Science.gov

Sample records for add-on emission controls

  1. 40 CFR 75.34 - Units with add-on emission controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... assurance/quality control program for the unit, required by section 1 in appendix B of this part. To provide... parametric data to verify the proper operation of the SO2 or NOX add-on emission controls during each hour, as described in paragraph (d) of this section. For any missing data hour(s) in which such...

  2. 40 CFR 75.34 - Units with add-on emission controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... assurance/quality control program for the unit, required by section 1 in appendix B of this part. To provide... parametric data to verify the proper operation of the SO2 or NOX add-on emission controls during each hour, as described in paragraph (d) of this section. For any missing data hour(s) in which such...

  3. 40 CFR 75.34 - Units with add-on emission controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... assurance/quality control program for the unit, required by section 1 in appendix B of this part. To provide... parametric data to verify the proper operation of the SO2 or NOX add-on emission controls during each hour, as described in paragraph (d) of this section. For any missing data hour(s) in which such...

  4. 40 CFR 75.34 - Units with add-on emission controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... assurance/quality control program for the unit, required by section 1 in appendix B of this part. To provide... parametric data to verify the proper operation of the SO2 or NOX add-on emission controls during each hour, as described in paragraph (d) of this section. For any missing data hour(s) in which such...

  5. 40 CFR 63.3546 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... capture system and add-on control device operating limits during the performance test? 63.3546 Section 63... the Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.3546 How do I establish the emission capture system... the emission stream for leakage. (d) Carbon adsorbers. If your add-on control device is a...

  6. 40 CFR 63.4767 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true How do I establish the emission capture... Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4767 How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on...) Carbon adsorbers. If your add-on control device is a carbon adsorber, establish the operating...

  7. 40 CFR 63.3967 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... capture system and add-on control device operating limits during the performance test? 63.3967 Section 63... establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during the performance test... catalytic oxidizer. (c) Regenerative carbon adsorbers. If your add-on control device is a...

  8. 40 CFR 63.4567 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... capture system and add-on control device operating limits during the performance test? 63.4567 Section 63... emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during the performance test? During the... operating limits for that catalytic oxidizer. (c) Regenerative carbon adsorbers. If your add-on...

  9. 40 CFR 63.3546 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How do I establish the emission capture... Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.3546 How do I establish the emission capture system and add... the emission stream for leakage. (d) Carbon adsorbers. If your add-on control device is a...

  10. 40 CFR 63.4767 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How do I establish the emission capture... for the Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4767 How do I establish the emission capture...) Carbon adsorbers. If your add-on control device is a carbon adsorber, establish the operating...

  11. 40 CFR 63.3556 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... capture system and add-on control device operating limits during the performance test? 63.3556 Section 63... the Control Efficiency/outlet Concentration Option § 63.3556 How do I establish the emission capture... the emission stream for leakage. (d) Carbon adsorbers. If your add-on control device is a...

  12. 40 CFR 63.4567 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true How do I establish the emission capture... Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4567 How do I establish the emission capture system and add... operating limits for that catalytic oxidizer. (c) Regenerative carbon adsorbers. If your add-on...

  13. 40 CFR 63.4167 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true How do I establish the emission capture... with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4167 How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control... test to determine destruction efficiency according to § 63.4166. (c) Carbon adsorbers. If your...

  14. 40 CFR 63.3967 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How do I establish the emission capture... emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during the performance test? During the... catalytic oxidizer. (c) Regenerative carbon adsorbers. If your add-on control device is a...

  15. 40 CFR 63.4966 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... provisions for the use of an alternative monitoring method as set forth in 40 CFR 63.8(f). ... capture system and add-on control device operating limits during the performance test? 63.4966 Section 63... for the Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4966 How do I establish the emission...

  16. 40 CFR 75.34 - Units with add-on emission controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the necessary documentation, the owner or operator shall, for each missing data period, record... ozone season, the procedures of § 75.33 may be applied unconditionally, i.e., documentation of the operational status of the emission controls is not required in order to apply the standard missing...

  17. 40 CFR 63.4966 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provisions for the use of an alternative monitoring method as set forth in 40 CFR 63.8(f). ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true How do I establish the emission capture... with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4966 How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on...

  18. 40 CFR 63.3967 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true How do I establish the emission capture... capture system and add-on control device operating limits during the performance test? During the... catalytic oxidizer. (c) Regenerative carbon adsorbers. If your add-on control device is a...

  19. 40 CFR 63.4567 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How do I establish the emission capture... capture system and add-on control device operating limits during the performance test? During the... operating limits for that catalytic oxidizer. (c) Regenerative carbon adsorbers. If your add-on...

  20. 40 CFR 63.9323 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I determine the add-on control... the add-on control device simultaneously, using either Method 25 or 25A of appendix A to 40 CFR part... than 50 parts per million at the control device outlet. (2) Use Method 25A of appendix A to 40 CFR...

  1. 40 CFR 63.9323 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the add-on control device simultaneously, using either Method 25 or 25A of appendix A to 40 CFR part... both the inlet and outlet measurements. (1) Use Method 25 of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60 if the add-on.... (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select sampling sites...

  2. 40 CFR 63.9323 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the add-on control device simultaneously, using either Method 25 or 25A of appendix A to 40 CFR part... both the inlet and outlet measurements. (1) Use Method 25 of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60 if the add-on.... (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select sampling sites...

  3. 40 CFR 63.9323 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the add-on control device simultaneously, using either Method 25 or 25A of appendix A to 40 CFR part... both the inlet and outlet measurements. (1) Use Method 25 of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60 if the add-on.... (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select sampling sites...

  4. 40 CFR 63.3556 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How do I establish the emission capture... Control Efficiency/outlet Concentration Option § 63.3556 How do I establish the emission capture system... the emission stream for leakage. (d) Carbon adsorbers. If your add-on control device is a...

  5. 40 CFR 63.4966 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... provisions for the use of an alternative monitoring method as set forth in 40 CFR 63.8(f). ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How do I establish the emission capture... Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4966 How do I establish the emission capture system and...

  6. 40 CFR 63.4167 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How do I establish the emission capture... Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4167 How do I establish the emission capture system and add... test to determine destruction efficiency according to § 63.4166. (c) Carbon adsorbers. If your...

  7. 40 CFR 63.4566 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... appendix A to 40 CFR part 60. (1) Use Method 25 if the add-on control device is an oxidizer and you expect... paragraphs (a)(1) through (5) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as... appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A,...

  8. 40 CFR 63.4566 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... appendix A to 40 CFR part 60. (1) Use Method 25 if the add-on control device is an oxidizer and you expect... paragraphs (a)(1) through (5) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as... appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A,...

  9. 40 CFR 63.4566 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... outlet of the add-on control device simultaneously, using either Method 25 or 25A of appendix A to 40 CFR...) through (5) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to... to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or...

  10. 40 CFR 63.4566 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... appendix A to 40 CFR part 60. (1) Use Method 25 if the add-on control device is an oxidizer and you expect... paragraphs (a)(1) through (5) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as... appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A,...

  11. 40 CFR 63.4767 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... capture system and add-on control device operating limits during the performance test? 63.4767 Section 63... capture system and add-on control device operating limits during the performance test? During the... efficiency according to § 63.4766. (c) Carbon adsorbers. If your add-on control device is a carbon...

  12. 40 CFR 63.4167 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... capture system and add-on control device operating limits during the performance test? 63.4167 Section 63... capture system and add-on control device operating limits during the performance test? During the... conduct a new performance test to determine destruction efficiency according to § 63.4166. (c)...

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION: ADD-ON NOX CONTROLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the environmental technology verification (ETV) of add-on nitrogen oxide (NOx) controls. Research Triangle Institute (RTI) is EPA's cooperating partner for the Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) Program, one of a dozen ETV pilot programs. Verification of ...

  14. Randomized Controlled Trials of Add-On Antidepressants in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Joffe, Grigori; Stenberg, Jan-Henry

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite adequate treatment with antipsychotics, a substantial number of patients with schizophrenia demonstrate only suboptimal clinical outcome. To overcome this challenge, various psychopharmacological combination strategies have been used, including antidepressants added to antipsychotics. Methods: To analyze the efficacy of add-on antidepressants for the treatment of negative, positive, cognitive, depressive, and antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal symptoms in schizophrenia, published randomized controlled trials assessing the efficacy of adjunctive antidepressants in schizophrenia were reviewed using the following parameters: baseline clinical characteristics and number of patients, their on-going antipsychotic treatment, dosage of the add-on antidepressants, duration of the trial, efficacy measures, and outcomes. Results: There were 36 randomized controlled trials reported in 41 journal publications (n=1582). The antidepressants used were the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, duloxetine, imipramine, mianserin, mirtazapine, nefazodone, reboxetin, trazodone, and bupropion. Mirtazapine and mianserin showed somewhat consistent efficacy for negative symptoms and both seemed to enhance neurocognition. Trazodone and nefazodone appeared to improve the antipsychotics-induced extrapyramidal symptoms. Imipramine and duloxetine tended to improve depressive symptoms. No clear evidence supporting selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors’ efficacy on any clinical domain of schizophrenia was found. Add-on antidepressants did not worsen psychosis. Conclusions: Despite a substantial number of randomized controlled trials, the overall efficacy of add-on antidepressants in schizophrenia remains uncertain mainly due to methodological issues. Some differences in efficacy on several schizophrenia domains seem, however, to exist and to vary by the antidepressant subgroups—plausibly due to differences in the mechanisms of action. Antidepressants may not worsen

  15. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Mmmm of... - Operating Limits if Using the Emission Rate With Add-On Controls Option

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must not... appendix M to 40 CFR part 51 i. See items 6.a.i and 6.a.ii. 7. Emission capture system that is not a PTE...); and i. Measuring the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for...

  16. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Pppp of... - Operating Limits if Using the Emission Rate With Add-On Controls Option

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must not... Method 204 of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51. i. See items 6.a.i and 6.a.ii. 7. Emission capture system...); and i. Measuring the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for...

  17. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Mmmm of... - Operating Limits if Using the Emission Rate With Add-On Controls Option

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must not... appendix M to 40 CFR part 51 i. See items 6.a.i and 6.a.ii. 7. Emission capture system that is not a PTE...); and i. Measuring the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for...

  18. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Pppp of... - Operating Limits if Using the Emission Rate With Add-On Controls Option

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must not... Method 204 of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51. i. See items 6.a.i and 6.a.ii. 7. Emission capture system...); and i. Measuring the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for...

  19. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Pppp of... - Operating Limits if Using the Emission Rate With Add-On Controls Option

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must not... Method 204 of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51. i. See items 6.a.i and 6.a.ii. 7. Emission capture system...); and i. Measuring the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for...

  20. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Pppp of... - Operating Limits if Using the Emission Rate With Add-On Controls Option

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must not... Method 204 of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51. i. See items 6.a.i and 6.a.ii. 7. Emission capture system...); and i. Measuring the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for...

  1. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Pppp of... - Operating Limits if Using the Emission Rate With Add-On Controls Option

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Method 204 of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51. i. See items 6.a.i and 6.a.ii. 7. Emission capture system... practicable consistent with the manufacturer's recommendations. 3. Regenerative carbon adsorber a. The total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must...

  2. 40 CFR 63.3174 - What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... system or add-on control device which is not taken into account when demonstrating compliance with the... system or add-on control device which is not taken into account when demonstrating compliance with the applicable emission limitations? You may have capture systems or add-on control devices which you choose...

  3. 40 CFR 63.3174 - What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into account when demonstrating compliance with... capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into account when demonstrating compliance with the applicable emission limitations? You may have capture systems or add-on control devices which...

  4. 40 CFR 63.3174 - What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into account when demonstrating compliance with... capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into account when demonstrating compliance with the applicable emission limitations? You may have capture systems or add-on control devices which...

  5. 40 CFR Table 1b to Subpart Dddd of... - Add-on Control Systems Compliance Options

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Add-on Control Systems Compliance Options 1B Table 1B to Subpart DDDD of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Products Pt. 63, Subpt. DDDD, Table 1B Table 1B to Subpart DDDD of Part 63—Add-on Control...

  6. 40 CFR Table 1b to Subpart Dddd of... - Add-on Control Systems Compliance Options

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Add-on Control Systems Compliance Options 1B Table 1B to Subpart DDDD of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Products Pt. 63, Subpt. DDDD, Table 1B Table 1B to Subpart DDDD of Part 63—Add-on Control...

  7. 40 CFR Table 1b to Subpart Dddd of... - Add-on Control Systems Compliance Options

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Add-on Control Systems Compliance Options 1B Table 1B to Subpart DDDD of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Products Pt. 63, Subpt. DDDD, Table 1B Table 1B to Subpart DDDD of Part 63—Add-on Control...

