Science.gov

Sample records for add-on control systems

  1. 40 CFR Table 1b to Subpart Dddd of... - Add-on Control Systems Compliance Options

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Add-on Control Systems Compliance Options 1B Table 1B to Subpart DDDD of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Products Pt. 63, Subpt. DDDD, Table 1B Table 1B to Subpart DDDD of Part 63—Add-on Control...

  2. 40 CFR Table 1b to Subpart Dddd of... - Add-on Control Systems Compliance Options

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Add-on Control Systems Compliance Options 1B Table 1B to Subpart DDDD of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Products Pt. 63, Subpt. DDDD, Table 1B Table 1B to Subpart DDDD of Part 63—Add-on Control...

  3. 40 CFR Table 1b to Subpart Dddd of... - Add-on Control Systems Compliance Options

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Add-on Control Systems Compliance Options 1B Table 1B to Subpart DDDD of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Products Pt. 63, Subpt. DDDD, Table 1B Table 1B to Subpart DDDD of Part 63—Add-on Control...

  4. 40 CFR 63.3174 - What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... system or add-on control device which is not taken into account when demonstrating compliance with the... system or add-on control device which is not taken into account when demonstrating compliance with the applicable emission limitations? You may have capture systems or add-on control devices which you choose...

  5. 40 CFR 63.3174 - What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into account when demonstrating compliance with... capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into account when demonstrating compliance with the applicable emission limitations? You may have capture systems or add-on control devices which...

  6. 40 CFR 63.3174 - What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into account when demonstrating compliance with... capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into account when demonstrating compliance with the applicable emission limitations? You may have capture systems or add-on control devices which...

  7. 40 CFR 63.3546 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... capture system and add-on control device operating limits during the performance test? 63.3546 Section 63... the Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.3546 How do I establish the emission capture system... the emission stream for leakage. (d) Carbon adsorbers. If your add-on control device is a...

  8. 40 CFR 63.4767 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... capture system and add-on control device operating limits during the performance test? 63.4767 Section 63... capture system and add-on control device operating limits during the performance test? During the... efficiency according to § 63.4766. (c) Carbon adsorbers. If your add-on control device is a carbon...

  9. 40 CFR 63.3967 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... capture system and add-on control device operating limits during the performance test? 63.3967 Section 63... establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during the performance test... catalytic oxidizer. (c) Regenerative carbon adsorbers. If your add-on control device is a...

  10. 40 CFR 63.4567 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... capture system and add-on control device operating limits during the performance test? 63.4567 Section 63... emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during the performance test? During the... operating limits for that catalytic oxidizer. (c) Regenerative carbon adsorbers. If your add-on...

  11. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart IIIi of... - Operating Limits for Capture Systems and Add-On Control Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51 i. Collecting the direction of air flow, and either the facial... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Operating Limits for Capture Systems... Subpart IIII of Part 63—Operating Limits for Capture Systems and Add-On Control Devices If you...

  12. 40 CFR 63.4767 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true How do I establish the emission capture... Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4767 How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on...) Carbon adsorbers. If your add-on control device is a carbon adsorber, establish the operating...

  13. 40 CFR 63.3556 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... capture system and add-on control device operating limits during the performance test? 63.3556 Section 63... the Control Efficiency/outlet Concentration Option § 63.3556 How do I establish the emission capture... the emission stream for leakage. (d) Carbon adsorbers. If your add-on control device is a...

  14. 40 CFR 63.4167 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... capture system and add-on control device operating limits during the performance test? 63.4167 Section 63... capture system and add-on control device operating limits during the performance test? During the... conduct a new performance test to determine destruction efficiency according to § 63.4166. (c)...

  15. 40 CFR 63.3546 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How do I establish the emission capture... Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.3546 How do I establish the emission capture system and add... the emission stream for leakage. (d) Carbon adsorbers. If your add-on control device is a...

  16. 40 CFR 63.4167 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true How do I establish the emission capture... with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4167 How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control... test to determine destruction efficiency according to § 63.4166. (c) Carbon adsorbers. If your...

  17. 40 CFR 63.3967 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How do I establish the emission capture... emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during the performance test? During the... catalytic oxidizer. (c) Regenerative carbon adsorbers. If your add-on control device is a...

  18. 40 CFR 63.3967 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true How do I establish the emission capture... capture system and add-on control device operating limits during the performance test? During the... catalytic oxidizer. (c) Regenerative carbon adsorbers. If your add-on control device is a...

  19. 40 CFR 63.4966 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... provisions for the use of an alternative monitoring method as set forth in 40 CFR 63.8(f). ... capture system and add-on control device operating limits during the performance test? 63.4966 Section 63... for the Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4966 How do I establish the emission...

  20. 40 CFR 63.4567 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true How do I establish the emission capture... Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4567 How do I establish the emission capture system and add... operating limits for that catalytic oxidizer. (c) Regenerative carbon adsorbers. If your add-on...

  1. 40 CFR 63.4966 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provisions for the use of an alternative monitoring method as set forth in 40 CFR 63.8(f). ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true How do I establish the emission capture... with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4966 How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on...

  2. 40 CFR 63.4567 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How do I establish the emission capture... capture system and add-on control device operating limits during the performance test? During the... operating limits for that catalytic oxidizer. (c) Regenerative carbon adsorbers. If your add-on...

  3. 40 CFR 63.3556 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How do I establish the emission capture... Control Efficiency/outlet Concentration Option § 63.3556 How do I establish the emission capture system... the emission stream for leakage. (d) Carbon adsorbers. If your add-on control device is a...

  4. 40 CFR 63.4966 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... provisions for the use of an alternative monitoring method as set forth in 40 CFR 63.8(f). ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How do I establish the emission capture... Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4966 How do I establish the emission capture system and...

  5. 40 CFR 63.4167 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How do I establish the emission capture... Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4167 How do I establish the emission capture system and add... test to determine destruction efficiency according to § 63.4166. (c) Carbon adsorbers. If your...

  6. 40 CFR 63.4767 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How do I establish the emission capture... for the Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4767 How do I establish the emission capture...) Carbon adsorbers. If your add-on control device is a carbon adsorber, establish the operating...

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION: ADD-ON NOX CONTROLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the environmental technology verification (ETV) of add-on nitrogen oxide (NOx) controls. Research Triangle Institute (RTI) is EPA's cooperating partner for the Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) Program, one of a dozen ETV pilot programs. Verification of ...

  8. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart IIIi of... - Operating Limits for Capture Systems and Add-On Control Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51 i. Collecting the direction of air flow, and either the facial... annual catalyst activity checks, records of monthly inspections of the oxidizer system, and records of... average temperature at or above the temperature limit. 6. Emission capture system that is a PTE a....

  9. Randomized Controlled Trials of Add-On Antidepressants in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Joffe, Grigori; Stenberg, Jan-Henry

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite adequate treatment with antipsychotics, a substantial number of patients with schizophrenia demonstrate only suboptimal clinical outcome. To overcome this challenge, various psychopharmacological combination strategies have been used, including antidepressants added to antipsychotics. Methods: To analyze the efficacy of add-on antidepressants for the treatment of negative, positive, cognitive, depressive, and antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal symptoms in schizophrenia, published randomized controlled trials assessing the efficacy of adjunctive antidepressants in schizophrenia were reviewed using the following parameters: baseline clinical characteristics and number of patients, their on-going antipsychotic treatment, dosage of the add-on antidepressants, duration of the trial, efficacy measures, and outcomes. Results: There were 36 randomized controlled trials reported in 41 journal publications (n=1582). The antidepressants used were the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, duloxetine, imipramine, mianserin, mirtazapine, nefazodone, reboxetin, trazodone, and bupropion. Mirtazapine and mianserin showed somewhat consistent efficacy for negative symptoms and both seemed to enhance neurocognition. Trazodone and nefazodone appeared to improve the antipsychotics-induced extrapyramidal symptoms. Imipramine and duloxetine tended to improve depressive symptoms. No clear evidence supporting selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors’ efficacy on any clinical domain of schizophrenia was found. Add-on antidepressants did not worsen psychosis. Conclusions: Despite a substantial number of randomized controlled trials, the overall efficacy of add-on antidepressants in schizophrenia remains uncertain mainly due to methodological issues. Some differences in efficacy on several schizophrenia domains seem, however, to exist and to vary by the antidepressant subgroups—plausibly due to differences in the mechanisms of action. Antidepressants may not worsen

  10. 40 CFR 63.3174 - What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Automobiles and Light-Duty Trucks Compliance Requirements for the Combined Primer-Surfacer, Topcoat, Final Repair, Glass Bonding Primer, and Glass Bonding Adhesive Emission Limitations and the Separate Electrodeposition Primer Emission Limitations § 63.3174 What are the requirements for a capture system or...

  11. 40 CFR 63.3174 - What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Automobiles and Light-Duty Trucks Compliance Requirements for the Combined Primer-Surfacer, Topcoat, Final Repair, Glass Bonding Primer, and Glass Bonding Adhesive Emission Limitations and the Separate Electrodeposition Primer Emission Limitations § 63.3174 What are the requirements for a capture system or...

  12. 40 CFR 75.34 - Units with add-on emission controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... assurance/quality control program for the unit, required by section 1 in appendix B of this part. To provide... parametric data to verify the proper operation of the SO2 or NOX add-on emission controls during each hour, as described in paragraph (d) of this section. For any missing data hour(s) in which such...

  13. 40 CFR 75.34 - Units with add-on emission controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... assurance/quality control program for the unit, required by section 1 in appendix B of this part. To provide... parametric data to verify the proper operation of the SO2 or NOX add-on emission controls during each hour, as described in paragraph (d) of this section. For any missing data hour(s) in which such...

  14. 40 CFR 75.34 - Units with add-on emission controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... assurance/quality control program for the unit, required by section 1 in appendix B of this part. To provide... parametric data to verify the proper operation of the SO2 or NOX add-on emission controls during each hour, as described in paragraph (d) of this section. For any missing data hour(s) in which such...

  15. 40 CFR 75.34 - Units with add-on emission controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... assurance/quality control program for the unit, required by section 1 in appendix B of this part. To provide... parametric data to verify the proper operation of the SO2 or NOX add-on emission controls during each hour, as described in paragraph (d) of this section. For any missing data hour(s) in which such...

  16. Add-on fluvoxamine treatment for schizophrenia: an updated meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Taro; Hirota, Tomoya; Iwata, Nakao

    2013-12-01

    We performed an updated meta-analysis of fluvoxamine add-on therapy in patients with schizophrenia treated with antipsychotics based on two previous meta-analyses (Sepehry et al., in J Clin Psychiatry 68:604-610, 2007 and Singh et al., in Br J Psychiatry J Mental Sci 197:174-179, 2010). We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library database, and PsycINFO up to January 2013. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data from randomized controlled trials comparing fluvoxamine add-on therapy with placebo. The risk ratio (RR), 95 % confidence intervals (CI), and standardized mean difference (SMD) were calculated. Seven studies (total n = 272) were identified. These included two clozapine studies, one olanzapine study, one second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) monotherapy study, and three first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) monotherapy studies. There were significant effect of fluvoxamine add-on therapy on overall (SMD = -0.46, CI = -0.75 to -0.16, p = 0.003, I (2) = 0 %, 5 studies, n = 180) and negative symptoms (SMD = -0.44, CI = -0.74 to -0.14, p = 0.004, I (2) = 0 %, 5 studies, n = 180). However, fluvoxamine add-on therapy showed no significant effects on positive symptoms, depressive symptoms, and discontinuations from any cause or adverse events. Fluvoxamine add-on therapy in patients primarily treated with SGAs improved overall (p = 0.02) but not negative symptoms (p = 0.31). On the other hand, fluvoxamine add-on therapy in patients primarily treated with FGAs improved both overall (p = 0.04) and negative symptoms (p = 0.004) compared with control groups. Our results suggest that fluvoxamine add-on therapy is more beneficial on the psychopathology (especially negative symptoms) than controls in patients with schizophrenia who are primarily treated with FGAs. Given that a small number of studies were included in this meta-analysis, the results should be treated with caution. PMID:23605347

  17. 40 CFR 63.9323 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I determine the add-on control... the add-on control device simultaneously, using either Method 25 or 25A of appendix A to 40 CFR part... than 50 parts per million at the control device outlet. (2) Use Method 25A of appendix A to 40 CFR...

  18. Increased inspiratory esophagogastric junction pressure in systemic sclerosis: An add-on to antireflux barrier

    PubMed Central

    Nobre e Souza, Miguel Ângelo; Bezerra, Patrícia Carvalho; Nobre, Rivianny Arrais; Holanda, Esther Studart da Fonseca; dos Santos, Armênio Aguiar

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate crural diaphragm (CD) function in systemic sclerosis (SSc) using high-resolution manometry and standardized inspiratory maneuvers. METHODS: Eight SSc volunteers (average age, 40.1 years; one male) and 13 controls (average age, 32.2 years; six males) participated in the study. A high-resolution manometry/impedance system measured the esophagus and esophagogastric junction (EGJ) pressure profile during swallows and two respiratory maneuvers: sinus arrhythmia maneuver (SAM; the average of six EGJ peak pressures during 5-s deep inhalations) and threshold maneuver (TM; the EGJ peak pressures during forced inhalation under 12 and 24 cmH2O loads). Inspiratory diaphragm lowering (IDL) was taken as the displacement of the EGJ high-pressure zone during the SAM. RESULTS: SSc patients had lower mean lower esophageal sphincter pressure than controls during normal breathing (19.7 ± 2.8 mmHg vs 32.2 ± 2.7 mmHg, P = 0.007). Sinus arrhythmia maneuver pressure was higher in SSc patients than in controls (142.6 ± 9.4 mmHg vs 104.6 ± 13.8 mmHg, P = 0.019). Sinus arrhythmia maneuver pressure normalized to IDL was also higher in SSc patients than in controls (83.8 ± 13.4 mmHg vs 37.5 ± 6.9 mmHg, P = 0.005). Threshold maneuver pressures normalized to IDL were also greater in SSc patients than in controls (TM 12 cmH2O: 85.1 ± 16.4 mmHg vs 43.9 ± 6.3 mmHg, P = 0.039; TM 24 cmH2O: 85.2 ± 16.4 mmHg vs 46.2 ± 6.6 mmHg, P = 0.065). Inspiratory diaphragm lowering in SSc patients was less than in controls (2.1 ± 0.3 cm vs 3 ± 0.2 cm, P = 0.011). CONCLUSION: SSc patients had increased inspiratory EGJ pressure. This is an add-on to EGJ pressure and indicates that the antireflux barrier can be trained. PMID:25717239

  19. 40 CFR 63.9323 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the add-on control device simultaneously, using either Method 25 or 25A of appendix A to 40 CFR part... both the inlet and outlet measurements. (1) Use Method 25 of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60 if the add-on.... (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select sampling sites...

  20. 40 CFR 63.9323 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the add-on control device simultaneously, using either Method 25 or 25A of appendix A to 40 CFR part... both the inlet and outlet measurements. (1) Use Method 25 of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60 if the add-on.... (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select sampling sites...

  1. 40 CFR 63.9323 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the add-on control device simultaneously, using either Method 25 or 25A of appendix A to 40 CFR part... both the inlet and outlet measurements. (1) Use Method 25 of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60 if the add-on.... (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select sampling sites...

  2. Space station systems technology study (add-on task). Volume 2: Trade study and technology selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The current Space Station Systems Technology Study add on task was an outgrowth of the Advanced Platform Systems Technology Study (APSTS) that was completed in April 1983 and the subsequent Space Station System Technology Study completed in April 1984. The first APSTS proceeded from the identification of 106 technology topics to the selection of five for detailed trade studies. During the advanced platform study, the technical issues and options were evaluated through detailed trade processes, individual consideration was given to costs and benefits for the technologies identified for advancement, and advancement plans were developed. An approach similar to that was used in the subsequent study, with emphasis on system definition in four specific technology areas to facilitate a more in depth analysis of technology issues.

  3. The importance of postprandial glycemic control: optimizing add-on therapy to basal insulin.

    PubMed

    Shaefer, Charles F; Anderson, John

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes, mainly type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), is associated with a growing clinical and economic burden in the United States, which is expected to increase in association with an aging population. Sufficient glycemic control in patients with T2DM, in order to reduce the risk of micro- and macrovascular complications associated with diabetes, is mediated by lifestyle modifications and a regimen of increasingly intensive antidiabetes drugs. Several treatments and strategies are available for primary care physicians to select from when choosing the most appropriate therapy for their individual patients with T2DM, but, ultimately, due to the progressive nature of the disease, most of these patients will require insulin therapy to maintain glycemic control. Regimens containing basal and postprandial insulins are widely used, but there is still widespread reluctance to initiate insulin treatment due to fear of weight gain and hypoglycemia. Furthermore, as patients approach recommended glycated hemoglobin targets, postprandial hyperglycemia becomes the main contributor to hyperglycemic exposure, necessitating the timely initiation of prandial treatment. Finally, insulin treatment can be limited by factors like the number of injections, mealtime restrictions, complex titration algorithms and patient adherence. Recent developments in antidiabetes drug research have brought more convenient basal and postprandial regimens closer. Clinical evaluation of the efficacy and safety of basal insulins plus add-on glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) has yielded promising results. Primary care physicians are continually challenged to optimize insulin treatment strategies to maximize patient outcomes. Emerging strategies such as long-acting basal insulin analogs and short-acting GLP-1 RAs are particularly appealing to address this challenge. PMID:26548422

  4. 40 CFR 63.4566 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... appendix A to 40 CFR part 60. (1) Use Method 25 if the add-on control device is an oxidizer and you expect... paragraphs (a)(1) through (5) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as... appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A,...

  5. 40 CFR 63.4566 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... appendix A to 40 CFR part 60. (1) Use Method 25 if the add-on control device is an oxidizer and you expect... paragraphs (a)(1) through (5) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as... appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A,...

  6. 40 CFR 63.4566 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... outlet of the add-on control device simultaneously, using either Method 25 or 25A of appendix A to 40 CFR...) through (5) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to... to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or...

  7. 40 CFR 63.4566 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... appendix A to 40 CFR part 60. (1) Use Method 25 if the add-on control device is an oxidizer and you expect... paragraphs (a)(1) through (5) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as... appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A,...

  8. Space station systems technology study (add-on task). Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    System concepts were characterized in order to define cost versus benefits for autonomous functional control and for controls and displays for OMV, OTV, and spacecraft servicing and operation. The attitude control topic focused on characterizing the Space Station attitude control problem through simulation of control system responses to structural disturbances. The first two topics, mentioned above, focused on specific technology items that require advancement in order to support an early 1990s initial launch of a Space Station, while the attitude control study was an exploration of the capability of conventional controller techniques.

  9. 40 CFR 75.34 - Units with add-on emission controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the necessary documentation, the owner or operator shall, for each missing data period, record... ozone season, the procedures of § 75.33 may be applied unconditionally, i.e., documentation of the operational status of the emission controls is not required in order to apply the standard missing...

  10. TEST DESIGN FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) OF ADD-ON NOX CONTROL UTILIZING OZONE INJECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the test design for environmental technology verification (ETV) of add-0n nitrogen oxides (NOx) control utilizing ozone injection. (NOTE: ETV is an EPA-established program to enhance domestic and international market acceptance of new or improved commercially...

  11. Effects of add-on montelukast on airway hyperresponsiveness in patients with well-controlled asthma – a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Kononowa, Nina; Michel, Sandra; Miedinger, David; Pichler, Christiane E.; Chhajed, Prashant N.; Helbling, Arthur; Leuppi, Jörg D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Control of airway inflammation is the cornerstone of asthma management. The aim of the present pilot study was to assess the effects of a leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA) added to a basic treatment of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and long-acting beta-agonist (LABA) on airway hyperresponsiveness, inflammation, and quality of life in well-controlled patients with asthma. Research design and methods Seventeen patients (age 18–65, 11 women) with well-controlled asthma presenting airway hyperresponsiveness to mannitol and methacholine challenge were given add-on montelukast on a stable ICS + LABA for 4 weeks. Quality of life and selected parameters of airway inflammation were measured at baseline and at study end. (ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01725360)). Results Adding montelukast to ICS + LABA resulted in an increase in mean FEV1 (+4.5%, p = 0.057), cumulated higher dose of mannitol (+32.5%, p = 0.023) and methacholine (+17.2%, 0.237) in the provocation test, lower airway reactivity with mannitol and methacholine (response dose ratio (RDR) –50.0%, p = 0.024 and –44.3%, p = 0.006, respectively), and improved airway sensitivity to mannitol and methacholine (+12.1%, p = 0.590 and +48.0%, p = 0.129 for PD15 and PD20 FEV1, respectively). Changes in inflammation parameters (blood eosinophil count, serum eosinophil cationic protein, and exhaled nitric oxide) were consistent with these findings. Asthma-related quality of life improved significantly in all domains and overall (from 5.3 at baseline to 6.1 at the final visit, p < 0.001). The main limitation was the absence of a control group. Conclusion The consistency of the changes in airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation as well as in quality of life observed with an add-on therapy with montelukast in well-controlled asthma patients during 4 weeks suggests that residual inflammation may represent an area for further improvement of asthma control to be explored in

  12. Space station systems technology study (add-on task). Volume 3: Technology advancement program plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Program plans are given for an integrating controller for space station autonomy as well as for controls and displays. The technical approach, facility requirements and candidate facilities, development schedules, and resource requirements estimates are given.

  13. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Vvvv of... - Operating Limits if Using an Add-on Control Device for Open Molding Operations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Operating Limits if Using an Add-on Control Device for Open Molding Operations 4 Table 4 to Subpart VVVV of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE...

  14. N-Acetylcysteine in the Treatment of Pediatric Trichotillomania: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Add-On Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloch, Michael H.; Panza, Kaitlyn E.; Grant, Jon E.; Pittenger, Christopher; Leckman, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for the treatment of pediatric trichotillomania (TTM) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, add-on study. Method: A total of 39 children and adolescents aged 8 to 17 years with pediatric trichotillomania were randomly assigned to receive NAC or matching placebo for 12 weeks. Our primary…

  15. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Vvvv of... - Operating Limits if Using an Add-on Control Device for Open Molding Operations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... be at least 0.007 inch H2O, as established in Method 204 of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51 i... Control Device for Open Molding Operations 4 Table 4 to Subpart VVVV of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Limits if Using an Add-on Control Device for Open Molding Operations As specified in §§ 63.5715(a) and...

  16. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Vvvv of... - Operating Limits if Using an Add-on Control Device for Open Molding Operations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... be at least 0.007 inch H2O, as established in Method 204 of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51 i... Control Device for Open Molding Operations 4 Table 4 to Subpart VVVV of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Limits if Using an Add-on Control Device for Open Molding Operations As specified in §§ 63.5715(a) and...

  17. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Vvvv of... - Operating Limits if Using an Add-on Control Device for Open Molding Operations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... be at least 0.007 inch H2O, as established in Method 204 of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51 i... Control Device for Open Molding Operations 4 Table 4 to Subpart VVVV of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Limits if Using an Add-on Control Device for Open Molding Operations As specified in §§ 63.5715(a) and...

  18. Add-on mirtazapine improves depressive symptoms in schizophrenia: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study with an open-label extension phase.

    PubMed

    Terevnikov, Viacheslav; Stenberg, Jan-Henry; Tiihonen, Jari; Joffe, Marina; Burkin, Mark; Tchoukhine, Evgueni; Joffe, Grigori

    2011-04-01

    Depression is common in schizophrenia and worsens its course. The role of antidepressants for schizophrenic depression remains unclear. In this study, the efficacy of add-on mirtazapine on depression in schizophrenia was explored in a subsidiary arm of a recent randomized controlled trial. Patients (n = 41) with chronic but stable schizophrenia and inadequate response to stable doses of different first-generation antipsychotics were treated with add-on mirtazapine 30 mg or placebo during a 6-week double-blind phase and with open-label add-on mirtazapine during a 6-week extension phase. Efficacy measures were the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale depression item. During the double-blind phase, both measures' scores decreased significantly in the mirtazapine group but not in the placebo group (for the CDSS, 52.0% vs 19.6%, respectively). During the open‐label phase, both groups demonstrated significant improvements. In between‐group comparison, a trend favoring mirtazapine did not reach statistical significance. The changes in the CDSS correlated positively with those in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale negative, positive and total (sub)scales for mirtazapine‐treated patients during the double‐blind phase. Depressed patients with schizophrenia may benefit from mirtazapine–first‐generation antipsychotics combination, with no increased risk for psychosis. However, more studies are needed. PMID:21469215

  19. Semi-individualised Chinese medicine treatment as an adjuvant management for diabetic nephropathy: a pilot add-on, randomised, controlled, multicentre, open-label pragmatic clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kam Wa; Ip, Tai Pang; Kwong, Alfred Siu Kei; Lui, Sing Leung; Chan, Gary Chi Wang; Cowling, Benjamin John; Yiu, Wai Han; Wong, Dickson Wai Leong; Liu, Yang; Feng, Yibin; Tan, Kathryn Choon Beng; Chan, Loretta Yuk Yee; Leung, Joseph Chi Kam; Lai, Kar Neng; Tang, Sydney Chi Wai

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy (DN) are prevalent and costly to manage. DN is the leading cause of end-stage kidney disease. Conventional therapy blocking the renin–angiotensin system has only achieved limited effect in preserving renal function. Recent observational data show that the use of Chinese medicine (CM), a major form of traditional medicine used extensively in Asia, could reduce the risk of end-stage kidney disease. However, existing clinical practice guidelines are weakly evidence-based and the effect of CM remains unclear. This trial explores the effect of an existing integrative Chinese–Western medicine protocol for the management of DN. Objective To optimise parameters and assess the feasibility for a subsequent phase III randomised controlled trial through preliminary evaluation on the effect of an adjuvant semi-individualised CM treatment protocol on patients with type 2 diabetes with stages 2–3 chronic kidney disease and macroalbuminuria. Methods and analysis This is an assessor-blind, add-on, randomised, controlled, parallel, multicentre, open-label pilot pragmatic clinical trial. 148 patients diagnosed with DN will be recruited and randomised 1:1 to a 48-week additional semi-individualised CM treatment programme or standard medical care. Primary end points are the changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate and spot urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio between baseline and treatment end point. Secondary end points include fasting blood glucose, glycated haemoglobin, brain natriuretic peptide, fasting insulin, C peptide, fibroblast growth factor 23, urinary monocyte chemotactic protein-1, cystatin C, nephrin, transforming growth factor-β1 and vascular endothelial growth factor. Adverse events are monitored through self-completed questionnaire and clinical visits. Outcomes will be analysed by regression models. Enrolment started in July 2015. Ethics and registration This protocol is approved by the Institutional

  20. Exhaled Nitric Oxide Fraction as an Add-On to ACQ-7 for Not Well Controlled Asthma Detection

    PubMed Central

    Plaza, Vicente; Ramos-Barbón, David; Muñoz, Ana María; Fortuna, Ana María; Crespo, Astrid; Murio, Cristina; Palomino, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Background The measurement of fractional nitric oxide concentration in exhaled breath (FeNO), a noninvasive indicator of airway inflammation, remains controversial as a tool to assess asthma control. Guidelines currently limit asthma control assessment to symptom and spirometry based appraisals such as the Asthma Control Questionnaire-7 (ACQ-7). We aimed at determining whether adding FeNO to ACQ-7 improves current asthma clinical control assessment, through enhanced detection of not well controlled asthma. Methods Asthmatic subjects, classified as not well controlled as per ACQ-7 on regular clinical practice, were included in a prospective, multicenter fashion, and had their maintenance treatment adjusted on visit 1. On follow-up (visit 2) four weeks later, the subjects were reevaluated as controlled or not well controlled using ACQ-7 versus a combination of FeNO and ACQ-7. Results Out of 381 subjects enrolled, 225 (59.1%) had not well controlled asthma on visit 2 as determined by ACQ-7, and 264 (69.3%) as per combined FeNO and ACQ-7. The combination of FeNO to ACQ-7 increased by 14.8% the detection of not well controlled asthma following maintenance therapy adjustment. Conclusions The addition of FeNO to ACQ-7 increased the detectability of not well controlled asthma upon adjustment of maintenance therapy. Adding a measure of airway inflammation to usual symptom and spirometry based scores increases the efficacy of current asthma clinical control assessment. PMID:24204742

  1. Targeting Accuracy, Procedure Times and User Experience of 240 Experimental MRI Biopsies Guided by a Clinical Add-On Navigation System

    PubMed Central

    Busse, Harald; Riedel, Tim; Garnov, Nikita; Thörmer, Gregor; Kahn, Thomas; Moche, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objectives MRI is of great clinical utility for the guidance of special diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. The majority of such procedures are performed iteratively ("in-and-out") in standard, closed-bore MRI systems with control imaging inside the bore and needle adjustments outside the bore. The fundamental limitations of such an approach have led to the development of various assistance techniques, from simple guidance tools to advanced navigation systems. The purpose of this work was to thoroughly assess the targeting accuracy, workflow and usability of a clinical add-on navigation solution on 240 simulated biopsies by different medical operators. Methods Navigation relied on a virtual 3D MRI scene with real-time overlay of the optically tracked biopsy needle. Smart reference markers on a freely adjustable arm ensured proper registration. Twenty-four operators – attending (AR) and resident radiologists (RR) as well as medical students (MS) – performed well-controlled biopsies of 10 embedded model targets (mean diameter: 8.5 mm, insertion depths: 17-76 mm). Targeting accuracy, procedure times and 13 Likert scores on system performance were determined (strong agreement: 5.0). Results Differences in diagnostic success rates (AR: 93%, RR: 88%, MS: 81%) were not significant. In contrast, between-group differences in biopsy times (AR: 4:15, RR: 4:40, MS: 5:06 min:sec) differed significantly (p<0.01). Mean overall rating was 4.2. The average operator would use the system again (4.8) and stated that the outcome justifies the extra effort (4.4). Lowest agreement was reported for the robustness against external perturbations (2.8). Conclusions The described combination of optical tracking technology with an automatic MRI registration appears to be sufficiently accurate for instrument guidance in a standard (closed-bore) MRI environment. High targeting accuracy and usability was demonstrated on a relatively large number of procedures and operators. Between

  2. Rapid response to methylphenidate as an add-on therapy to mirtazapine in the treatment of major depressive disorder in terminally ill cancer patients: a four-week, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Ng, Chong Guan; Boks, Marco P M; Roes, Kit C B; Zainal, Nor Zuraida; Sulaiman, Ahmad Hatim; Tan, Seng Beng; de Wit, Niek J

    2014-04-01

    This is a 4 week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to examine the effects of methylphenidate as add-on therapy to mirtazapine compared to placebo for treatment of depression in terminally ill cancer patients. It involved 88 terminally ill cancer patients from University of Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. They were randomized and treated with either methylphenidate or placebo as add on to mirtazapine. The change in Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) score from baseline to day 3 was analyzed by linear regression. Changes of MADRS and Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale (CGI-S) over 28 days were analyzed using mixed model repeated measures (MMRM). Secondary analysis of MADRS response rates, defined as 50% or more reduction from baseline score. A significantly larger reduction of Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) score in the methylphenidate group was observed from day 3 (B=4.14; 95% CI=1.83-6.45). Response rate (defined as 50% or more reduction from baseline MADRS score) in the methylphenidate treated group was superior from day 14. Improvement in Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale (CGI-S) was greater in the methylphenidate treated group from day 3 until day 28. The drop-out rates were 52.3% in the methylphenidate group and 59.1% in the placebo group (relative risk=0.86, 95%CI=0.54-1.37) due to cancer progression. Nervous system adverse events were more common in methylphenidate treated subjects (20.5% vs 9.1%, p=0.13). In conclusions, methylphenidate as add on therapy to mirtazapine demonstrated an earlier antidepressant response in terminally ill cancer patients, although at an increased risk of the nervous system side effects. PMID:24503279

  3. Add-on montelukast in inadequately controlled asthma patients in a 6-month open-label study: the MONtelukast In Chronic Asthma (MONICA) study.

    PubMed

    Virchow, J Christian; Mehta, Anish; Ljungblad, Li; Mitfessel, Harald

    2010-05-01

    Bronchial asthma often remains uncontrolled despite treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), long-acting beta(2)-agonists (LABA) or both, necessitating additional treatment. Patients >or=18 years (n=1681) with mild-to-moderate asthma received oral montelukast 10mg added to ICS or ICS+LABAs, and were followed for 6 months in a prospective, open-label observational study. The primary endpoint was change in Asthma Control Test (ACT) score. Secondary endpoints included mini-Asthma Quality-of-Life Questionnaire (mini-AQLQ) and FEV(1)/PEF. Mean ACT scores improved from 14.6+/-4.6 (baseline) to 19.4+/-4.4 (month 6; p<0.0001). Using ACT score categories, the percentage of patients with uncontrolled (57.5%) or poorly controlled (25.0%) asthma at baseline decreased at month 6 (17.6 and 21.7%, respectively); the percentage of patients with well controlled (13.9%) or completely controlled (1.2%) asthma at baseline increased at month 6 (47.5 and 11.4%, respectively). The mini-AQLQ score (mean+/-SD) improved from 4.0+/-1.1 to 5.3+/-1.1 (p<0.0001); FEV(1) increased from 2.46+/-0.89 to 2.60+/-0.92L (p<0.0001). Treatment with montelukast was generally well tolerated. In patients insufficiently controlled with ICS or ICS+LABAs, daily add-on montelukast improved both asthma control and asthma-related quality of life. Clinicaltrials.gov registry number NCT00802789. PMID:20031382

  4. Lithium as add-on to quetiapine XR in adult patients with acute mania: a 6-week, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Bourin, Michel S; Severus, Emanuel; Schronen, Juan P; Gass, Peter; Szamosi, Johan; Eriksson, Hans; Chandrashekar, Hongally

    2014-01-01

    Quetiapine extended release (XR) and lithium are treatments with proven efficacy in acute mania. This randomized study evaluated the efficacy and safety of lithium or placebo as add-on to quetiapine XR in adult patients with manic or mixed symptoms of bipolar I disorder. In this 6-week, double-blind study (Trial D144AC00003), adult patients with DSM-IV-TR-diagnosed bipolar I disorder (current episode manic or mixed), a Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) total score ≥20, and score ≥4 on two of four core YMRS items were administered quetiapine XR (400 to 800 mg/day) and randomly assigned to receive add-on lithium (600 to 1,800 mg/day) or placebo. The primary efficacy end point was change in the YMRS total score from baseline to day 43, analyzed using a mixed-model for repeated measures (MMRM) approach. Secondary efficacy and safety end points were also measured. Rating scales were administered by trained staff. Three hundred fifty-six patients treated with quetiapine XR were randomized to add-on lithium (n = 173) or placebo (n = 183). Two hundred ninety-one patients (81.7%) completed the study. At day 43, least squares mean change in YMRS total score was -22.8 for add-on lithium and -20.1 for add-on placebo, a statistically significant treatment group difference of -2.69 (p < 0.001). On secondary measures, add-on lithium was associated with significant improvements in response, remission, illness severity, and overall illness versus add-on placebo (p < 0.05). The number needed to treat was 9.1 for response and 7.9 for remission for add-on lithium compared with add-on placebo. Lithium in combination with quetiapine XR was generally well tolerated, with a similar profile to quetiapine XR in combination with placebo. The addition of lithium to quetiapine XR therapy was associated with significantly greater efficacy than placebo as add-on and was generally well tolerated in patients with acute bipolar I mania. This study was registered under Clinicaltrials

  5. Comparative effects of telmisartan and valsartan as add-on agents for hypertensive patients with morning blood pressure insufficiently controlled by amlodipine monotherapy.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Hideaki; Akasaka, Hiroshi; Saitoh, Shigeyuki; Shimamoto, Kazuaki; Miura, Tetsuji

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the efficacies of valsartan and telmisartan as add-on agents for the control of morning blood pressure (BP) in patients already on amlodipine monotherapy. A total of 414 hypertensive patients were prospectively enrolled in a 4-week run-in period when they were treated with amlodipine (5 mg/day), and home BP was measured in the morning and evening. Patients with home systolic BP (SBP) being 135-159 mm Hg in the morning at the end of the run-in period were randomized to additional treatment with valsartan (80 mg/day) or with telmisartan (40 mg/day) for 8 weeks. The primary endpoint was the change in morning home BP, and secondary endpoints included variability of morning home BP. Of the 282 patients randomized, 262 patients (n=131, in each treatment) completed the protocols. Demographic parameters and baseline morning SBP/diastolic BP (DBP) (146.3±7.1/84.8±9.3 vs. 146.0±7.1/84.2±9.1 mm Hg) were comparable in the valsartan group and telmisartan group, and changes in SBP/DBP after 8-week treatment were not significantly different between the two groups (-7.4±10.6/-3.9±6.1 vs. -8.3±9.9/-5.0±5.9 mm Hg). Valsartan significantly increased individual standard deviation and variation coefficient of morning SBP, but telmisartan did not change either of these indices of SBP variation. In subgroups with baseline SBP being above the median (145.2 mm Hg), change in DBP was significantly larger by telmisartan than by valsartan (-6.3±5.6 vs. -3.9±6.7 mm Hg, P<0.05). These results suggest that telmisartan is more useful than valsartan as an add-on agent for reducing the level and variability of morning BP in patients on amlodipine monotherapy. PMID:24108237

  6. Efficacy of Zinc Sulfate as an Add-on Therapy to Risperidone Versus Risperidone Alone in Patients With Schizophrenia: A Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Mehran; Farzin, Davood; Zarhghami, Mehran; Hosseini, Seyed Hamzeh; Mansoori, Parisa; Nateghi, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Zinc can modulate fast-excitatory transmission, facilitate the release of amino butyric acid and potentiate nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. There are also emerging evidences discussing the implication of these neurotransmitters in pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Zn sulfate as an add-on therapy in the treatment of schizophrenia in a 6-week, double-blind and placebo-controlled trial. Patients and Methods: Eligible participants were 30 inpatients with schizophrenia according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria. Patients were randomly allocated into two equal groups; one group of patients received risperidone 6 mg/day plus capsules of Zn sulfate (each containing 50 mg elemental Zn) three times a day and another group received risperidone 6 mg/day plus placebo. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was applied to assess the psychotic symptoms and aggression risk at baseline, week 2, 4, and 6 of the study. Results: The results of this study showed that both protocols significantly decreased the scores on all subscales of the PANSS and supplemental aggression risk subscale as well as PANSS total score over the study. However, this improvement was significantly higher in Zn sulfate receiving group compared to the placebo group. No major clinical side-effects were detected. Conclusions: It may be concluded that Zn is an effective adjuvant agent in the management of patients with schizophrenia. PMID:26576178

  7. The effect of add-on memantine on global function and quality of life in schizophrenia: A randomized, double-blind, controlled, clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Omranifard, Victoria; Rajabi, Fatemeh; Mohammadian-Sichani, Maryam; Maracy, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Schizophrenia severely influences function and quality of life. The benefit of newer antipsychotics in improving the quality of life in schizophrenia still remains controversial. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of memantine on global function and quality of life in patients with schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial on inpatient cases of schizophrenia in Noor University Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. A number of 64 patients were selected through sequential sampling; patients were randomly allocated in intervention and placebo groups. The intervention group was treated with memantine plus previously administered, stabled-dose, atypical antipsychotic, while the control group received placebo plus previously administered, stabled-dose, atypical antipsychotic. Memantine administration was initiated at 5 mg daily; the dosage was increased at weekly intervals by 5 mg and finally up-titrated to 20 mg daily within 4 weeks. All patients were assessed by means of Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and quality of life scale (QLS) initially and every four weeks to the end of the 12th week. Results: Analysis of baseline GAF and QLS scores showed no significant differences between the two groups (P = 0.081 and P = 0.225, respectively). GAF and QLS scores increased in both groups; but it was higher in the intervention group. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant. (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively) memantine was well tolerated, with no significant side effects. Conclusion: Add-on memantine was significantly effective in improving the global function of patients as well as their quality of life. PMID:26605240

  8. N-Acetylcysteine in the Treatment of Pediatric Trichotillomania: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Add-On Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, Michael H.; Panza, Kaitlyn E.; Grant, Jon E.; Pittenger, Christopher; Leckman, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for the treatment of pediatric trichotillomania (TTM) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, add-on study. Method A total of 39 children and adolescents aged 8 to 17 years with pediatric trichotillomania were randomly assigned to receive NAC or matching placebo for 12 weeks. Our primary outcome was change in severity of hairpulling as measured by the Massachusetts General Hospital–Hairpulling Scale (MGH-HPS). Secondary measures assessed hairpulling severity, automatic versus focused pulling, clinician-rated improvement, and comorbid anxiety and depression. Outcomes were examined using linear mixed models to test the treatment × time interaction in an intention-to-treat population. Results No significant difference between N-acetylcysteine and placebo was found on any of the primary or secondary outcome measures. On several measures of hairpulling, subjects significantly improved with time regardless of treatment assignment. In the NAC group, 25% of subjects were judged as treatment responders, compared to 21% in the placebo group. Conclusions We observed no benefit of NAC for the treatment of children with trichotillomania. Our findings stand in contrast to a previous, similarly designed trial in adults with TTM, which demonstrated a very large, statistically significant benefit of NAC. Based on the differing results of NAC in pediatric and adult TTM populations, the assumption that pharmacological interventions demonstrated to be effective in adults with TTM will be as effective in children, may be inaccurate. This trial highlights the importance of referring children with TTM to appropriate behavioral therapy before initiating pharmacological interventions, as behavioral therapy has demonstrated efficacy in both children and adults with trichotillomania. PMID:23452680

  9. Comparison of vildagliptin as an add-on therapy and sulfonylurea dose-increasing therapy in patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes using metformin and sulfonylurea (VISUAL study): A randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Hong, A Ram; Lee, Jeun; Ku, Eu Jeong; Hwangbo, Yul; Kim, Kyoung Min; Moon, Jae Hoon; Choi, Sung Hee; Jang, Hak Chul; Lim, Soo

    2015-07-01

    The aim of present study is to compare the efficacy and safety of adding vildagliptin with sulfonylurea dose-increasing as an active comparator in patients who had inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using metformin plus sulfonylurea in real clinical practice. Patients using metformin plus sulfonylurea were assigned to either vildagliptin add-on (50 mg twice a day, n=172) or sulfonylurea dose-increasing by 50% (n=172) treatment groups. The primary endpoint was a change in HbA(1c) after 24 weeks. The secondary endpoints were patients achieving HbA(1c)≤7.0% (53 mmol/mol) and changes in the fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h postprandial glucose (2pp), lipid profiles, and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio. Body weight and hypoglycemia were also investigated. The mean HbA(1c) at baseline was 8.6% (70 mmol/mol) in both groups. At week 24, the adjusted mean HbA(1c) levels decreased by -1.19% (-13.09 mmol/mol) with vildagliptin add-on and -0.46% (-5.06 mmol/mol) with sulfonylurea (P<0.001). Significantly more vildagliptin add-on patients achieved HbA(1c)≤7.0% (53 mmol/mol) than did sulfonylurea patients (40.1% vs. 7.9%; P<0.001). Greater reductions in FPG and 2pp were observed with vildagliptin add-on than with sulfonylurea (P<0.001). The vildagliptin add-on group exhibited no clinically relevant weight gain and had a lower incidence of hypoglycemia compared with the sulfonylurea group. Vildagliptin add-on therapy might be a suitable option for patients with T2DM that is controlled inadequately by metformin and sulfonylurea, based on its greater glucose control and better safety profile (ClinicalTrial.gov: NCT01099137). PMID:26003889

  10. Ephedrine as add-on therapy for patients with myasthenia gravis: protocol for a series of randomised, placebo-controlled n-of-1 trials

    PubMed Central

    Vrinten, Charlotte; Lipka, Alexander F; van Zwet, Erik W; Schimmel, Kirsten J M; Cornel, Martina C; Kuijpers, Marja R; Hekster, Yechiel A; Weinreich, Stephanie S; Verschuuren, Jan J G M

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Myasthenia gravis (MG), a rare neuromuscular disease, is often initially treated using acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Patients who do not respond adequately depend on the use of corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive medication, but these may have serious side effects. Clinical observations suggest that ephedrine can diminish, postpone or even prevent the need for immunosuppressive therapy when added to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors or low-dose prednisone. In the Netherlands, ephedrine is not licensed for MG nor is reimbursement guaranteed. MG is a rare condition, and ephedrine might be indicated only in a subset of patients. Thus, randomised controlled trials comparing large groups are difficult to conduct. We, therefore, aim to aggregate data from a small series of n-of-1 trials (also known as single patient trials) to assess the effect of ephedrine as add-on treatment for MG. Methods and analysis Single-centre, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomised, multiple crossover n-of-1 studies in 4 adult patients with generalised MG who show inadequate improvement on pyridostigmine and/or immunosuppressive drugs. Each n-of-1 trial has 3 cycles of two 5-day intervention periods. Treatment: 25 mg ephedrine or placebo, twice daily. Main outcome measure: Quantitative Myasthenia Gravis (QMG) test. Statistical analysis: fixed effects linear model for QMG for all patients combined. Secondary outcome measures: Clinical: effects on MG-Composite and MG-Activities of Daily Living (MG-ADL) scales; QMG at individual level; adverse events. Acceptability of trial design: number of patients eligible and enrolled; number of treatment cycles completed; patients’ and caregivers’ experiences. Ethics and dissemination This study was approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of Leiden University Medical Center, No. P14.108. Results of the trial will be reported in a peer-reviewed publication. Regulatory stakeholders will comment on the suitability of the trial

  11. Acarbose improves glycemic control as add-on or monotherapy in Indian type-2 diabetes: Findings from the GlucoVIP multinational observational study

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Elizabeth; Sundaram, Meenakshi L.; Das, Rupam; Chauhan, Sushil Kumar; Deshpande, Sandeep; Ambhore, Sanjay; Rathod, Rahul; Manjrekar, Pravin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the efficacy and tolerability of the anti-diabetic agent acarbose (Glucobay®) as add-on or monotherapy in a range of patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), including those with cardiovascular morbidities in India. Materials and Methods: This was a part of a prospective, non-interventional, non-controlled, multicentre, multinational, observational study. The study included patients of either gender if they were aged at least 18 years and had untreated or pre-treated type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) or impaired glucose tolerance and no acarbose treatment within the 3 months before study inclusion. Results: In total, 1996 Indian patients were included in the effectiveness and 2010 in the safety analysis. Patients received acarbose (25-150 mg/day). The mean age of the patients was 50.1 years and the mean BMI was 27.2 kg/m2. Mean 2-h post-prandial plasma glucose (PPG) value and fasting blood glucose (FBG) decreased from 243.9 to 169.5 mg/dl and 158.3 to 120.4 mg/dl, respectively after the last follow-up of 12.4 weeks. The mean HbA1c value at initial visit was 8.4% and was 7.4% at the last follow-up visit. FBG, PPG and HbA1c deceased in 90.6%, 94.4% and 52.4% patients respectively, by the last follow-up visit. The mean decrease in weight and waist circumference was 1.4 kg and 1.6 cm, respectively by the last follow-up visit. Physicians assessed the efficacy of drug as positive response in “very good to good” in 91.08%, “sufficient” in 7.92% and “insufficient” in 0.90% of patients. Also, continuation of Acarbose was reported in 97.09% of patients. Adverse events were reported in 2.74% and drug-related adverse events were reported in 2.19% of patients. Majority of them were gastrointestinal adverse events but were not serious. Conclusion: Acarbose is effective and safe in Indian patients with T2DM. Further, it helps in weight reduction and has very good compliance in patients with T2DM. PMID:24910836

  12. A Single-blind, Placebo-controlled, Dose-ranging Trial of Oral Hepatic-directed Vesicle Insulin Add-on to Oral Antidiabetic Treatment in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Len N.; Schwartz, Sherwyn L.; Lau, John R.; Gana, Theophilus J.

