chose to retire early. Fourth, employees with poor health retired early because they felt pushed out by their employer, although they themselves did not experience a reduced work ability. A good health influenced early retirement, since persons wanted to enjoy life while their health still allowed to do so. The financial opportunity to retire sometimes triggered the influence of poor health on early retirement, and often triggered the influence of good health. Employees and employers barely discussed opportunities to prolong working life. Conclusions

  11. Insights from a national survey into why substance abuse treatment units add prevention and outreach services

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Rebecca; Lemak, Christy Harris; D'Aunno, Thomas A

    2006-01-01

    Background Previous studies have found that even limited prevention-related interventions can affect health behaviors such as substance use and risky sex. Substance abuse treatment providers are ideal candidates to provide these services, but typically have little or no financial incentive to do so. The purpose of this study was therefore to explore why some substance abuse treatment units have added new prevention and outreach services. Based on an ecological framework of organizational strategy, three categories of predictors were tested: (1) environmental, (2) unit-level, and (3) unit leadership. Results A lagged cross-sectional logistic model of 450 outpatient substance abuse treatment units revealed that local per capita income, mental health center affiliation, and clinical supervisors' graduate degrees were positively associated with likelihood of adding prevention-related education and outreach services. Managed care contracts and methadone treatment were negatively associated with addition of these services. No hospital-affiliated agencies added prevention and outreach services during the study period. Conclusion Findings supported the study's ecological perspective on organizational strategy, with factors at environmental, unit, and unit leadership levels associated with additions of prevention and outreach services. Among the significant predictors, ties to managed care payers and unit leadership graduate education emerge as potential leverage points for public policy. In the current sample, units with managed care contracts were less likely to add prevention and outreach services. This is not surprising, given managed care's emphasis on cost control. However, the association with this payment source suggests that public managed care programs might affects prevention and outreach differently through revised incentives. Specifically, government payers could explicitly compensate substance abuse treatment units in managed care contracts for prevention and

  12. Turning health research into health promotion: a study of causality and 'critical insights' in a United Kingdom health campaign.

    PubMed

    Piggin, Joe

    2012-10-01

    This article examines how important decisions about health can alter between public health policy formulation and eventual marketing implementation. Specifically, the article traces the development and production of a major United Kingdom social marketing campaign named Change4Life, and examines how ideas about the causes of and solutions to the obesity epidemic are produced in differing ways throughout the health promotion process. This study examines a variety of United Kingdom health research, policy, marketing strategy and marketing messages between 2008 and 2011. This research demonstrates that claims about causality oscillate and alter throughout the research, policy and Change4Life marketing process. These oscillations are problematic, since the Department of Health described the original consumer research as 'critical'. Given both the importance of the health issues being addressed and the amount of funding dedicated to Change4Life, that 'critical' research was directly contradicted in the campaign requires urgent review. To conclude, the article discusses the utility of social marketing when considering causal claims in health promotion. PMID:22771080

  13. Turning health research into health promotion: a study of causality and 'critical insights' in a United Kingdom health campaign.

    PubMed

    Piggin, Joe

    2012-10-01

    This article examines how important decisions about health can alter between public health policy formulation and eventual marketing implementation. Specifically, the article traces the development and production of a major United Kingdom social marketing campaign named Change4Life, and examines how ideas about the causes of and solutions to the obesity epidemic are produced in differing ways throughout the health promotion process. This study examines a variety of United Kingdom health research, policy, marketing strategy and marketing messages between 2008 and 2011. This research demonstrates that claims about causality oscillate and alter throughout the research, policy and Change4Life marketing process. These oscillations are problematic, since the Department of Health described the original consumer research as 'critical'. Given both the importance of the health issues being addressed and the amount of funding dedicated to Change4Life, that 'critical' research was directly contradicted in the campaign requires urgent review. To conclude, the article discusses the utility of social marketing when considering causal claims in health promotion.

  14. CANCER INCIDENCE IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite low mortality and cancer incidence rates overall, farmers may experience excess risk of several cancers. These excesses have been observed in some, but not all, retrospective epidemiological studies of agricultural workers in several countries. Excess risk has been ob...

  15. Study protocol of Prednisone in episodic Cluster Headache (PredCH): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral prednisone as an add-on therapy in the prophylactic treatment of episodic cluster headache with verapamil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Episodic cluster headache (ECH) is a primary headache disorder that severely impairs patient’s quality of life. First-line therapy in the initiation of a prophylactic treatment is verapamil. Due to its delayed onset of efficacy and the necessary slow titration of dosage for tolerability reasons prednisone is frequently added by clinicians to the initial prophylactic treatment of a cluster episode. This treatment strategy is thought to effectively reduce the number and intensity of cluster attacks in the beginning of a cluster episode (before verapamil is effective). This study will assess the efficacy and safety of oral prednisone as an add-on therapy to verapamil and compare it to a monotherapy with verapamil in the initial prophylactic treatment of a cluster episode. Methods and design PredCH is a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with parallel study arms. Eligible patients with episodic cluster headache will be randomized to a treatment intervention with prednisone or a placebo arm. The multi-center trial will be conducted in eight German headache clinics that specialize in the treatment of ECH. Discussion PredCH is designed to assess whether oral prednisone added to first-line agent verapamil helps reduce the number and intensity of cluster attacks in the beginning of a cluster episode as compared to monotherapy with verapamil. Trial registration German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00004716 PMID:23889923

  16. 42 CFR 90.7 - Decision to conduct health effects study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Decision to conduct health effects study. 90.7 Section 90.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES...

  17. 42 CFR 90.7 - Decision to conduct health effects study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Decision to conduct health effects study. 90.7 Section 90.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES...

  18. 42 CFR 90.7 - Decision to conduct health effects study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Decision to conduct health effects study. 90.7 Section 90.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES...

  19. 42 CFR 90.7 - Decision to conduct health effects study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Decision to conduct health effects study. 90.7 Section 90.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES...

  20. 42 CFR 90.7 - Decision to conduct health effects study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Decision to conduct health effects study. 90.7 Section 90.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES...

  1. Investigating the psychosocial determinants of child health in Africa: the Drakenstein Child Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Stein, DJ; Koen, N; Donald, KA; Adnams, CM; Koopowitz, S; Lund, C; Marais, A; Myers, B; Roos, A; Sorsdahl, K; Stern, M; Tomlinson, M; van der Westhuizen, C; Vythilingum, B; Myer, L; Barnett, W; Brittain, K; Zar, HJ

    2015-01-01

    Background Early life psychobiological and psychosocial factors play a key role in influencing child health outcomes. Longitudinal studies may help elucidate the relevant risk and resilience profiles, and the underlying mechanisms that impact on child health, but there is a paucity of birth cohort data from low and middle-income countries (LMIC). We describe the rationale for and present baseline findings from the psychosocial component of the Drakenstein Child Health Study (DCHS). Methods We review the psychosocial measures used in the DCHS, a multidisciplinary birth cohort study in a peri-urban area in South Africa, and provide initial data on psychological distress, depression, substance use, and exposure to traumatic stressors and intimate partner violence (IPV). These and other measures will be assessed longitudinally in mothers in order to investigate associations with child neurodevelopmental and health outcomes. Results Baseline psychosocial data is presented for mothers (n = 634) and fathers (n = 75) who have completed antenatal assessments to date. The sample of pregnant mothers is characterized by multiple psychosocial risk factors, including a high prevalence of psychological distress and depression, high levels of substance use, and high exposure to traumatic stressors and IPV. Discussion These data are consistent with prior South African studies which have documented a high prevalence of a multitude of risk factors during pregnancy. Further longitudinal assessment of mothers and children may clarify the underlying psychobiological and psychosocial mechanisms which impact on child health, and so inform clinical and public health interventions appropriate to the South African and other LMIC contexts. PMID:25797842

  2. Black Families' Lay Views on Health and the Implications for Health Promotion: A Community-Based Study in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochieng, Bertha

    2012-01-01

    Many studies focusing on beliefs about health and health promotion have paid little attention to the life experiences of Black and other visible minority ethnic families in western societies. This paper is a report of a study exploring Black families' beliefs about health and the implications of such beliefs for health promotion. Ten Black…

  3. Mental Health Services in Pilot Study Areas: Report on a European Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    The World Health Organization (WHO) conducted a study to collect data on mental health resources of pilot areas within several European countries. This report presents data from the study and provides a detailed and reliable description of the development of mental health services within the WHO European Region. Part I of the report describes the…

  4. Individualization and inequalities in health: a qualitative study of class identity and health.

    PubMed

    Bolam, Bruce; Murphy, Simon; Gleeson, Kate

    2004-10-01

    It has been argued that social class, if not dead, is at least a 'zombie category' in contemporary Western society. However, epidemiological evidence shows that class-based inequalities have either persisted or widened, despite overall improvements in the health of Western populations. This article presents an exploratory qualitative study of the individualization of class identity and health conducted in a southern English city. Findings are presented in consideration of two competing argumentative positions around which participants worked to negotiate class identity and health. The first of these positions denied the significance of class for identity and health and was associated with the individualised heroic and stoic narratives of working class identity. The second position acknowledged the reality of class relations and their implications for health and identity, being associated with structurally and politically orientated narratives of middle class identity. In sum, resistance to class was associated with talk about individual, private experience whereas the acceptance of class was linked to discussion of health as a wider social or political phenomenon. This evidence lends qualified support to the individualization thesis: inequalities in health existing on structural or material levels are not simply reproduced, and indeed in some contexts may even juxtapose, accounts of social identity in interview and focus group contexts. Class identity and health are negotiated in lay talk as participants shift argumentatively back and forth between competing positions, and public and private realms, in the attempt to make sense of health and illness. The promotion of greater awareness and interest in health inequalities within wider public discourse may well help support attempts to tackle these injustices. PMID:15246166

  5. How Adolescents Use Technology for Health Information: Implications for Health Professionals from Focus Group Studies

    PubMed Central

    Biscope, Sherry; Poland, Blake; Goldberg, Eudice

    2003-01-01

    Background Adolescents present many challenges in providing them effective preventive services and health care. Yet, they are typically the early adopters of new technology (eg, the Internet). This creates important opportunities for engaging youths via eHealth. Objective To describe how adolescents use technology for their health-information needs, identify the challenges they face, and highlight some emerging roles of health professionals regarding eHealth services for adolescents. Methods Using an inductive qualitative research design, 27 focus groups were conducted in Ontario, Canada. The 210 participants (55% female, 45% male; median age 16 years) were selected to reflect diversity in age, sex, geographic location, cultural identity, and risk. An 8-person team analyzed and coded the data according to major themes. Results Study participants most-frequently sought or distributed information related to school (89%), interacting with friends (85%), social concerns (85%), specific medical conditions (67%), body image and nutrition (63%), violence and personal safety (59%), and sexual health (56%). Finding personally-relevant, high-quality information was a pivotal challenge that has ramifications on the depth and types of information that adolescents can find to answer their health questions. Privacy in accessing information technology was a second key challenge. Participants reported using technologies that clustered into 4 domains along a continuum from highly-interactive to fixed information sources: (1) personal communication: telephone, cell phone, and pager; (2) social communication: e-mail, instant messaging, chat, and bulletin boards; (3) interactive environments: Web sites, search engines, and computers; and (4) unidirectional sources: television, radio, and print. Three emerging roles for health professionals in eHealth include: (1) providing an interface for adolescents with technology and assisting them in finding pertinent information sources; (2

  6. Image restoration by the shift-and-add algorithm.

    PubMed

    Bagnuolo, W G

    1985-05-01

    A new method for image restoration based on the shift-and-add (SAA) algorithm is presented, the main advantages of which appear to be speed and simplicity. The SAA pattern produced by an object is given by the object correlated by a nonlinear replica of itself whose intensity distribution is strongly weighted toward the brighter pixels. A method of successive substitutions analogous to Fienup's algorithm can then be used to decorrelate the SAA pattern and recover the object. The method is applied to the case of the extended chromosphere of Betelgeuse. PMID:19724393

  7. Add/Compare/Select Circuit For Rapid Decoding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budinger, James M.; Becker, Neal D.; Johnson, Peter N.

    1993-01-01

    Prototype decoding system operates at 200 Mb/s. ACS (add/compare/select) gate array is highly integrated emitter-coupled-logic circuit implementing arithmetic operations essential to Viterbi decoding of convolutionally encoded data signals. Principal advantage of circuit is speed. Operates as single unit performing eight additions and finds minimum of eight sums, or operates as two independent units, each performing four additions and finding minimum of four sums. Flexibility enables application to variety of different codes. Includes built-in self-testing circuitry, enabling unit to be tested at full speed with help of only simple test fixture.

  8. Hispanics' use of Internet health information: an exploratory study*

    PubMed Central

    Peña-Purcell, Ninfa

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The research examined use of the Internet to seek health information among Hispanics in the United States. Methods: A secondary analysis used the Impact of the Internet and Advertising on Patients and Physicians, 2000–2001, survey data. Pearson's χ2 test, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), analysis of variance (ANOVA), and independent samples t tests were conducted to test for relationships and differences between facets of Hispanic and non-Hispanic white online health information seeking. Results: Findings indicated lower Internet health information seeking among Hispanics (28.9%, n=72) than non-Hispanic whites (35.6%, n=883). On a scale of 1 (strongly agree) to 4 (strongly disagree), Hispanics were likely to agree that Internet health information improves understanding of medical conditions and treatments (M=1.65), gives patients confidence to talk to doctors about health concerns (M=1.67), and helps patients get treatment they would not otherwise receive (M=2.23). Hispanics viewed their skills in assessing Internet health information as good. Overall ratings were also positive for items related to sharing Internet health information with a doctor. Conflicting with these findings, Hispanics (M=3.33) and non-Hispanic whites (M=3.46) reported that physician-patient relationships worsened as a result of bringing online health information to a visit (scale 1=a lot better to 5=a lot worse). Conclusion: This study provides further evidence of differences in Internet health information seeking among Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites. Cultural discordance may be a possible explanation for Hispanics' view that the Internet negatively impacts physician-patient relationships. Strategies to increase Hispanics' access to Internet health information will likely help them become empowered and educated consumers, potentially having a favorable impact on health outcomes. PMID:18379664

  9. Occupational health management system: A study of expatriate construction professionals.

    PubMed

    Chan, I Y S; Leung, M Y; Liu, A M M

    2016-08-01

    Due to its direct impact on the safety and function of organizations, occupational health has been a concern of the construction industry for many years. The inherent complexity of occupational health management presents challenges that make a systems approach essential. From a systems perspective, health is conceptualized as an emergent property of a system in which processes operating at the individual and organizational level are inextricably connected. Based on the fundamental behavior-to-performance-to-outcome (B-P-O) theory of industrial/organizational psychology, this study presents the development of an I-CB-HP-O (Input-Coping Behaviors-Health Performance-Outcomes) health management systems model spanning individual and organizational boundaries. The model is based on a survey of Hong Kong expatriate construction professionals working in Mainland China. Such professionals tend to be under considerable stress due not only to an adverse work environment with dynamic tasks, but also the need to confront the cross-cultural issues arising from expatriation. A questionnaire was designed based on 6 focus groups involving 44 participants, and followed by a pilot study. Of the 500 questionnaires distributed in the main study, 137 valid returns were received, giving a response rate of 27.4%. The data were analyzed using statistical techniques such as factor analysis, reliability testing, Pearson correlation analysis, multiple regression modeling, and structural equation modeling. Theories of coping behaviors and health performance tend to focus on the isolated causal effects of single factors and/or posits the model at single, individual level; while industrial practices on health management tend to focus on organizational policy and training. By developing the I-CB-HP-O health management system, incorporating individual, interpersonal, and organizational perspectives, this study bridges the gap between theory and practice while providing empirical support for a

  10. Occupational health management system: A study of expatriate construction professionals.

    PubMed

    Chan, I Y S; Leung, M Y; Liu, A M M

    2016-08-01

    Due to its direct impact on the safety and function of organizations, occupational health has been a concern of the construction industry for many years. The inherent complexity of occupational health management presents challenges that make a systems approach essential. From a systems perspective, health is conceptualized as an emergent property of a system in which processes operating at the individual and organizational level are inextricably connected. Based on the fundamental behavior-to-performance-to-outcome (B-P-O) theory of industrial/organizational psychology, this study presents the development of an I-CB-HP-O (Input-Coping Behaviors-Health Performance-Outcomes) health management systems model spanning individual and organizational boundaries. The model is based on a survey of Hong Kong expatriate construction professionals working in Mainland China. Such professionals tend to be under considerable stress due not only to an adverse work environment with dynamic tasks, but also the need to confront the cross-cultural issues arising from expatriation. A questionnaire was designed based on 6 focus groups involving 44 participants, and followed by a pilot study. Of the 500 questionnaires distributed in the main study, 137 valid returns were received, giving a response rate of 27.4%. The data were analyzed using statistical techniques such as factor analysis, reliability testing, Pearson correlation analysis, multiple regression modeling, and structural equation modeling. Theories of coping behaviors and health performance tend to focus on the isolated causal effects of single factors and/or posits the model at single, individual level; while industrial practices on health management tend to focus on organizational policy and training. By developing the I-CB-HP-O health management system, incorporating individual, interpersonal, and organizational perspectives, this study bridges the gap between theory and practice while providing empirical support for a

  11. Health beliefs about bottled water: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Lorna A; Cain, Owen L; Mullally, Ryan A; Holliday, Kathryn S; Wernham, Aaron GH; Baillie, Paul D; Greenfield, Sheila M

    2009-01-01

    Background There has been a consistent rise in bottled water consumption over the last decade. Little is known about the health beliefs held by the general public about bottled water as this issue is not addressed by the existing quantitative literature. The purpose of this study was to improve understanding of the public's health beliefs concerning bottled mineral water, and the extent to which these beliefs and other views they hold, influence drinking habits. Methods A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews, with 23 users of the Munrow Sports Centre on the University of Birmingham campus. Results Health beliefs about bottled water could be classified as general or specific beliefs. Most participants believed that bottled water conferred general health benefits but were unsure as to the nature of these. In terms of specific health beliefs, the idea that the minerals in bottled water conferred a health benefit was the most commonly cited. There were concerns over links between the plastic bottle itself and cancer. Participants believed that bottled water has a detrimental effect on the environment. Convenience, cost and taste were influential factors when making decisions as to whether to buy bottled water; health beliefs were unimportant motivating factors. Conclusion The majority of participants believed that bottled water has some health benefits. However, these beliefs played a minor role in determining bottled water consumption and are unlikely to be helpful in explaining recent trends in bottled water consumption if generalised to the UK population. The health beliefs elicited were supported by scientific evidence to varying extents. Most participants did not feel that bottled water conferred significant, if any, health benefits over tap water. PMID:19545357

  12. Psychiatric, Psychological, and Social Determinants of Health in the Nurses’ Health Study Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Singh, Ankura; Okereke, Olivia I.; Kubzansky, Laura D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To review the contribution of the Nurses’ Health Studies (NHS) on factors that influence mental and physical health. Methods. Narrative review of all published articles using data from the NHS, the NHS II, and the Growing Up Today Study focusing on mental health conditions (e.g., depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety) and psychosocial resources and stressors (e.g., job strain, interpersonal violence, social relationships, sexual orientation) between 1990 and 2016. Results. Studies have considered a broad array of determinants (e.g., genes, biomarkers, air pollution) and consequent behavioral and disease-related outcomes (e.g., body weight, smoking, cardiometabolic diseases, cancer, autism). Findings suggest anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, childhood violence, caregiver burden, and job insecurity may increase the risk of coronary heart disease and diabetes, whereas findings with cancer are mixed. This work directly affects public health actions, as demonstrated by recent inclusion of a gender expression measure in state surveys. Conclusions. The NHS cohorts have produced novel and influential research on the interplay of psychological and social factors with health. Psychological and social variables are important contributors to the maintenance or decline of physical and mental health. PMID:27459447

  13. Stress Eating and Health: Findings from MIDUS, a National Study of U.S. Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tsenkova, Vera; Boylan, Jenifer Morozink; Ryff, Carol

    2013-01-01

    The epidemic of obesity and its related chronic diseases has provoked interest in the predictors of eating behavior. Eating in response to stress has been extensively examined, but currently unclear is whether stress eating is associated with obesity and morbidity. We tested whether self-reported stress eating was associated with worse glucose metabolism among nondiabetic adults as well as with increased odds of prediabetes and diabetes. Further, we investigated whether these relationships were mediated by central fat distribution. Participants were 1138 adults (937 without diabetes) in the Midlife in the U.S. study (MIDUS II). Glucose metabolism was characterized by fasting glucose, insulin, insulin resistance (HOMAIR), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), prediabetes, and diabetes status. Multivariate-adjusted analyses showed that stress eating was associated with significantly higher nondiabetic levels of glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, and HbA1c as well as higher odds of prediabetes or diabetes. Relationships between stress eating and all outcomes were no longer statistically significant once waist circumference was added to the models, suggesting that it mediates such relationships. Findings add to the growing literature on the relationships among psychosocial factors, obesity, and chronic disease by documenting associations between stress eating and objectively measured health outcomes in a national sample of adults. The findings have important implications for interventive targets related to obesity and chronic disease, namely, strategies to modify the tendency to use food as a coping response to stress. PMID:23747576

  14. The Air Force health study: an epidemiologic retrospective.

    PubMed

    Buffler, Patricia A; Ginevan, Michael E; Mandel, Jack S; Watkins, Deborah K

    2011-09-01

    In 1979, the U.S. Air Force announced that an epidemiologic study would be undertaken to determine whether the Air Force personnel involved in Operation Ranch Hand-the program responsible for herbicide spraying in Vietnam-had experienced adverse health effects as a result of that service. In January 1982 the Air Force Health Study (AFHS) protocol was approved and the 20 year matched cohort study consisting of independent mortality, morbidity and reproductive health components was initiated. This controversial study has been criticized regarding the study's potential scientific limitations as well as some of the administrative aspects of its conduct. Now, almost 30 years since the implementation of the AFHS and nearly a decade since the final follow up examinations, an appraisal of the study indicates that the results of the AFHS do not provide evidence of disease in the Ranch Hand veterans caused by their elevated levels of exposure to Agent Orange. PMID:21441038

  15. Achieving equity through critical science agency: An ethnographic study of African American students in a health science career academy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haun-Frank, Julie

    The purpose of this study was to examine the potential of a High School Health Science Career Academy to support African American students' science career trajectories. I used three key theoretical tools---critical science agency (Basu, 2007; Calabrese Barton & Tan, 2008), power (Nespor, 1994), and cultural production (Carlone, 2004; Eisenhart & Finkel, 1998) to highlight the intersections between the career trajectory implied by the Academy (its curriculum, classroom activities, and clinical experiences) and the students' pursued career trajectories. Data was collected over five months and included individual student interviews, group interviews, parent and administrator interviews, field notes from a culminating medical course and clinical internship, and Academy recruitment documents. The results of this study suggest that participants pursued a health science career for altruistic purposes and the Academy was a resource they drew upon to do so. However, the meanings of science and science person implied by the Academy hindered the possibility for many participants' to advance their science career trajectories. While the Academy promised to expose students to a variety of high-status health care roles, they were funneled into feminine, entry-level positions. This study adds to previous underrepresentation literature by contextualizing how identity-related factors influence African American students' career attainment.

  16. Effectiveness of the Health Complex Model in Iranian primary health care reform: the study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Tabrizi, Jafar Sadegh; Farahbakhsh, Mostafa; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Hassanzadeh, Roya; Zakeri, Akram; Abedi, Leili

    2016-01-01

    Background Iranian traditional primary health care (PHC) system, although proven to be successful in some areas in rural populations, suffers major pitfalls in providing PHC services in urban areas especially the slum urban areas. The new government of Iran announced a health reform movement including the health reform in PHC system of Iran. The Health Complex Model (HCM) was chosen as the preferred health reform model for this purpose. Methods This paper aims to report a detailed research protocol for the assessment of the effectiveness of the HCM in Iran. An adaptive controlled design is being used in this research. The study is planned to measure multiple endpoints at the baseline and 2 years after the intervention. The assessments will be done both in a population covered by the HCM, as intervention area, and in control populations covered by the traditional health care system as the control area. Discussion Assessing the effectiveness of the HCM, as the Iranian PHC reform initiative, could help health system policy makers for future decisions on its continuation or modification. PMID:27784996

  17. Do governance choices matter in health care networks?: an exploratory configuration study of health care networks

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Health care networks are widely used and accepted as an organizational form that enables integrated care as well as dealing with complex matters in health care. However, research on the governance of health care networks lags behind. The research aim of our study is to explore the type and importance of governance structure and governance mechanisms for network effectiveness. Methods The study has a multiple case study design and covers 22 health care networks. Using a configuration view, combinations of network governance and other network characteristics were studied on the level of the network. Based on interview and questionnaire data, network characteristics were identified and patterns in the data looked for. Results Neither a dominant (or optimal) governance structure or mechanism nor a perfect fit among governance and other characteristics were revealed, but a number of characteristics that need further study might be related to effective networks such as the role of governmental agencies, legitimacy, and relational, hierarchical, and contractual governance mechanisms as complementary factors. Conclusions Although the results emphasize the situational character of network governance and effectiveness, they give practitioners in the health care sector indications of which factors might be more or less crucial for network effectiveness. PMID:23800334

  18. Beauty sleep: experimental study on the perceived health and attractiveness of sleep deprived people

    PubMed Central

    Sundelin, Tina; Ingre, Michael; Van Someren, Eus J W; Olsson, Andreas; Lekander, Mats

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether sleep deprived people are perceived as less healthy, less attractive, and more tired than after a normal night’s sleep. Design Experimental study. Setting Sleep laboratory in Stockholm, Sweden. Participants 23 healthy, sleep deprived adults (age 18-31) who were photographed and 65 untrained observers (age 18-61) who rated the photographs. Intervention Participants were photographed after a normal night’s sleep (eight hours) and after sleep deprivation (31 hours of wakefulness after a night of reduced sleep). The photographs were presented in a randomised order and rated by untrained observers. Main outcome measure Difference in observer ratings of perceived health, attractiveness, and tiredness between sleep deprived and well rested participants using a visual analogue scale (100 mm). Results Sleep deprived people were rated as less healthy (visual analogue scale scores, mean 63 (SE 2) v 68 (SE 2), P<0.001), more tired (53 (SE 3) v 44 (SE 3), P<0.001), and less attractive (38 (SE 2) v 40 (SE 2), P<0.001) than after a normal night’s sleep. The decrease in rated health was associated with ratings of increased tiredness and decreased attractiveness. Conclusion Our findings show that sleep deprived people appear less healthy, less attractive, and more tired compared with when they are well rested. This suggests that humans are sensitive to sleep related facial cues, with potential implications for social and clinical judgments and behaviour. Studies are warranted for understanding how these effects may affect clinical decision making and can add knowledge with direct implications in a medical context. PMID:21156746

  19. Forming ideas about health: A qualitative study of Ontario adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Michaelson, Valerie; McKerron, Margaret; Davison, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a crucial period of child development during which one's ideas about health are formed. However, little is known about the different contexts, experiences, and potential other factors that contribute to shaping the health ideas of adolescent populations, particularly when they are not seeking out the information for a particular purpose. In this Ontario-based qualitative study, grounded theory methods were used to explore ways that health knowledge is obtained in adolescents (age 10–16). A purposeful, criterion-based sampling strategy was used, and data were collected through seven focus groups (n=40). Findings indicate that while young people get their ideas about health through both didactic and organic learning contexts, the significant impact of organic learning is often overlooked. Categories of organic learning that emerged include self-reflective experience, the experience of close contacts, casually observing others, and common discourse. This study suggests that one central way that young people get their ideas about health is from living life: from the people they watch, the conversations that they have, and the experiences they live. Findings support the development of effective health promotion messages and also contribute to considering the place of some aspects of organic learning in the development of health-related resources that target adolescent populations. PMID:26015404

  20. Forming ideas about health: a qualitative study of Ontario adolescents.

    PubMed

    Michaelson, Valerie; McKerron, Margaret; Davison, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a crucial period of child development during which one's ideas about health are formed. However, little is known about the different contexts, experiences, and potential other factors that contribute to shaping the health ideas of adolescent populations, particularly when they are not seeking out the information for a particular purpose. In this Ontario-based qualitative study, grounded theory methods were used to explore ways that health knowledge is obtained in adolescents (age 10-16). A purposeful, criterion-based sampling strategy was used, and data were collected through seven focus groups (n=40). Findings indicate that while young people get their ideas about health through both didactic and organic learning contexts, the significant impact of organic learning is often overlooked. Categories of organic learning that emerged include self-reflective experience, the experience of close contacts, casually observing others, and common discourse. This study suggests that one central way that young people get their ideas about health is from living life: from the people they watch, the conversations that they have, and the experiences they live. Findings support the development of effective health promotion messages and also contribute to considering the place of some aspects of organic learning in the development of health-related resources that target adolescent populations.