  8. Add-on fluvoxamine treatment for schizophrenia: an updated meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Taro; Hirota, Tomoya; Iwata, Nakao

    2013-12-01

    We performed an updated meta-analysis of fluvoxamine add-on therapy in patients with schizophrenia treated with antipsychotics based on two previous meta-analyses (Sepehry et al., in J Clin Psychiatry 68:604-610, 2007 and Singh et al., in Br J Psychiatry J Mental Sci 197:174-179, 2010). We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library database, and PsycINFO up to January 2013. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data from randomized controlled trials comparing fluvoxamine add-on therapy with placebo. The risk ratio (RR), 95 % confidence intervals (CI), and standardized mean difference (SMD) were calculated. Seven studies (total n = 272) were identified. These included two clozapine studies, one olanzapine study, one second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) monotherapy study, and three first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) monotherapy studies. There were significant effect of fluvoxamine add-on therapy on overall (SMD = -0.46, CI = -0.75 to -0.16, p = 0.003, I (2) = 0 %, 5 studies, n = 180) and negative symptoms (SMD = -0.44, CI = -0.74 to -0.14, p = 0.004, I (2) = 0 %, 5 studies, n = 180). However, fluvoxamine add-on therapy showed no significant effects on positive symptoms, depressive symptoms, and discontinuations from any cause or adverse events. Fluvoxamine add-on therapy in patients primarily treated with SGAs improved overall (p = 0.02) but not negative symptoms (p = 0.31). On the other hand, fluvoxamine add-on therapy in patients primarily treated with FGAs improved both overall (p = 0.04) and negative symptoms (p = 0.004) compared with control groups. Our results suggest that fluvoxamine add-on therapy is more beneficial on the psychopathology (especially negative symptoms) than controls in patients with schizophrenia who are primarily treated with FGAs. Given that a small number of studies were included in this meta-analysis, the results should be treated with caution. PMID:23605347

  9. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Vvvv of... - Operating Limits if Using an Add-on Control Device for Open Molding Operations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Operating Limits if Using an Add-on Control Device for Open Molding Operations 4 Table 4 to Subpart VVVV of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE...

  10. The importance of postprandial glycemic control: optimizing add-on therapy to basal insulin.

    PubMed

    Shaefer, Charles F; Anderson, John

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes, mainly type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), is associated with a growing clinical and economic burden in the United States, which is expected to increase in association with an aging population. Sufficient glycemic control in patients with T2DM, in order to reduce the risk of micro- and macrovascular complications associated with diabetes, is mediated by lifestyle modifications and a regimen of increasingly intensive antidiabetes drugs. Several treatments and strategies are available for primary care physicians to select from when choosing the most appropriate therapy for their individual patients with T2DM, but, ultimately, due to the progressive nature of the disease, most of these patients will require insulin therapy to maintain glycemic control. Regimens containing basal and postprandial insulins are widely used, but there is still widespread reluctance to initiate insulin treatment due to fear of weight gain and hypoglycemia. Furthermore, as patients approach recommended glycated hemoglobin targets, postprandial hyperglycemia becomes the main contributor to hyperglycemic exposure, necessitating the timely initiation of prandial treatment. Finally, insulin treatment can be limited by factors like the number of injections, mealtime restrictions, complex titration algorithms and patient adherence. Recent developments in antidiabetes drug research have brought more convenient basal and postprandial regimens closer. Clinical evaluation of the efficacy and safety of basal insulins plus add-on glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) has yielded promising results. Primary care physicians are continually challenged to optimize insulin treatment strategies to maximize patient outcomes. Emerging strategies such as long-acting basal insulin analogs and short-acting GLP-1 RAs are particularly appealing to address this challenge. PMID:26548422

  11. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart IIIi of... - Operating Limits for Capture Systems and Add-On Control Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51 i. Collecting the direction of air flow, and either the facial... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Operating Limits for Capture Systems... Subpart IIII of Part 63—Operating Limits for Capture Systems and Add-On Control Devices If you...

  12. 40 CFR Table 1b to Subpart Dddd of... - Add-on Control Systems Compliance Options

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... dryer zones one and two (at new affected sources) (1) Reduce emissions of total HAP, measured as THC (as carbon) a, by 90 percent; or(2) Limit emissions of total HAP, measured as THC (as carbon) a, to 20 ppmvd... are greater than or equal to 10 ppmvd. a You may choose to subtract methane from THC as...

  13. 40 CFR Table 1b to Subpart Dddd of... - Add-on Control Systems Compliance Options

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... dryer zones one and two (at new affected sources) (1) Reduce emissions of total HAP, measured as THC (as carbon) a, by 90 percent; or(2) Limit emissions of total HAP, measured as THC (as carbon) a, to 20 ppmvd... are greater than or equal to 10 ppmvd. a You may choose to subtract methane from THC as...

  14. TEST DESIGN FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) OF ADD-ON NOX CONTROL UTILIZING OZONE INJECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the test design for environmental technology verification (ETV) of add-0n nitrogen oxides (NOx) control utilizing ozone injection. (NOTE: ETV is an EPA-established program to enhance domestic and international market acceptance of new or improved commercially...

  15. Effects of add-on montelukast on airway hyperresponsiveness in patients with well-controlled asthma – a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Kononowa, Nina; Michel, Sandra; Miedinger, David; Pichler, Christiane E.; Chhajed, Prashant N.; Helbling, Arthur; Leuppi, Jörg D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Control of airway inflammation is the cornerstone of asthma management. The aim of the present pilot study was to assess the effects of a leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA) added to a basic treatment of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and long-acting beta-agonist (LABA) on airway hyperresponsiveness, inflammation, and quality of life in well-controlled patients with asthma. Research design and methods Seventeen patients (age 18–65, 11 women) with well-controlled asthma presenting airway hyperresponsiveness to mannitol and methacholine challenge were given add-on montelukast on a stable ICS + LABA for 4 weeks. Quality of life and selected parameters of airway inflammation were measured at baseline and at study end. (ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01725360)). Results Adding montelukast to ICS + LABA resulted in an increase in mean FEV1 (+4.5%, p = 0.057), cumulated higher dose of mannitol (+32.5%, p = 0.023) and methacholine (+17.2%, 0.237) in the provocation test, lower airway reactivity with mannitol and methacholine (response dose ratio (RDR) –50.0%, p = 0.024 and –44.3%, p = 0.006, respectively), and improved airway sensitivity to mannitol and methacholine (+12.1%, p = 0.590 and +48.0%, p = 0.129 for PD15 and PD20 FEV1, respectively). Changes in inflammation parameters (blood eosinophil count, serum eosinophil cationic protein, and exhaled nitric oxide) were consistent with these findings. Asthma-related quality of life improved significantly in all domains and overall (from 5.3 at baseline to 6.1 at the final visit, p < 0.001). The main limitation was the absence of a control group. Conclusion The consistency of the changes in airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation as well as in quality of life observed with an add-on therapy with montelukast in well-controlled asthma patients during 4 weeks suggests that residual inflammation may represent an area for further improvement of asthma control to be explored in

  16. N-Acetylcysteine in the Treatment of Pediatric Trichotillomania: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Add-On Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloch, Michael H.; Panza, Kaitlyn E.; Grant, Jon E.; Pittenger, Christopher; Leckman, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for the treatment of pediatric trichotillomania (TTM) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, add-on study. Method: A total of 39 children and adolescents aged 8 to 17 years with pediatric trichotillomania were randomly assigned to receive NAC or matching placebo for 12 weeks. Our primary…

  17. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Vvvv of... - Operating Limits if Using an Add-on Control Device for Open Molding Operations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... be at least 0.007 inch H2O, as established in Method 204 of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51 i... Control Device for Open Molding Operations 4 Table 4 to Subpart VVVV of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Limits if Using an Add-on Control Device for Open Molding Operations As specified in §§ 63.5715(a) and...

  18. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Vvvv of... - Operating Limits if Using an Add-on Control Device for Open Molding Operations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... be at least 0.007 inch H2O, as established in Method 204 of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51 i... Control Device for Open Molding Operations 4 Table 4 to Subpart VVVV of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Limits if Using an Add-on Control Device for Open Molding Operations As specified in §§ 63.5715(a) and...

  19. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Vvvv of... - Operating Limits if Using an Add-on Control Device for Open Molding Operations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... be at least 0.007 inch H2O, as established in Method 204 of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51 i... Control Device for Open Molding Operations 4 Table 4 to Subpart VVVV of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Limits if Using an Add-on Control Device for Open Molding Operations As specified in §§ 63.5715(a) and...

  20. Add-on mirtazapine improves depressive symptoms in schizophrenia: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study with an open-label extension phase.

    PubMed

    Terevnikov, Viacheslav; Stenberg, Jan-Henry; Tiihonen, Jari; Joffe, Marina; Burkin, Mark; Tchoukhine, Evgueni; Joffe, Grigori

    2011-04-01

    Depression is common in schizophrenia and worsens its course. The role of antidepressants for schizophrenic depression remains unclear. In this study, the efficacy of add-on mirtazapine on depression in schizophrenia was explored in a subsidiary arm of a recent randomized controlled trial. Patients (n = 41) with chronic but stable schizophrenia and inadequate response to stable doses of different first-generation antipsychotics were treated with add-on mirtazapine 30 mg or placebo during a 6-week double-blind phase and with open-label add-on mirtazapine during a 6-week extension phase. Efficacy measures were the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale depression item. During the double-blind phase, both measures' scores decreased significantly in the mirtazapine group but not in the placebo group (for the CDSS, 52.0% vs 19.6%, respectively). During the open‐label phase, both groups demonstrated significant improvements. In between‐group comparison, a trend favoring mirtazapine did not reach statistical significance. The changes in the CDSS correlated positively with those in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale negative, positive and total (sub)scales for mirtazapine‐treated patients during the double‐blind phase. Depressed patients with schizophrenia may benefit from mirtazapine–first‐generation antipsychotics combination, with no increased risk for psychosis. However, more studies are needed. PMID:21469215

  1. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart IIIi of... - Operating Limits for Capture Systems and Add-On Control Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51 i. Collecting the direction of air flow, and either the facial... annual catalyst activity checks, records of monthly inspections of the oxidizer system, and records of... average temperature at or above the temperature limit. 6. Emission capture system that is a PTE a....

  2. Exhaled Nitric Oxide Fraction as an Add-On to ACQ-7 for Not Well Controlled Asthma Detection

    PubMed Central

    Plaza, Vicente; Ramos-Barbón, David; Muñoz, Ana María; Fortuna, Ana María; Crespo, Astrid; Murio, Cristina; Palomino, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Background The measurement of fractional nitric oxide concentration in exhaled breath (FeNO), a noninvasive indicator of airway inflammation, remains controversial as a tool to assess asthma control. Guidelines currently limit asthma control assessment to symptom and spirometry based appraisals such as the Asthma Control Questionnaire-7 (ACQ-7). We aimed at determining whether adding FeNO to ACQ-7 improves current asthma clinical control assessment, through enhanced detection of not well controlled asthma. Methods Asthmatic subjects, classified as not well controlled as per ACQ-7 on regular clinical practice, were included in a prospective, multicenter fashion, and had their maintenance treatment adjusted on visit 1. On follow-up (visit 2) four weeks later, the subjects were reevaluated as controlled or not well controlled using ACQ-7 versus a combination of FeNO and ACQ-7. Results Out of 381 subjects enrolled, 225 (59.1%) had not well controlled asthma on visit 2 as determined by ACQ-7, and 264 (69.3%) as per combined FeNO and ACQ-7. The combination of FeNO to ACQ-7 increased by 14.8% the detection of not well controlled asthma following maintenance therapy adjustment. Conclusions The addition of FeNO to ACQ-7 increased the detectability of not well controlled asthma upon adjustment of maintenance therapy. Adding a measure of airway inflammation to usual symptom and spirometry based scores increases the efficacy of current asthma clinical control assessment. PMID:24204742

  3. Add-on montelukast in inadequately controlled asthma patients in a 6-month open-label study: the MONtelukast In Chronic Asthma (MONICA) study.