    2014-01-01

    The dose response of postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) to add-on, premeal oral hepatic-directed vesicle-insulin (HDV-I), an investigational lipid bio-nanoparticle hepatocyte-targeted insulin delivery system, was evaluated in a 3-test-meal/day model in type 2 diabetes patients. The single-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalating trial enrolled 6 patients with HbA1c 8.6 ± 2.0% (70.0 ± 21.9 mmol/mol) and on stable metformin therapy. Patients received oral HDV-I capsules daily 30 minutes before breakfast, lunch, and dinner as follows: placebo capsules, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 U/kg on days 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. Outcome measures were PPG and incremental PPG area under the concentration-time curve (AUC). All 4 doses of oral HDV-I statistically significantly lowered mean PPG (P ≤ .0110 each) and incremental PPG (P ≤ .0352 each) AUC compared to placebo. A linear dose response was not observed. The 0.05 U/kg dose was the minimum effective dose in the dosage range studied. Three adverse events unrelated to treatment were observed. Add-on oral HDV-I 0.05-0.4 U/kg significantly lowered PPG excursions and the dose response curve was flat. These results are consistent with the lack of a linear dose response between portal and systemic plasma insulin concentrations in previous animal and human studies. Oral HDV-I was safe and well tolerated. PMID:24876619

  13. 40 CFR Table 1b to Subpart Dddd of... - Add-on Control Systems Compliance Options

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... dryer zones one and two (at new affected sources) (1) Reduce emissions of total HAP, measured as THC (as carbon) a, by 90 percent; or(2) Limit emissions of total HAP, measured as THC (as carbon) a, to 20 ppmvd... are greater than or equal to 10 ppmvd. a You may choose to subtract methane from THC as...

  14. 40 CFR Table 1b to Subpart Dddd of... - Add-on Control Systems Compliance Options

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... dryer zones one and two (at new affected sources) (1) Reduce emissions of total HAP, measured as THC (as carbon) a, by 90 percent; or(2) Limit emissions of total HAP, measured as THC (as carbon) a, to 20 ppmvd... are greater than or equal to 10 ppmvd. a You may choose to subtract methane from THC as...

  15. Add-on unidirectional elastic metamaterial plate cloak

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Min Kyung; Kim, Yoon Young

    2016-01-01

    Metamaterial cloaks control the propagation of waves to make an object invisible or insensible. To manipulate elastic waves in space, a metamaterial cloak is typically embedded in a base system that includes or surrounds a target object. The embedding is undesirable because it structurally weakens or permanently alters the base system. In this study, we propose a new add-on metamaterial elastic cloak that can be placed over and mechanically coupled with a base structure without embedding. We designed an add-on type annular metamaterial plate cloak through conformal mapping, fabricated it and performed cloaking experiments in a thin-plate with a hole. Experiments were performed in a thin plate by using the lowest symmetric Lamb wave centered at 100 kHz. As a means to check the cloaking performance of the add-on elastic plate cloak, possibly as a temporary stress reliever or a so-called “stress bandage”, the degree of stress concentration mitigation and the recovery from the perturbed wave field due to a hole were investigated. PMID:26860896

  16. Add-on unidirectional elastic metamaterial plate cloak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Min Kyung; Kim, Yoon Young

    2016-02-01

    Metamaterial cloaks control the propagation of waves to make an object invisible or insensible. To manipulate elastic waves in space, a metamaterial cloak is typically embedded in a base system that includes or surrounds a target object. The embedding is undesirable because it structurally weakens or permanently alters the base system. In this study, we propose a new add-on metamaterial elastic cloak that can be placed over and mechanically coupled with a base structure without embedding. We designed an add-on type annular metamaterial plate cloak through conformal mapping, fabricated it and performed cloaking experiments in a thin-plate with a hole. Experiments were performed in a thin plate by using the lowest symmetric Lamb wave centered at 100 kHz. As a means to check the cloaking performance of the add-on elastic plate cloak, possibly as a temporary stress reliever or a so-called “stress bandage”, the degree of stress concentration mitigation and the recovery from the perturbed wave field due to a hole were investigated.

  17. Add-on unidirectional elastic metamaterial plate cloak.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min Kyung; Kim, Yoon Young

    2016-01-01

    Metamaterial cloaks control the propagation of waves to make an object invisible or insensible. To manipulate elastic waves in space, a metamaterial cloak is typically embedded in a base system that includes or surrounds a target object. The embedding is undesirable because it structurally weakens or permanently alters the base system. In this study, we propose a new add-on metamaterial elastic cloak that can be placed over and mechanically coupled with a base structure without embedding. We designed an add-on type annular metamaterial plate cloak through conformal mapping, fabricated it and performed cloaking experiments in a thin-plate with a hole. Experiments were performed in a thin plate by using the lowest symmetric Lamb wave centered at 100 kHz. As a means to check the cloaking performance of the add-on elastic plate cloak, possibly as a temporary stress reliever or a so-called "stress bandage", the degree of stress concentration mitigation and the recovery from the perturbed wave field due to a hole were investigated. PMID:26860896

  18. Energy-Saving Effect of the Add-on Energy Recovery System for Electric Motor Drive Systems in the Injection Molding Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Keisuke; Hiraki, Eiji; Tanaka, Toshihiko

    The regenerative energy from the motor drive systems used in the injection molding is consumed by resistors connected to the DC bus of the inverters. Recently the recovery systems of the regenerative energy with a bi-directional DC-DC converter and capacitors have been developed. In this paper a new control strategy of the EDLC based energy recovery system is proposed. The basic principle of the proposed control strategy and the power losses consumed in the energy recovery system are discussed in detail. The validity and practicability are confirmed by digital computer simulation.

  19. Inhaled and systemic corticosteroid response in severe asthma assessed by alveolar nitric oxide: a randomized crossover pilot study of add-on therapy

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Peter A; Short, Philip M; Vaidyanathan, Sriram; Lipworth, Brian J

    2013-01-01

    AIMS Alveolar nitric oxide (CANO) is a potential biomarker of small airway inflammation. We investigated effects on CANO of the addition of coarse and fine particle inhaled corticosteroids to standard therapy in severe asthma. METHODS Severe asthmatics taking ≥1600 µg day−1 budesonide or equivalent performed a randomized open-label crossover study. Subjects with FEV1 < 80%, gas trapping and CANO≥2 ppb entered a 6 week dose-ramp run-in of fluticasone/salmeterol(FPSM) 250/50 µg twice daily for 3 weeks, then 500/50 µg twice daily for 3 weeks. Patients then received additional HFA-beclomethasone diproprionate (BDP) 200 µg twice daily or FP 250 µg twice daily for 3 weeks in a crossover. Participants then received prednisolone(PRED) 25 mg day−1 for 1 week. Nitric oxide, lung function, mannitol challenge, systemic inflammatory markers and urinary cortisol were measured. RESULTS Fifteen completed per protocol: mean (SD) age 51 (12) years, FEV1 58 (13)% predicted, residual volume 193 (100)% predicted and mannitolPD10 177 (2.8) µg. There was no significant difference between FPSM and add-on therapy for CANO. FPSM/BDP and FPSM/PRED suppressed broncial flux (JawNO) and FENO compared with FPSM alone, but there was no significant difference between FPSM/BDP and FPSM/FP. ECP, e-selectin and ICAM-1 were suppressed by FPSM/PRED compared with FPSM and FPSM/FP but not FPSM/BDP. Plasma cortisol was significantly suppressed by FPSM/PRED. CONCLUSION In severe asthma, CANO is insensitive to changes in dose and delivery of inhaled corticosteroids and is not suppressed by systemic corticosteroids. Additional inhaled HFA-BDP reduced FENO and JawNO without adrenal suppression. There was a trend to reduction in FENO and JawNO with additional FP but this did not reach statistical significance. PRED reduced FENO and JawNO with suppression of systemic inflammatory markers and urinary cortisol. PMID:22568828

  20. 12-Week, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Add-on Riluzole in the Treatment of Childhood-Onset Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Paul J; Joseph, Lisa A; Farmer, Cristan A; Luckenbaugh, David A; Lougee, Lorraine C; Zarate, Carlos A; Swedo, Susan E

    2014-01-01

    Many children with childhood-onset obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) fail to respond adequately to standard therapies. Evidence from preclinical and clinical studies suggests that the glutamatergic neurotransmitter system might be an alternative treatment target. This study examined the efficacy of riluzole, a glutamatergic modulator, as an adjunctive therapy for children with treatment-resistant OCD. In a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 60 treatment-resistant children and adolescents (mean age=14.5±2.4 years), with moderate to severe OCD (mean Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS)=28.2±3.7), 17 of whom also had concomitant autism spectrum disorder, were randomized to receive riluzole (final dose of 100 mg/day) or placebo in addition to the existing treatment regimen. Fifty-nine subjects completed the randomized trial. Primary outcome measures were changes on the CY-BOCS, the Clinical Global Impressions Scale, and the Children's Global Assessment Scale. Riluzole was fairly well tolerated, although it was associated with one case of pancreatitis and five instances of slight increases in transaminases. All subjects showed significant reductions in CY-BOCS scores during treatment; however, there was no significant difference between placebo and riluzole on any of the primary or secondary outcome measures. The study failed to demonstrate superiority of riluzole over placebo as an adjunctive treatment for children with childhood-onset OCD. However, future studies may show benefits for less treatment-refractory children with fewer concomitant medications. PMID:24356715

  1. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Vvvv of... - Operating Limits if Using an Add-on Control Device for Open Molding Operations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....007 inch H2O, as established in Method 204 of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51 i. Collecting the direction... Control Device for Open Molding Operations 4 Table 4 to Subpart VVVV of Part 63 Protection of Environment...-on Control Device for Open Molding Operations As specified in §§ 63.5715(a) and 63.5725(f)(5),...

  2. Firefox add-ons for medical reference.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Matthew B

    2010-07-01

    Firefox is a Web browser created by the Mozilla project, an open-source software group. Features of the browser include automated updates, advanced security and standards compliance, and the ability to add functionality through add-ons and extensions. First introduced in 2004, Firefox now accounts for roughly 30% of the browser market. This article will focus primarily on add-ons and extensions available for the browser that are useful to medical researchers. PMID:20677067

  3. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Mmmm of... - Operating Limits if Using the Emission Rate With Add-On Controls Option

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must not... appendix M to 40 CFR part 51 i. See items 6.a.i and 6.a.ii. 7. Emission capture system that is not a PTE...); and i. Measuring the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for...

  4. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Pppp of... - Operating Limits if Using the Emission Rate With Add-On Controls Option

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must not... Method 204 of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51. i. See items 6.a.i and 6.a.ii. 7. Emission capture system...); and i. Measuring the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for...

  5. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Mmmm of... - Operating Limits if Using the Emission Rate With Add-On Controls Option

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must not... appendix M to 40 CFR part 51 i. See items 6.a.i and 6.a.ii. 7. Emission capture system that is not a PTE...); and i. Measuring the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for...

  6. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Pppp of... - Operating Limits if Using the Emission Rate With Add-On Controls Option

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must not... Method 204 of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51. i. See items 6.a.i and 6.a.ii. 7. Emission capture system...); and i. Measuring the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for...

  7. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Pppp of... - Operating Limits if Using the Emission Rate With Add-On Controls Option

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must not... Method 204 of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51. i. See items 6.a.i and 6.a.ii. 7. Emission capture system...); and i. Measuring the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for...

  8. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Pppp of... - Operating Limits if Using the Emission Rate With Add-On Controls Option

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must not... Method 204 of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51. i. See items 6.a.i and 6.a.ii. 7. Emission capture system...); and i. Measuring the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for...

  9. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Pppp of... - Operating Limits if Using the Emission Rate With Add-On Controls Option

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Method 204 of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51. i. See items 6.a.i and 6.a.ii. 7. Emission capture system... practicable consistent with the manufacturer's recommendations. 3. Regenerative carbon adsorber a. The total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must...

  10. ERDA's portfolio: solar add-on device construction manuals

    SciTech Connect

    Barron, J.J.; Cole, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (ERDA) has developed a portfolio of eight (8) instructional manuals for the construction of the following solar add-on devices: thermosiphoning hot water system; standard domestic hot water system; bread box type hot water system; add-on greenhouse space heating system (with mass); add-on sunspace space heating system (without mass); thermosiphoning air panel space heating system; fan assisted air panel space heating system; Trombe wall space heating system. In addition to step-by-step instructions and illustrations of device construction, each manual contains a list of materials and specifications (including estimated costs in 1980 dollars and sources of supply), guidelines for appropriate siting and installation, and energy performance estimates under optimal and non-optimal conditions. This portfolio of solar add-on devices is directed toward the do-it-yourself homeowner, builders and home improvement contractors, and weatherization organizations. Each instruction manual is a complete, self-contained module suitable for distribution separately or as part of the portfolio. Each manual also has an educational module associated with it including color slides, which is designed for use by community colleges, industrial high schools and adult educational programs. An outline is presented of the content of the design packages,as well as a description of ERDA's plans for distribution of the designs and educating the public on their use, and information on how to obtain individual construction manuals or the entire portfolio.

  11. Horizon 2020 in Diabetic Kidney Disease: The Clinical Trial Pipeline for Add-On Therapies on Top of Renin Angiotensin System Blockade

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Gomez, Maria Vanessa; Sanchez-Niño, Maria Dolores; Sanz, Ana Belen; Martín-Cleary, Catalina; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; Egido, Jesus; Navarro-González, Juan F.; Ortiz, Alberto; Fernandez-Fernandez, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic kidney disease is the most frequent cause of end-stage renal disease. This implies failure of current therapeutic approaches based on renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade. Recent phase 3 clinical trials of paricalcitol in early diabetic kidney disease and bardoxolone methyl in advanced diabetic kidney disease failed to meet the primary endpoint or terminated on safety concerns, respectively. However, various novel strategies are undergoing phase 2 and 3 randomized controlled trials targeting inflammation, fibrosis and signaling pathways. Among agents currently undergoing trials that may modify the clinical practice on top of RAS blockade in a 5-year horizon, anti-inflammatory agents currently hold the most promise while anti-fibrotic agents have so far disappointed. Pentoxifylline, an anti-inflammatory agent already in clinical use, was recently reported to delay estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) loss in chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 3–4 diabetic kidney disease when associated with RAS blockade and promising phase 2 data are available for the pentoxifylline derivative CTP-499. Among agents targeting chemokines or chemokine receptors, the oral small molecule C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) inhibitor CCX140 decreased albuminuria and eGFR loss in phase 2 trials. A dose-finding trial of the anti-IL-1β antibody gevokizumab in diabetic kidney disease will start in 2015. However, clinical development is most advanced for the endothelin receptor A blocker atrasentan, which is undergoing a phase 3 trial with a primary outcome of preserving eGFR. The potential for success of these approaches and other pipeline agents is discussed in detail. PMID:26239562

  12. Behavior of a steel-liner-and-bolts system under very high thermal and mechanical loading: The CONVEX Liner Add-On to DIAMOND FORTUNE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heuze, F. E.; Swift, R. P.; Hill, L. R.; Barrett, W. H.

    1993-01-01

    This work involved the response of a liner-bolt system installed on the wall of the DIAMOND FORTUNE cavity, a 22-m diameter nearly semi-spherical chamber in tuff, at the Nevada Test Site. DIAMOND FORTUNE is a low-yield nuclear test of the Defense Nuclear Agency which was performed in April, 1992. A 1.4-m square, 2.5-cm thick steel plate was anchored by 9-m long bolts: four 2.5-cm diameter bolts at the comers and a 5-cm diameter bolt at the center. The bolt ends daylighted in a tunnel surrounding the cavity, and were tensioned from there. The system was aped with 20 data channels for strain, acceleration, contact pressure, and temperature. We relate the thermal analyses and the 3-dimensional dynamic analyses performed for this project, and we present the test results which indicated the excellent response of this system to the high dynamic loads and temperatures.

  13. Stereovision Imaging in Smart Mobile Phone Using Add on Prisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Magen Numhauser, Jonathan; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2014-03-01

    In this work we present the use of a prism-based add on component installed on top of a smart phone to achieve stereovision capabilities using iPhone mobile operating system. Through these components and the combination of the appropriate application programming interface and mathematical algorithms the obtained results will permit the analysis of possible enhancements for new uses to such system, in a variety of areas including medicine and communications.

  14. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart IIIi of... - Operating Limits for Capture Systems and Add-On Control Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51 i. Collecting the direction of air flow, and either the facial... Pollutants: Surface Coating of Automobiles and Light-Duty Trucks Pt. 63, Subpt. IIII, Table 1 Table 1...

  15. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart IIIi of... - Operating Limits for Capture Systems and Add-On Control Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51 i. Collecting the direction of air flow, and either the facial... Pollutants: Surface Coating of Automobiles and Light-Duty Trucks Pt. 63, Subpt. IIII, Table 1 Table 1...

  16. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart IIIi of... - Operating Limits for Capture Systems and Add-On Control Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must not fall below... of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51 i. Collecting the direction of air flow, and either the facial.... Measuring the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each...

  17. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ssss of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-on Control Devices and Capture System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the catalyst bed in any 3-hour period must not fall below the limit established according to § 63.5160... catalyst bed at or above the temperature limit. b. ensure that the average temperature difference across the catalyst bed in any 3-hour period does not fall below the temperature difference limit...

  18. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Oooo of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the catalyst bed in any 3-hour block period must not fall below the limit established according to... data to 3-hour block averages; and iii. maintaining the 3-hour block average catalyst bed inlet... catalyst bed in any 3-hour block period does not fall below the temperature difference limit...

  19. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Oooo of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the catalyst bed in any 3-hour block period must not fall below the limit established according to... data to 3-hour block averages; and iii. maintaining the 3-hour block average catalyst bed inlet... catalyst bed in any 3-hour block period does not fall below the temperature difference limit...

  20. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Jjjj of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... catalyst bed in any 3-hour period must not fall below the combustion temperature limit established according to § 63.3360(e)(3)(ii) i. Collecting the catalyst bed inlet temperature data according to § 63... catalyst bed inlet temperature at or above the temperature limit. b. The temperature rise across...

  1. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Jjjj of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Catalytic oxidizer a. The average temperature at the inlet to the catalyst bed in any 3-hour period must not... the catalyst bed inlet temperature data according to § 63.3350(e)(9);ii. Reducing the data to 3-hour block averages; and iii. Maintain the 3-hour average catalyst bed inlet temperature at or above...

  2. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ssss of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-on Control Devices and Capture System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... before the catalyst bed in any 3-hour period must not fall below the limit established according to § 63... catalyst bed at or above the temperature limit. b. ensure that the average temperature difference across the catalyst bed in any 3-hour period does not fall below the temperature difference limit...

  3. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Jjjj of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... catalyst bed in any 3-hour period must not fall below the combustion temperature limit established according to § 63.3360(e)(3)(ii) i. Collecting the catalyst bed inlet temperature data according to § 63... catalyst bed inlet temperature at or above the temperature limit. b. The temperature rise across...

  4. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Oooo of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the catalyst bed in any 3-hour block period must not fall below the limit established according to... data to 3-hour block averages; and iii. maintaining the 3-hour block average catalyst bed inlet... catalyst bed in any 3-hour block period does not fall below the temperature difference limit...

  5. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Oooo of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the catalyst bed in any 3-hour block period must not fall below the limit established according to... data to 3-hour block averages; and iii. maintaining the 3-hour block average catalyst bed inlet... catalyst bed in any 3-hour block period does not fall below the temperature difference limit...

  6. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Jjjj of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Catalytic oxidizer a. The average temperature at the inlet to the catalyst bed in any 3-hour period must not... the catalyst bed inlet temperature data according to § 63.3350(e)(9);ii. Reducing the data to 3-hour block averages; and iii. Maintain the 3-hour average catalyst bed inlet temperature at or above...

  7. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Jjjj of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... catalyst bed in any 3-hour period must not fall below the combustion temperature limit established according to § 63.3360(e)(3)(ii) i. Collecting the catalyst bed inlet temperature data according to § 63... catalyst bed inlet temperature at or above the temperature limit. b. The temperature rise across...

  8. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ssss of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-on Control Devices and Capture System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... before the catalyst bed in any 3-hour period must not fall below the limit established according to § 63... catalyst bed at or above the temperature limit. b. ensure that the average temperature difference across the catalyst bed in any 3-hour period does not fall below the temperature difference limit...

  9. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Oooo of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the catalyst bed in any 3-hour block period must not fall below the limit established according to... data to 3-hour block averages; and iii. maintaining the 3-hour block average catalyst bed inlet... catalyst bed in any 3-hour block period does not fall below the temperature difference limit...

  10. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ssss of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-on Control Devices and Capture System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the catalyst bed in any 3-hour period must not fall below the limit established according to § 63.5160... catalyst bed at or above the temperature limit. b. ensure that the average temperature difference across the catalyst bed in any 3-hour period does not fall below the temperature difference limit...

  11. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ssss of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-on Control Devices and Capture System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... before the catalyst bed in any 3-hour period must not fall below the limit established according to § 63... catalyst bed at or above the temperature limit. b. ensure that the average temperature difference across the catalyst bed in any 3-hour period does not fall below the temperature difference limit...

  12. The Efficacy and Safety of Chinese Herbal Medicine Jinlida as Add-On Medication in Type 2 Diabetes Patients Ineffectively Managed by Metformin Monotherapy: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Fengmei; Tian, Jiaxing; Chen, Xinyan; Li, Zhibin; Piao, Chunli; Guo, Junjie; Ma, Licheng; Zhao, Lijuan; Xia, Chengdong; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su; Tong, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Background Metformin plays an important role in diabetes treatment. Studies have shown that the combined use of oral hypoglycemic medications is more effective than metformin monotherapy. In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial, we evaluated whether Jinlida, a Chinese herbal medicine, enhances the glycemic control of metformin in type 2 diabetes patients whose HbA1c was ineffectively controlled with metformin alone. Methods A total of 186 diabetes patients were enrolled in this double-Blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Subjects were randomly allocated to receive either Jinlida (9 g) or the placebo TID for 12 consecutive weeks. All subjects in both groups also continuously received their metformin without any dose change. During this 12-week period, the HbA1c, FPG, 2h PG, body weight, BMI were assessed. HOMA insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and β-cell function (HOMA- β) were also evaluated. Results At week 12, compared to the HbA1c level from week 0, the level of the Jinlida group was reduced by 0.92 ± 1.09% and that of the placebo group was reduced by 0.53 ± 0.94%. The 95% CI was 0.69 - 1.14 for the Jinlida group vs. 0.34 - 0.72 for the placebo group. There was a very significant HbA1c reduction between the two groups after 12 weeks (p < 0.01). Both FG and 2h PG levels of the Jinlida group and placebo group were reduced from week 0. There were a very significant FG and 2h PG level reductions between the two groups after 12 weeks (both p < 0.01). The Jinlida group also showed improved β-cell function with a HOMA-β increase (p < 0.05). No statistical significance was observed in the body weight and BMI changes. No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion Jinlida significantly enhanced the hypoglycemic action of metformin when the drug was used alone. This Chinese herbal medicine may have a clinical value as an add-on medication to metformin monotherapy. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial Register

  13. Add-on prolonged-release melatonin for cognitive function and sleep in mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease: a 6-month, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Alan G; Farmer, Mildred; Harari, Gil; Fund, Naama; Laudon, Moshe; Nir, Tali; Frydman-Marom, Anat; Zisapel, Nava

    2014-01-01

    Purpose A link between poor sleep quality and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has recently been suggested. Since endogenous melatonin levels are already reduced at preclinical AD stages, it is important to ask whether replenishing the missing hormone would be beneficial in AD and whether any such effects would be related to the presence of sleep disorder in patients. Patients and methods The effects of add-on prolonged-release melatonin (PRM) (2 mg) to standard therapy on cognitive functioning and sleep were investigated in 80 patients (men [50.7%], women [49.3%], average age 75.3 years [range, 52–85 years]) diagnosed with mild to moderate AD, with and without insomnia comorbidity, and receiving standard therapy (acetylcholinesterase inhibitors with or without memantine). In this randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study, patients were treated for 2 weeks with placebo and then randomized (1:1) to receive 2 mg of PRM or placebo nightly for 24 weeks, followed by 2 weeks placebo. The AD Assessment Scale–Cognition (ADAS-Cog), Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL), Mini–Mental State Examination (MMSE), sleep, as assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and a daily sleep diary, and safety parameters were measured. Results Patients treated with PRM (24 weeks) had significantly better cognitive performance than those treated with placebo, as measured by the IADL (P=0.004) and MMSE (P=0.044). Mean ADAS-Cog did not differ between the groups. Sleep efficiency, as measured by the PSQI, component 4, was also better with PRM (P=0.017). In the comorbid insomnia (PSQI ≥6) subgroup, PRM treatment resulted in significant and clinically meaningful effects versus the placebo, in mean IADL (P=0.032), MMSE score (+1.5 versus −3 points) (P=0.0177), and sleep efficiency (P=0.04). Median ADAS-Cog values (−3.5 versus +3 points) (P=0.045) were significantly better with PRM. Differences were more significant at longer treatment duration. PRM was well

  14. Rituximab add-on therapy for breakthrough relapsing multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Naismith, R.T.; Piccio, L.; Lyons, J.A.; Lauber, J.; Tutlam, N.T.; Parks, B.J.; Trinkaus, K.; Song, S.K.; Cross, A.H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: B cells and the humoral immune system have been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). This study sought to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of add-on therapy with rituximab, a monoclonal antibody that depletes circulating B cells, in subjects with relapsing MS with breakthrough disease defined by clinical and MRI activity (Class III evidence). Methods: Thirty subjects with a relapse within the past 18 months despite use of an injectable disease-modifying agent, and with at least 1 gadolinium-enhancing (GdE) lesion on any of 3 pretreatment MRIs, received rituximab administered at 375 mg/m2 weekly × 4 doses. Three monthly posttreatment brain MRI scans were obtained beginning 12 weeks after the first infusion. Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC) and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) were obtained at baseline and throughout the posttreatment follow-up. Results: GdE lesions were reduced after treatment with rituximab, with 74% of posttreatment MRI scans being free of GdE activity compared with 26% free of GdE activity at baseline (p < 0.0001). Median GdE lesions were reduced from 1.0 to 0, and mean number was reduced from 2.81 per month to 0.33 after treatment (88% reduction). MSFC improved as well (p = 0.02). EDSS remained stable. Conclusion: Rituximab add-on therapy was effective based upon blinded radiologic endpoints in this phase II study. In combination with standard injectable therapies, rituximab was well-tolerated with no serious adverse events. B-cell–modulating therapy remains a potential option for treatment of patients with relapsing MS with an inadequate response to standard injectable therapies. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that add-on rituximab reduces gadolinium-enhancing brain lesions in multiple sclerosis. GLOSSARY DMT = disease-modifying therapy; EDSS = Expanded Disability Status Scale; FOV = field of view; GdE = gadolinium-enhancing; HACA = human

  15. Efficacy and Safety of Alirocumab as Add-on Therapy in High–Cardiovascular-Risk Patients With Hypercholesterolemia Not Adequately Controlled With Atorvastatin (20 or 40 mg) or Rosuvastatin (10 or 20 mg): Design and Rationale of the ODYSSEY OPTIONS Studies

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Jennifer G; Colhoun, Helen M; Bays, Harold E; Jones, Peter H; Du, Yunling; Hanotin, Corinne; Donahue, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The phase 3 ODYSSEY OPTIONS studies (OPTIONS I, NCT01730040; OPTIONS II, NCT01730053) are multicenter, multinational, randomized, double-blind, active-comparator, 24-week studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of alirocumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody targeting proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, as add-on therapy in ∼ 650 high-cardiovascular (CV)-risk patients whose low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are ≥100 mg/dL or ≥70 mg/dL according to the CV-risk category, high and very high CV risk, respectively, with atorvastatin (20–40 mg/d) or rosuvastatin (10–20 mg/d). Patients are randomized to receive alirocumab 75 mg via a single, subcutaneous, 1-mL injection by prefilled pen every 2 weeks (Q2W) as add-on therapy to atorvastatin (20–40 mg) or rosuvastatin (10–20 mg); or to receive ezetimibe 10 mg/d as add-on therapy to statin; or to receive statin up-titration; or to switch from atorvastatin to rosuvastatin (OPTIONS I only). At week 12, based on week 8 LDL-C levels, the alirocumab dose may be increased from 75 mg to 150 mg Q2W if LDL-C levels remain ≥100 mg/dL or ≥70 mg/dL in patients with high or very high CV risk, respectively. The primary efficacy endpoint in both studies is difference in percent change in calculated LDL-C from baseline to week 24 in the alirocumab vs control arms. The studies may provide guidance to inform clinical decision-making when patients with CV risk require additional lipid-lowering therapy to further reduce LDL-C levels. The flexibility of the alirocumab dosing regimen allows for individualized therapy based on the degree of LDL-C reduction required to achieve the desired LDL-C level. PMID:25269777

  16. Linagliptin as add-on therapy to insulin for patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    von Websky, Karoline; Reichetzeder, Christoph; Hocher, Berthold

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a highly prevalent, progressive disease that often is poorly controlled. The combination of an incretin-based therapy and insulin is a promising approach to optimize the management of glycemic control without hypoglycemia and weight gain. Linagliptin, a recently approved oral dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, has a unique pharmacological profile. The convenient, once-daily dosing does not need adjustment in patients with hepatic and/or renal impairment. In clinical studies linagliptin shows an important reduction of blood glucose with an overall safety profile similar to that of placebo. So far, the combination of linagliptin and insulin has been tested in three major clinical studies in different populations. It has been shown that linagliptin is an effective and safe add-on therapy to insulin in patients with T2DM. The efficacy and safety of this combination was also shown in vulnerable, elderly T2DM patients and in patients with T2DM and renal impairment. Favorable effects regarding the counteraction of hypoglycemia make linagliptin especially interesting as an add-on therapy to insulin. This review aims to present the existing clinical studies on the efficacy and safety of linagliptin as add-on therapy to insulin in patients with T2DM in the context of current literature. Additionally, the possible advantages of linagliptin as an add-on therapy to insulin in relation to cardiovascular safety, patient-centered therapy and the prevention of hypoglycemia, are discussed. PMID:24204157

  17. 40 CFR 63.3557 - What are the requirements for continuous parameter monitoring system installation, operation, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... capture system and add-on control device operation. (3) You must record the results of each inspection... emission capture system and add-on control device parameter data at all times that a controlled coating... adjustments). (6) You must not use emission capture system or add-on control device parameter data...

  18. 40 CFR 63.3557 - What are the requirements for continuous parameter monitoring system installation, operation, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... capture system and add-on control device operation. (3) You must record the results of each inspection... emission capture system and add-on control device parameter data at all times that a controlled coating... adjustments). (6) You must not use emission capture system or add-on control device parameter data...

  19. 40 CFR 63.4966 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, and the carbon bed temperature after each carbon bed regeneration and cooling cycle, for the regeneration... provisions for the use of an alternative monitoring method as set forth in 40 CFR 63.8(f)....

  20. 40 CFR 63.4767 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, and the carbon bed temperature after each carbon bed regeneration and cooling cycle for the regeneration cycle either immediately... are the minimum total desorbing gas mass flow recorded during the regeneration cycle, and the...

  1. 40 CFR 63.3967 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (1) You must monitor and record the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, and the carbon bed temperature after each carbon bed regeneration and cooling cycle for the regeneration cycle either immediately preceding or immediately following...

  2. 40 CFR 63.3967 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... (1) You must monitor and record the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, and the carbon bed temperature after each carbon bed regeneration and cooling cycle for the regeneration cycle either immediately preceding or immediately following...

  3. 40 CFR 63.3556 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... must monitor and record the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, and the carbon bed temperature after each carbon bed regeneration and cooling cycle for the regeneration cycle either immediately preceding or immediately following the...

  4. 40 CFR 63.4567 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, and the carbon bed temperature after each carbon bed regeneration and cooling cycle for the regeneration cycle either immediately preceding or... the minimum total desorbing gas mass flow recorded during the regeneration cycle and the...

  5. 40 CFR 63.4167 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle and the carbon bed temperature after each carbon bed regeneration and cooling cycle for the regeneration cycle either immediately... are the minimum total desorbing gas mass flow recorded during the regeneration cycle and the...

  6. 40 CFR 63.4567 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, and the carbon bed temperature after each carbon bed regeneration and cooling cycle for the regeneration cycle either immediately preceding or... the minimum total desorbing gas mass flow recorded during the regeneration cycle and the...

  7. 40 CFR 63.3556 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... must monitor and record the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, and the carbon bed temperature after each carbon bed regeneration and cooling cycle for the regeneration cycle either immediately preceding or immediately following the...

  8. 40 CFR 63.4167 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle and the carbon bed temperature after each carbon bed regeneration and cooling cycle for the regeneration cycle either immediately preceding or immediately following... desorbing gas mass flow recorded during the regeneration cycle and the maximum carbon bed...

  9. 40 CFR 63.4767 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and record the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, and the carbon bed temperature after each carbon bed regeneration and cooling cycle for the regeneration cycle either immediately preceding or immediately following the performance test. (2)...

  10. 40 CFR 63.3546 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... must monitor and record the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, and the carbon bed temperature after each carbon bed regeneration and cooling cycle for the regeneration cycle either immediately preceding or immediately following the...

  11. 40 CFR 63.3546 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, and the carbon bed temperature after each carbon bed regeneration and cooling cycle for the regeneration cycle either immediately... are the minimum total desorbing gas mass flow recorded during the regeneration cycle, and the...

  12. 40 CFR 63.4966 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, and the carbon bed temperature after each carbon bed regeneration and cooling cycle, for the regeneration... provisions for the use of an alternative monitoring method as set forth in 40 CFR 63.8(f)....

  13. 40 CFR 63.3169 - What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Primer, Primer-Surfacer, Topcoat, Final Repair, Glass Bonding Primer, and Glass Bonding Adhesive Emission... Primer, and Glass Bonding Adhesive Emission Limitations and the Separate Electrodeposition...

  14. 40 CFR 63.3169 - What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Electrodeposition Primer, Primer-Surfacer, Topcoat, Final Repair, Glass Bonding Primer, and Glass Bonding Adhesive... Primer, and Glass Bonding Adhesive Emission Limitations and the Separate Electrodeposition...

  15. 40 CFR 63.3169 - What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Electrodeposition Primer, Primer-Surfacer, Topcoat, Final Repair, Glass Bonding Primer, and Glass Bonding Adhesive... Primer, and Glass Bonding Adhesive Emission Limitations and the Separate Electrodeposition...

  16. 40 CFR 63.9324 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... performance test, you must monitor and record the temperature just before the catalyst bed and the temperature difference across the catalyst bed at least once every 15 minutes during each of the three test runs. (2) Use... before the catalyst bed and the average temperature difference across the catalyst bed maintained...

  17. 40 CFR 63.9324 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... performance test, you must monitor and record the temperature just before the catalyst bed and the temperature difference across the catalyst bed at least once every 15 minutes during each of the three test runs. (2) Use... before the catalyst bed and the average temperature difference across the catalyst bed maintained...

  18. 40 CFR 63.9324 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... performance test, you must monitor and record the temperature just before the catalyst bed and the temperature difference across the catalyst bed at least once every 15 minutes during each of the three test runs. (2) Use... before the catalyst bed and the average temperature difference across the catalyst bed maintained...

  19. 40 CFR 63.9324 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... performance test, you must monitor and record the temperature just before the catalyst bed and the temperature difference across the catalyst bed at least once every 15 minutes during each of the three test runs. (2) Use... before the catalyst bed and the average temperature difference across the catalyst bed maintained...

  20. 40 CFR 63.3546 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the performance test, you must monitor and record the combustion temperature at least once every 15 minutes during each of the three test runs. You must monitor the temperature in the firebox of the thermal...) and (4) of this section. (1) During the performance test, you must monitor and record the...

  1. 40 CFR 63.3556 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... this section. (1) During the performance test, you must monitor and record the combustion temperature at least once every 15 minutes during each of the three test runs. You must monitor the temperature...)(1) and (2) or paragraphs (b)(3) and (4) of this section. (1) During the performance test, you...

  2. 40 CFR 63.9324 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and record the combustion temperature at least once every 15 minutes during each of the three test... performance test to calculate and record the average combustion temperature maintained during the performance test. This average combustion temperature is the minimum operating limit for your thermal oxidizer....