  1. Meanings of Health for Iranian Diabetic Patients: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Moridi, Golrokh; Valiee, Sina; Nasrabadi, Alireza Nikbakht; Nasab, Golnaz Esmaeil; Khaledi, Shahnaz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Health is an exclusive and subjective phenomenon, and one of the most important situations with regard to perception of health, arises when patients suffer from a chronic disease. This study was conducted within the qualitative research framework and aimed to explore the meanings of health as perceived by a group of Iranian diabetic patients. Methods A descriptive qualitative analysis design was used. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 20 participants among diabetic patients, who were admitted to the diabetes care centre of Tohid Hospital of the Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran during a ten-month period in 2014. Interviews were transcribed and analysed through conventional content analysis. Results Based on the findings of the study, three major health-related themes emerged: 1) the syndrome of the healthy body and the happy heart (physical well-being vivacity, satisfaction, and calmness of the mind), 2) life without compulsory limitations (lack of dietary limitations, No activity limitations, lack of social limitations), and 3) exalted spirituality (satisfying self and others, trusting God, remembering God). Conclusion Health care providers should consider the meaning of health in special groups, chiefly in patients with chronic diseases. It facilitates the development of appropriate programmes to improve desirable health levels among diabetic patients. PMID:27790342

  2. Men's health: a population-based study on social inequalities.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Tássia Fraga; Alves, Maria Cecília Goi Porto; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo; Cesar, Chester Luiz Galvão

    2012-11-01

    This study evaluates social inequalities in health according to level of schooling in the male population. This was a cross-sectional, population-based study with a sample of 449 men ranging from 20 to 59 years of age and living in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. The chi-square test was used to verify associations, and a Poisson regression model was used to estimate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios. Men with less schooling showed higher rates of alcohol consumption and dependence, smoking, sedentary lifestyle during leisure time, and less healthy eating habits, in addition to higher prevalence of bad or very bad self-rated health, at least one chronic disease, hypertension, and other health problems. No differences were detected between the two schooling strata in terms of use of health services, except for dental services. The findings point to social inequality in health-related behaviors and in some health status indicators. However, possible equity was observed in the use of nearly all types of health services.

  3. Workplace health interventions in small enterprises: a Swedish longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Vinberg, Stig

    2008-01-01

    This article has a two-fold approach. First, it investigates relationships between work organizational factors, and health and performance outcomes. Second, it compares two change strategy approaches in workplace health interventions by studying changes of these factors and outcomes. The sample consisted of ten Swedish small enterprises including 102 individuals, who answered a before and after questionnaire about organizational factors and outcomes. The leaders were interviewed and answered a questionnaire about performed workplace health interventions. Statistical methods used were reliability tests, correlation analyses and t-tests. Results indicate rather strong links between indicators of respectful leadership, creative work and team spirit, and the outcome indicators self-assessed health and judged workplace adaptability in association with customer satisfaction. The results concerning changes of determinants and outcomes (after workplace health interventions) showed significant differences between enterprises using a broad change strategy and those using an expert/problem-based strategy with the former having more favourable results. The leader interview results also point at obstacles concerning workplace change processes as lack of resources, insufficient competence and influence of external factors. The study results suggest that work organizational factors and integrated models for workplace health intervention are of importance for health and performance outcomes in small enterprises. PMID:18725710

  4. Health Blogging and Social Support: A 3-Year Panel Study.

    PubMed

    Keating, David M; Rains, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    The reported study explored the implications of informal computer-mediated social support for the well-being of individuals coping with illness over the course of 3 years. A panel study was conducted in which respondents--bloggers writing about their experiences living with a health condition--reported on their perceptions of social support and well-being during 2010 and again during 2013. Among respondents who completed both questionnaires (n = 49), increases in support availability from family and friends were related to improvements in bloggers' health self-efficacy as well as improvements in bloggers' loneliness, particularly among those who also experienced increased support availability from blog readers. Increased blog reader support availability was associated with improvements in bloggers' health-related uncertainty. Among respondents who completed the initial questionnaire (N = 121), a survival analysis showed that neither support available from family and friends nor support from blog readers predicted continued health blogging over the 3-year period.

  5. Using local authority data for action on health inequalities: the Caerphilly Health and Social Needs Study.

    PubMed Central

    Fone, David; Jones, Andrew; Watkins, John; Lester, Nathan; Cole, Jane; Thomas, Gary; Webber, Margaret; Coyle, Edward

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Primary care organisations in the United Kingdom have been given new and challenging population health responsibilities to improve health and address health inequality in local communities through partnership working with local authorities. This requires robust health and social needs assessment data for effective local planning. AIM: To assess the use and value of local authority data shared through partnership working between Caerphilly Local Health Group and Caerphilly County Borough Council. DESIGN OF STUDY: Cross-sectional analysis of aggregate electoral division data. SETTING: Caephilly County Borough, south-east Wales. METHOD: Local authority datasets identified were categorised into one of six domains: income, unemployment, housing, health, education, and social services. Data were presented at electoral division level as rates in thematic maps and correlations between the variables within and between each domain were explored using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, with particular focus on children in families. Local planning documents were scrutinised to ascertain the use and value of the data. RESULTS: A broad range of data described a comprehensive picture of health and social inequalities within the borough. Multiple deprivation tended to cluster in electoral divisions, particularly for data relating to children, painting an overwhelming picture of inequality in life chances. The data were used in a wide range of local partnership planning initiatives, including the Health Improvement Programme, Children's Services Plan, and a successful Healthy Living Centre bid. CONCLUSION: Local authority data can help primary care organisations in a population approach to needs assessment for use in local partnership planning targeted at reducing health inequalities. PMID:12392118

  6. Police and mental health clinician partnership in response to mental health crisis: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Brian; Furness, Trentham; Oakes, Jane; Brown, Steve

    2015-10-01

    Police officers as first responders to acute mental health crisis in the community, commonly transport people in mental health crisis to a hospital emergency department. However, emergency departments are not the optimal environments to provide assessment and care to those experiencing mental health crises. In 2012, the Northern Police and Clinician Emergency Response (NPACER) team combining police and mental health clinicians was created to reduce behavioural escalation and provide better outcomes for people with mental health needs through diversion to appropriate mental health and community services. The aim of this study was to describe the perceptions of major stakeholders on the ability of the team to reduce behavioural escalation and improve the service utilization of people in mental health crisis. Responses of a purposive sample of 17 people (carer or consumer advisors, mental health or emergency department staff, and police or ambulance officers) who had knowledge of, or had interfaced with, the NPACER were thematically analyzed after one-to-one semistructured interviews. Themes emerged about the challenge created by a stand-alone police response, with the collaborative strengths of the NPACER (communication, information sharing, and knowledge/skill development) seen as the solution. Themes on improvements in service utilization were revealed at the point of community contact, in police stations, transition through the emergency department, and admission to acute inpatient units. The NPACER enabled emergency department diversion, direct access to inpatient mental health services, reduced police officer 'down-time', improved interagency collaboration and knowledge transfer, and improvements in service utilization and transition. PMID:26040444

  7. The effect of retirement on mental health and health behaviors: the Kaiser Permanente Retirement Study.

    PubMed

    Midanik, L T; Soghikian, K; Ransom, L J; Tekawa, I S

    1995-01-01

    To assess the short-term effect of retirement on mental health and health behaviors of members of a health maintenance organization aged 60-66, questionnaires were completed in 1985 and 1987 by employed members planning to retire during the study period and those not planning to retire. Mental health and health behaviors of members who actually retired (n = 320) were compared with those members who did not retire (n = 275). Using logistic regression controlling for age, gender, marital status, and education, we found that retired members were more likely to have lower stress levels and to engage in regular exercise more often as compared to those who did not retire during the study period. Retired women were more likely to report no alcohol problems as compared to nonretired women. There were no differences between the groups on self-reported mental health status, coping, depression, smoking, alcohol consumption, and frequency of drunkenness. These findings underscore the importance of assessing positive benefits associated with retirement and call for further evaluation of whether these benefits persist over time.

  8. Wildlife Pathology Studies and How They Can Inform Public Health.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Tracey S

    2016-01-01

    Emerging zoonoses have had a serious impact on human and animal health in recent decades. More often than not, these disease outbreaks have taken public health by surprise because we have failed to shift the epidemiological curve to the far left and detect zoonoses in animal populations prior to spillover to people. Not only can animals serve as valuable sentinels for emerging zoonoses but also much can be gained by the study of the animals themselves.

  9. Primary health care in northwestern Somalia: a case study.

    PubMed

    Bentley, C

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines the problem of initiating health care programmes in areas where there is no effective infrastructure. The problem is examined using Northwestern Somalia as a case study. The project focussed on the establishment of well-trained and well-supported CHWs at the community level. Many of these communities are (semi-)nomadic. The roles of middle-level management staff, community leaders and committees, CHW remuneration and health effects of the project are discussed. PMID:2717966

  10. THERIAK_D: An add-on to implement equilibrium computations in geodynamic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duesterhoeft, Erik; Capitani, Christian

    2013-11-01

    This study presents the theory, applicability, and merits of the new THERIAK_D add-on for the open source Theriak/Domino software package. The add-on works as an interface between Theriak and user-generated scripts, providing the opportunity to process phase equilibrium computation parameters in a programming environment (e.g., C or MATLAB®). THERIAK_D supports a wide range of features such as calculating the solid rock density or testing the stability of mineral phases along any pressure-temperature (P-T) path and P-T grid. To demonstrate applicability, an example is given in which the solid rock density of a 2-D-temperature-pressure field is calculated, portraying a simplified subduction zone. Consequently, the add-on effectively combines thermodynamics and geodynamic modeling. The carefully documented examples could be easily adapted for a broad range of applications. THERIAK_D is free, and the program, user manual, and source codes may be downloaded from http://www.min.uni-kiel.de/˜ed/theriakd/.

  11. Data Resource Profile: The World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE)

    PubMed Central

    Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath; Naidoo, Nirmala; Biritwum, Richard; Fan, Wu; Lopez Ridaura, Ruy; Maximova, Tamara; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Williams, Sharon; Snodgrass, J Josh; Minicuci, Nadia; D'Este, Catherine; Peltzer, Karl; Boerma, J Ties; Yawson, A.; Mensah, G.; Yong, J.; Guo, Y.; Zheng, Y.; Parasuraman, P.; Lhungdim, H.; Sekher, TV.; Rosa, R.; Belov, VB.; Lushkina, NP; Peltzer, K.; Makiwane, M.; Zuma, K.; Ramlagan, S.; Davids, A.; Mbelle, N.; Matseke, G.; Schneider, M.; Tabane, C.; Tollman, S.; Kahn, K.; Ng, N.; Juvekar, S.; Sankoh, O.; Debpuur, CY.; Nguyen, TK Chuc; Gomez-Olive, FX.; Hakimi, M.; Hirve, S.; Abdullah, S.; Hodgson, A.; Kyobutungi, C.; Egondi, T.; Mayombana, C.; Minh, HV.; Mwanyangala, MA.; Razzaque, A.; Wilopo, S.; Streatfield, PK.; Byass, P.; Wall, S.; Scholten, F.; Mugisha, J.; Seeley, J.; Kinyanda, E.; Nyirenda, M.; Mutevedzi, P.; Newell, M-L.

    2012-01-01

    Population ageing is rapidly becoming a global issue and will have a major impact on health policies and programmes. The World Health Organization’s Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) aims to address the gap in reliable data and scientific knowledge on ageing and health in low- and middle-income countries. SAGE is a longitudinal study with nationally representative samples of persons aged 50+ years in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa, with a smaller sample of adults aged 18–49 years in each country for comparisons. Instruments are compatible with other large high-income country longitudinal ageing studies. Wave 1 was conducted during 2007–2010 and included a total of 34 124 respondents aged 50+ and 8340 aged 18–49. In four countries, a subsample consisting of 8160 respondents participated in Wave 1 and the 2002/04 World Health Survey (referred to as SAGE Wave 0). Wave 2 data collection will start in 2012/13, following up all Wave 1 respondents. Wave 3 is planned for 2014/15. SAGE is committed to the public release of study instruments, protocols and meta- and micro-data: access is provided upon completion of a Users Agreement available through WHO’s SAGE website (www.who.int/healthinfo/systems/sage) and WHO’s archive using the National Data Archive application (http://apps.who.int/healthinfo/systems/surveydata). PMID:23283715

  12. Data resource profile: the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE).

    PubMed

    Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath; Naidoo, Nirmala; Biritwum, Richard; Fan, Wu; Lopez Ridaura, Ruy; Maximova, Tamara; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Williams, Sharon; Snodgrass, J Josh; Minicuci, Nadia; D'Este, Catherine; Peltzer, Karl; Boerma, J Ties

    2012-12-01

    Population ageing is rapidly becoming a global issue and will have a major impact on health policies and programmes. The World Health Organization's Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) aims to address the gap in reliable data and scientific knowledge on ageing and health in low- and middle-income countries. SAGE is a longitudinal study with nationally representative samples of persons aged 50+ years in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa, with a smaller sample of adults aged 18-49 years in each country for comparisons. Instruments are compatible with other large high-income country longitudinal ageing studies. Wave 1 was conducted during 2007-2010 and included a total of 34 124 respondents aged 50+ and 8340 aged 18-49. In four countries, a subsample consisting of 8160 respondents participated in Wave 1 and the 2002/04 World Health Survey (referred to as SAGE Wave 0). Wave 2 data collection will start in 2012/13, following up all Wave 1 respondents. Wave 3 is planned for 2014/15. SAGE is committed to the public release of study instruments, protocols and meta- and micro-data: access is provided upon completion of a Users Agreement available through WHO's SAGE website (www.who.int/healthinfo/systems/sage) and WHO's archive using the National Data Archive application (http://apps.who.int/healthinfo/systems/surveydata).

  13. Satellites as Shared Resources for Caribbean Climate and Health Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2002-01-01

    Remotely-sensed data and observations are providing powerful new tools for addressing climate and environment-related human health problems through increased capabilities for monitoring, risk mapping, and surveillance of parameters useful to such problems as vector-borne and infectious diseases, air and water quality, harmful algal blooms, UV (ultraviolet) radiation, contaminant and pathogen transport in air and water, and thermal stress. Remote sensing, geographic information systems (GIS), global positioning systems (GPS), improved computational capabilities, and interdisciplinary research between the Earth and health science communities are being combined in rich collaborative efforts resulting in more rapid problem-solving, early warning, and prevention in global health issues. Collaborative efforts among scientists from health and Earth sciences together with local decision-makers are enabling increased understanding of the relationships between changes in temperature, rainfall, wind, soil moisture, solar radiation, vegetation, and the patterns of extreme weather events and the occurrence and patterns of diseases (especially, infectious and vector-borne diseases) and other health problems. This increased understanding through improved information and data sharing, in turn, empowers local health and environmental officials to better predict health problems, take preventive measure, and improve response actions. This paper summarizes the remote sensing systems most useful for climate, environment and health studies of the Caribbean region and provides several examples of interdisciplinary research projects in the Caribbean currently using remote sensing technologies. These summaries include the use of remote sensing of algal blooms, pollution transport, coral reef monitoring, vectorborne disease studies, and potential health effects of African dust on Trinidad and Barbados.

  14. Critical interactions between Global Fund-supported programmes and health systems: a case study in Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Mounier-Jack, Sandra; Rudge, James W; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaxay; Chanthapadith, Chansouk; Coker, Richard

    2010-11-01

    In Lao PDR, investment by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria has played an important role in scaling up the response to HIV and tuberculosis (TB). As part of a series of case studies on how Global Fund-supported programmes interact with national health systems, we assessed the nature and extent of integration of the Global Fund portfolios within the national HIV and TB programmes, the integration of the HIV and TB programmes within the general health system, and system-wide effects of Global Fund support in Lao PDR. The study relied on a literature review and 35 interviews with key stakeholders using the Systemic Rapid Assessment Toolkit and thematic analysis. In Lao PDR, the HIV and TB programmes remain vertical and mostly weakly integrated with the general health system. However, Global Fund investments have extended the network of facilities delivering care at local level, resulting in greater integration with primary care and improved access for patients, particularly for TB. For HIV, as the prevalence remains low, services primarily target high-risk groups in urban areas. Less integrated functions include procurement and drug supply, and monitoring and evaluation. HIV and TB programmes are only starting to coordinate with each other. Global Fund-supported activities are generally integrated within the national disease programmes, except for monitoring and evaluation. Synergies of Global Fund support with the health system include improved access to services, institutional strengthening and capacity building, improved family planning (with wider condom distribution through HIV/AIDS social marketing programmes), and the delivery of add-on interventions, such as vaccinations and health education, alongside Global Fund-supported interventions at community level. Unintended consequences concern the lack of alignment between national stated priorities (maternal and child health) and the strong focus of external partners, such as the Global Fund

  15. Critical interactions between Global Fund-supported programmes and health systems: a case study in Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Mounier-Jack, Sandra; Rudge, James W; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaxay; Chanthapadith, Chansouk; Coker, Richard

    2010-11-01

    In Lao PDR, investment by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria has played an important role in scaling up the response to HIV and tuberculosis (TB). As part of a series of case studies on how Global Fund-supported programmes interact with national health systems, we assessed the nature and extent of integration of the Global Fund portfolios within the national HIV and TB programmes, the integration of the HIV and TB programmes within the general health system, and system-wide effects of Global Fund support in Lao PDR. The study relied on a literature review and 35 interviews with key stakeholders using the Systemic Rapid Assessment Toolkit and thematic analysis. In Lao PDR, the HIV and TB programmes remain vertical and mostly weakly integrated with the general health system. However, Global Fund investments have extended the network of facilities delivering care at local level, resulting in greater integration with primary care and improved access for patients, particularly for TB. For HIV, as the prevalence remains low, services primarily target high-risk groups in urban areas. Less integrated functions include procurement and drug supply, and monitoring and evaluation. HIV and TB programmes are only starting to coordinate with each other. Global Fund-supported activities are generally integrated within the national disease programmes, except for monitoring and evaluation. Synergies of Global Fund support with the health system include improved access to services, institutional strengthening and capacity building, improved family planning (with wider condom distribution through HIV/AIDS social marketing programmes), and the delivery of add-on interventions, such as vaccinations and health education, alongside Global Fund-supported interventions at community level. Unintended consequences concern the lack of alignment between national stated priorities (maternal and child health) and the strong focus of external partners, such as the Global Fund

  16. Using an eHealth Intervention to Stimulate Health Behavior for the Prevention of Cognitive Decline in Dutch Adults: A Study Protocol for the Brain Aging Monitor

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Internet-delivered intervention programs are an effective way of changing health behavior in an aging population. The same population has an increasing number of people with cognitive decline or cognitive impairments. Modifiable lifestyle risk factors such as physical activity, nutrition, smoking, alcohol consumption, sleep, and stress all influence the probability of developing neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. Objective This study aims to answer two questions: (1) Is the use of a self-motivated, complex eHealth intervention effective in changing multiple health behaviors related to cognitive aging in Dutch adults in the work force, especially those aged 40 and over? and (2) Does this health behavior change result in healthier cognitive aging patterns and contribute to preventing or delaying future onset of neurodegenerative syndromes? Methods The Brain Aging Monitor study uses a quasi-experimental 2-year pre-posttest design. The Brain Aging Monitor is an online, self-motivated lifestyle intervention program. Recruitment is done both in medium to large organizations and in the Dutch general population over the age of 40. The main outcome measure is the relationship between lifestyle change and cognitive aging. The program uses different strategies and modalities such as Web content, email, online newsletters, and online games to aid its users in behavior change. To build self-regulatory skills, the Brain Aging Monitor offers its users goal-setting activities, skill-building activities, and self-monitoring. Results Study results are expected to be published in early 2016. Conclusions This study will add to the body of evidence on the effectiveness of eHealth intervention programs with the combined use of state-of-the-art applied games and established behavior change techniques. This will lead to new insights on how to use behavior change techniques and theory in multidimensional lifestyle eHealth research, and how these techniques

  17. The Ethics of Researching Those Who Are Close to You: The Case of the Abandoned ADD Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puchner, Laurel D.; Smith, Louis M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the ethical issues involved when researchers attempt to study participants who are personally close to them. It describes a case in which two researchers decided to study the experiences respectively of their son and grandson, both with ADD. They had barely initiated the study when ethical concerns led them to abandon the…

  18. Origin, Methods, and Evolution of the Three Nurses’ Health Studies

    PubMed Central

    Bertoia, Monica L.; Lenart, Elizabeth B.; Stampfer, Meir J.; Willett, Walter C.; Speizer, Frank E.; Chavarro, Jorge E.

    2016-01-01

    We have summarized the evolution of the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS), a prospective cohort study of 121 700 married registered nurses launched in 1976; NHS II, which began in 1989 and enrolled 116 430 nurses; and NHS3, which began in 2010 and has ongoing enrollment. Over 40 years, these studies have generated long-term, multidimensional data, including lifestyle- and health-related information across the life course and an extensive repository of various biological specimens. We have described the questionnaire data collection, disease follow-up methods, biorepository resources, and data management and statistical procedures. Through integrative analyses, these studies have sustained a high level of scientific productivity and substantially influenced public health recommendations. We have highlighted recent interdisciplinary research projects and discussed future directions for collaboration and innovation. PMID:27459450

  19. Improving the Mental Health, Healthy Lifestyle Choices, and Physical Health of Hispanic Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melnyk, Bernadette M.; Jacobson, Diana; Kelly, Stephanie; O'Haver, Judith; Small, Leigh; Mays, Mary Z.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Obesity and mental health disorders are 2 major public health problems in American adolescents, with prevalence even higher in Hispanic teens. Despite the rapidly increasing incidence and adverse health outcomes associated with overweight and mental health problems, very few intervention studies have been conducted with adolescents to…

  20. Self-Esteem, Oral Health Behaviours, and Clinical Oral Health Status in Chinese Adults: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Luzy Siu-Hei; Chan, Joanne Chung-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This is an exploratory study to examine the relations among self-esteem, oral health behaviours and clinical oral health status in Chinese adults. In addition, gender differences in clinical oral health status and oral health behaviours were explored. Methods: Participants were 192 patients from a private dental clinic in Hong Kong…

  1. Occupational health research priorities in Malaysia: a Delphi study

    PubMed Central

    Sadhra, S; Beach, J; Aw, T; Sheikh-Ahmed, K

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—As part of a consultancy project on occupational health, the Delphi method was used to identify research priorities in occupational health in Malaysia.
METHODS—Participation was sought from government ministries, industry, and professional organisations, and university departments with an interest in occupational and public health. Two rounds of questionnaires resulted in a final list of priorities, with noticeable differences between participants depending on whether they worked in industry or were from government organisations.
RESULTS—The participation rate of 71% (55 of 78) was obtained for the first questionnaire and 76% (72 of 95) for the second questionnaire. The participants identified occupational health problems for specific groups and industries as the top research priority area (ranked as top priority by 25% of participants). Ministry of Health participants placed emphasis on healthcare workers (52% ranking it as top priority), whereas those from industry identified construction and plantation workers as groups, which should be accorded the highest priority. Evaluation of research and services was given a low priority.
CONCLUSIONS—The priorities for occupational health determined with the Delphi approach showed differences between Malaysia, a developing country, and findings from similar European studies. This may be expected, as differences exist in stages of economic development, types of industries, occupational activities, and cultural attitudes to occupational health and safety. Chemical poisonings and workplace accidents were accorded a high priority. By contrast with findings from western countries, workplace psychosocial problems and musculoskeletal injuries were deemed less important. There also seemed to be greater emphasis on adopting interventions for identified problems based on experience in other countries rather than the need to evaluate local occupational health provisions.


Keywords: occupational

  2. Building Collaborative Health Promotion Partnerships: The Jackson Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Addison, Clifton C.; Campbell Jenkins, Brenda W.; Odom, Darcel; Fortenberry, Marty; Wilson, Gregory; Young, Lavon; Antoine-LaVigne, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Building Collaborative Health Promotion Partnerships: The Jackson Heart Study. Background: Building a collaborative health promotion partnership that effectively employs principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR) involves many dimensions. To ensure that changes would be long-lasting, it is imperative that partnerships be configured to include groups of diverse community representatives who can develop a vision for long-term change. This project sought to enumerate processes used by the Jackson Heart Study (JHS) Community Outreach Center (CORC) to create strong, viable partnerships that produce lasting change. Methods: JHS CORC joined with community representatives to initiate programs that evolved into comprehensive strategies for addressing health disparities and the high prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This collaboration was made possible by first promoting an understanding of the need for combined effort, the desire to interact with other community partners, and the vision to establish an effective governance structure. Results: The partnership between JHS CORC and the community has empowered and inspired community members to provide leadership to other health promotion projects. Conclusion: Academic institutions must reach out to local community groups and together address local health issues that affect the community. When a community understands the need for change to respond to negative health conditions, formalizing this type of collaboration is a step in the right direction. PMID:26703681

  3. Let's dance: Organization studies, medical sociology and health policy.

    PubMed

    Currie, Graeme; Dingwall, Robert; Kitchener, Martin; Waring, Justin

    2012-02-01

    This Special Issue of Social Science & Medicine investigates the potential for positive inter-disciplinary interaction, a 'generative dance', between organization studies (OS), and two of the journal's traditional disciplinary foundations: health policy and medical sociology. This is both necessary and timely because of the extent to which organizations have become a neglected topic within medical sociology and health policy analysis. We argue there is need for further and more sustained theoretical and conceptual synergy between OS, medical sociology and health policy, which provides, on the one-hand a cutting-edge and thought-provoking basis for the analysis of contemporary health reforms, and on the other hand, enables the development and elaboration of theory. We emphasize that sociologists and policy analysts in healthcare have been leading contributors to our understanding of organizations in modern society, that OS enhances our understanding of medical settings, and that organizations remain one of the most influential actors of our time. As a starting point to discussion, we outline the genealogy of OS and its application to healthcare settings. We then consider how medical sociology and health policy converge or diverge with the concerns of OS in the study of healthcare settings. Following this, we focus upon the material environment, specifically the position of business schools, which frames the generative dance between OS, medical sociology and health policy. This sets the context for introducing the thirteen articles that constitute the Special Issue of Social Science & Medicine. PMID:22218227

  4. Hmong adults self-rated oral health: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Okunseri, Christopher; Yang, Marcie; Gonzalez, Cesar; LeMay, Warren; Iacopino, Anthony M

    2008-02-01

    Since 1975, the Hmong refugee population in the U.S. has increased over 200%. However, little is known about their dental needs or self-rated oral health (SROH). The study aims were to: (1) describe the SROH, self-rated general health (SRGH), and use of dental/physician services; and (2) identify the factors associated with SROH among Hmong adults. A cross-sectional study design with locating sampling methodology was used. Oral health questionnaire was administered to assess SROH and SRGH, past dental and physician visits, and language preference. One hundred twenty adults aged 18-50+ were recruited and 118 had useable information. Of these, 49% rated their oral health as poor/fair and 30% rated their general health as poor/fair. Thirty-nine percent reported that they did not have a regular source of dental care, 46% rated their access to dental care as poor/fair, 43% visited a dentist and 66% visited a physician within the past 12 months. Bivariate analyses demonstrated that access to dental care, past dental visits, age and SRGH were significantly associated with SROH (P < 0.05). Multivariate analyses demonstrated a strong association between access to dental care and good/excellent SROH. About half of Hmong adults rated their oral health and access to dental care as poor. Dental insurance, access to dental care, past preventive dental/physician visits and SRGH were associated with SROH.

  5. Let's dance: Organization studies, medical sociology and health policy.

    PubMed

    Currie, Graeme; Dingwall, Robert; Kitchener, Martin; Waring, Justin

    2012-02-01

    This Special Issue of Social Science & Medicine investigates the potential for positive inter-disciplinary interaction, a 'generative dance', between organization studies (OS), and two of the journal's traditional disciplinary foundations: health policy and medical sociology. This is both necessary and timely because of the extent to which organizations have become a neglected topic within medical sociology and health policy analysis. We argue there is need for further and more sustained theoretical and conceptual synergy between OS, medical sociology and health policy, which provides, on the one-hand a cutting-edge and thought-provoking basis for the analysis of contemporary health reforms, and on the other hand, enables the development and elaboration of theory. We emphasize that sociologists and policy analysts in healthcare have been leading contributors to our understanding of organizations in modern society, that OS enhances our understanding of medical settings, and that organizations remain one of the most influential actors of our time. As a starting point to discussion, we outline the genealogy of OS and its application to healthcare settings. We then consider how medical sociology and health policy converge or diverge with the concerns of OS in the study of healthcare settings. Following this, we focus upon the material environment, specifically the position of business schools, which frames the generative dance between OS, medical sociology and health policy. This sets the context for introducing the thirteen articles that constitute the Special Issue of Social Science & Medicine.