    PubMed

    Virchow, J Christian; Mehta, Anish; Ljungblad, Li; Mitfessel, Harald

    2010-05-01

    Bronchial asthma often remains uncontrolled despite treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), long-acting beta(2)-agonists (LABA) or both, necessitating additional treatment. Patients >or=18 years (n=1681) with mild-to-moderate asthma received oral montelukast 10mg added to ICS or ICS+LABAs, and were followed for 6 months in a prospective, open-label observational study. The primary endpoint was change in Asthma Control Test (ACT) score. Secondary endpoints included mini-Asthma Quality-of-Life Questionnaire (mini-AQLQ) and FEV(1)/PEF. Mean ACT scores improved from 14.6+/-4.6 (baseline) to 19.4+/-4.4 (month 6; p<0.0001). Using ACT score categories, the percentage of patients with uncontrolled (57.5%) or poorly controlled (25.0%) asthma at baseline decreased at month 6 (17.6 and 21.7%, respectively); the percentage of patients with well controlled (13.9%) or completely controlled (1.2%) asthma at baseline increased at month 6 (47.5 and 11.4%, respectively). The mini-AQLQ score (mean+/-SD) improved from 4.0+/-1.1 to 5.3+/-1.1 (p<0.0001); FEV(1) increased from 2.46+/-0.89 to 2.60+/-0.92L (p<0.0001). Treatment with montelukast was generally well tolerated. In patients insufficiently controlled with ICS or ICS+LABAs, daily add-on montelukast improved both asthma control and asthma-related quality of life. Clinicaltrials.gov registry number NCT00802789. PMID:20031382

  4. Lithium as add-on to quetiapine XR in adult patients with acute mania: a 6-week, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Bourin, Michel S; Severus, Emanuel; Schronen, Juan P; Gass, Peter; Szamosi, Johan; Eriksson, Hans; Chandrashekar, Hongally

    2014-01-01

    Quetiapine extended release (XR) and lithium are treatments with proven efficacy in acute mania. This randomized study evaluated the efficacy and safety of lithium or placebo as add-on to quetiapine XR in adult patients with manic or mixed symptoms of bipolar I disorder. In this 6-week, double-blind study (Trial D144AC00003), adult patients with DSM-IV-TR-diagnosed bipolar I disorder (current episode manic or mixed), a Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) total score ≥20, and score ≥4 on two of four core YMRS items were administered quetiapine XR (400 to 800 mg/day) and randomly assigned to receive add-on lithium (600 to 1,800 mg/day) or placebo. The primary efficacy end point was change in the YMRS total score from baseline to day 43, analyzed using a mixed-model for repeated measures (MMRM) approach. Secondary efficacy and safety end points were also measured. Rating scales were administered by trained staff. Three hundred fifty-six patients treated with quetiapine XR were randomized to add-on lithium (n = 173) or placebo (n = 183). Two hundred ninety-one patients (81.7%) completed the study. At day 43, least squares mean change in YMRS total score was -22.8 for add-on lithium and -20.1 for add-on placebo, a statistically significant treatment group difference of -2.69 (p < 0.001). On secondary measures, add-on lithium was associated with significant improvements in response, remission, illness severity, and overall illness versus add-on placebo (p < 0.05). The number needed to treat was 9.1 for response and 7.9 for remission for add-on lithium compared with add-on placebo. Lithium in combination with quetiapine XR was generally well tolerated, with a similar profile to quetiapine XR in combination with placebo. The addition of lithium to quetiapine XR therapy was associated with significantly greater efficacy than placebo as add-on and was generally well tolerated in patients with acute bipolar I mania. This study was registered under Clinicaltrials

  5. Comparative effects of telmisartan and valsartan as add-on agents for hypertensive patients with morning blood pressure insufficiently controlled by amlodipine monotherapy.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Hideaki; Akasaka, Hiroshi; Saitoh, Shigeyuki; Shimamoto, Kazuaki; Miura, Tetsuji

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the efficacies of valsartan and telmisartan as add-on agents for the control of morning blood pressure (BP) in patients already on amlodipine monotherapy. A total of 414 hypertensive patients were prospectively enrolled in a 4-week run-in period when they were treated with amlodipine (5 mg/day), and home BP was measured in the morning and evening. Patients with home systolic BP (SBP) being 135-159 mm Hg in the morning at the end of the run-in period were randomized to additional treatment with valsartan (80 mg/day) or with telmisartan (40 mg/day) for 8 weeks. The primary endpoint was the change in morning home BP, and secondary endpoints included variability of morning home BP. Of the 282 patients randomized, 262 patients (n=131, in each treatment) completed the protocols. Demographic parameters and baseline morning SBP/diastolic BP (DBP) (146.3±7.1/84.8±9.3 vs. 146.0±7.1/84.2±9.1 mm Hg) were comparable in the valsartan group and telmisartan group, and changes in SBP/DBP after 8-week treatment were not significantly different between the two groups (-7.4±10.6/-3.9±6.1 vs. -8.3±9.9/-5.0±5.9 mm Hg). Valsartan significantly increased individual standard deviation and variation coefficient of morning SBP, but telmisartan did not change either of these indices of SBP variation. In subgroups with baseline SBP being above the median (145.2 mm Hg), change in DBP was significantly larger by telmisartan than by valsartan (-6.3±5.6 vs. -3.9±6.7 mm Hg, P<0.05). These results suggest that telmisartan is more useful than valsartan as an add-on agent for reducing the level and variability of morning BP in patients on amlodipine monotherapy. PMID:24108237

  6. Efficacy of Zinc Sulfate as an Add-on Therapy to Risperidone Versus Risperidone Alone in Patients With Schizophrenia: A Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Mehran; Farzin, Davood; Zarhghami, Mehran; Hosseini, Seyed Hamzeh; Mansoori, Parisa; Nateghi, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Zinc can modulate fast-excitatory transmission, facilitate the release of amino butyric acid and potentiate nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. There are also emerging evidences discussing the implication of these neurotransmitters in pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Zn sulfate as an add-on therapy in the treatment of schizophrenia in a 6-week, double-blind and placebo-controlled trial. Patients and Methods: Eligible participants were 30 inpatients with schizophrenia according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria. Patients were randomly allocated into two equal groups; one group of patients received risperidone 6 mg/day plus capsules of Zn sulfate (each containing 50 mg elemental Zn) three times a day and another group received risperidone 6 mg/day plus placebo. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was applied to assess the psychotic symptoms and aggression risk at baseline, week 2, 4, and 6 of the study. Results: The results of this study showed that both protocols significantly decreased the scores on all subscales of the PANSS and supplemental aggression risk subscale as well as PANSS total score over the study. However, this improvement was significantly higher in Zn sulfate receiving group compared to the placebo group. No major clinical side-effects were detected. Conclusions: It may be concluded that Zn is an effective adjuvant agent in the management of patients with schizophrenia. PMID:26576178

  7. Semi-individualised Chinese medicine treatment as an adjuvant management for diabetic nephropathy: a pilot add-on, randomised, controlled, multicentre, open-label pragmatic clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kam Wa; Ip, Tai Pang; Kwong, Alfred Siu Kei; Lui, Sing Leung; Chan, Gary Chi Wang; Cowling, Benjamin John; Yiu, Wai Han; Wong, Dickson Wai Leong; Liu, Yang; Feng, Yibin; Tan, Kathryn Choon Beng; Chan, Loretta Yuk Yee; Leung, Joseph Chi Kam; Lai, Kar Neng; Tang, Sydney Chi Wai

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy (DN) are prevalent and costly to manage. DN is the leading cause of end-stage kidney disease. Conventional therapy blocking the renin–angiotensin system has only achieved limited effect in preserving renal function. Recent observational data show that the use of Chinese medicine (CM), a major form of traditional medicine used extensively in Asia, could reduce the risk of end-stage kidney disease. However, existing clinical practice guidelines are weakly evidence-based and the effect of CM remains unclear. This trial explores the effect of an existing integrative Chinese–Western medicine protocol for the management of DN. Objective To optimise parameters and assess the feasibility for a subsequent phase III randomised controlled trial through preliminary evaluation on the effect of an adjuvant semi-individualised CM treatment protocol on patients with type 2 diabetes with stages 2–3 chronic kidney disease and macroalbuminuria. Methods and analysis This is an assessor-blind, add-on, randomised, controlled, parallel, multicentre, open-label pilot pragmatic clinical trial. 148 patients diagnosed with DN will be recruited and randomised 1:1 to a 48-week additional semi-individualised CM treatment programme or standard medical care. Primary end points are the changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate and spot urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio between baseline and treatment end point. Secondary end points include fasting blood glucose, glycated haemoglobin, brain natriuretic peptide, fasting insulin, C peptide, fibroblast growth factor 23, urinary monocyte chemotactic protein-1, cystatin C, nephrin, transforming growth factor-β1 and vascular endothelial growth factor. Adverse events are monitored through self-completed questionnaire and clinical visits. Outcomes will be analysed by regression models. Enrolment started in July 2015. Ethics and registration This protocol is approved by the Institutional

  8. The effect of add-on memantine on global function and quality of life in schizophrenia: A randomized, double-blind, controlled, clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Omranifard, Victoria; Rajabi, Fatemeh; Mohammadian-Sichani, Maryam; Maracy, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Schizophrenia severely influences function and quality of life. The benefit of newer antipsychotics in improving the quality of life in schizophrenia still remains controversial. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of memantine on global function and quality of life in patients with schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial on inpatient cases of schizophrenia in Noor University Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. A number of 64 patients were selected through sequential sampling; patients were randomly allocated in intervention and placebo groups. The intervention group was treated with memantine plus previously administered, stabled-dose, atypical antipsychotic, while the control group received placebo plus previously administered, stabled-dose, atypical antipsychotic. Memantine administration was initiated at 5 mg daily; the dosage was increased at weekly intervals by 5 mg and finally up-titrated to 20 mg daily within 4 weeks. All patients were assessed by means of Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and quality of life scale (QLS) initially and every four weeks to the end of the 12th week. Results: Analysis of baseline GAF and QLS scores showed no significant differences between the two groups (P = 0.081 and P = 0.225, respectively). GAF and QLS scores increased in both groups; but it was higher in the intervention group. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant. (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively) memantine was well tolerated, with no significant side effects. Conclusion: Add-on memantine was significantly effective in improving the global function of patients as well as their quality of life. PMID:26605240

  9. N-Acetylcysteine in the Treatment of Pediatric Trichotillomania: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Add-On Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, Michael H.; Panza, Kaitlyn E.; Grant, Jon E.; Pittenger, Christopher; Leckman, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for the treatment of pediatric trichotillomania (TTM) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, add-on study. Method A total of 39 children and adolescents aged 8 to 17 years with pediatric trichotillomania were randomly assigned to receive NAC or matching placebo for 12 weeks. Our primary outcome was change in severity of hairpulling as measured by the Massachusetts General Hospital–Hairpulling Scale (MGH-HPS). Secondary measures assessed hairpulling severity, automatic versus focused pulling, clinician-rated improvement, and comorbid anxiety and depression. Outcomes were examined using linear mixed models to test the treatment × time interaction in an intention-to-treat population. Results No significant difference between N-acetylcysteine and placebo was found on any of the primary or secondary outcome measures. On several measures of hairpulling, subjects significantly improved with time regardless of treatment assignment. In the NAC group, 25% of subjects were judged as treatment responders, compared to 21% in the placebo group. Conclusions We observed no benefit of NAC for the treatment of children with trichotillomania. Our findings stand in contrast to a previous, similarly designed trial in adults with TTM, which demonstrated a very large, statistically significant benefit of NAC. Based on the differing results of NAC in pediatric and adult TTM populations, the assumption that pharmacological interventions demonstrated to be effective in adults with TTM will be as effective in children, may be inaccurate. This trial highlights the importance of referring children with TTM to appropriate behavioral therapy before initiating pharmacological interventions, as behavioral therapy has demonstrated efficacy in both children and adults with trichotillomania. PMID:23452680

  10. Comparison of vildagliptin as an add-on therapy and sulfonylurea dose-increasing therapy in patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes using metformin and sulfonylurea (VISUAL study): A randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Hong, A Ram; Lee, Jeun; Ku, Eu Jeong; Hwangbo, Yul; Kim, Kyoung Min; Moon, Jae Hoon; Choi, Sung Hee; Jang, Hak Chul; Lim, Soo

    2015-07-01

    The aim of present study is to compare the efficacy and safety of adding vildagliptin with sulfonylurea dose-increasing as an active comparator in patients who had inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using metformin plus sulfonylurea in real clinical practice. Patients using metformin plus sulfonylurea were assigned to either vildagliptin add-on (50 mg twice a day, n=172) or sulfonylurea dose-increasing by 50% (n=172) treatment groups. The primary endpoint was a change in HbA(1c) after 24 weeks. The secondary endpoints were patients achieving HbA(1c)≤7.0% (53 mmol/mol) and changes in the fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h postprandial glucose (2pp), lipid profiles, and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio. Body weight and hypoglycemia were also investigated. The mean HbA(1c) at baseline was 8.6% (70 mmol/mol) in both groups. At week 24, the adjusted mean HbA(1c) levels decreased by -1.19% (-13.09 mmol/mol) with vildagliptin add-on and -0.46% (-5.06 mmol/mol) with sulfonylurea (P<0.001). Significantly more vildagliptin add-on patients achieved HbA(1c)≤7.0% (53 mmol/mol) than did sulfonylurea patients (40.1% vs. 7.9%; P<0.001). Greater reductions in FPG and 2pp were observed with vildagliptin add-on than with sulfonylurea (P<0.001). The vildagliptin add-on group exhibited no clinically relevant weight gain and had a lower incidence of hypoglycemia compared with the sulfonylurea group. Vildagliptin add-on therapy might be a suitable option for patients with T2DM that is controlled inadequately by metformin and sulfonylurea, based on its greater glucose control and better safety profile (ClinicalTrial.gov: NCT01099137). PMID:26003889

  11. Ephedrine as add-on therapy for patients with myasthenia gravis: protocol for a series of randomised, placebo-controlled n-of-1 trials