  3. 40 CFR 63.3169 - What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Surfacer, Topcoat, Final Repair, Glass Bonding Primer, and Glass Bonding Adhesive Emission Limitations § 63... Primer, and Glass Bonding Adhesive Emission Limitations and the Separate Electrodeposition...

  4. 40 CFR 63.3169 - What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-Surfacer, Topcoat, Final Repair, Glass Bonding Primer, and Glass Bonding Adhesive Emission Limitations § 63... Primer, and Glass Bonding Adhesive Emission Limitations and the Separate Electrodeposition...

  5. TRACE ORGANICS VARIATION ACROSS THE WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEM OF A CLASS-B REFINERY AND ESTIMATE OF REMOVAL OF REFRACTORY ORGANICS BY ADD-ON MIXED-MEDIA FILTRATION AND GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON AT PILOT SCALE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the results of research to evaluate the efficiency of pilot-scale granular activated carbon for the removal of organic compounds refractory to the activated-sludge treatment system of a Class B petroleum refinery that met BPT ('best practicable technology') i...

  6. Spacecraft command and control using expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norcross, Scott; Grieser, William H.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a product called the Intelligent Mission Toolkit (IMT), which was created to meet the changing demands of the spacecraft command and control market. IMT is a command and control system built upon an expert system. Its primary functions are to send commands to the spacecraft and process telemetry data received from the spacecraft. It also controls the ground equipment used to support the system, such as encryption gear, and telemetry front-end equipment. Add-on modules allow IMT to control antennas and antenna interface equipment. The design philosophy for IMT is to utilize available commercial products wherever possible. IMT utilizes Gensym's G2 Real-time Expert System as the core of the system. G2 is responsible for overall system control, spacecraft commanding control, and spacecraft telemetry analysis and display. Other commercial products incorporated into IMT include the SYBASE relational database management system and Loral Test and Integration Systems' System 500 for telemetry front-end processing.

  7. Long-acting muscarinic antagonists: a potential add-on therapy in the treatment of asthma?

    PubMed

    Busse, William W; Dahl, Ronald; Jenkins, Christine; Cruz, Alvaro A

    2016-03-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways that is a major global burden on both individuals and healthcare systems. Despite guideline-directed treatment, a significant proportion of patients with asthma do not achieve control. This review focuses on the potential use of long-acting anticholinergics as bronchodilators in the treatment of asthma, with results published from clinical trials of glycopyrrolate, umeclidinium and tiotropium. The tiotropium clinical trial programme is the most advanced, with data available from a number of phase II and III studies of tiotropium as an add-on to inhaled corticosteroid maintenance therapy, with or without a long-acting β2-agonist, in patients across asthma severities. Recent studies using the Respimat Soft Mist inhaler have identified 5 µg once daily as the preferred dosing regimen, which has shown promising results in adults, adolescents and children with asthma. Tiotropium Respimat has recently been incorporated into the Global Initiative for Asthma 2015 treatment strategy as a recommended alternative therapy at steps 4 and 5 in adult patients with a history of exacerbations. The increasing availability of evidence from ongoing and future clinical trials will be beneficial in determining where long-acting anticholinergic agents fit in future treatment guidelines across a variety of patient populations and disease severities. PMID:26929422

  8. A subsurface add-on for standard atomic force microscopes

    SciTech Connect

    Verbiest, G. J.; Zalm, D. J. van der; Oosterkamp, T. H.; Rost, M. J.

    2015-03-15

    The application of ultrasound in an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) gives access to subsurface information. However, no commercially AFM exists that is equipped with this technique. The main problems are the electronic crosstalk in the AFM setup and the insufficiently strong excitation of the cantilever at ultrasonic (MHz) frequencies. In this paper, we describe the development of an add-on that provides a solution to these problems by using a special piezo element with a lowest resonance frequency of 2.5 MHz and by separating the electronic connection for this high frequency piezo element from all other connections. In this sense, we support researches with the possibility to perform subsurface measurements with their existing AFMs and hopefully pave also the way for the development of a commercial AFM that is capable of imaging subsurface features with nanometer resolution.

  9. Study protocol of Prednisone in episodic Cluster Headache (PredCH): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral prednisone as an add-on therapy in the prophylactic treatment of episodic cluster headache with verapamil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Episodic cluster headache (ECH) is a primary headache disorder that severely impairs patient’s quality of life. First-line therapy in the initiation of a prophylactic treatment is verapamil. Due to its delayed onset of efficacy and the necessary slow titration of dosage for tolerability reasons prednisone is frequently added by clinicians to the initial prophylactic treatment of a cluster episode. This treatment strategy is thought to effectively reduce the number and intensity of cluster attacks in the beginning of a cluster episode (before verapamil is effective). This study will assess the efficacy and safety of oral prednisone as an add-on therapy to verapamil and compare it to a monotherapy with verapamil in the initial prophylactic treatment of a cluster episode. Methods and design PredCH is a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with parallel study arms. Eligible patients with episodic cluster headache will be randomized to a treatment intervention with prednisone or a placebo arm. The multi-center trial will be conducted in eight German headache clinics that specialize in the treatment of ECH. Discussion PredCH is designed to assess whether oral prednisone added to first-line agent verapamil helps reduce the number and intensity of cluster attacks in the beginning of a cluster episode as compared to monotherapy with verapamil. Trial registration German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00004716 PMID:23889923

  10. What’s next after metformin? focus on sulphonylurea: add-on or combination therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Phei C.; Chong, Chee P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) mainly focused on insulin resistance and insulin deficiency over the past decades. Currently, the pathophysiologies expanded to ominous octet and guidelines were updated with newer generation of antidiabetic drug classes. However, many patients had yet to achieve their target glycaemic control. Although all the guidelines suggested metformin as first line, there was no definite consensus on the second line drug agents as variety of drug classes were recommended. Objectives: The aim of this review was to evaluate the drug class after metformin especially sulphonylurea and issues around add-on or fixed dose combination therapy. Methods: Extensive literature search for English language articles, clinical practice guidelines and references was performed using electronic databases. Results: Adding sulphonylurea to metformin targeted both insulin resistance and insulin deficiency. Sulphonylurea was efficacious and cheaper than thiazolidinedione, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, glucagon-like peptide 1 analogue and insulin. The main side effect of sulphonylurea was hypoglycaemia but there was no effect on the body weight when combining with metformin. Fixed dose sulphonylurea/metformin was more efficacious at lower dose and reported to have fewer side effects with better adherence. Furthermore, fixed dose combination was cheaper than add-on therapy. In conclusion, sulphonylurea was feasible as the second line agent after metformin as the combination targeted on two pathways, efficacious, cost-effective and had long safety history. Fixed dose combination tablet could improve patient’s adherence and offered an inexpensive and more efficacious option regardless of original or generic product as compared to add-on therapy. PMID:26445623

  11. How add-on solutions can extend the life of static OADMs and protect carrier investment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queller, Abe; Kronenthal, Guy

    2004-10-01

    While most OADM systems deployed today are static, carriers offering new wavelength services, are looking for ways to migrate towards reconfigurable OADM and dynamically reconfigurable OADM. ROADMs allow carriers to automate service provisioning, wavelength management and failsafe mechanisms, thereby eliminating slow, costly and error-prone manual network configuration. And although next-generation systems offer this flexibility as an integral part of their architecture, carriers must protect their existing investment, extending the life of their existing networks. This article examines the use of add-on optical switching systems, as a cost- and time-effective means for upgrading legacy networks. Two examples are given. In the first, a static OADM is upgraded into a reconfigurable system. The second example shows how existing OADM systems can be upgraded to support dynamic reconfigurability. The article examines also particular advantages of Planar Lightwave Circuits (PLC) for these applications.

  12. Gantry and isocenter displacements of a linear accelerator caused by an add-on micromultileaf collimator

    SciTech Connect

    Riis, Hans L.; Zimmermann, Sune J.; Hjelm-Hansen, Mogens

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: The delivery of high quality stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) treatments to the patient requires knowledge of the position of the isocenter to submillimeter accuracy. To meet the requirements the deviation between the radiation and mechanical isocenters must be less than 1 mm. The use of add-on micromultileaf collimators ({mu}MLCs) in SRS and SRT is an additional challenge to the anticipated high-level geometric and dosimetric accuracy of the treatment. The aim of this work was to quantify the gantry excursions during rotation with and without an add-on {mu}MLC attached to the gantry head. In addition, the shift in the position of the isocenter and its correlation to the kV beam center of the cone-beam CT system was included in the study. Methods: The quantification of the gantry rotational performance was done using a pointer supported by an in-house made rigid holder attached to the gantry head of the accelerator. The pointer positions were measured using a digital theodolite. To quantify the effect of an {mu}MLC of 50 kg, the measurements were repeated with the {mu}MLC attached to the gantry head. The displacement of the isocenter due to an add-on {mu}MLC of 50 kg was also investigated. In case of the pointer measurement the {mu}MLC was simulated by weights attached to the gantry head. A method of least squares was applied to determine the position and displacement of the mechanical isocenter. Additionally, the displacement of the radiation isocenter was measured using a ball-bearing phantom and the electronic portal image device system. These measurements were based on 8 MV photon beams irradiated onto the ball from the four cardinal angles and two opposed collimator angles. The measurements and analysis of the data were carried out automatically using software delivered by the manufacturer. Results: The displacement of the mechanical isocenter caused by a 50 kg heavy {mu}MLC was found to be (-0.01 {+-} 0.05, -0

  13. Experimental re-evaluation of flunarizine as add-on antiepileptic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Anamika; Sahai, A. K.; Thakur, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Experimental studies have found several calcium channel blockers with anticonvulsant property. Flunarizine is one of the most potent calcium channel blockers, which has shown anticonvulsant effect against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizures. However, further experimental and clinical trials have shown varied results. We conducted a PTZ model experimental study to re-evaluate the potential of flunarizine for add-on therapy in the management of refractory epilepsy. Materials and Methods: Experiments were conducted in PTZ model involving Swiss strain mice. Doses producing seizures in 50% and 99% mice, i.e. CD50 and CD99 values of PTZ were obtained from the dose-response study. Animals received graded, single dose of sodium valproate (100–300 mg/kg), lamotrigine (3–12 mg/kg) and flunarizine (5–20 mg/kg), and then each group of mice was injected with CD99 dose of PTZ (65mg/kg i.p.). Another group of mice received single ED50 dose (dose producing seizure protection in 50% mice) of sodium valproate and flunarizine separately in left and right side of abdomen. Results were analysed by Kruskal–Wallis ANOVA on Ranks test. Results: As compared to control, sodium valproate at 250 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg produced statistical significant seizure protection. At none of the pre-treatment dose levels of lamotrigine, the seizure score with PTZ differed significantly from that observed in the vehicle-treated group. Pre-treatment with flunarizine demonstrated dose-dependent decrease in the seizure score to PTZ administration. As compared to control group, flunarizine at 20 mg/kg produced statistical significant seizure protection. Conclusion: As combined use of sodium valproate and flunarizine has shown significant seizure protection in PTZ model, flunarizine has a potential for add-on therapy in refractory cases of partial seizures. It is therefore, we conclude that further experimental studies and multicenter clinical trials

  14. Celecoxib Adjunctive Treatment to Antipsychotics in Schizophrenia: A Review of Randomized Clinical Add-On Trials.

    PubMed

    Marini, Stefano; De Berardis, Domenico; Vellante, Federica; Santacroce, Rita; Orsolini, Laura; Valchera, Alessandro; Girinelli, Gabriella; Carano, Alessandro; Fornaro, Michele; Gambi, Francesco; Martinotti, Giovanni; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe, chronic and debilitating mental disorder. Past literature has reported various hypotheses about the psychopathology of schizophrenia. Recently, a growing literature has been trying to explain the role of inflammation in the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia. In the past, numerous immune modulation and anti-inflammatory treatment options have been proposed for schizophrenia, but sometimes the results were inconsistent. Electronic search was carried out in November 2015. PubMed and Scopus databases have been used to find studies to introduce in this review. Only randomized-placebo-controlled add-on trials were taken into account. In this way, six articles were obtained for the discussion. Celecoxib showed beneficial effects mostly in early stages of schizophrenia. In chronic schizophrenia, the data are controversial, possibly in part for methodological reasons. PMID:27524864

  15. Celecoxib Adjunctive Treatment to Antipsychotics in Schizophrenia: A Review of Randomized Clinical Add-On Trials

    PubMed Central

    De Berardis, Domenico; Vellante, Federica; Santacroce, Rita; Orsolini, Laura; Valchera, Alessandro; Girinelli, Gabriella; Carano, Alessandro; Fornaro, Michele; Gambi, Francesco; Martinotti, Giovanni; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe, chronic and debilitating mental disorder. Past literature has reported various hypotheses about the psychopathology of schizophrenia. Recently, a growing literature has been trying to explain the role of inflammation in the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia. In the past, numerous immune modulation and anti-inflammatory treatment options have been proposed for schizophrenia, but sometimes the results were inconsistent. Electronic search was carried out in November 2015. PubMed and Scopus databases have been used to find studies to introduce in this review. Only randomized-placebo-controlled add-on trials were taken into account. In this way, six articles were obtained for the discussion. Celecoxib showed beneficial effects mostly in early stages of schizophrenia. In chronic schizophrenia, the data are controversial, possibly in part for methodological reasons. PMID:27524864

  16. The CONVEX Liner Add-On to the DIAMOND-FORTUNE event

    SciTech Connect

    Heuze, F.E.; Swift, R.P.; Hill, L.R.; Barrett, W.H.

    1993-11-15

    This report describes the execution of the CONVEX Liner Add-On to the DIAMOND FORTUNE low-yield cavity test of the Defense Nuclear Agency. CONVEX stands for COntained Nuclear Vessel EXperiment. It concerns the design of underground chambers where repeated low-yield nuclear explosions could be conducted. The approach proposed by the first author in the early 1980`s was to engineer a steel-lined rock cavern where the steel liner would be prestressed against the rock by tendons and/or bolts. These would daylight in tunnels surrounding the main cavity. From there, they could be initially tensioned and retensioned, if needed, after each test. The CONVEX Liner Add-On to DIAMOND FORTUNE consisted of anchoring a 1.4-m square, 2.5-cm thick steel plate to the wall of the cavity, using a 5-cm diameter center bolt, and four 2.5-cm diameter comer bolts. The bolts daylighted in a drift surrounding the gallery, and separated from it by a 9-m thick rock pillar. The liner plate, the bolts, and the rock pillar were equipped with 23 gages to describe the thermal and mechanical response of the system during pretensioning, during the dynamic loading phase, and post-test. Particular emphasis was given to obtaining the response both upon loading and during the rebound of the system, in order to determine whether the plate ever separated from the rock. So, the main operational objectives of this project were to acquire response data of the system under nuclear loading and to ascertain the status of contact between the steel plate and the rock, as shown by toadstool data and bolt tension data. The instrumentation and data acquisition system performed extremely well. Data were recorded during the dynamic phase; plate temperature was monitored for several hours after the test; and the remaining tension was obtained for several bolts more than three months after the test, upon re-entry in the runaround drift.

  17. Efficacy and safety of muscarinic antagonists as add-on therapy for male lower urinary tract symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinhong; Shi, Qingquan; Bai, Yunjin; Pu, Chunxiao; Tang, Yin; Yuan, Haichao; Wu, Yunjian; Wei, Qiang; Han, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists (alpha-blockers) are widely prescribed to treat lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in men but fail to ameliorate LUTS sufficiently, especially the storage symptoms related to frequency, urgency and nocturia. We performed a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing an alpha-blocker plus muscarinic antagonist with an alpha-blocker alone in male LUTS patients who were treated with alpha-blocker prior to randomisation. The review contained six randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that included a total of 2,208 male patients who were randomised to receive alpha-blocker plus muscarinic antagonist or alpha-blocker alone. The add-on group experienced significantly greater improvement in both total IPSS (International Prostate Symptom Score) and storage IPSS. Adverse events (AEs) were commonly experienced by both groups (41.6 vs. 33.3%) though they were not severe. Our meta-analysis indicated that muscarinic antagonists as add-on therapy alleviate LUTS, especially storage symptoms. The add-on therapy demonstrated safety and tolerability comparable with alpha-blocker monotherapy in male with LUTS. PMID:24492830

  18. Effect and Potential Mechanism of Electroacupuncture Add-On Treatment in Patients with Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Sun, Li; Zhang, Xiao-Zhe; Jia, Jun; Liu, Zhuo; Huang, Xi-Yan; Yu, Shu-Yang; Zuo, Li-Jun; Cao, Chen-Jie; Wang, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To explore effectiveness and mechanisms of electroacupuncture (EA) add-on treatment in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Methods. Fifty PD patients were randomly assigned to drug plus EA (D + EA) group and drug alone (D) group. Subjects in D + EA group received stimulation in points of bilateral fengfu, fengchi, hegu, and central dazhui. Participants were evaluated by scales for motor and nonmotor symptoms. Levels of neuroinflammatory factors and neurotransmitters in serum were detected. Results. EA add-on treatment remarkably reduced scores of Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) III and its subitems of tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia and conspicuously decreased UPDRS III scores in patients with bradykinesia-rigidity and mixed types and mild severity. Depression and sleep disturbances were eased, which were reflected by decreased scores of Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and elevated noradrenaline level. Effects of EA add-on treatment on motor symptoms and sleep disturbances were superior to drug alone treatment, markedly improving life quality of PD patients. EA add-on treatment decreased nitric oxide level in serum. Conclusions. EA add-on treatment is effective on most motor symptoms and some nonmotor symptoms and is particularly efficacious in PD patients at early stage. Antineuroinflammation may be a mechanism of EA add-on treatment. PMID:26351515

  19. A cost-effective add-on-value card-assisted firewall over Taiwan's NHI VPN framework.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jyh-Win; Hou, Ting-Wei

    2007-06-01

    Besides the overall budget for building the infrastructure of a healthcare-service-based virtual private network (VPN) in Taiwan, two issues were considered critical for its acceptance by the country's 17,000 plus medical institutions. One was who was to pay for the network (ADSL or modem) connection fee; the other was who was to pay for the firewall/anti-virus software. This paper addresses the second issue by proposing an efficient freeware firewall, named card-assisted firewall (CAF), for NHI VPN edge-hosts, which is also an add-on-value application of the National Healthcare IC card that every insurant and medical professional has. The innovative concept is that any NHI VPN site (edge-host) can establish diversified secure-authenticated connections with other sites only by an authentication mechanism, which requires a NHI Java card state machine and the Access Control List of the host. It is different from two-factor authentication cards in four ways: (1) a PIN code is not a must; (2) it requires authentication with the remote IC card Data Centre; (3) the NHI cards are already available, no modification is needed, and there is no further cost for the deployment of the cards; (4) although the cards are in the reader, the communication cannot start unless the cards are in the corresponding states; i.e. the states allow communication. An implementation, on a Microsoft Windows XP platform, demonstrated the system's feasibility over an emulation of the NHI VPN framework. It maintained a high line speed, the driver took up 39 KB of disk space, installation was simple, not requiring any extra hardware or software, and the average packet processing time of the CAF driver measured was 0.3084 ms. The average overhead in comparing the Access Control List predefined routing in card, in an FTP testing experiment, was 5.7 micros (receiving) and 8 micros (sending). PMID:17541860

  20. ATOM - an OMERO add-on for automated import of image data

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Modern microscope platforms are able to generate multiple gigabytes of image data in a single experimental session. In a routine research laboratory workflow, these data are initially stored on the local acquisition computer from which files need to be transferred to the experimenter's (remote) image repository (e.g., DVDs, portable hard discs or server-based storage) because of limited local data storage. Although manual solutions for this migration, such as OMERO - a client-server software for visualising and managing large amounts of image data - exist, this import process may be a time-consuming and tedious task. Findings We have developed ATOM, a Java-based and thus platform-independent add-on for OMERO enabling automated transfer of image data from a wide variety of acquisition software packages into OMERO. ATOM provides a graphical user interface and allows pre-organisation of experimental data for the transfer. Conclusions ATOM is a convenient extension of the OMERO software system. An automated interface to OMERO will be a useful tool for scientists working with file formats supported by the Bio-Formats file format library, a platform-independent library for reading the most common file formats of microscope images. PMID:21978452

  1. Precision digital control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyskub, V. G.; Rozov, B. S.; Savelev, V. I.

    This book is concerned with the characteristics of digital control systems of great accuracy. A classification of such systems is considered along with aspects of stabilization, programmable control applications, digital tracking systems and servomechanisms, and precision systems for the control of a scanning laser beam. Other topics explored are related to systems of proportional control, linear devices and methods for increasing precision, approaches for further decreasing the response time in the case of high-speed operation, possibilities for the implementation of a logical control law, and methods for the study of precision digital control systems. A description is presented of precision automatic control systems which make use of electronic computers, taking into account the existing possibilities for an employment of computers in automatic control systems, approaches and studies required for including a computer in such control systems, and an analysis of the structure of automatic control systems with computers. Attention is also given to functional blocks in the considered systems.

  2. 40 CFR 63.3557 - What are the requirements for continuous parameter monitoring system installation, operation, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the average of all recorded readings for each successive 3-hour period of the emission capture system... emission capture system and add-on control device parameter data at all times that a controlled coating... adjustments). (6) You must not use emission capture system or add-on control device parameter data...

  3. 40 CFR 63.3547 - What are the requirements for continuous parameter monitoring system installation, operation, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the average of all recorded readings for each successive 3-hour period of the emission capture system... emission capture system and add-on control device parameter data at all times that a controlled coating... adjustments). (6) You must not use emission capture system or add-on control device parameter data...

  4. 40 CFR 63.3547 - What are the requirements for continuous parameter monitoring system installation, operation, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the average of all recorded readings for each successive 3-hour period of the emission capture system... emission capture system and add-on control device parameter data at all times that a controlled coating... adjustments). (6) You must not use emission capture system or add-on control device parameter data...

  5. Sensitivity analysis of add-on price estimate for select silicon wafering technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mokashi, A. R.

    1982-01-01

    The cost of producing wafers from silicon ingots is a major component of the add-on price of silicon sheet. Economic analyses of the add-on price estimates and their sensitivity internal-diameter (ID) sawing, multiblade slurry (MBS) sawing and fixed-abrasive slicing technique (FAST) are presented. Interim price estimation guidelines (IPEG) are used for estimating a process add-on price. Sensitivity analysis of price is performed with respect to cost parameters such as equipment, space, direct labor, materials (blade life) and utilities, and the production parameters such as slicing rate, slices per centimeter and process yield, using a computer program specifically developed to do sensitivity analysis with IPEG. The results aid in identifying the important cost parameters and assist in deciding the direction of technology development efforts.

  6. Improving the Laboratory Add-On Process and Increasing Housestaff Satisfaction with an EMR Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Shahnazarian, Vahe; Mehta, Parag

    2016-01-01

    At a community hospital in Brooklyn, New York, the process for ordering add-on testing to drawn blood tubes involved filling out a paper sheet, then faxing and bulleting that sheet to the lab. It was a very inefficient, cumbersome, and unsatisfactory way of completing the process. In light of this, an EMR intervention was implemented in which the add-on order was placed as an EMR order. The study spanned over almost five years, over a year of which was post-intervention. There was a statistically significant increase in the number of add-on orders being placed as a result of the intervention. This has greatly improved housestaff satisfaction with the overall process. In conclusion, the project was a great success and met its goals of simplifying a difficult and cumbersome process while increasing user satisfaction. PMID:27239309

  7. Control system design method

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, David G.; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2012-02-21

    A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

  8. Data acquisition and instrument control system for neutron spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, S. S.; Kotwal, Ismat; Chandak, R. M.; Gaonkar, V. G.

    2004-08-01

    A personal computer (PC)-based data acquisition and instrument control system has been developed for neutron spectrometers in Dhruva reactor hall and Guide Tube laboratory. Efforts have been made to make the system versatile so that it can be used for controlling various neutron spectrometers using single end-on detector in step scan mode. Commercially available PC add-on cards have been used for input--output and timer-counter operations. An interface card and DC motor driver card have been developed indigenously. Software for the system has been written in Visual C++ language using MS Windows operating system. This data acquisition and instrument control system is successfully controlling four spectrometers at Dhruva reactor.

  9. GCFR plant control system

    SciTech Connect

    Estrine, E.A.; Greiner, H.G.

    1980-05-01

    A plant control system is being designed for a gas-cooled fast breeder reactor (GCFR) demonstration plant. Control analysis is being performed as an integral part of the plant design process to ensure that control requirements are satisfied as the plant design evolves. The load control portion of the plant control system provides stable automatic (closed-loop) control of the plant over the 25% to 100% load range. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate load control system performance. The results show that the plant is controllable at full load with the control system structure selected, but gain scheduling is required to achieve desired performance over the load range.

  10. Xiaoqinglong Granules as Add-On Therapy for Asthma: Latent Class Analysis of Symptom Predictors of Response

    PubMed Central

    Zha, Qinglin; Lin, Seqi; Zhang, Chi; Chang, Christopher; Xue, Hanrong; Lu, Cheng; Jiang, Miao; Liu, Yan; Xiao, Zuke; Liu, Weiyou; Shang, Yunfei; Chen, Jianjian; Wen, Minyong; Lu, Aiping

    2013-01-01

    Xiaoqinglong granules (XQLG) has been shown to be an effective therapy in asthma animal models. We reviewed the literature and conducted this study to assess the impact of XQLG as an add-on therapy to treatment with fluticasone/salmeterol (seretide) in adult patients with mild-to-moderate, persistent asthma. A total of 178 patients were randomly assigned to receive XQLG and seretide or seretide plus placebo for 90 days. Asthma control was assessed by asthma control test (ACT), symptoms scores, FEV1, and PEF. Baseline patient-reported Chinese medicine (CM)-specific symptoms were analyzed to determine whether the symptoms may be possible indicators of treatment response by conducting latent class analysis (LCA). There was no statistically significant difference in ACT score between two groups. In the subset of 70 patients with symptoms defined by CM criteria, XQLG add-on therapy was found to significantly increase the levels of asthma control according to global initiative for asthma (GINA) guidelines (P = 0.0329). There was no significant difference in another subset of 100 patients with relatively low levels of the above-mentioned symptoms (P = 0.1291). Results of LCA suggest that patients with the six typical symptoms defined in CM may benefit from XQLG. PMID:23431348

  11. EVALUATION OF SOLVENT LOSS FROM VAPOR DEGREASER SYSTEMS. PHASES 2 AND 3: EFFECT OF CROSSCURRENT AIR VELOCITY ON CONTROL SYSTEM PERFORMANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency evaluated available pollution reduction capabilities of vapor degreasers fitted with add-on control systems and supplied by greaser manufacturers. The principal objectives of this project were to develop and implement an experimental progr...

  12. 24 CFR 990.190 - Other formula expenses (add-ons).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Other formula expenses (add-ons). 990.190 Section 990.190 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT THE PUBLIC...

  13. Civic Engagement and Global Citizenship in a University Context: Core Business or Desirable Add-On?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munck, Ronaldo

    2010-01-01

    Can civic engagement become a "core business" of the contemporary university, or is it an attractive "add-on" that is not affordable in the current economic climate? Contemporary universities often play an important role in local community development and, as such, have the opportunity to develop civic engagement strategies to sit alongside…

  14. 40 CFR 63.4768 - What are the requirements for continuous parameter monitoring system installation, operation, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... determine the average of all recorded readings for each successive 3-hour period of the emission capture... emission capture system and add-on control device parameter data at all times that a controlled coating... adjustments). (6) You must not use emission capture system or add-on control device parameter data...

  15. 40 CFR 63.4768 - What are the requirements for continuous parameter monitoring system installation, operation, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... determine the average of all recorded readings for each successive 3-hour period of the emission capture... emission capture system and add-on control device parameter data at all times that a controlled coating... adjustments). (6) You must not use emission capture system or add-on control device parameter data...

  16. Establishing a Near Term Lunar Farside Gravity Model via Inexpensive Add-on Navigation Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Mesarch, Michael; Miller, Ronald; Bell, David; Jedrey, Tom; Butman, Stanley; Asmar, Sami

    2007-01-01

    The Space Communications and Navigation, Constellation Integration Project (SCIP) is tasked with defining, developing, deploying and operating an evolving multi-decade communications and navigation (C/N) infrastructure including services and subsystems that will support both robotic and human exploration activities at the Moon. This paper discusses an early far side gravitational mapping service and related telecom subsystem that uses an existing spacecraft (WIND) and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) to collect data that would address several needs of the SCIP. An important aspect of such an endeavor is to vastly improve the current lunar gravity model while demonstrating the navigation and stationkeeping of a relay spacecraft. We describe a gravity data acquisition activity and the trajectory design of the relay orbit in an Earth-Moon L2 co-linear libration orbit. Several phases of the transfer from an Earth-Sun to the Earth-Moon region are discussed along with transfers within the Earth-Moon system. We describe a proposed, but not integrated, add-on to LRO scheduled to be launched in October of 2008. LRO provided a real host spacecraft against which we designed the science payload and mission activities. From a strategic standpoint, LRO was a very exciting first flight opportunity for gravity science data collection. Gravity Science data collection requires the use of one or more low altitude lunar polar orbiters. Variations in the lunar gravity field will cause measurable variations in the orbit of a low altitude lunar orbiter. The primary means to capture these induced motions is to monitor the Doppler shift of a radio signal to or from the low altitude spacecraft, given that the signal is referenced to a stable frequency reference. For the lunar far side, a secondary orbiting radio signal platform is required. We provide an in-depth look at link margins, trajectory design, and hardware implications. Our approach posed minimum risk to a host mission while

  17. Digital wireless control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R.

    1993-08-01

    The Digital Wireless Control System (DWCS) is designed to initiate high explosives safely while using a wireless remote control system. Numerous safety features have been designed into the fire control system to mitigate the hazards associated with remote initiation of high explosives. These safety features range from a telemetry (TM) fire control status system to mechanical timers and keyed power lockout switches. The environment, safety, and health (ES&H) Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) SP471970 is intended as a guide when working with the DWCS. This report describes the Digital Wireless Control System and outlines each component's theory of operation and its relationship to the system.

  18. 40 CFR 63.3168 - What are the requirements for continuous parameter monitoring system installation, operation, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the emission capture system and add-on control device operation. (3) You must record the results of... operate the CPMS and collect emission capture system and add-on control device parameter data at all times... checks and required zero and span adjustments). (6) You must not use emission capture system or...

  19. Segment alignment control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aubrun, JEAN-N.; Lorell, Ken R.

    1988-01-01

    The segmented primary mirror for the LDR will require a special segment alignment control system to precisely control the orientation of each of the segments so that the resulting composite reflector behaves like a monolith. The W.M. Keck Ten Meter Telescope will utilize a primary mirror made up of 36 actively controlled segments. Thus the primary mirror and its segment alignment control system are directly analogous to the LDR. The problems of controlling the segments in the face of disturbances and control/structures interaction, as analyzed for the TMT, are virtually identical to those for the LDR. The two systems are briefly compared.

  20. Intelligent flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1993-01-01

    The capabilities of flight control systems can be enhanced by designing them to emulate functions of natural intelligence. Intelligent control functions fall in three categories. Declarative actions involve decision-making, providing models for system monitoring, goal planning, and system/scenario identification. Procedural actions concern skilled behavior and have parallels in guidance, navigation, and adaptation. Reflexive actions are spontaneous, inner-loop responses for control and estimation. Intelligent flight control systems learn knowledge of the aircraft and its mission and adapt to changes in the flight environment. Cognitive models form an efficient basis for integrating 'outer-loop/inner-loop' control functions and for developing robust parallel-processing algorithms.

  1. Temperature offset control system

    SciTech Connect

    Fried, M.

    1987-07-28

    This patent describes a temperature offset control system for controlling the operation of both heating and air conditioning systems simultaneously contained within the same premises each of which is set by local thermostats to operate at an appropriate temperature, the offset control system comprising: a central control station having means for presetting an offset temperature range, means for sensing the temperature at a central location, means for comparing the sensed temperature with the offset temperature range, means responsive to the comparison for producing a control signal indicative of whether the sensed temperature is within the offset temperature range or beyond the offset temperature range, and means for transmitting the control signal onto the standard energy lines servicing the premises; and a receiving station respectively associated with each heating and air conditioning system, the receiving stations each comprising means for receiving the same transmitted control signal from the energy lines, and switch means for controlling the energization of the respective system in response to the received control signal. The heating systems and associated local thermostat are disabled by the control signal when the control signal originates from a sensed temperature above the lower end of the offset temperature range. The air conditioning systems and associated thermostats are disabled by the same control signal when the control signal originates from a sensed temperature below the upper end of the offset temperature range.

  2. Intermittent Control Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Thomas L.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    The technique of intermittent control systems for air quality control as developed and used by the Tennessee Valley Authority is investigated. Although controversial, all Tennessee Valley Authority sulfur dioxide elimination programs are scheduled to be operational this year. Existing or anticipated intermittent control systems are identified. (BT)

  3. Automated Serials Control System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Elizabeth

    In 1967, the New York State Library at Albany (NYSL) developed a tape-oriented, off-line serials control system for 10,000 active titles. The system would perform all the serials control functions: bibliographic control, check-in of current receipts, claiming for gaps in receipts and late issues, binding notification for completed sets,…

  4. Add on testosterone therapy in negative symptoms of schizophrenia with gonadal trauma: Hitting the bull's eye.

    PubMed

    Jha, Shailesh; Garg, Amit

    2016-06-30

    The coincidence or causal incidence of hormonal dysregulation leading to psychotic manifestation had been a point of debate. The interplay of these hormones in pathogenesis of psychotic symptom domains is still inconclusive along with some symptom domains which worsen with antipsychotics. Early detection and treatment with liaison approach is of great help to such patients. We report a case of schizophrenia with primary hypogonadism that responded dramatically to add on testosterone supplement. PMID:27138816

  5. JT-60 Control System

    SciTech Connect

    Yonekawa, I.; Kawamata, Y.; Totsuka, T.; Akasaka, H.; Sueoka, M.; Kurihara, K.; Kimura, T.

    2002-09-15

    The present status of the JT-60U control system is reported including its original design concept, the progress of the system, and various modifications since the JT-60 upgrade. This control system has features of a functionally distributed and hierarchical structure, using CAMAC interfaces initially, which have been replaced by versatile module Europe (VME)-bus interfaces, and a protective interlock system composed of both software and hard-wired interlock logics. Plant monitoring and control are performed by efficient data communication through CAMAC highways and Ethernet with TCP/IP protocols. Sequential control of plasma discharges is executed by a combination of a remodeled VME-bus system and a timing system. A real-time plasma control system and a human interface system have been continuously modified corresponding to the progress of JT-60U experiments.

  6. Intelligent Control Systems Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loparo, Kenneth A.

    1994-01-01

    Results of a three phase research program into intelligent control systems are presented. The first phase looked at implementing the lowest or direct level of a hierarchical control scheme using a reinforcement learning approach assuming no a priori information about the system under control. The second phase involved the design of an adaptive/optimizing level of the hierarchy and its interaction with the direct control level. The third and final phase of the research was aimed at combining the results of the previous phases with some a priori information about the controlled system.

  7. Control and optimization system

    DOEpatents

    Xinsheng, Lou

    2013-02-12

    A system for optimizing a power plant includes a chemical loop having an input for receiving an input parameter (270) and an output for outputting an output parameter (280), a control system operably connected to the chemical loop and having a multiple controller part (230) comprising a model-free controller. The control system receives the output parameter (280), optimizes the input parameter (270) based on the received output parameter (280), and outputs an optimized input parameter (270) to the input of the chemical loop to control a process of the chemical loop in an optimized manner.

  8. 40 CFR 63.4168 - What are the requirements for continuous parameter monitoring system installation, operation, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... determine the average of all recorded readings for each successive 3-hour period of the emission capture... monitoring equipment. (5) You must operate the CPMS and collect emission capture system and add-on control... emission capture system or add-on control device parameter data recorded during monitoring...

  9. 40 CFR 63.4168 - What are the requirements for continuous parameter monitoring system installation, operation, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... determine the average of all recorded readings for each successive 3-hour period of the emission capture... monitoring equipment. (5) You must operate the CPMS and collect emission capture system and add-on control... emission capture system or add-on control device parameter data recorded during monitoring...

  10. The ILC control system.

    SciTech Connect

    Carwardine, J.; Saunders, C.; Arnold, N.; Lenkszus, F.; Rehlich, K.; Simrock, S.; Banerjee, b.; Chase, B.; Gottschalk, E.; Joireman, P.; Kasley, P.; Lackey, S.; McBride, P.; Pavlicek, V.; Patrick, J.; Votava, M.; Wolbers, S.; Furukawa, K.; Michizono, S.; Larson, R.S.; Downing, R.; DESY; FNAL; SLAC

    2007-01-01

    Since the last ICALEPCS, a small multi-region team has developed a reference design model for a control system for the International Linear Collider as part of the ILC Global Design Effort. The scale and performance parameters of the ILC accelerator require new thinking in regards to control system design. Technical challenges include the large number of accelerator systems to be controlled, the large scale of the accelerator facility, the high degree of automation needed during accelerator operations, and control system equipment requiring 'Five Nines' availability. The R&D path for high availability touches the control system hardware, software, and overall architecture, and extends beyond traditional interfaces into the technical systems. Software considerations for HA include fault detection through exhaustive out-of-band monitoring and automatic state migration to redundant systems, while the telecom industry's emerging ATCA standard - conceived, specified, and designed for High Availability - is being evaluated for suitability for ILC front-end electronics.

  11. KEKB accelerator control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akasaka, Nobumasa; Akiyama, Atsuyoshi; Araki, Sakae; Furukawa, Kazuro; Katoh, Tadahiko; Kawamoto, Takashi; Komada, Ichitaka; Kudo, Kikuo; Naito, Takashi; Nakamura, Tatsuro; Odagiri, Jun-ichi; Ohnishi, Yukiyoshi; Sato, Masayuki; Suetake, Masaaki; Takeda, Shigeru; Takeuchi, Yasunori; Yamamoto, Noboru; Yoshioka, Masakazu; Kikutani, Eji

    2003-02-01

    The KEKB accelerator control system including a control computer system, a timing distribution system, and a safety control system are described. KEKB accelerators were installed in the same tunnel where the TRISTAN accelerator was. There were some constraints due to the reused equipment. The control system is based on Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). In order to reduce the cost and labor for constructing the KEKB control system, as many CAMAC modules as possible are used again. The guiding principles of the KEKB control computer system are as follows: use EPICS as the controls environment, provide a two-language system for developing application programs, use VMEbus as frontend computers as a consequence of EPICS, use standard buses, such as CAMAC, GPIB, VXIbus, ARCNET, RS-232 as field buses and use ergonomic equipment for operators and scientists. On the software side, interpretive Python and SAD languages are used for coding application programs. The purpose of the radiation safety system is to protect personnel from radiation hazards. It consists of an access control system and a beam interlock system. The access control system protects people from strong radiation inside the accelerator tunnel due to an intense beam, by controlling access to the beamline area. On the other hand, the beam interlock system prevents people from radiation exposure by interlocking the beam operation. For the convenience of accelerator operation and access control, the region covered by the safety system is divided into three major access control areas: the KEKB area, the PF-AR area, and the beam-transport (BT) area. The KEKB control system required a new timing system to match a low longitudinal acceptance due to a low-alpha machine. This timing system is based on a frequency divider/multiply technique and a digital delay technique. The RF frequency of the KEKB rings and that of the injector Linac are locked with a common divisor frequency. The common

  12. Torque control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studenick, D. K.; Tyler, A. L.; Squillari, W.

    1975-01-01

    System stabilizes aximuth of gondolas which are carried by high-altitude balloons as platforms for tracking telescopes. When telescopes must be constantly aimed at specific targets, control system stabilizes gondola to within 5 arc-seconds.

  13. Efficacy of Add-on Montelukast in Nonasthmatic Eosinophilic Bronchitis: The Additive Effect on Airway Inflammation, Cough and Life Quality

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Wuping; Liu, Ping; Qiu, Zhongmin; Yu, Li; Hang, Jingqing; Gao, Xiaohua; Zhou, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Background: The efficacy of montelukast (MONT), a cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist, in nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis (NAEB), especially its influence on cough associated life quality is still indefinite. We evaluated the efficacy of MONT combined with budesonide (BUD) as compared to BUD monotherapy in improving life quality, suppressing airway eosinophilia and cough remission in NAEB. Methods: A prospective, open-labeled, multicenter, randomized controlled trial was conducted. Patients with NAEB (aged 18-75 years) were randomized to inhaled BUD (200 μg, bid) or BUD plus oral MONT (10 μg, qn) for 4 weeks. Leicester cough questionnaire (LCQ) life quality scores, cough visual analog scale (CVAS) scores, eosinophil differential ratio (Eos), and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in induced sputum were monitored and compared. Results: The control and MONT groups contained 33 and 32 patients, respectively, with similar baseline characteristics. Significant with-in group improvement in CVAS, LCQ scores, Eos, and ECP was observed in both groups during treatment. After 2-week treatment, add-on treatment of MONT was significantly more effective than BUD monotherapy for CVAS decrease and LCQ scores improvement (both P < 0.05). Similar results were seen at 4-week assessment (both P < 0.05). 4-week add-on therapy of MONT also resulted in a higher percentage of patients with normal sputum Eos (<2.5%) and greater decrease of ECP (both P < 0.05). Conclusions: MONT combined with BUD was demonstrated cooperative effects in improvement of life quality, suppression of eosinophilic inflammation, and cough remission in patients with NAEB. PMID:25563311

  14. Control system design guide

    SciTech Connect

    Sellers, David; Friedman, Hannah; Haasl, Tudi; Bourassa, Norman; Piette, Mary Ann

    2003-05-01

    The ''Control System Design Guide'' (Design Guide) provides methods and recommendations for the control system design process and control point selection and installation. Control systems are often the most problematic system in a building. A good design process that takes into account maintenance, operation, and commissioning can lead to a smoothly operating and efficient building. To this end, the Design Guide provides a toolbox of templates for improving control system design and specification. HVAC designers are the primary audience for the Design Guide. The control design process it presents will help produce well-designed control systems that achieve efficient and robust operation. The spreadsheet examples for control valve schedules, damper schedules, and points lists can streamline the use of the control system design concepts set forth in the Design Guide by providing convenient starting points from which designers can build. Although each reader brings their own unique questions to the text, the Design Guide contains information that designers, commissioning providers, operators, and owners will find useful.