  6. Investigating internet use by mental health service users: interview study.

    PubMed

    Powell, John; Clarke, Aileen

    2007-01-01

    The internet is an increasingly important source of mental health-related information, and has the potential to be harnessed as a tool to support self-care and informed decision-making. Yet little is known about the motivations and attitudes of users. We therefore undertook a qualitative interview study with a purposive sample of mental health service users with internet experience, to explore issues with respect to mental health-related internet use. One of the prime motivations for online mental health seekers was to find experiential information from other people with similar problems. This information allowed users to know they were not alone, and to instill hope that others in the same situation had recovered. Benefits of the internet as an information source included convenience, privacy and anonymity. Problems related more to misuse of the internet rather than concerns over inaccuracy. Such qualitative work is important in an emerging research area to understand internet use better.

  7. Hanford-worker health study: a status report

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, S.; Tolley, H.D.; Gilbert, E.S.; Petersen, G.R.

    1983-02-01

    Analysis of the workers' health at the Hanford plant produced no startling changes. Multiple myeloma is the only cancer type that shows a statistically significant trend of mortality with increasing radiation exposure. The study populations will be augmented by the addition of a group of construction workers in the future. Methodologic studies based on this data set are continuing.

  8. PESTICIDES AND LUNG CANCER RISK IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the relationship between 50 widely used agricultural pesticides and lung cancer incidence in the Agricultural Health Study, a prospective cohort study of 57,284 pesticide applicators, and 32,333 spouses of farmer applicators with no prior history of lung cancer. Self...

  9. Implementing the Health Promoting School in Denmark: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordin, Lone Lindegaard

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into teachers' practice in implementing school-based health promotion. Design/methodology/approach: This qualitative research was designed as a multiple case study. The study involved five schools, 233 pupils in the age 12-16 and 23 teachers. The primary data generation method were focus…

  10. The Use of Hospital Health Science Libraries; A Methodological Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleg, Marilyn C.; Pings, Vern M.

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a method to provide facts about the clientele and use of one type of health science library, the hospital medical library. The method was tested in two hospital libraries, Harper Hospital, Detroit, and Hurley Hospital, Flint. The study was divided into four levels of data collecting and…

  11. Study of Accreditation of Selected Health Educational Programs. Commission Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission on Accrediting, Washington, DC.

    This report presents the findings and recommendations resulting from a study of the accreditation of 15 selected health education programs by a 13-member study commission. Section I of the report presents a summation of the basic issues and problems considered by the commission, including such issues as: (1) accountability, structure, financing,…

  12. Chemical and biological sensing needs for health effects studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breysse, Patrick N.

    2012-06-01

    Exposure assessment is an integral component of occupational and environmental epidemiology, risk assessment and management, as well as regulatory compliance. For the most part, air sampling and analysis tools used in occupational and environmental exposure assessments are based on technologies that have changed little since the 1970s. In many cases the lack of simple, inexpensive, exposure assessment technologies has limited epidemiologists' and risk assessors' ability to evaluate the environmental and occupational causes of disease. While there have been tremendous investments and advances in medical diagnostic and biomonitoring technologies (e.g., glucose testing, human genetics), there has been less effort invested in advancing the science of exposure assessment. Recent developments in sensor technology have focused on medical and homeland security applications. Developing and applying new sensors to health effects studies can revolutionize the way epidemiologic studies are conducted. Time-series studies that investigate short-term (hours to days) changes in exposure that are linked to changes in health care encounters, symptoms, and biological markers of preclinical disease and/or susceptibility are needed to more fully evaluate the impact of chemicals and other agents on health. Current sampling technology limits our ability to assess time-varying concentrations. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the current state of air sampling and health assessment and the potential application of novel sensor technology for use in health effects studies.

  13. Barriers to Partnership Working in Public Health: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Taylor-Robinson, David Carlton; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; Orton, Lois; Moonan, May; O'Flaherty, Martin; Capewell, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Background Public health provision in England is undergoing dramatic changes. Currently established partnerships are thus likely to be significantly disrupted by the radical reforms outlined in the Public Health White Paper. We therefore explored the process of partnership working in public health, in order to better understand the potential opportunities and threats associated with the proposed changes. Methodology/Principal Findings 70 participants took part in an in-depth qualitative study involving 40 semi-structured interviews and three focus group discussions. Participants were senior and middle grade public health decision makers working in Primary Care Trusts, Local Authorities, Department of Health, academia, General Practice and Hospital Trusts and the third sector in England. Despite mature arrangements for partnership working in many areas, and much support for joint working in principle, many important barriers exist. These include cultural issues such as a lack of shared values and language, the inherent complexity of intersectoral collaboration for public health, and macro issues including political and resource constraints. There is particular uncertainty and anxiety about the future of joint working relating to the availability and distribution of scarce and diminishing financial resources. There is also the concern that existing effective collaborative networks may be completely disrupted as the proposed changes unfold. The extent to which the proposed reforms might mitigate or potentiate these issues remains unclear. However the threats currently remain more salient than opportunities. Conclusions The current re-organisation of public health offers real opportunity to address some of the barriers to partnership working identified in this study. However, significant threats exist. These include the breakup of established networks, and the risk of cost cutting on effective public health interventions. PMID:22238619

  14. Variations in the Use of mHealth Tools: The VA Mobile Health Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Mobile health (mHealth) technologies exhibit promise for offering patients and their caregivers point-of-need tools for health self-management. This research study involved the dissemination of iPads containing a suite of mHealth apps to family caregivers of veterans who receive care from the Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Administration and have serious physical or mental injuries. Objective The goal of the study was to identify factors and characteristics of veterans and their family caregivers that predict the use of mHealth apps. Methods Veteran/family caregiver dyads (N=882) enrolled in VA’s Comprehensive Assistance for Family Caregivers program were recruited to participate in an mHealth pilot program. Veterans and caregivers who participated and received an iPad agreed to have their use of the apps monitored and were asked to complete a survey assessing Caregiver Preparedness, Caregiver Traits, and Caregiver Zarit Burden Inventory baseline surveys. Results Of the 882 dyads, 94.9% (837/882) of caregivers were women and 95.7% (844/882) of veteran recipients were men. Mean caregiver age was 40 (SD 10.2) years and mean veteran age was 39 (SD 9.15) years, and 39.8% (351/882) lived in rural locations. Most (89%, 788/882) of the caregivers were spouses. Overall, the most frequently used app was Summary of Care, followed by RX Refill, then Journal, Care4Caregivers, VA Pain Coach, and last, VA PTSD Coach. App use was significantly predicted by the caregiver being a spouse, increased caregiver computer skills, a rural living location, lower levels of caregiver preparedness, veteran mental health diagnosis (other than posttraumatic stress disorder), and veteran age. Conclusions This mHealth Family Caregiver pilot project effectively establishes the VA’s first patient-facing mHealth apps that are integrated within the VA data system. Use varied considerably, and apps that were most used were those that assisted them in their caregiving responsibilities

  15. Add-on laser reading device for a camera phone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkinen, Jukka-Tapani; Niemelä, Karri; Vasama, Hannu; Mattila, Rauno; Aikio, Mika; Aikio, Sanna; Aikio, Janne

    2005-09-01

    A novel add-on device to a mobile camera phone has been developed. The prototype system contains both laser and LED illumination as well as imaging optics. Main idea behind the device is to have a small printable diffractive ROM (Read Only Memory) element, which can be read by illuminating it with a laser-beam and recording the resulting datamatrix pattern with a camera phone. The element contains information in the same manner as a traditional bar-code, but due to the 2D-pattern and diffractive nature of the tag, a much larger amount of information can be packed on a smaller area. Optical and mechanical designs of the prototype device have been made in such a way that the system can be used in three different modes: as a laser reader, as a telescope and as a microscope.

  16. A subsurface add-on for standard atomic force microscopes.

    PubMed

    Verbiest, G J; van der Zalm, D J; Oosterkamp, T H; Rost, M J

    2015-03-01

    The application of ultrasound in an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) gives access to subsurface information. However, no commercially AFM exists that is equipped with this technique. The main problems are the electronic crosstalk in the AFM setup and the insufficiently strong excitation of the cantilever at ultrasonic (MHz) frequencies. In this paper, we describe the development of an add-on that provides a solution to these problems by using a special piezo element with a lowest resonance frequency of 2.5 MHz and by separating the electronic connection for this high frequency piezo element from all other connections. In this sense, we support researches with the possibility to perform subsurface measurements with their existing AFMs and hopefully pave also the way for the development of a commercial AFM that is capable of imaging subsurface features with nanometer resolution.

  17. A subsurface add-on for standard atomic force microscopes

    SciTech Connect

    Verbiest, G. J.; Zalm, D. J. van der; Oosterkamp, T. H.; Rost, M. J.

    2015-03-15

    The application of ultrasound in an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) gives access to subsurface information. However, no commercially AFM exists that is equipped with this technique. The main problems are the electronic crosstalk in the AFM setup and the insufficiently strong excitation of the cantilever at ultrasonic (MHz) frequencies. In this paper, we describe the development of an add-on that provides a solution to these problems by using a special piezo element with a lowest resonance frequency of 2.5 MHz and by separating the electronic connection for this high frequency piezo element from all other connections. In this sense, we support researches with the possibility to perform subsurface measurements with their existing AFMs and hopefully pave also the way for the development of a commercial AFM that is capable of imaging subsurface features with nanometer resolution.

  18. Exogenous Hormone Use: Oral Contraceptives, Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy, and Health Outcomes in the Nurses’ Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Grodstein, Francine; Stampfer, Meir J.; Willett, Walter C.; Hu, Frank B.; Manson, JoAnn E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To review the contribution of the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) to our understanding of the complex relationship between exogenous hormones and health outcomes in women. Methods. We performed a narrative review of the publications of the NHS and NHS II from 1976 to 2016. Results. Oral contraceptive and postmenopausal hormone use were studied in relation to major health outcomes, including cardiovascular disease and cancer. Current or recent oral contraceptive use is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease (mainly among smokers), melanoma, and breast cancer, and a lower risk of colorectal and ovarian cancer. Although hormone therapy is not indicated primarily for chronic disease prevention, findings from the NHS and a recent analysis of the Women’s Health Initiative indicate that younger women who are closer to menopause onset have a more favorable risk–benefit profile than do older women from use of hormone therapy for relief of vasomotor symptoms. Conclusions. With updated information on hormone use, lifestyle factors, and other variables, the NHS and NHS II continue to contribute to our understanding of the complex relationship between exogenous hormones and health outcomes in women. PMID:27459451

  19. Study Protocol for the Fukushima Health Management Survey

    PubMed Central

    Yasumura, Seiji; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Yamashita, Shunichi; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi; Akashi, Makoto; Kodama, Kazunori; Ozasa, Kotaro

    2012-01-01

    Background The accidents that occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant after the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011 have resulted in long-term, ongoing anxiety among the residents of Fukushima, Japan. Soon after the disaster, Fukushima Prefecture launched the Fukushima Health Management Survey to investigate long-term low-dose radiation exposure caused by the accident. Fukushima Medical University took the lead in planning and implementing this survey. The primary purposes of this survey are to monitor the long-term health of residents, promote their future well-being, and confirm whether long-term low-dose radiation exposure has health effects. This report describes the rationale and implementation of the Fukushima Health Management Survey. Methods This cohort study enrolled all people living in Fukushima Prefecture after the earthquake and comprises a basic survey and 4 detailed surveys. The basic survey is to estimate levels of external radiation exposure among all 2.05 million residents. It should be noted that internal radiation levels were estimated by Fukushima Prefecture using whole-body counters. The detailed surveys comprise a thyroid ultrasound examination for all Fukushima children aged 18 years or younger, a comprehensive health check for all residents from the evacuation zones, an assessment of mental health and lifestyles of all residents from the evacuation zones, and recording of all pregnancies and births among all women in the prefecture who were pregnant on 11 March. All data have been entered into a database and will be used to support the residents and analyze the health effects of radiation. Conclusions The low response rate (<30%) to the basic survey complicates the estimation of health effects. There have been no cases of malignancy to date among 38 114 children who received thyroid ultrasound examinations. The importance of mental health care was revealed by the mental health and lifestyle survey and the pregnancy

  20. 75 FR 9902 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; The Agricultural Health Study: A Prospective Cohort Study...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ... history information for respondents enrolled in the Agriculture Health Study. This represents a request to.... Affected Public: Private Sector, Farms. Type of Respondents: Licensed pesticide applicators and...

  1. Nutritionists’ Health Study cohort: a web-based approach of life events, habits and health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Isis Tande; de Almeida-Pititto, Bianca; Ferreira, Sandra Roberta G

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Non-communicable chronic diseases (NCCDs) represent a burden for public health. Alongside the established cardiometabolic risk factors such as high blood pressure and disorders of glucose and lipid metabolism, living habits and nutritional status at different stages of life are seen as contributors to this scenario. Gut microbiota composition and subclinical inflammation have been pointed out as underlying mechanisms of NCCDs. Studies involving health professionals have brought relevant contributions to the knowledge about risk factors. Technological advances facilitate data collection and analysis for big samples. A web-based survey addressed to collect data from a cohort study, which is able to identify NCCDs risk factors, is highly desirable. The objective of the Brazilian Nutritionists’ Health Study (NutriHS) is to gather online information on early life events, daily habits, emergent cardiometabolic risk factors and health outcomes of a specific subset of the Brazilian population. Methods and analysis NutriHS, developed at the School of Public Health—University of Sao Paulo, Brazil, is a research initiative that enrols undergraduates of nutrition courses from Brazilian universities and graduated volunteers. A web-based self-administered system was designed to collect health-related data. After fulfilling online questionnaires (socioeconomic, early life events and lifestyle data), participants are invited to a clinical visit for physical examination and laboratory procedures (blood sampling, faeces collection and body composition). At a 3-year interval, they will be invited to repeat similar procedures. Ethics and dissemination The NutriHS research protocol was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee and is providing promising data which contribute to the understanding of pathophysiological links between early life events, body composition, gut microbiota, and inflammatory and metabolic risk profile. The combination of a friendly tool

  2. Cohort Profile: The China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yaohui; Hu, Yisong; Smith, James P; Strauss, John; Yang, Gonghuan

    2014-01-01

    The China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) is a nationally representative longitudinal survey of persons in China 45 years of age or older and their spouses, including assessments of social, economic, and health circumstances of community-residents. CHARLS examines health and economic adjustments to rapid ageing of the population in China. The national baseline survey for the study was conducted between June 2011 and March 2012 and involved 17 708 respondents. CHARLS respondents are followed every 2 years, using a face-to-face computer-assisted personal interview (CAPI). Physical measurements are made at every 2-year follow-up, and blood sample collection is done once in every two follow-up periods. A pilot survey for CHARLS was conducted in two provinces of China in 2008, on 2685 individuals, who were resurveyed in 2012. To ensure the adoption of best practices and international comparability of results, CHARLS was harmonized with leading international research studies in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) model. Requests for collaborations should be directed to Dr Yaohui Zhao (yhzhao@nsd.edu.cn). All data in CHARLS are maintained at the National School of Development of Peking University and will be accessible to researchers around the world at the study website. The 2008 pilot data for CHARLS are available at: http://charls.ccer.edu.cn/charls/. National baseline data for the study are expected to be released in January 2013. PMID:23243115

  3. The Self-Assessment Process and Impacts on the Health Information Management Program Performance: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Spohn, Renae

    2015-01-01

    This study examined how health information management (HIM) educational programs can use the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award Model (MBNQAM) educational criteria to meet the self-assessment requirement for Commission on Accreditation for Health Informatics and Information Management Education (CAHIIM) accreditation. An existing instrument, Quantum Performance Group's Organizational Assessment Survey authored by Dr. Mark Blazey, was used in this study. The instrument was designed to self-assess the entire organization. Results of the study demonstrate how the MBNQAM can be used to successfully self-assess HIM programs. This research adds to the body of literature surrounding the application of the MBNQAM for HIM programs and provides new information to deans, administrators, and educators that may be useful, as an added component, when self-assessing HIM programs. The results of this study will help to establish a foundation for HIM programs to strengthen the self-assessment process, providing a strong starting point for strategic planning prioritization for HIM program improvement initiatives. The improved process will help in maturing the HIM program while fulfilling accreditation requirements for self-assessment. As additional HIM programs formalize the self-assessment process, benchmarking opportunities with other HIM programs will be created. PMID:26755899

  4. The Self-Assessment Process and Impacts on the Health Information Management Program Performance: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Spohn, Renae

    2015-01-01

    This study examined how health information management (HIM) educational programs can use the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award Model (MBNQAM) educational criteria to meet the self-assessment requirement for Commission on Accreditation for Health Informatics and Information Management Education (CAHIIM) accreditation. An existing instrument, Quantum Performance Group's Organizational Assessment Survey authored by Dr. Mark Blazey, was used in this study. The instrument was designed to self-assess the entire organization. Results of the study demonstrate how the MBNQAM can be used to successfully self-assess HIM programs. This research adds to the body of literature surrounding the application of the MBNQAM for HIM programs and provides new information to deans, administrators, and educators that may be useful, as an added component, when self-assessing HIM programs. The results of this study will help to establish a foundation for HIM programs to strengthen the self-assessment process, providing a strong starting point for strategic planning prioritization for HIM program improvement initiatives. The improved process will help in maturing the HIM program while fulfilling accreditation requirements for self-assessment. As additional HIM programs formalize the self-assessment process, benchmarking opportunities with other HIM programs will be created. PMID:26755899

  5. Sepsis survivors monitoring and coordination in outpatient health care (SMOOTH): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sepsis sequelae include critical illness polyneuropathy, myopathy, wasting, neurocognitive deficits, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and chronic pain. Little is known howlong-term sequelae following hospital discharge are treated. The aim of our study is to determine the effect of a primary care-based, long-term program on health-related quality of life in sepsis survivors. Methods/Design In a two-armed randomized multicenter interventional study, patients after sepsis (n = 290) will be assessed at 6, 12 and 24 months. Patients are eligible if severe sepsis or septic shock (ICD-10), at least two criteria of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), at least one organ dysfunction and sufficient cognitive capacity are present. The intervention comprises 1) discharge management, 2) training of general practitioners and patients in evidence-based care for sepsis sequelae and 3) telephone monitoring of patients. At six months, we expect an improved primary outcome (health-related quality of life/SF-36) and improved secondary outcomes such as costs, mortality, clinical-, psycho-social- and process-of-care measures in the intervention group compared to the control group. Discussion This study evaluates a primary care-based, long-term program for patients after severe sepsis. Study results may add evidence for improved sepsis care management. General practitioners may contribute efficiently to sepsis aftercare. Trial registration U1111-1119-6345. DRKS00000741, CCT-NAPN-20875 (25 February 2011). PMID:25015838

  6. Health Literacy in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Duong, Van Tuyen; Lin, I-Feng; Sorensen, Kristine; Pelikan, Jürgen M; Van Den Broucke, Stephan; Lin, Ying-Chin; Chang, Peter Wushou

    2015-11-01

    Data on health literacy (HL) in the population is limited for Asian countries. This study aimed to test the validity of the Mandarin version of the European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire (HLS-EU-Q) for use in the general public in Taiwan. Multistage stratification random sampling resulted in a sample of 2989 people aged 15 years and above. The HLS-EU-Q was validated by confirmatory factor analysis with excellent model data fit indices. The general HL of the Taiwanese population was 34.4 ± 6.6 on a scale of 50. Multivariate regression analysis showed that higher general HL is significantly associated with the higher ability to pay for medication, higher self-perceived social status, higher frequency of watching health-related TV, and community involvement but associated with younger age. HL is also associated with health status, health behaviors, and health care accessibility and use. The HLS-EU-Q was found to be a useful tool to assess HL and its associated factors in the general population. PMID:26419635

  7. One Health and EcoHealth in Ontario: a qualitative study exploring how holistic and integrative approaches are shaping public health practice in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a growing recognition that many public health issues are complex and can be best understood by examining the relationship between human health and the health of the ecosystems in which people live. Two approaches, One Health and Ecosystem Approaches to Health (EcoHealth), can help us to better understand these intricate and complex connections, and appear to hold great promise for tackling many modern public health dilemmas. Although both One Health and EcoHealth have garnered recognition from numerous health bodies in Canada and abroad, there is still a need to better understand how these approaches are shaping the practice of public health in Ontario. The purpose of this study was to characterize how public health actors in Ontario are influenced by the holistic principles which underlie One Health and EcoHealth, and to identify important lessons from their experiences. Methods Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten participants from the public health sphere in Ontario. Participants encompassed diverse perspectives including infectious disease, food systems, urban agriculture, and environmental health. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using qualitative content analysis to identify major themes and patterns. Results Four major themes emerged from the interviews: the importance of connecting human health with the environment; the role of governance in promoting these ideas; the value of partnerships and collaborations in public health practice; and the challenge of operationalizing holistic approaches to public health. Overall study participants were found to be heavily influenced by concepts couched in EcoHealth and One Health literature, despite a lack of familiarity with these fields. Conclusions Although One Health and EcoHealth are lesser known approaches in the public health sphere, their holistic and systems-based principles were found to influence the thoughts, values and experiences of public health

  8. Health Policy Roundtable Panel Discussion: Translating Health Insurance Studies into Policy Proposals

    PubMed Central

    Folz, Christina E

    2004-01-01

    Researchers often wonder whether and how their studies are translated into policy or practice. AcademyHealth convened a roundtable of experts at the organization's 2003 Annual Research Meeting in Nashville to discuss how research on health insurance enters the policy process. The participants drew on their experience at the state, federal, and local levels to suggest ways that policy researchers can maximize the likelihood that their work will be used by decision-makers. The following report is based on the transcript from this 90-minute discussion; it captures the panel's answers to a series of questions posed by session-chair, Sherry Glied. PMID:15149472

  9. Mental health: everyone's business.

    PubMed

    Dragon, Natalie

    2010-06-01

    Mental health is everyone's business the Australian College of Mental Health Nurses and the Wesley Mission affirmed last month. In the midst of a burgeoning demand for mental health services, the lack of funds allocated to mental health as part of a $7.3 billion health package in the federal budget does not add up.

  10. Review of health information technology usability study methodologies

    PubMed Central

    Bakken, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    Usability factors are a major obstacle to health information technology (IT) adoption. The purpose of this paper is to review and categorize health IT usability study methods and to provide practical guidance on health IT usability evaluation. 2025 references were initially retrieved from the Medline database from 2003 to 2009 that evaluated health IT used by clinicians. Titles and abstracts were first reviewed for inclusion. Full-text articles were then examined to identify final eligibility studies. 629 studies were categorized into the five stages of an integrated usability specification and evaluation framework that was based on a usability model and the system development life cycle (SDLC)-associated stages of evaluation. Theoretical and methodological aspects of 319 studies were extracted in greater detail and studies that focused on system validation (SDLC stage 2) were not assessed further. The number of studies by stage was: stage 1, task-based or user–task interaction, n=42; stage 2, system–task interaction, n=310; stage 3, user–task–system interaction, n=69; stage 4, user–task–system–environment interaction, n=54; and stage 5, user–task–system–environment interaction in routine use, n=199. The studies applied a variety of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Methodological issues included lack of theoretical framework/model, lack of details regarding qualitative study approaches, single evaluation focus, environmental factors not evaluated in the early stages, and guideline adherence as the primary outcome for decision support system evaluations. Based on the findings, a three-level stratified view of health IT usability evaluation is proposed and methodological guidance is offered based upon the type of interaction that is of primary interest in the evaluation. PMID:21828224

  11. 24 CFR 983.206 - HAP contract amendments (to add or substitute contract units).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false HAP contract amendments (to add or... Contract § 983.206 HAP contract amendments (to add or substitute contract units). (a) Amendment to... substitute unit and must determine the reasonable rent for such unit. (b) Amendment to add contract units....

  12. 24 CFR 983.206 - HAP contract amendments (to add or substitute contract units).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false HAP contract amendments (to add or... Contract § 983.206 HAP contract amendments (to add or substitute contract units). (a) Amendment to... substitute unit and must determine the reasonable rent for such unit. (b) Amendment to add contract units....

  13. 12 CFR 502.60 - When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate... TREASURY ASSESSMENTS AND FEES Fees § 502.60 When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee? Under unusual circumstances, the Director may deem it necessary or appropriate to adjust, add, waive,...

  14. 12 CFR 502.60 - When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate... TREASURY ASSESSMENTS AND FEES Fees § 502.60 When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee? Under unusual circumstances, the Director may deem it necessary or appropriate to adjust, add, waive,...

  15. The Source for ADD/ADHD: Attention Deficit Disorder and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Gail J.; Russell, Joy L.

    This book is intended for professionals who are responsible for designing and implementing educational programs for children with attention deficit disorders and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD). Chapters address: (1) myths and realities about ADD/ADHD; (2) definitions, disorders associated with ADD/ADHD, and federal educational…

  16. Diet, lifestyle, and genetic risk factors for type 2 diabetes: a review from the Nurses’ Health Study, Nurses’ Health Study 2, and Health Professionals’ Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Ardisson Korat, Andres V.; Willett, Walter C.; Hu, Frank B.

    2014-01-01

    The epidemiological evidence collected from three large US cohorts (Nurses’ Health Study, Nurses’ Health Study 2, and Health Professionals’ Follow-up Study) has yielded important information regarding the roles of overall diet, individual foods and nutrients, physical activity and other lifestyle factors in the development of type 2 diabetes. Excess adiposity is a major risk factor for diabetes, and thus, maintaining a healthy body weight and avoidance of weight gain during adulthood is the cornerstone of diabetes prevention. Independent of body weight, the quality or type of dietary fat and carbohydrate is more crucial than the quantity in determining diabetes risk. Higher consumption of coffee, whole grains, fruits, and nuts is associated with lower risk of diabetes, whereas regular consumption of refined grains, red and processed meats, and sugar-sweetened beverages including fruits juices is associated with increased risk. Dietary patterns rich in fruits and vegetables, whole grains, and nuts and legumes but lower in red and processed meats, refined grains, and sugar-sweetened beverages are consistently associated with diabetes risk, even after adjustment for body mass index. The genome-wide association studies conducted in these cohorts have contributed substantially to the discoveries of novel genetic loci for type 2 diabetes and other metabolic traits, although the identified common variants explain only a small proportion of overall diabetes predisposition. Taken together, these ongoing large cohort studies have provided convincing epidemiologic evidence that a healthy diet, together with regular physical activity, maintenance of a healthy weight, moderate alcohol consumption, and avoidance of sedentary behaviors and smoking would prevent the majority of type 2 diabetes cases. PMID:25599007

  17. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in Daily Life Training: A Feasibility Study of an mHealth Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Bakker, Jindra; Vaessen, Thomas; Kasanova, Zuzana; Collip, Dina; van Os, Jim; Wichers, Marieke; Germeys, Inez; Peeters, Frenk

    2016-01-01

    Background With the development of mHealth, it is possible to treat patients in their natural environment. Mobile technology helps to bridge the gap between the therapist’s office and the “real world.” The ACT in Daily Life training (ACT-DL) was designed as an add-on intervention to help patients practice with acceptance and commitment therapy in their daily lives. The ACT-DL consists of two main components: daily monitoring using experience sampling and ACT training in daily life. Objectives To assess the acceptability and feasibility of the ACT-DL in a general outpatient population. A secondary objective was to conduct a preliminary examination of the effectiveness of the ACT-DL. Methods An observational comparative study was conducted. The experimental group consisted of 49 patients who volunteered for ACT-DL, and the control group consisted of 112 patients who did not volunteer. As part of an inpatient treatment program, both groups received a 6-week ACT training. Participants went home to continue their treatment on an outpatient basis, during which time the experimental group received the 4-week add-on ACT-DL. Acceptability and feasibility of the ACT-DL was assessed weekly by telephone survey. Effectiveness of the ACT-DL was evaluated with several self-report questionnaires ( Flexibility Index Test (FIT-60): psychological flexibility, Brief Symptom Inventory: symptoms, Utrechtse Coping List: coping, and Quality of life visual analog scale (QoL-VAS): quality of life). Results More than three-quarters of the participants (76%) completed the full 4-week training. User evaluations showed that ACT-DL stimulated the use of ACT in daily life: participants practiced over an hour a week (mean 78.8 minutes, standard deviation 54.4), doing 10.4 exercises (standard deviation 6.0) on average. Both ACT exercises and metaphors were experienced as useful components of the training (rated 5 out of 7). Repeated measures ANCOVA did not show significant effects of the ACT

  18. Factors in traditional families which affect health and health care: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Sanader, Ana; Komić, Dubravka; Tandara, Mirko; Serec, Maša; Pavličević, Ivančica; Pesjak, Katja; Svab, Igor

    2014-09-01

    One of the most powerful influences on the patient is the family and its characteristics. In the recent decades families have changed, one of the most well known changes was a shift from extended to nuclear families. The consequences of this shift on health have been poorly researched, although family factors are being taught at medical schools. The aim of this study is to explore differences and similarities in factors between nuclear and extended families which may affect health and health care of family members. We conducted the qualitative study of family reports. The reports were done by students of family medicine. We examined the reports according to fourtheme: (1) Relations between the members of the family and between them and society, (2) Lifestyle, (3) Use of medical services and confidence in doctors and medicine, (4) Ilnesses and attitude towards illnesses. Differences were found in relations between the closest members of the family, close family interactions, domination issues and family roles, attitudes towards independence, parents and children, interaction with other people, attitude towards medicine, taking care of the sick member of the family and the way families endure illnesses. A quantitative research is needed to verify all the differences which we came across in this study. The qualitative data support the importance of family on health.