    PubMed Central

    Vrinten, Charlotte; Lipka, Alexander F; van Zwet, Erik W; Schimmel, Kirsten J M; Cornel, Martina C; Kuijpers, Marja R; Hekster, Yechiel A; Weinreich, Stephanie S; Verschuuren, Jan J G M

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Myasthenia gravis (MG), a rare neuromuscular disease, is often initially treated using acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Patients who do not respond adequately depend on the use of corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive medication, but these may have serious side effects. Clinical observations suggest that ephedrine can diminish, postpone or even prevent the need for immunosuppressive therapy when added to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors or low-dose prednisone. In the Netherlands, ephedrine is not licensed for MG nor is reimbursement guaranteed. MG is a rare condition, and ephedrine might be indicated only in a subset of patients. Thus, randomised controlled trials comparing large groups are difficult to conduct. We, therefore, aim to aggregate data from a small series of n-of-1 trials (also known as single patient trials) to assess the effect of ephedrine as add-on treatment for MG. Methods and analysis Single-centre, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomised, multiple crossover n-of-1 studies in 4 adult patients with generalised MG who show inadequate improvement on pyridostigmine and/or immunosuppressive drugs. Each n-of-1 trial has 3 cycles of two 5-day intervention periods. Treatment: 25 mg ephedrine or placebo, twice daily. Main outcome measure: Quantitative Myasthenia Gravis (QMG) test. Statistical analysis: fixed effects linear model for QMG for all patients combined. Secondary outcome measures: Clinical: effects on MG-Composite and MG-Activities of Daily Living (MG-ADL) scales; QMG at individual level; adverse events. Acceptability of trial design: number of patients eligible and enrolled; number of treatment cycles completed; patients’ and caregivers’ experiences. Ethics and dissemination This study was approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of Leiden University Medical Center, No. P14.108. Results of the trial will be reported in a peer-reviewed publication. Regulatory stakeholders will comment on the suitability of the trial

  12. Acarbose improves glycemic control as add-on or monotherapy in Indian type-2 diabetes: Findings from the GlucoVIP multinational observational study

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Elizabeth; Sundaram, Meenakshi L.; Das, Rupam; Chauhan, Sushil Kumar; Deshpande, Sandeep; Ambhore, Sanjay; Rathod, Rahul; Manjrekar, Pravin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the efficacy and tolerability of the anti-diabetic agent acarbose (Glucobay®) as add-on or monotherapy in a range of patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), including those with cardiovascular morbidities in India. Materials and Methods: This was a part of a prospective, non-interventional, non-controlled, multicentre, multinational, observational study. The study included patients of either gender if they were aged at least 18 years and had untreated or pre-treated type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) or impaired glucose tolerance and no acarbose treatment within the 3 months before study inclusion. Results: In total, 1996 Indian patients were included in the effectiveness and 2010 in the safety analysis. Patients received acarbose (25-150 mg/day). The mean age of the patients was 50.1 years and the mean BMI was 27.2 kg/m2. Mean 2-h post-prandial plasma glucose (PPG) value and fasting blood glucose (FBG) decreased from 243.9 to 169.5 mg/dl and 158.3 to 120.4 mg/dl, respectively after the last follow-up of 12.4 weeks. The mean HbA1c value at initial visit was 8.4% and was 7.4% at the last follow-up visit. FBG, PPG and HbA1c deceased in 90.6%, 94.4% and 52.4% patients respectively, by the last follow-up visit. The mean decrease in weight and waist circumference was 1.4 kg and 1.6 cm, respectively by the last follow-up visit. Physicians assessed the efficacy of drug as positive response in “very good to good” in 91.08%, “sufficient” in 7.92% and “insufficient” in 0.90% of patients. Also, continuation of Acarbose was reported in 97.09% of patients. Adverse events were reported in 2.74% and drug-related adverse events were reported in 2.19% of patients. Majority of them were gastrointestinal adverse events but were not serious. Conclusion: Acarbose is effective and safe in Indian patients with T2DM. Further, it helps in weight reduction and has very good compliance in patients with T2DM. PMID:24910836

  13. 40 CFR 63.3169 - What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Primer, Primer-Surfacer, Topcoat, Final Repair, Glass Bonding Primer, and Glass Bonding Adhesive Emission... Primer, and Glass Bonding Adhesive Emission Limitations and the Separate Electrodeposition...

  14. 40 CFR 63.3169 - What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Surfacer, Topcoat, Final Repair, Glass Bonding Primer, and Glass Bonding Adhesive Emission Limitations § 63... Primer, and Glass Bonding Adhesive Emission Limitations and the Separate Electrodeposition...

  15. 40 CFR 63.3169 - What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-Surfacer, Topcoat, Final Repair, Glass Bonding Primer, and Glass Bonding Adhesive Emission Limitations § 63... Primer, and Glass Bonding Adhesive Emission Limitations and the Separate Electrodeposition...

  16. 40 CFR 63.3169 - What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Electrodeposition Primer, Primer-Surfacer, Topcoat, Final Repair, Glass Bonding Primer, and Glass Bonding Adhesive... Primer, and Glass Bonding Adhesive Emission Limitations and the Separate Electrodeposition...

  17. 40 CFR 63.3169 - What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Electrodeposition Primer, Primer-Surfacer, Topcoat, Final Repair, Glass Bonding Primer, and Glass Bonding Adhesive... Primer, and Glass Bonding Adhesive Emission Limitations and the Separate Electrodeposition...

  18. 40 CFR 63.3174 - What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Automobiles and Light-Duty Trucks Compliance Requirements for the Combined Primer-Surfacer, Topcoat, Final Repair, Glass Bonding Primer, and Glass Bonding Adhesive Emission Limitations and the Separate Electrodeposition Primer Emission Limitations § 63.3174 What are the requirements for a capture system or...

  19. 40 CFR 63.3174 - What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Automobiles and Light-Duty Trucks Compliance Requirements for the Combined Primer-Surfacer, Topcoat, Final Repair, Glass Bonding Primer, and Glass Bonding Adhesive Emission Limitations and the Separate Electrodeposition Primer Emission Limitations § 63.3174 What are the requirements for a capture system or...

  20. 40 CFR 63.3966 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select sampling sites and velocity traverse points. (2) Use Method 2, 2A, 2C, 2D, 2F, or 2G of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60,...

  1. 40 CFR 63.3966 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select sampling sites and velocity traverse points. (2) Use Method 2, 2A, 2C, 2D, 2F, or 2G of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60,...

  2. 40 CFR 63.3966 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select sampling sites and velocity traverse points. (2) Use Method 2, 2A, 2C, 2D, 2F, or 2G of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60,...

  3. 40 CFR 63.3966 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select sampling sites and velocity traverse points. (2) Use Method 2, 2A, 2C, 2D, 2F, or 2G of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60,...

  4. 40 CFR 63.3966 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select sampling sites and velocity traverse points. (2) Use Method 2, 2A, 2C, 2D, 2F, or 2G of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60,...

  5. 40 CFR 63.3166 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) through (5) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to... to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, for gas analysis to determine dry molecular...

  6. 40 CFR 63.3166 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) through (5) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to... to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, for gas analysis to determine dry molecular...

  7. 40 CFR 63.3166 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) through (5) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to... to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, for gas analysis to determine dry molecular...

  8. 40 CFR 63.4766 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (a)(1) through (5) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as... appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, for gas analysis to determine dry...

  9. 40 CFR 63.4965 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) through (5) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to... to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, for gas analysis to determine dry molecular...

  10. 40 CFR 63.4965 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) through (5) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to... to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, for gas analysis to determine dry molecular...

  11. 40 CFR 63.4766 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select... CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, for gas analysis to determine dry molecular weight. You...

  12. 40 CFR 63.3545 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select... CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, for gas analysis to determine dry molecular weight. You...

  13. 40 CFR 63.4766 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (a)(1) through (5) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as... appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, for gas analysis to determine dry...

  14. 40 CFR 63.4166 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...)(1) through (5) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as... appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, for gas analysis to determine dry...

  15. 40 CFR 63.4166 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select... CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, for gas analysis to determine dry molecular weight. You...

  16. 40 CFR 63.4965 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select sampling sites and velocity traverse points. (2) Use Method 2, 2A, 2C, 2D, 2F, or 2G of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60... CFR part 60, as appropriate, for gas analysis to determine dry molecular weight. You may also use...

  17. 40 CFR 63.4166 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...)(1) through (5) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as... appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, for gas analysis to determine dry...

  18. 40 CFR 63.3545 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select... CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, for gas analysis to determine dry molecular weight. You...

  19. 40 CFR 63.4362 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or....4350. You must conduct three test runs as specified in § 63.7(e)(3) and each test run must last at... paragraphs (a)(1) through (5) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60,...

  20. 40 CFR 63.4362 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or....4350. You must conduct three test runs as specified in § 63.7(e)(3) and each test run must last at... paragraphs (a)(1) through (5) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60,...

  1. 40 CFR 63.4362 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or....4350. You must conduct three test runs as specified in § 63.7(e)(3) and each test run must last at... paragraphs (a)(1) through (5) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60,...

  2. 40 CFR 63.4362 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or....4350. You must conduct three test runs as specified in § 63.7(e)(3) and each test run must last at... paragraphs (a)(1) through (5) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60,...

  3. 40 CFR 63.9323 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select sampling sites and velocity traverse points. (2) Use Method 2, 2A, 2C, 2D, 2F, or 2G of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part...

  4. 40 CFR 63.4766 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide content of exhaust gas in ANSI/ASME PTC 19.10-1981, “Flue and Exhaust... (a)(1) through (5) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as... appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A,...

  5. 40 CFR 63.4965 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... dioxide, and carbon monoxide content of exhaust gas in ANSI/ASME PTC 19.10-1981, “Flue and Exhaust Gas...) through (5) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to... to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or...

  6. 40 CFR 63.4766 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... also use as an alternative to Method 3B, the manual method for measuring the oxygen, carbon dioxide...) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select... CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B...

  7. 40 CFR 63.3545 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... an alternative to Method 3B the manual method for measuring the oxygen, carbon dioxide, and carbon... section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select sampling sites and velocity traverse points. (2) Use Method 2, 2A, 2C, 2D, 2F, or 2G of appendix A to 40 CFR part...

  8. 40 CFR 63.3545 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... also use as an alternative to Method 3B the manual method for measuring the oxygen, carbon dioxide, and...) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select... CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B...

  9. 40 CFR 63.4166 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide content of exhaust gas in ANSI/ASME, PTC 19.10-1981, “Flue and...)(1) through (5) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as... appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A,...

  10. 40 CFR 63.3545 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... an alternative to Method 3B the manual method for measuring the oxygen, carbon dioxide, and carbon... section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select sampling sites and velocity traverse points. (2) Use Method 2, 2A, 2C, 2D, 2F, or 2G of appendix A to 40 CFR part...

  11. 40 CFR 63.4166 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... also use as an alternative to Method 3B, the manual method for measuring the oxygen, carbon dioxide...) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select... CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B...

  12. 40 CFR 63.4965 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... an alternative to Method 3B, the manual method for measuring the oxygen, carbon dioxide, and carbon... section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select sampling sites and velocity traverse points. (2) Use Method 2, 2A, 2C, 2D, 2F, or 2G of appendix A to 40 CFR part...

  13. 40 CFR 63.4362 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... paragraphs (a)(1) through (5) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as... appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, for gas analysis to determine dry...

  14. 40 CFR 63.4566 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, for gas analysis to determine dry molecular weight...) through (5) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate,...

  15. 40 CFR 63.3166 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select... CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, for gas analysis to determine dry molecular weight. The...

  16. 40 CFR 63.3166 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select... CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, for gas analysis to determine dry molecular weight. The...

  17. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Vvvv of... - Operating Limits if Using an Add-on Control Device for Open Molding Operations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....007 inch H2O, as established in Method 204 of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51 i. Collecting the direction... Control Device for Open Molding Operations 4 Table 4 to Subpart VVVV of Part 63 Protection of Environment...-on Control Device for Open Molding Operations As specified in §§ 63.5715(a) and 63.5725(f)(5),...