  15. Novel microsatellite control system

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, K.R.; Frigo, J.R.; Tilden, M.W.

    1996-12-31

    The authors are developing extremely simple yet quite capable analog pulse-coded neural networks for smaller-faster-cheaper spacecraft attitude and control systems. They will demonstrate a prototype microsatellite that uses the novel control system to autonomously stabilize itself in the ambient magnetic field and point itself at the brightest available light source.

  16. Cockpit control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesnewski, David; Snow, Russ M.; Paufler, Dave; Schnieder, George; Athousake, Roxanne; Combs, Lisa

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide a detail design for the cockpit control system of the Viper PFT. The statement of work for this project requires provisions for control of the ailerons, elevator, rudder, and elevator trim. The system should provide adjustment for pilot stature, rigging, and maintenance. MIL-STD-1472 is used as a model for human factors criterion. The system is designed to the pilot limit loading outlined in FAR part 23.397. The general philosophy behind this design is to provide a simple, reliable control system which will withstand the daily abuse that is experienced in the training environment without excessive cost or weight penalties.

  17. Analyzing Feedback Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Frank H.; Downing, John P.

    1987-01-01

    Interactive controls analysis (INCA) program developed to provide user-friendly environment for design and analysis of linear control systems, primarily feedback control. Designed for use with both small- and large-order systems. Using interactive-graphics capability, INCA user quickly plots root locus, frequency response, or time response of either continuous-time system or sampled-data system. Configuration and parameters easily changed, allowing user to design compensation networks and perform sensitivity analyses in very convenient manner. Written in Pascal and FORTRAN.

  18. Automatic clutch control system

    SciTech Connect

    Kasai, H.; Ogawa, N.; Hattori, T.; Ishihara, M.; Uriuhara, M.

    1986-12-16

    This patent describes an automatic clutch control system, comprising: a clutch having a full clutch engagement point and a clutch contact point; a clutch actuator for controlling a clutch stroke; a plurality of solenoid valves for controlling the clutch actuator; clutch stroke sensor means for measuring the clutch stroke and for detecting the full clutch engagement point and the clutch contact point in the clutch stroke; control means, for feeding back a stroke signal detected by the clutch stroke sensor and for controlling the solenoid valves to control clutch engagement and disengagement.

  19. Characterization of an add-on multileaf collimator for electron beam therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauer, T.; Sokoll, J.; Cremers, F.; Harmansa, R.; Luzzara, M.; Schmidt, R.

    2008-02-01

    An add-on multileaf collimator for electrons (eMLC) has been developed that provides computer-controlled beam collimation and isocentric dose delivery. The design parameters result from the design study by Gauer et al (2006 Phys. Med. Biol. 51 5987-6003) and were configured such that a compact and light-weight eMLC with motorized leaves can be industrially manufactured and stably mounted on a conventional linear accelerator. In the present study, the efficiency of an initial computer-controlled prototype was examined according to the design goals and the performance of energy- and intensity-modulated treatment techniques. This study concentrates on the attachment and gantry stability as well as the dosimetric characteristics of central-axis and off-axis dose, field size dependence, collimator scatter, field abutment, radiation leakage and the setting of the accelerator jaws. To provide isocentric irradiation, the eMLC can be placed either 16 or 28 cm above the isocentre through interchangeable holders. The mechanical implementation of this feature results in a maximum field displacement of less than 0.6 mm at 90° and 270° gantry angles. Compared to a 10 × 10 cm applicator at 6-14 MeV, the beam penumbra of the eMLC at a 16 cm collimator-to-isocentre distance is 0.8-0.4 cm greater and the depth-dose curves show a larger build-up effect. Due to the loss in energy dependence of the therapeutic range and the much lower dose output at small beam sizes, a minimum beam size of 3 × 3 cm is necessary to avoid suboptimal dose delivery. Dose output and beam symmetry are not affected by collimator scatter when the central axis is blocked. As a consequence of the broader beam penumbra, uniform dose distributions were measured in the junction region of adjacent beams at perpendicular and oblique beam incidence. However, adjacent beams with a high difference in a beam energy of 6 to 14 MeV generate cold and hot spots of approximately 15% in the abutting region. In order to

  20. Common Control System Vulnerability

    SciTech Connect

    Trent Nelson

    2005-12-01

    The Control Systems Security Program and other programs within the Idaho National Laboratory have discovered a vulnerability common to control systems in all sectors that allows an attacker to penetrate most control systems, spoof the operator, and gain full control of targeted system elements. This vulnerability has been identified on several systems that have been evaluated at INL, and in each case a 100% success rate of completing the attack paths that lead to full system compromise was observed. Since these systems are employed in multiple critical infrastructure sectors, this vulnerability is deemed common to control systems in all sectors. Modern control systems architectures can be considered analogous to today's information networks, and as such are usually approached by attackers using a common attack methodology to penetrate deeper and deeper into the network. This approach often is composed of several phases, including gaining access to the control network, reconnaissance, profiling of vulnerabilities, launching attacks, escalating privilege, maintaining access, and obscuring or removing information that indicates that an intruder was on the system. With irrefutable proof that an external attack can lead to a compromise of a computing resource on the organization's business local area network (LAN), access to the control network is usually considered the first phase in the attack plan. Once the attacker gains access to the control network through direct connections and/or the business LAN, the second phase of reconnaissance begins with traffic analysis within the control domain. Thus, the communications between the workstations and the field device controllers can be monitored and evaluated, allowing an attacker to capture, analyze, and evaluate the commands sent among the control equipment. Through manipulation of the communication protocols of control systems (a process generally referred to as ''reverse engineering''), an attacker can then map out the

  1. Drone Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Drones, subscale vehicles like the Firebees, and full scale retired military aircraft are used to test air defense missile systems. The DFCS (Drone Formation Control System) computer, developed by IBM (International Business Machines) Federal Systems Division, can track ten drones at once. A program called ORACLS is used to generate software to track and control Drones. It was originally developed by Langley and supplied by COSMIC (Computer Software Management and Information Center). The program saved the company both time and money.

  2. Sensitivity analysis of the add-on price estimate for the silicon web growth process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mokashi, A. R.

    1981-01-01

    The web growth process, a silicon-sheet technology option, developed for the flat plate solar array (FSA) project, was examined. Base case data for the technical and cost parameters for the technical and commercial readiness phase of the FSA project are projected. The process add on price, using the base case data for cost parameters such as equipment, space, direct labor, materials and utilities, and the production parameters such as growth rate and run length, using a computer program developed specifically to do the sensitivity analysis with improved price estimation are analyzed. Silicon price, sheet thickness and cell efficiency are also discussed.

  3. Digital flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caglayan, A. K.; Vanlandingham, H. F.

    1977-01-01

    The design of stable feedback control laws for sampled-data systems with variable rate sampling was investigated. These types of sampled-data systems arise naturally in digital flight control systems which use digital actuators where it is desirable to decrease the number of control computer output commands in order to save wear and tear of the associated equipment. The design of aircraft control systems which are optimally tolerant of sensor and actuator failures was also studied. Detection of the failed sensor or actuator must be resolved and if the estimate of the state is used in the control law, then it is also desirable to have an estimator which will give the optimal state estimate even under the failed conditions.

  4. Power Systems Control Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    James Davidson

    2005-01-01

    A diagram provided in the report depicts the complexity of the power systems control architecture used by the national power structure. It shows the structural hierarchy and the relationship of the each system to those other systems interconnected to it. Each of these levels provides a different focus for vulnerability testing and has its own weaknesses. In evaluating each level, of prime concern is what vulnerabilities exist that provide a path into the system, either to cause the system to malfunction or to take control of a field device. An additional vulnerability to consider is can the system be compromised in such a manner that the attacker can obtain critical information about the system and the portion of the national power structure that it controls.

  5. IGISOL control system modernization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koponen, J.; Hakala, J.

    2016-06-01

    Since 2010, the IGISOL research facility at the Accelerator laboratory of the University of Jyväskylä has gone through major changes. Comparing the new IGISOL4 facility to the former IGISOL3 setup, the size of the facility has more than doubled, the length of the ion transport line has grown to about 50 m with several measurement setups and extension capabilities, and the accelerated ions can be fed to the facility from two different cyclotrons. The facility has evolved to a system comprising hundreds of manual, pneumatic and electronic devices. These changes have prompted the need to modernize also the facility control system taking care of monitoring and transporting the ion beams. In addition, the control system is also used for some scientific data acquisition tasks. Basic guidelines for the IGISOL control system update have been remote control, safety, usability, reliability and maintainability. Legacy components have had a major significance in the control system hardware and for the renewed control system software the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) has been chosen as the architectural backbone.

  6. Load Control System Reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Trudnowski, Daniel

    2015-04-03

    This report summarizes the results of the Load Control System Reliability project (DOE Award DE-FC26-06NT42750). The original grant was awarded to Montana Tech April 2006. Follow-on DOE awards and expansions to the project scope occurred August 2007, January 2009, April 2011, and April 2013. In addition to the DOE monies, the project also consisted of matching funds from the states of Montana and Wyoming. Project participants included Montana Tech; the University of Wyoming; Montana State University; NorthWestern Energy, Inc., and MSE. Research focused on two areas: real-time power-system load control methodologies; and, power-system measurement-based stability-assessment operation and control tools. The majority of effort was focused on area 2. Results from the research includes: development of fundamental power-system dynamic concepts, control schemes, and signal-processing algorithms; many papers (including two prize papers) in leading journals and conferences and leadership of IEEE activities; one patent; participation in major actual-system testing in the western North American power system; prototype power-system operation and control software installed and tested at three major North American control centers; and, the incubation of a new commercial-grade operation and control software tool. Work under this grant certainly supported the DOE-OE goals in the area of “Real Time Grid Reliability Management.”

  7. Desiccant humidity control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amazeen, J. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    A regenerable sorbent system was investigated for controlling the humidity and carbon dioxide concentration of the space shuttle cabin atmosphere. The sorbents considered for water and carbon dioxide removal were silica gel and molecular sieves. Bed optimization and preliminary system design are discussed along with system optimization studies and weight penalites.

  8. What is system control?

    SciTech Connect

    Hirst, E.; Kirby, B.

    1999-11-01

    Just as the aviation industry needs air-traffic controllers to manage the movement of airplanes for safety and commerce, so too, the electricity industry requires system operators. The electrical-system-control functions encompass a range of activities that support commercial transactions and maintain bulk-power reliability. As part of a project for the Edison Electric Institute, the authors examined the functions and costs of system control and the issues that need to be resolved in a restructured electricity industry (Hirst and Kirby 1998).

  9. Laboratory study of efficient add-on treatments for interior noise control in light aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mixson, J. S.; Roussos, L. A.; Barton, C. K.; Vaicaitist, R.; Slazak, M.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies of the transmission loss (TL) of 1.15 x 1.46 m flat stiffened-skin aluminum panels are described. Panel configurations included panels with no treatment and eight combinations of treatments consisting of a fiberglass-septum layer, a foam-foil damping material, and a plywood double wall trim panel. Measured TL of the untreated panel and the panel with a damping layer showed characteristics of the double mass law: at low frequencies the TL followed a mass law trend associated with the average mass of both skin and stiffness, while at higher frequencies the TL followed a mass law trend associated with skin mass only. A comparison of TL for panels treated with a damping layer, a fiberglass layer, or a trim panel showed that the effects of damping are frequency dependent with some performing better below 500 Hz and others performing better above 500 Hz. Treatment combinations showed that two treatments with the same mass could have TL values different by about 10 dB, while other combinations having weights different by a factor of two could have TL values within a few dB over most of the frequency range. The highest TL values (50 dB at 1000 Hz) were obtained with a treatment consisting of a fiberglass layer, a trim panel, and damping layers on both the stiffened panel and the trim panel.

  10. Remotely controllable mixing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belew, R. R. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to a remotely controllable mixing system in which a plurality of mixing assemblies are arranged in an annular configuration, and wherein each assembly employs a central chamber and two outer, upper and lower chambers. Valves are positioned between chambers, and these valves for a given mixing assembly are operated by upper and lower control rotors, which in turn are driven by upper and lower drive rotors. Additionally, a hoop is compressed around upper control rotors and a hoop is compressed around lower control rotors to thus insure constant frictional engagement between all control rotors and drive rotors. The drive rollers are driven by a motor.

  11. Treatment of infectious waste: development and testing of an add-on set for used gravity displacement autoclaves.

    PubMed

    Stolze, René; Kühling, Jan-Gerd

    2009-06-01

    The safe management of potentially infectious healthcare waste is gaining increasing worldwide importance. In developing countries, simple incinerators are used for the treatment of this type of waste stream. However, as these incinerators produce high emissions and represent the main generators of dioxin and furans in these countries, alternative and cost-effective solutions are needed. As steam treatment systems do not produce persistent organic pollutants, the use of existing (older) medical autoclaves could represent a solution for the treatment of infectious waste. ETLog Health EnviroTech & Logistics, the German-based consulting and engineering company carried out the first research into whether gravity air displacement autoclaves can be used for the safe decontamination of infectious waste. The research showed that it is not possible to decontaminate waste using this type of autoclave. A subsequent research and development phase might, however, make it possible to develop a new process cycle. Tests carried out on the basis of international standards and norms showed that by applying this process cycle and using an add-on set, it is possible to treat healthcare waste using the existing stock of older medical autoclaves. The process cycle and the add-on set developed were tested under existing conditions in Hanoi, Vietnam using the treatment cycle developed for a 13-year-old autoclave. All the parameters for infectious waste decontamination were reached. As modified autoclaves prevent the emission of toxic substances, this approach presents an interim solution, which avoids the impacts on human health and the environment caused by the incineration of healthcare waste. PMID:19470532

  12. Adding power to PowerPoint. Add-ons and plug-ins.

    PubMed

    Giannavola, S

    2001-01-01

    Microsoft's PowerPoint (PPT) has been around for about ten years. It works on both the Macintosh and Windows platforms. Many users have a Macintosh at home and a Windows PC in the office and files can be easily transferred. Presentations magazine estimated that 85 percent of all presentations given in the U.S. last year used PPT. These presentations can be done as 35 mm slides, black and white or color overhead transparencies, electronic lectures or the software can be used to produce pages for Web sites. PPT has become the "Swiss Army Knife" for presenters and can be found everywhere. Since PPT has such a large share of the marketplace, a secondary market has developed to cater to PPT users who need something that didn't come in the box. These products are referred to as add-ons or plug-ins. They are available as commercial products, shareware or even directly from Microsoft. This article will look at several of these add-ons and discuss their possible use in a health care media production environment. PMID:11447780

  13. radEq Add-On Module for CFD Solver Loci-CHEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCloud, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Loci-CHEM to be applied to flow velocities where surface radiation due to heating from compression and friction becomes significant. The module adds a radiation equilibrium boundary condition to the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code to produce accurate results. The module expanded the upper limit for accurate CFD solutions of Loci-CHEM from Mach 4 to Mach 10 based on Space Shuttle Orbiter Re-Entry trajectories. Loci-CHEM already has a very promising architecture and performance, but absence of radiation equilibrium boundary condition limited the application of Loci-CHEM to below Mach 4. The immediate advantage of the add-on module is that it allows Loci-CHEM to work with supersonic flows up to Mach 10. This transformed Loci-CHEM from a rocket engine- heritage CFD code with general subsonic and low-supersonic applications, to an aeroheating code with hypersonic applications. The follow-on advantage of the module is that it is a building block for additional add-on modules that will solve for the heating generated at Mach numbers higher than 10.

  14. Flight control actuation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Gaines, Louie T. (Inventor); Evans, Paul S. (Inventor); Kern, James I. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A flight control actuation system comprises a controller, electromechanical actuator and a pneumatic actuator. During normal operation, only the electromechanical actuator is needed to operate a flight control surface. When the electromechanical actuator load level exceeds 40 amps positive, the controller activates the pneumatic actuator to offset electromechanical actuator loads to assist the manipulation of flight control surfaces. The assistance from the pneumatic load assist actuator enables the use of an electromechanical actuator that is smaller in size and mass, requires less power, needs less cooling processes, achieves high output forces and adapts to electrical current variations. The flight control actuation system is adapted for aircraft, spacecraft, missiles, and other flight vehicles, especially flight vehicles that are large in size and travel at high velocities.

  15. NUCLEAR REACTOR CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Epler, E.P.; Hanauer, S.H.; Oakes, L.C.

    1959-11-01

    A control system is described for a nuclear reactor using enriched uranium fuel of the type of the swimming pool and other heterogeneous nuclear reactors. Circuits are included for automatically removing and inserting the control rods during the course of normal operation. Appropriate safety circuits close down the nuclear reactor in the event of emergency.

  16. The ISOLDE control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deloose, I.; Pace, A.

    1994-12-01

    The two CERN isotope separators named ISOLDE have been running on the new Personal Computer (PC) based control system since April 1992. The new architecture that makes heavy use of the commercial software and hardware of the PC market has been implemented on the 1700 geographically distributed control channels of the two separators and their experimental area. Eleven MSDOS Intel-based PCs with approximately 80 acquisition and control boards are used to access the equipment and are controlled from three PCs running Microsoft Windows used as consoles through a Novell Local Area Network. This paper describes the interesting solutions found and discusses the reduced programming workload and costs that have been obtained.

  17. MFTF supervisory control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-12-01

    A computerized supervisory control system is being developed for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility. The system includes nine Perkin-Elmer 7/32 and 8/32 computers connected by a block of common core memory (128 kilobytes). The network is a disk designed for reliability and redundancy. If one computer goes down, the local-control micro-processors that it controls are switched to another computer in a matter of seconds. The control consoles permit operators to open and close valves, start or stop pumps, and adjust operating levels. The experiment is controlled by two superconsoles and five satellite consoles. The software, written in PASCAL, contains such subsystems as organizing the computers into a network, operating the consoles and accessing the data base.

  18. Computer controlled antenna system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raumann, N. A.

    1972-01-01

    The application of small computers using digital techniques for operating the servo and control system of large antennas is discussed. The advantages of the system are described. The techniques were evaluated with a forty foot antenna and the Sigma V computer. Programs have been completed which drive the antenna directly without the need for a servo amplifier, antenna position programmer or a scan generator.

  19. ACCESS Pointing Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brugarolas, Paul; Alexander, James; Trauger, John; Moody, Dwight; Egerman, Robert; Vallone, Phillip; Elias, Jason; Hejal, Reem; Camelo, Vanessa; Bronowicki, Allen; O'Connor, David; Partrick, Richard; Orzechowski, Pawel; Spitter, Connie; Lillie, Chuck

    2010-01-01

    ACCESS (Actively-Corrected Coronograph for Exoplanet System Studies) was one of four medium-class exoplanet concepts selected for the NASA Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study (ASMCS) program in 2008/2009. The ACCESS study evaluated four major coronograph concepts under a common space observatory. This paper describes the high precision pointing control system (PCS) baselined for this observatory.

  20. Fuel control system

    SciTech Connect

    Staniak, W.A.; Samuelson, R.E.; Moncelle, M.E.

    1986-10-14

    A fuel control system is described comprising: a fuel rack movable in opposite fuel-increasing and fuel-decreasing directions; a rack control member movable in opposite fuel-increasing and fuel-decreasing directions; servo system means for moving the fuel rack in response to movement of the rack control member an electrically energizable member movable in opposite fuel-increasing and fuel-decreasing directions, the electrically energizable member being urged to move in its fuel-decreasing direction when energized; first coupling means for connecting the electrically energizable member to the rack control member to move the rack control member in its fuel-decreasing direction in response to movement of the electrically energizable member in its fuel-decreasing direction; a mechanical governor control having a member movable in opposite fuel-increasing and fuel-decreasing directions; second coupling means for connecting the mechanical governor to the rack control member to move the rack control member in its fuel-decreasing direction in response to movement of the mechanical governor member in its fuel-decreasing direction; bias means for biasing the rack control member to move in its fuel-increasing direction.

  1. CNEOST Control Software System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Zhao, H. B.; Xia, Y.; Lu, H.; Li, B.

    2015-03-01

    In 2013, CNEOST (China Near Earth Object Survey Telescope) adapted its hardware system for the new CCD camera. Based on the new system architecture, the control software is re-designed and implemented. The software system adopts the message passing mechanism via WebSocket protocol, and improves its flexibility, expansibility, and scalability. The user interface with responsive web design realizes the remote operating under both desktop and mobile devices. The stable operating of software system has greatly enhanced the operation efficiency while reducing the complexity, and has also made a successful attempt for the future system design of telescope and telescope cloud.

  2. CNEOST Control Software System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Zhao, Hai-bin; Xia, Yan; Lu, Hao; Li, Bin

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, CNEOST (China Near Earth Object Survey Telescope) adapted its hardware system for the new CCD camera. Based on the new system architecture, the control software is re-designed and implemented. The software system adopts the messaging mechanism based on the WebSocket protocol, and possesses good flexibility and expansibility. The user interface based on the responsive web design has realized the remote observations under both desktop and mobile devices. The stable operation of the software system has greatly enhanced the operation efficiency while reducing the complexity, and has also made a successful attempt for the future system design of telescope and telescope cloud.

  3. Asynchronous interactive control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vuskovic, M. I.; Heer, E.

    1980-01-01

    A class of interactive control systems is derived by generalizing interactive manipulator control systems. The general structural properties of such systems are discussed and an appropriate general software implementation is proposed. This is based on the fact that tasks of interactive control systems can be represented as a network of a finite set of actions which have specific operational characteristics and specific resource requirements, and which are of limited duration. This has enabled the decomposition of the overall control algorithm into a set of subalgorithms, called subcontrollers, which can operate simultaneously and asynchronously. Coordinate transformations of sensor feedback data and actuator set-points have enabled the further simplification of the subcontrollers and have reduced their conflicting resource requirements. The modules of the decomposed control system are implemented as parallel processes with disjoint memory space communicating only by I/O. The synchronization mechanisms for dynamic resource allocation among subcontrollers and other synchronization mechanisms are also discussed in this paper. Such a software organization is suitable for the general form of multiprocessing using computer networks with distributed storage.

  4. Neural Flight Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gundy-Burlet, Karen

    2003-01-01

    The Neural Flight Control System (NFCS) was developed to address the need for control systems that can be produced and tested at lower cost, easily adapted to prototype vehicles and for flight systems that can accommodate damaged control surfaces or changes to aircraft stability and control characteristics resulting from failures or accidents. NFCS utilizes on a neural network-based flight control algorithm which automatically compensates for a broad spectrum of unanticipated damage or failures of an aircraft in flight. Pilot stick and rudder pedal inputs are fed into a reference model which produces pitch, roll and yaw rate commands. The reference model frequencies and gains can be set to provide handling quality characteristics suitable for the aircraft of interest. The rate commands are used in conjunction with estimates of the aircraft s stability and control (S&C) derivatives by a simplified Dynamic Inverse controller to produce virtual elevator, aileron and rudder commands. These virtual surface deflection commands are optimally distributed across the aircraft s available control surfaces using linear programming theory. Sensor data is compared with the reference model rate commands to produce an error signal. A Proportional/Integral (PI) error controller "winds up" on the error signal and adds an augmented command to the reference model output with the effect of zeroing the error signal. In order to provide more consistent handling qualities for the pilot, neural networks learn the behavior of the error controller and add in the augmented command before the integrator winds up. In the case of damage sufficient to affect the handling qualities of the aircraft, an Adaptive Critic is utilized to reduce the reference model frequencies and gains to stay within a flyable envelope of the aircraft.

  5. Flunarizine as add-on therapy in epilepsy. Crossover study vs placebo.

    PubMed

    Moglia, A; Bergamasco, B; Di Perri, R; Mancia, D

    1986-01-01

    The anticonvulsive effect of flunarizine was studied in a multicenter trial, by means of a randomized, double-blind, single crossover design. The subjects who entered the study were 51 males and 39 females, aged 15 to 73 years. They were epileptic patients who suffered from at least two generalized seizures per month or more than 4 partial seizures per month. The patients were already being treated with major antiepileptic drugs. Flunarizine was administered in a single evening dose of 10 mg/die in patients who weighed less than 70 kg and of 15 mg/die in patients who weighed more 70 kg. Our results show that flunarizine, given as add-on therapy, produced a slight but significant decrease in the number of monthly seizures at the end of a 3-month period, while placebo did not significantly change the seizures frequency. PMID:3301560

  6. Addiction surplus: the add-on margin that makes addictive consumptions difficult to contain.

    PubMed

    Adams, Peter J; Livingstone, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Addictive consumptions generate financial surpluses over-and-above non-addictive consumptions because of the excessive consumption of addicted consumers. This add-on margin or 'addiction surplus' provides a powerful incentive for beneficiaries to protect their income by ensuring addicted consumers keep consuming. Not only that, addiction surplus provides the financial base that enables producers to sponsor activities which aim to prevent public health initiatives from reducing consumption. This paper examines the potency of addiction surplus to engage industry, governments and communities in an on-going reliance on addiction surplus. It then explores how neo-liberal constructions of a rational consumer disguise the ethical and exploitative dynamics of addiction surplus by examining ways in which addictive consumptions fail to conform to notions of autonomy and rationality. Four measures are identified to contain the distorting effects of addiction surplus. PMID:25175598

  7. SERVOMOTOR CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    MacNeille, S.M.

    1958-12-01

    Control systems for automatic positioning of an electric motor operated vapor valve are described which is operable under the severe conditions existing in apparatus for electro-magnetlcally separating isotopes. In general, the system includes a rotor for turning the valve comprising two colls mounted mutually perpendicular to each other and also perpendicular to the magnetic field of the isotope separating apparatus. The coils are furnished with both a-c and d- c current by assoclate control circuitry and a position control is provided for varying the ratlo of the a-c currents in the coils and at the same time, but in an inverse manner, the ratio between the d-c currents in the coils is varied. With the present system the magnitude of the motor torque is constant for all valves of the rotor orientatlon angle.

  8. Attitude control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonpragenau, G. L.; Rupp, C. C. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An attitude control system is described in which angular rate signals are generated by rate gyros mounted closely adjacent to gimbaled engines at the rear of a vehicle. Error signals representative of a commanded change in vehicle angle or attitude are obtained from a precision inertial platform located in the nose region of the vehicle. The rate gyro derived signals dominate at high frequencies where dynamic effects become significant, and platform signals dominate at low frequencies where precision signals are required for a steady vehicle attitude. The blended signals are applied in a conventional manner to control the gimbaling of vehicle engines about control axes.

  9. REACTOR CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    MacNeill, J.H.; Estabrook, J.Y.

    1960-05-10

    A reactor control system including a continuous tape passing through a first coolant passageway, over idler rollers, back through another parallel passageway, and over motor-driven rollers is described. Discrete portions of fuel or poison are carried on two opposed active sections of the tape. Driving the tape in forward or reverse directions causes both active sections to be simultaneously inserted or withdrawn uniformly, tending to maintain a more uniform flux within the reactor. The system is particularly useful in mobile reactors, where reduced inertial resistance to control rod movement is important.

  10. Intelligence control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saridis, G. N.

    1980-01-01

    The evolution of ideas of intelligent controls and their application to high level man machine interactive systems like general purpose manipulators, industrial robots, prosthetic devices for amputees, and orthotic devices for paralyzed persons are discussed. Some case studies are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the approach.

  11. Electric turbocompound control system

    DOEpatents

    Algrain, Marcelo C.

    2007-02-13

    Turbocompound systems can be used to affect engine operation using the energy in exhaust gas that is driving the available turbocharger. A first electrical device acts as a generator in response to turbocharger rotation. A second electrical device acts as a motor to put mechanical power into the engine, typically at the crankshaft. Apparatus, systems, steps, and methods are described to control the generator and motor operations to control the amount of power being recovered. This can control engine operation closer to desirable parameters for given engine-related operating conditions compared to actual. The electrical devices can also operate in "reverse," going between motor and generator functions. This permits the electrical device associated with the crankshaft to drive the electrical device associated with the turbocharger as a motor, overcoming deficient engine operating conditions such as associated with turbocharger lag.

  12. Timing control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiker, Gordon A. (Inventor); Wells, Jr., George H. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A timing control system is disclosed which is particularly useful in connection with simulated mortar shells. Special circuitry is provided to assure that the shell does not overshoot, but rather detonates early in case of an improper condition; this ensures that ground personnel will not be harmed by a delayed detonation. The system responds to an externally applied frequency control code which is configured to avoid any confusion between different control modes. A premature detonation routine is entered in case an improper time-setting signal is entered, or if the shell is launched before completion of the time-setting sequence. Special provisions are also made for very early launch situations and improper detonator connections. An alternate abort mode is provided to discharge the internal power supply without a detonation in a manner that can be externally monitored, thereby providing a mechanism for non-destructive testing. The abort mode also accelerates the timing function for rapid testing.

  13. Controllability of Complex Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slotine, Jean-Jacques

    2013-03-01

    We review recent work on controllability of complex systems. We also discuss the interplay of our results with questions of synchronization, and point out key directions of future research. Work done in collaboration with Yang-Yu Liu, Center for Complex Network Research and Departments of Physics, Computer Science and Biology, Northeastern University and Center for Cancer Systems Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute; and Albert-László Barabási, Center for Complex Network Research and Departments of Physics, Computer Science and Biology, Northeastern University; Center for Cancer Systems Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute; and Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School.

  14. Telerobot control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backes, Paul G. (Inventor); Tso, Kam S. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    This invention relates to an operator interface for controlling a telerobot to perform tasks in a poorly modeled environment and/or within unplanned scenarios. The telerobot control system includes a remote robot manipulator linked to an operator interface. The operator interface includes a setup terminal, simulation terminal, and execution terminal for the control of the graphics simulator and local robot actuator as well as the remote robot actuator. These terminals may be combined in a single terminal. Complex tasks are developed from sequential combinations of parameterized task primitives and recorded teleoperations, and are tested by execution on a graphics simulator and/or local robot actuator, together with adjustable time delays. The novel features of this invention include the shared and supervisory control of the remote robot manipulator via operator interface by pretested complex tasks sequences based on sequences of parameterized task primitives combined with further teleoperation and run-time binding of parameters based on task context.

  15. Manned geosynchronous mission requirements and systems analysis study add-on

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, S. W.; Johnson, W. T.; Schoen, W. C.

    1982-01-01

    An MOTV mission model was constructed in order to establish the baseline condition for SOC basing. A mission model to reflect satellite servicing was extended. Yearly traffic was projected. Driver missions were categorized. Cost trades and sensitivity to traffic rates were performed and service equipment needs were identified.

  16. Management control system description

    SciTech Connect

    Bence, P. J.

    1990-10-01

    This Management Control System (MCS) description describes the processes used to manage the cost and schedule of work performed by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), Richland, Washington. Westinghouse Hanford will maintain and use formal cost and schedule management control systems, as presented in this document, in performing work for the DOE-RL. This MCS description is a controlled document and will be modified or updated as required. This document must be approved by the DOE-RL; thereafter, any significant change will require DOE-RL concurrence. Westinghouse Hanford is the DOE-RL operations and engineering contractor at the Hanford Site. Activities associated with this contract (DE-AC06-87RL10930) include operating existing plant facilities, managing defined projects and programs, and planning future enhancements. This document is designed to comply with Section I-13 of the contract by providing a description of Westinghouse Hanford's cost and schedule control systems used in managing the above activities. 5 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Prospective open-label study of add-on and monotherapy topiramate in civilians with chronic nonhallucinatory posttraumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Berlant, Jeffrey L

    2004-01-01

    Background In order to confirm therapeutic effects of topiramate on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) observed in a prior study, a new prospective, open-label study was conducted to examine acute responses in chronic, nonhallucinatory PTSD. Methods Thirty-three consecutive newly recruited civilian adult outpatients (mean age 46 years, 85% female) with DSM-IV-diagnosed chronic PTSD, excluding those with concurrent auditory or visual hallucinations, received topiramate either as monotherapy (n = 5) or augmentation (n = 28). The primary measure was a change in the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) score from baseline to 4 weeks, with response defined as a ≥ 30% reduction of PTSD symptoms. Results For those taking the PCL-C at both baseline and week 4 (n = 30), total symptoms declined by 49% at week 4 (paired t-test, P < 0.001) with similar subscale reductions for reexperiencing, avoidance/numbing, and hyperarousal symptoms. The response rate at week 4 was 77%. Age, sex, bipolar comorbidity, age at onset of PTSD, duration of symptoms, severity of baseline PCL-C score, and monotherapy versus add-on medication administration did not predict reduction in PTSD symptoms. Median time to full response was 9 days and median dosage was 50 mg/day. Conclusions Promising open-label findings in a new sample converge with findings of a previous study. The use of topiramate for treatment of chronic PTSD, at least in civilians, warrants controlled clinical trials. PMID:15315714

  18. Vehicle speed control system

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, D.; Tanno, T.; Fukunaga, T.

    1987-06-16

    This patent describes a vehicle speed control system for performing vehicle speed control by controlling the displacement of at least one of a hydraulic pump and a hydraulic motor of a hydraulic transmission through an electric servo device, comprising: vehicle speed setting means for generating a voltage signal corresponding to a vehicle speed to be set; compensating means interposed between the vehicle speed setting means and the electric servo device, the compensating means comprising a first delay element; and second delay element having a response characteristic slower than that of the first delay element. A selecting means for judging as to whether a voltage signal changed by the operation of the vehicle speed setting means represents an acceleration command or a deceleration command and for selecting the first delay element when the voltage signal represents an acceleration command and for selecting the second delay element when the voltage signal represents a deceleration command.

  19. Incoherent control of locally controllable quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Daoyi; Zhang Chenbin; Rabitz, Herschel; Pechen, Alexander; Tarn, T.-J.

    2008-10-21

    An incoherent control scheme for state control of locally controllable quantum systems is proposed. This scheme includes three steps: (1) amplitude amplification of the initial state by a suitable unitary transformation, (2) projective measurement of the amplified state, and (3) final optimization by a unitary controlled transformation. The first step increases the amplitudes of some desired eigenstates and the corresponding probability of observing these eigenstates, the second step projects, with high probability, the amplified state into a desired eigenstate, and the last step steers this eigenstate into the target state. Within this scheme, two control algorithms are presented for two classes of quantum systems. As an example, the incoherent control scheme is applied to the control of a hydrogen atom by an external field. The results support the suggestion that projective measurements can serve as an effective control and local controllability information can be used to design control laws for quantum systems. Thus, this scheme establishes a subtle connection between control design and controllability analysis of quantum systems and provides an effective engineering approach in controlling quantum systems with partial controllability information.

  20. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors or sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors as an add-on to insulin therapy: A comparative review

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Awadhesh Kumar; Singh, Ritu

    2016-01-01

    The gradual decline in β-cell function is inevitable in type 2 diabetes mellitus and therefore, substantial proportions of patients require insulin subsequently, in order to achieve optimal glucose control. While weight gain, hypoglycemia, and fluid retention especially during dose intensification is a known limitation to insulin therapy, these adverse effects also reduce patient satisfaction and treatment adherence. It is also possible that the benefits of intensive control achieved by insulin therapy, perhaps get nullified by the weight gain and hypoglycemia. In addition, improvement in plasma glucose or glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) itself is associated with weight gain. Notably, studies have already suggested that reduction in body weight by ~3–5%, may allow a significantly better glycemic control. Thus, a class of drugs, which can reduce HbA1c effectively, yet are weight neutral or preferably reduce body weight, could be the most sought out strategy as an add-on therapy to insulin. While sulfonylureas (SUs) are associated with weight gain and hypoglycemia, pioglitazone increases body weight and fluid retention. Moreover, SUs are not recommended once premix or prandial insulin is commenced. The addition of newer agents, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist to insulin certainly appears to be an effective tool in reducing both HbA1c and body weight as is evident across the studies; however, this approach incurs an additional injection as well as cost. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4I) and sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2I) are other exciting options, as an add-on to insulin therapy primarily because these are oral drugs and do not possess any intrinsic potential of hypoglycemia. Furthermore, these are either weight neutral or induce significant weight loss. This review article aims to comparatively analyze the safety and efficacy of DPP-4I and SGLT-2I, as an add-on therapy to insulin. PMID:26904466

  1. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors or sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors as an add-on to insulin therapy: A comparative review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Awadhesh Kumar; Singh, Ritu

    2016-01-01

    The gradual decline in β-cell function is inevitable in type 2 diabetes mellitus and therefore, substantial proportions of patients require insulin subsequently, in order to achieve optimal glucose control. While weight gain, hypoglycemia, and fluid retention especially during dose intensification is a known limitation to insulin therapy, these adverse effects also reduce patient satisfaction and treatment adherence. It is also possible that the benefits of intensive control achieved by insulin therapy, perhaps get nullified by the weight gain and hypoglycemia. In addition, improvement in plasma glucose or glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) itself is associated with weight gain. Notably, studies have already suggested that reduction in body weight by ~3-5%, may allow a significantly better glycemic control. Thus, a class of drugs, which can reduce HbA1c effectively, yet are weight neutral or preferably reduce body weight, could be the most sought out strategy as an add-on therapy to insulin. While sulfonylureas (SUs) are associated with weight gain and hypoglycemia, pioglitazone increases body weight and fluid retention. Moreover, SUs are not recommended once premix or prandial insulin is commenced. The addition of newer agents, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist to insulin certainly appears to be an effective tool in reducing both HbA1c and body weight as is evident across the studies; however, this approach incurs an additional injection as well as cost. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4I) and sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2I) are other exciting options, as an add-on to insulin therapy primarily because these are oral drugs and do not possess any intrinsic potential of hypoglycemia. Furthermore, these are either weight neutral or induce significant weight loss. This review article aims to comparatively analyze the safety and efficacy of DPP-4I and SGLT-2I, as an add-on therapy to insulin. PMID:26904466

  2. OAJ control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antón, J. L.; Yanes-Díaz, A.; Rueda-Teruel, S.; Luis-Simoes, R.; Chueca, S.; Lasso-Cabrera, N. M.; Bello, R.; Jiménez, D.; Suárez, O.; Guillén, L.; López-Alegre, G.; Rodríguez, M. A.; de Castro, S.; Nevot, C.; Sánchez-Artigot, J.; Moles, M.; Cenarro, A. J.; Marín-Franch, A.; Ederoclite, A.; Varela, J.; Valdivielso, L.; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D.; López-Sainz, A.; Hernández-Fuertes, J.; Díaz-Martín, M. C.; Iglesias-Marzoa, R.; Abril, J.; Lamadrid, J. L.; Maicas, N.; Rodríguez, S.; Tilve, V.; Civera, T.; Muniesa, D. J.

    2015-05-01

    The Observatorio Astrofísico de Javalambre (OAJ) is a new astronomical facility located at the Sierra de Javalambre (Teruel, Spain) whose primary role will be to conduct all-sky astronomical surveys leveraging two unprecedented telescopes with unusually large fields of view: the JST/T250, a 2.55 m telescope with a 3 deg field of view, and the JAST/T80, an 83 cm telescope with a 2 deg field of view. The immediate objective of these telescopes for the next years is carrying out two unique photometric surveys covering several thousands square degrees: J-PAS and J-PLUS, each of them with a wide range of scientific applications, like e.g. large structure cosmology and Dark Energy, galaxy evolution, supernovae, Milky Way structure and exoplanets. JST and JAST will be equipped with panoramic cameras being developed within the J-PAS collaboration, JPCam and T80Cam respectively, which make use of large format (˜10{k}×10{k}) CCDs covering the entire focal plane. CEFCA engineering team has been designing the OAJ control system as a global concept to manage, monitor, control and service the observatory systems, not only astronomical but also infrastructure and other facilities. We will give an overview of OAJ's control system from an engineering point of view.

  3. Telerobotic virtual control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Shumin; Milgram, Paul

    1992-03-01

    A project to develop a telerobotic `virtual control' capability, currently underway at the University of Toronto, is described. The project centers on a new mode of interactive telerobotic control based on the technology of combining computer generated stereographic images with remotely transmitted stereoscopic video images. A virtual measurement technique, in conjunction with a basic level of digital image processing, comprising zooming, parallax adjustment, edge enhancement, and edge detection has been developed to assist the human operator in visualization of the remote environment and in spatial reasoning. The aim is to maintain target recognition, tactical planning, and high-level control functions in the hands of the human operator with the computer performing low-level computation and control. Control commands initiated by the operator are implemented through manipulation of a virtual image of the robot system, merged with a live video image of the remote scene. This paper discusses the philosophy and objectives of the project, with emphasis on the underlying human factor considerations in the design, and reports the progress made to date in this effort.

  4. Gas turbine engine control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Idelchik, Michael S. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A control system and method of controlling a gas turbine engine. The control system receives an error signal and processes the error signal to form a primary fuel control signal. The control system also receives at least one anticipatory demand signal and processes the signal to form an anticipatory fuel control signal. The control system adjusts the value of the anticipatory fuel control signal based on the value of the error signal to form an adjusted anticipatory signal and then the adjusted anticipatory fuel control signal and the primary fuel control signal are combined to form a fuel command signal.

  5. A Model for Systemic Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwaninger, Markus; Ambroz, Kristjan; Olaya, Camilo

    2006-06-01

    Where should one begin with a design for the self-control of social systems? That is the question addressed by this paper. The traditional concepts of control rest on the feedback loop; control is essential to the attainment of goals. However, the simple feedback loop is insufficient for the modeling of a control system for an organization or other social system. For those systems, which search for multiple goals, it is necessary to design multilevel control systems incorporating the notion of pre-control. This eminently anticipatory function has hardly been considered by past research. Pre-control as understood here is a higher-order control that takes place between different logical levels of a control system. The Model of Systemic Control (MSC), a framework for multilevel control with pre-control relationships, is expounded and illustrated by means of a System Dynamics model.