  19. Feasibility and Preliminary Outcomes From a Pilot Study of an Integrated Health-Mental Health Promotion Program in School Mental Health Services

    PubMed Central

    George, Melissa W.; Trumpeter, Nevelyn N.; Wilson, Dawn K.; McDaniel, Heather L.; Schiele, Bryn; Prinz, Ron; Weist, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of unmet health and mental health needs among youth has spurred the growing consensus to develop strategies that integrate services to promote overall well-being. This pilot study reports on the feasibility and outcomes of a theory-driven, family-focused, integrated health-mental health promotion program for underserved adolescents receiving school mental health services. Parent and adolescent assessments conducted prior to and following the brief, 6-session promotion program showed significant improvements in family support, youth self-efficacy, health behaviors, and mental health outcomes. Clinician reports contributed to a characterization of the feasibility, acceptability, and future recommendations for the integrated program. PMID:24297005

  20. Strengthening institutional and organizational capacity for social health protection of the informal sector in lesser-developed countries: a study of policy barriers and opportunities in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Annear, Peter Leslie; Ahmed, Shakil; Ros, Chhun Eang; Ir, Por

    2013-11-01

    Reaching out to the poor and the informal sector is a major challenge for achieving universal coverage in lesser-developed countries. In Cambodia, extensive coverage by health equity funds for the poor has created the opportunity to consolidate various non-government health financing schemes under the government's proposed social health protection structure. This paper identifies the main policy and operational challenges to strengthening existing arrangements for the poor and the informal sector, and considers policy options to address these barriers. Conducted in conjunction with the Cambodian Ministry of Health in 2011-12, the study reviewed policy documents and collected qualitative data through 18 semi-structured key informant interviews with government, non-government and donor officials. Data were analysed using the Organizational Assessment for Improving and Strengthening Health Financing conceptual framework. We found that a significant shortfall related to institutional, organisational and health financing issues resulted in fragmentation and constrained the implementation of social health protection schemes, including health equity funds, community-based health insurance, vouchers and others. Key documents proposed the establishment of a national structure for the unification of the informal-sector schemes but left unresolved issues related to structure, institutional capacity and the third-party status of the national agency. This study adds to the evidence base on appropriate and effective institutional and organizational arrangements for social health protection in the informal sector in developing countries. Among the key lessons are: the need to expand the fiscal space for health care; a commitment to equity; specific measures to protect the poor; building national capacity for administration of universal coverage; and working within the specific national context.

  1. Addiction surplus: the add-on margin that makes addictive consumptions difficult to contain.

    PubMed

    Adams, Peter J; Livingstone, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Addictive consumptions generate financial surpluses over-and-above non-addictive consumptions because of the excessive consumption of addicted consumers. This add-on margin or 'addiction surplus' provides a powerful incentive for beneficiaries to protect their income by ensuring addicted consumers keep consuming. Not only that, addiction surplus provides the financial base that enables producers to sponsor activities which aim to prevent public health initiatives from reducing consumption. This paper examines the potency of addiction surplus to engage industry, governments and communities in an on-going reliance on addiction surplus. It then explores how neo-liberal constructions of a rational consumer disguise the ethical and exploitative dynamics of addiction surplus by examining ways in which addictive consumptions fail to conform to notions of autonomy and rationality. Four measures are identified to contain the distorting effects of addiction surplus.

  2. Factors associated with self-reported health: implications for screening level community-based health and environmental studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Advocates for environmental justice, local, state, and national public health officials, exposure scientists, need broad-based heath indices to identify vulnerable communities. Longitudinal studies show that perception of current health status predicts subsequent mort...

  3. The Boston Puerto Rican Health Study, a longitudinal cohort study on health disparities in Puerto Rican adults: challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Boston Puerto Rican Health Study is an ongoing longitudinal cohort study designed to examine the role of psychosocial stress on presence and development of allostatic load and health outcomes in Puerto Ricans, and potential modification by nutritional status, genetic variation, and social support. Methods Self-identified Puerto Ricans, aged 45-75 years and residing in the Boston, MA metro area, were recruited through door-to-door enumeration and community approaches. Participants completed a comprehensive set of questionnaires and tests. Blood, urine and salivary samples were extracted for biomarker and genetic analysis. Measurements are repeated at a two-year follow-up. Results A total of 1500 eligible participants completed baseline measurements, with nearly 80% two-year follow-up retention. The majority of the cohort is female (70%), and many have less than 8th grade education (48%), and fall below the poverty level (59%). Baseline prevalence of health conditions is high for this age range: considerable physical (26%) and cognitive (7%) impairment, obesity (57%), type 2 diabetes (40%), hypertension (69%), arthritis (50%) and depressive symptomatology (60%). Conclusions The enrollment of minority groups presents unique challenges. This report highlights approaches to working with difficult to reach populations, and describes some of the health issues and needs of Puerto Rican older adults. These results may inform future studies and interventions aiming to improve the health of this and similar communities. PMID:20193082

  4. The role of health literacy and social networks in arthritis patients' health information-seeking behavior: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Janette; Mullan, Judy; Worsley, Anthony; Pai, Nagesh

    2012-01-01

    Background. Patients engage in health information-seeking behaviour to maintain their wellbeing and to manage chronic diseases such as arthritis. Health literacy allows patients to understand available treatments and to critically appraise information they obtain from a wide range of sources. Aims. To explore how arthritis patients' health literacy affects engagement in arthritis-focused health information-seeking behaviour and the selection of sources of health information available through their informal social network. Methods. An exploratory, qualitative study consisting of one-on-one semi-structured interviews. Twenty participants with arthritis were recruited from community organizations. The interviews were designed to elicit participants' understanding about their arthritis and arthritis medication and to determine how the participants' health literacy informed selection of where they found information about their arthritis and pain medication. Results. Participants with low health literacy were less likely to be engaged with health information-seeking behaviour. Participants with intermediate health literacy were more likely to source arthritis-focused health information from newspapers, television, and within their informal social network. Those with high health literacy sourced information from the internet and specialist health sources and were providers of information within their informal social network. Conclusion. Health professionals need to be aware that levels of engagement in health information-seeking behaviour and sources of arthritis-focused health information may be related to their patients' health literacy.

  5. Methodological issues in studies of air pollution and reproductive health

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past decade there have been an increasing number of scientific studies describing possible effects of air pollution on perinatal health. These papers have mostly focused on commonly monitored air pollutants, primarily ozone (O3), particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (S...

  6. An English Study of Teacher Satisfaction, Motivation, and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Catherine; Cox, Sue; Dinham, Steve

    This study of 543 English teachers and school executives examined teachers' occupational motivation, satisfaction, and health and tested a model of teacher satisfaction developed in Australia in a previous research phase. Teachers came from schools representative of all types of schools and all levels of socioeconomic status. Teachers completed a…

  7. COMPARISON OF ILLNESS ENPOINTS IN SWIMMER'S HEALTH STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prospective epidemiological studies on swimmers¿ health that were conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency between 1973 and 1980 defined highly credible gastrointestinal illness (HCGI) as the occurrence of one or more of the following set of symptoms: (1) vomiting, (...

  8. MORTALITY AMONG PARTICIPANTS IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purpose: This analysis of the Agricultural Health Study cohort assesses the mortality experience of licensed pesticide applicators and their spouses.

    Methods: This report is based on 52,393 private applicators (who are mostly farmers) and 32,345 spouses of farmers in Iowa...

  9. MORTALITY AMONG FARMERS AND SPOUSES IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Agricultural Health Study we evaluated the mortality experience of 52,395 farmers and 32,347 of their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina obtain information on cancer and other chronic disease risks from agricultural exposures and other factors associated with rural lifes...

  10. COMPARISON OF ILLNESS ENDPOINTS IN SWIMMERS' HEALTH STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prospective epidemiological studies on swimmers¿ health that were conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) between 1973 and 1980 defined highly credible gastrointestinal illness (HCGI) as the occurrence of one or more of the following set of symptoms: (1) ...

  11. Formulating Employability Skills for Graduates of Public Health Study Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qomariyah, Nurul; Savitri, Titi; Hadianto, Tridjoko; Claramita, Mora

    2016-01-01

    Employability skills (ES) are important for effective and successful individual participation in the workplace. The main aims of the research were to identify important ES needed by graduates of Public Health Study Program Universitas Ahmad Dahlan (PHSP UAD) and to assess the achievement of the ES development that has been carried out by PHSP UAD.…

  12. National Study on Community College Health. Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottenritter, Nan

    This is a report on a national survey of community colleges conducted by the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) in 2000. The survey was designed to identify various community health programs, centers, classes, and services related to HIV/AIDS that community colleges administered, partnered, or sponsored. The study surveyed 1,100…

  13. Challenges of Documenting Schoolchildren's Psychosocial Health: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clausson, Eva K.; Berg, Agneta; Janlöv, Ann-Christin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore school nurses' experience of challenges related to documenting schoolchildren's psychosocial health in Sweden. Six focus group discussions were carried out. Areas for discussions included questions about situations, especially challenging to document as well as what constrains and/or facilitates documenting…

  14. Divorce and Death: A Case Study for Health Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Sbarra, David A.; Hasselmo, Karen; Nojopranoto, Widyasita

    2012-01-01

    Marital separation and divorce are associated with increased risk for early death, and the magnitude of this association rivals that of many well-established public health factors. In the case of divorce, however, the mechanisms explaining precisely why and how some people are at risk for early death remain unclear. This paper reviews what is known about the association between divorce and risk for all-cause mortality, then discusses four emerging themes in this area of research: the biological intermediaries linking divorce to pathophysiology and disease onset, moving beyond the statistical mean, focusing research on the diathesis-stress model, and studying how opportunity foreclosures may place people on a trajectory toward poor distal health outcomes. These ideas are grounded in a set of public lay commentaries about the association between divorce and death; in this way, the paper seeks to integrate current research ideas with how the general public thinks about divorce and its correlates. Although this paper focuses on divorce, many of the emerging themes are applicable to the study of psychosocial stress and health more generally. Therefore, the study of divorce and death provides a good case study for health psychology and considers new questions that can be pursued in a variety of research areas. PMID:23284588

  15. Integrated Care in College Health: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Cary; Sloan, Sarah K.; Vance, Mary; Brownson, Chris

    2008-01-01

    This case study describes 1 international student's treatment experience with an integrated health program on a college campus. This program uses a multidisciplinary, mind-body approach, which incorporates individual counseling, primary care, psychiatric consultation, a mindfulness-based cognitive therapy class, and a meditation group.

  16. Health Benefits of Volunteering in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piliavin, Jane Allyn; Siegl, Erica

    2007-01-01

    We investigate positive effects of volunteering on psychological well-being and self-reported health using all four waves of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. Confirming previous research, volunteering was positively related to both outcome variables. Both consistency of volunteering over time and diversity of participation are significantly…

  17. Aragon workers' health study - design and cohort description

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spain, a Mediterranean country with relatively low rates of coronary heart disease, has a high prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and is experiencing a severe epidemic of overweight/obesity. We designed the Aragon Workers' Health Study (AWHS) to characterize the factors associated...

  18. Public Health Approach to the Study of Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Derek A.; Scott, Keith G.; Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.

    2008-01-01

    We applied a public health approach to the study of mental retardation by providing a basic descriptive epidemiological analysis using a large statewide linked birth and public school record database (N = 327,831). Sociodemographic factors played a key role across all levels of mental retardation. Birthweight less than 1000 g was associated with…

  19. General Human Health Issues For Moon And Mars Missions: Results From The HUMEX Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horneck, G.; Comet, B.

    Human exploratory missions, such as the establishment of a permanently inhabited lunar base and/or human visits to Mars will add a new dimension to human space flight, concerning the distance of travel, the radiation environment, the gravity lev-els, the duration of the mission, and the level of confinement and isolation the crew will be exposed to. This will raise the significance of several health issues. Besides spaceflight specific risks, such as radiation health, gravity related effects and psy-chological issues, general health issues need to be considered. These individual risks of illness, injury or death are based on general human health statistics. The duration of the mission is the main factor in these considerations. These risk estimations are the base which have to supplemented by the risks related specifically to the nature of the expedition under consideration. Crew health and performance have to be secured during transfer flights, during lunar or Mars surface exploration, including EVAs, and upon return to Earth, as defined within the constraints of safety objectives and mass restrictions of the mission. Within the ESA Study on the Survivability and Adaptation of Humans to Long-Duration Interplanetary and Planetary Environments (so called HUMEX study), we have critically assessed the human responses, limits and needs with regard to the environments of interplanetary and planetary missions. Based on various scenarios, the crew health risks have been evaluated. The main results are as follows: (i) The state of the art shows that bone loss during the long stay in weightlessness, especially during missions to Mars, remains an unacceptable risk. Solutions to control and to prevent this risk shall be developed. (ii) The control of human physical capacity impairment under weightlessness shall be optimized. (iii) Based of the probability of occurrence of diseases and injuries and on the con-straints imposed by exploratory mission scenarios, the crew shall

  20. Age, mode of conception, health service use and pregnancy health: a prospective cohort study of Australian women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is limited evidence about the ways in which maternal age and mode of conception interact with psychological, sociodemographic, health and health service factors in governing pregnancy health. The aim of this study was to establish in what ways maternal age and mode of conception are associated with, health behaviours, health service use and self-rated physical and mental health during pregnancy. Method A prospective cohort study was conducted in a collaboration between universities, infertility treatment services and public and private obstetric hospitals in Melbourne and Sydney, Australia,. Consecutive cohorts of nulliparous English-literate women at least 28 weeks pregnant who had conceived through ART (ARTC) or spontaneously (SC) in three age-groups: 20–30; 31–36 and at least 37 years were recruited. Data were obtained via structured individual telephone interviews and self-report postal questionnaires at recruitment and four months postpartum. Study-specific questions assessed: sociodemographic characteristics; reproductive health; health behaviours and health service use. Standardized instruments assessed physical health: SF 12 Physical Component Score (PCS) and mental health: SF12 Mental Component Score (MCS); State Trait Anxiety Inventory and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. The main outcome measures were the SF 12 PCS, SF12 MCS scores and pregnancy-related hospital admissions. Results Of 1179 eligible women 791 (67%) participated, 27 had fertility treatment without oocyte retrieval and were excluded and 592/764 (78%) completed all pregnancy assessments. When other factors were controlled speaking a language other than English, having private health insurance and multiple gestation were associated with worse physical health and having private health insurance and better physical health were associated with better mental health. Pregnancy-related hospital admissions were associated with worse physical health and multiple gestation

  1. Family history and oral health: findings from the Dunedin Study

    PubMed Central

    Shearer, Dara M; Thomson, W. Murray; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Broadbent, Jonathan M; Poulton, Richie

    2011-01-01

    Context The effects of the oral health status of one generation on that of the next within families are unclear. Objective To determine whether parental oral health history is a risk factor for oral disease. Methods Oral examination and interview data were collected during the age-32 assessments in the Dunedin Study. Parental data were also collected on this occasion. The sample was divided into two familial-risk groups for caries/tooth loss (high risk and low risk) based on parents’ self-reported history of tooth loss at the age-32 assessment interview. Main outcome measures Probands’ dental caries and tooth loss status at age 32, together with lifelong dental caries trajectory (age 5–32). Results Caries/tooth-loss risk analysis was conducted for 640 proband-parents groups. Referent groups were the low-familial-risk groups. After controlling for confounding factors (sex, episodic use of dental services, socio-economic status and plaque trajectory), the prevalence ratio (PR) for having lost 1+ teeth by age 32 for the high-familial-risk group was 1.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05, 1.88) and the rate ratio for DMFS at age 32 was 1.41 (95% CI 1.24, 1.60). In the high-familial-risk group, the PR of following a high caries trajectory was 2.05 (95% CI 1.37, 3.06). Associations were strongest when information was available about both parents’ oral health. Nonetheless, when information was available for one parent only, associations were significant for some proband outcomes. Conclusions People with poor oral health tend to have parents with poor oral health. Family/parental history of oral health is a valid representation of the intricacies of the shared genetic and environmental factors that contribute to an individual’s oral health status. Associations were strongest when data from both parents can be obtained. PMID:22022823

  2. Assessing Consumer Health Vocabulary Familiarity: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Keselman, Alla; Tse, Tony; Crowell, Jon; Browne, Allen; Ngo, Long

    2007-01-01

    Background Accurate assessment of the difficulty of consumer health texts is a prerequisite for improving readability. General purpose readability formulas based primarily on word length are not well suited for the health domain, where short technical terms may be unfamiliar to consumers. To address this need, we previously developed a regression model for predicting “average familiarity” with consumer health vocabulary (CHV) terms. Objective The primary goal was to evaluate the ability of the CHV term familiarity model to predict (1) surface-level familiarity of health-related terms and (2) understanding of the underlying meaning (concept familiarity) among actual consumers. Secondary goals involved exploring the effect of demographic factors (eg, health literacy) on surface-level and concept-level familiarity and describing the relationship between the two levels of familiarity. Methods Survey instruments for assessing surface-level familiarity (45 items) and concept-level familiarity (15 items) were developed. All participants also completed a demographic survey and a standardized health literacy assessment, S-TOFHLA. Results Based on surveys completed by 52 consumers, linear regression suggests that predicted CHV term familiarity is a statistically significantly predictor (P < .001) of participants’ surface-level and concept-level familiarity performance. Health literacy was a statistically significant predictor of surface-level familiarity scores (P < .001); its effect on concept-level familiarity scores warrants further investigation (P = 0.06). Educational level was not a significant predictor of either type of familiarity. Participant scores indicated that conceptualization lagged behind recognition, especially for terms predicted as “likely to be familiar” (P = .006). Conclusions This exploratory study suggests that the CHV term familiarity model is predictive of consumer recognition and understanding of terms in the health domain. Potential uses

  3. A Brief History of Soils and Human Health Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Sauer, Thomas J.

    2013-04-01

    scientist to date to be awarded a Nobel Prize. In the 1940s and 50s William Albrecht of the University of Missouri became interested in links between soils and human health, an interest that lead to the publication of several papers. Albrecht's works focused on links between soil fertility and dental health, with a particular focus on the relationships between soil fertility and dental cavities. However, Albrecht did extend the relationships between soil fertility and human health out to broader, more general health issues in some of his writings as well. Well-known figures such as Sir Albert Howard and J.I. Rodale also published works in the 1940s that included soils and human health components. Then André Voisin published "Soil, Grass, and Cancer" in 1959. Much of Voisin's work focused on nutrient content in soils, including both nutrient deficiencies and imbalances, and how that influences nutrient status in plants and animals that are in turn consumed by humans. Several health problems are discussed, including but not limited to birth defects, goiter, mental illness, diabetes, and cancer. Voisin concluded that the medical profession had largely ignored soils in their efforts to improve human health, but that soil science should be the foundation of preventative medicine. Soils and human health studies continued in the later part of the 20th Century. The health effects of exposures to radioactive elements in soils received considerable attention after the 1986 Chernobyl incident, however, even prior to Chernobyl radionuclides in the soil and how they may affect human health were receiving attention. Investigations into the effects of heavy metals in soils became a common theme as did organic chemicals in soils and the effects of trace elements on human health. Following up on the discovery of antibiotics, soil organisms received increased attention as they related to human health. By the end of the 1900s, M.A. Oliver (1997) noted that "… there is a dearth of

  4. Labor migration and mental health in Cambodia: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Sarah R; Robinson, W Courtland; Chhim, Sotheara; Bass, Judith K

    2014-03-01

    Labor migration is thought to have significant mental and physical health impacts, given the risks for exploitation and abuse of migrant workers, particularly among those in semiskilled and unskilled positions, although empirical data are limited. This qualitative study, conducted in July 2010 in Banteay Meanchey Province, Cambodia, focused on psychosocial and mental health signs and symptoms associated with labor migration among Cambodian migrant workers to Thailand. Two qualitative methods identified a number of mental health problems faced by Cambodian migrant workers in Thailand, including the presence of anxiety and depression-like problems among this population, described in local terminology as pibak chet (sadness), keut chreun (thinking too much), and khval khvay khnong chet (worry in heart). Key informants revealed the extent to which psychosocial well-being is associated with conditions of poverty, including debt and lack of access to basic services. PMID:24566505

  5. A pilot binational study of health behaviors and immigration.

    PubMed

    Hennessy-Burt, Tamara E; Stoecklin-Marois, Maria T; Meneses-González, Fernando; Schenker, Marc B

    2011-12-01

    In the US, Mexican immigrant women often have better health outcomes than non-Hispanic white women despite a greater health risk profile. This cross-sectional pilot study compared women living in Chavinda, Michoacán (n = 102) to women who had migrated from Mexico to Madera, California (n = 93). The interview gathered information on acculturation and risk behaviors including smoking, alcohol use and number of sexual partners. The results suggest that more acculturated women living in the US are more likely to consume alcohol. US residence and higher acculturation level was marginally associated with having more than one sexual partner. There were no differences between odds of smoking among Chavinda and Madera women. While results with acculturation are not consistently significant due to small sample sizes, the results are suggestive that acculturation among immigrant Hispanic women in the US may be associated with adverse health behaviors, and selective migration seems less likely to account for these differences.

  6. Connecting Primary Health Care: A Comprehensive Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Maghsoudloo, Mehran; Abolhassani, Farid; Lotfibakhshaiesh, Nasrin

    2016-07-01

    The collection of data within the primary health care facilities in Iran is essentially paper-based. It is focused on family's health, monitoring of non-infectious and infectious diseases. Clearly due to the paper-based nature of the tasks, timely decision making at most can be difficult if not impossible. As part of an on-going electronic health record implementation project at Tehran University of Medical Sciences, for the first time in the region, based on a comprehensive pilot project, four urban healthcare facilities are connected to their headquarters and beyond, covering all aspects of primary health care, for the last four years. Without delving into the technical aspects of its software engineering processes, the progress of the implementation is reported, selection of summarized data is presented, and experience gained thus far are discussed. Four years passed and if time is any important reason to go by, then it is safe to accept that the software architecture and electronic health record structural model implemented are robust and yet extensible. Aims and duration of a pilot study should be clearly defined prior to start and managed till its completion. Resistance to change and particularly to information technology, apart from its technical aspects, is also based on human factors. PMID:27424015

  7. Embodying health identities: A study of young people with asthma.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, Lee F; Gabe, Jonathan

    2016-07-01

    The embodiment of health identities is a growing area of interest. Questions posed in this literature include: how important is the body in our understandings/experiences of health, how are everyday definitions of health and self embodied despite chronic illness, and how do social relations influence these interpretations? Mindful of such questions, this paper draws on a qualitative study of mild to moderate asthma among young people in Ireland. In-depth interviews were undertaken with 31 respondents aged between 5 and 17, including boys (n = 15) and girls (n = 16) from different class and ethnic backgrounds. Core themes included: the importance of play, physical activity and sport; diet/nutrition; and physical appearance. Asthma sometimes presented challenges in relation to specific domains, notably strenuous physical activity, though in many other respects its potential impact was discursively minimised. Attentive to various modalities of the lived body, we illustrate how health identities are negotiated among young people diagnosed with a chronic illness. Connections are also made with the sociology of childhood and (ill) health, which views young people as active agents. PMID:27192143

  8. Does aquaculture add resilience to the global food system?

    PubMed

    Troell, Max; Naylor, Rosamond L; Metian, Marc; Beveridge, Malcolm; Tyedmers, Peter H; Folke, Carl; Arrow, Kenneth J; Barrett, Scott; Crépin, Anne-Sophie; Ehrlich, Paul R; Gren, Asa; Kautsky, Nils; Levin, Simon A; Nyborg, Karine; Österblom, Henrik; Polasky, Stephen; Scheffer, Marten; Walker, Brian H; Xepapadeas, Tasos; de Zeeuw, Aart

    2014-09-16

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector and continues to expand alongside terrestrial crop and livestock production. Using portfolio theory as a conceptual framework, we explore how current interconnections between the aquaculture, crop, livestock, and fisheries sectors act as an impediment to, or an opportunity for, enhanced resilience in the global food system given increased resource scarcity and climate change. Aquaculture can potentially enhance resilience through improved resource use efficiencies and increased diversification of farmed species, locales of production, and feeding strategies. However, aquaculture's reliance on terrestrial crops and wild fish for feeds, its dependence on freshwater and land for culture sites, and its broad array of environmental impacts diminishes its ability to add resilience. Feeds for livestock and farmed fish that are fed rely largely on the same crops, although the fraction destined for aquaculture is presently small (∼4%). As demand for high-value fed aquaculture products grows, competition for these crops will also rise, as will the demand for wild fish as feed inputs. Many of these crops and forage fish are also consumed directly by humans and provide essential nutrition for low-income households. Their rising use in aquafeeds has the potential to increase price levels and volatility, worsening food insecurity among the most vulnerable populations. Although the diversification of global food production systems that includes aquaculture offers promise for enhanced resilience, such promise will not be realized if government policies fail to provide adequate incentives for resource efficiency, equity, and environmental protection. PMID:25136111

  9. Does aquaculture add resilience to the global food system?

    PubMed Central

    Troell, Max; Naylor, Rosamond L.; Metian, Marc; Beveridge, Malcolm; Tyedmers, Peter H.; Folke, Carl; Arrow, Kenneth J.; Barrett, Scott; Crépin, Anne-Sophie; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Gren, Åsa; Kautsky, Nils; Levin, Simon A.; Nyborg, Karine; Österblom, Henrik; Polasky, Stephen; Scheffer, Marten; Walker, Brian H.; Xepapadeas, Tasos; de Zeeuw, Aart

    2014-01-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector and continues to expand alongside terrestrial crop and livestock production. Using portfolio theory as a conceptual framework, we explore how current interconnections between the aquaculture, crop, livestock, and fisheries sectors act as an impediment to, or an opportunity for, enhanced resilience in the global food system given increased resource scarcity and climate change. Aquaculture can potentially enhance resilience through improved resource use efficiencies and increased diversification of farmed species, locales of production, and feeding strategies. However, aquaculture’s reliance on terrestrial crops and wild fish for feeds, its dependence on freshwater and land for culture sites, and its broad array of environmental impacts diminishes its ability to add resilience. Feeds for livestock and farmed fish that are fed rely largely on the same crops, although the fraction destined for aquaculture is presently small (∼4%). As demand for high-value fed aquaculture products grows, competition for these crops will also rise, as will the demand for wild fish as feed inputs. Many of these crops and forage fish are also consumed directly by humans and provide essential nutrition for low-income households. Their rising use in aquafeeds has the potential to increase price levels and volatility, worsening food insecurity among the most vulnerable populations. Although the diversification of global food production systems that includes aquaculture offers promise for enhanced resilience, such promise will not be realized if government policies fail to provide adequate incentives for resource efficiency, equity, and environmental protection. PMID:25136111

  10. The IRBIT domain adds new functions to the AHCY family.

    PubMed

    Devogelaere, Benoit; Sammels, Eva; De Smedt, Humbert

    2008-07-01

    During the past few years, the IRBIT domain has emerged as an important add-on of S-adenosyl-L-homocystein hydrolase (AHCY), thereby creating the new family of AHCY-like proteins. In this review, we discuss the currently available data on this new family of proteins. We describe the IRBIT domain as a unique part of these proteins and give an overview of its regulation via (de)phosphorylation and proteolysis. The second part of this review is focused on the potential functions of the AHCY-like proteins. We propose that the IRBIT domain serves as an anchor for targeting AHCY-like proteins towards cytoplasmic targets. This leads to regulation of (i) intracellular Ca2+ via the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R), (ii) intracellular pH via the Na+/HCO3 - cotransporters (NBCs); whereas inactivation of the IRBIT domain induces (iii) nuclear translocation and regulation of AHCY activity. Dysfunction of AHCY-like proteins will disturb these three important functions, with various biological implications. PMID:18536033

  11. The IRBIT domain adds new functions to the AHCY family.

    PubMed

    Devogelaere, Benoit; Sammels, Eva; De Smedt, Humbert

    2008-07-01

    During the past few years, the IRBIT domain has emerged as an important add-on of S-adenosyl-L-homocystein hydrolase (AHCY), thereby creating the new family of AHCY-like proteins. In this review, we discuss the currently available data on this new family of proteins. We describe the IRBIT domain as a unique part of these proteins and give an overview of its regulation via (de)phosphorylation and proteolysis. The second part of this review is focused on the potential functions of the AHCY-like proteins. We propose that the IRBIT domain serves as an anchor for targeting AHCY-like proteins towards cytoplasmic targets. This leads to regulation of (i) intracellular Ca2+ via the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R), (ii) intracellular pH via the Na+/HCO3 - cotransporters (NBCs); whereas inactivation of the IRBIT domain induces (iii) nuclear translocation and regulation of AHCY activity. Dysfunction of AHCY-like proteins will disturb these three important functions, with various biological implications.