  18. Rapid response to methylphenidate as an add-on therapy to mirtazapine in the treatment of major depressive disorder in terminally ill cancer patients: a four-week, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Ng, Chong Guan; Boks, Marco P M; Roes, Kit C B; Zainal, Nor Zuraida; Sulaiman, Ahmad Hatim; Tan, Seng Beng; de Wit, Niek J

    2014-04-01

    This is a 4 week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to examine the effects of methylphenidate as add-on therapy to mirtazapine compared to placebo for treatment of depression in terminally ill cancer patients. It involved 88 terminally ill cancer patients from University of Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. They were randomized and treated with either methylphenidate or placebo as add on to mirtazapine. The change in Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) score from baseline to day 3 was analyzed by linear regression. Changes of MADRS and Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale (CGI-S) over 28 days were analyzed using mixed model repeated measures (MMRM). Secondary analysis of MADRS response rates, defined as 50% or more reduction from baseline score. A significantly larger reduction of Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) score in the methylphenidate group was observed from day 3 (B=4.14; 95% CI=1.83-6.45). Response rate (defined as 50% or more reduction from baseline MADRS score) in the methylphenidate treated group was superior from day 14. Improvement in Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale (CGI-S) was greater in the methylphenidate treated group from day 3 until day 28. The drop-out rates were 52.3% in the methylphenidate group and 59.1% in the placebo group (relative risk=0.86, 95%CI=0.54-1.37) due to cancer progression. Nervous system adverse events were more common in methylphenidate treated subjects (20.5% vs 9.1%, p=0.13). In conclusions, methylphenidate as add on therapy to mirtazapine demonstrated an earlier antidepressant response in terminally ill cancer patients, although at an increased risk of the nervous system side effects. PMID:24503279

  19. Firefox add-ons for medical reference.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Matthew B

    2010-07-01

    Firefox is a Web browser created by the Mozilla project, an open-source software group. Features of the browser include automated updates, advanced security and standards compliance, and the ability to add functionality through add-ons and extensions. First introduced in 2004, Firefox now accounts for roughly 30% of the browser market. This article will focus primarily on add-ons and extensions available for the browser that are useful to medical researchers. PMID:20677067

  20. 12-Week, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Add-on Riluzole in the Treatment of Childhood-Onset Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Paul J; Joseph, Lisa A; Farmer, Cristan A; Luckenbaugh, David A; Lougee, Lorraine C; Zarate, Carlos A; Swedo, Susan E

    2014-01-01

    Many children with childhood-onset obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) fail to respond adequately to standard therapies. Evidence from preclinical and clinical studies suggests that the glutamatergic neurotransmitter system might be an alternative treatment target. This study examined the efficacy of riluzole, a glutamatergic modulator, as an adjunctive therapy for children with treatment-resistant OCD. In a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 60 treatment-resistant children and adolescents (mean age=14.5±2.4 years), with moderate to severe OCD (mean Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS)=28.2±3.7), 17 of whom also had concomitant autism spectrum disorder, were randomized to receive riluzole (final dose of 100 mg/day) or placebo in addition to the existing treatment regimen. Fifty-nine subjects completed the randomized trial. Primary outcome measures were changes on the CY-BOCS, the Clinical Global Impressions Scale, and the Children's Global Assessment Scale. Riluzole was fairly well tolerated, although it was associated with one case of pancreatitis and five instances of slight increases in transaminases. All subjects showed significant reductions in CY-BOCS scores during treatment; however, there was no significant difference between placebo and riluzole on any of the primary or secondary outcome measures. The study failed to demonstrate superiority of riluzole over placebo as an adjunctive treatment for children with childhood-onset OCD. However, future studies may show benefits for less treatment-refractory children with fewer concomitant medications. PMID:24356715

  1. A Single-blind, Placebo-controlled, Dose-ranging Trial of Oral Hepatic-directed Vesicle Insulin Add-on to Oral Antidiabetic Treatment in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Len N.; Schwartz, Sherwyn L.; Lau, John R.; Gana, Theophilus J.

    2014-01-01

    The dose response of postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) to add-on, premeal oral hepatic-directed vesicle-insulin (HDV-I), an investigational lipid bio-nanoparticle hepatocyte-targeted insulin delivery system, was evaluated in a 3-test-meal/day model in type 2 diabetes patients. The single-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalating trial enrolled 6 patients with HbA1c 8.6 ± 2.0% (70.0 ± 21.9 mmol/mol) and on stable metformin therapy. Patients received oral HDV-I capsules daily 30 minutes before breakfast, lunch, and dinner as follows: placebo capsules, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 U/kg on days 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. Outcome measures were PPG and incremental PPG area under the concentration-time curve (AUC). All 4 doses of oral HDV-I statistically significantly lowered mean PPG (P ≤ .0110 each) and incremental PPG (P ≤ .0352 each) AUC compared to placebo. A linear dose response was not observed. The 0.05 U/kg dose was the minimum effective dose in the dosage range studied. Three adverse events unrelated to treatment were observed. Add-on oral HDV-I 0.05-0.4 U/kg significantly lowered PPG excursions and the dose response curve was flat. These results are consistent with the lack of a linear dose response between portal and systemic plasma insulin concentrations in previous animal and human studies. Oral HDV-I was safe and well tolerated. PMID:24876619

  2. 40 CFR 63.3555 - How do I determine the outlet THC emissions and add-on control device emission destruction or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select sampling sites and velocity traverse points. (2) Use Method 2, 2A, 2C, 2D, 2F, or 2G of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60... CFR part 60, as appropriate, for gas analysis to determine dry molecular weight. You may also use...

  3. 40 CFR 63.3555 - How do I determine the outlet THC emissions and add-on control device emission destruction or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select sampling sites and velocity traverse points. (2) Use Method 2, 2A, 2C, 2D, 2F, or 2G of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60... CFR part 60, as appropriate, for gas analysis to determine dry molecular weight. You may also use...

  4. 40 CFR 63.3555 - How do I determine the outlet THC emissions and add-on control device emission destruction or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... alternative to Method 3B, the manual method for measuring the oxygen, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide.... (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select sampling sites and velocity traverse points. (2) Use Method 2, 2A, 2C, 2D, 2F, or 2G of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60,...

  5. 40 CFR 63.3555 - How do I determine the outlet THC emissions and add-on control device emission destruction or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... alternative to Method 3B, the manual method for measuring the oxygen, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide.... (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select sampling sites and velocity traverse points. (2) Use Method 2, 2A, 2C, 2D, 2F, or 2G of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60,...

  6. 40 CFR 63.3555 - How do I determine the outlet THC emissions and add-on control device emission destruction or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... an alternative to Method 3B, the manual method for measuring the oxygen, carbon dioxide, and carbon... section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select sampling sites and velocity traverse points. (2) Use Method 2, 2A, 2C, 2D, 2F, or 2G of appendix A to 40 CFR part...

  7. Add-on unidirectional elastic metamaterial plate cloak

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Min Kyung; Kim, Yoon Young

    2016-01-01

    Metamaterial cloaks control the propagation of waves to make an object invisible or insensible. To manipulate elastic waves in space, a metamaterial cloak is typically embedded in a base system that includes or surrounds a target object. The embedding is undesirable because it structurally weakens or permanently alters the base system. In this study, we propose a new add-on metamaterial elastic cloak that can be placed over and mechanically coupled with a base structure without embedding. We designed an add-on type annular metamaterial plate cloak through conformal mapping, fabricated it and performed cloaking experiments in a thin-plate with a hole. Experiments were performed in a thin plate by using the lowest symmetric Lamb wave centered at 100 kHz. As a means to check the cloaking performance of the add-on elastic plate cloak, possibly as a temporary stress reliever or a so-called “stress bandage”, the degree of stress concentration mitigation and the recovery from the perturbed wave field due to a hole were investigated. PMID:26860896

  8. Add-on unidirectional elastic metamaterial plate cloak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Min Kyung; Kim, Yoon Young

    2016-02-01

    Metamaterial cloaks control the propagation of waves to make an object invisible or insensible. To manipulate elastic waves in space, a metamaterial cloak is typically embedded in a base system that includes or surrounds a target object. The embedding is undesirable because it structurally weakens or permanently alters the base system. In this study, we propose a new add-on metamaterial elastic cloak that can be placed over and mechanically coupled with a base structure without embedding. We designed an add-on type annular metamaterial plate cloak through conformal mapping, fabricated it and performed cloaking experiments in a thin-plate with a hole. Experiments were performed in a thin plate by using the lowest symmetric Lamb wave centered at 100 kHz. As a means to check the cloaking performance of the add-on elastic plate cloak, possibly as a temporary stress reliever or a so-called “stress bandage”, the degree of stress concentration mitigation and the recovery from the perturbed wave field due to a hole were investigated.

  9. Add-on unidirectional elastic metamaterial plate cloak.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min Kyung; Kim, Yoon Young

    2016-01-01

    Metamaterial cloaks control the propagation of waves to make an object invisible or insensible. To manipulate elastic waves in space, a metamaterial cloak is typically embedded in a base system that includes or surrounds a target object. The embedding is undesirable because it structurally weakens or permanently alters the base system. In this study, we propose a new add-on metamaterial elastic cloak that can be placed over and mechanically coupled with a base structure without embedding. We designed an add-on type annular metamaterial plate cloak through conformal mapping, fabricated it and performed cloaking experiments in a thin-plate with a hole. Experiments were performed in a thin plate by using the lowest symmetric Lamb wave centered at 100 kHz. As a means to check the cloaking performance of the add-on elastic plate cloak, possibly as a temporary stress reliever or a so-called "stress bandage", the degree of stress concentration mitigation and the recovery from the perturbed wave field due to a hole were investigated. PMID:26860896

  10. Automotive Emission Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Billy D.; And Others

    This publication contains instructional materials for both teachers and students for a course in automotive emission control. Instructional materials in this publication are written in terms of student performance using measurable objectives. The course includes 16 units. Each instructional unit includes some or all of the basic components of a…

  11. Automotive Emission Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Billy D.; Ragazzi, Ronald

    This guide designed to assist teachers in improving instruction in the area of automotive emission control curriculum includes four areas. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction, with each instructional unit including some or all of the following basic components: Performance objectives, suggested activities for teacher and…

  12. The Efficacy and Safety of Chinese Herbal Medicine Jinlida as Add-On Medication in Type 2 Diabetes Patients Ineffectively Managed by Metformin Monotherapy: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Fengmei; Tian, Jiaxing; Chen, Xinyan; Li, Zhibin; Piao, Chunli; Guo, Junjie; Ma, Licheng; Zhao, Lijuan; Xia, Chengdong; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su; Tong, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Background Metformin plays an important role in diabetes treatment. Studies have shown that the combined use of oral hypoglycemic medications is more effective than metformin monotherapy. In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial, we evaluated whether Jinlida, a Chinese herbal medicine, enhances the glycemic control of metformin in type 2 diabetes patients whose HbA1c was ineffectively controlled with metformin alone. Methods A total of 186 diabetes patients were enrolled in this double-Blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Subjects were randomly allocated to receive either Jinlida (9 g) or the placebo TID for 12 consecutive weeks. All subjects in both groups also continuously received their metformin without any dose change. During this 12-week period, the HbA1c, FPG, 2h PG, body weight, BMI were assessed. HOMA insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and β-cell function (HOMA- β) were also evaluated. Results At week 12, compared to the HbA1c level from week 0, the level of the Jinlida group was reduced by 0.92 ± 1.09% and that of the placebo group was reduced by 0.53 ± 0.94%. The 95% CI was 0.69 - 1.14 for the Jinlida group vs. 0.34 - 0.72 for the placebo group. There was a very significant HbA1c reduction between the two groups after 12 weeks (p < 0.01). Both FG and 2h PG levels of the Jinlida group and placebo group were reduced from week 0. There were a very significant FG and 2h PG level reductions between the two groups after 12 weeks (both p < 0.01). The Jinlida group also showed improved β-cell function with a HOMA-β increase (p < 0.05). No statistical significance was observed in the body weight and BMI changes. No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion Jinlida significantly enhanced the hypoglycemic action of metformin when the drug was used alone. This Chinese herbal medicine may have a clinical value as an add-on medication to metformin monotherapy. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial Register

  13. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Kkkk of... - Operating Limits If Using the Emission Rate With Add-on Controls Option or the Control Efficiency...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must not fall below the total... the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle....007 inch H20, as established in Method 204 of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51. See items 7.a.i and ii...

  14. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Kkkk of... - Operating Limits If Using the Emission Rate With Add-on Controls Option or the Control Efficiency...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must not fall below the... least 0.007 inch H20, as established in Method 204 of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51. See items 7.a.i and...). i. Measuring the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for...

  15. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Kkkk of... - Operating Limits If Using the Emission Rate With Add-on Controls Option or the Control Efficiency...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... least 0.007 inch H20, as established in Method 204 of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51. See items 7.a.i and... items in 2.a, 2.b, and 2.c of this table. 4. Carbon adsorber a. The total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must not fall below...

  16. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Kkkk of... - Operating Limits If Using the Emission Rate With Add-on Controls Option or the Control Efficiency...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... least 0.007 inch H20, as established in Method 204 of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51. See items 7.a.i and... items in 2.a, 2.b, and 2.c of this table. 4. Carbon adsorber a. The total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must not fall below...

  17. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Kkkk of... - Operating Limits If Using the Emission Rate With Add-on Controls Option or the Control Efficiency...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....007 inch H20, as established in Method 204 of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51. See items 7.a.i and ii of..., 2.b, and 2.c of this table. 4. Carbon adsorber a. The total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must not fall below the...