  6. MIRADAS control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosich Minguell, Josefina; Garzón Lopez, Francisco

    2012-09-01

    The Mid-resolution InfRAreD Astronomical Spectrograph (MIRADAS, a near-infrared multi-object echelle spectrograph operating at spectral resolution R=20,000 over the 1-2.5μm bandpass) was selected in 2010 by the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) partnership as the next-generation near-infrared spectrograph for the world's largest optical/infrared telescope, and is being developed by an international consortium. The MIRADAS consortium includes the University of Florida, Universidad de Barcelona, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Institut de Física d'Altes Energies, Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya and Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. This paper shows an overview of the MIRADAS control software, which follows the standards defined by the telescope to permit the integration of this software on the GTC Control System (GCS). The MIRADAS Control System is based on a distributed architecture according to a component model where every subsystem is selfcontained. The GCS is a distributed environment written in object oriented C++, which runs components in different computers, using CORBA middleware for communications. Each MIRADAS observing mode, including engineering, monitoring and calibration modes, will have its own predefined sequence, which are executed in the GCS Sequencer. These sequences will have the ability of communicating with other telescope subsystems.

  7. Crawling the Control System

    SciTech Connect

    Theodore Larrieu

    2009-10-01

    Information about accelerator operations and the control system resides in various formats in a variety of places on the lab network. There are operating procedures, technical notes, engineering drawings, and other formal controlled documents. There are programmer references and API documentation generated by tools such as doxygen and javadoc. There are the thousands of electronic records generated by and stored in databases and applications such as electronic logbooks, training materials, wikis, and bulletin boards and the contents of text-based configuration files and log files that can also be valuable sources of information. The obvious way to aggregate all these sources is to index them with a search engine that users can then query from a web browser. Toward this end, the Google "mini" search appliance was selected and implemented because of its low cost and its simple web-based configuration and management. In addition to crawling and indexing electronic documents, the appliance provides an API that has been used to supplement search results with live control system data such as current values of EPICS process variables and graphs of recent data from the archiver.

  8. CONTROL ROOM WITH SPRINKLER SYSTEM CONTROLS, INCLUDING MANUAL CONTROL BOXES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTROL ROOM WITH SPRINKLER SYSTEM CONTROLS, INCLUDING MANUAL CONTROL BOXES FOR THE VENTILATION SYSTEM AND A PLC SWITCH FOR AUTOMATIC CO (CARBON MONOXIDE) SYSTEM. THE AIR TESTING SYSTEM IS FREE STANDING AND THE FANS ARE COMPUTER-OPERATED. - Alaskan Way Viaduct and Battery Street Tunnel, Seattle, King County, WA

  9. Effects of gliclazide add on metformin on serum omentin-1 levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Al-Gareeb, Ali I.; Alrubai, Haidar F.; Suliaman, Sammar M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Omentin is a newly identified adipokine that has beneficial influence against cardiovascular disorders. Hence, considering the impact of anti-diabetic drug on omentin levels may provide an adjuvant strategy to protect diabetic patients against valuable clinical hazards. Aim of the Study: To investigate the influence of metformin alone or in combination with gliclazide on the level of serum omentin among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Patients and Methods: A total of 70 newly diagnosed patients with T2DM were enrolled in this randomized, double-blind prospective study, and divided into two equal groups based on treatment regimen in which Group 1 treated with metformin (1000 mg) and Group 2 treated with metformin (1000 mg) plus gliclazide (80 mg). Blood glucose levels, HbA1C, insulin levels, and serum omentin-1 were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. Result: Use of gliclazide as an add-on therapy to metformin in patients with T2DM result in better glycemic control evidenced by significant reductions in the levels of blood glucose levels and HbA1C and much more improvement in insulin sensitivity evidenced by significant decreased in insulin resistance index, whereas it has adverse impact on serum omentin-1 levels evidenced by significant decrement in omentin-1 level in comparison to their pretreatment levels among Group 2 patients. Conclusions: Adding of gliclazide to metformin in treatment of patients with T2DM might extend the therapeutic action of metformin in regarding much better controlling of glycemic indices, but, at the same time, it might attenuate the cardioprotective effects of metformin by its adverse influence on serum omentin-1 levels. PMID:27042415

  10. Mozart K.448 acts as a potential add-on therapy in children with refractory epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lung-Chang; Lee, Wei-Te; Wang, Chien-Hua; Chen, Hsiu-Lin; Wu, Hui-Chuan; Tsai, Chin-Lin; Wei, Ruey-Chang; Mok, Hin-Kiu; Weng, Chia-Fen; Lee, Mei-Wen; Yang, Rei-Cheng

    2011-03-01

    Mozart's Sonata for two pianos in D major, K.448 (Mozart K.448), has been shown to improve mental function, leading to what is known as the Mozart effect. Our previous work revealed that epileptiform discharges in children with epilepsy decreased during and immediately after listening to Mozart K.448. In this study, we evaluated the long-term effects of Mozart K.448 on children with refractory epilepsy. Eleven children with refractory epilepsy were enrolled. All of the patients were diagnosed as having had refractory epilepsy for more than 1 year (range =1 year to 6 years 4 months, mean =3 years 11 months) and had been receiving at least two antiepileptic drugs (AED). During the study period, they listened to Mozart K.448 once a day before bedtime for 6 months. Seizure frequencies were recorded 6 months before they started listening to this music and monthly during the study period. All of the patients remained on the same AEDs during the 6-month study period. Frequencies of seizures were compared before and after listening to Mozart K.448. Eight of eleven patients were seizure free (N=2) or had very good responses (N=6) after 6 months of listening to Mozart K.448. The remaining three (27.3%) showed minimal or no effect (effectiveness <50%; unmodified or worsened seizure frequency). The average seizure reduction was 53.6 ± 62.0%. There were no significant differences in seizure reduction with IQ, etiology, or gender. We conclude that Mozart K.448 should be further studied as a potential add-on therapy in the treatment of children with refractory epilepsy. PMID:21292560

  11. Aromatase inhibitors as add-on treatment for men with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Harden, Cynthia; MacLusky, Neil J

    2005-01-01

    Manipulation of neurosteroids to treat epilepsy has been an area of active research. The effect of testosterone on brain excitability and seizure threshold has been mixed; the estradiol metabolite of testosterone increases brain excitability, while the reduced metabolite of testosterone, 3alpha-androstanediol, decreases brain excitability, likely through an action at the gamma-amino butyric acid A receptor. Therefore, the metabolites of testosterone produce opposite effects on brain excitability in seizure models. Aromatase is the enzyme for the conversion of testosterone to 17beta-estradiol. Aromatase inhibitors could decrease brain excitability by decreasing local estradiol levels and therefore, could be beneficial for the treatment of epilepsy. Aromatase inhibitors are US Food and Drug Administration-approved and have a long history of safe use in menopausal women with breast cancer. This review presents the results of using anastrazole in an open-label, add-on manner in a small group of men with epilepsy in order to improve seizures. The results suggested some effect on reduction of seizures and no side effects. Testosterone levels did increase, but not to above the normal range. Letrozole used in a single case was also beneficial for seizures. It was concluded that aromatase inhibitors may be a useful adjunct to the treatment of epilepsy, but habituation to the treatment may be limiting. Many men with epilepsy have low testosterone, and aromatase inhibition may be helpful in restoring levels to normal. Modulation of reproductive hormones by aromatase inhibition as well as enhancement of the 3alpha-androstanediol pathway may be an avenue of epilepsy treatment that would not produce sedative side effects, which is often a limiting factor with standard antiseizure medications. A further interesting result is that elevated follicle stimulating hormone and luteal stimulating hormone levels were associated with seizure reduction, suggesting that they may be a

  12. Aerodynamic drag reduction tests on a full-scale tractor-trailer combination with several add-on devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montoya, L. C.; Steers, L. L.

    1974-01-01

    Aerodynamic drag tests were performed on a conventional cab-over-engine tractor with a 45-foot trailer and five commercially available or potentially available add-on devices using the coast-down method. The tests ranged in velocity from approximately 30 miles per hour to 65 miles per hour and included some flow visualization. A smooth, level runway at Edwards Air Force Base was used for the tests, and deceleration measurements were taken with both accelerometers and stopwatches. An evaluation of the drag reduction results obtained with each of the five add-on devices is presented.

  13. Smog control system

    SciTech Connect

    Eichhorn, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    A smog control system is designed comprised of fans or blowers which are located to introduce air into a smog particle destruction chamber operated with laser energy. The smog particles are broken down and the air is passed into a filtering chamber which may adopt the form of a liquid charcoal chamber. The air may be bubbled through the liquid charcoal and the effluent may then be passed into a freshening agent chamber. The air may then pass as an effluent from the freshening agent chamber. A liquid charcoal supply may be connected to the liquid charcoal chamber and the recovered liquid charcoal which has been spent may be reused for other purposes.

  14. BLTC control system software

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, J.B., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-10

    This is a direct revision to Rev. 0 of the BLTC Control System Software. The entire document is being revised and released as HNF-SD-FF-CSWD-025, Rev 1. The changes incorporated by this revision include addition of a feature to automate the sodium drain when removing assemblies from sodium wetted facilities. Other changes eliminate locked in alarms during cold operation and improve the function of the Oxygen Analyzer. See FCN-620498 for further details regarding these changes. Note the change in the document number prefix, in accordance with HNF-MD-003.

  15. Airflow control system

    DOEpatents

    Motszko, Sean Ronald; McEnaney, Ryan Patrick; Brush, Jeffrey Alan; Zimmermann, Daniel E.

    2007-03-13

    A dual airflow control system for an environment having a first air zone and a second air zone. The system includes a first input device operable to generate a first input signal indicative of a desired airflow to the first zone and a second input device operable to generate a second input signal indicative of a desired airflow to the second zone. First and second flow regulators are configured to regulate airflow to the first and second zones, respectively, such that the first and second regulators selectively provide the airflow to each of the first and second zones based on the first and second input signals. A single actuator is associated with the first and second flow regulators. The actuator is operable to simultaneously actuate the first and second flow regulators based on an input from the first and second input devices to allow the desired airflows to the first and the second zones.

  16. No effect of switching to high-dose rosuvastatin, add-on nicotinic acid, or add-on fenofibrate on serum vitamin D levels in patients with mixed dyslipidemia

    PubMed Central

    Makariou, E S; Elisaf, M; Kei, A; Challa, A; DiNicolantonio, J J; Liberopoulos, E

    2015-01-01

    Background Low 25-hydroxy-vitamin D [25(OH)VitD] levels may represent a novel cardiovascular disease risk factor. Several statins may increase 25(OH)VitD concentration. The effect of other lipid-lowering drugs is unknown. Aim To investigate whether switching to high-dose rosuvastatin, add-on-statin nicotinic acid or add-on-statin fenofibrate would alter 25(OH)VitD levels in patients with mixed dyslipidemia who are already on a conventional statin dose. Methods This is a prespecified analysis of a previously published study. Forty-four patients with mixed dyslipidemia not at treatment goal despite treatment with simvastatin 10-40 mg or atorvastatin 10-20 mg or rosuvastatin 5-10 mg were randomly allocated to switch to rosuvastatin 40 mg (n=17), add-on-statin extended release nicotinic acid (ER-NA)/laropiprant (LRPT) (1000/20 mg first four weeks and 2000/40 mg thereafter) (n=14), or add-on-statin micronized fenofibrate (200 mg) for three months. The endpoint for this analysis was between-group difference in changes in 25(OH)VitD levels. Results Serum 25(OH)VitD levels did not significantly change in any group. In the switch to the highest dose of rosuvastatin group and the add-on-statin ER-NA/LRPT group there was an insignificant decrease in 25(OH)VitD levels {-4.7% [from 16.8 (3.2-37) to 16.0 (7.9-51.6)] and -14.8% [from 12.8 (2.0-54.8) to 10.9 (2.4-34)], respectively]}, while in the add-on-statin fenofibrate group there was an insignificant increase [+13% (from 14.5 (1.0-42) to 16.4 (4.4-30.4) ng/mL)]. No significant difference between groups was found. Conclusion In patients already on a conventional statin dose, neither switching to high-dose rosuvastatin (40 mg) nor add-on-statin ER-NA/LRPT or fenofibrate were associated with significant changes in 25(OH)VitD serum levels. Hippokratia 2015; 19 (2):136-140. PMID:27418762

  17. Clinical Characteristics and Metabolic Predictors of Rapid Responders to Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor as an Add-on Therapy to Sulfonylurea and Metformin

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ye An; Yoo, Won Sang; Hong, Eun Shil; Ku, Eu Jeong; Park, Kyeong Seon; Lim, Soo; Cho, Young Min; Park, Kyong Soo; Jang, Hak Chul

    2015-01-01

    Background Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor add-on therapy is a new option for patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes who are taking combined metformin and sulfonylurea (SU). We evaluated the efficacy and safety of this triple therapy and the characteristics of rapid responders and hypoglycemia-prone patients. Methods We included 807 patients with type 2 diabetes who were prescribed a newly added DPP-4 inhibitor to ongoing metformin and SU in 2009 to 2011. Glycemia and other metabolic parameters at baseline, 12, 24, and 52 weeks, as well as episodes of hypoglycemia were analyzed. Rapid responders were defined as patients with ≥25% reduction in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) within 12 weeks. Results At baseline, while on the submaximal metformin and SU combination, the mean HbA1c level was 8.4%. Twelve weeks after initiation of DPP-4 inhibitor add-on, 269 patients (34.4%) achieved an HbA1c level ≤7%. Sixty-six patients (8.2%, 47 men) were rapid responders. The duration of diabetes was shorter in rapid responders, and their baseline fasting plasma glucose (FPG), HbA1c, C-peptide, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance were significantly higher. Patients who experienced hypoglycemia after taking DPP-4 inhibitor add-on were more likely to be female, to have a lower body weight and lower triglyceride and FPG levels, and to have higher homeostasis model assessment of β-cells. Conclusion An oral hypoglycemic triple agent combination including a DPP-4 inhibitor was effective in patients with uncontrolled diabetes. Proactive dose reduction of SU should be considered when a DPP-4 inhibitor is added for rapid responders and hypoglycemia-prone patients. PMID:26616595

  18. Loxapine Add-on for Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Irritability

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Gregory; Cain, Sharon E.; Zhou, Xinghua; Barth, Francis X.; Aman, Michael G.; Palaguachi, Gladys I.; Mikhnev, Dmytro; Teng, Rujia; Andridge, Rebecca; Logan, Marilyn; Butler, Merlin G.; Han, Joan C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: Our clinical experience with low dose loxapine (5–15 mg/day) suggests promising efficacy and safety for irritability in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We studied low dose loxapine prospectively in adolescents and adults with ASD and irritability. Additionally, we measured loxapine and metabolite concentrations, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as a biomarker of neuromodulation. Methods: We performed a 12 week open trial of add-on loxapine in subjects, ages 13–65 years, diagnosed with ASD, and Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Irritability (ABC-I) subscale scores >14. Loxapine was dosed flexibly up to 15 mg daily, starting with 5 mg on alternate days. From weeks 1 to 6, other psychoactive medications were tapered if possible; from weeks 6 to 12, all medication doses were held stable. The primary outcome was the Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement subscale (CGI-I), ratings of Much Improved or Very Much Improved. Secondary outcomes were the ABC-I, Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised, and Schalock Quality of Life scale. Serum BDNF and loxapine and metabolite concentrations were assayed. BDNF rs6265 was genotyped. Results: Sixteen subjects were enrolled; 12 completed all visits. Median age was 18 years (range 13–39). Median final loxapine dose was 7.5 mg/day (2.5–15). All 14 subjects (100%) with data at week 12 were rated as Much Improved on CGI-I at 12 weeks. Mean change on ABC-I at 12 weeks was −31%, p=0.01. Mean body mass index (BMI)-Z decreased between weeks 6 and 12, p=0.03. Side effects were minimal, and prolactin elevation occurred in only one subject. BDNF concentrations measured in 11 subjects increased significantly (p=0.04). Subjects with AG genotype for BDNF rs6265 required a lower dose of loxapine at study end, but had similar behavioral and BDNF concentration changes as the GG genotype. Conclusions: Low dose loxapine shows promise as a repurposed drug for irritability in ASD. Loxapine effects on BDNF warrant

  19. Pollution control system

    SciTech Connect

    Voliva, B.H.; Bernstein, I.B.

    1984-09-25

    A pollution control system is disclosed wherein condensable pollutants are removed from a high-temperature gas stream by counterflow contact in a vertical tower with downwardly flowing, relatively cool absorbent oil. The absorbent is at a sufficiently low temperature so as to rapidly condense a portion of the pollutants in order to form a fog of fine droplets of pollutant entrained by the gas stream, which fog is incapable of being absorbed by the absorbent. The remainder of the condensable pollutants is removed by downwardly flowing absorbent oil, and the gas and entrained fog are directed from the tower to gas/droplet separation means, such as an electrostatic precipitator. The fog is thereby separated from the gas and substantially pollutant-free gas is discharged to the atmosphere.

  20. Optically controlled welding system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Stephen S. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An optically controlled welding system (10) wherein a welding torch (12) having through-the-torch viewing capabilities is provided with an optical beam splitter (56) to create a transmitted view and a reflective view of a welding operation. These views are converted to digital signals which are then processed and utilized by a computerized robotic welder (15) to make the welding torch responsive thereto. Other features includes an actively cooled electrode holder (26) which minimizes a blocked portion of the view by virtue of being constructed of a single spoke or arm (28) and a weld pool contour detector (14) comprising a laser beam directed onto the weld pool with the position of specular radiation reflected therefrom being characteristic of a penetrated or unpenetrated condition of the weld pool.

  1. Optically controlled welding system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Stephen S. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    An optically controlled welding system wherein a welding torch having through-the-torch viewing capabilities is provided with an optical beam splitter to create a transmitted view and a reflective view of a welding operation. These views are converted to digital signals which are then processed and utilized by a computerized robotic welder to make the welding torch responsive thereto. Other features include an actively cooled electrode holder which minimizes a blocked portion of the view by virtue of being constructed of a single spoke or arm, and a weld pool contour detector comprising a laser beam directed onto the weld pool with the position of specular radiation reflected therefrom, being characteristic of a penetrated or unpenetrated condition of the weld pool.

  2. On Restructurable Control System Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Athans, M.

    1983-01-01

    The state of stochastic system and control theory as it impacts restructurable control issues is addressed. The multivariable characteristics of the control problem are addressed. The failure detection/identification problem is discussed as a multi-hypothesis testing problem. Control strategy reconfiguration, static multivariable controls, static failure hypothesis testing, dynamic multivariable controls, fault-tolerant control theory, dynamic hypothesis testing, generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) methods, and adaptive control are discussed.

  3. Thermal control system technology discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Wilbert E.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on thermal control systems technology discipline for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: heat rejection; heat acquisition and transport; monitoring and control; passive thermal control; and analysis and test verification.

  4. Division 1137 property control system

    SciTech Connect

    Pastor, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    An automated data processing property control system was developed by Mobile and Remote Range Division 1137. This report describes the operation of the system and examines ways of using it in operational planning and control.

  5. Environment control system

    DOEpatents

    Sammarone, Dino G.

    1978-01-01

    A system for controlling the environment of an enclosed area in nuclear reactor installations. The system permits the changing of the environment from nitrogen to air, or from air to nitrogen, without the release of any radioactivity or process gas to the outside atmosphere. In changing from a nitrogen to an air environment, oxygen is inserted into the enclosed area at the same rate which the nitrogen-oxygen gas mixture is removed from the enclosed area. The nitrogen-oxygen gas mixture removed from the enclosed area is mixed with hydrogen, the hydrogen recombining with the oxygen present in the gas to form water. The water is then removed from the system and, if it contains any radioactive products, can be utilized to form concrete, which can then be transferred to a licensed burial site. The process gas is purified further by stripping it of carbon dioxide and then distilling it to remove any xenon, krypton, and other fission or non-condensable gases. The pure nitrogen is stored as either a cryogenic liquid or a gas. In changing from an air to nitrogen environment, the gas is removed from the enclosed area, mixed with hydrogen to remove the oxygen present, dried, passed through adsorption beds to remove any fission gases, and reinserted into the enclosed area. Additionally, the nitrogen stored during the nitrogen to air change, is inserted into the enclosed area, the nitrogen from both sources being inserted into the enclosed area at the same rate as the removal of the gas from the containment area. As designed, the amount of nitrogen stored during the nitrogen to air change substantially equals that required to replace oxygen removed during an air to nitrogen change.

  6. NSLS control system upgrade status

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.; Ramamoorthy, S.; Tang, Y.; Flannigan, J.; Sathe, S.; Keane, J.; Krinsky, S.

    1993-07-01

    The NSLS control system initially installed in 1978 has undergone several modifications but the basic system architecture remained relatively unchanged. The need for faster response, increased reliability and better diagnostics made the control system upgrade a priority. Since the NSLS runs continuously, major changes to the control system are difficult. The upgrade plan had to allow continuous incremental changes to the control system without having any detrimental effect on operations. The plan had to provide for immediate improvement in a few key areas, such as data access rates, and be complete in a short time. At present, most accelerator operations utilize the upgraded control system.

  7. Aircraft control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, Greg T. (Inventor); Morgan, Walter R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A span-loaded, highly flexible flying wing, having horizontal control surfaces mounted aft of the wing on extended beams to form local pitch-control devices. Each of five spanwise wing segments of the wing has one or more motors and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other wing segments, to minimize inter-segment loads. Wing dihedral is controlled by separately controlling the local pitch-control devices consisting of a control surface on a boom, such that inboard and outboard wing segment pitch changes relative to each other, and thus relative inboard and outboard lift is varied.

  8. System for controlling apnea

    SciTech Connect

    Holzrichter, John F

    2015-05-05

    An implanted stimulation device or air control device are activated by an external radar-like sensor for controlling apnea. The radar-like sensor senses the closure of the air flow cavity, and associated control circuitry signals (1) a stimulator to cause muscles to open the air passage way that is closing or closed or (2) an air control device to open the air passage way that is closing or closed.

  9. Networked control of microgrid system of systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Magdi S.; Rahman, Mohamed Saif Ur; AL-Sunni, Fouad M.

    2016-08-01

    The microgrid has made its mark in distributed generation and has attracted widespread research. However, microgrid is a complex system which needs to be viewed from an intelligent system of systems perspective. In this paper, a network control system of systems is designed for the islanded microgrid system consisting of three distributed generation units as three subsystems supplying a load. The controller stabilises the microgrid system in the presence of communication infractions such as packet dropouts and delays. Simulation results are included to elucidate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  10. SP-100 Control System Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Jaikaran N.; Halfen, Frank J.; Brynsvold, Glen V.; Syed, Akbar; Jiang, Thomas J.; Wong, Kwok K.; Otwell, Robert L.

    1994-07-01

    Recent work in lower power generic early applications for the SP-100 have resulted in control system design simplification for a 20 kWe design with thermoelectric power conversion. This paper presents the non-mission-dependent control system features for this design. The control system includes a digital computer based controller, dual purpose control rods and drives, temperature sensors, and neutron flux monitors. The thaw system is mission dependent and can be either electrical or based on NaK trace lines. Key features of the control system and components are discussed. As was the case for higher power applications, the initial on-orbit approach to criticality involves the relatively fast withdrawal of the control-rods to a near-critical position followed by slower movement through critical and into the power range. The control system performs operating maneuvers as well as providing for automatic startup, shutdown, restart, and reactor protection.

  11. The RHIC cryogenic control system

    SciTech Connect

    Farah, Y.; Sondericker, J.

    1993-08-01

    A cryogenic process control system for the RHIC Project is discussed. It is independent of the main RHIC Control System, consisting of an upgrade of the existing 24.8 Kw helium refrigerator control section with the addition of a ring control section that regulates and monitors all cryogenic signals in the RHIC tunnel. The system is fully automated, which can run without the continuous presence of operators.

  12. SPring-8 beamline control system.

    PubMed

    Ohata, T; Konishi, H; Kimura, H; Furukawa, Y; Tamasaku, K; Nakatani, T; Tanabe, T; Matsumoto, N; Ishii, M; Ishikawa, T

    1998-05-01

    The SPring-8 beamline control system is now taking part in the control of the insertion device (ID), front end, beam transportation channel and all interlock systems of the beamline: it will supply a highly standardized environment of apparatus control for collaborative researchers. In particular, ID operation is very important in a third-generation synchrotron light source facility. It is also very important to consider the security system because the ID is part of the storage ring and is therefore governed by the synchrotron ring control system. The progress of computer networking systems and the technology of security control require the development of a highly flexible control system. An interlock system that is independent of the control system has increased the reliability. For the beamline control system the so-called standard model concept has been adopted. VME-bus (VME) is used as the front-end control system and a UNIX workstation as the operator console. CPU boards of the VME-bus are RISC processor-based board computers operated by a LynxOS-based HP-RT real-time operating system. The workstation and the VME are linked to each other by a network, and form the distributed system. The HP 9000/700 series with HP-UX and the HP 9000/743rt series with HP-RT are used. All the controllable apparatus may be operated from any workstation. PMID:15263588

  13. Distributed systems status and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreidler, David; Vickers, David

    1990-01-01

    Concepts are investigated for an automated status and control system for a distributed processing environment. System characteristics, data requirements for health assessment, data acquisition methods, system diagnosis methods and control methods were investigated in an attempt to determine the high-level requirements for a system which can be used to assess the health of a distributed processing system and implement control procedures to maintain an accepted level of health for the system. A potential concept for automated status and control includes the use of expert system techniques to assess the health of the system, detect and diagnose faults, and initiate or recommend actions to correct the faults. Therefore, this research included the investigation of methods by which expert systems were developed for real-time environments and distributed systems. The focus is on the features required by real-time expert systems and the tools available to develop real-time expert systems.

  14. Supervisory control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheridan, T. B.

    1974-01-01

    The various functions of a computer are considered that serve in connecting the man, with his displays and controls, to an external environment, manipulator activators and the interoceptors that are in the actuators, and to the interosensors and the motors or the actuators to drive the sensors. Projected is an improved exoskeleton mechanism with computer control and some supervisory control that may give a quadriplegic the ability to walk and run around.

  15. Controls of maglev suspension systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Y.; Zhu, S.; Chen, S.S.; Rote, D.M.

    1993-06-01

    This study investigates alternative control designs of maglev vehicle suspension systems. Active and semi-active control law designs are introduced into primary and secondary suspensions of maglev vehicles. A one-dimensional vehicle with two degrees of freedom, to simulate the German Transrapid Maglev System, is used for suspension control designs. The transient and frequency responses of suspension systems and PSDs of vehicle accelerations are calculated to evaluate different control designs. The results show that active and semi-active control designs indeed improve the response of vehicle and provide an acceptable ride comfort for maglev systems.

  16. The ATLAS Detector Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lantzsch, K.; Arfaoui, S.; Franz, S.; Gutzwiller, O.; Schlenker, S.; Tsarouchas, C. A.; Mindur, B.; Hartert, J.; Zimmermann, S.; Talyshev, A.; Oliveira Damazio, D.; Poblaguev, A.; Braun, H.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Kersten, S.; Martin, T.; Thompson, P. D.; Caforio, D.; Sbarra, C.; Hoffmann, D.; Nemecek, S.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Wynne, B.; Banas, E.; Hajduk, Z.; Olszowska, J.; Stanecka, E.; Bindi, M.; Polini, A.; Deliyergiyev, M.; Mandic, I.; Ertel, E.; Marques Vinagre, F.; Ribeiro, G.; Santos, H. F.; Barillari, T.; Habring, J.; Huber, J.; Arabidze, G.; Boterenbrood, H.; Hart, R.; Iakovidis, G.; Karakostas, K.; Leontsinis, S.; Mountricha, E.; Ntekas, K.; Filimonov, V.; Khomutnikov, V.; Kovalenko, S.; Grassi, V.; Mitrevski, J.; Phillips, P.; Chekulaev, S.; D'Auria, S.; Nagai, K.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Aielli, G.; Marchese, F.; Lafarguette, P.; Brenner, R.

    2012-12-01

    The ATLAS experiment is one of the multi-purpose experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, constructed to study elementary particle interactions in collisions of high-energy proton beams. Twelve different sub detectors as well as the common experimental infrastructure are controlled and monitored by the Detector Control System (DCS) using a highly distributed system of 140 server machines running the industrial SCADA product PVSS. Higher level control system layers allow for automatic control procedures, efficient error recognition and handling, manage the communication with external systems such as the LHC controls, and provide a synchronization mechanism with the ATLAS data acquisition system. Different databases are used to store the online parameters of the experiment, replicate a subset used for physics reconstruction, and store the configuration parameters of the systems. This contribution describes the computing architecture and software tools to handle this complex and highly interconnected control system.

  17. Fluid delivery control system

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, Brian D.; Johnson, Kris William; Algrain, Marcelo C.; Akasam, Sivaprasad

    2006-06-06

    A method of controlling the delivery of fluid to an engine includes receiving a fuel flow rate signal. An electric pump is arranged to deliver fluid to the engine. The speed of the electric pump is controlled based on the fuel flow rate signal.

  18. Autorotation flight control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachelder, Edward N. (Inventor); Lee, Dong-Chan (Inventor); Aponso, Bimal L. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention provides computer implemented methodology that permits the safe landing and recovery of rotorcraft following engine failure. With this invention successful autorotations may be performed from well within the unsafe operating area of the height-velocity profile of a helicopter by employing the fast and robust real-time trajectory optimization algorithm that commands control motion through an intuitive pilot display, or directly in the case of autonomous rotorcraft. The algorithm generates optimal trajectories and control commands via the direct-collocation optimization method, solved using a nonlinear programming problem solver. The control inputs computed are collective pitch and aircraft pitch, which are easily tracked and manipulated by the pilot or converted to control actuator commands for automated operation during autorotation in the case of an autonomous rotorcraft. The formulation of the optimal control problem has been carefully tailored so the solutions resemble those of an expert pilot, accounting for the performance limitations of the rotorcraft and safety concerns.

  19. Bibliographic Access and Control System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Betsy; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Presents a brief summary of the functions of the Bibliographic Access & Control System (BACS) implemented at the Washington University School of Medicine Library, and outlines the design, development, and uses of the system. Bibliographic control of books and serials and user access to the system are also discussed. (Author/JL)

  20. Framework for control system development

    SciTech Connect

    Cork, C.; Nishimura, Hiroshi.

    1991-11-01

    Control systems being developed for the present generation of accelerators will need to adapt to changing machine and operating state conditions. Such systems must also be capable of evolving over the life of the accelerator operation. In this paper we present a framework for the development of adaptive control systems.

  1. A telerobotic digital controller system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    This system is a network of joint mounted dual axes digital servo-controllers (DDSC), providing control of various joints and end effectors of different robotic systems. This report provides description of and user required information for the Digital Controller System Network (DSCN) and, in particular, the DDSC, Model DDSC-2, developed to perform the controller functions. The DDSC can control 3 phase brushless or brush type DC motors, requiring up to 8 amps. Only four wires, two for power and 2 for serial communication, are required, except for local sensor and motor connections. This highly capable, very flexible, programmable servo-controller, contained on a single, compact printed circuit board measuring only 4.5 x 5.1 inches, is applicable to control systems of all types from sub-arc second precision pointing to control of robotic joints and end effectors. This document concentrates on the robotic applications for the DDSC.

  2. Moving Object Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A method is provided for controlling two objects relatively moveable with respect to each other. A plurality of receivers are provided for detecting a distinctive microwave signal from each of the objects and measuring the phase thereof with respect to a reference signal. The measured phase signal is used to determine a distance between each of the objects and each of the plurality of receivers. Control signals produced in response to the relative distances are used to control the position of the two objects.

  3. NUCLEAR REACTOR CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Howard, D.F.; Motta, E.E.

    1961-06-27

    A method for controlling the excess reactivity in a nuclear reactor throughout the core life while maintaining the neutron flux distribution at the desired level is described. The control unit embodies a container having two electrodes of different surface area immersed in an electrolytic solution of a good neutron sbsorbing metal ion such as boron, gadolinium, or cadmium. Initially, the neutron absorber is plated on the larger electrode to control the greater neutron flux of a freshly refueled core. As the fuel burns up, the excess reactivity decreases and the neutron absorber is then plated onto the smaller electrode so that the number of neutrons absorbed also decreases. The excess reactivity in the core may thus be maintained without the introduction of serious perturbations in the neutron flux distributibn.

  4. AUTOMATIC FREQUENCY CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Hansen, C.F.; Salisbury, J.D.

    1961-01-10

    A control is described for automatically matching the frequency of a resonant cavity to that of a driving oscillator. The driving oscillator is disconnected from the cavity and a secondary oscillator is actuated in which the cavity is the frequency determining element. A low frequency is mixed with the output of the driving oscillator and the resultant lower and upper sidebands are separately derived. The frequencies of the sidebands are compared with the secondary oscillator frequency. deriving a servo control signal to adjust a tuning element in the cavity and matching the cavity frequency to that of the driving oscillator. The driving oscillator may then be connected to the cavity.

  5. The APS control system network

    SciTech Connect

    Sidorowicz, K.V.; McDowell, W.P.

    1995-12-31

    The APS accelerator control system is a distributed system consisting of operator interfaces, a network, and computer-controlled interfaces to hardware. This implementation of a control system has come to be called the {open_quotes}Standard Model.{close_quotes} The operator interface is a UNDC-based workstation with an X-windows graphical user interface. The workstation may be located at any point on the facility network and maintain full functionality. The function of the network is to provide a generalized communication path between the host computers, operator workstations, input/output crates, and other hardware that comprise the control system. The crate or input/output controller (IOC) provides direct control and input/output interfaces for each accelerator subsystem. The network is an integral part of all modem control systems and network performance will determine many characteristics of a control system. This paper will describe the overall APS network and examine the APS control system network in detail. Metrics are provided on the performance of the system under various conditions.

  6. Advanced flight control system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgough, J.; Moses, K.; Klafin, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The architecture, requirements, and system elements of an ultrareliable, advanced flight control system are described. The basic criteria are functional reliability of 10 to the minus 10 power/hour of flight and only 6 month scheduled maintenance. A distributed system architecture is described, including a multiplexed communication system, reliable bus controller, the use of skewed sensor arrays, and actuator interfaces. Test bed and flight evaluation program are proposed.

  7. Dual pressure displacement control system

    SciTech Connect

    Louis, J.E.; Klocke, C.C.

    1988-02-02

    This patent describes a dual pressure servo control system for a variable displacement hydraulic unit having displacement setting means positioned by a hydraulic servo mechanism. The hydraulic unit is provided with main loop lines at least one of which is capable of being subjected to high main loop pressure during operation of the hydraulic unit, a control line including a displacement control valve providing a controlled flow of fluid under pressure to the servo mechanism, and a source of fluid under pressure for the control line comprising a low pressure source connected to the control line through a check valve and high pressure source comprising of a high pressure control line connected to the control line downstream of the check valve. The high pressure control line includes a flow restriction limiting flow to the control line means and generating a significant flow induced pressure drop in the high pressure control line once movement in the servo mechanism is initiated.

  8. Controlling hydraulic system costs

    SciTech Connect

    Smiley, C.H.

    1982-06-01

    Hydraulic system preventive maintenance is largely a matter of using the senses and common logic to spot signs of impending problems. The ability to recognize a potential malfunction can save a great deal of money in repairs and lost production.

  9. Dynamically controlled crystal growth system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bray, Terry L. (Inventor); Kim, Larry J. (Inventor); Harrington, Michael (Inventor); DeLucas, Lawrence J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Crystal growth can be initiated and controlled by dynamically controlled vapor diffusion or temperature change. In one aspect, the present invention uses a precisely controlled vapor diffusion approach to monitor and control protein crystal growth. The system utilizes a humidity sensor and various interfaces under computer control to effect virtually any evaporation rate from a number of different growth solutions simultaneously by means of an evaporative gas flow. A static laser light scattering sensor can be used to detect aggregation events and trigger a change in the evaporation rate for a growth solution. A control/follower configuration can be used to actively monitor one chamber and accurately control replicate chambers relative to the control chamber. In a second aspect, the invention exploits the varying solubility of proteins versus temperature to control the growth of protein crystals. This system contains miniature thermoelectric devices under microcomputer control that change temperature as needed to grow crystals of a given protein. Complex temperature ramps are possible using this approach. A static laser light scattering probe also can be used in this system as a non-invasive probe for detection of aggregation events. The automated dynamic control system provides systematic and predictable responses with regard to crystal size. These systems can be used for microgravity crystallization projects, for example in a space shuttle, and for crystallization work under terrestial conditions. The present invention is particularly useful for macromolecular crystallization, e.g. for proteins, polypeptides, nucleic acids, viruses and virus particles.

  10. Control systems on Lie groups.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurdjevic, V.; Sussmann, H. J.

    1972-01-01

    The controllability properties of systems which are described by an evolution equation in a Lie group are studied. The revelant Lie algebras induced by a right invariant system are singled out, and the basic properties of attainable sets are derived. The homogeneous case and the general case are studied, and results are interpreted in terms of controllability. Five examples are given.

  11. Virtual Control Systems Environment (VCSE)

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins, Will

    2012-10-08

    Will Atkins, a Sandia National Laboratories computer engineer discusses cybersecurity research work for process control systems. Will explains his work on the Virtual Control Systems Environment project to develop a modeling and simulation framework of the U.S. electric grid in order to study and mitigate possible cyberattacks on infrastructure.

  12. Virtual Control Systems Environment (VCSE)

    ScienceCinema

    Atkins, Will

    2014-02-26

    Will Atkins, a Sandia National Laboratories computer engineer discusses cybersecurity research work for process control systems. Will explains his work on the Virtual Control Systems Environment project to develop a modeling and simulation framework of the U.S. electric grid in order to study and mitigate possible cyberattacks on infrastructure.

  13. Control systems for Coline accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baczewski, Artur; Latała, Agata; Ceglińska, Kaja; Andrasiak, Michał

    2008-01-01

    Medical linear accelerators are the largest group of devices for therapy of cancer diseases because of their compact design, relatively low operating costs, advanced features and broad range of treatment procedures. Their reliability and ease of operation are very important but the most crucial is to ensure personnel and patient safety. For this reason the development of control and safety systems is the current "leading edge" in medical linear accelerators technology. Provided internal monitoring, machine control and steering, interlock system as well as the automatic recording of the device and patient parameters are nowadays fully controlled by the computer. This paper describes in details projects connected to advanced development of Coline accelerators. As it is crucial to assure reliable steering and monitoring of all the machine settings and actual dose delivered to the patient, advanced control systems composed of steering, control and interlock systems, communication protocol as well as data management system have been developed.

  14. CENTRAL CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Borst, L.B.

    1959-09-22

    A control element is presented for neutronic reactors. The element is longitudinally expansible and compressible and remains within the reactor core at all times. The effectiveness of the element as to neutron absorption is varied by longitudinally compressing or expanding the element, the effectiveness being greatest when the element is fullv expanded and least when it is fully compressed. Two embodiments of the invention are described, one being a coiled spring and the other being an element formed from a plurality of interconnected links.

  15. Aircraft control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lisoski, Derek L. (Inventor); Kendall, Greg T. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A solar rechargeable, long-duration, span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn, pitch and yaw. The wing is configured to deform under flight loads to position the propellers such that the control can be achieved. Each of five segments of the wing has one or more motors and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other segments, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface.

  16. Alirocumab as Add-On to Atorvastatin Versus Other Lipid Treatment Strategies: ODYSSEY OPTIONS I Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gaudet, Daniel; Weiss, Robert; Ruiz, Juan Lima; Watts, Gerald F.; Gouni-Berthold, Ioanna; Robinson, Jennifer; Zhao, Jian; Hanotin, Corinne; Donahue, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Context: Despite current standard of care, many patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) still have elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Alirocumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody inhibitor of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9. Objective: The objective of the study was to compare the LDL-C-lowering efficacy of adding alirocumab vs other common lipid-lowering strategies. Design, Patients, and Interventions: Patients (n = 355) with very high CVD risk and LDL-C levels of 70 mg/dL or greater or high CVD risk and LDL-C of 100 mg/dL or greater on baseline atorvastatin 20 or 40 mg were randomized to one of the following: 1) add-on alirocumab 75 mg every 2 weeks (Q2W) sc; 2) add-on ezetimibe 10 mg/d; 3) double atorvastatin dose; or 4) for atorvastatin 40 mg regimen only, switch to rosuvastatin 40 mg. For patients not achieving protocol-defined LDL-C goals, the alirocumab dose was increased (blinded) at week 12 to 150 mg Q2W. Main Outcome Measure: The primary end point was percentage change in calculated LDL-C from baseline to 24 weeks (intent to treat). Results: Among atorvastatin 20 and 40 mg regimens, respectively, add-on alirocumab reduced LDL-C levels by 44.1% and 54.0% (P < .001 vs all comparators); add-on ezetimibe, 20.5% and 22.6%; doubling of atorvastatin dose, 5.0% and 4.8%; and switching atorvastatin 40 mg to rosuvastatin 40 mg, 21.4%. Most alirocumab-treated patients (87.2% and 84.6%) achieved their LDL-C goals. Most alirocumab-treated patients (86%) maintained their 75-mg Q2W regimen. Treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in 65.4% of alirocumab patients vs 64.4% ezetimibe and 63.8% double atorvastatin/switch to rosuvastatin (data were pooled). Conclusions: Adding alirocumab to atorvastatin provided significantly greater LDL-C reductions vs adding ezetimibe, doubling atorvastatin dose, or switching to rosuvastatin and enabled greater LDL-C goal achievement. PMID:26030325

  17. Comparative behavioral and neurochemical analysis of phenytoin and valproate treatment on epilepsy induced learning and memory deficit: Search for add on therapy.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Awanish; Goel, Rajesh Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Our previous work demonstrated, chronic epilepsy affects learning and memory of rodents along with peculiar neurochemical changes in discrete brain parts. Most commonly used antiepileptic drugs (phenytoin and sodium valproate) also worsen learning and memory in the patients with epilepsy. Therefore this study was designed to carry out comparison of behavioral and neurochemical changes with phenytoin and sodium valproate treatment in pentylenetetrazole-kindling induced learning and memory deficit to devise add on therapy for this menace. For the experimental epilepsy, animals were kindled using PTZ (35 mg/kg; i.p., at 48 ± 2 h intervals) and successful kindled animals were involved in the study. These kindled animals were treated with saline, phenytoin (30 mg/kg/day, i.p.) and sodium valproate (300 mg/kg/day, i.p.) for 20 days. These animals were challenged with PTZ challenging dose (35 mg/kg) on day 5, 10, 15 and 20 to evaluate the effect on seizure severity score on different days. Effect on learning and memory was evaluated using elevated plus maze and passive shock avoidance paradigm. On day 20, after behavioral evaluations, animals were sacrificed to analyze glutamate, GABA, norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, total nitrite level and acetylcholinesterase level in cortex and hippocampus. Behavioral evaluations suggested that phenytoin and sodium valproate treatment significantly reduced seizure severity in the kindled animals, while sodium valproate treatment controls seizures with least memory deficit in comparison to phenytoin. Neurochemical findings revealed that elevated cortical acetylcholinesterase level could be one of the responsible factors leading to memory deficit in phenytoin treated animals. However sodium valproate treatment reduced cortical acetylcholinesterase level and had least debilitating consequences on memory deficit. Therefore, attenuation of elevated AChE activity can be one of add-on approach for management of memory deficit

  18. Adaptable state based control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, Robert D. (Inventor); Dvorak, Daniel L. (Inventor); Gostelow, Kim P. (Inventor); Starbird, Thomas W. (Inventor); Gat, Erann (Inventor); Chien, Steve Ankuo (Inventor); Keller, Robert M. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    An autonomous controller, comprised of a state knowledge manager, a control executor, hardware proxies and a statistical estimator collaborates with a goal elaborator, with which it shares common models of the behavior of the system and the controller. The elaborator uses the common models to generate from temporally indeterminate sets of goals, executable goals to be executed by the controller. The controller may be updated to operate in a different system or environment than that for which it was originally designed by the replacement of shared statistical models and by the instantiation of a new set of state variable objects derived from a state variable class. The adaptation of the controller does not require substantial modification of the goal elaborator for its application to the new system or environment.