  12. Does aquaculture add resilience to the global food system?

    PubMed

    Troell, Max; Naylor, Rosamond L; Metian, Marc; Beveridge, Malcolm; Tyedmers, Peter H; Folke, Carl; Arrow, Kenneth J; Barrett, Scott; Crépin, Anne-Sophie; Ehrlich, Paul R; Gren, Asa; Kautsky, Nils; Levin, Simon A; Nyborg, Karine; Österblom, Henrik; Polasky, Stephen; Scheffer, Marten; Walker, Brian H; Xepapadeas, Tasos; de Zeeuw, Aart

    2014-09-16

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector and continues to expand alongside terrestrial crop and livestock production. Using portfolio theory as a conceptual framework, we explore how current interconnections between the aquaculture, crop, livestock, and fisheries sectors act as an impediment to, or an opportunity for, enhanced resilience in the global food system given increased resource scarcity and climate change. Aquaculture can potentially enhance resilience through improved resource use efficiencies and increased diversification of farmed species, locales of production, and feeding strategies. However, aquaculture's reliance on terrestrial crops and wild fish for feeds, its dependence on freshwater and land for culture sites, and its broad array of environmental impacts diminishes its ability to add resilience. Feeds for livestock and farmed fish that are fed rely largely on the same crops, although the fraction destined for aquaculture is presently small (∼4%). As demand for high-value fed aquaculture products grows, competition for these crops will also rise, as will the demand for wild fish as feed inputs. Many of these crops and forage fish are also consumed directly by humans and provide essential nutrition for low-income households. Their rising use in aquafeeds has the potential to increase price levels and volatility, worsening food insecurity among the most vulnerable populations. Although the diversification of global food production systems that includes aquaculture offers promise for enhanced resilience, such promise will not be realized if government policies fail to provide adequate incentives for resource efficiency, equity, and environmental protection.

  13. Neighborhood-level stressors, social support, and diurnal patterns of cortisol: the Chicago Community Adult Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Karb, Rebecca A.; Elliott, Michael R.; Dowd, Jennifer B.; Morenoff, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    Neighborhood disadvantage has consistently been linked to increased rates of morbidity and mortality, but the mechanisms through which neighborhood environments may get “under the skin” remain largely unknown. Differential exposure to chronic environmental stressors has been identified as a potential pathway linking neighborhood disadvantage and poor health, particularly through the dysregulation of stress-related biological pathways such as cortisol secretion, but the majority of existing observational studies on stress and neuroendocrine functioning have focused exclusively on individual-level stressors and psychosocial characteristics. This paper aims to fill that gap by examining the association between features of the neighborhood environment and the diurnal cortisol patterns of 308 individuals from Chicago, Illinois, USA. We found that respondents in neighborhoods with high levels of perceived and observed stressors or low levels of social support experienced a flatter rate of cortisol decline throughout the day. In addition, overall mean cortisol levels were found to be lower in higher stress, lower support neighborhoods. This study adds to the growing evidence of hypocortisolism among chronically stressed adult populations and suggests hypocortisolism rather than hypercortisolism as a potential mechanism linking social disadvantage to poor health. PMID:22698925

  14. EEG Power Spectra of Children with Dyslexia, Slow Learners, and Normally Reading Children with ADD during Verbal Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Peggy T.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Electroencephalographic (EEG) power spectra were studied in two poor reader groups (dyslexia and slow learning) and a normal reading group with attention deficit disorder (ADD). In correlational analyses, the combination of greater low beta and less theta power significantly predicted better reading and spelling. Results suggest adequate readers…

  15. triADD: The Risk for Alcohol Abuse, Depression, and Diabetes Multimorbidity in the American Indian and Alaska Native Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tann, Sheila S.; Yabiku, Scott T.; Okamoto, Scott K.; Yanow, Jessica

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the risk for alcoholism, diabetes, and depression (triADD) in American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations in the U.S. Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a series of descriptive statistics and regression models were used to examine the interrelationships among these disorders in AI/AN populations.…

  16. Can Doppler or contrast-enhanced ultrasound analysis add diagnostically important information about the nature of breast lesions?

    PubMed Central

    Stanzani, Daniela; Chala, Luciano F.; de Barros, Nestor; Cerri, Giovanni G.; Chammas, Maria Cristina

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Despite evidence suggesting that Doppler ultrasonography can help to differentiate between benign and malignant breast lesions, it is rarely applied in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to determine whether certain vascular features of breast masses observed by duplex Doppler and color Doppler ultrasonography (before and/or after microbubble contrast injection) add information to the gray-scale analysis and support the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) classification. METHODS: Seventy solid lesions were prospectively evaluated with gray-scale ultrasonography, color Doppler ultrasonography, and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography. The morphological analysis and lesion vascularity were correlated with the histological results. RESULTS: Percutaneous core biopsies revealed that 25/70 (17.5%) lesions were malignant, while 45 were benign. Hypervascular lesions with tortuous and central vessels, a resistive index (RI)≥0.73 before contrast injection, and an RI≥0.75 after contrast injection were significantly predictive of malignancy (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: The combination of gray-scale ultrasonography data with unenhanced or enhanced duplex Doppler and color Doppler US data can provide diagnostically useful information. These techniques can be easily implemented because Doppler devices are already present in most health centers. PMID:24519198

  17. Health Partners of Western Ohio: Integrated Care Case Study.

    PubMed

    Taflinger, Kimberly; West, Elizabeth; Sunderhaus, Janis; Hilton, Irene V

    2016-03-01

    Health centers are unique health care delivery organizations in which multiple disciplines, such as primary care, dental, behavioral health, pharmacy, podiatry, optometry and alternative medicine, are often located at the same site. Because of this characteristic, many health centers have developed systems of integrated care. This paper describes the characteristics of health centers and highlights the integrated health care delivery system of one early adopter health center, Health Partners of Western Ohio.

  18. Health Partners of Western Ohio: Integrated Care Case Study.

    PubMed

    Taflinger, Kimberly; West, Elizabeth; Sunderhaus, Janis; Hilton, Irene V

    2016-03-01

    Health centers are unique health care delivery organizations in which multiple disciplines, such as primary care, dental, behavioral health, pharmacy, podiatry, optometry and alternative medicine, are often located at the same site. Because of this characteristic, many health centers have developed systems of integrated care. This paper describes the characteristics of health centers and highlights the integrated health care delivery system of one early adopter health center, Health Partners of Western Ohio. PMID:27044240

  19. The Impact of the Nurses’ Health Study on Population Health: Prevention, Translation, and Control

    PubMed Central

    Philpott, Sydney E.; Hankinson, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To summarize the overall impact of the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) over the past 40 years on the health of populations through its contributions on prevention, translation, and control. Methods. We performed a narrative review of the findings of the NHS, NHS II, and NHS3 between 1976 and 2016. Results. The NHS has generated significant findings about the associations between (1) smoking and type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, colorectal and pancreatic cancer, psoriasis, multiple sclerosis, and eye diseases; (2) physical activity and cardiovascular diseases, breast cancer, psoriasis, and neurodegeneration; (3) obesity and cardiovascular diseases, numerous cancer sites, psoriasis, multiple sclerosis, kidney stones, and eye diseases; (4) oral contraceptives and cardiovascular disease, melanoma, and breast, colorectal, and ovarian cancer; (5) hormone therapy and cardiovascular diseases, breast and endometrial cancer, and neurodegeneration; (6) endogenous hormones and breast cancer; (7) dietary factors and type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, breast and pancreatic cancer, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, neurodegeneration, multiple sclerosis, kidney stones, and eye diseases; and (8) sleep and shift work and chronic diseases. Conclusions. The NHS findings have influenced public health policy and practice both locally and globally to improve women’s health. PMID:27459441

  20. [The scientometric analysis of dissertation studies in the field of specialty public health and health care concerning children population].

    PubMed

    Albitskiy, V S; Ustinova, N V; Antonova, Ye V

    2014-01-01

    The article considers trends and priority directions of research studies of the field of public health and health care of children population. The interpretative content analysis was applied to study dissertations in the field of public health and health care in 1991-2012. The sampling included 4194 units of information. The first stage of study established that problems of children population are considered in 14.8% dissertations defended on the mentioned specialty. The next stage the categories of content-analysis were examined. They were divided on the following axes: axis I "Main problem of study", axis II "Localization of study", axis III "Examined age groups", axis IV "Distribution of studies on gender of examined contingent", axis V "Examined contingent", axis VI "Additional medical specialty". It is established that in dissertations on public health and health care of children population on axis I prevails organizational subject matter (27.2%). The health condition of various contingents of children population (16.8%), preventive aspects of pediatrics (12.2%), examination of particular conditions/diseases/classes of diseases (10.8%) are fixed as priority directions. In the most dissertations the regional character of studies is presented (98.2%). The prevailing age group in studies is the adolescent group (19.9%). The inter-disciplinary relationships of dissertations on problems of public health and health care of children population are revealed with such specialties as "Pediatrics" (16.2%), "Obstetrics and gynecology" (3.8%) and "Hygiene" (3.4%). With consideration for recognition of health promotion and optimization of health care of children population as priority directions of public health policy amount of research studies in this field is to be admitted as inadequate. With purpose of optimization of scientific knowledge and development of system of medical social care to children population it is needed to promote research studies of problems of

  1. Mental Health Literacy, Attitudes to Help Seeking, and Perceived Need as Predictors of Mental Health Service Use: A Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Bonabi, Herdis; Müller, Mario; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Eisele, Jochen; Rodgers, Stephanie; Seifritz, Erich; Rössler, Wulf; Rüsch, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    Many people with mental health problems do not use mental health care, resulting in poorer clinical and social outcomes. Reasons for low service use rates are still incompletely understood. In this longitudinal, population-based study, we investigated the influence of mental health literacy, attitudes toward mental health services, and perceived need for treatment at baseline on actual service use during a 6-month follow-up period, controlling for sociodemographic variables, symptom level, and a history of lifetime mental health service use. Positive attitudes to mental health care, higher mental health literacy, and more perceived need at baseline significantly predicted use of psychotherapy during the follow-up period. Greater perceived need for treatment and better literacy at baseline were predictive of taking psychiatric medication during the following 6 months. Our findings suggest that mental health literacy, attitudes to treatment, and perceived need may be targets for interventions to increase mental health service use.

  2. Jail Mental Health Resourcing: A Conceptual and Empirical Study of Social Determinants.

    PubMed

    Helms, Ronald; Gutierrez, Ricky S; Reeves-Gutierrez, Debra

    2016-07-01

    U.S. county jails hold large populations of mentally ill inmates but have rarely been researched quantitatively to assess their collective capacity for providing mental health treatment. This research uses ordinal logit and a partial parallel slopes model and a large sample of U.S. counties to assess conceptualized links between local institutional and structural indicators and jail mental health resourcing. Strong church networks and high rates of adult education completion are associated with enhanced jail mental health resourcing. Urbanized areas and areas with deep economic ties to manufacturing appear supportive of a strong jail mental health system. Conversely, conservative political environments and areas with strong medical and mental health networks based in the community are correlated with reduced jail mental health resourcing. Evidence from this research adds to a growing understanding of the need for enhanced community mental health service and diagnostic capabilities in our nation's jails, noting the characteristics and correlates of model program jurisdictions and jurisdictions where program enhancements are most likely in order.

  3. Study on situational influences perceived in nursing discipline on health promotion: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Meimanat; Ashk Torab, Tahereh; Taghdisi, Mohammad Hossein; Esmaeili Vardanjani, Safar Ali

    2013-01-01

    Introduction and Objectives. Nurses, as behavioral models, play a key role in health promotion, and their attitudes towards health promotion highly influence their health and performance. The aim of this study is to explore nursing students' perception of studies in nursing discipline as a situational influence on health promotion. Materials and Methods. This study was conducted using directed content analysis, by means of 20 deep semistructured interviews with nursing students. The participants were selected on purposive sampling. Data was analyzed by the qualitative content analysis method. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, and reviewed, and all codes were extracted and summarized. The codes were subcategorized on the basis of centralization and were categorized after review of subcategories, and finally, a theme was determined. Findings. The theme of nursing discipline's situational influence on nursing students' health promotion was revealed. This theme consisted of "choosing the field," "unfavorable environmental factors," "negative impacts of studies in nursing discipline on health," "positive effects of studies in nursing discipline on health", "needs," "attractiveness (aesthetics)," and "coping with negative situational influences in nursing discipline." Conclusion. The perception of studies in nursing discipline as a health-promoting behavior is under influence of social environment. Considering the importance of the students' positive perception of the existing situation, it is essential to pay attention to their attitudes and perceptions so that they can provide better services to patients.

  4. Child health and the environment: the INMA Spanish Study.

    PubMed

    Ribas-Fitó, Núria; Ramón, Rosa; Ballester, Ferran; Grimalt, Joan; Marco, Alfredo; Olea, Nicolás; Posada, Manuel; Rebagliato, Marisa; Tardón, Adonina; Torrent, Maties; Sunyer, Jordi

    2006-09-01

    The INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente [Environment and Childhood]) is a population-based cohort study in different Spanish cities, that focuses on prenatal environmental exposures and growth, development and health from early fetal life until childhood. The study focuses on five primary areas of research: (1) growth and physical development; (2) behavioural and cognitive development; (3) asthma and allergies; (4) sexual and reproductive development; and (5) environmental exposure pathways. The general aims of the project are: (1) to describe the degree of individual prenatal exposure to environmental pollutants, and the internal dose of chemicals during pregnancy, at birth and during childhood in Spain; (2) to evaluate the impact of the exposure to different contaminants on fetal and infant growth, health and development; (3) to evaluate the role of diet on fetal and infant growth, health and development; and (4) to evaluate the interaction between persistent pollutants, nutrients and genetic determinants on fetal and infant growth, health and development. Extensive assessments will be carried out on 3100 pregnant women and children. Data will be collected by physical examinations, questionnaires, interviews, ultrasound and biological samples. Pregnant women are being assessed at 12, 20 and 32 weeks of gestation to collect information about environmental exposures and fetal growth. The children will be followed until the age of 4 years.

  5. Contributions of neuroscience to the study of socioeconomic health disparities

    PubMed Central

    Gianaros, Peter J.; Hackman, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Socioeconomic disadvantage confers risk for ill health. Historically, the pathways by which socioeconomic disadvantage may affect health have been viewed from epidemiological perspectives emphasizing environmental, behavioral, and biopsychosocial risk factors. Such perspectives, however, have yet to integrate findings from emerging neuroscience studies demonstrating that indicators of socioeconomic disadvantage relate to patterns of brain morphology and functionality that have been associated with aspects of mental, physical, and cognitive health over the lifecourse. This commentary considers findings from one such study appearing in the current issue of Psychosomatic Medicine. It reports that an area-level indicator of socioeconomic disadvantage relates to cortical morphology in brain regions important for language, executive control, and other cognitive and behavioral functions—possibly via a systemic inflammatory pathway. These findings are put into context by discussing broader questions and challenges that need to be addressed in order for neuroscience approaches to (i) become better integrated with existing epidemiological perspectives and (ii) more fully advance our understanding of the pathways by which socioeconomic disadvantage becomes embodied by the brain in relation to health. PMID:23975944

  6. Cohort Profile: the Health and Retirement Study (HRS).

    PubMed

    Sonnega, Amanda; Faul, Jessica D; Ofstedal, Mary Beth; Langa, Kenneth M; Phillips, John W R; Weir, David R

    2014-04-01

    The Health and Retirement Study (HRS) is a nationally representative longitudinal survey of more than 37 000 individuals over age 50 in 23 000 households in the USA. The survey, which has been fielded every 2 years since 1992, was established to provide a national resource for data on the changing health and economic circumstances associated with ageing at both individual and population levels. Its multidisciplinary approach is focused on four broad topics-income and wealth; health, cognition and use of healthcare services; work and retirement; and family connections. HRS data are also linked at the individual level to administrative records from Social Security and Medicare, Veteran's Administration, the National Death Index and employer-provided pension plan information. Since 2006, data collection has expanded to include biomarkers and genetics as well as much greater depth in psychology and social context. This blend of economic, health and psychosocial information provides unprecedented potential to study increasingly complex questions about ageing and retirement. The HRS has been a leading force for rapid release of data while simultaneously protecting the confidentiality of respondents. Three categories of data-public, sensitive and restricted-can be accessed through procedures described on the HRS website (hrsonline.isr.umich.edu). PMID:24671021

  7. Cohort Profile: the Health and Retirement Study (HRS)

    PubMed Central

    Sonnega, Amanda; Faul, Jessica D; Ofstedal, Mary Beth; Langa, Kenneth M; Phillips, John WR; Weir, David R

    2014-01-01

    The Health and Retirement Study (HRS) is a nationally representative longitudinal survey of more than 37 000 individuals over age 50 in 23 000 households in the USA. The survey, which has been fielded every 2 years since 1992, was established to provide a national resource for data on the changing health and economic circumstances associated with ageing at both individual and population levels. Its multidisciplinary approach is focused on four broad topics—income and wealth; health, cognition and use of healthcare services; work and retirement; and family connections. HRS data are also linked at the individual level to administrative records from Social Security and Medicare, Veteran’s Administration, the National Death Index and employer-provided pension plan information. Since 2006, data collection has expanded to include biomarkers and genetics as well as much greater depth in psychology and social context. This blend of economic, health and psychosocial information provides unprecedented potential to study increasingly complex questions about ageing and retirement. The HRS has been a leading force for rapid release of data while simultaneously protecting the confidentiality of respondents. Three categories of data—public, sensitive and restricted—can be accessed through procedures described on the HRS website (hrsonline.isr.umich.edu). PMID:24671021

  8. Teacher Competencies in Health Education: Results of a Delphi Study

    PubMed Central

    Moynihan, Sharon; Paakkari, Leena; Välimaa, Raili; Jourdan, Didier; Mannix-McNamara, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this research study was to identify the core competencies for health education teachers in supporting the development of health literacy among their students. Method/Results A three round Delphi method was employed. Experts in health education were asked to identify core competencies for school health educators. Twenty six participants from the academic field were invited to participate in the study. Twenty participants completed the first round of the Delphi, while eighteen took part in round two and fifteen participated in the final round. Data were collected using an electronic questionnaire. The first round contained an open ended question in which participants were asked to name and define all the competencies they perceived were important. Thematic analysis was undertaken on these data. A list of 36 competencies was created from this round. This list was then returned to the same participants and they were asked to rate each competency on a 7 point semantic differential scale in terms of importance. The resulting data were then analysed. For the final round, participants were presented with a list of 33 competencies and were asked to rank them again, in order of importance. Conclusion Twelve core competencies emerged from the analysis and these competencies comprised of a mixture of knowledge, attitude and skills. The authors suggest that how these competencies are achieved and operationalised in the school context can be quite complex and multi-faceted. While the authors do not seek to generalise from the study they suggest that these competencies are an important input for all stakeholders, in order to question national and international teacher guidelines. In addition the competencies identified may provide a useful starting point for others to undertake deeper analysis of what it means to be an effective health educator in schools. PMID:26630180

  9. Drug combination adds fuel to US abortion debate.

    PubMed

    Rutter, T L

    1995-09-16

    A recent study in the US showed that abortion was achieved in 171/178 women aged 18 to 47 with pregnancies of 63 days or less duration through the administration of an intramuscular injection of methotrexate (a drug used to treat cancer) followed five to seven days later with a dose of misoprostol (used to treat ulcers). The report of this study prompted the founder of the anti-abortion group Operation Rescue to threaten the report's author with being "hunted down and tried for genocide" should abortion ever be made illegal. While the National Abortion Rights Action League urged that the procedure be judged on medical not political terms, a spokesperson for the National Right to Life Committee expressed concern for the reproductive and psychological health of women undergoing medical abortions. The Population Council is currently completing clinical trials of the regimen which employs RU-486 to achieve medical abortion and expects to file a new drug application with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1996. The methotrexate/misoprostol combination would be much less expensive than RU-486 (approximately $10 compared to $250 at current prices), and a pharmaceutical company is currently attempting to raise the six million dollars necessary to fund the large-scale clinical trials which must precede FDA approval. While the availability of medical abortions would make the procedure much more accessible and private for women, proper counseling must be given to the women to avoid unwanted side effects and so that the women know what to expect.

  10. Drug combination adds fuel to US abortion debate.

    PubMed

    Rutter, T L

    1995-09-16

    A recent study in the US showed that abortion was achieved in 171/178 women aged 18 to 47 with pregnancies of 63 days or less duration through the administration of an intramuscular injection of methotrexate (a drug used to treat cancer) followed five to seven days later with a dose of misoprostol (used to treat ulcers). The report of this study prompted the founder of the anti-abortion group Operation Rescue to threaten the report's author with being "hunted down and tried for genocide" should abortion ever be made illegal. While the National Abortion Rights Action League urged that the procedure be judged on medical not political terms, a spokesperson for the National Right to Life Committee expressed concern for the reproductive and psychological health of women undergoing medical abortions. The Population Council is currently completing clinical trials of the regimen which employs RU-486 to achieve medical abortion and expects to file a new drug application with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1996. The methotrexate/misoprostol combination would be much less expensive than RU-486 (approximately $10 compared to $250 at current prices), and a pharmaceutical company is currently attempting to raise the six million dollars necessary to fund the large-scale clinical trials which must precede FDA approval. While the availability of medical abortions would make the procedure much more accessible and private for women, proper counseling must be given to the women to avoid unwanted side effects and so that the women know what to expect. PMID:7549678

  11. Crowdsourced Health Research Studies: An Important Emerging Complement to Clinical Trials in the Public Health Research Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Crowdsourced health research studies are the nexus of three contemporary trends: 1) citizen science (non-professionally trained individuals conducting science-related activities); 2) crowdsourcing (use of web-based technologies to recruit project participants); and 3) medicine 2.0 / health 2.0 (active participation of individuals in their health care particularly using web 2.0 technologies). Crowdsourced health research studies have arisen as a natural extension of the activities of health social networks (online health interest communities), and can be researcher-organized or participant-organized. In the last few years, professional researchers have been crowdsourcing cohorts from health social networks for the conduct of traditional studies. Participants have also begun to organize their own research studies through health social networks and health collaboration communities created especially for the purpose of self-experimentation and the investigation of health-related concerns. Objective The objective of this analysis is to undertake a comprehensive narrative review of crowdsourced health research studies. This review will assess the status, impact, and prospects of crowdsourced health research studies. Methods Crowdsourced health research studies were identified through a search of literature published from 2000 to 2011 and informal interviews conducted 2008-2011. Keyword terms related to crowdsourcing were sought in Medline/PubMed. Papers that presented results from human health studies that included crowdsourced populations were selected for inclusion. Crowdsourced health research studies not published in the scientific literature were identified by attending industry conferences and events, interviewing attendees, and reviewing related websites. Results Participatory health is a growing area with individuals using health social networks, crowdsourced studies, smartphone health applications, and personal health records to achieve positive

  12. Re-Imagining School Health in Education and Health Programmes: A Study across Selected Municipal Schools in Delhi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deshpande, Mita; Baru, Rama V.; Nundy, Madhurima

    2014-01-01

    The idea of school health is re-imagined with an emphasis on the need for children's health programmes to be rooted in an understanding of the social context. Such programmes must address health, nutrition and education in a comprehensive manner. The article details findings and insights emerging from a qualitative study conducted in…

  13. Leadership for Primary Health Care. Levels, Functions, and Requirements Based on Twelve Case Studies. Public Health Papers No. 82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flahault, Daniel; Roemer, Milton I.

    This book considers the role of and the need for primary health care leadership, drawing upon case studies and research from the World Health Organization (WHO) communities. The differing levels and functions of leadership in primary health care are delineated, with particular emphasis given to regarding the leadership concept as "effective…

  14. Genotype variant associated with add-on memantine in bipolar II disorder.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sheng-Yu; Chen, Shiou-Lan; Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Chen, Shih-Heng; Chu, Chun-Hsieh; Huang, San-Yuan; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Wang, Chen-Lin; Wang, Liang-Jen; Lee, I Hui; Yeh, Tzung Lieh; Yang, Yen Kuang; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Lu, Ru-Band

    2014-02-01

    Memantine is a non-competitive N-methyl-d-asparate (NMDA) receptor antagonist with a mood-stabilizing effect. We investigated whether using valproic acid (VPA) plus add-on memantine to treat bipolar II disorder (BP-II) is more effective than using VPA alone (VPA + Pbo). We also evaluated, in BP-II patients, the association between the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism with treatment response to VPA + add-on memantine and to VPA + Pbo. In this randomized, double-blind, controlled 12 wk study, BP-II patients undergoing regular VPA treatments were randomly assigned to a group: VPA + Memantine (5 mg/day) (n = 115) or VPA + Pbo (n = 117). The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) were used to evaluate clinical response during week 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12. The genotypes of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms were determined using polymerase chain reactions plus restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. To adjust within-subject dependence over repeated assessments, multiple linear regression with generalized estimating equation methods was used to analyze the effects of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism on the clinical performance of memantine. Both groups showed significantly decreased YMRS and HDRS scores after 12 wk of treatment; the differences between groups were non-significant. When stratified by the BDNF Val66Met genotypes, significantly greater decreases in HDRS scores were found in the VPA + memantine group in patients with the Val Met genotype (p = 0.004). We conclude that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism influenced responses to add-on memantine by decreasing depressive symptoms in patients with BP-II.

  15. Oral health-related quality of life and oral status in a German working population.

    PubMed

    Walter, Michael H; Schuette, Ursula; Raedel, Michael; Koch, Rainer; Wolf, Burkhard; Scheuch, Klaus; Kirch, Wilhelm

    2011-12-01

    The study aim was to identify predictors of impaired oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). Employees of five companies were offered a clinical full-mouth examination. Oral health-related quality of life was measured with the German version of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) and summarized as additive scores (OHIP-ADD) and as prevalence of negative impacts (OHIP-SC). Two logistic regression models were developed for the odds of increased scores of the target variables OHIP-ADD and OHIP-SC. The target variables were dichotomized, and for the OHIP-ADD, the cut-off point for having impaired OHRQoL was heuristically defined as OHIP-ADD > 34. For the OHIP-SC, the corresponding threshold was OHIP-SC > 0. In the model for the OHIP-ADD, female gender, impaired aesthetics, few posterior occluding pairs, and painful masticatory muscles proved to be significant independent variables. For the OHIP-SC, female gender, impaired aesthetics, painful masticatory muscles, joint sounds, missing mandibular teeth, and carious teeth were significant. This cross-sectional study showed that within the models for both OHIP-ADD and OHIP-SC the high-risk person for impaired OHRQoL is a woman with impaired aesthetics and painful masticatory muscles. PMID:22112035

  16. Health promotion in Australian multi-disciplinary primary health care services: case studies from South Australia and the Northern Territory.

    PubMed

    Baum, Fran; Freeman, Toby; Jolley, Gwyn; Lawless, Angela; Bentley, Michael; Värttö, Kaisu; Boffa, John; Labonte, Ronald; Sanders, David

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports on the health promotion and disease prevention conducted at Australian multi-disciplinary primary health care (PHC) services and considers the ways in which the organizational environment affects the extent and type of health promotion and disease prevention activity. The study involves five PHC services in Adelaide and one in Alice Springs. Four are managed by a state health department and two by boards of governance. The study is based on an audit of activities and on 68 interviews conducted with staff. All the sites undertake health promotion and recognize its importance but all report that this activity is under constant pressure resulting from the need to provide services to people who have health problems. We also found an increased focus on chronic disease management and prevention which prioritized individuals and behavioural change strategies rather than addressing social determinants affecting whole communities. There was little health promotion work that reflected a salutogenic approach to the creation of health. Most activity falls under three types: parenting and child development, chronic disease prevention and mental health. Only the non-government organizations reported advocacy on broader policy issues. Health reform and consequent reorganizations were seen to reduce the ability of some services to undertake health promotion. The paper concludes that PHC in Australia plays an important role in disease prevention, but that there is considerable scope to increase the amount of community-based health promotion which focuses on a salutogenic view of health and which engages in community partnerships. PMID:23656732

  17. Health promotion in Australian multi-disciplinary primary health care services: case studies from South Australia and the Northern Territory.

    PubMed

    Baum, Fran; Freeman, Toby; Jolley, Gwyn; Lawless, Angela; Bentley, Michael; Värttö, Kaisu; Boffa, John; Labonte, Ronald; Sanders, David

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports on the health promotion and disease prevention conducted at Australian multi-disciplinary primary health care (PHC) services and considers the ways in which the organizational environment affects the extent and type of health promotion and disease prevention activity. The study involves five PHC services in Adelaide and one in Alice Springs. Four are managed by a state health department and two by boards of governance. The study is based on an audit of activities and on 68 interviews conducted with staff. All the sites undertake health promotion and recognize its importance but all report that this activity is under constant pressure resulting from the need to provide services to people who have health problems. We also found an increased focus on chronic disease management and prevention which prioritized individuals and behavioural change strategies rather than addressing social determinants affecting whole communities. There was little health promotion work that reflected a salutogenic approach to the creation of health. Most activity falls under three types: parenting and child development, chronic disease prevention and mental health. Only the non-government organizations reported advocacy on broader policy issues. Health reform and consequent reorganizations were seen to reduce the ability of some services to undertake health promotion. The paper concludes that PHC in Australia plays an important role in disease prevention, but that there is considerable scope to increase the amount of community-based health promotion which focuses on a salutogenic view of health and which engages in community partnerships.