  18. Controlling boiler emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Katzel, J.

    1992-10-22

    This paper reports that if you are confused about how to interpret the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, you are not alone. The massive document runs several hundred pages and consists of 11 titles, each addressing a different aspect of air quality. In some cases, specific emissions levels are established; in others, they are left to the discretion of state and local governments. In many ways, the impact of the CAAA right now is no impact. But now is not the time for plant engineers to play any waiting games. The annual cost of complying with the comprehensive environmental legislation is estimated at $4 to $7 billion. Despite the ambiguity and uncertainty, one conclusion appears clear: control of emissions, especially nitrogen oxides, from all types of boilers and process units can be expected to become more stringent. More and more equipment and industries will fall under the regulations as they are implemented by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). An newly available and improved strategies and technologies will make it more and more difficult to circumvent the law. As the general concepts of the legislation are molded into specifics, plant engineers are well advised to take an active role in shaping the attainment and control programs being formed by their state sand in understanding and applying available control technologies.

  19. Progress in emission control technologies

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    Partial contents of this book include: Ozone precursor emissions from alternatively fueled vehicles; Cycle resolved measurements of diesel particulate by optical techniques; A lubricant formulation for lower unburnt hydrocarbon emissions; Chassis test cycles for assessing emissions from heavy duty trucks; A non-intrusive method of measuring PCV blowby constituents; Some problems in the improvement of measurement of transient emissions; and Oxidation catalyst systems for emission control of LPG-powered forklift trucks.

  20. Control of Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor); Chung, Landy (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods and apparatus utilizing chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide are useful to reduce NOx emissions, as well as SOx and mercury (or other heavy metal) emissions, from combustion flue gas streams.

  1. Assessment of VOC emissions and their control from baker's yeast manufacturing facilities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, R.; Williamson, M.

    1992-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Control Technology Center (CTC) conducted a study to obtain information on the baker's yeast manufacturing industry. Baker's yeast is produced by a fermentation process that generates large quantities of ethanol and acetaldehyde. Currently, 13 facilities produce baker's yeast in the United States. The volatile organic compound (VOC) emission rate from a typical facility is estimated at 82 megagrams per year (90 tons per year). The majority of these emissions occurs in the final trade fermentations. The VOC emission alternatives that were evaluated during the study were process control measures to reduce the formation of VOC emissions as well as wet scrubbers, carbon adsorbers, incinerators, condensers, and biological filters to control VOC emissions. Of these approaches, it appears that process control measures, catalytic incinerators, or a combination of add-on control techniques (e.g., wet scrubbers followed by an incinerator or a biological filter) are the most feasible approaches for controlling yeast process emissions. Based on the results of the study, the control efficiency associated with the add-on control systems is estimated to be 95 to 98 percent. The report contains information on the baker's yeast fermentation process, the number and locations of yeast plants, the potential emissions from the process, and an evaluation of potential emission control options.

  2. Add-on prolonged-release melatonin for cognitive function and sleep in mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease: a 6-month, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Alan G; Farmer, Mildred; Harari, Gil; Fund, Naama; Laudon, Moshe; Nir, Tali; Frydman-Marom, Anat; Zisapel, Nava

    2014-01-01

    Purpose A link between poor sleep quality and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has recently been suggested. Since endogenous melatonin levels are already reduced at preclinical AD stages, it is important to ask whether replenishing the missing hormone would be beneficial in AD and whether any such effects would be related to the presence of sleep disorder in patients. Patients and methods The effects of add-on prolonged-release melatonin (PRM) (2 mg) to standard therapy on cognitive functioning and sleep were investigated in 80 patients (men [50.7%], women [49.3%], average age 75.3 years [range, 52–85 years]) diagnosed with mild to moderate AD, with and without insomnia comorbidity, and receiving standard therapy (acetylcholinesterase inhibitors with or without memantine). In this randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study, patients were treated for 2 weeks with placebo and then randomized (1:1) to receive 2 mg of PRM or placebo nightly for 24 weeks, followed by 2 weeks placebo. The AD Assessment Scale–Cognition (ADAS-Cog), Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL), Mini–Mental State Examination (MMSE), sleep, as assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and a daily sleep diary, and safety parameters were measured. Results Patients treated with PRM (24 weeks) had significantly better cognitive performance than those treated with placebo, as measured by the IADL (P=0.004) and MMSE (P=0.044). Mean ADAS-Cog did not differ between the groups. Sleep efficiency, as measured by the PSQI, component 4, was also better with PRM (P=0.017). In the comorbid insomnia (PSQI ≥6) subgroup, PRM treatment resulted in significant and clinically meaningful effects versus the placebo, in mean IADL (P=0.032), MMSE score (+1.5 versus −3 points) (P=0.0177), and sleep efficiency (P=0.04). Median ADAS-Cog values (−3.5 versus +3 points) (P=0.045) were significantly better with PRM. Differences were more significant at longer treatment duration. PRM was well

  3. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Rrrr of... - Operating Limits if Using the Emission Rate With Add-on Controls Option

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must not fall below..., as established in Method 204 of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51 i. collecting the direction of air flow.... measuring the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each...

  4. 40 CFR 63.4966 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, and the carbon bed temperature after each carbon bed regeneration and cooling cycle, for the regeneration... provisions for the use of an alternative monitoring method as set forth in 40 CFR 63.8(f)....

  5. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Nnnn of... - Operating Limits if Using the Emission Rate With Add-On Controls Option

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must not... least 0.007 inch H2O, as established in Method 204 of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51 See item 6.a. of this.... measuring the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each...

  6. 40 CFR 63.4767 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, and the carbon bed temperature after each carbon bed regeneration and cooling cycle for the regeneration cycle either immediately... are the minimum total desorbing gas mass flow recorded during the regeneration cycle, and the...

  7. 40 CFR 63.3967 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (1) You must monitor and record the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, and the carbon bed temperature after each carbon bed regeneration and cooling cycle for the regeneration cycle either immediately preceding or immediately following...

  8. 40 CFR 63.3967 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... (1) You must monitor and record the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, and the carbon bed temperature after each carbon bed regeneration and cooling cycle for the regeneration cycle either immediately preceding or immediately following...

  9. 40 CFR 63.3556 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... must monitor and record the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, and the carbon bed temperature after each carbon bed regeneration and cooling cycle for the regeneration cycle either immediately preceding or immediately following the...

  10. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Mmmm of... - Operating Limits if Using the Emission Rate With Add-On Controls Option

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle according to § 63.3968(d); andii. Maintaining the total... at least 0.007 inch H2O, as established in Method 204 of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51 i. See items 6... carbon adsorber a. The total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for...

  11. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Qqqq of... - Operating Limits if Using the Emission Rate With Add-On Controls Option

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....007 inch H2O, as established in Method 204 of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51 i. See items 5.a.i and 5.a... total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must not fall below the total regeneration desorbing gas mass flow limit established according...

  12. 40 CFR 63.4567 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, and the carbon bed temperature after each carbon bed regeneration and cooling cycle for the regeneration cycle either immediately preceding or... the minimum total desorbing gas mass flow recorded during the regeneration cycle and the...

  13. 40 CFR 63.4167 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle and the carbon bed temperature after each carbon bed regeneration and cooling cycle for the regeneration cycle either immediately... are the minimum total desorbing gas mass flow recorded during the regeneration cycle and the...

  14. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Nnnn of... - Operating Limits if Using the Emission Rate With Add-On Controls Option

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must not... least 0.007 inch H2O, as established in Method 204 of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51 See item 6.a. of this.... measuring the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each...

  15. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Rrrr of... - Operating Limits if Using the Emission Rate With Add-on Controls Option

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must not fall below..., as established in Method 204 of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51 i. collecting the direction of air flow.... measuring the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each...

  16. 40 CFR 63.4567 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, and the carbon bed temperature after each carbon bed regeneration and cooling cycle for the regeneration cycle either immediately preceding or... the minimum total desorbing gas mass flow recorded during the regeneration cycle and the...

  17. 40 CFR 63.3556 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... must monitor and record the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, and the carbon bed temperature after each carbon bed regeneration and cooling cycle for the regeneration cycle either immediately preceding or immediately following the...

  18. 40 CFR 63.4167 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle and the carbon bed temperature after each carbon bed regeneration and cooling cycle for the regeneration cycle either immediately preceding or immediately following... desorbing gas mass flow recorded during the regeneration cycle and the maximum carbon bed...

  19. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Rrrr of... - Operating Limits if Using the Emission Rate With Add-on Controls Option

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must not fall below..., as established in Method 204 of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51 i. collecting the direction of air flow.... measuring the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each...

  20. 40 CFR 63.4767 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and record the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, and the carbon bed temperature after each carbon bed regeneration and cooling cycle for the regeneration cycle either immediately preceding or immediately following the performance test. (2)...

  1. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Nnnn of... - Operating Limits if Using the Emission Rate With Add-On Controls Option

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must not... least 0.007 inch H2O, as established in Method 204 of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51 See item 6.a. of this.... measuring the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each...

  2. 40 CFR 63.3546 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... must monitor and record the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, and the carbon bed temperature after each carbon bed regeneration and cooling cycle for the regeneration cycle either immediately preceding or immediately following the...

  3. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Qqqq of... - Operating Limits if Using the Emission Rate With Add-On Controls Option

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....007 inch H2O, as established in Method 204 of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51 i. See items 5.a.i and 5.a... total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must not fall below the total regeneration desorbing gas mass flow limit established according...

  4. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Qqqq of... - Operating Limits if Using the Emission Rate With Add-On Controls Option

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....007 inch H2O, as established in Method 204 of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51 i. See items 5.a.i and 5.a... total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must not fall below the total regeneration desorbing gas mass flow limit established according...

  5. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Mmmm of... - Operating Limits if Using the Emission Rate With Add-On Controls Option

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle according to § 63.3968(d); andii. Maintaining the total... at least 0.007 inch H2O, as established in Method 204 of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51 i. See items 6... carbon adsorber a. The total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for...

  6. 40 CFR 63.3546 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, and the carbon bed temperature after each carbon bed regeneration and cooling cycle for the regeneration cycle either immediately... are the minimum total desorbing gas mass flow recorded during the regeneration cycle, and the...

  7. 40 CFR 63.4966 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, and the carbon bed temperature after each carbon bed regeneration and cooling cycle, for the regeneration... provisions for the use of an alternative monitoring method as set forth in 40 CFR 63.8(f)....

  8. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Qqqq of... - Operating Limits if Using the Emission Rate With Add-On Controls Option

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....007 inch H2O, as established in Method 204 of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51 i. See items 5.a.i and 5.a... total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must not fall below the total regeneration desorbing gas mass flow limit established according...

  9. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Rrrr of... - Operating Limits if Using the Emission Rate With Add-on Controls Option

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must not fall below..., as established in Method 204 of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51 i. collecting the direction of air flow.... measuring the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each...

  10. 40 CFR 63.9324 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... performance test, you must monitor and record the temperature just before the catalyst bed and the temperature difference across the catalyst bed at least once every 15 minutes during each of the three test runs. (2) Use... before the catalyst bed and the average temperature difference across the catalyst bed maintained...

  11. 40 CFR 63.9324 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... performance test, you must monitor and record the temperature just before the catalyst bed and the temperature difference across the catalyst bed at least once every 15 minutes during each of the three test runs. (2) Use... before the catalyst bed and the average temperature difference across the catalyst bed maintained...

  12. 40 CFR 63.9324 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... performance test, you must monitor and record the temperature just before the catalyst bed and the temperature difference across the catalyst bed at least once every 15 minutes during each of the three test runs. (2) Use... before the catalyst bed and the average temperature difference across the catalyst bed maintained...

  13. 40 CFR 63.9324 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... performance test, you must monitor and record the temperature just before the catalyst bed and the temperature difference across the catalyst bed at least once every 15 minutes during each of the three test runs. (2) Use... before the catalyst bed and the average temperature difference across the catalyst bed maintained...

  14. 40 CFR 63.3546 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the performance test, you must monitor and record the combustion temperature at least once every 15 minutes during each of the three test runs. You must monitor the temperature in the firebox of the thermal...) and (4) of this section. (1) During the performance test, you must monitor and record the...

  15. 40 CFR 63.3556 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... this section. (1) During the performance test, you must monitor and record the combustion temperature at least once every 15 minutes during each of the three test runs. You must monitor the temperature...)(1) and (2) or paragraphs (b)(3) and (4) of this section. (1) During the performance test, you...

  16. 40 CFR 63.9324 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and record the combustion temperature at least once every 15 minutes during each of the three test... performance test to calculate and record the average combustion temperature maintained during the performance test. This average combustion temperature is the minimum operating limit for your thermal oxidizer....

  17. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Mmmm of... - Operating Limits if Using the Emission Rate With Add-On Controls Option

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... at least 0.007 inch H2O, as established in Method 204 of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51 i. See items 6... carbon adsorber a. The total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must not fall below the total regeneration desorbing gas mass flow...

  18. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Rrrr of... - Operating Limits if Using the Emission Rate With Add-on Controls Option

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., as established in Method 204 of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51 i. collecting the direction of air flow... practicable consistent with the manufacturer's recommendations. 3. carbon adsorber a. the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must not fall...

  19. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Qqqq of... - Operating Limits if Using the Emission Rate With Add-On Controls Option

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....007 inch H2O, as established in Method 204 of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51 i. See items 5.a.i and 5.a... inspection and maintenance plan developed according to § 63.4767(b)(3) and (4). 3. Carbon absorber a. The total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed...