  19. Integrated Aeropropulsion Control System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. -F.; Hurley, Francis X.; Huang, Jie; Hadaegh, F. Y.

    1996-01-01

    %T Integrated Aeropropulsion Control System Design%A C-F. Lin%A Francis X. Hurley%A Jie Huang%A F. Y. Hadaegh%J International Conference on Control and Information(psi)995%C Hong Kong%D June 1995%K aeropropulsion, control, system%U http://jpltrs.jpl.nasa.gov/1995/95-0658.pdfAn integrated intelligent control approach is proposed to design a high performance control system for aeropropulsion systems based on advanced sensor processing, nonlinear control and neural fuzzy control integration. Our approach features the following innovations:??e complexity and uncertainty issues are addressed via the distributed parallel processing, learning, and online reoptimization properties of neural networks.??e nonlinear dynamics and the severe coupling can be naturally incorporated into the design framework.??e knowledge base and decision making logic furnished by fuzzy systems leads to a human intelligence enhanced control scheme.In addition, fault tolerance, health monitoring and reconfigurable control strategies will be accommodated by this approach to ensure stability, graceful degradation and reoptimization in the case of failures, malfunctions and damage.!.

  20. Introducing a new paradigm for accelerators and large experimental apparatus control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catani, L.; Zani, F.; Bisegni, C.; Di Pirro, G.; Foggetta, L.; Mazzitelli, G.; Stecchi, A.

    2012-11-01

    The integration of web technologies and web services has been, in the recent years, one of the major trends in upgrading and developing distributed control systems for accelerators and large experimental apparatuses. Usually, web technologies have been introduced to complement the control systems with smart add-ons and user friendly services or, for instance, to safely allow access to the control system to users from remote sites. Despite this still narrow spectrum of employment, some software technologies developed for high-performance web services, although originally intended and optimized for these particular applications, deserve some features suggesting a deeper integration in a control system and, eventually, their use to develop some of the control system’s core components. In this paper, we present the conceptual design of a new control system for a particle accelerator and associated machine data acquisition system, based on a synergic combination of a nonrelational key/value database and network distributed object caching. The use of these technologies, to implement respectively continuous data archiving and data distribution between components, brought about the definition of a new control system concept offering a number of interesting features such as a high level of abstraction of services and components and their integration in a framework that can be seen as a comprehensive service provider that both graphical user interface applications and front-end controllers join for accessing and, to some extent, expanding its functionalities.

  1. Control theory for random systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, A. E., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A survey is presented of the current knowledge available for designing and predicting the effectiveness of controllers for dynamic systems which can be modeled by ordinary differential equations. A short discussion of feedback control is followed by a description of deterministic controller design and the concept of system state. The need for more realistic disturbance models led to the use of stochastic process concepts, in particular the Gauss-Markov process. A compensator controlled system, with random forcing functions, random errors in the measurements, and random initial conditions, is treated as constituting a Gauss-Markov random process; hence the mean-square behavior of the controlled system is readily predicted. As an example, a compensator is designed for a helicopter to maintain it in hover in a gusty wind over a point on the ground.

  2. Emission control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Methods and apparatus utilizing hydrogen peroxide are useful to reduce NOx, SOx and mercury (or other heavy metal) emissions from combustion flue gas streams. Continuous concentration of hydrogen peroxide to levels approaching or exceeding propellant-grade hydrogen peroxide facilitates increased system efficiency. In this manner, combustion flue gas streams can be treated for the removal of NOx, SOx and heavy metals, while isolating useful by-products streams of sulfuric acid and nitric acid as well as solids for the recovery of the heavy metals.

  3. Manual control of unstable systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, R. W.; Hogue, J. R.; Parseghian, Z.

    1986-01-01

    Under certain operational regimes and failure modes, air and ground vehicles can present the human operator with a dynamically unstable or divergent control task. Research conducted over the last two decades has explored the ability of the human operator to control unstable systems under a variety of circumstances. Past research is reviewed and human operator control capabilities are summarized. A current example of automobile directional control under rear brake lockup conditions is also reviewed. A control system model analysis of the driver's steering control task is summarized, based on a generic driver/vehicle model presented at last year's Annual Manual. Results from closed course braking tests are presented that confirm the difficulty the average driver has in controlling the unstable directional dynamics arising from rear wheel lockup.

  4. Deposition System Controller

    SciTech Connect

    Conley, Ray; Liu, Chian

    2005-10-01

    This software is a complete thin film deposition controller. The software takes as its input a script file that dictates enablinig/disabling of sputtering power supplies, pause times, velocities and distances to move a substrate. An emulator has been created and built into the software package that can debug in advance any deposition script and decide if there is an overrun condition, accidental infinite look, and can estimate a time for completion. All necessary process variables are data logged and recorded for later inspection. This emulator currently interfaces to a Parker-Compumotor SX6 stepper moror indexer, but the software is written in such a way that it is easily modifiable for interface to othe brand and models of motor drivers. Other process I/O variables may be easily added. The software uses any multifunction DAQ card from National Instruments via their free NIDAQ API package, but again, the software is written such that othe brand DAQ cards may be used.

  5. Automatic engine control system

    SciTech Connect

    Geary, W.C.; Mirsaiidi, M.V.; Redfern, T.; Wolfe, D.W.

    1986-01-14

    This patent describes an automatic control circuit for an internal combustion engine and clutch assembly. One component of this circuit is a timer for determining the time the engine is allowed to run and the clutch is engaged and a second period of time when the clutch is automatically disengaged. Associated with the timer is a starter means to start the engine during the first time period and a clutch actuating mechanism for engaging the clutch near the first time period initiation after the starter starts the engine. An engine shut down and clutch disengagement mechanism is also responsive to the first timer. The patent then goes on to describe a supplemental timer mechanism for determining a third and fourth period of time within the second time period such that the third period being when the engine is shut off and the fourth period being when the engine runs with clutch disengaged. The starter mechanism is responsive to the supplemental timer to start the engine at the beginning of the fourth period. A shut down means stops the engine at the beginning of the third period in response to the timer.

  6. Deposition System Controller

    2005-10-01

    This software is a complete thin film deposition controller. The software takes as its input a script file that dictates enablinig/disabling of sputtering power supplies, pause times, velocities and distances to move a substrate. An emulator has been created and built into the software package that can debug in advance any deposition script and decide if there is an overrun condition, accidental infinite look, and can estimate a time for completion. All necessary process variablesmore » are data logged and recorded for later inspection. This emulator currently interfaces to a Parker-Compumotor SX6 stepper moror indexer, but the software is written in such a way that it is easily modifiable for interface to othe brand and models of motor drivers. Other process I/O variables may be easily added. The software uses any multifunction DAQ card from National Instruments via their free NIDAQ API package, but again, the software is written such that othe brand DAQ cards may be used.« less

  7. Commutated automatic gain control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    The commutated automatic gain control (AGC) system was designed and built for the prototype Loran-C receiver is discussed. The current version of the prototype receiver, the Mini L-80, was tested initially in 1980. The receiver uses a super jolt microcomputer to control a memory aided phase loop (MAPLL). The microcomputer also controls the input/output, latitude/longitude conversion, and the recently added AGC system. The AGC control adjusts the level of each station signal, such that the early portion of each envelope rise is about at the same amplitude in the receiver envelope detector.

  8. Emission control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor); Chung, J. Landy (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Methods and apparatus utilizing hydrogen peroxide are useful to reduce SOx and mercury (or other heavy metal) emissions from combustion flue gas streams. The methods and apparatus may further be modified to reduce NOx emissions. Continuous concentration of hydrogen peroxide to levels approaching or exceeding propellant-grade hydrogen peroxide facilitates increased system efficiency. In this manner, combustion flue gas streams can be treated for the removal of SOx and heavy metals, while isolating useful by-products streams of sulfuric acid as well as solids for the recovery of the heavy metals. Where removal of NOx emissions is included, nitric acid may also be isolated for use in fertilizer or other industrial applications.

  9. Structural interaction with control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noll, R. B.; Zvara, J.

    1971-01-01

    A monograph which assesses the state of the art of space vehicle design and development is presented. The monograph presents criteria and recommended practices for determining the structural data and a mathematical structural model of the vehicle needed for accurate prediction of structure and control-system interaction; for design to minimize undesirable interactions between the structure and the control system; and for determining techniques to achieve the maximum desirable interactions and associated structural design benefits. All space vehicles are treated, including launch vehicles, spacecraft, and entry vehicles. Important structural characteristics which affect the structural model used for structural and control-system interaction analysis are given.

  10. The AMSC network control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garner, William B.

    1990-01-01

    The American Mobile Satellite Corporation (AMSC) is going to construct, launch, and operate a satellite system in order to provide mobile satellite services to the United States. AMSC is going to build, own, and operate a Network Control System (NCS) for managing the communications usage of the satellites, and to control circuit switched access between mobile earth terminals and feeder-link earth stations. An overview of the major NCS functional and performance requirements, the control system physical architecture, and the logical architecture is provided.

  11. MULTIPLE ECH LAUNCHER CONTROL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    GREEN,M.T; PONCE,D; GRUNLOH,H.J; ELLIS,R.A; GROSNICKLE,W.H; HUMPHREY,R.L

    2003-10-01

    OAK-B135 The addition of new, high power gyrotrons to the heating and current drive arsenal at DIII-D, required a system upgrade for control of fully steerable ECH Launchers. Each launcher contains two pointing mirrors with two degrees of mechanical freedom. The two flavors of motion are called facet and tilt. Therefore up to four channels of motion per launcher need to be controlled. The system utilizes absolute encoders to indicate mirror position and therefore direction of the microwave beam. The launcher movement is primarily controlled by PLC, but future iterations of design, may require this control to be accomplished by a CPU on fast bus such as Compact PCI. This will be necessary to accomplish real time position control. Safety of equipment and personnel is of primary importance when controlling a system of moving parts. Therefore multiple interlocks and fault status enunciators have been implemented. This paper addresses the design of a Multiple ECH Launcher Control System, and characterizes the flexibility needed to upgrade to a real time position control system in the future.

  12. Nanoscale control designs for systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yung-Yue

    2014-02-01

    Nanoscale control is the science of the control of objects at dimensions with 100 nm or less and the manipulation of them at this level of precision. The desired attributes of systems under nanoscale control design are extreme high resolution, accuracy, stability, and fast response. An important perspective of investigation in nanoscale control design includes system modeling and precision control devices and materials at a nanoscale dimension, i.e., design of nanopositioners. Nanopositioners are mechatronic systems with an ultraprecise resolution down to a fraction of an atomic diameter and developed to move objects over a small range in nanoscale dimension. After reviewing a lot of existing literatures for nanoscale control designs, the way to successful nanoscale control is accurate position sensing and feedback control of the motion. An overview of nanoscale identification, linear, and nonlinear control technologies, and devices that are playing a key role in improving precision, accuracy, and response of operation of these systems are introduced in this research. PMID:24749455

  13. Weld analysis and control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Larry Z. (Inventor); Rodgers, Michael H. (Inventor); Powell, Bradley W. (Inventor); Burroughs, Ivan A. (Inventor); Goode, K. Wayne (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a Weld Analysis and Control System developed for active weld system control through real time weld data acquisition. Closed-loop control is based on analysis of weld system parameters and weld geometry. The system is adapted for use with automated welding apparatus having a weld controller which is capable of active electronic control of all aspects of a welding operation. Enhanced graphics and data displays are provided for post-weld analysis. The system provides parameter acquisition, including seam location which is acquired for active torch cross-seam positioning. Torch stand-off is also monitored for control. Weld bead and parent surface geometrical parameters are acquired as an indication of weld quality. These parameters include mismatch, peaking, undercut, underfill, crown height, weld width, puddle diameter, and other measurable information about the weld puddle regions, such as puddle symmetry, etc. These parameters provide a basis for active control as well as post-weld quality analysis and verification. Weld system parameters, such as voltage, current and wire feed rate, are also monitored and archived for correlation with quality parameters.

  14. Comparison of automatic control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oppelt, W

    1941-01-01

    This report deals with a reciprocal comparison of an automatic pressure control, an automatic rpm control, an automatic temperature control, and an automatic directional control. It shows the difference between the "faultproof" regulator and the actual regulator which is subject to faults, and develops this difference as far as possible in a parallel manner with regard to the control systems under consideration. Such as analysis affords, particularly in its extension to the faults of the actual regulator, a deep insight into the mechanism of the regulator process.

  15. Position feedback control system

    DOEpatents

    Bieg, Lothar F.; Jokiel, Jr., Bernhard; Ensz, Mark T.; Watson, Robert D.

    2003-01-01

    Disclosed is a system and method for independently evaluating the spatial positional performance of a machine having a movable member, comprising an articulated coordinate measuring machine comprising: a first revolute joint; a probe arm, having a proximal end rigidly attached to the first joint, and having a distal end with a probe tip attached thereto, wherein the probe tip is pivotally mounted to the movable machine member; a second revolute joint; a first support arm serially connecting the first joint to the second joint; and coordinate processing means, operatively connected to the first and second revolute joints, for calculating the spatial coordinates of the probe tip; means for kinematically constraining the articulated coordinate measuring machine to a working surface; and comparator means, in operative association with the coordinate processing means and with the movable machine, for comparing the true position of the movable machine member, as measured by the true position of the probe tip, with the desired position of the movable machine member.

  16. Intelligent System Controller for remote systems

    SciTech Connect

    Harrigan, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development (OTD) has sponsored the development of the Generic Intelligent System Controller (GISC) for application to the clean up of hazardous waste sites. Of primary interest to the OTD is the development of technologies which result in faster, safer, and cheaper cleanup of hazardous waste sites than possible using conventional approaches. An objective of the GISC development project is to achieve these goals by developing a modular robotics control approach which reduces the time and cost of development by allowing reuse of control system software and uses computer models to improve the safety of remote site cleanup while reducing the time and life cycle costs.

  17. Stochastic Control of Pharmacokinetic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Schumitzky, Alan; Milman, Mark; Katz, Darryl; D'Argenio, David Z.; Jelliffe, Roger W.

    1983-01-01

    The application of stochastic control theory to the clinical problem of designing a dosage regimen for a pharmacokinetic system is considered. This involves defining a patient-dependent pharmacokinetic model and a clinically appropriate therapeutic goal. Most investigators have attacked the dosage regimen problem by first estimating the values of the patient's unknown model parameters and then controlling the system as if those parameter estimates were in fact the true values. We have developed an alternative approach utilizing stochastic control theory in which the estimation and control phases of the problem are not separated. Mathematical results are given which show that this approach yields significant potential improvement in attaining, for example, therapeutic serum level goals over methods in which estimation and control are separated. Finally, a computer simulation is given for the optimal stochastic control of an aminoglycoside regimen which shows that this approach is feasible for practical applications.

  18. Integrated control system and method

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Paul Sai Keat; Baldwin, Darryl; Kim, Myoungjin

    2013-10-29

    An integrated control system for use with an engine connected to a generator providing electrical power to a switchgear is disclosed. The engine receives gas produced by a gasifier. The control system includes an electronic controller associated with the gasifier, engine, generator, and switchgear. A gas flow sensor monitors a gas flow from the gasifier to the engine through an engine gas control valve and provides a gas flow signal to the electronic controller. A gas oversupply sensor monitors a gas oversupply from the gasifier and provides an oversupply signal indicative of gas not provided to the engine. A power output sensor monitors a power output of the switchgear and provide a power output signal. The electronic controller changes gas production of the gasifier and the power output rating of the switchgear based on the gas flow signal, the oversupply signal, and the power output signal.

  19. The AGS Booster control system

    SciTech Connect

    Frankel, R.; Auerbach, E.; Culwick, B.; Clifford, T.; Mandell, S.; Mariotti, R.; Salwen, C.; Schumburg, N.

    1988-01-01

    Although moderate in size, the Booster construction project requires a comprehensive control system. There are three operational modes: as a high intensity proton injector for the AGS, as a heavy ion accelerator and injector supporting a wide range of ions and as a polarized proton storage injector. These requirements are met using a workstation based extension of the existing AGS control system. Since the Booster is joining a complex of existing accelerators, the new system will be capable of supporting multiuser operational scenarios. A short discussion of this system is discussed in this paper.

  20. Pump control system for windmills

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, D.E.

    1983-07-12

    A windmill control system is disclosed having lever means, for varying length of stroke of the pump piston, and a control means, responsive to the velocity of the wind to operate the lever means to vary the length of stroke and hence the effective displacement of the pump in accordance with available wind energy, with the control means having a sensing member separate from the windmill disposed in the wind and displaceable thereby in accordance with wind velocity.

  1. Pump control system for windmills

    DOEpatents

    Avery, Don E.

    1983-01-01

    A windmill control system having lever means, for varying length of stroke of the pump piston, and a control means, responsive to the velocity of the wind to operate the lever means to vary the length of stroke and hence the effective displacement of the pump in accordance with available wind energy, with the control means having a sensing member separate from the windmill disposed in the wind and displaceable thereby in accordance with wind velocity.

  2. A novel microsatellite control system

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, K.R.; Frigo, J.R.; Tilden, M.W.

    1998-02-01

    The authors are researching extremely simple yet quite capable analog pulse-coded neural networks for ``smaller-faster-cheaper`` spacecraft attitude and control systems. The will demonstrate a prototype microsatellite that uses their novel control method to autonomously stabilize itself in the ambient magnetic field and point itself at the brightest available light source. Though still in design infancy, the ``Nervous Net`` controllers described could allow for space missions not currently possible given conventional satellite hardware. Result, prospects and details are presented.

  3. The ILC global control system.

    SciTech Connect

    Carwardine, J.; Arnold, N.; Lenkszus, F.; Saunders, C.; Rehlich, K.; Simrock, S.; Banerjee, B.; Chase, B.; Gottschalk, E.; Joireman, P.; Kasley, P.; Lackey, S.; McBride, P.; Pavlicek, V.; Patrick, J.; Votava, M.; Wolbers, S.; Furukawa, K.; Michizono, S.; Larsen , R .S.; Downing, R.; FNAL; DESY; KEK; SLAC

    2008-01-01

    The scale and performance parameters of the ILC require new thinking in regards to control system design. This design work has begun quite early in comparison to most accelerator projects, with the goal of uniquely high overall accelerator availability. Among the design challenges are high control system availability, precision timing and rf phase reference distribution, standardizing of interfaces, operability, and maintainability. We present the current state of the design and take a prospective look at ongoing research and development projects.

  4. 3. EAGLE ROCK CONTROL CENTER, OPERATIONS CONTROL. AS SYSTEM BECOMES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EAGLE ROCK CONTROL CENTER, OPERATIONS CONTROL. AS SYSTEM BECOMES INCREASINGLY AUTOMATED, EAGLE ROCK WILL BECOME MORE AND MORE THE CENTRAL CONTROL SYSTEM OF THE METROPOLITAN WATER DISTRICT. - Eagle Rock Operations Control Center, Pasadena, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. Commutated automatic gain control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    A commutated automatic gain control (AGC) system was designed and built for a prototype Loran C receiver. The receiver uses a microcomputer to control a memory aided phase-locked loop (MAPLL). The microcomputer also controls the input/output, latitude/longitude conversion, and the recently added AGC system. The circuit designed for the AGC is described, and bench and flight test results are presented. The AGC circuit described actually samples starting at a point 40 microseconds after a zero crossing determined by the software lock pulse ultimately generated by a 30 microsecond delay and add network in the receiver front end envelope detector.

  6. Control System for Sustainable Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlman, Inga

    2008-10-01

    Ecological sustainability presupposes that a global human population acts in such ways, that their total impact on the biosphere, together with nature's reactions, keeps the biosphere sufficient for sustaining generations to come. Human conduct is ultimately controlled by means of law. The problem can be summed up as: Controlling system—Population—Sustainable ecosystems This paper discusses two interlinked issues: a) the social scientific need for systems theory in the context of achieving and maintaining sustainable development and b) how theory of anticipatory modelling and computing can be applied when constructing and applying societal controlling systems for ecological sustainability with as much local democracy and economic efficiency as possible.

  7. Space construction base control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Aspects of an attitude control system were studied and developed for a large space base that is structurally flexible and whose mass properties change rather dramatically during its orbital lifetime. Topics of discussion include the following: (1) space base orbital pointing and maneuvering; (2) angular momentum sizing of actuators; (3) momentum desaturation selection and sizing; (4) multilevel control technique applied to configuration one; (5) one-dimensional model simulation; (6) N-body discrete coordinate simulation; (7) structural analysis math model formulation; and (8) discussion of control problems and control methods.

  8. Balanced bridge feedback control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lurie, Boris J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    In a system having a driver, a motor, and a mechanical plant, a multiloop feedback control apparatus for controlling the movement and/or positioning of a mechanical plant, the control apparatus has a first local bridge feedback loop for feeding back a signal representative of a selected ratio of voltage and current at the output driver, and a second bridge feedback loop for feeding back a signal representative of a selected ratio of force and velocity at the output of the motor. The control apparatus may further include an outer loop for feeding back a signal representing the angular velocity and/or position of the mechanical plant.

  9. CONTROL SYSTEM FOR NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Crever, F.E.

    1962-05-01

    BS>A slow-acting shim rod for control of major variations in reactor neutron flux and a fast-acting control rod to correct minor flux variations are employed to provide a sensitive, accurate control system. The fast-acting rod is responsive to an error signal which is produced by changes in the neutron flux from a predetermined optimum level. When the fast rod is thus actuated in a given direction, means is provided to actuate the slow-moving rod in that direction to return the fast rod to a position near the midpoint of its control range. (AEC)

  10. Electromechanical propellant control system actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, W. Neill; Weir, Rae Ann

    1990-01-01

    New control mechanism technologies are currently being sought to provide alternatives to hydraulic actuation systems. The Propulsion Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is involved in the development of electromechanical actuators (EMA's) for this purpose. Through this effort, an in-house designed electromechanical propellant valve actuator has been assembled and is presently being evaluated. This evaluation will allow performance comparisons between EMA and hydraulics systems. The in-house design consists of the following hardware: a three-phase brushless motor, a harmonic drive, and an output spline which will mate with current Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) propellant control valves. A resolver and associated electronics supply position feedback for the EMA. System control is provided by a solid-state electronic controller and power supply. Frequency response testing has been performed with further testing planned as hardware and test facilities become available.

  11. Component Control System for a Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser-Chanpong, Nathan (Inventor); Spain, Ivan (Inventor); Dawson, Andrew D. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Waligora, Thomas M. (Inventor); Akinyode, Akinjide Akinniyi (Inventor); Reed, Ryan M. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A vehicle includes a chassis, a modular component, and a central operating system. The modular component is supported by the chassis. The central operating system includes a component control system, a primary master controller, and a secondary master controller. The component control system is configured for controlling the modular component. The primary and secondary master controllers are in operative communication with the component control system. The primary and secondary master controllers are configured to simultaneously transmit commands to the component control system. The component control system is configured to accept commands from the secondary master controller only when a fault occurs in the primary master controller.

  12. Learning fuzzy logic control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lung, Leung Kam

    1994-01-01

    The performance of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Control System (LFLCS), developed in this thesis, has been evaluated. The Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller (LFLC) learns to control the motor by learning the set of teaching values that are generated by a classical PI controller. It is assumed that the classical PI controller is tuned to minimize the error of a position control system of the D.C. motor. The Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller developed in this thesis is a multi-input single-output network. Training of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller is implemented off-line. Upon completion of the training process (using Supervised Learning, and Unsupervised Learning), the LFLC replaces the classical PI controller. In this thesis, a closed loop position control system of a D.C. motor using the LFLC is implemented. The primary focus is on the learning capabilities of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller. The learning includes symbolic representation of the Input Linguistic Nodes set and Output Linguistic Notes set. In addition, we investigate the knowledge-based representation for the network. As part of the design process, we implement a digital computer simulation of the LFLCS. The computer simulation program is written in 'C' computer language, and it is implemented in DOS platform. The LFLCS, designed in this thesis, has been developed on a IBM compatible 486-DX2 66 computer. First, the performance of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller is evaluated by comparing the angular shaft position of the D.C. motor controlled by a conventional PI controller and that controlled by the LFLC. Second, the symbolic representation of the LFLC and the knowledge-based representation for the network are investigated by observing the parameters of the Fuzzy Logic membership functions and the links at each layer of the LFLC. While there are some limitations of application with this approach, the result of the simulation shows that the LFLC is able to control the angular shaft position of the

  13. Globes from global data: Charting international research networks with the GRASS GIS r.out.polycones add-on module.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löwe, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Many Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) tools have been created for the various application fields within geoscience. While FOSS allows re-implementation of functionalities in new environments by access to the original codebase, the easiest approach to build new software solutions for new problems is the combination or merging of existing software tools. Such mash-ups are implemented by embedding and encapsulating FOSS tools within each another, effectively focusing the use of the embedded software to the specific role it needs to perform in the given scenario, while ignoring all its other capabilities. GRASS GIS is a powerful and established FOSS GIS for raster, vector and volume data processing while the Generic Mapping Tools (GMT) are a suite of powerful Open Source mapping tools, which exceed the mapping capabilities of GRASS GIS. This poster reports on the new GRASS GIS add-on module r.out.polycones. It enables users to utilize non-continuous projections for map production within the GRASS production environment. This is implemented on the software level by encapsulating a subset of GMT mapping capabilities into a GRASS GIS (Version 6.x) add-on module. The module was developed at the German National Library of Science and Technology (TIB) to provide custom global maps of scientific collaboration networks, such as the DataCite consortium, the registration agency for Digital Object Identifiers (DOI) for research data. The GRASS GIS add-on module can be used for global mapping of raster data into a variety of non continuous sinosoidal projections, allowing the creation of printable biangles (gores) to be used for globe making. Due to the well structured modular nature of GRASS modules, technical follow-up work will focus on API-level Python-based integration in GRASS 7 [1]. Based on this, GMT based mapping capabilities in GRASS will be extended beyond non-continuous sinosoidal maps and advanced from raster-layers to content GRASS display monitors. References

  14. Advanced flight control system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, G. L.; Wall, J. E., Jr.; Rang, E. R.; Lee, H. P.; Schulte, R. W.; Ng, W. K.

    1982-01-01

    A fly by wire flight control system architecture designed for high reliability includes spare sensor and computer elements to permit safe dispatch with failed elements, thereby reducing unscheduled maintenance. A methodology capable of demonstrating that the architecture does achieve the predicted performance characteristics consists of a hierarchy of activities ranging from analytical calculations of system reliability and formal methods of software verification to iron bird testing followed by flight evaluation. Interfacing this architecture to the Lockheed S-3A aircraft for flight test is discussed. This testbed vehicle can be expanded to support flight experiments in advanced aerodynamics, electromechanical actuators, secondary power systems, flight management, new displays, and air traffic control concepts.

  15. Control system health test system and method

    DOEpatents

    Hoff, Brian D.; Johnson, Kris W.; Akasam, Sivaprasad; Baker, Thomas M.

    2006-08-15

    A method is provided for testing multiple elements of a work machine, including a control system, a component, a sub-component that is influenced by operations of the component, and a sensor that monitors a characteristic of the sub-component. In one embodiment, the method is performed by the control system and includes sending a command to the component to adjust a first parameter associated with an operation of the component. Also, the method includes detecting a sensor signal from the sensor reflecting a second parameter associated with a characteristic of the sub-component and determining whether the second parameter is acceptable based on the command. The control system may diagnose at least one of the elements of the work machine when the second parameter of the sub-component is not acceptable.

  16. Marine loading vapor control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Babet, F.H.

    1996-09-01

    The EPA and State air quality control boards have mandated the collection and destruction or recovery of vapors generated by the loading of some hydrocarbons and chemicals into marine vessels. This is a brief overview of the main US Coast Guard requirements for marine vapor control systems. As with most regulations, they are open to interpretation. In an attempt to more clearly define the intent of the regulations, the US Coast Guard has issued guidelines to assist the certifying entities in ensuring compliance with intended regulations. If a company is contemplating the installation of a marine loading vapor control system, the authors strongly recommend that one engage the services of a certifying entity, either as the designer, or an advisor and ultimately the certifier of the system. This should be done well up front in the design of the system to avoid costly mistakes which can occur as a result of lack of knowledge or misinterpretation of the regulations and guidelines.

  17. Control system for thermoelectric refrigerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, John L. (Inventor); Criscuolo, Lance (Inventor); Gilley, Michael D. (Inventor); Park, Brian V. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    Apparatus including a power supply (202) and control system is provided for maintaining the temperature within an enclosed structure (40) using thermoelectric devices (92). The apparatus may be particularly beneficial for use with a refrigerator (20) having superinsulation materials (46) and phase change materials (112) which cooperate with the thermoelectric device (92) to substantially enhance the overall operating efficiency of the refrigerator (20). The electrical power supply (202) and control system allows increasing the maximum power capability of the thermoelectric device (92) in response to increased heat loads within the refrigerator (20). The electrical power supply (202) and control system may also be used to monitor the performance of the cooling system (70) associated with the refrigerator (20).

  18. LEDA LLRF control system characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Regan, A.H.; Balleyguier, P.; Ziomek, C.D.

    1998-12-31

    The Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) for the Accelerator for the Production of Tritium (APT) project will be built at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The low-level RF (LLRF) control system portion of this accelerator must perform many functions, of which the primary one is controlling the RF fields in the accelerating cavities. Plans have been made to provide for on-line characterization of the LLRF control system and the complete RF system through use of stimulus and response buffers, and a digital signal processor built into the field control system electronics. The purpose of this circuitry is to characterize the behavior of the entire RF system (klystron, waveguides, high power splitters, accelerator cavity, etc.). This characterization feature can be used to measure the performance of the closed loop system with respect to the open loop system, to provide an automated way to set loop parameters, to determine the cavity Q-curve, and to detect any abnormal behavior in the RF chain. The types of measurements include frequency and time-domain responses to given perturbations, amplitude modulations, etc. This paper will discuss types of algorithms that can be implemented and present a description and block diagram of the electronics to be used.

  19. 40 CFR 63.3966 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select sampling sites and velocity traverse points. (2) Use Method 2, 2A, 2C, 2D, 2F, or 2G of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60,...

  20. 40 CFR 63.3966 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select sampling sites and velocity traverse points. (2) Use Method 2, 2A, 2C, 2D, 2F, or 2G of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60,...

  1. 40 CFR 63.3966 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select sampling sites and velocity traverse points. (2) Use Method 2, 2A, 2C, 2D, 2F, or 2G of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60,...

  2. 40 CFR 63.3966 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select sampling sites and velocity traverse points. (2) Use Method 2, 2A, 2C, 2D, 2F, or 2G of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60,...

  3. 40 CFR 63.3966 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select sampling sites and velocity traverse points. (2) Use Method 2, 2A, 2C, 2D, 2F, or 2G of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60,...

  4. 40 CFR 63.3166 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) through (5) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to... to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, for gas analysis to determine dry molecular...

  5. 40 CFR 63.3166 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) through (5) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to... to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, for gas analysis to determine dry molecular...

  6. 40 CFR 63.3166 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) through (5) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to... to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, for gas analysis to determine dry molecular...

  7. 40 CFR 63.4766 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (a)(1) through (5) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as... appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, for gas analysis to determine dry...

  8. 40 CFR 63.4965 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) through (5) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to... to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, for gas analysis to determine dry molecular...

  9. 40 CFR 63.4965 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) through (5) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to... to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, for gas analysis to determine dry molecular...

  10. 40 CFR 63.4766 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select... CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, for gas analysis to determine dry molecular weight. You...

  11. 40 CFR 63.3545 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select... CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, for gas analysis to determine dry molecular weight. You...

  12. 40 CFR 63.4766 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (a)(1) through (5) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as... appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, for gas analysis to determine dry...

  13. 40 CFR 63.4166 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...)(1) through (5) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as... appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, for gas analysis to determine dry...

  14. 40 CFR 63.4166 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select... CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, for gas analysis to determine dry molecular weight. You...

  15. 40 CFR 63.4965 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select sampling sites and velocity traverse points. (2) Use Method 2, 2A, 2C, 2D, 2F, or 2G of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60... CFR part 60, as appropriate, for gas analysis to determine dry molecular weight. You may also use...

  16. 40 CFR 63.4166 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...)(1) through (5) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as... appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, for gas analysis to determine dry...

  17. 40 CFR 63.3545 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select... CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, for gas analysis to determine dry molecular weight. You...

  18. 40 CFR 63.4362 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or....4350. You must conduct three test runs as specified in § 63.7(e)(3) and each test run must last at... paragraphs (a)(1) through (5) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60,...

  19. 40 CFR 63.4362 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or....4350. You must conduct three test runs as specified in § 63.7(e)(3) and each test run must last at... paragraphs (a)(1) through (5) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60,...

  20. 40 CFR 63.4362 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or....4350. You must conduct three test runs as specified in § 63.7(e)(3) and each test run must last at... paragraphs (a)(1) through (5) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60,...

  1. 40 CFR 63.4362 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or....4350. You must conduct three test runs as specified in § 63.7(e)(3) and each test run must last at... paragraphs (a)(1) through (5) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60,...

  2. 40 CFR 63.9323 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select sampling sites and velocity traverse points. (2) Use Method 2, 2A, 2C, 2D, 2F, or 2G of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part...

  3. 40 CFR 63.4766 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide content of exhaust gas in ANSI/ASME PTC 19.10-1981, “Flue and Exhaust... (a)(1) through (5) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as... appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A,...

  4. 40 CFR 63.4965 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... dioxide, and carbon monoxide content of exhaust gas in ANSI/ASME PTC 19.10-1981, “Flue and Exhaust Gas...) through (5) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to... to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or...

  5. 40 CFR 63.4766 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... also use as an alternative to Method 3B, the manual method for measuring the oxygen, carbon dioxide...) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select... CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B...

  6. 40 CFR 63.3545 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... an alternative to Method 3B the manual method for measuring the oxygen, carbon dioxide, and carbon... section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select sampling sites and velocity traverse points. (2) Use Method 2, 2A, 2C, 2D, 2F, or 2G of appendix A to 40 CFR part...

  7. 40 CFR 63.3545 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... also use as an alternative to Method 3B the manual method for measuring the oxygen, carbon dioxide, and...) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select... CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B...

  8. 40 CFR 63.4166 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide content of exhaust gas in ANSI/ASME, PTC 19.10-1981, “Flue and...)(1) through (5) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as... appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A,...

  9. 40 CFR 63.3545 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... an alternative to Method 3B the manual method for measuring the oxygen, carbon dioxide, and carbon... section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select sampling sites and velocity traverse points. (2) Use Method 2, 2A, 2C, 2D, 2F, or 2G of appendix A to 40 CFR part...

  10. 40 CFR 63.4166 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... also use as an alternative to Method 3B, the manual method for measuring the oxygen, carbon dioxide...) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select... CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B...

  11. 40 CFR 63.4965 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... an alternative to Method 3B, the manual method for measuring the oxygen, carbon dioxide, and carbon... section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select sampling sites and velocity traverse points. (2) Use Method 2, 2A, 2C, 2D, 2F, or 2G of appendix A to 40 CFR part...

  12. 40 CFR 63.4362 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... paragraphs (a)(1) through (5) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as... appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, for gas analysis to determine dry...

  13. 40 CFR 63.4566 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, for gas analysis to determine dry molecular weight...) through (5) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate,...

  14. 40 CFR 63.3166 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select... CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, for gas analysis to determine dry molecular weight. The...

  15. 40 CFR 63.3166 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select... CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, for gas analysis to determine dry molecular weight. The...

  16. Cholinesterase inhibitors and add-on nutritional supplements in Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Rijpma, A; Meulenbroek, O; Olde Rikkert, M G M

    2014-07-01

    To date, single drug and nutrient-based interventions have failed to show a clinically relevant effect on Alzheimer's disease (AD). Multidomain interventions may alleviate symptoms and alter the disease course in a synergistic manner. This systematic review examines the effect of adding nutritional supplementation to cholinesterase inhibitors. A systematic PubMed and Cochrane search resulted in nine high quality studies. The studies had low to moderate risk of bias and focused on oxidative stress, homocysteine levels, membrane fluidity, inflammation and acetylcholine levels. Only the use of vitamin E supplements could reduce the rate of functional decline when combined with cholinesterase inhibitors in one study, whereas cognition was not affected in both this and other studies. None of the other nutritional supplements showed convincing evidence of a beneficial effect when combined with cholinesterase inhibitors. This shows that cognitive and functional improvement is difficult to achieve in patients with AD, despite epidemiological data and evidence of biological effects of nutritional supplements. Addressing one disease pathway in addition to cholinesterase inhibitor therapy is probably insufficient to alter the course of the disease. Personalized, multifactorial interventions may be more successful in improving cognition and daily functioning. PMID:24982004

  17. Laboratory tests on an aircraft fuselage to determine the insertion loss of various acoustic add-on treatments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heitman, K. E.; Mixson, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes a laboratory study of add-on acoustic treatments for a propeller-driven light aircraft fuselage. The treatments included: no treatment (i.e., baseline fuselage); a production-type double-wall interior; and various amounts of high density fiberglass added to the baseline fuselage. The sound source was a pneumatic-driver with attached exponential horn, supplied with a broadband signal. Data were acquired at the approximate head positions of the six passenger seats. The results were analyzed on space-averaged narrowband, one-third octave band and overall insertion loss basis. In addition, insertion loss results for the different configurations at specific frequencies representing propeller tone spectra are presented. The propeller tone data includes not only the space-averaged insertion loss, but also the variation of insertion loss at these particular frequencies across the six microphone positions.

  18. System identification for multivariable control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanzee, G. A.

    1981-05-01

    System identification methods and modern control theory are applied to industrial processes. These processes must often be controlled in order to meet certain requirements with respect to the product quality, safety, energy consumption, and environmental load. Modern control system design methods which take the occurring interaction phenomena and stochastic disturbances into account are used. An accurate dynamic mathematical model of the process, by theoretical modelling and/or by system identification is obtained. The computational aspects of two important types of identifications methods, i.e., stochastic realization and prediction error based parameter estimation are studied. The studied computational aspects are the robustness, the accuracy, and the computational costs of the methods. Theoretical analyses and applications to a multivariable pilot scale process, operating under closed loop conditions are investigated.

  19. Integrity in flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurzhals, P. R.; Deloach, R.

    1977-01-01

    In connection with advances in technology, mainly in the electronic area, aircraft flight control applications have evolved from simple pilot-relief autopilots to flight-critical and redundant fly-by-wire and active control systems. For flight-critical implementations which required accommodation of inflight failures, additional levels of redundancy were incorporated to provide fail-safe and fail-operative performance. The current status of flight control systems reliability is examined and high-reliability approaches are discussed. Attention is given to the design of ring laser gyros and magnetohydrodynamic rate sensors, redundancy configurations for component failure protection, improvements of hydraulic actuators made on the component level, integrated actuators, problems of software reliability, lightning considerations, and failure detection methods for component and system failures.

  20. The STAR Online Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilkes, M. L.; Chrin, J.; Olchanski, K.; Pruneau, C. A.; Stone, N. T. B.; Wenaus, T.

    1998-10-01

    The STAR Online Software Group has designed and built a complete control system for the STAR experiment. We support SUN Solaris and Windows NT, and utilize commercial software packages including Orbix (C++) for CORBA IPC, Objectivity/DB (C++) for the configuration database, Borland JBuilder for Java GUI development, EPICS and CDEV for hardware interfacing, and RogueWave libraries (STL, Tools.h++, Threads.h++, Net.h++). The system embodies a unified object-oriented approach to experiment control. Device-specific details are encapsulated in a single server unique to each subsystem (i.e. DAQ, Trigger, sub-detectors). Key online system features include management of subsystem states, configuration management, CORBA messaging, arbitration and synchronization of multiple runs, participation of subsystems in multiple runs, a user interface incorporating ROOT and its C++ interpreter for scripting, JAVA control GUIs with automatic logging, and an online event pool from which consumers can interactively select events.