  18. A study of the spatiotemporal health impacts of ozone exposure.

    PubMed

    Christakos, G; Kolovos, A

    1999-01-01

    Exposure analysis and mapping of spatiotemporal pollutants in relation to their health effects are important challenges facing environmental health scientists and integrated assessment modellers. In this work, a methodological framework is discussed to study the impact of spatiotemporal ozone (O3) exposure distributions on the health of human populations. The framework, however, is very general and can be used to study various other pollutants. The spatiotemporal analysis starts with exposure distributions producing the input to pollutokinetic (or toxicokinetic) laws which are linked to effect models which, in turn, are integrated with relationships that describe how effects are distributed across populations. Important characteristics of the environmental health framework are holisticity and stochasticity. Holisticity emphasizes the functional relationships between composite space/time O3 maps, pollutokinetic models of burden on target organs and tissues, and health effects. These relationships offer a meaningful physical interpretation of the exposure and biological processes that affect human exposure. Stochasticity involves the rigorous representation of natural uncertainties and biological variations in terms of spatiotemporal random fields. The stochastic perspective introduces a deeper epistemological understanding in the development of improved models of spatiotemporal human exposure analysis and mapping. Also, it explicitly determines the knowledge bases available and develops logically plausible rules and standards for data processing and human exposure map construction. The proposed approach allows the horizontal integration among sciences related to the human exposure problem that leads to accurate and informative spatiotemporal maps of O3 exposure and effect distributions and an integrative analysis of the whole risk case. By processing a variety of knowledge bases, the spatiotemporal analysis can bring together several sciences which are all relevant

  19. A Brief History of Soils and Human Health Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Sauer, Thomas J.

    2013-04-01

    scientist to date to be awarded a Nobel Prize. In the 1940s and 50s William Albrecht of the University of Missouri became interested in links between soils and human health, an interest that lead to the publication of several papers. Albrecht's works focused on links between soil fertility and dental health, with a particular focus on the relationships between soil fertility and dental cavities. However, Albrecht did extend the relationships between soil fertility and human health out to broader, more general health issues in some of his writings as well. Well-known figures such as Sir Albert Howard and J.I. Rodale also published works in the 1940s that included soils and human health components. Then André Voisin published "Soil, Grass, and Cancer" in 1959. Much of Voisin's work focused on nutrient content in soils, including both nutrient deficiencies and imbalances, and how that influences nutrient status in plants and animals that are in turn consumed by humans. Several health problems are discussed, including but not limited to birth defects, goiter, mental illness, diabetes, and cancer. Voisin concluded that the medical profession had largely ignored soils in their efforts to improve human health, but that soil science should be the foundation of preventative medicine. Soils and human health studies continued in the later part of the 20th Century. The health effects of exposures to radioactive elements in soils received considerable attention after the 1986 Chernobyl incident, however, even prior to Chernobyl radionuclides in the soil and how they may affect human health were receiving attention. Investigations into the effects of heavy metals in soils became a common theme as did organic chemicals in soils and the effects of trace elements on human health. Following up on the discovery of antibiotics, soil organisms received increased attention as they related to human health. By the end of the 1900s, M.A. Oliver (1997) noted that "… there is a dearth of

  20. [Health consortia: a case study of best practices].

    PubMed

    Neves, Luiz Antonio; Ribeiro, José Mendes

    2006-10-01

    Local Health Consortia have been used as alternatives and innovative models for improving health care provision. They are closely linked to the strategy aimed at regionalizing health care in Brazil and are in keeping with the health sector's administrative reform process, seeking greater efficiency, rationality, and quality in the supply of services to the population. In the development of such forms of cooperation, we view some consortia as weak structures with a short lifespan, while others have survived for considerable lengths of time. This case study on the Penápolis Consortium, the oldest in Brazil (having lasted for 14 years), examines the dynamics of cooperation and the reasons for its sustainability. Its formation is a mixture of restructuring the regional supply and the entrepreneurial spirit of its leaders, along with State incentives. The Consortium's local capacity to solve cases with quality care and flexible management has proven to be an important factor. Participants share the important notion that the operational rules are fair, and the reasons for its success stem from the collective perception of reasonably symmetrical political gains as the result of political cooperation.

  1. Maternal Health Situation in India: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Mavalankar, Dileep V.; Ramani, K.V.; Upadhyaya, Mudita; Sharma, Bharati; Iyengar, Sharad; Gupta, Vikram; Iyengar, Kirti

    2009-01-01

    Since the beginning of the Safe Motherhood Initiative, India has accounted for at least a quarter of maternal deaths reported globally. India's goal is to lower maternal mortality to less than 100 per 100,000 livebirths but that is still far away despite its programmatic efforts and rapid economic progress over the past two decades. Geographical vastness and sociocultural diversity mean that maternal mortality varies across the states, and uniform implementation of health-sector reforms is not possible. The case study analyzes the trends in maternal mortality nationally, the maternal healthcare-delivery system at different levels, and the implementation of national maternal health programmes, including recent innovative strategies. It identifies the causes for limited success in improving maternal health and suggests measures to rectify them. It recommends better reporting of maternal deaths and implementation of evidence-based, focused strategies along with effective monitoring for rapid progress. It also stresses the need for regulation of the private sector and encourages further public-private partnerships and policies, along with a strong political will and improved management capacity for improving maternal health. PMID:19489415

  2. Maternal health in Gujarat, India: a case study.

    PubMed

    Mavalankar, Dileep V; Vora, Kranti S; Ramani, K V; Raman, Parvathy; Sharma, Bharati; Upadhyaya, Mudita

    2009-04-01

    Gujarat state of India has come a long way in improving the health indicators since independence, but progress in reducing maternal mortality has been slow and largely unmeasured or documented. This case study identified several challenges for reducing the maternal mortality ratio, including lack of the managerial capacity, shortage of skilled human resources, non-availability of blood in rural areas, and infrastructural and supply bottlenecks. The Gujarat Government has taken several initiatives to improve maternal health services, such as partnership with private obstetricians to provide delivery care to poor women, a relatively-short training of medical officers and nurses to provide emergency obstetric care (EmOC), and an improved emergency transport system. However, several challenges still remain. Recommendations are made for expanding the management capacity for maternal health, operationalization of health facilities, and ensuring EmOC on 24/7 (24 hours a day, seven days a week) basis by posting nurse-midwives and trained medical officers for skilled care, ensuring availability of blood, and improving the registration and auditing of all maternal deaths. However, all these interventions can only take place if there are substantially-increased political will and social awareness. PMID:19489418

  3. Health-related quality of life, anxiety and depression among adolescents and young adults with cancer: a prospective longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Jörngården, Anna; Mattsson, Elisabet; von Essen, Louise

    2007-09-01

    The present study sets out to add to knowledge about the development over time of health-related quality of life (HRQL), anxiety and depression among survivors of adolescent cancer. The aim was to investigate if and how the HRQL, anxiety and depression of a group of adolescents with cancer differ from those of a reference group shortly after diagnosis, and subsequently at 6, 12 and 18 months after diagnosis. Adolescents diagnosed with cancer and a reference group randomised from the general population completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the two subscales Mental Health and Vitality in the Short Form 36 (SF-36) in telephone interviews. The results indicate a steady increase in psychological well-being from the time of diagnosis, when the cancer patients' ratings were significantly worse than those of the general population, and onwards. The differences gradually disappeared and then were reversed, resulting in the cancer group reporting significantly better HRQL and lower levels of anxiety and depression than the reference group when 1.5 years had passed since diagnosis. The adolescents faced with cancer show signs of adaptation to trauma, which can be understood in relation to the theoretical framework of posttraumatic growth as well as response shift. Future research should continue to follow this development over time, to investigate if the positive effects of the cancer experience will wear off, or if it has facilitated a permanent positive outcome.

  4. Effect of “add-on” interventions on exercise training in individuals with COPD: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Camillo, Carlos A.; van Remoortel, Hans; Burtin, Chris; Janssens, Wim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to identify the effectiveness of therapies added on to conventional exercise training to maximise exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Electronic databases were searched, identifying trials comparing exercise training with exercise training plus “add-on” therapy. Outcomes included peak oxygen uptake (V′O2peak), work rate and incremental/endurance cycle and field walking tests. Individual trial effects on exercise capacity were extracted and collated into eight subgroups and pooled for meta-analysis. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to explore the stability of effect estimates across studies employing patient-centred designs and those deemed to be of “high” quality (PEDro score >5 out of 10). 74 studies (2506 subjects) met review inclusion criteria. Interventions spanned a broad scope of clinical practice and were most commonly evaluated via the 6-min walking distance and V′O2peak. Meta-analysis revealed few clinically relevant and statistically significant benefits of “add-on” therapies on exercise performance compared with exercise training. Benefits favouring “add-on” therapies were observed across six different interventions (additional exercise training, noninvasive ventilation, bronchodilator therapy, growth hormone, vitamin D and nutritional supplementation). The sensitivity analyses included considerably fewer studies, but revealed minimal differences to the primary analysis. The lack of systematic benefits of “add-on” interventions is a probable reflection of methodological limitations, such as “one size fits all” eligibility criteria, that are inherent in many of the included studies of “add-on” therapies. Future clarification regarding the exact value of such therapies may only arise from adequately powered, multicentre clinical trials of tailored interventions for carefully selected COPD patient subgroups defined according to distinct clinical

  5. Fruit consumption, fitness, and cardiovascular health in female adolescents: the Penn State Young Women's Health Study.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, T; Chinchilli, V M; Rollings, N; Kieselhorst, K; Tregea, D F; Henderson, N A; Sinoway, L I

    1998-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the relations among nutrient intake, fitness, serum antioxidants, and cardiolipoprotein profiles in female adolescents. The study design was a cross-sectional analysis of the Penn State Young Women's Health Study. The present study was performed with the entire cohort (n = 86) when they were 17.1+/-0.5 y (x+/-SD) of age. Primary measurements included cardiolipoprotein indexes, serum antioxidants, nutrient intakes, aerobic fitness, and percentage body fat. The cohort was stratified by estimated maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) measurements and by percentage body fat. The fifth quintile by estimated VO2max had significantly lower percentage body fat, higher athletic scores, higher fruit intake, lower total serum cholesterol, and lower ratios of total serum cholesterol to HDL cholesterol than members of the first quintile. When the members of the first and fifth quintiles by percentage body fat were compared, the first quintile had significantly lower weight, lower body mass index, higher estimated VO2max, higher athletic scores, lower ratios of total serum cholesterol to HDL cholesterol, and higher fruit, carbohydrate, and fiber intakes. Correlation analyses performed with the data for the entire cohort showed fruit consumption to be positively correlated with estimated VO2max, and predicted VO2max to be positively correlated with circulating beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol. This study provided evidence that the positive associations of exercise and fruit consumption with cardiovascular health apply to female adolescents as well as to adults. PMID:9537609

  6. Study on Situational Influences Perceived in Nursing Discipline on Health Promotion: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Meimanat; Ashk Torab, Tahereh; Taghdisi, Mohammad Hossein; Esmaeili Vardanjani, Safar Ali

    2013-01-01

    Introduction and Objectives. Nurses, as behavioral models, play a key role in health promotion, and their attitudes towards health promotion highly influence their health and performance. The aim of this study is to explore nursing students' perception of studies in nursing discipline as a situational influence on health promotion. Materials and Methods. This study was conducted using directed content analysis, by means of 20 deep semistructured interviews with nursing students. The participants were selected on purposive sampling. Data was analyzed by the qualitative content analysis method. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, and reviewed, and all codes were extracted and summarized. The codes were subcategorized on the basis of centralization and were categorized after review of subcategories, and finally, a theme was determined. Findings. The theme of nursing discipline's situational influence on nursing students' health promotion was revealed. This theme consisted of “choosing the field,” “unfavorable environmental factors,” “negative impacts of studies in nursing discipline on health,” “positive effects of studies in nursing discipline on health”, “needs,” “attractiveness (aesthetics),” and “coping with negative situational influences in nursing discipline.” Conclusion. The perception of studies in nursing discipline as a health-promoting behavior is under influence of social environment. Considering the importance of the students' positive perception of the existing situation, it is essential to pay attention to their attitudes and perceptions so that they can provide better services to patients. PMID:24078880

  7. The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study: Sample, Design, and Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Linda C.; Penedo, Frank J.; Carnethon, Mercedes; Isasi, Carmen; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Malcarne, Vanessa L.; Roesch, Scott C.; Youngblood, Marston E.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Gonzalez, Patricia; Talavera, Gregory P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) Sociocultural Ancillary Study aims to examine associations between sociocultural and psychosocial factors and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and metabolic syndrome prevalence in Hispanics/Latinos. The conceptual framework is based on the Reserve Capacity and Lifespan Biopsychosocial Models, which emphasize multiple risk and protective pathways underlying socioeconomic and ethnic influences in health. This study describes the rationale, participants, and procedures for the HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study. Design and Setting The Sociocultural Ancillary Study to the HCHS/SOL is a cross-sectional cohort study with future opportunities for prospective investigation. Participants Participants were 5,313 adults, aged 18-74 years, of self-identified Hispanic/Latino descent and representing multiple Hispanic/Latino background groups, recruited from the Bronx, NY, Chicago, IL, Miami, FL, and San Diego, CA. Intervention Participants completed an interview-administered sociocultural assessment battery within 9 months of their HCHS/SOL clinical baseline exam. Outcome Measures The primary outcomes are CVD and the metabolic syndrome and its component risk factors. Results The Sociocultural Ancillary Study sample is broadly representative of the HCHS/SOL cohort. Weighted demographics are: 55% male, 56% 18-44 years, 44% 45 years and older, and 37% Mexican, 20% Cuban, 16% Puerto Rican, 12% Dominican, 8% Central American, and 5% South American descent. Conclusions By testing theoretically driven hypotheses concerning sociocultural and psychosocial factors in CVD, the Sociocultural Ancillary Study seeks to inform future prevention and intervention efforts for U.S. Hispanic/Latinos. PMID:24620452

  8. Study protocol: longitudinal study of the transition of young people with complex health needs from child to adult health services

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Young people with complex health needs have impairments that can limit their ability to carry out day-to-day activities. As well as coping with other developmental transitions, these young people must negotiate the transfer of their clinical care from child to adult services. The process of transition may not be smooth and both health and social outcomes may suffer. Increasingly, policy-makers have recognised the need to ensure a smoother transition between children’s and adult services, with processes that are holistic, individualised, and person-centred; however, there is little outcome data to support proposed models of care. This study aims to identify the features of transitional care that are potentially effective and efficient for young people with complex health needs making their transition. Methods/Design Longitudinal cohort study. 450 young people aged 14 years to 18 years 11 months (with autism spectrum disorder and an additional mental health problem, cerebral palsy or diabetes) will be followed through their transition from child to adult services and will contribute data at baseline, 12, 24 and 36 months. We will collect data on: health and wellbeing outcomes (participation, quality of life, satisfaction with services, generic health status (EQ-5D-Y) and condition specific measure of disease control or management); exposure to proposed beneficial features of services (such as having a key worker, appropriate involvement of parents); socio-economic characteristics of the sample; use of condition-related health and personal social services; preferences for the characteristics of transitional care. We will us regression techniques to explore how outcomes vary by exposure to service features and by characteristics of the young people. These data will populate a decision-analytic model comparing the costs and benefits of potential alternative ways of organising transition services. In order to better understand mechanisms and aid

  9. Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winslow, Kate

    1980-01-01

    Indians have the lowest life expectancy of any group in the US; the general state of Indian health lags 25 years behind the rest of the population. Article discusses problems of health delivery systems, alternative approaches to health care, and some of the most pressing health problems. (DS)

  10. Self-rated health and health problems of undocumented immigrant women in the Netherlands: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Schoevers, M A; van den Muijsenbergh, M E T C; Lagro-Janssen, A L M

    2009-12-01

    In this descriptive study, 100 female undocumented immigrants aged > or =18 years were interviewed about their health condition. The objective was to gain insight into the health situation and specific health problems of undocumented women. Sixty-five per cent of these undocumented women rated their health as 'poor' (moderate or bad) and 91 per cent spontaneously mentioned having current health problems. When provided with a list of 26 common health problems, subjects reported on average 11.1 complaints. Gynaecological and psychological complaints were very prevalent, but seldom mentioned spontaneously. Also obstetric problems were numerous. Undocumented women may not present important symptoms to physicians when they encounter them. We conclude that physicians should actively ask about psychological and gynaecological problems in this patient group. Special training on the health problems of undocumented female immigrants for health providers is recommended. PMID:20029430

  11. Preparing the Next Generation for Electoral Engagement: Social Studies and the School Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Rebecca M.; Muller, Chandra; Schiller, Kathryn S.

    2010-01-01

    In an era of accountability focused primarily on academic outcomes, it may be useful to reconsider the other original aim of U.S. schools: citizenship development. Using longitudinal, nationally representative data (Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement Study [AHAA] and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health [Add Health]), we…

  12. Alabama Course of Study: Health Education. Bulletin 1988, No. 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama State Dept. of Education, Montgomery.

    This comprehensive school health education program offers a planned sequential curriculum for grades K-12 based on student needs, current and emerging health concepts, and social issues. It integrates the physical, mental, emotional, and social dimensions of health. The 10 areas covered are: (1) consumer health; (2) dental health; (3) disease…

  13. The Relationship between Health Literacy and Health Behaviour in People with Diabetes: A Danish Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Rebecca K.

    2016-01-01

    Background. People with diabetes who have poor health behaviours are at greater risk for a range of adverse health outcomes. We aimed to investigate the relationship between health literacy and health behaviour (smoking, alcohol, physical activity, and diet) in people with diabetes. Methods. The study was based on respondents aged 25 years or older from a population-based survey in 2013 who reported having diabetes (n = 1685). Two dimensions from the Health Literacy Questionnaire were used: “understand health information” and “actively engage with healthcare providers.” We used logistic regression to examine the association between health literacy and health behaviour. Results. After adjustment for sociodemographic factors, individuals with diabetes who found it difficult to understand information about health had higher odds of being physically inactive (OR: 3.43, 95% CI: 2.14–5.51) and having unhealthy dietary habits (OR: 3.01, 95% CI: 1.63–5.58). Similar results were observed for individuals who found it difficult to actively engage with healthcare providers. No associations were found between the two dimensions of health literacy and smoking and alcohol consumption. Conclusion. When developing health services and interventions to improve health behaviour among people with diabetes, our results suggest that they may benefit by including focus on health literacy. PMID:27761473

  14. E-health and health care behaviour of parents of young children: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    van der Gugten, Anne C.; de Leeuw, Rob J. R. J.; Verheij, Theo J.M.; van der Ent, Cornelis K.; Kars, Marijke C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Internet plays a huge role in providing information about health care problems. However, it is unknown how parents use and perceive the internet as a source of information and how this influences health care utilisation when it comes to common complaints in infants. The objective was to evaluate the perception parents have on the role of internet in providing health care information on common symptoms in infants and its effects on health care utilisation. Design A qualitative design was chosen. Setting and subjects Parents were recruited from a population-based birth-cohort and selected purposefully. Main outcome measures Semi-structured interviews were used to receive information of parentsʼ ideas. Thematic coding and constant comparison were used for interview transcript analysis. Results Ten parents were interviewed. Parents felt anxious and responsible when their child displayed common symptoms, and appeared to be in need of information. They tried to obtain information from relatives, but more so from the internet, because of its accessibility. Nevertheless, information found on the internet had several limitations, evoked new doubts and insecurity and although parents compared information from multiple sources, only the physician was able to take away the insecurity. The internet did not interfere in the decision to consult the physician. Conclusions Parents need information about their childrenʼs symptoms and the internet is a major resource. However, only physicians could take away their symptom-related doubts and insecurities and internet information did not play a role in parental decision making. Information gathered online may complement the information from physicians, rather than replace it. Key pointsInternet plays an increasing role in providing health care information but it is unknown how this influences health care utilisation.Our study suggests that:Parents need information about their children’s symptoms and the internet is a

  15. Social Media in Adolescent Health Literacy Education: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Carrie KW; Srinivasan, Divya Parthasarathy; Cheng, Brenda SS

    2015-01-01

    Background While health literacy has gained notice on a global stage, the initial focus on seeking associations with medical conditions may have overlooked its impact across generations. Adolescent health literacy, specifically in dentistry, is an underexplored area despite the significance of this formative stage on an individual’s approach to healthy lifestyles and behaviors. Objective The aim is to conduct a pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of three major social media outlets - Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube - in supporting adolescents’ oral health literacy (OHL) education. Methods A random sample of 22 adolescents (aged 14-16 years) from an English-medium international school in Hong Kong provided informed consent. Sociodemographic information, including English language background, social media usage, and dental experience were collected via a questionnaire. A pre- and post-test of OHL (REALD-30) was administered by two trained, calibrated examiners. Following pre-test, participants were randomly assigned to one of three social media outlets: Twitter, Facebook, or YouTube. Participants received alerts posted daily for 5 consecutive days requiring online accessing of modified and original OHL education materials. One-way ANOVA ( analysis of variance) was used to compare the mean difference between the pre- and the post-test results among the three social media. Results No associations were found between the social media allocated and participants’ sociodemographics, including English language background, social media usage, and dental experience. Of the three social media, significant differences in literacy assessment scores were evident for participants who received oral health education messages via Facebook (P=.02) and YouTube (P=.005). Conclusions Based on the results of the pilot study, Facebook and YouTube may be more efficient media outlets for OHL promotion and education among adolescent school children when compared to Twitter. Further

  16. 78 FR 64504 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH or Institute) Cancellation:...

  17. Weight-Loss Surgery Doesn't Boost Bone Health: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the study's limitations. "Our understanding of bone physiology after [weight-loss] surgery remains limited, and the ... of Health, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or federal policy. More Health News on: ...

  18. Key Findings on Alcohol Consumption and a Variety of Health Outcomes From the Nurses’ Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Mostofsky, Elizabeth; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Giovannucci, Ed L.; Stampfer, Meir J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To review critical contributions from the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) on alcohol consumption and health outcomes. Methods. We performed a narrative review of NHS (1980–2012) and NHS II (1989–2011) publications. Results. Using detailed information on self-reported alcohol drinking patterns obtained approximately every 4 years combined with extensive information on diet, lifestyle habits, and physician-diagnosed health conditions, NHS investigators have prospectively examined the risks and benefits associated with alcohol consumption. Moderate intake, defined as up to 1 drink a day, is associated with a lower risk of hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke, sudden cardiac death, gallstones, cognitive decline, and all-cause mortality. However, even moderate intake places women at higher risk for breast cancer and bone fractures, and higher intake increases risk for colon polyps and colon cancer. Conclusions. Regular alcohol intake has both risks and benefits. In analyses using repeated assessments of alcohol over time and deaths from all causes, women with low to moderate intake and regular frequency (> 3 days/week) had the lowest risk of mortality compared with abstainers and women who consumed substantially more than 1 drink per day. PMID:27459455

  19. Health Workforce Development: A Needs Assessment Study in French Speaking African Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chastonay, Philippe; Moretti, Roberto; Zesiger, Veronique; Cremaschini, Marco; Bailey, Rebecca; Pariyo, George; Kabengele, Emmanuel Mpinga

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, WHO alerted the world to a global health workforce crisis, demonstrated through critical shortages of health workers, primarily in Sub-Saharan Africa (WHO in World Health Report, 2006). The objective of our study was to assess, in a participative way, the educational needs for public health and health workforce development among potential…

  20. Readability Study of Client Health Education Materials: A Resource for Assuring the Effectiveness of Written Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Hans H.; And Others

    A study assessed the readability of health education pamphlets and booklets distributed to local health department clients in North Carolina through their maternal health, child health, and family planning clinics. The materials analyzed came from various vendors, but excluded materials developed by local and state public health staff. The sample…

  1. Cohort Profile: Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Maria Inês; Duncan, Bruce B; Mill, José Geraldo; Lotufo, Paulo A; Chor, Dóra; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Aquino, Estela ML; Passos, Valéria Maria Azeredo; Matos, Sheila MA; Molina, Maria del Carmen B; Carvalho, Marilia S; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diseases are a global problem, yet information on their determinants is generally scant in low- and middle-income countries. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) aims to contribute relevant information regarding the development and progression of clinical and subclinical chronic diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, in one such setting. At Visit 1, we enrolled 15 105 civil servants from predefined universities or research institutes. Baseline assessment (2008–10) included detailed interviews and measurements to assess social and biological determinants of health, as well as various clinical and subclinical conditions related to diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and mental health. A second visit of interviews and examinations is under way (2012–14) to enrich the assessment of cohort exposures and to detect initial incident events. Annual surveillance has been conducted since 2009 for the ascertainment of incident events. Biological samples (sera, plasma, urine and DNA) obtained at both visits have been placed in long-term storage. Baseline data are available for analyses, and collaboration via specific research proposals directed to study investigators is welcome. PMID:24585730

  2. PTSD and Obesity in the Detroit Neighborhood Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Karen S.; Aiello, Allison E.; Galea, Sandro; Uddin, Monica; Wildman, Derek; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with adverse health consequences, including overweight, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. African Americans, particularly women, have among the highest rates of overweight and obesity in the U.S. compared to other racial groups. High rates of violence exposure in urban African Americans may lead to the development of PTSD and increase risk for overweight and obesity. The current study investigated the comorbidity of lifetime PTSD and overweight/obesity in a population-based African American, urban sample. Method Data were from 463 African American male and female participants of the Detroit Neighborhood Health Study. Multivariable logistic regression models estimated the impact of lifetime PTSD on risk for overweight and obesity. Results The prevalence of obesity was significantly higher among women (60.9%) than men (33.1%; p<0.001). In sex-stratified models, after controlling for demographic variables, PTSD was associated obesity (OR=4.4, 95% CI: 1.3, 14.3) only among women. Conclusions PTSD was associated with obesity, after controlling for confounding variables, among African American women. Results underscore the contribution of PTSD to obesity among African American women and the importance of addressing the physical health correlates of women with PTSD. PMID:24035634

  3. Diagnosis of Asthma in Primary Health Care: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Ringsberg, Karin C.; Bjärneman, Paula; Larsson, Ronny; Wallström, Elisabeth; Löwhagen, Olle

    2014-01-01

    Some patients with an asthma diagnosis have a poor controlled asthma. One explanation may be an incorrect diagnosis. Aim. The aim of the study was to diagnose and classify patients with non-infectious lower respiratory tract problems in primary health care using internationally applied diagnostic criteria and diagnostic tests. Patients and Methods. New adult patients visiting a primary health care centre due to lower airway problems were included. The diagnostic tests included FEV1, FVC, PEF, two questionnaires, methacholine test, and skin prick test. Results. The patients (n = 43) could be divided into four groups: asthma (28%), asthma-like disorder (44%), idiopathic cough (12%), and a nonreversible bronchial obstructive group (16%). The asthma and asthma-like groups showed similar patterns of airway symptoms and trigger factors, not significantly separated by a special questionnaire. Phlegm, heavy breathing, chest pressure/pain, cough, and wheezing were the most common symptoms. Physical exercise and scents were the dominating trigger factors. Conclusions. Nonobstructive asthma-like symptoms seem to be as common as bronchial asthma in primary health care. Due to the similarities in symptoms and trigger factors the study supports the hypothesis that asthma and nonobstructive asthma-like disorders are integrated in the same “asthma syndrome,” including different mechanisms, not only bronchial obstruction. PMID:24817894

  4. Embedding objects during 3D printing to add new functionalities.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Po Ki

    2016-07-01

    A novel method for integrating and embedding objects to add new functionalities during 3D printing based on fused deposition modeling (FDM) (also known as fused filament fabrication or molten polymer deposition) is presented. Unlike typical 3D printing, FDM-based 3D printing could allow objects to be integrated and embedded during 3D printing and the FDM-based 3D printed devices do not typically require any post-processing and finishing. Thus, various fluidic devices with integrated glass cover slips or polystyrene films with and without an embedded porous membrane, and optical devices with embedded Corning(®) Fibrance™ Light-Diffusing Fiber were 3D printed to demonstrate the versatility of the FDM-based 3D printing and embedding method. Fluid perfusion flow experiments with a blue colored food dye solution were used to visually confirm fluid flow and/or fluid perfusion through the embedded porous membrane in the 3D printed fluidic devices. Similar to typical 3D printed devices, FDM-based 3D printed devices are translucent at best unless post-polishing is performed and optical transparency is highly desirable in any fluidic devices; integrated glass cover slips or polystyrene films would provide a perfect optical transparent window for observation and visualization. In addition, they also provide a compatible flat smooth surface for biological or biomolecular applications. The 3D printed fluidic devices with an embedded porous membrane are applicable to biological or chemical applications such as continuous perfusion cell culture or biocatalytic synthesis but without the need for any post-device assembly and finishing. The 3D printed devices with embedded Corning(®) Fibrance™ Light-Diffusing Fiber would have applications in display, illumination, or optical applications. Furthermore, the FDM-based 3D printing and embedding method could also be utilized to print casting molds with an integrated glass bottom for polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) device replication

  5. Embedding objects during 3D printing to add new functionalities.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Po Ki

    2016-07-01

    A novel method for integrating and embedding objects to add new functionalities during 3D printing based on fused deposition modeling (FDM) (also known as fused filament fabrication or molten polymer deposition) is presented. Unlike typical 3D printing, FDM-based 3D printing could allow objects to be integrated and embedded during 3D printing and the FDM-based 3D printed devices do not typically require any post-processing and finishing. Thus, various fluidic devices with integrated glass cover slips or polystyrene films with and without an embedded porous membrane, and optical devices with embedded Corning(®) Fibrance™ Light-Diffusing Fiber were 3D printed to demonstrate the versatility of the FDM-based 3D printing and embedding method. Fluid perfusion flow experiments with a blue colored food dye solution were used to visually confirm fluid flow and/or fluid perfusion through the embedded porous membrane in the 3D printed fluidic devices. Similar to typical 3D printed devices, FDM-based 3D printed devices are translucent at best unless post-polishing is performed and optical transparency is highly desirable in any fluidic devices; integrated glass cover slips or polystyrene films would provide a perfect optical transparent window for observation and visualization. In addition, they also provide a compatible flat smooth surface for biological or biomolecular applications. The 3D printed fluidic devices with an embedded porous membrane are applicable to biological or chemical applications such as continuous perfusion cell culture or biocatalytic synthesis but without the need for any post-device assembly and finishing. The 3D printed devices with embedded Corning(®) Fibrance™ Light-Diffusing Fiber would have applications in display, illumination, or optical applications. Furthermore, the FDM-based 3D printing and embedding method could also be utilized to print casting molds with an integrated glass bottom for polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) device replication

  6. An archival prospective study of mental health and longevity.

    PubMed

    Martin, L R; Friedman, H S; Tucker, J S; Schwartz, J E; Criqui, M H; Wingard, D L; Tomlinson-Keasey, C

    1995-09-01

    The relationship between mental health status and longevity was examined in an archival prospective cohort study (N = 1,103) derived from work begun by Lewis Terman in the 1920s. Degree of psychological maladjustment, cumulatively rated by Terman and his colleagues as of 1950, was found to be related to higher risk of all-cause mortality over a 4-decade follow-up period. The differences among causes of death were nonsignificant, but there was some indication that mental health problems were more strongly related to deaths from injury and cardiovascular disease. The overall relationship was significant for men but weaker for women. The effect was not substantially mediated by alcohol consumption, obesity, or cigarette smoking.