  20. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Nnnn of... - Operating Limits if Using the Emission Rate With Add-On Controls Option

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... least 0.007 inch H2O, as established in Method 204 of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51 See item 6.a. of this... soon as practicable consistent with the manufacturer's recommendations. 3. carbon adsorber a. the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must...

  1. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Nnnn of... - Operating Limits if Using the Emission Rate With Add-On Controls Option

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... least 0.007 inch H2O, as established in Method 204 of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51 See item 6.a. of this... soon as practicable consistent with the manufacturer's recommendations. 3. carbon adsorber a. the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must...

  2. ADVANCED EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    G.A. Farthing

    2001-02-06

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, or air toxics) from coal-fired boilers. The project goal is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (baghouses), and wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) systems. Development work initially concentrated on the capture of trace metals, fine particulate, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen fluoride. Recent work has focused almost exclusively on the control of mercury emissions.

  3. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    G. A. Farthing; G. T. Amrhein; G. A. Kudlac; D. A. Yurchison; D. K. McDonald; M. G. Milobowski

    2001-03-31

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, or air toxics) from coal-fired boilers. This objective is being met by identifying ways to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (fabric filters), and wet flue gas desulfurization (wet FGD) systems. Development work initially concentrated on the capture of trace metals, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen fluoride. Recent work has focused almost exclusively on the control of mercury emissions.

  4. Emission control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor); Chung, J. Landy (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Methods and apparatus utilizing hydrogen peroxide are useful to reduce SOx and mercury (or other heavy metal) emissions from combustion flue gas streams. The methods and apparatus may further be modified to reduce NOx emissions. Continuous concentration of hydrogen peroxide to levels approaching or exceeding propellant-grade hydrogen peroxide facilitates increased system efficiency. In this manner, combustion flue gas streams can be treated for the removal of SOx and heavy metals, while isolating useful by-products streams of sulfuric acid as well as solids for the recovery of the heavy metals. Where removal of NOx emissions is included, nitric acid may also be isolated for use in fertilizer or other industrial applications.

  5. Emission control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Methods and apparatus utilizing hydrogen peroxide are useful to reduce NOx, SOx and mercury (or other heavy metal) emissions from combustion flue gas streams. Continuous concentration of hydrogen peroxide to levels approaching or exceeding propellant-grade hydrogen peroxide facilitates increased system efficiency. In this manner, combustion flue gas streams can be treated for the removal of NOx, SOx and heavy metals, while isolating useful by-products streams of sulfuric acid and nitric acid as well as solids for the recovery of the heavy metals.

  6. Efficacy and Safety of Alirocumab as Add-on Therapy in High–Cardiovascular-Risk Patients With Hypercholesterolemia Not Adequately Controlled With Atorvastatin (20 or 40 mg) or Rosuvastatin (10 or 20 mg): Design and Rationale of the ODYSSEY OPTIONS Studies

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Jennifer G; Colhoun, Helen M; Bays, Harold E; Jones, Peter H; Du, Yunling; Hanotin, Corinne; Donahue, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The phase 3 ODYSSEY OPTIONS studies (OPTIONS I, NCT01730040; OPTIONS II, NCT01730053) are multicenter, multinational, randomized, double-blind, active-comparator, 24-week studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of alirocumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody targeting proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, as add-on therapy in ∼ 650 high-cardiovascular (CV)-risk patients whose low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are ≥100 mg/dL or ≥70 mg/dL according to the CV-risk category, high and very high CV risk, respectively, with atorvastatin (20–40 mg/d) or rosuvastatin (10–20 mg/d). Patients are randomized to receive alirocumab 75 mg via a single, subcutaneous, 1-mL injection by prefilled pen every 2 weeks (Q2W) as add-on therapy to atorvastatin (20–40 mg) or rosuvastatin (10–20 mg); or to receive ezetimibe 10 mg/d as add-on therapy to statin; or to receive statin up-titration; or to switch from atorvastatin to rosuvastatin (OPTIONS I only). At week 12, based on week 8 LDL-C levels, the alirocumab dose may be increased from 75 mg to 150 mg Q2W if LDL-C levels remain ≥100 mg/dL or ≥70 mg/dL in patients with high or very high CV risk, respectively. The primary efficacy endpoint in both studies is difference in percent change in calculated LDL-C from baseline to week 24 in the alirocumab vs control arms. The studies may provide guidance to inform clinical decision-making when patients with CV risk require additional lipid-lowering therapy to further reduce LDL-C levels. The flexibility of the alirocumab dosing regimen allows for individualized therapy based on the degree of LDL-C reduction required to achieve the desired LDL-C level. PMID:25269777

  7. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    A.P.Evans; K.E. Redinger; M.J. Holmes

    1998-04-01

    The objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. Ideally, the project aim is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPS), fabric filters (baghouse), and wet flue gas desulfurization. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate and hydrogen chloride. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on the evaluation of mercury and several other air toxics emissions. The AECDP is jointly funded by the United States Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (oCDO), and Babcock& Wilcox-a McDermott company (B&W).

  8. Advanced Emission Control Development Program.

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A.P.

    1997-12-31

    Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B&W`s new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  9. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A P

    1998-12-03

    Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B&W's new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  10. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    M. J. Holmes

    1998-12-03

    McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using the Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  11. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    A. P. Evans

    1998-12-03

    McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using the Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  12. Exhaust emission control apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Eng, J.W.

    1991-09-24

    This patent describes an exhaust control apparatus for muffling noise and treating odors and pollutants, including solid particulate and gases in the exhaust of an internal combustion engine. It comprises an exhaust inlet tube for receiving the exhaust generated by an internal combustion engine; a cyclone barrier concentrically surrounding the exhaust inlet tube, a ring cavity between the cyclone tube and exhaust inlet tube defining a cyclone chamber in which the exhaust is treated; means for directing the exhaust from the exhaust inlet tube into the cyclone chamber; electrode means having small openings through which the exhaust passes to enter the cyclone chamber, the electrode means generating electrostatic forces which charge the solid particulate in the exhaust, ionize air and generate ozone in the cyclone chamber near the electrode; means for injecting air into the cyclone chamber causing centrifugal flow of the air and the exhausted within the cyclone chamber and increasing a dwell time of the exhaust within the cyclone chamber.

  13. ERDA's portfolio: solar add-on device construction manuals

    SciTech Connect

    Barron, J.J.; Cole, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (ERDA) has developed a portfolio of eight (8) instructional manuals for the construction of the following solar add-on devices: thermosiphoning hot water system; standard domestic hot water system; bread box type hot water system; add-on greenhouse space heating system (with mass); add-on sunspace space heating system (without mass); thermosiphoning air panel space heating system; fan assisted air panel space heating system; Trombe wall space heating system. In addition to step-by-step instructions and illustrations of device construction, each manual contains a list of materials and specifications (including estimated costs in 1980 dollars and sources of supply), guidelines for appropriate siting and installation, and energy performance estimates under optimal and non-optimal conditions. This portfolio of solar add-on devices is directed toward the do-it-yourself homeowner, builders and home improvement contractors, and weatherization organizations. Each instruction manual is a complete, self-contained module suitable for distribution separately or as part of the portfolio. Each manual also has an educational module associated with it including color slides, which is designed for use by community colleges, industrial high schools and adult educational programs. An outline is presented of the content of the design packages,as well as a description of ERDA's plans for distribution of the designs and educating the public on their use, and information on how to obtain individual construction manuals or the entire portfolio.

  14. Linagliptin as add-on therapy to insulin for patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    von Websky, Karoline; Reichetzeder, Christoph; Hocher, Berthold

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a highly prevalent, progressive disease that often is poorly controlled. The combination of an incretin-based therapy and insulin is a promising approach to optimize the management of glycemic control without hypoglycemia and weight gain. Linagliptin, a recently approved oral dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, has a unique pharmacological profile. The convenient, once-daily dosing does not need adjustment in patients with hepatic and/or renal impairment. In clinical studies linagliptin shows an important reduction of blood glucose with an overall safety profile similar to that of placebo. So far, the combination of linagliptin and insulin has been tested in three major clinical studies in different populations. It has been shown that linagliptin is an effective and safe add-on therapy to insulin in patients with T2DM. The efficacy and safety of this combination was also shown in vulnerable, elderly T2DM patients and in patients with T2DM and renal impairment. Favorable effects regarding the counteraction of hypoglycemia make linagliptin especially interesting as an add-on therapy to insulin. This review aims to present the existing clinical studies on the efficacy and safety of linagliptin as add-on therapy to insulin in patients with T2DM in the context of current literature. Additionally, the possible advantages of linagliptin as an add-on therapy to insulin in relation to cardiovascular safety, patient-centered therapy and the prevention of hypoglycemia, are discussed. PMID:24204157

  15. Stereovision Imaging in Smart Mobile Phone Using Add on Prisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Magen Numhauser, Jonathan; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2014-03-01

    In this work we present the use of a prism-based add on component installed on top of a smart phone to achieve stereovision capabilities using iPhone mobile operating system. Through these components and the combination of the appropriate application programming interface and mathematical algorithms the obtained results will permit the analysis of possible enhancements for new uses to such system, in a variety of areas including medicine and communications.

  16. 40 CFR 63.4332 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., and Dyeing of Fabrics and Other Textiles Compliance Requirements for the Emission Rate Without Add-on... according to § 63.4331(a) for web coating/printing operations and according to § 63.4331(b) for dyeing... operation or dyeing/finishing operation for which you used the emission rate without add-on controls...

  17. 40 CFR 63.4332 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., and Dyeing of Fabrics and Other Textiles Compliance Requirements for the Emission Rate Without Add-on... according to § 63.4331(a) for web coating/printing operations and according to § 63.4331(b) for dyeing... operation or dyeing/finishing operation for which you used the emission rate without add-on controls...

  18. 40 CFR 63.4163 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Surface Coating of Large Appliances Compliance Requirements for the Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4163...

  19. 40 CFR 63.4152 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Surface Coating of Large Appliances Compliance Requirements for the Emission Rate Without Add-on Controls Option §...

  20. Exhaust emission control and diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    Mazur, Christopher John; Upadhyay, Devesh

    2006-11-14

    A diesel engine emission control system uses an upstream oxidation catalyst and a downstream SCR catalyst to reduce NOx in a lean exhaust gas environment. The engine and upstream oxidation catalyst are configured to provide approximately a 1:1 ratio of NO to NO2 entering the downstream catalyst. In this way, the downstream catalyst is insensitive to sulfur contamination, and also has improved overall catalyst NOx conversion efficiency. Degradation of the system is determined when the ratio provided is no longer near the desired 1:1 ratio. This condition is detected using measurements of engine operating conditions such as from a NOx sensor located downstream of the catalysts. Finally, control action to adjust an injected amount of reductant in the exhaust gas based on the actual NO to NO2 ratio upstream of the SCR catalyst and downstream of the oxidation catalyst.

  1. Rituximab add-on therapy for breakthrough relapsing multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Naismith, R.T.; Piccio, L.; Lyons, J.A.; Lauber, J.; Tutlam, N.T.; Parks, B.J.; Trinkaus, K.; Song, S.K.; Cross, A.H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: B cells and the humoral immune system have been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). This study sought to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of add-on therapy with rituximab, a monoclonal antibody that depletes circulating B cells, in subjects with relapsing MS with breakthrough disease defined by clinical and MRI activity (Class III evidence). Methods: Thirty subjects with a relapse within the past 18 months despite use of an injectable disease-modifying agent, and with at least 1 gadolinium-enhancing (GdE) lesion on any of 3 pretreatment MRIs, received rituximab administered at 375 mg/m2 weekly × 4 doses. Three monthly posttreatment brain MRI scans were obtained beginning 12 weeks after the first infusion. Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC) and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) were obtained at baseline and throughout the posttreatment follow-up. Results: GdE lesions were reduced after treatment with rituximab, with 74% of posttreatment MRI scans being free of GdE activity compared with 26% free of GdE activity at baseline (p < 0.0001). Median GdE lesions were reduced from 1.0 to 0, and mean number was reduced from 2.81 per month to 0.33 after treatment (88% reduction). MSFC improved as well (p = 0.02). EDSS remained stable. Conclusion: Rituximab add-on therapy was effective based upon blinded radiologic endpoints in this phase II study. In combination with standard injectable therapies, rituximab was well-tolerated with no serious adverse events. B-cell–modulating therapy remains a potential option for treatment of patients with relapsing MS with an inadequate response to standard injectable therapies. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that add-on rituximab reduces gadolinium-enhancing brain lesions in multiple sclerosis. GLOSSARY DMT = disease-modifying therapy; EDSS = Expanded Disability Status Scale; FOV = field of view; GdE = gadolinium-enhancing; HACA = human

  2. PARTICULATE EMISSION MEASUREMENTS FROM CONTROLLED CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarized the results of field testing of the effectiveness of control measures for sources of fugitive particulate emissions found at construction sites. The effectiveness of watering temporary, unpaved travel surfaces on emissions of particulate matter with aerodyna...