  1. Trends in accelerator control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Crowley-Milling, M.C.

    1984-04-01

    Over the years, we have seen a revolution in control systems that has followed the ever decreasing cost of computer power and memory. It started with the data gathering, when people distrusted the computer to perform control actions correctly, through the stage of using a computer to perform control actions correctly, through the stage of using a computer system to provide a convenient remote look and adjust facility, to the present day, when more and more emphasis is being placed on using a computer system to simulate or model all or parts of the accelerator, feed in the required performance and calling for the computers to set the various parameters and then measure the actual performance, with iteration if necessary. The progress that has been made in the fields of architecture, communications, computers, interface, software design and operator interface is reviewed.

  2. Preventing Integrator Windup In A Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaminer, Isaac

    1992-01-01

    Design concept for control system addresses how to prevent control inputs to plant from exceeding electrical limits imposed by mechanical limits of control actuators in plant, and prevent windup in integrators in control system. Concept consists of two parts. First, to rearrange terms of control equation to move integrators into output path of control system. Second, involves limiting inputs to integrators when one control input of plant reaches its limit. Concept applicable to control systems typical of aircraft autopilot systems.

  3. Antenna surface contour control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahl, Elvin L. (Inventor); Miller, James B. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The invention is a system for automatically controlling the surface contour of a deployable and restowable antenna having a mesh reflector surface supported by a circular, folding hoop affixed to a central, telescoping column. The antenna, when deployed, forms a quad-aperture reflector with each quadrant of the mesh surface shaped to provide an offset parabolic radio frequency (RF) reflector. The hoop is supported and positioned by quartz support cords attached to the top of a column and by lower graphite hoop control cords that extend between the hoop and base of the column. The antenna, an RF reflective surface, is a gold plated molybdenum wire mesh supported on a graphite cord truss structure that includes the hoop control cords and a plurality of surface control cords attached at selected points on the surface and to the base of the column. The contour of the three-dimensional surface of the antenna is controlled by selectively adjusting the lengths of the surface control cords and the graphite hoop control cords by means of novel actuator assemblies that automatically sense and change the lengths of the lower hoop control cords and surface control cords.

  4. Skylab thruster attitude control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilmer, G. E., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Preflight activities and the Skylab mission support effort for the thruster attitude control system (TACS) are documented. The preflight activities include a description of problems and their solutions encountered in the development, qualification, and flight checkout test programs. Mission support effort is presented as it relates to system performance assessment, real-time problem solving, flight anomalies, and the daily system evaluation. Finally, the detailed flight evaluation is presented for each phase of the mission using system telemetry data. Data assert that the TACS met or exceeded design requirements and fulfilled its assigned mission objectives.

  5. Proton beam therapy control system

    DOEpatents

    Baumann, Michael A.; Beloussov, Alexandre V.; Bakir, Julide; Armon, Deganit; Olsen, Howard B.; Salem, Dana

    2008-07-08

    A tiered communications architecture for managing network traffic in a distributed system. Communication between client or control computers and a plurality of hardware devices is administered by agent and monitor devices whose activities are coordinated to reduce the number of open channels or sockets. The communications architecture also improves the transparency and scalability of the distributed system by reducing network mapping dependence. The architecture is desirably implemented in a proton beam therapy system to provide flexible security policies which improve patent safety and facilitate system maintenance and development.

  6. Proton beam therapy control system

    DOEpatents

    Baumann, Michael A; Beloussov, Alexandre V; Bakir, Julide; Armon, Deganit; Olsen, Howard B; Salem, Dana

    2013-12-03

    A tiered communications architecture for managing network traffic in a distributed system. Communication between client or control computers and a plurality of hardware devices is administered by agent and monitor devices whose activities are coordinated to reduce the number of open channels or sockets. The communications architecture also improves the transparency and scalability of the distributed system by reducing network mapping dependence. The architecture is desirably implemented in a proton beam therapy system to provide flexible security policies which improve patent safety and facilitate system maintenance and development.

  7. Proton beam therapy control system

    DOEpatents

    Baumann, Michael A; Beloussov, Alexandre V; Bakir, Julide; Armon, Deganit; Olsen, Howard B; Salem, Dana

    2013-06-25

    A tiered communications architecture for managing network traffic in a distributed system. Communication between client or control computers and a plurality of hardware devices is administered by agent and monitor devices whose activities are coordinated to reduce the number of open channels or sockets. The communications architecture also improves the transparency and scalability of the distributed system by reducing network mapping dependence. The architecture is desirably implemented in a proton beam therapy system to provide flexible security policies which improve patent safety and facilitate system maintenance and development.

  8. Proton beam therapy control system

    DOEpatents

    Baumann, Michael A.; Beloussov, Alexandre V.; Bakir, Julide; Armon, Deganit; Olsen, Howard B.; Salem, Dana

    2010-09-21

    A tiered communications architecture for managing network traffic in a distributed system. Communication between client or control computers and a plurality of hardware devices is administered by agent and monitor devices whose activities are coordinated to reduce the number of open channels or sockets. The communications architecture also improves the transparency and scalability of the distributed system by reducing network mapping dependence. The architecture is desirably implemented in a proton beam therapy system to provide flexible security policies which improve patent safety and facilitate system maintenance and development.

  9. The CMS tracker control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dierlamm, A.; Dirkes, G. H.; Fahrer, M.; Frey, M.; Hartmann, F.; Masetti, L.; Militaru, O.; Shah, S. Y.; Stringer, R.; Tsirou, A.

    2008-07-01

    The Tracker Control System (TCS) is a distributed control software to operate about 2000 power supplies for the silicon modules of the CMS Tracker and monitor its environmental sensors. TCS must thus be able to handle about 104 power supply parameters, about 103 environmental probes from the Programmable Logic Controllers of the Tracker Safety System (TSS), about 105 parameters read via DAQ from the DCUs in all front end hybrids and from CCUs in all control groups. TCS is built on top of an industrial SCADA program (PVSS) extended with a framework developed at CERN (JCOP) and used by all LHC experiments. The logical partitioning of the detector is reflected in the hierarchical structure of the TCS, where commands move down to the individual hardware devices, while states are reported up to the root which is interfaced to the broader CMS control system. The system computes and continuously monitors the mean and maximum values of critical parameters and updates the percentage of currently operating hardware. Automatic procedures switch off selected parts of the detector using detailed granularity and avoiding widespread TSS intervention.

  10. Reactor control rod timing system

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Peter T. K.

    1982-01-01

    A fluid driven jet-edge whistle timing system for control rods of a nuclear reactor for producing real-time detection of the timing of each control rod in its scram operation. An important parameter in reactor safety, particularly for liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR), is the time deviation between the time the control rod is released and the time the rod actually reaches the down position. The whistle has a nearly pure tone signal with center frequency (above 100 kHz) far above the frequency band in which the energy of the background noise is concentrated. Each control rod can be fitted with a whistle with a different frequency so that there is no ambiguity in differentiating the signal from each control rod.

  11. Space construction base control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaczynski, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    Several approaches for an attitude control system are studied and developed for a large space construction base that is structurally flexible. Digital simulations were obtained using the following techniques: (1) the multivariable Nyquist array method combined with closed loop pole allocation, (2) the linear quadratic regulator method. Equations for the three-axis simulation using the multilevel control method were generated and are presented. Several alternate control approaches are also described. A technique is demonstrated for obtaining the dynamic structural properties of a vehicle which is constructed of two or more submodules of known dynamic characteristics.

  12. ITER Plasma Control System Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snipes, Joseph; ITER PCS Design Team

    2015-11-01

    The development of the ITER Plasma Control System (PCS) continues with the preliminary design phase for 1st plasma and early plasma operation in H/He up to Ip = 15 MA in L-mode. The design is being developed through a contract between the ITER Organization and a consortium of plasma control experts from EU and US fusion laboratories, which is expected to be completed in time for a design review at the end of 2016. This design phase concentrates on breakdown including early ECH power and magnetic control of the poloidal field null, plasma current, shape, and position. Basic kinetic control of the heating (ECH, ICH, NBI) and fueling systems is also included. Disruption prediction, mitigation, and maintaining stable operation are also included because of the high magnetic and kinetic stored energy present already for early plasma operation. Support functions for error field topology and equilibrium reconstruction are also required. All of the control functions also must be integrated into an architecture that will be capable of the required complexity of all ITER scenarios. A database is also being developed to collect and manage PCS functional requirements from operational scenarios that were defined in the Conceptual Design with links to proposed event handling strategies and control algorithms for initial basic control functions. A brief status of the PCS development will be presented together with a proposed schedule for design phases up to DT operation.

  13. Energy Control Systems: Energy Savings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Business Affairs, 1980

    1980-01-01

    The installation of proper control systems is estimated as saving up to 25 percent of the energy used in schools. Other potential energy-saving areas are transmission (heat loss or gain through walls, especially ceilings); internal load (heat from students, lights, and machinery); ventilation; and equipment maintenance. (Author/MLF)

  14. The MICE Run Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanlet, Pierrick; Mice Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is a demonstration experiment to prove the feasibility of cooling a beam of muons for use in a Neutrino Factory and/or Muon Collider. The MICE cooling channel is a section of a modified Study II cooling channel which will provide a 10% reduction in beam emittance. In order to ensure a reliable measurement, MICE will measure the beam emittance before and after the cooling channel at the level of 1%, or a relative measurement of 0.001. This renders MICE a precision experiment which requires strict controls and monitoring of all experimental parameters in order to control systematic errors. The MICE Controls and Monitoring system is based on EPICS and integrates with the DAQ, Data monitoring systems, and a configuration database. The new MICE Run Control has been developed to ensure proper sequencing of equipment and use of system resources to protect data quality. A description of this system, its implementation, and performance during recent muon beam data collection will be discussed.

  15. Cockpit control system conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meholic, Greg; Brown, Rhonda; Hall, Melissa; Harvey, Robert; Singer, Michael; Tella, Gustavo

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to provide a means for operating the ailerons, elevator, elevator trim, rudder, nosewheel steering, and brakes in the Triton primary flight trainer. The main design goals under consideration were to illustrate system and subsystem integration, control function ability, and producibility. Weight and maintenance goals were addressed.

  16. Propulsive Reaction Control System Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brugarolas, Paul; Phan, Linh H.; Serricchio, Frederick; San Martin, Alejandro M.

    2011-01-01

    This software models a propulsive reaction control system (RCS) for guidance, navigation, and control simulation purposes. The model includes the drive electronics, the electromechanical valve dynamics, the combustion dynamics, and thrust. This innovation follows the Mars Science Laboratory entry reaction control system design, and has been created to meet the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) entry, descent, and landing simulation needs. It has been built to be plug-and-play on multiple MSL testbeds [analysis, Monte Carlo, flight software development, hardware-in-the-loop, and ATLO (assembly, test and launch operations) testbeds]. This RCS model is a C language program. It contains two main functions: the RCS electronics model function that models the RCS FPGA (field-programmable-gate-array) processing and commanding of the RCS valve, and the RCS dynamic model function that models the valve and combustion dynamics. In addition, this software provides support functions to initialize the model states, set parameters, access model telemetry, and access calculated thruster forces.

  17. Fiber optic control system integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppel, G. L.; Glasheen, W. M.; Russell, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    A total fiber optic, integrated propulsion/flight control system concept for advanced fighter aircraft is presented. Fiber optic technology pertaining to this system is identified and evaluated for application readiness. A fiber optic sensor vendor survey was completed, and the results are reported. The advantages of centralized/direct architecture are reviewed, and the concept of the protocol branch is explained. Preliminary protocol branch selections are made based on the F-18/F404 application. Concepts for new optical tools are described. Development plans for the optical technology and the described system are included.

  18. Fiberoptics for propulsion control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    In aircraft systems with digital controls, fiberoptics has advantages over wire systems because of its inherent immunity to electromagnetic noise (EMI) and electromagnetic pulses (EMP). It also offers a weight benefit when metallic conductors are replaced by optical fibers. To take full advantage of the benefits of optical waveguides, passive optical sensors are also being developed to eliminate the need for electrical power to the sensor. Fiberoptics may also be used for controlling actuators on engine and airframe. In this application, the optical fibers, connectors, etc. will be subjected to high temperature and vibrations. This paper discussed the use of fiberoptics in aircraft propulsion systems together with the optical sensors and optically controlled actuators being developed to take full advantage of the benefits which fiberoptics offers. The requirements for sensors and actuators in advanced propulsion systems are identified. The benefits of using fiberoptics in place of conventional wire systems are discussed as well as the environmental conditions under which the optical components must operate.

  19. IAC control system analysis development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisch, H. P.

    1982-01-01

    The MultiOptimal Differential Equation Language (MODEL) is described. It provides a means for generating numerical solutions to systems of differential equations using a digital computer. The notation of this language is similar to that usually used in describing physical systems by differential equations. Thus, the learning process is simplified, programming becomes easier, and debugging is more readily accomplished. Programs written in the MultiOptimal Differential Equation Language are machine translated into FORTRAN 4 code which is optimal in several respects. The interactive version of MODEL makes use of interactive system routines so that the user may observe the solution as it is being generated and interact with the program in a manner similar to that associated with analog simulation. The DISCOS-Control version of the MODEL simulation language is used to describe the control system for a plant which is modelled by the DISCOS program. DISCOS plant variables may be referenced in the control system description and all the sensor signals, coupling torques, momentum devices and external loads are automatically linked to the DISCOS plant model.

  20. Commutated automatic gain control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, S. R.

    1981-01-01

    A commutated automatic gain control system (AGC) was designed and constructed for the prototype Loran C receiver. The AGC is designed to improve the signal-to-signal ratio of the received Loran signals. The AGC design does not require any analog to digital conversion and it utilizes commonly available components. The AGC consists of: (1) a circuit which samples the peak of the envelope of the Loran signal to obtain an AGC voltage for each of three Loran stations, (2) a dc gain circuit to control the overall gain of the AGC system, and (3) an AGC amplification of the input RF signal. The performance of the AGC system was observed in bench and flight tests; it has improved the overall accuracy of the receiver. Improvements in the accuracy of the time difference calculations to within approx. + or - 1.5 microseconds of the observed time differnces for a given position are reported.

  1. Welding arc length control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iceland, William F. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is a welding arc length control system. The system includes, in its broadest aspects, a power source for providing welding current, a power amplification system, a motorized welding torch assembly connected to the power amplification system, a computer, and current pick up means. The computer is connected to the power amplification system for storing and processing arc weld current parameters and non-linear voltage-ampere characteristics. The current pick up means is connected to the power source and to the welding torch assembly for providing weld current data to the computer. Thus, the desired arc length is maintained as the welding current is varied during operation, maintaining consistent weld penetration.

  2. The NSTX Central Instrumentation and Control System

    SciTech Connect

    G. Oliaro; J. Dong; K. Tindall; P. Sichta

    1999-12-17

    Earlier this year the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory achieved ''first plasma''. The Central Instrumentation and Control System was used to support plasma operations. Major elements of the system include the Process Control System, Plasma Control System, Network System, Data Acquisition System, and Synchronization System. This paper will focus on the Process Control System. Topics include the architecture, hardware interface, operator interface, data management, and system performance.

  3. Cyber Incidents Involving Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Turk

    2005-10-01

    The Analysis Function of the US-CERT Control Systems Security Center (CSSC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has prepared this report to document cyber security incidents for use by the CSSC. The description and analysis of incidents reported herein support three CSSC tasks: establishing a business case; increasing security awareness and private and corporate participation related to enhanced cyber security of control systems; and providing informational material to support model development and prioritize activities for CSSC. The stated mission of CSSC is to reduce vulnerability of critical infrastructure to cyber attack on control systems. As stated in the Incident Management Tool Requirements (August 2005) ''Vulnerability reduction is promoted by risk analysis that tracks actual risk, emphasizes high risk, determines risk reduction as a function of countermeasures, tracks increase of risk due to external influence, and measures success of the vulnerability reduction program''. Process control and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, with their reliance on proprietary networks and hardware, have long been considered immune to the network attacks that have wreaked so much havoc on corporate information systems. New research indicates this confidence is misplaced--the move to open standards such as Ethernet, Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, and Web technologies is allowing hackers to take advantage of the control industry's unawareness. Much of the available information about cyber incidents represents a characterization as opposed to an analysis of events. The lack of good analyses reflects an overall weakness in reporting requirements as well as the fact that to date there have been very few serious cyber attacks on control systems. Most companies prefer not to share cyber attack incident data because of potential financial repercussions. Uniform reporting requirements will do much to make this information available to

  4. LANSCE personnel access control system

    SciTech Connect

    Sturrock, J.C.; Gallegos, F.R.; Hall, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated beam. The Personnel Access Control System (PACS) is a component of the RSS that is designed to prevent personnel access to areas where prompt radiation is a hazard. PACS was designed to replace several older personnel safety systems (PSS) with a single modem unified design. Lessons learned from the operation over the last 20 years were incorporated into a redundant sensor, single-point failure safe, fault tolerant, and tamper-resistant system that prevents access to the beam areas by controlling the access keys and beam stoppers. PACS uses a layered philosophy to the physical and electronic design. The most critical assemblies are battery backed up, relay logic circuits; less critical devices use Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) for timing functions and communications. Outside reviewers have reviewed the operational safety of the design. The design philosophy, lessons learned, hardware design, software design, operation, and limitations of the device are described.

  5. Microprocessor controlled portable TLD system.

    PubMed

    Apathy, I; Deme, S; Feher, I

    1996-01-01

    An up-to-date microprocessor controlled thermoluminescence dosemeter (TLD) system for environmental and space dose measurements has been developed. The earlier version of the portable TLD system, Pille, was successfully used on Soviet orbital stations as well as on the US Space Shuttle, and for environmental monitoring. The new portable TLD system, Pille'95, consists of a reader and TL bulb dosemeters, and each dosemeter is provided with an EEPROM chip for automatic identification. The glow curve data are digitised and analysed by the program of the reader. The measured data and the identification number appear on the LED display of the reader. Up to several thousand measured data together with the glow curves can be stored on a removable flash memory card. The whole system is supplied either from built-in rechargeable batteries or from the mains of the space station. PMID:11540052

  6. Microprocessor controlled portable TLD system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apathy, I.; Deme, S.; Feher, I.

    1996-01-01

    An up-to-date microprocessor controlled thermoluminescence dosemeter (TLD) system for environmental and space dose measurements has been developed. The earlier version of the portable TLD system, Pille, was successfully used on Soviet orbital stations as well as on the US Space Shuttle, and for environmental monitoring. The new portable TLD system, Pille'95, consists of a reader and TL bulb dosemeters, and each dosemeter is provided with an EEPROM chip for automatic identification. The glow curve data are digitised and analysed by the program of the reader. The measured data and the identification number appear on the LED display of the reader. Up to several thousand measured data together with the glow curves can be stored on a removable flash memory card. The whole system is supplied either from built-in rechargeable batteries or from the mains of the space station.

  7. Controlled Ecological Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Averner, Maurice M.

    1989-01-01

    The NASA CELLS program is based upon the integration of biological and physiochemical processes in order to produce a system that will produce food, a breathable atmosphere, and potable water from metabolic and other wastes. The CELSS concept is described and a schematic system diagram is provided. Central to the CELSS concept is the Plant Growth Chamber, where green plant photosynthesis produces food, and aids in the production of oxygen and water. Progress to date at the Breadboard Facility at the Kennedy Space Center is summarized. The Breadboard Facility will implement the basic techniques and processes required for a CELSS based on photosynthetic plant growth in a ground-based system of practical size and results will be extrapolated to predict the performance of a full-sized system. Current available technology and near-future forecasts for plant growth techniques (focusing on maximum productivity), food sources (to select optimal CELSS plants), and waste management and contaminant control are discussed.

  8. Open architecture in control system integration

    SciTech Connect

    Wysor, R.W.; Carnal, C.L.; Igou, R.E.

    1993-09-01

    Open architecture offers the manufacturing community a number of advantages in the integration of future machine control systems. Among these advantages is the ability to upgrade and take advantage of innovative new control strategies. A key enabling technology in open architecture control systems is the digital signal processor (DSP). DSPs can be used to provide a complete control system or can enhance the computational capability of larger control systems. The use of DSPs in the integration of open architecture control systems is discussed, including their impact on reliability and control system functionality. In addition, the role of DSPs in control system architecture is addressed.

  9. Sonication cultures of explanted components as an add-on test to routinely conducted microbiological diagnostics improve pathogen detection.

    PubMed

    Holinka, Johannes; Bauer, Leonhard; Hirschl, Alexander M; Graninger, Wolfgang; Windhager, Reinhard; Presterl, Elisabeth

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the pathogen detection in prosthetic joint infections, particularly to evaluate the feasibility of the sonication culture method in the clinical routine. Explanted components of all patients with presumptive prosthetic or implant infection were sonicated separately in sterile containers to dislodge the adherent bacteria from the surfaces and cultured. The results of sonication culture were compared to the conventional tissue culture. We investigated 60 consecutive patients with loosening of the prostheses or implants Forty patients had septic and 20 aseptic loosening (24 knee prostheses, 21 hip prostheses, 6 mega-prostheses, 2 shoulder prostheses, 6 osteosynthesis, 1 spinal instrumentation). The sensitivity of sonication fluid culture was 83.3%, of single positive tissue culture was 72.2% and 61.1% when two or more cultures yielded the same microorganism. In patients receiving antibiotic therapy the sensitivity was 65.9%, 57.5%, and 42.5%, respectively. Pathogens detected in a single tissue culture as well as in sonication culture yielded a significantly higher rate of prosthetic infection than conventional tissue culture alone (p = 0.008), even in patients receiving continuous antibiotic therapy before explantation (p = 0.016). The sonication method represents an essential add-on in pathogen detection compared to conventional tissue culture. PMID:21337398

  10. Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors as add-on therapy to insulin: rationale and evidences.

    PubMed

    Singh, Awadhesh Kumar; Singh, Ritu

    2016-01-01

    Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2I) are recently approved class of anti-hyperglycaemic agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). SGLT-2I inhibits renal glucose reabsorption, thereby ensuing urinary glucose excretion in a dose-dependent manner. This caloric loss and osmotic diuresis, secondary to increased urinary glucose excretion, has a unique potential to counter insulin induced weight gain and fluid retention, with little potential of hypoglycemic exacerbation. Also, as these agents act independently of insulin secretion or action, they are effective even in long-standing diabetes with depleted β-cell reserve. Improvement in insulin sensitivity, as observed with SGLT-2I can also facilitate insulin action. Furthermore, significant reduction in total daily insulin dosage and reduction of body weight as observed during combination therapy renders SGLT-2I, a near-ideal partner to insulin. This review aims to evaluate the safety and efficacy of currently used SGLT-2I as an add-on to insulin therapy in the treatment of T2DM. PMID:26732230

  11. Can intermittent theta burst stimulation as add-on to psychotherapy improve nicotine abstinence? Results from a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Dieler, Alica C; Dresler, Thomas; Joachim, Kathrin; Deckert, Jürgen; Herrmann, Martin J; Fallgatter, Andreas J

    2014-01-01

    Smoking is among the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Discontinuing smoking can increase life expectancy to the presmoking level. Unaided attempts are often ineffective, strengthening the necessity of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), nicotine replacement or pharmacotherapy. Still, relapse rates are high. Recently, a modulation of nicotine craving, which predicts relapse, through transcranial magnetic stimulation to the prefrontal cortex was shown. In a pilot study, we investigated whether 4 sessions of intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) as add-on treatment to CBT reduces nicotine craving and improves long-term abstinence (at 3, 6 and 12 months). Smokers were randomly assigned to a treatment (n = 38) or a sham group (n = 36). Although we did not find reduced craving, we could show higher abstinence rates in the treatment group at 3 months. At 6 and 12 months abstinence rates did not differ significantly. Results at 12 months, however, have to be interpreted cautiously due to significant differences in the dropout rates between the two groups at this time point. We provide first evidence for a beneficial effect of additional iTBS on intermediate nicotine abstinence; however, the low number of iTBS sessions might have prevented longer effects. More lasting effects might be achieved by iTBS maintenance sessions in analogy to the treatment of depression. PMID:24924851

  12. Autonomous grain combine control system

    SciTech Connect

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Lucas, James R.; Prickel, Marvin A.

    2013-06-25

    A system for controlling a grain combine having a rotor/cylinder, a sieve, a fan, a concave, a feeder, a header, an engine, and a control system. The feeder of the grain combine is engaged and the header is lowered. A separator loss target, engine load target, and a sieve loss target are selected. Grain is harvested with the lowered header passing the grain through the engaged feeder. Separator loss, sieve loss, engine load and ground speed of the grain combine are continuously monitored during the harvesting. If the monitored separator loss exceeds the selected separator loss target, the speed of the rotor/cylinder, the concave setting, the engine load target, or a combination thereof is adjusted. If the monitored sieve loss exceeds the selected sieve loss target, the speed of the fan, the size of the sieve openings, or the engine load target is adjusted.

  13. Heat engine generator control system

    DOEpatents

    Rajashekara, K.; Gorti, B.V.; McMullen, S.R.; Raibert, R.J.

    1998-05-12

    An electrical power generation system includes a heat engine having an output member operatively coupled to the rotor of a dynamoelectric machine. System output power is controlled by varying an electrical parameter of the dynamoelectric machine. A power request signal is related to an engine speed and the electrical parameter is varied in accordance with a speed control loop. Initially, the sense of change in the electrical parameter in response to a change in the power request signal is opposite that required to effectuate a steady state output power consistent with the power request signal. Thereafter, the electrical parameter is varied to converge the output member speed to the speed known to be associated with the desired electrical output power. 8 figs.

  14. Heat engine generator control system

    DOEpatents

    Rajashekara, Kaushik; Gorti, Bhanuprasad Venkata; McMullen, Steven Robert; Raibert, Robert Joseph

    1998-01-01

    An electrical power generation system includes a heat engine having an output member operatively coupled to the rotor of a dynamoelectric machine. System output power is controlled by varying an electrical parameter of the dynamoelectric machine. A power request signal is related to an engine speed and the electrical parameter is varied in accordance with a speed control loop. Initially, the sense of change in the electrical parameter in response to a change in the power request signal is opposite that required to effectuate a steady state output power consistent with the power request signal. Thereafter, the electrical parameter is varied to converge the output member speed to the speed known to be associated with the desired electrical output power.

  15. Experimental research control software system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohn, I. A.; Kovalenko, A. G.; Vystavkin, A. N.

    2014-05-01

    A software system, intended for automation of a small scale research, has been developed. The software allows one to control equipment, acquire and process data by means of simple scripts. The main purpose of that development is to increase experiment automation easiness, thus significantly reducing experimental setup automation efforts. In particular, minimal programming skills are required and supervisors have no reviewing troubles. Interactions between scripts and equipment are managed automatically, thus allowing to run multiple scripts simultaneously. Unlike well-known data acquisition commercial software systems, the control is performed by an imperative scripting language. This approach eases complex control and data acquisition algorithms implementation. A modular interface library performs interaction with external interfaces. While most widely used interfaces are already implemented, a simple framework is developed for fast implementations of new software and hardware interfaces. While the software is in continuous development with new features being implemented, it is already used in our laboratory for automation of a helium-3 cryostat control and data acquisition. The software is open source and distributed under Gnu Public License.

  16. Comparison of the Effects of Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion and Add-On Therapy with Sitagliptin in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Wan, Heng; Zhao, Defu; Shen, Jie; Lu, Lu; Zhang, Tong; Chen, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    To identify a new regimen to optimize treatment for patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2DM) by short-term continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) alone. Methods. 60 patients with newly diagnosed T2DM were randomized into two groups (n = 30 each) and treated for 2 weeks with CSII alone (CSII group) or with CSII plus sitagliptin (CSII + Sig group). The glycemic variability of the patients was measured using a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) for the last 72 hours. A standard meal test was performed before and after the interventions, and the levels of glycated albumin, fasting glucose, fasting C-peptide, postprandial 2 h blood glucose, and postprandial 2 h C-peptide were examined. Results. Compared with the CSII group, the indicators of glycemic variability, such as the mean amplitude of glycemic excursion (MAGE) and the standard deviation of blood glucose (SDBG), were decreased significantly in the CSII + Sig group. The changes before and after treatment in the C-peptide reactivity index (ΔCPI) and the secretory unit of islet in transplantation index (ΔSUIT) indicated a significant improvement in the CSII + Sig group. Conclusions. Add-on therapy with sitagliptin may be an optimized treatment for patients with newly diagnosed T2DM compared with short-term CSII alone. PMID:26798658

  17. 14 CFR 29.395 - Control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... its limit of motion); (4) The attachment of the control system to the rotor blade pitch control horn... of its motion); and (5) The attachment of the control system to the control surface horn (with the control in the critical positions for the affected parts of the system within the limits of its...

  18. HTGR Resilient Control System Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Lynne M. Stevens

    2010-09-01

    A preeminent objective for corporate and government organizations is the protection of major investments, which is attained by achieving state awareness, a comprehensive understanding of security and safety, for critical infrastructures. Given the dependence of critical infrastructure on control systems for automation, the integrity of these systems and their ability to provide owner/operators a high degree of state awareness is essential in attaining a high degree of investment protection and public acceptance. Operators as well as government are therefore burdened to ensure they have a timely understanding of the status of their plant or all plants, respectively, to ensure efficient operations and investment and public protection. “This characterization is a significant objective that must consider many aspects of instrumentation, control, and intelligent systems in order to achieve the required result. These aspects include sensory, communication, analysis, decision, and human system interfaces necessary to achieve fusion of data and presentation of results that will provide an understanding of what issues are important and why.

  19. 49 CFR 193.2619 - Control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Control systems. 193.2619 Section 193.2619...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2619 Control systems. (a) Each control system must be properly adjusted to operate within design limits. (b) If a control system is out of service for 30 days or more,...

  20. 49 CFR 193.2619 - Control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Control systems. 193.2619 Section 193.2619...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2619 Control systems. (a) Each control system must be properly adjusted to operate within design limits. (b) If a control system is out of service for 30 days or more,...

  1. 14 CFR 25.395 - Control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Control system. 25.395 Section 25.395... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.395 Control system. (a) Longitudinal, lateral, directional, and drag control system and their supporting structures...

  2. 49 CFR 193.2619 - Control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Control systems. 193.2619 Section 193.2619...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2619 Control systems. (a) Each control system must be properly adjusted to operate within design limits. (b) If a control system is out of service for 30 days or more,...

  3. 14 CFR 25.395 - Control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control system. 25.395 Section 25.395... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.395 Control system. (a) Longitudinal, lateral, directional, and drag control system and their supporting structures...

  4. 14 CFR 25.395 - Control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Control system. 25.395 Section 25.395... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.395 Control system. (a) Longitudinal, lateral, directional, and drag control system and their supporting structures...

  5. 49 CFR 193.2619 - Control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Control systems. 193.2619 Section 193.2619...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2619 Control systems. (a) Each control system must be properly adjusted to operate within design limits. (b) If a control system is out of service for 30 days or more,...

  6. 49 CFR 193.2619 - Control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., and control systems for internal shutoff valves for bottom penetration tanks must be inspected and... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control systems. 193.2619 Section 193.2619...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2619 Control systems. (a) Each control system must be...

  7. The beauty of simple adaptive control and new developments in nonlinear systems stability analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Barkana, Itzhak

    2014-12-10

    Although various adaptive control techniques have been around for a long time and in spite of successful proofs of stability and even successful demonstrations of performance, the eventual use of adaptive control methodologies in practical real world systems has met a rather strong resistance from practitioners and has remained limited. Apparently, it is difficult to guarantee or even understand the conditions that can guarantee stable operations of adaptive control systems under realistic operational environments. Besides, it is difficult to measure the robustness of adaptive control system stability and allow it to be compared with the common and widely used measure of phase margin and gain margin that is utilized by present, mainly LTI, controllers. Furthermore, customary stability analysis methods seem to imply that the mere stability of adaptive systems may be adversely affected by any tiny deviation from the pretty idealistic and assumably required stability conditions. This paper first revisits the fundamental qualities of customary direct adaptive control methodologies, in particular the classical Model Reference Adaptive Control, and shows that some of their basic drawbacks have been addressed and eliminated within the so-called Simple Adaptive Control methodology. Moreover, recent developments in the stability analysis methods of nonlinear systems show that prior conditions that were customarily assumed to be needed for stability are only apparent and can be eliminated. As a result, sufficient conditions that guarantee stability are clearly stated and lead to similarly clear proofs of stability. As many real-world applications show, once robust stability of the adaptive systems can be guaranteed, the added value of using Add-On Adaptive Control along with classical Control design techniques is pushing the desired performance beyond any previous limits.

  8. The beauty of simple adaptive control and new developments in nonlinear systems stability analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkana, Itzhak

    2014-12-01

    Although various adaptive control techniques have been around for a long time and in spite of successful proofs of stability and even successful demonstrations of performance, the eventual use of adaptive control methodologies in practical real world systems has met a rather strong resistance from practitioners and has remained limited. Apparently, it is difficult to guarantee or even understand the conditions that can guarantee stable operations of adaptive control systems under realistic operational environments. Besides, it is difficult to measure the robustness of adaptive control system stability and allow it to be compared with the common and widely used measure of phase margin and gain margin that is utilized by present, mainly LTI, controllers. Furthermore, customary stability analysis methods seem to imply that the mere stability of adaptive systems may be adversely affected by any tiny deviation from the pretty idealistic and assumably required stability conditions. This paper first revisits the fundamental qualities of customary direct adaptive control methodologies, in particular the classical Model Reference Adaptive Control, and shows that some of their basic drawbacks have been addressed and eliminated within the so-called Simple Adaptive Control methodology. Moreover, recent developments in the stability analysis methods of nonlinear systems show that prior conditions that were customarily assumed to be needed for stability are only apparent and can be eliminated. As a result, sufficient conditions that guarantee stability are clearly stated and lead to similarly clear proofs of stability. As many real-world applications show, once robust stability of the adaptive systems can be guaranteed, the added value of using Add-On Adaptive Control along with classical Control design techniques is pushing the desired performance beyond any previous limits.

  9. Three axis attitude control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, Philip A. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A three-axis attitude control system for an orbiting body comprised of a motor driven flywheel supported by a torque producing active magnetic bearing is described. Free rotation of the flywheel is provided about its central axis and together with limited angular torsional deflections of the flywheel about two orthogonal axes which are perpendicular to the central axis. The motor comprises an electronically commutated DC motor, while the magnetic bearing comprises a radially servoed permanent magnet biased magnetic bearing capable of producing cross-axis torques on the flywheel. Three body attitude sensors for pitch, yaw and roll generate respective command signals along three mutually orthogonal axes (x, y, z) which are coupled to circuit means for energizing a set of control coils for producing torques about two of the axes (x and y) and speed control of the flywheel about the third (z) axis. An energy recovery system, which is operative during motor deceleration, is also included which permits the use of a high-speed motor to perform effectively as a reactive wheel suspended in the magnetic bearing.

  10. Thermal control system corrosion study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, Robert; Folsom, Rolfe A.; Mucha, Phillip E.

    1990-01-01

    During the development of an expert system for autonomous control of the Space Station Thermal Control System (TCS), the thermal performance of the Brassboard TCS began to gradually degrade. This degradation was due to filter clogging by metallic residue. A study was initiated to determine the source of the residue and the basic cause of the corrosion. The investigation focused on the TCS design, materials compatibility, Ames operating and maintenance procedures, and chemical analysis of the residue and of the anhydrous ammonia used as the principal refrigerant. It was concluded that the corrosion mechanisms involved two processes: the reaction of water alone with large, untreated aluminum parts in a high pH environment and the presence of chlorides and chloride salts. These salts will attack the aluminum oxide layer and may enable galvanic corrosion between the aluminum and the more noble stainless steel and other metallic elements present. Recommendations are made for modifications to the system design, the materials used, and the operating and maintenance procedures, which should largely prevent the recurrence of these corrosion mechanisms.

  11. Multirate digital control system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Martin C.; Amit, Naftali; Powell, J. David

    1988-01-01

    Methods for multirate digital control system design are discussed. A simple method for sampling rate selection based on control bandwidths is proposed. Methods for generating a discrete-time state model of a sampled-data plant and a discrete-time equivalent to an analog cost function for a sampled-data plant are described. The succesive loop closures and linear quadratic Gaussian synthesis methods are reviewed, and a constrained optimization synthesis method is introduced. The proposed sampling rate selection, discretization, and synthesis methods are applied to two example design problems. Multirate and single-rate compensators synthesized by the different methods are compared, based on closed-loop responses, with compensators having the same real-time computation load.

  12. Instrumentation, Control, and Intelligent Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-09-01

    Abundant and affordable energy is required for U.S. economic stability and national security. Advanced nuclear power plants offer the best near-term potential to generate abundant, affordable, and sustainable electricity and hydrogen without appreciable generation of greenhouse gases. To that end, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been charged with leading the revitalization of nuclear power in the U.S. The INL vision is to become the preeminent nuclear energy laboratory with synergistic, world-class, multi-program capabilities and partnerships by 2015. The vision focuses on four essential destinations: (1) Be the preeminent internationally-recognized nuclear energy research, development, and demonstration laboratory; (2) Be a major center for national security technology development and demonstration; (3) Be a multi-program national laboratory with world-class capabilities; (4) Foster academic, industry, government, and international collaborations to produce the needed investment, programs, and expertise. Crucial to that effort is the inclusion of research in advanced instrumentation, control, and intelligent systems (ICIS) for use in current and advanced power and energy security systems to enable increased performance, reliability, security, and safety. For nuclear energy plants, ICIS will extend the lifetime of power plant systems, increase performance and power output, and ensure reliable operation within the system's safety margin; for national security applications, ICIS will enable increased protection of our nation's critical infrastructure. In general, ICIS will cost-effectively increase performance for all energy security systems.

  13. Optimal control of overdamped systems.

    PubMed

    Zulkowski, Patrick R; DeWeese, Michael R

    2015-09-01

    Nonequilibrium physics encompasses a broad range of natural and synthetic small-scale systems. Optimizing transitions of such systems will be crucial for the development of nanoscale technologies and may reveal the physical principles underlying biological processes at the molecular level. Recent work has demonstrated that when a thermodynamic system is driven away from equilibrium then the space of controllable parameters has a Riemannian geometry induced by a generalized inverse diffusion tensor. We derive a simple, compact expression for the inverse diffusion tensor that depends solely on equilibrium information for a broad class of potentials. We use this formula to compute the minimal dissipation for two model systems relevant to small-scale information processing and biological molecular motors. In the first model, we optimally erase a single classical bit of information modeled by an overdamped particle in a smooth double-well potential. In the second model, we find the minimal dissipation of a simple molecular motor model coupled to an optical trap. In both models, we find that the minimal dissipation for the optimal protocol of duration τ is proportional to 1/τ, as expected, though the dissipation for the erasure model takes a different form than what we found previously for a similar system. PMID:26465436

  14. Peginterferon add-on results in more HBsAg decline compared to monotherapy in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, W P; Sonneveld, M J; Xie, Q; Guo, S; Zhang, N; Zeuzem, S; Tabak, F; Zhang, Q; Simon, K; Akarca, U S; Streinu-Cercel, A; Hansen, B E; Janssen, H L A

    2016-06-01

    It is unknown whether peginterferon (PEG-IFN) add-on to entecavir (ETV) leads to more HBsAg decline compared to PEG-IFN monotherapy or combination therapy, and whether ETV therapy may prevent HBsAg increase after PEG-IFN cessation. We performed a post hoc analysis of 396 HBeAg-positive patients treated for 72 weeks with ETV + 24 weeks PEG-IFN add-on from week 24 to 48 (add-on, n = 85), 72 weeks with ETV monotherapy (n = 90), 52 weeks with PEG-IFN monotherapy (n = 111) and 52 weeks PEG-IFN + lamivudine (combination, n = 110) within 2 randomized trials. HBsAg decline was assessed at the end of PEG-IFN (EOP) and 6 months after PEG-IFN (EOF) discontinuation. Differences in baseline characteristics were accounted for using inversed probability of treatment weights. At EOP, a HBsAg reduction of ≥1log10 IU/mL was more frequently achieved for patients in the add-on or combination therapy arms (both 36%), compared to PEG-IFN mono (20%) or ETV (8%) (add-on vs PEG-IFN mono P = 0.050). At EOF, the HBsAg reduction ≥1log10 IU/mL was only sustained in patients treated with ETV consolidation (add-on vs combination and PEG-IFN mono: 40% vs 23% and 18%, P = 0.029 and P = 0.003, respectively). For add-on, combination, PEG-IFN mono and ETV, the mean HBsAg-level change at EOF was -0.84, -0.81, -0.68 and -0.33 log10 IU/mL, respectively (P > 0.05 for PEG-IFN arms). HBeAg loss at EOF was 36%, 31%, 33% and 20%, respectively (P > 0.05). PEG-IFN add-on for 24 weeks results in more on-treatment HBsAg decline than does 52 weeks of PEG-IFN monotherapy. ETV therapy may maintain the HBsAg reduction achieved with PEG-IFN. PMID:26403919

  15. Nuclear electric propulsion reactor control systems status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferg, D. A.

    1973-01-01

    The thermionic reactor control system design studies conducted over the past several years for a nuclear electric propulsion system are described and summarized. The relevant reactor control system studies are discussed in qualitative terms, pointing out the significant advantages and disadvantages including the impact that the various control systems would have on the nuclear electric propulsion system design. A recommendation for the reference control system is made, and a program for future work leading to an engineering model is described.

  16. System design document U-AVLIS control system architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Viebeck, P.G.

    1994-02-16

    This document describes the architecture of the integrated control system for the U-AVLIS process. It includes an overview of the major control system components and their interfaces to one another. Separate documents are utilized to fully describe each component mentioned herein. The purpose of this document is to introduce the reader to the integrated U-AVLIS control system. It describes the philosophy of the control system architecture and how all of the control system components are integrated. While the other System Design Documents describe in detail the design of individual control system components, this document puts those components into their correct context within the entire integrated control system.