  7. Health benefits of volunteering in the Wisconsin longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Piliavin, Jane Allyn; Siegl, Erica

    2007-12-01

    We investigate positive effects of volunteering on psychological well-being and self-reported health using all four waves of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. Confirming previous research, volunteering was positively related to both outcome variables. Both consistency of volunteering over time and diversity of participation are significantly related to well-being and self-reported health. The relationship of volunteering to psychological well-being was moderated by level of social integration, such that those who were less well integrated benefited the most. Mattering appears to mediate the link between volunteering and wellbeing. Controls for other forms of social participation and for the predictors of volunteering are employed in analyses of well-being in 1992. We find volunteering effects on psychological well-being in 2004, controlling for 1992 wellbeing, thus providing strong evidence for a causal effect.

  8. The Black Seventh-Day Adventist exploratory health study.

    PubMed

    Nyenhuis, David L; Gorelick, Philip B; Easley, Cheryl; Garron, David C; Harris, Yvonne; Richardson, DeJuran; Raman, Rema; Levy, Paul

    2003-01-01

    African Americans are at high risk for stroke and dementia. Modifications of lifestyle, however, might lower this risk. The Seventh-Day Adventist (SDA) Church encourages both spiritual adherence and a healthy lifestyle. Members are encouraged to exercise and are discouraged from smoking, drinking alcoholic or caffeinated beverages, or eating meat. The present study describes an exploratory project in 2 Black SDA congregations (N = 82) designed to characterize the lifestyle, dietary, and spiritual health habits of these congregations, and to test the feasibility of collecting such information in the Black SDA community at large. Three separate data collection methods are described and evaluated. Data demonstrate that the sample differs significantly from the African-American community at large in dietary, lifestyle, and spiritual health habits. The Black SDA community represents a unique opportunity to test the effects of diet, lifestyle, and spirituality on risk for stroke and dementia.

  9. Public Health Campaigns to Change Industry Practices that Damage Health: An Analysis of 12 Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freudenberg, Nicholas; Picard Bradley, Sarah; Serrano, Monica

    2009-01-01

    Industry practices such as advertising, production of unsafe products, and efforts to defeat health legislation play a major role in current patterns of U.S. ill health. Changing these practices may be a promising strategy to promote health. The authors analyze 12 campaigns designed to modify the health-related practices of U.S. corporations in…

  10. Multi-level analysis of electronic health record adoption by health care professionals: A study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The electronic health record (EHR) is an important application of information and communication technologies to the healthcare sector. EHR implementation is expected to produce benefits for patients, professionals, organisations, and the population as a whole. These benefits cannot be achieved without the adoption of EHR by healthcare professionals. Nevertheless, the influence of individual and organisational factors in determining EHR adoption is still unclear. This study aims to assess the unique contribution of individual and organisational factors on EHR adoption in healthcare settings, as well as possible interrelations between these factors. Methods A prospective study will be conducted. A stratified random sampling method will be used to select 50 healthcare organisations in the Quebec City Health Region (Canada). At the individual level, a sample of 15 to 30 health professionals will be chosen within each organisation depending on its size. A semi-structured questionnaire will be administered to two key informants in each organisation to collect organisational data. A composite adoption score of EHR adoption will be developed based on a Delphi process and will be used as the outcome variable. Twelve to eighteen months after the first contact, depending on the pace of EHR implementation, key informants and clinicians will be contacted once again to monitor the evolution of EHR adoption. A multilevel regression model will be applied to identify the organisational and individual determinants of EHR adoption in clinical settings. Alternative analytical models would be applied if necessary. Results The study will assess the contribution of organisational and individual factors, as well as their interactions, to the implementation of EHR in clinical settings. Conclusions These results will be very relevant for decision makers and managers who are facing the challenge of implementing EHR in the healthcare system. In addition, this research constitutes a

  11. Take Sport Education a Step Further: Add Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudet, Bob; Acquaviva, John; Grube, Dan

    2004-01-01

    The Surgeon General's report on physical activity and health provides abundant evidence that physical activity plays a role in helping to prevent and treat coronary heart disease, osteoporosis, diabetes, hypertension, depression, and obesity. While adolescents are generally not directly at risk for such diseases, the habit of exercise begins to…

  12. Iran's Multiple Indicator Demographic and Health Survey - 2010: Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Rashidian, Arash; Karimi-Shahanjarini, Akram; Khosravi, Ardeshir; Elahi, Elham; Beheshtian, Maryam; Shakibazadeh, Elham; Khabiri, Roghayeh; Arab, Mohammad; Zakeri, Mohammad-Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is an international emphasis on providing timely and high quality data to monitor progress of countries toward Millennium Development Goals. Iran's Multiple Indicator Demographic and Health Survey (IrMIDHS) aimed to provide valid information on population and health outcomes to monitor progress in achieving national priorities and health programs and to assist policy makers to design effective strategies for improving health outcomes and equity in access to care. Methods: A cross-sectional multi-stage stratified cluster-random survey is conducted through face-to-face household interviews. The sampling frame is developed using Iran's 2006 population and housing census. Provincial samples ranging are from a minimum of 400 households per province to 6400 households in Tehran province. Cluster size is 10 households. The target sample includes 3096 clusters: 2187 clusters in urban and 909 clusters in rural areas. IrMIDHS instruments include three questionnaires: Household questionnaire, women aged 15-54 questionnaire, children under five questionnaire, supervision and quality assessment checklists and data collection sheets and standard weight and height measurement tools for under-five children. A cascading decentralized training method is used for training data collection and supervision teams. Quality assurance procedures are defined for the five steps of conducting the survey including: Sampling, training data collection and training teams, survey implementation, data entry and analysis. A multi-layer supervision and monitoring procedure is established. All the questionnaires are double entered. Conclusions: IrMIDHS will provide valuable data for policymakers in Iran. Designing and implementation of the study involve contributions from academics as well as program managers and policy makers. The collaborative nature of the study may facilitate better usage of its results. PMID:24932396

  13. The design of probiotic studies to substantiate health claims.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Glenn R; Brummer, Robert J; Isolauri, Erika; Lochs, Herbert; Morelli, Lorenzo; Ockhuizen, Theo; Rowland, Ian R; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen; Stanton, Catherine; Verbeke, Kristin

    2011-09-01

    The EC Regulation No. 1924/2006 on Nutrition and Health claims made on foods has generated considerable debate and concern among scientists and industry. At the time of writing, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has not approved any probiotic claims despite numerous human trials and meta-analyses showing evidence of beneficial effects. On 29th and 30th September 2010, ten independent, academic scientists with a documented record in probiotic research, met to discuss designs for future probiotic studies to demonstrate health benefits for gut and immune function. The expert panel recommended the following: (i) always formulate a precise and concrete hypothesis, and appropriate goals and parameters before starting a trial; (ii) ensure trials have sufficient sample size, such that they are adequately powered to reach statistically significant conclusions, either supporting or rejecting the a priori hypothesis, taking into account adjustment for multiple testing (this might necessitate more than one recruitment site); (iii) ensure trials are of appropriate duration; (iv) focus on a single, primary objective and only evaluate multiple parameters when they are hypothesis-driven. The panel agreed that there was an urgent need to better define which biomarkers are considered valuable for substantiation of a health claim. As a first step, the panel welcomed the publication on the day of the meeting of EFSA's draft guidance document on immune and gut health, although it came too late for study designs and dossiers to be adjusted accordingly. New validated biomarkers need to be identified in order to properly determine the range of physiological functions influenced by probiotics. In addition, validated biomarkers reflecting risk factors for disease, are required for article 14 claims (EC Regulation No. 1924/2006). Finally, the panel concluded that consensus among scientists is needed to decide appropriate clinical endpoints for trials. PMID:22067941

  14. A Rational-Emotive Approach to Mental Health for College Students: Study 1 and Study 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kujoth, Richard K.; Topetzes, Nick J.

    1977-01-01

    Further replication using other test instruments and measured variables is suggested, but the results of two studies appear to support the view that providing rational ideas fosters mental health while providing psychodynamic insight does not. (Author)

  15. Professional fighters brain health study: rationale and methods.

    PubMed

    Bernick, Charles; Banks, Sarah; Phillips, Michael; Lowe, Mark; Shin, Wanyong; Obuchowski, Nancy; Jones, Stephen; Modic, Michael

    2013-07-15

    Repetitive head trauma is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease and is the primary cause of chronic traumatic encephalopathy. However, little is known about the natural history of, and risk factors for, chronic traumatic encephalopathy or about means of early detection and intervention. The Professional Fighters Brain Health Study is a longitudinal study of active professional fighters (boxers and mixed martial artists), retired professional fighters, and controls matched for age and level of education. The main objective of the Professional Fighters Brain Health Study is to determine the relationships between measures of head trauma exposure and other potential modifiers and changes in brain imaging and neurological and behavioral function over time. The study is designed to extend over 5 years, and we anticipate enrollment of more than 400 boxers and mixed martial artists. Participants will undergo annual evaluations that include 3-tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanning, computerized cognitive assessments, speech analysis, surveys of mood and impulsivity, and blood sampling for genotyping and exploratory biomarker studies. Statistical models will be developed and validated to predict early and progressive changes in brain structure and function. A composite fight exposure index, developed as a summary measure of cumulative traumatic exposure, shows promise as a predictor of brain volumes and cognitive function. PMID:23735309

  16. 78 FR 57505 - World Trade Center Health Program; Addition of Prostate Cancer to the List of WTC-Related Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... Health Plan. Annals of Internal Medicine 148(9):647-655. Limitations The analysis presented here was... rulemaking (78 FR 39670) proposing to add prostate cancer (malignant neoplasm of the prostate) to the List of... added to the List. \\2\\ 77 FR 56138, 56142. \\3\\ The results of epidemiologic studies are the primary...

  17. Clustering of health-related behaviors, health outcomes and demographics in Dutch adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent studies show several health-related behaviors to cluster in adolescents. This has important implications for public health. Interrelated behaviors have been shown to be most effectively targeted by multimodal interventions addressing wider-ranging improvements in lifestyle instead of via separate interventions targeting individual behaviors. However, few previous studies have taken into account a broad, multi-disciplinary range of health-related behaviors and connected these behavioral patterns to health-related outcomes. This paper presents an analysis of the clustering of a broad range of health-related behaviors with relevant demographic factors and several health-related outcomes in adolescents. Methods Self-report questionnaire data were collected from a sample of 2,690 Dutch high school adolescents. Behavioral patterns were deducted via Principal Components Analysis. Subsequently a Two-Step Cluster Analysis was used to identify groups of adolescents with similar behavioral patterns and health-related outcomes. Results Four distinct behavioral patterns describe the analyzed individual behaviors: 1- risk-prone behavior, 2- bully behavior, 3- problematic screen time use, and 4- sedentary behavior. Subsequent cluster analysis identified four clusters of adolescents. Multi-problem behavior was associated with problematic physical and psychosocial health outcomes, as opposed to those exerting relatively few unhealthy behaviors. These associations were relatively independent of demographics such as ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status. Conclusions The results show that health-related behaviors tend to cluster, indicating that specific behavioral patterns underlie individual health behaviors. In addition, specific patterns of health-related behaviors were associated with specific health outcomes and demographic factors. In general, unhealthy behavior on account of multiple health-related behaviors was associated with both poor psychosocial

  18. Regional health workforce planning through action research: lessons for commissioning health services from a case study in Far North Queensland.

    PubMed

    Panzera, Annette June; Murray, Richard; Stewart, Ruth; Mills, Jane; Beaton, Neil; Larkins, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Creating a stable and sustainable health workforce in regional, rural and remote Australia has long been a challenge to health workforce planners, policy makers and researchers alike. Traditional health workforce planning is often reactive and assumes continuation of current patterns of healthcare utilisation. This demonstration project in Far North Queensland exemplifies how participatory regional health workforce planning processes can accurately model current and projected local workforce requirements. The recent establishment of Primary Health Networks (PHNs) with the intent to commission health services tailored to individual healthcare needs underlines the relevance of such an approach. This study used action research methodology informed by World Health Organization (WHO) systems thinking. Four cyclical stages of health workforce planning were followed: needs assessment; health service model redesign; skills-set assessment and workforce redesign; and development of a workforce and training plan. This study demonstrated that needs-based loco-regional health workforce planning can be achieved successfully through participatory processes with stakeholders. Stronger health systems and workforce training solutions were delivered by facilitating linkages and planning processes based on community need involving healthcare professionals across all disciplines and sectors. By focusing upon extending competencies and skills sets, local health professionals form a stable and sustainable local workforce. Concrete examples of initiatives generated from this process include developing a chronic disease inter-professional teaching clinic in a rural town and renal dialysis being delivered locally to an Aboriginal community. The growing trend of policy makers decentralising health funding, planning and accountability and rising health system costs increase the future utility of this approach. This type of planning can also assist the new PHNs to commission health services

  19. Regional health workforce planning through action research: lessons for commissioning health services from a case study in Far North Queensland.

    PubMed

    Panzera, Annette June; Murray, Richard; Stewart, Ruth; Mills, Jane; Beaton, Neil; Larkins, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Creating a stable and sustainable health workforce in regional, rural and remote Australia has long been a challenge to health workforce planners, policy makers and researchers alike. Traditional health workforce planning is often reactive and assumes continuation of current patterns of healthcare utilisation. This demonstration project in Far North Queensland exemplifies how participatory regional health workforce planning processes can accurately model current and projected local workforce requirements. The recent establishment of Primary Health Networks (PHNs) with the intent to commission health services tailored to individual healthcare needs underlines the relevance of such an approach. This study used action research methodology informed by World Health Organization (WHO) systems thinking. Four cyclical stages of health workforce planning were followed: needs assessment; health service model redesign; skills-set assessment and workforce redesign; and development of a workforce and training plan. This study demonstrated that needs-based loco-regional health workforce planning can be achieved successfully through participatory processes with stakeholders. Stronger health systems and workforce training solutions were delivered by facilitating linkages and planning processes based on community need involving healthcare professionals across all disciplines and sectors. By focusing upon extending competencies and skills sets, local health professionals form a stable and sustainable local workforce. Concrete examples of initiatives generated from this process include developing a chronic disease inter-professional teaching clinic in a rural town and renal dialysis being delivered locally to an Aboriginal community. The growing trend of policy makers decentralising health funding, planning and accountability and rising health system costs increase the future utility of this approach. This type of planning can also assist the new PHNs to commission health services

  20. Reporting of context and implementation in studies of global health interventions: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is an increasing push for ‘evidence-based’ decision making in global health policy circles. However, at present there are no agreed upon standards or guidelines for how to evaluate evidence in global health. Recent evaluations of existing evidence frameworks that could serve such a purpose have identified details of program context and project implementation as missing components needed to inform policy. We performed a pilot study to assess the current state of reporting of context and implementation in studies of global health interventions. Methods We identified three existing criteria sets for implementation reporting and selected from them 10 criteria potentially relevant to the needs of policy makers in global health contexts. We applied these 10 criteria to 15 articles included in the evidence base for three global health interventions chosen to represent a diverse set of advocated global health programs or interventions: household water chlorination, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, and lay community health workers to reduce child mortality. We used a good-fair-poor/none scale for the ratings. Results The proportion of criteria for which reporting was poor/none ranged from 11% to 54% with an average of 30%. Eight articles had ‘good’ or ‘fair’ documentation for greater than 75% of criteria, while five articles had ‘poor or none’ documentation for 50% of criteria or more. Examples of good reporting were identified. Conclusions Reporting of context and implementation information in studies of global health interventions is mostly fair or poor, and highly variable. The idiosyncratic variability in reporting indicates that global health investigators need more guidance about what aspects of context and implementation to measure and how to report them. This lack of context and implementation information is a major gap in the evidence needed by global health policy makers to reach decisions. PMID:24886201

  1. Core competencies for UK occupational health nurses: a Delphi study

    PubMed Central

    Demou, E.; Kiran, S.; Gaffney, M.; Stevenson, M.; Macdonald, E. B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Occupational health nurses (OHNs) play a pivotal role in the delivery of occupational health (OH) services. Specific competency guidance has been developed in a number of countries, including the UK. While it is acknowledged that UK OHN practice has evolved in recent years, there has been no formal research to capture these developments to ensure that training and curricula remain up-to-date and reflect current practice. Aims To identify current priorities among UK OHNs of the competencies required for OH practice. Methods A modified Delphi study undertaken among representative OHN networks in the UK. This formed part of a larger study including UK and international occupational physicians. The study was conducted in two rounds using a questionnaire based on available guidance on training competencies for OH practice, the published literature, expert panel reviews and conference discussions. Results Consensus among OHNs was high with 7 out of the 12 domains scoring 100% in rating. ‘Good clinical care’ was the principal domain ranked most important, followed by ‘general principles of assessment & management of occupational hazards to health’. ‘Research methods’ and ‘teaching & educational supervision’ were considered least important. Conclusions This study has established UK OHNs’ current priorities on the competencies required for OH practice. The timing of this paper is opportune with the formal launch of the Faculty of Occupational Health Nursing planned in 2018 and should inform the development of competency requirements as part of the Faculty’s goals for standard setting in OHN education and training. PMID:27492470

  2. The Effectiveness of Health Animations in Audiences With Different Health Literacy Levels: An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    van Weert, Julia CM; Haven, Carola J; Smit, Edith G

    2015-01-01

    Background Processing Web-based health information can be difficult, especially for people with low health literacy. Presenting health information in an audiovisual format, such as animation, is expected to improve understanding among low health literate audiences. Objective The aim of this paper is to investigate what features of spoken health animations improve information recall and attitudes and whether there are differences between health literacy groups. Methods We conducted an online experiment among 231 participants aged 55 years or older with either low or high health literacy. A 2 (spoken vs written text) x 2 (illustration vs animation) design was used. Participants were randomly exposed to one of the four experimental messages, all providing the same information on colorectal cancer screening. Results The results showed that, among people with low health literacy, spoken messages about colorectal cancer screening improved recall (P=.03) and attitudes (P=.02) compared to written messages. Animations alone did not improve recall, but when combined with spoken text, they significantly improved recall in this group (P=.02). When exposed to spoken animations, people with low health literacy recalled the same amount of information as their high health literate counterparts (P=.12), whereas in all other conditions people with high health literacy recalled more information compared to low health literate individuals. For people with low health literacy, positive attitudes mediated the relationship between spoken text and the intention to have a colorectal cancer screening (b=.12; 95% CI 0.02-0.25). Conclusions We conclude that spoken animation is the best way to communicate complex health information to people with low health literacy. This format can even bridge the information processing gap between audiences with low and high health literacy as the recall differences between the two groups are eliminated. As animations do not negatively influence high health

  3. Health resources and health strategies among older Swedish-speaking Finns--a hermeneutic study.

    PubMed

    Kulla, Gunilla; Sarvimäki, Anneli; Fagerström, Lisbeth

    2006-03-01

    Research has shown that the Swedish-speaking Finns have better health than the Finnish-speaking majority. The aim of this paper was to explore the health resources and health strategies among home-dwelling Swedish-speaking Finns aged 75 or older. The objective was to develop health-promotive nursing care for this group. Data was collected through recorded semistructured conversations with 22 older persons. The conversations were transcribed and interpreted through a hermeneutic approach. The material was read through several times and compiled into 22 narratives with relevant quotations. The narratives were subsequently summarised into one core narrative under each major category, to present the health resources and health strategies. Six categories were found: the Positive, the Social, the Active, the Adaptable, the Stubborn and the Passive. Within the Positive category, morale played an important role as a health resource and health strategy. Within the Social category, social activities were regarded as both health resources and health strategies, whereas their absence was a health obstacle. Within the Active category, a wide range of physical activities played an important role. Within the Adaptable category, contentment was a health resource. Within the Stubborn category, stubbornness itself was a health resource, whereas strong belief was a health strategy. Within the Passive category, although health obstacles permeated the life context, contentment and caution were seen as health resources. The vision of the future varied from the confidence found in the Positive category to the uncertainty prevalent in the Passive category. The main health resources and strategies used by the elderly Swedish-speaking Finns were related to social and other activities as well as to personality. Transforming health obstacles into resources could be an important health-promotive nursing strategy.

  4. The German Young Olympic Athletes' Lifestyle and Health Management Study (GOAL Study): design of a mixed-method study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In order to perform at top levels, elite athletes have to both protect and risk their health at the same time. Adolescent elite athletes have the additional challenge of coping with substantial physical, psychological and social transformations. The contradictory phenomenon of protecting and risking the adolescent athletes' health in sports challenges the development of health promotion and protection strategies. The GOAL Study (German Young Olympic Athletes' Lifestyle and Health Management Study) analyzes the individual and organizational management of health in adolescent elite sports. Methods/design We combine quantitative and qualitative approaches in a mixed-method study. This allows us to gather a broad range of representative information on squad athletes from all Olympic disciplines as well as in-depth information on four selected Olympic disciplines (artistic gymnastics, biathlon, handball and wrestling). Within the quantitative section we attempt to identify the young athletes' health and nutrition behavior, their subjective health state and their lay health representations, health-related social networks, and structures of medical attendance. 1138 national team level athletes born between 1992 and 1995 from 51 Olympic disciplines responded to the questionnaire (response rate: 61,75%). The qualitative section investigates the meaning and relevance of health and nutrition within the athletes' sports specific surroundings, the impact of biographic backgrounds on individual health behavior, and sports specific cultures of health, nutrition and risk. We interviewed 24 athletes and 28 coaching and medical experts, and carried out 14 multi-day participant observations at training sessions and competitions. Conclusions The studies' results will serve as the basis for developing tailored health promotion strategies to be in cooperation with German elite sports associations. PMID:21627777

  5. A sociological study of adolescent health in Ankara, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kasapoğlu, M Aytül; Ecevit, Mehmet C

    2004-01-01

    This study aims to explore the associations between socio-demographic factors and subjective health complaints of adolescents in Turkey. A sample of 248 students in the 8th-grade from four primary schools with different socio-economic family backgrounds completed a questionnaire on their socio-demographic characteristics and health complaints. Findings revealed that adolescents are not homogeneous in terms of their socio-economical backgrounds and infra-structural living conditions. The distribution of illnesses/complaints compared among schools groups, only catching cold was significantly different. Factor analysis results showed that there are three groups of diseases that differ from one another namely psychological, physical and other. Adolescents' perception about their general health varied among the four schools. According to the regression analysis between three factor groups of illness/complains and socio-demographic and personal characteristics of students, only number of children and working status of fathers showed a significant difference among the socio-demographic characteristics, while weight and height among the personal characteristics. Although the first findings suggested that respondents' physical characteristics affected their physical complaints, it seemed that several complaints could also be affected by social and cultural context.

  6. Sustainable Rural Telehealth Innovation: A Public Health Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rajendra; Mathiassen, Lars; Stachura, Max E; Astapova, Elena V

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine adoption of telehealth in a rural public health district and to explain how the innovation became sustainable. Study Setting Longitudinal, qualitative study (1988–2008) of the largest public health district in Georgia. Study Design Case study design provided deep insights into the innovation's social dynamics. Punctuated equilibrium theory helped present and make sense of the process. We identified antecedent conditions and outcomes, and we distinguished between episodes and encounters based on the disruptive effects of events. Data Collection Twenty-five semistructured interviews with 19 decision makers and professionals, direct observations, published papers, grant proposals, technical specifications, and other written materials. Principal Findings Strong collaboration within the district, with local community, and with external partners energized the process. Well-functioning outreach clinics made telehealth desirable. Local champions cultivated participation and generative capability, and overcame barriers through opportunistic exploitation of technological and financial options. Telehealth usage fluctuated between medical and administrative operations in response to internal needs and contextual dynamics. External agencies provided initial funding and supported later expansion. Conclusions Extensive internal and external collaboration, and a combination of technology push and opportunistic exploitation, can enable sustainable rural telehealth innovation. PMID:20459449

  7. 76 FR 48872 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; The Hispanic Community Health Study (HCHS)/Study of Latinos...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... Community Health Study (HCHS)/Study of Latinos (SOL) SUMMARY: In compliance with the requirement of Section... Community Health Study (HCHS)/ Study of Latinos (SOL). Type of Information Collection Request: Revision of... contacted to verify reported events for outcomes ascertainment. The Hispanic Community Health Study...

  8. Trajectories of Mental Health over 16 Years amongst Young Adult Women: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Libby; Ware, Robert S.; Lee, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This article used data from 5,171 young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study, to identify longitudinal trajectory patterns of mental health across 6 surveys over 16 years of early adulthood, from age 18-23 to age 34-39. In addition, we identified both…

  9. Associations between Self-medication, Health Literacy, and Self-perceived Health Status: A Community-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Kamran, Aziz; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Shafaeei, Yousef; Mohebi, Siamak

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although the frequency of self-medication has been well-documented in the public health literature, but no study has examined the relationship between health literacy and self-medication yet. This study was aimed to investigating the relationship between health literacy and self-medication in a community-based study. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 924 adults to survey association between health literacy and self-medication among peoples in Ardabil city in 2014 who were selected using a multi-stage random sampling method. Health literacy was measured by the test of functional health literacy in adults and general health status was measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire, and self-reported self-medication (overall, sedative, antibiotic and herbal) in last 3 months was assessed. All statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS version 18 and a P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The mean age and weight of respondents were 37 years and 74.7 kg, respectively. The prevalence of self-medication was 61.6%, and the percentage of self-administering antibiotics, sedative, and herbal medicines were 40%, 54.4%, and 59.1% in the last 3 months, respectively. Significant relationship was found between of total health literacy and general health status with self-medication. The prevalence of self-medication among participants with poor and very poor self-rated physical and mental health was significantly higher than other participants (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Self-medication had a significant relationship with health literacy and health status. Therefore, the design and implementation of training programs are necessary to increase the perception on the risk of self-medication. PMID:26288710

  10. Health and medical services use: a matched case comparison between CCRC residents and national health and retirement study samples.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Jean M; Poey, Judith L; Marx, Katherine A; Parrish, John M; Resnick, Barbara

    2011-11-01

    Little is known about the health status of adults living in continuing care retirement communities (CCRC). Using matched-case control, 458 adults from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) or a CCRC-based sample were compared on total comorbidity, self-rated health, home health services use, and hospitalizations. At year 2, the CCRC sample reported more comorbidities (96%) but significantly better self-rated health (96% good/excellent) than the HRS sample (93% comorbidity, 73% good/excellent; p < .01). There were no significant differences in frequency of home health use or hospitalization. Living in a CCRC appears to be associated with higher self-ratings of health in this sample.