  17. DOWNHOLE VIBRATION MONITORING & CONTROL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Martin E. Cobern

    2004-10-13

    The deep hard rock drilling environment induces severe vibrations into the drillstring, which can cause reduced rates of penetration (ROP) and premature failure of the equipment. The only current means of controlling vibration under varying conditions is to change either the rotary speed or the weight-on-bit (WOB). These changes often reduce drilling efficiency. Conventional shock subs are useful in some situations, but often exacerbate the problems. The objective of this project is development of a unique system to monitor and control drilling vibrations in a ''smart'' drilling system. This system has two primary elements: (1) The first is an active vibration damper (AVD) to minimize harmful axial, lateral and torsional vibrations. The hardness of this damper will be continuously adjusted using a robust, fast-acting and reliable unique technology. (2) The second is a real-time system to monitor drillstring vibration, and related parameters. This monitor adjusts the damper according to local conditions. In some configurations, it may also send diagnostic information to the surface via real-time telemetry. The AVD is implemented in a configuration using magnetorheological (MR) fluid. By applying a current to the magnetic coils in the damper, the viscosity of the fluid can be changed rapidly, thereby altering the damping coefficient in response to the measured motion of the tool. Phase I of this program entailed modeling and design of the necessary subsystems and design, manufacture and test of a full laboratory prototype. Phase I of the project was completed by the revised end date of May 31, 2004. The objectives of this phase were met, and all prerequisites for Phase II have been completed. The month of June, 2004 was primarily occupied with the writing of the Phase I Final Report, the sole deliverable of Phase I, which will be submitted in the next quarter. Redesign of the laboratory prototype and design of the downhole (Phase II) prototype was begun.

  18. DOWNHOLE VIBRATION MONITORING & CONTROL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Martin E. Cobern

    2004-08-31

    The deep hard rock drilling environment induces severe vibrations into the drillstring, which can cause reduced rates of penetration (ROP) and premature failure of the equipment. The only current means of controlling vibration under varying conditions is to change either the rotary speed or the weight-on-bit (WOB). These changes often reduce drilling efficiency. Conventional shock subs are useful in some situations, but often exacerbate the problems. The objective of this project is development of a unique system to monitor and control drilling vibrations in a ''smart'' drilling system. This system has two primary elements: (1) The first is an active vibration damper (AVD) to minimize harmful axial, lateral and torsional vibrations. The hardness of this damper will be continuously adjusted using a robust, fast-acting and reliable unique technology. (2) The second is a real-time system to monitor drillstring vibration, and related parameters. This monitor adjusts the damper according to local conditions. In some configurations, it may also send diagnostic information to the surface via real-time telemetry. The AVD is implemented in a configuration using magnetorheological (MR) fluid. By applying a current to the magnetic coils in the damper, the viscosity of the fluid can be changed rapidly, thereby altering the damping coefficient in response to the measured motion of the tool. Phase I of this program entailed modeling and design of the necessary subsystems and design, manufacture and test of a full laboratory prototype. Phase I of the project was completed by the revised end date of May 31, 2004. The objectives of this phase were met, and all prerequisites for Phase II have been completed.

  19. Generic NOx Control Intelligent System

    1997-03-24

    GNOCIS is a system of programs designed to perform on-line closed-loop optimization of utility boilers. The major components of the system include: GNREAD A program which resides on the host digital control system (DCS) that retrieves data from the DCS and then transmits the collected data to the GNOCIS host system. GNWRITE A program which resides on the host DCS that receives data from the GNOCIS host platform and then sends this information to themore » DCS. GNARCH A program which resides on the GNOCIS host platform that receives data from GNREAD or GNCTL and then archives this data on a periodic basis. GNCTL A program which resides on the GNOCIS host platform that receives data from GNREAD and then executes the optimizer/combustion model. GNDCS Configuration changes to the DCS which allows automatic implementation of the GNOCIS recommendations and closed-loop operation. Substantial safeguards and constraints are imbedded in this component to prevent adverse impact on unit operation.« less

  20. Control rod drive hydraulic system

    DOEpatents

    Ose, Richard A.

    1992-01-01

    A hydraulic system for a control rod drive (CRD) includes a variable output-pressure CR pump operable in a charging mode for providing pressurized fluid at a charging pressure, and in a normal mode for providing the pressurized fluid at a purge pressure, less than the charging pressure. Charging and purge lines are disposed in parallel flow between the CRD pump and the CRD. A hydraulic control unit is disposed in flow communication in the charging line and includes a scram accumulator. An isolation valve is provided in the charging line between the CRD pump and the scram accumulator. A controller is operatively connected to the CRD pump and the isolation valve and is effective for opening the isolation valve and operating the CRD pump in a charging mode for charging the scram accumulator, and closing the isolation valve and operating the CRD pump in a normal mode for providing to the CRD through the purge line the pressurized fluid at a purge pressure lower than the charging pressure.

  1. Ethylene monitoring and control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Bruce N. (Inventor); Richard, II, Roy V. (Inventor); Kane, James A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A system that can accurately monitor and control low concentrations of ethylene gas includes a test chamber configured to receive sample gas potentially containing an ethylene concentration and ozone, a detector configured to receive light produced during a reaction between the ethylene and ozone and to produce signals related thereto, and a computer connected to the detector to process the signals to determine therefrom a value of the concentration of ethylene in the sample gas. The supply for the system can include a four way valve configured to receive pressurized gas at one input and a test chamber. A piston is journaled in the test chamber with a drive end disposed in a drive chamber and a reaction end defining with walls of the test chamber a variable volume reaction chamber. The drive end of the piston is pneumatically connected to two ports of the four way valve to provide motive force to the piston. A manifold is connected to the variable volume reaction chamber, and is configured to receive sample gasses from at least one of a plurality of ports connectable to degreening rooms and to supply the sample gas to the reactive chamber for reaction with ozone. The apparatus can be used to monitor and control the ethylene concentration in multiple degreening rooms.

  2. Ethylene monitoring and control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Bruce N. (Inventor); Richard, II, Roy V. (Inventor); Kanc, James A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A system that can accurately monitor and control low concentrations of ethylene gas includes a test chamber configured to receive sample gas potentially containing an ethylene concentration and ozone, a detector configured to receive light produced during a reaction between the ethylene and ozone and to produce signals related thereto, and a computer connected to the detector to process the signals to determine therefrom a value of the concentration of ethylene in the sample gas. The supply for the system can include a four way valve configured to receive pressurized gas at one input and a test chamber. A piston is journaled in the test chamber with a drive end disposed in a drive chamber and a reaction end defining with walls of the test chamber a variable volume reaction chamber. The drive end of the piston is pneumatically connected to two ports of the four way valve to provide motive force to the piston. A manifold is connected to the variable volume reaction chamber, and is configured to receive sample gasses from at least one of a plurality of ports connectable to degreening rooms and to supply the sample gas to the reactive chamber for reaction with ozone. The apparatus can be used to monitor and control the ethylene concentration in multiple degreening rooms.

  3. Autonomous intelligent cruise control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baret, Marc; Bomer, Thierry T.; Calesse, C.; Dudych, L.; L'Hoist, P.

    1995-01-01

    Autonomous intelligent cruise control (AICC) systems are not only controlling vehicles' speed but acting on the throttle and eventually on the brakes they could automatically maintain the relative speed and distance between two vehicles in the same lane. And more than just for comfort it appears that these new systems should improve the safety on highways. By applying a technique issued from the space research carried out by MATRA, a sensor based on a charge coupled device (CCD) was designed to acquire the reflected light on standard-mounted car reflectors of pulsed laser diodes emission. The CCD is working in a unique mode called flash during transfer (FDT) which allows identification of target patterns in severe optical environments. It provides high accuracy for distance and angular position of targets. The absence of moving mechanical parts ensures high reliability for this sensor. The large field of view and the high measurement rate give a global situation assessment and a short reaction time. Then, tracking and filtering algorithms have been developed in order to select the target, on which the equipped vehicle determines its safety distance and speed, taking into account its maneuvering and the behaviors of other vehicles.

  4. Control System for Prosthetic Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A control system and method for prosthetic devices is provided. The control system comprises a transducer for receiving movement from a body part for generating a sensing signal associated with that of movement. The sensing signal is processed by a linearizer for linearizing the sensing signal to be a linear function of the magnitude of the distance moved by the body part. The linearized sensing signal is normalized to be a function of the entire range of body part movement from the no-shrug position of the moveable body part through the full-shrg position of the moveable body part. The normalized signal is divided into a plurality of discrete command signals. The discrete command signals are used by typical converter devices which are in operational association with the prosthetic device. The converter device uses the discrete command signals for driving the moveable portions of the prosthetic device and its sub-prosthesis. The method for controlling a prosthetic device associated with the present invention comprises the steps of receiving the movement from the body part, generating a sensing signal in association with the movement of the body part, linearizing the sensing signal to be a linear function of the magnitude of the distance moved by the body part, normalizing the linear signal to be a function of the entire range of the body part movement, dividing the normalized signal into a plurality of discrete command signals, and implementing the plurality of discrete command signals for driving the respective moveable prosthesis device and its sub-prosthesis.

  5. EVA Systems Flight Controller Talks With Students

    NASA Video Gallery

    From NASA's International Space Station Mission Control Center, EVA Systems Flight Controller Sandy Fletcher participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students from Northtowne Ele...

  6. 14 CFR 27.395 - Control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... service use, including consideration of fatigue, jamming, ground gusts, control inertia, and friction... jamming, ground gusts, control inertia, or friction, the system must withstand the limit pilot...

  7. 14 CFR 27.395 - Control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... service use, including consideration of fatigue, jamming, ground gusts, control inertia, and friction... jamming, ground gusts, control inertia, or friction, the system must withstand the limit pilot...

  8. 14 CFR 27.395 - Control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... service use, including consideration of fatigue, jamming, ground gusts, control inertia, and friction... jamming, ground gusts, control inertia, or friction, the system must withstand the limit pilot...

  9. 14 CFR 27.395 - Control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... service use, including consideration of fatigue, jamming, ground gusts, control inertia, and friction... jamming, ground gusts, control inertia, or friction, the system must withstand the limit pilot...

  10. 14 CFR 27.395 - Control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... service use, including consideration of fatigue, jamming, ground gusts, control inertia, and friction... jamming, ground gusts, control inertia, or friction, the system must withstand the limit pilot...

  11. Hydraulically powered dissimilar teleoperated system controller design

    SciTech Connect

    Jansen, J.F.; Kress, R.L.

    1996-04-01

    This paper will address two issues associated with the implementation of a hydraulically powered dissimilar master-slave teleoperated system. These issues are the overall system control architecture and the design of robust hydraulic servo controllers for the position control problem. Finally, a discussion of overall system performance on an actual teleoperated system will be presented.

  12. Control systems development, research and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, L. R.

    1986-07-01

    This report describes design and implementation of several computerized control systems. These implementations include: an ultrasonic weld tester, an automated vacuum oven, a differential pressure gaging system, a die casting control system, a lathe crash prevention and monitoring system, an electric eddy current weld scanner, a bar code scanner, a gage controller, and thermocouple tester.

  13. Digital flight control actuation system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossing, R.; Hupp, R.

    1974-01-01

    Flight control actuators and feedback sensors suitable for use in a redundant digital flight control system were examined. The most appropriate design approach for an advanced digital flight control actuation system for development and use in a fly-by-wire system was selected. The concept which was selected consisted of a PM torque motor direct drive. The selected system is compatible with concurrent and independent development efforts on the computer system and the control law mechanizations.

  14. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems and Power Systems ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Environmental Control and Life Support Systems and Power Systems - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  15. Active thermal control system evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petete, Patricia A.; Ames, Brian E.

    1991-01-01

    The 'restructured' baseline of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) has eliminated many of the growth options for the Active Thermal Control System (ATCS). Modular addition of baseline technology to increase heat rejection will be extremely difficult. The system design and the available real estate no longer accommodate this type of growth. As the station matures during its thirty years of operation, a demand of up to 165 kW of heat rejection can be expected. The baseline configuration will be able to provide 82.5 kW at Eight Manned Crew Capability (EMCC). The growth paths necessary to reach 165 kW have been identified. Doubling the heat rejection capability of SSF will require either the modification of existing radiator wings or the attachment of growth structure to the baseline truss for growth radiator wing placement. Radiator performance can be improved by enlarging the surface area or by boosting the operating temperature with a heat pump. The optimal solution will require both modifications. The addition of growth structure would permit the addition of a parallel ATCS using baseline technology. This growth system would simplify integration. The feasibility of incorporating these growth options to improve the heat rejection capacity of SSF is under evaluation.

  16. Evolving Systems and Adaptive Key Component Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Susan A.; Balas, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new framework called Evolving Systems to describe the self-assembly, or autonomous assembly, of actively controlled dynamical subsystems into an Evolved System with a higher purpose. An introduction to Evolving Systems and exploration of the essential topics of the control and stability properties of Evolving Systems is provided. This chapter defines a framework for Evolving Systems, develops theory and control solutions for fundamental characteristics of Evolving Systems, and provides illustrative examples of Evolving Systems and their control with adaptive key component controllers.

  17. Automatic oscillator frequency control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. F. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A frequency control system makes an initial correction of the frequency of its own timing circuit after comparison against a frequency of known accuracy and then sequentially checks and corrects the frequencies of several voltage controlled local oscillator circuits. The timing circuit initiates the machine cycles of a central processing unit which applies a frequency index to an input register in a modulo-sum frequency divider stage and enables a multiplexer to clock an accumulator register in the divider stage with a cyclical signal derived from the oscillator circuit being checked. Upon expiration of the interval, the processing unit compares the remainder held as the contents of the accumulator against a stored zero error constant and applies an appropriate correction word to a correction stage to shift the frequency of the oscillator being checked. A signal from the accumulator register may be used to drive a phase plane ROM and, with periodic shifts in the applied frequency index, to provide frequency shift keying of the resultant output signal. Interposition of a phase adder between the accumulator register and phase plane ROM permits phase shift keying of the output signal by periodic variation in the value of a phase index applied to one input of the phase adder.

  18. Orbiter active thermal control system description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laubach, G. E.

    1975-01-01

    A brief description of the Orbiter Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) including (1) major functional requirements of heat load, temperature control and heat sink utilization, (2) the overall system arrangement, and (3) detailed description of the elements of the ATCS.

  19. DOWNHOLE VIBRATION MONITORING & CONTROL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Martin E. Cobern

    2004-10-29

    The objective of this program is to develop a system to both monitor the vibration of a bottomhole assembly, and to adjust the properties of an active damper in response to these measured vibrations. Phase I of this program, which entailed modeling and design of the necessary subsystems and design, manufacture and test of a full laboratory prototype, was completed on May 31, 2004. Phase II began on June 1, and the first month's effort were reported in the seventh quarterly report on the project.1 The principal objectives of Phase II are: more extensive laboratory testing, including the evaluation of different feedback algorithms for control of the damper; design and manufacture of a field prototype system; and, testing of the field prototype in drilling laboratories and test wells. The redesign and upgrade of the laboratory prototype was completed on schedule during this period, and assembly was complete at the end of this period. Testing will begin during the first week of October. This aspect of the project is thus approximately six weeks behind schedule. Design of the field prototype is progressing per schedule.

  20. DOWNHOLE VIBRATION MONITORING & CONTROL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Martin E. Cobern

    2005-01-28

    The objective of this program is to develop a system to both monitor the vibration of a bottomhole assembly, and to adjust the properties of an active damper in response to these measured vibrations. Phase I of this program, which entailed modeling and design of the necessary subsystems and design, manufacture and test of a full laboratory prototype, was completed on May 31, 2004. The principal objectives of Phase II are: more extensive laboratory testing, including the evaluation of different feedback algorithms for control of the damper; design and manufacture of a field prototype system; and, testing of the field prototype in drilling laboratories and test wells. The redesign and upgrade of the laboratory prototype was completed on schedule and it was assembled during the last period. Testing was begin during the first week of October. Initial results indicated that the dynamic range of the damping was less than predicted and that the maximum damping was also less than required. A number of possible explanations for these results were posited, and test equipment was acquired to evaluate the various hypotheses. Testing was just underway at the end of this period.

  1. NOVANET: communications network for a control system

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J.R.; Severyn, J.R.; VanArsdall, P.J.

    1983-05-23

    NOVANET is a control system oriented fiber optic local area network that was designed to meet the unique and often conflicting requirements of the Nova laser control system which will begin operation in 1984. The computers and data acquisition devices that form the distributed control system for a large laser fusion research facility need reliable, high speed communications. Both control/status messages and experimental data must be handled. A subset of NOVANET is currently operating on the two beam Novette laser system.

  2. Computer controlled thermal fatigue test system

    SciTech Connect

    Schmale, D.T.; Jones, W.B.

    1986-01-01

    A servo-controlled hydraulic mechanical test system has been configured to conduct computer-controlled thermal fatigue tests. The system uses induction heating, a digital temperature controller, infrared pyrometry, forced air cooling, and quartz rod extensometry. In addition, a digital computer controls the tests and allows precise data analysis and interpretation.

  3. Computer-Controlled, Motorized Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vargas-Aburto, Carlos; Liff, Dale R.

    1994-01-01

    Computer-controlled, motorized positioning system developed for use in robotic manipulation of samples in custom-built secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) system. Positions sample repeatably and accurately, even during analysis in three linear orthogonal coordinates and one angular coordinate under manual local control, or microprocessor-based local control or remote control by computer via general-purpose interface bus (GPIB).

  4. The adaptive control system of acetylene generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovaliuk, D. O.; Kovaliuk, Oleg; Burlibay, Aron; Gromaszek, Konrad

    2015-12-01

    The method of acetylene production in acetylene generator was analyzed. It was found that impossible to provide the desired process characteristics by the PID-controller. The adaptive control system of acetylene generator was developed. The proposed system combines the classic controller and fuzzy subsystem for controller parameters tuning.

  5. 50 CFR 600.420 - Control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Control system. 600.420 Section 600.420..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Confidentiality of Statistics § 600.420 Control system. (a) The Assistant Administrator maintains a control system to protect the identity of submitters...

  6. 14 CFR 29.395 - Control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Control system. 29.395 Section 29.395 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Control Surface and System Loads § 29.395 Control system. (a) The reaction to...

  7. 50 CFR 600.420 - Control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Control system. 600.420 Section 600.420..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Confidentiality of Statistics § 600.420 Control system. (a) The Assistant Administrator maintains a control system to protect the identity of submitters...

  8. A CAMAC based knob controller for the LAMPF control system

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.; Bjorklund, E.

    1987-01-01

    The control computer for the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) has been recently upgraded from an SEL-840 to a VAX 11/780 running the VMS operating system. As part of this upgrade, a CAMAC-based knob controller was developed for the new control system. The knobs allow the facility operators to have slew control over software selectable accelerator devices. An alphanumeric display associated with each knob monitors the progress of the selected device. This paper describes the system requirements for the new LAMPF knob controller, and the resulting hardware and software design.

  9. Correlation between total vitamin D levels and psychotic psychopathology in patients with schizophrenia: therapeutic implications for add-on vitamin D augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Altunsoy, Neslihan; Tikir, Baise; Cingi Külük, Merve; Unal, Kubranur; Goka, Sema; Aydemir, Cigdem; Goka, Erol

    2014-01-01

    episode, significantly different from those in remission. Is vitamin D deficiency the result or the cause of an acute episode? Our results contribute to the idea that vitamin D deficiency and schizophrenia may have interactions with an unknown pathway. Present data points out a possible influence at a genomic level. Future trials may investigate this association with longer follow up. We recommend that, serum vitamin D levels should be measured in patients with schizophrenia especially in long term care. Appropriate further treatment with add-on vitamin D supplements and diets that are rich in vitamin D should be considered. PMID:25489478

  10. Control system structure design for object positioning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurgankin, V.; Zamyatin, V.; Zamyatin, S.

    2016-04-01

    Object positioning system is intended for load transposition. Its main feature is the control method which is based on operator muscle force. One of the most important object position system development problems is a control system design. The article presents the first step of this problem solution that consists of control system structure design.

  11. Optimization for efficient structure-control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oz, Hayrani; Khot, Narendra S.

    1993-01-01

    The efficiency of a structure-control system is a nondimensional parameter which indicates the fraction of the total control power expended usefully in controlling a finite-dimensional system. The balance of control power is wasted on the truncated dynamics serving no useful purpose towards the control objectives. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the concept of efficiency can be used to address a number of control issues encountered in the control of dynamic systems such as the spillover effects, selection of a good input configuration and obtaining reduced order control models. Reference (1) introduced the concept and presented analyses of several Linear Quadratic Regulator designs on the basis of their efficiencies. Encouraged by the results of Ref. (1), Ref. (2) introduces an efficiency modal analysis of a structure-control system which gives an internal characterization of the controller design and establishes the link between the control design and the initial disturbances to affect efficient structure-control system designs. The efficiency modal analysis leads to identification of principal controller directions (or controller modes) distinct from the structural natural modes. Thus ultimately, many issues of the structure-control system revolve around the idea of insuring compatibility of the structural modes and the controller modes with each other, the better the match the higher the efficiency. A key feature in controlling a reduced order model of a high dimensional (or infinity-dimensional distributed parameter system) structural dynamic system must be to achieve high efficiency of the control system while satisfying the control objectives and/or constraints. Formally, this can be achieved by designing the control system and structural parameters simultaneously within an optimization framework. The subject of this paper is to present such a design procedure.

  12. A two wheeled robot control system

    SciTech Connect

    Boskovich, S.M.

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this project was to design, build and test a control system that controls two motors for a two wheeled robot. By implementing the control system, the robot will maintain a straight path under normal conditions. Without such a control system, the robot`s path would deviate from the specified direction. To implement the control system for the robot a two wheeled platform was built. Each wheel was interfaced to a microcontroller where the microcontroller performed a controlling routine stored in software. By implementing this design, the robot is able to correct for deviations.

  13. Fuzzy logic control and optimization system

    DOEpatents

    Lou, Xinsheng

    2012-04-17

    A control system (300) for optimizing a power plant includes a chemical loop having an input for receiving an input signal (369) and an output for outputting an output signal (367), and a hierarchical fuzzy control system (400) operably connected to the chemical loop. The hierarchical fuzzy control system (400) includes a plurality of fuzzy controllers (330). The hierarchical fuzzy control system (400) receives the output signal (367), optimizes the input signal (369) based on the received output signal (367), and outputs an optimized input signal (369) to the input of the chemical loop to control a process of the chemical loop in an optimized manner.

  14. Design and Fabrication of the Control Part of a Prototype Multileaf Collimator System

    PubMed Central

    Hashemian, Abdolreza; Toossi, Mohammad Taghi Bahreyni; Nasseri, Shahrokh

    2014-01-01

    Multileaf collimator (MLC) is among the radiation field shaping systems used for conformal radiotherapy and intensity modulation radiation therapy techniques. The MLC system that has been designed and fabricated in this study includes 52 leaves, 52 stepper motors, 2 DC motors, 16 programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and one human machine interface (HMI). This system can be mounted on conventional linear accelerators (linac) as an add-on accessory. The 52 leaves are mounted on two carriages that are moved independently. The leaves sequence acquired from the image processing of computed tomography images is used to arrange leaves. This sequence is saved in a text file. The leaves are arranged by HMI and labVIEW. Using HMI it is possible to test the operation of PLCs and manually enter the numerical values of the leaves edges. An executable file is developed by labVIEW program, which is graphically user interfaced between the operator and the MLC control system. The projected width of each leaf on the isocenter accelerator (usually at 100 cm from the source) is 10 mm. The positioning accuracy of each leaf is approximately 1.4 mm. PMID:25426434

  15. Design and fabrication of the control part of a prototype multileaf collimator system.

    PubMed

    Hashemian, Abdolreza; Toossi, Mohammad Taghi Bahreyni; Nasseri, Shahrokh

    2014-10-01

    Multileaf collimator (MLC) is among the radiation field shaping systems used for conformal radiotherapy and intensity modulation radiation therapy techniques. The MLC system that has been designed and fabricated in this study includes 52 leaves, 52 stepper motors, 2 DC motors, 16 programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and one human machine interface (HMI). This system can be mounted on conventional linear accelerators (linac) as an add-on accessory. The 52 leaves are mounted on two carriages that are moved independently. The leaves sequence acquired from the image processing of computed tomography images is used to arrange leaves. This sequence is saved in a text file. The leaves are arranged by HMI and labVIEW. Using HMI it is possible to test the operation of PLCs and manually enter the numerical values of the leaves edges. An executable file is developed by labVIEW program, which is graphically user interfaced between the operator and the MLC control system. The projected width of each leaf on the isocenter accelerator (usually at 100 cm from the source) is 10 mm. The positioning accuracy of each leaf is approximately 1.4 mm. PMID:25426434

  16. Spacecraft attitude control using a smart control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, Brian; Wheatcraft, Louis

    1992-01-01

    Traditionally, spacecraft attitude control has been implemented using control loops written in native code for a space hardened processor. The Naval Research Lab has taken this approach during the development of the Attitude Control Electronics (ACE) package. After the system was developed and delivered, NRL decided to explore alternate technologies to accomplish this same task more efficiently. The approach taken by NRL was to implement the ACE control loops using systems technologies. The purpose of this effort was to: (1) research capabilities required of an expert system in processing a classic closed-loop control algorithm; (2) research the development environment required to design and test an embedded expert systems environment; (3) research the complexity of design and development of expert systems versus a conventional approach; and (4) test the resulting systems against the flight acceptance test software for both response and accuracy. Two expert systems were selected to implement the control loops. Criteria used for the selection of the expert systems included that they had to run in both embedded systems and ground based environments. Using two different expert systems allowed a comparison of the real-time capabilities, inferencing capabilities, and the ground-based development environment. The two expert systems chosen for the evaluation were Spacecraft Command Language (SCL), and NEXTPERT Object. SCL is a smart control system produced for the NRL by Interface and Control Systems (ICS). SCL was developed to be used for real-time command, control, and monitoring of a new generation of spacecraft. NEXPERT Object is a commercially available product developed by Neuron Data. Results of the effort were evaluated using the ACE test bed. The ACE test bed had been developed and used to test the original flight hardware and software using simulators and flight-like interfaces. The test bed was used for testing the expert systems in a 'near-flight' environment

  17. DOWNHOLE VIBRATION MONITORING & CONTROL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Martin E. Cobern

    2005-04-27

    The objective of this program is to develop a system to both monitor the vibration of a bottomhole assembly, and to adjust the properties of an active damper in response to these measured vibrations. Phase I of this program, which entailed modeling and design of the necessary subsystems and design, manufacture and test of a full laboratory prototype, was completed on May 31, 2004. The principal objectives of Phase II are: more extensive laboratory testing, including the evaluation of different feedback algorithms for control of the damper; design and manufacture of a field prototype system; and, testing of the field prototype in drilling laboratories and test wells. As a result of the lower than expected performance of the MR damper noted last quarter, several additional tests were conducted. These dealt with possible causes of the lack of dynamic range observed in the testing: additional damping from the oil in the Belleville springs; changes in properties of the MR fluid; and, residual magnetization of the valve components. Of these, only the last was found to be significant. By using a laboratory demagnetization apparatus between runs, a dynamic range of 10:1 was achieved for the damper, more than adequate to produce the needed improvements in drilling. Additional modeling was also performed to identify a method of increasing the magnetic field in the damper. As a result of the above, several changes were made in the design. Additional circuitry was added to demagnetize the valve as the field is lowered. The valve was located to above the Belleville springs to reduce the load placed upon it and offer a greater range of materials for its construction. In addition, to further increase the field strength, the coils were relocated from the mandrel to the outer housing. At the end of the quarter, the redesign was complete and new parts were on order. The project is approximately three months behind schedule at this time.

  18. Comprehensive Control of Networked Control Systems with Multistep Delay

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    In networked control systems with multi-step delay, long time-delay causes vacant sampling and controller design difficulty. In order to solve the above problems, comprehensive control methods are proposed in this paper. Time-delay compensation control and linear-quadratic-Guassian (LQG) optimal control are adopted and the systems switch different controllers between two different states. LQG optimal controller is used with probability 1 − α in normal state, which is shown to render the systems mean square exponentially stable. Time-delay compensation controller is used with probability α in abnormal state to compensate vacant sampling and long time-delay. In addition, a buffer window is established at the actuator of the systems to store some history control inputs which are used to estimate the control state of present sampling period under the vacant sampling cases. The comprehensive control methods simplify control design which is easier to be implemented in engineering. The performance of the systems is also improved. Simulation results verify the validity of the proposed theory. PMID:25101322

  19. Avionics GPB Control System Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Gravity Probe B is a Satellite being developed by Lockheed Martin under NASA contract through MSFC and managed by Stanford University. The goal of the satellite experiment is to test the accuracy of drift predictions made using Einstein s General Theory of Relativity. The drift in the direction of the spin axes of 4 highly precise quartz spherical gyroscopes induced by motion in the earth s gravitational field will be measured over a year s duration with the known, non-relativistic effects removed. The expected angles of drift for a one year period are approximately 6.6 arcsec for drift in the orbit plane called geodetic drift and 0.033 arcsec of drift normal to the orbit plane called frame dragging. The aerodynamic drag force on the GPB Satellite is compensated by a translation control system. It is pointed at a guide star and maintained in spin at a rate to be selected in the range 0.1 - 1 rpm. The purpose of our task is to update the TREETOPS GPB spacecraft simulation and to assist MSFC in assessing the affect of Helium slosh dynamics on spacecraft pointing performance.

  20. The cryogenic control system of BEPCII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gang; Wang, Ke-Xiang; Zhao, Ji-Jiu; Yue, Ke-Juan; Dai, Ming-Hui; Huang, Yi-Ling; Jiang, Bo

    2008-04-01

    A superconducting cryogenic system has been designed and deployed in the Beijing Electron- Positron Collider Upgrade Project (BEPCII). The system consists of a Siemens PLC (S7-PLC, Programmable Logic Controller) for the compressor control, an Allen Bradley (AB) PLC for the cryogenic equipments, and the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) that integrates the PLCs. The system fully automates the superconducting cryogenic control with process control, PID (Proportional-Integral-Differential) control loops, real-time data access and data storage, alarm handler and human machine interface. It is capable of automatic recovery as well. This paper describes the BEPCII cryogenic control system, data communication between S7-PLC and EPICS Input/Output Controllers (IOCs), and the integration of the flow control, the low level interlock, the AB-PLC, and EPICS.

  1. Identification and Control of Mechanical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juang, Jer-Nan; Phan, Minh Q.

    2001-08-01

    The control of vibrating systems is a significant issue in the design of aircraft, spacecraft, bridges, and high-rise buildings. This book discusses the control of vibrating systems, integrating structural dynamics, vibration analysis, modern control, and system identification. By integrating these subjects engineers will need only one book, rather than several texts or courses, to solve vibration control problems. The authors cover key developments in aerospace control and identification theory, including virtual passive control, observer and state-space identification, and data-based controller synthesis. They address many practical issues and applications, and show examples of how various methods are applied to real systems. Some methods show the close integration of system identification and control theory from the state-space perspective, rather than from the traditional input-output model perspective of adaptive control. This text will be useful for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students in aerospace, mechanical, and civil engineering, as well as for practicing engineers.

  2. REACTOR CONTROL ROD OPERATING SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Miller, G.

    1961-12-12

    A nuclear reactor control rod mechanism is designed which mechanically moves the control rods into and out of the core under normal conditions but rapidly forces the control rods into the core by catapultic action in the event of an emergency. (AEC)

  3. An expert system for restructurable control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan

    1988-01-01

    Work in progress on an expert system which restructures and tunes control systems on-line is presented. The expert system coordinates the different methods for redesigning and implementing the control strategies due to system changes. The research is directed toward aircraft and jet engine applications. The implementation is written in LISP and is currently running on a special purpose LISP machine.

  4. SAFETY SYSTEM FOR CONTROL ROD

    DOEpatents

    Paget, J.A.

    1963-05-14

    A structure for monitoring the structural continuity of a control rod foi a neutron reactor is presented. A electric conductor readily breakable under mechanical stress is fastened along the length of the control rod at a plurality of positions and forms a closed circuit with remote electrical components responsive to an open circuit. A portion of the conductor between the control rod and said components is helically wound to allow free and normally unrestricted movement of the segment of conductor secured to the control rod relative to the remote components. Any break in the circuit is indicative of control rod breakage. (AEC)

  5. Terminal Sliding Modes In Nonlinear Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkataraman, Subramanian T.; Gulati, Sandeep

    1993-01-01

    Control systems of proposed type called "terminal controllers" offers increased precision and stability of robotic operations in presence of unknown and/or changing parameters. Systems include special computer hardware and software implementing novel control laws involving terminal sliding modes of motion: closed-loop combination of robot and terminal controller converge, in finite time, to point of stable equilibrium in abstract space of velocity and/or position coordinates applicable to particular control problem.

  6. Long life reliability thermal control systems study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scollon, T. R., Jr.; Killen, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    The results of a program undertaken to conceptually design and evaluate a passive, high reliability, long life thermal control system for space station application are presented. The program consisted of four steps: (1) investigate and select potential thermal system elements; (2) conceive, evaluate and select a thermal control system using these elements; (3) conduct a verification test of a prototype segment of the selected system; and (4) evaluate the utilization of waste heat from the power supply. The result of this project is a conceptual thermal control system design which employs heat pipes as primary components, both for heat transport and temperature control. The system, its evaluation, and the test results are described.

  7. Completion of the ATLAS control system upgrade.

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, F. H.

    1998-11-30

    In the fall of 1992 at the SNEAP(Symposium of North Eastern Accelerator Personnel) a project to up grade the ATLAS (Argonne Tandem Linear Accelerator System) control system was first reported. Not unlike the accelerator it services the control system will continue to evolve. However, the first of this year has marked the completion of this most recent upgrade project. Since the control system upgrade took place during a period when ATLAS was operating at a record number of hours, special techniques were necessary to enable the development of the new control system ''on line'' while still saving the needs of normal operations. This paper reviews the techniques used for upgrading the ATLAS control system while the system was in use. In addition a summary of the upgrade project and final configuration, as well as some of the features of the new control system is provided.

  8. Common Badging and Access Control System (CBACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dischinger, Portia

    2005-01-01

    This slide presentation presents NASA's Common Badging and Access Control System. NASA began a Smart Card implementation in January 2004. Following site surveys, it was determined that NASA's badging and access control systems required upgrades to common infrastructure in order to provide flexibly, usability, and return on investment prior to a smart card implantation. Common Badging and Access Control System (CBACS) provides the common infrastructure from which FIPS-201 compliant processes, systems, and credentials can be developed and used.

  9. Global controllability of certain Lagrangian systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiumov, O. R.

    1986-12-01

    A class of oscillatory mechanical systems is considered which includes such systems as articulated pendulums, overhead cranes, and industrial manipulators. Sufficient conditions for the controllability of such systems in phase space are proposed for the case where the number of control parameters is less than that of the degrees of freedom. The approach proposed here makes it possible to synthesize concentrated controls for similar systems with distributed parameters in the finite-dimensional approximation.

  10. Tethered satellite system dynamics and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musetti, B.; Cibrario, B.; Bussolino, L.; Bodley, C. S.; Flanders, H. A.; Mowery, D. K.; Tomlin, D. D.

    1990-01-01

    The first tethered satellite system, scheduled for launch in May 1991, is reviewed. The system dynamics, dynamics control, and dynamics simulations are discussed. Particular attention is given to in-plane and out-of-plane librations; tether oscillation modes; orbiter and sub-satellite dynamics; deployer control system; the sub-satellite attitude measurement and control system; the Aeritalia Dynamics Model; the Martin-Marietta and NASA-MSFC Dynamics Model; and simulation results.

  11. Refurbishment program of HANARO control computer system

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, H. K.; Choe, Y. S.; Lee, M. W.; Doo, S. K.; Jung, H. S.

    2012-07-01

    HANARO, an open-tank-in-pool type research reactor with 30 MW thermal power, achieved its first criticality in 1995. The programmable controller system MLC (Multi Loop Controller) manufactured by MOORE has been used to control and regulate HANARO since 1995. We made a plan to replace the control computer because the system supplier no longer provided technical support and thus no spare parts were available. Aged and obsolete equipment and the shortage of spare parts supply could have caused great problems. The first consideration for a replacement of the control computer dates back to 2007. The supplier did not produce the components of MLC so that this system would no longer be guaranteed. We established the upgrade and refurbishment program in 2009 so as to keep HANARO up to date in terms of safety. We designed the new control computer system that would replace MLC. The new computer system is HCCS (HANARO Control Computer System). The refurbishing activity is in progress and will finish in 2013. The goal of the refurbishment program is a functional replacement of the reactor control system in consideration of suitable interfaces, compliance with no special outage for installation and commissioning, and no change of the well-proved operation philosophy. HCCS is a DCS (Discrete Control System) using PLC manufactured by RTP. To enhance the reliability, we adapt a triple processor system, double I/O system and hot swapping function. This paper describes the refurbishment program of the HANARO control system including the design requirements of HCCS. (authors)

  12. Robust tuning of robot control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minis, I.; Uebel, M.

    1992-01-01

    The computed torque control problem is examined for a robot arm with flexible, geared, joint drive systems which are typical in many industrial robots. The standard computed torque algorithm is not directly applicable to this class of manipulators because of the dynamics introduced by the joint drive system. The proposed approach to computed torque control combines a computed torque algorithm with torque controller at each joint. Three such control schemes are proposed. The first scheme uses the joint torque control system currently implemented on the robot arm and a novel form of the computed torque algorithm. The other two use the standard computed torque algorithm and a novel model following torque control system based on model following techniques. Standard tasks and performance indices are used to evaluate the performance of the controllers. Both numerical simulations and experiments are used in evaluation. The study shows that all three proposed systems lead to improved tracking performance over a conventional PD controller.

  13. Control technology for future aircraft propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeller, J. R.; Szuch, J. R.; Merrill, W. C.; Lehtinen, B.; Soeder, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    The need for a more sophisticated engine control system is discussed. The improvements in better thrust-to-weight ratios demand the manipulation of more control inputs. New technological solutions to the engine control problem are practiced. The digital electronic engine control (DEEC) system is a step in the evolution to digital electronic engine control. Technology issues are addressed to ensure a growth in confidence in sophisticated electronic controls for aircraft turbine engines. The need of a control system architecture which permits propulsion controls to be functionally integrated with other aircraft systems is established. Areas of technology studied include: (1) control design methodology; (2) improved modeling and simulation methods; and (3) implementation technologies. Objectives, results and future thrusts are summarized.

  14. THE SNS RESONANCE CONTROL COOLING SYSTEM CONTROL VALVE UPGRADE PERFORMANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Derrick C; Schubert, James Phillip; Tang, Johnny Y

    2008-01-01

    The normal-conducting linac of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) uses 10 separate Resonance Control Cooling System (RCCS) water skids to control the resonance of 6 Drift Tube Linac (DTL) and 4 Coupled Cavity Linac (CCL) accelerating structures. The RCCS water skids use 2 control valves; one to regulate the chilled water flow and the other to bypass water to a chilled water heat exchanger. These valves have hydraulic actuators that provide position and feedback to the control system. Frequency oscillations occur using these hydraulic actuators due to their coarse movement and control of the valves. New pneumatic actuator and control positioners have been installed on the DTL3 RCCS water skid to give finer control and regulation of DTL3 cavity temperature. This paper shows a comparison of resonance control performance for the two valve configurations.

  15. Upgrade of the linac control system

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, F.; Tieman, B.; Kramer, S.

    1995-08-01

    The new ATLAS control system, based on the commercial product {open_quotes}VISTA{close_quotes}, continues to be developed and to absorb more of the facility control work load. Cryogenic temperature is now monitored by the new system and the old temperature monitoring system was retired. Resonator and solenoid control can now be handled by the new system. With this step, all components of the accelerator can now be operated from the new system. Many of the {open_quotes}high-level{close_quotes} programs remain to be ported to the new system, but we believe that all features available from the old system will be available on the new system by October 1995. The enhanced features of the new system, distributed control, and user-friendly interfaces make the new system the one of choice. So as new capabilities are made available, they are quickly adopted as the system-of-choice by the operators.

  16. Seasat-A attitude control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, R.; Rodden, J. J.; Hendricks, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    The Seasat-A attitude control system controls the attitude of the satellite system during injection into final circular orbit after Atlas boost, during orbit adjust and trim phases, and throughout the 3-year mission. Ascent and injection guidance and attitude control are provided by the Agena spacecraft with a gyrocompassed mass expulsion system. On-orbit attitude control functions are performed by a system that has its functional roots in the gravity-gradient momentum bias technology. The paper discusses hardware, control laws, and simulation results.

  17. Modular design attitude control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chichester, F. D.

    1982-01-01

    A hybrid multilevel linear quadratic regulator (ML-LQR) approach was developed and applied to the attitude control of models of the rotational dynamics of a prototype flexible spacecraft and of a typical space platform. Three axis rigid body flexible suspension models were developed for both the spacecraft and the space platform utilizing augmented body methods. Models of the spacecraft with hybrid ML-LQR attitude control and with LQR attitude control were simulated and their response with the two different types of control were compared.

  18. An intelligent control system for failure detection and controller reconfiguration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biswas, Saroj K.

    1994-01-01

    We present an architecture of an intelligent restructurable control system to automatically detect failure of system components, assess its impact on system performance and safety, and reconfigure the controller for performance recovery. Fault detection is based on neural network associative memories and pattern classifiers, and is implemented using a multilayer feedforward network. Details of the fault detection network along with simulation results on health monitoring of a dc motor have been presented. Conceptual developments for fault assessment using an expert system and controller reconfiguration using a neural network are outlined.

  19. SPS flexible system control assessment analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balas, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    Active control of the Satellite Power System (SPS0, a large mechanically flexible aerospace structure is addressed. The control algorithm is the principle component in the feedback link from sensors to actuators. An analysis of the interaction of the SPS structure and its active control system is presented.

  20. Control system for glassing hot presses

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, J.F.

    1984-06-13

    A software programmable control system has been developed that automates the glass fusing process used in the production of semiconductor thermopile elements. The new control system replaces an older, mostly manual, electromechanical design. This report describes the new control design and its functional features.