  11. Sequential Patterns of Health Conditions and Financial Outcomes in Late Life: Evidence From the Health and Retirement Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyungsoo; Shin, Serah; Zurlo, Karen A

    2015-07-01

    The cost and prevalence of chronic health conditions increase in late life and can negatively impact accumulated wealth. Based on the financial challenges midaged and older adults face, we sought to understand the evolution of distinctive sequences of chronic health conditions and how these sequences affect retirement savings. We used 10 waves of the Health and Retirement Study and tracked the health states and changes in wealth of 5,540 individuals. We identified five typical sequences of chronic health conditions, which are defined as follows: Multimorbidity, Comorbidity, Mild Disease, Late Event, and No Disease. Wealth accumulation differed across the five sequences. Multimorbidity and Comorbidity were the most costly sequences. Individuals with these health patterns, respectively, had $91,205 and $95,140, less net worth than respondents identified with No Disease. Our findings suggest policy makers consider sequential disease patterns when planning for the health-care needs and expenditures of older Americans.

  12. Gantry and isocenter displacements of a linear accelerator caused by an add-on micromultileaf collimator

    SciTech Connect

    Riis, Hans L.; Zimmermann, Sune J.; Hjelm-Hansen, Mogens

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: The delivery of high quality stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) treatments to the patient requires knowledge of the position of the isocenter to submillimeter accuracy. To meet the requirements the deviation between the radiation and mechanical isocenters must be less than 1 mm. The use of add-on micromultileaf collimators ({mu}MLCs) in SRS and SRT is an additional challenge to the anticipated high-level geometric and dosimetric accuracy of the treatment. The aim of this work was to quantify the gantry excursions during rotation with and without an add-on {mu}MLC attached to the gantry head. In addition, the shift in the position of the isocenter and its correlation to the kV beam center of the cone-beam CT system was included in the study. Methods: The quantification of the gantry rotational performance was done using a pointer supported by an in-house made rigid holder attached to the gantry head of the accelerator. The pointer positions were measured using a digital theodolite. To quantify the effect of an {mu}MLC of 50 kg, the measurements were repeated with the {mu}MLC attached to the gantry head. The displacement of the isocenter due to an add-on {mu}MLC of 50 kg was also investigated. In case of the pointer measurement the {mu}MLC was simulated by weights attached to the gantry head. A method of least squares was applied to determine the position and displacement of the mechanical isocenter. Additionally, the displacement of the radiation isocenter was measured using a ball-bearing phantom and the electronic portal image device system. These measurements were based on 8 MV photon beams irradiated onto the ball from the four cardinal angles and two opposed collimator angles. The measurements and analysis of the data were carried out automatically using software delivered by the manufacturer. Results: The displacement of the mechanical isocenter caused by a 50 kg heavy {mu}MLC was found to be (-0.01 {+-} 0.05, -0

  13. Consumer Health Information Behavior in Public Libraries: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Yong Jeong

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies indicated inadequate health literacy of American adults as one of the biggest challenges for consumer health information services provided in public libraries. Little attention, however, has been paid to public users' health literacy and health information behaviors. In order to bridge the research gap, the study aims to…

  14. Health monitoring system for the SSME - Hardware architecture study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamenetz, Jeffry K.; Hawman, Mike W.; Tulpule, Sharayu

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a hardware architecture for a health monitoring system (HMS) for the SSME. The architecture study was conducted in conjunction with a NASA sponsored program to develop a framework for SSME HMS for (1) ground test and, potentially (2) flight applications. The requirements for both systems are both stated and analyzed. A multiprocessor distributed VME system is envisioned for the ground-test hardware. By repackaging the boards, the same concept is shown to be usable for the flight system. The paper concludes with an analysis of weight, power, and reliability with respect to variations in functionality.

  15. Income replacement ratios in the Health and Retirement Study.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Patrick J

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the income replacement ratio as a measure of retirement income adequacy and identifies several issues analysts must consider when calculating a replacement ratio. The article presents the income replacement ratios experienced by participants in the original sample cohort of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), who were born between 1931 and 1941. Replacement ratios are shown by the respondent's birth cohort, age when first classified as retired in the HRS, and preretirement income quartile. Median replacement ratios fall as the retirement period grows longer.

  16. [The beginnings of public health studies in Renaissance Spain].

    PubMed

    López Piñero, José María

    2006-01-01

    A very brief synthesis is provided of the findings of the historical research the author first began more than forty years ago as to the initial beginnings of the studies on public health in Renaissance Spain. The role played by royal power from the standpoint of the beginnings of the modern State, the influence of Hippocratic environmentalism, keeping up cleanliness-related privileges at the personal level, the first beginnings of hygiene on a widespread basis in related to the plague epidemics and the contributions to medical care conditioned by the change in poverty-related values are discussed in turn. PMID:17193808

  17. [The beginnings of public health studies in Renaissance Spain].

    PubMed

    López Piñero, José María

    2006-01-01

    A very brief synthesis is provided of the findings of the historical research the author first began more than forty years ago as to the initial beginnings of the studies on public health in Renaissance Spain. The role played by royal power from the standpoint of the beginnings of the modern State, the influence of Hippocratic environmentalism, keeping up cleanliness-related privileges at the personal level, the first beginnings of hygiene on a widespread basis in related to the plague epidemics and the contributions to medical care conditioned by the change in poverty-related values are discussed in turn.

  18. Epidemiological Assessments of Skin Outcomes in the Nurses’ Health Studies

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen-Qing; Cho, Eunyoung; Weinstock, Martin A.; Mashfiq, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To review the contribution of the Nurses’ Health Studies (NHSs) to identifying epidemiological factors associated with multiple skin diseases, including skin cancer, psoriasis, and other inflammatory and autoimmune skin diseases. Methods. We carried out a narrative review of NHS articles published between 1976 and 2016. Results. The NHSs have identified environmental and lifestyle factors related to psoriasis, supporting obesity and smoking as psoriasis risk factors; associations between psoriasis and diabetes, myocardial infarction, and Crohn’s disease, supporting psoriasis as a systemic disorder; and associations of pigmentary traits, ultraviolet radiation, and lifestyle factors such as citrus consumption with risk of skin cancer. Genetic studies have identified novel genetic loci for skin pigmentation (e.g., IRF4, SLC24A4, NID1, and EDNRB) and skin cancer (e.g., TET2 and HERC2-OCA2). Work continues on highly prevalent but less studied skin conditions such as rosacea, acne, and atopic dermatitis. The NHS results have influenced public health policies on indoor tanning devices. Conclusions. The NHSs have provided invaluable resources on skin disease population science and contributed to the etiological understanding of multiple skin disorders. PMID:27459457

  19. Colorectal Cancer Epidemiology in the Nurses’ Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Giovannucci, Edward L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To review the contribution of the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) to identifying risk and protective factors for colorectal adenomas and colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods. We performed a narrative review of the publications using the NHS between 1976 and 2016. Results. Existing epidemiological studies using the NHS have reported that red and processed meat, alcohol, smoking, and obesity were associated with an increased risk of CRC, whereas folate, calcium, vitamin D, aspirin, and physical activity were associated with decreased risk of CRC. Moreover, modifiable factors, such as physical activity, vitamin D, folate, insulin and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1, and diet quality, were identified to be associated with survival among CRC patients. In recent years, molecular pathological epidemiological studies have been actively conducted and have shown refined results by molecular subtypes of CRC. Conclusions. The NHS has provided new insights into colorectal adenomas, CRC etiology, and pathogenic mechanisms. With its unique strengths, the NHS should continue to contribute to the field of CRC epidemiology and play a major role in public health. PMID:27459444

  20. SAPling: a Scan-Add-Print barcoding database system to label and track asexual organisms

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Michael A.; Schötz, Eva-Maria

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY We have developed a ‘Scan-Add-Print’ database system, SAPling, to track and monitor asexually reproducing organisms. Using barcodes to uniquely identify each animal, we can record information on the life of the individual in a computerized database containing its entire family tree. SAPling has enabled us to carry out large-scale population dynamics experiments with thousands of planarians and keep track of each individual. The database stores information such as family connections, birth date, division date and generation. We show that SAPling can be easily adapted to other asexually reproducing organisms and has a strong potential for use in large-scale and/or long-term population and senescence studies as well as studies of clonal diversity. The software is platform-independent, designed for reliability and ease of use, and provided open source from our webpage to allow project-specific customization. PMID:21993779

  1. Benefits and risks of add-on therapies for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Magierski, Radoslaw; Sobow, Tomasz

    2015-10-01

    Despite three decades of intensive research, the efforts of scientific society and industry and the expenditures, numerous attempts to develop effective treatments for Alzheimer's disease have failed. Currently, approved and widely used medications to treat cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease are symptomatic only and show at best modest efficacy. In this context, the need to develop a successful, disease-modifying treatment is loudly expressed. One way to achieve this goal is the use of add-on therapies or various combinations of existing 'conventional' drugs. Results of several clinical studies and post hoc analyses of combination therapy with all cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine are published. Moreover, there is a need for studies on long-term efficacy of combination therapy in Alzheimer's.

  2. As I see it: a study of African American pastors' views on health and health education in the black church.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Michael L; Isaac-Savage, E Paulette

    2014-08-01

    The Black Church is the only institution that has consistently served the interest of African Americans, and there is no other institution in the African American community that rivals its influence (Camara, 2004). The spiritual well-fare, social support, health, and well-being of its people have been one of its main goals. With health disparities of African Americans still at an alarming rate, the Black Church has used informal education as a means to impart knowledge on health, as well as other non-religious and religious topics. One of the avenues least researched within the Black Church is the pastor's perception of its educational role in health and wellness and its efforts to reduce health discrimination and health disparities between African American and European Americans in the U.S. Since social justice appears as a theme and concern in the traditions of many churches, it is only appropriate that, among other things, the Black Church should address the issue of health education and interventions. The purpose of this study was to explore African American pastors' perceptions of the role of the Black Church in providing health care, health education, and wellness opportunities to African Americans. Many pastors reported their church provided some form of health education and/or health screenings. Their perceptions about the important issues facing their congregants versus African Americans in general were quite similar.

  3. INTERIM RESULTS FROM THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiological study of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Exposure to 2,4-D or chlorpyrifos is being measured for a subset of applicators in the AHS Pesticide Exposure Study to assess expos...

  4. AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY: STATUS UPDATE AND PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiological study of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Exposure to 2,4-D or chlorpyrifos is being measured for a subset of applicators in the AHS Pesticide Exposure Study to assess expos...

  5. SUMMARY OF BIOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING RESULTS FROM THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiologic study of pesticide applicators and spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Exposure to 2,4-D or chlorpyrifos was measured for a subset of applicators and their families in the AHS Pesticide Exposure Study to assess...

  6. The Impact of an eHealth Portal on Health Care Professionals’ Interaction with Patients: Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Faxvaag, Arild; Svanæs, Dag

    2015-01-01

    Background People who undergo weight loss surgery require a comprehensive treatment program to achieve successful outcomes. eHealth solutions, such as secure online portals, create new opportunities for improved health care delivery and care, but depend on the organizational delivery systems and on the health care professionals providing it. So far, these have received limited attention and the overall adoption of eHealth solutions remains low. In this study, a secure eHealth portal was implemented in a bariatric surgery clinic and offered to their patients. During the study period of 6 months, 60 patients and 5 health care professionals had access. The portal included patient information, self-management tools, and communication features for online dialog with peers and health care providers at the bariatric surgery clinic. Objective The aim of this study was to characterize and assess the impact of an eHealth portal on health care professionals’ interaction with patients in bariatric surgery. Methods This qualitative case study involved a field study consisting of contextual interviews at the clinic involving observing and speaking with personnel in their actual work environment. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with health care professionals who interacted with patients through the portal. Analysis of the collected material was done inductively using thematic analysis. Results The analysis revealed two main dimensions of using an eHealth portal in bariatric surgery: the transparency it represents and the responsibility that follows by providing it. The professionals reported the eHealth portal as (1) a source of information, (2) a gateway to approach and facilitate the patients, (3) a medium for irrevocable postings, (4) a channel that exposes responsibility and competence, and (5) a tool in the clinic. Conclusions By providing an eHealth portal to patients in a bariatric surgery program, health care professionals can observe patients

  7. A television in the bedroom is associated with higher weekday screen time among youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Charmaine B.; Waring, Molly E.; Pagoto, Sherry L.; Lemon, Stephenie C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective A TV in the bedroom has been associated with screen time in youth. Youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD) have higher rates of screen time, but associations with bedroom TVs are unknown in this population. We examined the association of having a bedroom TV with screen time among youth with ADD/ADHD. Methods Data were from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health. Youth 6–17 years whose parent/guardian reported a physician's diagnosis of ADD/ADHD (n = 7024) were included in the analysis. Parents/guardians reported the presence of a bedroom TV and average weekday TV screen time. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models assessed the effects of a bedroom on screen time. Results Youth with ADD/ADHD engaged in screen time with an average of 149.1 min/weekday and 59% had a TV in their bedroom. Adjusting for child and family characteristics, having a TV in the bedroom was associated with 25 minute higher daily screen time (95% CI: 12.8–37.4 min/day). A bedroom TV was associated with 32% higher odds of engaging in screen time for over 2 h/day (OR = 1.3; 95% CI: 1.0–1.7). Conclusion Future research should explore whether removing TVs from bedrooms reduces screen time among youth with ADD/ADHD. PMID:25599016

  8. [Notes on vital statistics for the study of perinatal health].

    PubMed

    Juárez, Sol Pía

    2014-01-01

    Vital statistics, published by the National Statistics Institute in Spain, are a highly important source for the study of perinatal health nationwide. However, the process of data collection is not well-known and has implications both for the quality and interpretation of the epidemiological results derived from this source. The aim of this study was to present how the information is collected and some of the associated problems. This study is the result of an analysis of the methodological notes from the National Statistics Institute and first-hand information obtained from hospitals, the Central Civil Registry of Madrid, and the Madrid Institute for Statistics. Greater integration between these institutions is required to improve the quality of birth and stillbirth statistics.

  9. The Impact of Online Social Networks on Health and Health Systems: A Scoping Review and Case Studies

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Frances; Dobermann, Tim; Cave, Jonathan A. K.; Thorogood, Margaret; Johnson, Samantha; Salamatian, Kavé; Gomez Olive, Francis X.; Goudge, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Interaction through online social networks potentially results in the contestation of prevailing ideas about health and health care, and to mass protest where health is put at risk or health care provision is wanting. Through a review of the academic literature and case studies of four social networking health sites (PatientsLikeMe, Mumsnet, Treatment Action Campaign, and My Pro Ana), we establish the extent to which this phenomenon is documented, seek evidence of the prevalence and character of health‐related networks, and explore their structure, function, participants, and impact, seeking to understand how they came into being and how they sustain themselves. Results indicate mass protest is not arising from these established health‐related networking platforms. There is evidence of changes in policy following campaigning activity prompted by experiences shared through social networking such as improved National Health Service care for miscarriage (a Mumsnet campaign). Platform owners and managers have considerable power to shape these campaigns. Social networking is also influencing health policy indirectly through increasing awareness and so demand for health care. Transient social networking about health on platforms such as Twitter were not included as case studies but may be where the most radical or destabilizing influence on health care policy might arise. PMID:27134699

  10. What supports do health system organizations have in place to facilitate evidence-informed decision-making? a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Decisions regarding health systems are sometimes made without the input of timely and reliable evidence, leading to less than optimal health outcomes. Healthcare organizations can implement tools and infrastructures to support the use of research evidence to inform decision-making. Objectives The purpose of this study was to profile the supports and instruments (i.e., programs, interventions, instruments or tools) that healthcare organizations currently have in place and which ones were perceived to facilitate evidence-informed decision-making. Methods In-depth semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with individuals in three different types of positions (i.e., a senior management team member, a library manager, and a ‘knowledge broker’) in three types of healthcare organizations (i.e., regional health authorities, hospitals and primary care practices) in two Canadian provinces (i.e., Ontario and Quebec). The interviews were taped, transcribed, and then analyzed thematically using NVivo 9 qualitative data analysis software. Results A total of 57 interviews were conducted in 25 organizations in Ontario and Quebec. The main findings suggest that, for the healthcare organizations that participated in this study, the following supports facilitate evidence-informed decision-making: facilitating roles that actively promote research use within the organization; establishing ties to researchers and opinion leaders outside the organization; a technical infrastructure that provides access to research evidence, such as databases; and provision and participation in training programs to enhance staff’s capacity building. Conclusions This study identified the need for having a receptive climate, which laid the foundation for the implementation of other tangible initiatives and supported the use of research in decision-making. This study adds to the literature on organizational efforts that can increase the use of research evidence in decision

  11. Long-Term Effects of Exposure to Ionizing Irradiation on Periodontal Health Status – The Tinea capitis Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Sadetzki, Siegal; Chetrit, Angela; Sgan-Cohen, Harold D.; Mann, Jonathan; Amitai, Tova; Even-Nir, Hadas; Vered, Yuval

    2015-01-01

    Studies among long-term survivors of childhood cancer who had received high-dose irradiation therapy of 4–60 Gy, demonstrated acute and chronic dental effects, including periodontal diseases. However, the possible effects of low to moderate doses of radiation on dental health are sparse. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between childhood exposure to low–moderate doses of ionizing radiation and periodontal health following 50 years since exposure. The study population included 253 irradiated subjects (treated for Tinea capitis in the 1950s) and, 162 non-irradiated subjects. The estimated dose to the teeth was 0.2–0.4 Gy. Dental examination was performed according to the community periodontal index (CPI). Socioeconomic and health behavior variables were obtained through a personal questionnaire. Periodontal disease was operationally defined as “deep periodontal pockets.” A multivariate logistic regression model was used for the association of irradiation status and other independent variables with periodontal status. The results showed that among the irradiated subjects, 23%, (95% CI 18–28%) demonstrated complete edentulousness or insufficient teeth for CPI scoring as compared to 13% (95% CI 8–19%) among the non-irradiated subjects (p = 0.01). Periodontal disease was detected among 54% of the irradiated subjects as compared to 40% of the non-irradiated (p = 0.008). Controlling for education and smoking, the ORs for the association between radiation and periodontal disease were 1.61 (95% CI 1.01–2.57) and 1.95 (95% CI 1.1–3.5) for ever never and per 1 Gy absorbed in the salivary gland, respectively. In line with other studies, a protective effect for periodontal diseases among those with high education and an increased risk for ever smokers were observed. In conclusion, childhood exposure to low-moderate doses of ionizing radiation might be associated with later outcomes of dental health. The results add

  12. Long-Term Effects of Exposure to Ionizing Irradiation on Periodontal Health Status - The Tinea capitis Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Sadetzki, Siegal; Chetrit, Angela; Sgan-Cohen, Harold D; Mann, Jonathan; Amitai, Tova; Even-Nir, Hadas; Vered, Yuval

    2015-01-01

    Studies among long-term survivors of childhood cancer who had received high-dose irradiation therapy of 4-60 Gy, demonstrated acute and chronic dental effects, including periodontal diseases. However, the possible effects of low to moderate doses of radiation on dental health are sparse. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between childhood exposure to low-moderate doses of ionizing radiation and periodontal health following 50 years since exposure. The study population included 253 irradiated subjects (treated for Tinea capitis in the 1950s) and, 162 non-irradiated subjects. The estimated dose to the teeth was 0.2-0.4 Gy. Dental examination was performed according to the community periodontal index (CPI). Socioeconomic and health behavior variables were obtained through a personal questionnaire. Periodontal disease was operationally defined as "deep periodontal pockets." A multivariate logistic regression model was used for the association of irradiation status and other independent variables with periodontal status. The results showed that among the irradiated subjects, 23%, (95% CI 18-28%) demonstrated complete edentulousness or insufficient teeth for CPI scoring as compared to 13% (95% CI 8-19%) among the non-irradiated subjects (p = 0.01). Periodontal disease was detected among 54% of the irradiated subjects as compared to 40% of the non-irradiated (p = 0.008). Controlling for education and smoking, the ORs for the association between radiation and periodontal disease were 1.61 (95% CI 1.01-2.57) and 1.95 (95% CI 1.1-3.5) for ever never and per 1 Gy absorbed in the salivary gland, respectively. In line with other studies, a protective effect for periodontal diseases among those with high education and an increased risk for ever smokers were observed. In conclusion, childhood exposure to low-moderate doses of ionizing radiation might be associated with later outcomes of dental health. The results add valuable data on the long

  13. Mental health in the slums of Dhaka - a geoepidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Urban health is of global concern because the majority of the world's population lives in urban areas. Although mental health problems (e.g. depression) in developing countries are highly prevalent, such issues are not yet adequately addressed in the rapidly urbanising megacities of these countries, where a growing number of residents live in slums. Little is known about the spectrum of mental well-being in urban slums and only poor knowledge exists on health promotive socio-physical environments in these areas. Using a geo-epidemiological approach, the present study identified factors that contribute to the mental well-being in the slums of Dhaka, which currently accommodates an estimated population of more than 14 million, including 3.4 million slum dwellers. Methods The baseline data of a cohort study conducted in early 2009 in nine slums of Dhaka were used. Data were collected from 1,938 adults (≥ 15 years). All respondents were geographically marked based on their households using global positioning systems (GPS). Very high-resolution land cover information was processed in a Geographic Information System (GIS) to obtain additional exposure information. We used a factor analysis to reduce the socio-physical explanatory variables to a fewer set of uncorrelated linear combinations of variables. We then regressed these factors on the WHO-5 Well-being Index that was used as a proxy for self-rated mental well-being. Results Mental well-being was significantly associated with various factors such as selected features of the natural environment, flood risk, sanitation, housing quality, sufficiency and durability. We further identified associations with population density, job satisfaction, and income generation while controlling for individual factors such as age, gender, and diseases. Conclusions Factors determining mental well-being were related to the socio-physical environment and individual level characteristics. Given that mental well-being is

  14. Provider payment methods and health worker motivation in community-based health insurance: a mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Robyn, Paul Jacob; Bärnighausen, Till; Souares, Aurélia; Traoré, Adama; Bicaba, Brice; Sié, Ali; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2014-05-01

    In a community-based health insurance (CBHI) introduced in 2004 in Nouna health district, Burkina Faso, poor perceived quality of care by CBHI enrollees has been a key factor in observed high drop-out rates. The poor quality perceptions have been previously attributed to health worker dissatisfaction with the provider payment method used by the scheme and the resulting financial risk of health centers. This study applied a mixed-methods approach to investigate how health workers working in facilities contracted by the CBHI view the methods of provider payment used by the CBHI. In order to analyze these relationships, we conducted 23 in-depth interviews and a quantitative survey with 98 health workers working in the CBHI intervention zone. The qualitative in-depth interviews identified that insufficient levels of capitation payments, the infrequent schedule of capitation payment, and lack of a payment mechanism for reimbursing service fees were perceived as significant sources of health worker dissatisfaction and loss of work-related motivation. Combining qualitative interview and quantitative survey data in a mixed-methods analysis, this study identified that the declining quality of care due to the CBHI provider payment method was a source of significant professional stress and role strain for health workers. Health workers felt that the following five changes due to the provider payment methods introduced by the CBHI impeded their ability to fulfill professional roles and responsibilities: (i) increased financial volatility of health facilities, (ii) dissatisfaction with eligible costs to be covered by capitation; (iii) increased pharmacy stock-outs; (iv) limited financial and material support from the CBHI; and (v) the lack of mechanisms to increase provider motivation to support the CBHI. To address these challenges and improve CBHI uptake and health outcomes in the targeted populations, the health care financing and delivery model in the study zone should be

  15. Sexually transmitted infections and use of sexual health services among young Australian women: women's health Australia study.

    PubMed

    Schofield, M J; Minichiello, V; Mishra, G D; Plummer, D; Savage, J

    2000-05-01

    Our objective was to examine associations between self-reported sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and sociodemographic, lifestyle, health status, health service use and quality of life factors among young Australian women; and their use of family planning and sexual health clinics and associations with health, demographic and psychosocial factors. The study sample comprised 14,762 women aged 18-23 years who participated in the mailed baseline survey for the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, conducted in 1996. The main outcome measures are self report of ever being diagnosed by a doctor with an STI, including chlamydia, genital herpes, genital warts or other STIs, and use of family planning and sexual health clinics. The self-reported incidence of STI was 1.7% for chlamydia, 1.1% genital herpes, 3.1% genital warts, and 2.1% other STIs. There was a large number of demographic, health behaviour, psychosocial and health service use factors significantly and independently associated with reports of having had each STI. Factors independently associated with use of family planning clinic included unemployment, current smoking, having had a Pap smear less than 2 years ago, not having ancillary health insurance, having consulted a hospital doctor and having higher stress and life events score. Factors independently associated with use of a sexual health clinic included younger age, lower occupation status, being a current or ex-smoker, being a binge drinker, having had a Pap smear, having consulted a hospital doctor, having poorer mental health and having higher life events score. This study reports interesting correlates of having an STI among young Australian women aged 18-23. The longitudinal nature of this study provides the opportunity to explore the long-term health and gynaecological outcomes of having STIs during young adulthood. PMID:10824940

  16. [What does Process Management add in a Urology Department?].

    PubMed

    Luján, Marcos; Mora, José Ramón

    2015-01-01

    The search for quality starts with the identification of client's needs and expectations, as the essential foundation of any organization. In this search process, we identify improvement areas that enable specific actions that finish the closest to total client's and other interested agents' satisfaction (Workers, shareholders, suppliers, etc). This approach is equally valid in the health care environment. Development of a quality improvement plan based on process management is a resource of important value for the search of excellence in a clinical unit. Great part of this monographic issue is dedicated to show the experience recorded in a Urological unit.

  17. [The contribution of cancer registries in environmental health studies].

    PubMed

    Comba, P; Fazzo, L; Fusco, M; Benedetti, M; Pirastu, R; Ricci, P

    2011-01-01

    Cancer incidence is an outcome of interest in studies assessing the health impact of polluted sites, for which an example is represented by SENTIERI Project. Incidence data are characterized by better diagnostic quality and are not influenced by survival factors, furthermore they allow the investigation of high-survival neoplasms (i.e. childhood cancer) and rare malignancies. Furthermore, the study of incidence is more informative than mortality for non-lethal tumours, therefore it represents an advancement in respect to the study of mortality completed in SENTIERI Project. In the last decade in Italy some environmental epidemiology studies used cancer register data, for example the Biancavilla (Sicily) investigation on fluoro-edenite related mesothelioma and the study in an area of Naples Province where hazardous waste was extensively dumped. In this frame, ISS planned some collaborative studies with Siracusa, Mantua and Ferrara cancer Registries, where three major polluted sites are located. Following these pilot studies an ISS-AIRTUM (Italian Association of Cancer Registries) collaborative study has been planned. For a description of SENTIERI, refer to the 2010 supplement of Epidemiology & Prevention, devoted to the Project.

  18. Mental Health and Health Risk Behaviours of Homeless Adolescents and Youth: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppong Asante, Kwaku; Meyer-Weitz, Anna; Petersen, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Background: Homeless youth, as a vulnerable population are susceptible to various mental and health risk behaviours. However, less is known of the mental health status of these homeless youth and its role in risky sexual behaviours; neither do we understand the reasons homeless youth give for their engagement in various health risk behaviour.…

  19. Behavioral Health Providers and Electronic Health Records: An Exploratory Beliefs Elicitation and Segmentation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shank, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    The widespread adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) is a public policy strategy to improve healthcare quality and reduce accelerating health care costs. Much research has focused on medical providers' perceptions of EHRs, but little is known about those of behavioral health providers. This research was informed by the theory of reasoned…

  20. Spirituality Concept by Health Professionals in Iran: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Memaryan, Nadereh; Rassouli, Maryam; Mehrabi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Background. For years, researchers have sought to provide a clear definition of spirituality and its features and consequences, but the definitions provided of this concept still lack transparency. The present qualitative research was conducted to clarify this concept within the religious-cultural context of Iran. Materials and Methods. The present conventional qualitative content analysis was conducted with an inductive approach. Data were collected through semistructured interviews with 17 spiritual health experts and activists selected through purposive sampling. Results. Three themes emerged from the analysis of the data, including (1) the structure of spirituality, (2) defects in the conceptualization of spirituality, and (3) spirituality in practice, which are explained in this paper with their relevant subthemes and codes. The definition which this study proposes for this concept is that "spirituality is the sublime aspect of human existence bestowed on all humans in order for them to traverse the path of transcendence that is closeness to God (Allah)." Conclusion. The definition provided by this study is similar to the previous definitions of this concept in its main part (transcendence) and in incorporating a God-centered view of spirituality within the context of an Islamic society. This definition has implications for health services' education, research, and practice in similar societies. PMID:27493675