  3. A subsurface add-on for standard atomic force microscopes

    SciTech Connect

    Verbiest, G. J.; Zalm, D. J. van der; Oosterkamp, T. H.; Rost, M. J.

    2015-03-15

    The application of ultrasound in an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) gives access to subsurface information. However, no commercially AFM exists that is equipped with this technique. The main problems are the electronic crosstalk in the AFM setup and the insufficiently strong excitation of the cantilever at ultrasonic (MHz) frequencies. In this paper, we describe the development of an add-on that provides a solution to these problems by using a special piezo element with a lowest resonance frequency of 2.5 MHz and by separating the electronic connection for this high frequency piezo element from all other connections. In this sense, we support researches with the possibility to perform subsurface measurements with their existing AFMs and hopefully pave also the way for the development of a commercial AFM that is capable of imaging subsurface features with nanometer resolution.

  4. Study protocol of Prednisone in episodic Cluster Headache (PredCH): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral prednisone as an add-on therapy in the prophylactic treatment of episodic cluster headache with verapamil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Episodic cluster headache (ECH) is a primary headache disorder that severely impairs patient’s quality of life. First-line therapy in the initiation of a prophylactic treatment is verapamil. Due to its delayed onset of efficacy and the necessary slow titration of dosage for tolerability reasons prednisone is frequently added by clinicians to the initial prophylactic treatment of a cluster episode. This treatment strategy is thought to effectively reduce the number and intensity of cluster attacks in the beginning of a cluster episode (before verapamil is effective). This study will assess the efficacy and safety of oral prednisone as an add-on therapy to verapamil and compare it to a monotherapy with verapamil in the initial prophylactic treatment of a cluster episode. Methods and design PredCH is a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with parallel study arms. Eligible patients with episodic cluster headache will be randomized to a treatment intervention with prednisone or a placebo arm. The multi-center trial will be conducted in eight German headache clinics that specialize in the treatment of ECH. Discussion PredCH is designed to assess whether oral prednisone added to first-line agent verapamil helps reduce the number and intensity of cluster attacks in the beginning of a cluster episode as compared to monotherapy with verapamil. Trial registration German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00004716 PMID:23889923

  5. Coke pushing emission control system

    SciTech Connect

    Kwasnoski, D.; Symons, C.

    1980-07-08

    A method is described for controlling coke oven emissions comprising the steps of: (A) aligning a one-spot, open-top coke quenching car with the coke oven, (B) providing a coke guide from the coke oven to the car, (C) positioning a fume hood over the car, with the fume hood having a length about equal to the length of the car, (D) pushing hot coke from the coke oven through the coke guide and into the car, (E) withdrawing gases from the fume hood during step (D) and passing said gases to gas cleaning equipment at a gas flowrate of between about 1000 and about 3500 scfmd per ton of coke pushed under step (D), and (F) substantially upon completion of step (E) moving the car from under the fume hood to a quenching station with the hot coke in the car exposed to the atmosphere and without further withdrawal of gases from the hot coke to the gas cleaning equipment.

  6. Realization of dynamic thermal emission control.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Takuya; De Zoysa, Menaka; Asano, Takashi; Noda, Susumu

    2014-10-01

    Thermal emission in the infrared range is important in various fields of research, including chemistry, medicine and atmospheric science. Recently, the possibility of controlling thermal emission based on wavelength-scale optical structures has been intensively investigated with a view towards a new generation of thermal emission devices. However, all demonstrations so far have involved the 'static' control of thermal emission; high-speed modulation of thermal emission has proved difficult to achieve because the intensity of thermal emission from an object is usually determined by its temperature, and the frequency of temperature modulation is limited to 10-100 Hz even when the thermal mass of the object is small. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the dynamic control of thermal emission via the control of emissivity (absorptivity), at a speed four orders of magnitude faster than is possible using the conventional temperature-modulation method. Our approach is based on the dynamic control of intersubband absorption in n-type quantum wells, which is enhanced by an optical resonant mode in a photonic crystal slab. The extraction of electrical carriers from the quantum wells leads to an immediate change in emissivity from 0.74 to 0.24 at the resonant wavelength while maintaining much lower emissivity at all other wavelengths. PMID:25064232

  7. Ecological controls over monoterpene emissions from confiers

    SciTech Connect

    Lerdau, M.T.

    1994-01-01

    Ecological controls over monoterpene emissions from two species of conifers, Ponderosa pine and Douglas fir are studied. Monoterpenes are hydrocarbons that serve as part of these plant's chemical defense system. They are highly volatile and make up approximately 40% of the reduced carbon budget of the lower atmosphere playing a major role in tropospheric photochemistry. Previous research has emphasized the controls over emissions from any one plant at any one time. This paper considers some of the controls over the baseline emission rates from different plants. In field studies on Ponderosa pine and greenhouse experiments with Douglas fir in which photosynthesis, tissue chemistry, and monoterpene emissions were measured, there is a strong correlation between the concentration of particular monoterpenes within foliage and emissions from that foliage. Changes in pine photosynthesis were not correlated with changes in monoterpene emissions. In Douglas fir a strong relationship existed among nitrogen availability, phenology (seasonal plant growth), and monoterpene concentration and emission. When foliage is not expanding, there is a direct relationship among nitrogen availability and monoterpene concentrations and emissions. However, during that time of the year when needles are expanding, there is a negative relationship among nitrogen availability and monoterpene concentrations and emissions. From these results I have parameterized a model of monoterpene emissions from vegetation that runs as a subroutine of an ecosystem gas exchange model. The model includes the physiochemical controls on instantaneous flux found in previous work and biological controls on baseline emission rates. Results from initial simulations suggest that low temperatures can decouple monoterpene concentrations from monoterpene emissions. These results also indicate that herbivory could be a major factor controlling monoterpene emissions from forests.

  8. Controlling air emissions from incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Foisy, M.B.; Li, R.; Chattapadhyay, A.

    1994-04-01

    Last year, EPA published final rules establishing technical standards for the use and disposal of wastewater biosolids (40 CFR, Part 503). Subpart E specifically regulates the operations of and emissions from municipal wastewater biosolids incinerators.

  9. Source characterization and control technology assessment of methylene chloride emissions from Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, NY. Final report, July 1988-April 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Walata, S.A.; Rehm, R.M.

    1989-07-01

    This report gives results of an assessment of potential control technologies for methylene chloride (also known as dichloromethane or DCM) emission sources at Eastman Kodak Company's Kodak Park facility in Rochester, NY. DCM is a solvent used by Kodak in the manufacture of cellulose triacetate film support. Work has involved: a plant visit where major DCM emission sources were inspected, and evaluation of current and potential control technologies for the DCM emission sources. The report contains information gathered during the plant visit to the Kodak Park facility. Included are emission estimates determined by Kodak of all emission points greater than 8000 lb (3600 kg)/yr DCM, as well as a description of each point observed during the visit. Also included are results of an evaluation of control technologies that might be applied to the major emission sources. A cost analysis of different add-on control devices is provided for four of the uncontrolled emission points.

  10. What’s next after metformin? focus on sulphonylurea: add-on or combination therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Phei C.; Chong, Chee P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) mainly focused on insulin resistance and insulin deficiency over the past decades. Currently, the pathophysiologies expanded to ominous octet and guidelines were updated with newer generation of antidiabetic drug classes. However, many patients had yet to achieve their target glycaemic control. Although all the guidelines suggested metformin as first line, there was no definite consensus on the second line drug agents as variety of drug classes were recommended. Objectives: The aim of this review was to evaluate the drug class after metformin especially sulphonylurea and issues around add-on or fixed dose combination therapy. Methods: Extensive literature search for English language articles, clinical practice guidelines and references was performed using electronic databases. Results: Adding sulphonylurea to metformin targeted both insulin resistance and insulin deficiency. Sulphonylurea was efficacious and cheaper than thiazolidinedione, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, glucagon-like peptide 1 analogue and insulin. The main side effect of sulphonylurea was hypoglycaemia but there was no effect on the body weight when combining with metformin. Fixed dose sulphonylurea/metformin was more efficacious at lower dose and reported to have fewer side effects with better adherence. Furthermore, fixed dose combination was cheaper than add-on therapy. In conclusion, sulphonylurea was feasible as the second line agent after metformin as the combination targeted on two pathways, efficacious, cost-effective and had long safety history. Fixed dose combination tablet could improve patient’s adherence and offered an inexpensive and more efficacious option regardless of original or generic product as compared to add-on therapy. PMID:26445623

  11. Variable emissivity laser thermal control system

    DOEpatents

    Milner, Joseph R.

    1994-01-01

    A laser thermal control system for a metal vapor laser maintains the wall mperature of the laser at a desired level by changing the effective emissivity of the water cooling jacket. This capability increases the overall efficiency of the laser.

  12. Io control of Jovian radio emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desch, M. D.

    1980-01-01

    The possibility of Io controlling Jovian decametric radio emission, particularly in the region below 22 MHz, is discussed. Results of a two-year survey at 26.3 at 26.3 MHz are presented which demonstrate the control of Io over a high-intensity storm component of the radio emission and the independence of a weak radio component from the phase of Io, as was observed at lower frequencies. It is thus hypothesized that Io control is a flux-dependent rather than a frequency-dependent phenomenon, and results of analyses at 18 and 10 MHz which support this hypothesis are presented. The apparent correlation between frequency and Io control is thus shown to result from a selection effect due to the increase of non-Io emission with decreasing frequency and relative antenna detection threshold. This result implies a contiguous Io-controlled source region extending out several Jovian radii along the Io flux tube.

  13. Control of Jovian Radio Emission by Callisto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menietti, J. D.; Gurnett, D. A.; Christopher, I.

    2001-01-01

    Galileo has been in orbit around Jupiter since December 1995 and a large database has been collected. We present the results of a survey of the plasma wave data for the frequency range 2.0 MHz to 5.6 MHz, the low frequency decametric (DAM) emissions. While the control of a portion of the radio emission by the moon lo is well known, and Ganymede control has been more recently indicated, we report that a small but significant portion of DAM emission is seen to be correlated with the orbital phase of Callisto. While the occurrence rate of emission controlled by Ganymede and Callisto is considerably less than for lo, the power levels can be nearly the same. We estimate the power of the Callisto-dependent emission to be approx. 70% of the Io-dependent radio emission and about the same as the Ganymede-dependent radio emission. This result indicates an Alfven current system associated with Callisto, and thus a significant interaction of the magnetosphere of Callisto with that of Jupiter as is believed to exist for both lo and Ganymede.

  14. Experimental re-evaluation of flunarizine as add-on antiepileptic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Anamika; Sahai, A. K.; Thakur, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Experimental studies have found several calcium channel blockers with anticonvulsant property. Flunarizine is one of the most potent calcium channel blockers, which has shown anticonvulsant effect against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizures. However, further experimental and clinical trials have shown varied results. We conducted a PTZ model experimental study to re-evaluate the potential of flunarizine for add-on therapy in the management of refractory epilepsy. Materials and Methods: Experiments were conducted in PTZ model involving Swiss strain mice. Doses producing seizures in 50% and 99% mice, i.e. CD50 and CD99 values of PTZ were obtained from the dose-response study. Animals received graded, single dose of sodium valproate (100–300 mg/kg), lamotrigine (3–12 mg/kg) and flunarizine (5–20 mg/kg), and then each group of mice was injected with CD99 dose of PTZ (65mg/kg i.p.). Another group of mice received single ED50 dose (dose producing seizure protection in 50% mice) of sodium valproate and flunarizine separately in left and right side of abdomen. Results were analysed by Kruskal–Wallis ANOVA on Ranks test. Results: As compared to control, sodium valproate at 250 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg produced statistical significant seizure protection. At none of the pre-treatment dose levels of lamotrigine, the seizure score with PTZ differed significantly from that observed in the vehicle-treated group. Pre-treatment with flunarizine demonstrated dose-dependent decrease in the seizure score to PTZ administration. As compared to control group, flunarizine at 20 mg/kg produced statistical significant seizure protection. Conclusion: As combined use of sodium valproate and flunarizine has shown significant seizure protection in PTZ model, flunarizine has a potential for add-on therapy in refractory cases of partial seizures. It is therefore, we conclude that further experimental studies and multicenter clinical trials

  15. CONTROL OF AIR EMISSIONS FROM SUPERFUND SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This handbook is an easy-to-use tool for decision makers to evaluate emission control devices for use with Superfund remediation actions. t will assist in the selection of cost-effective control options. t is intended for use by engineers and scientists involved in preparing reme...

  16. Celecoxib Adjunctive Treatment to Antipsychotics in Schizophrenia: A Review of Randomized Clinical Add-On Trials.

    PubMed

    Marini, Stefano; De Berardis, Domenico; Vellante, Federica; Santacroce, Rita; Orsolini, Laura; Valchera, Alessandro; Girinelli, Gabriella; Carano, Alessandro; Fornaro, Michele; Gambi, Francesco; Martinotti, Giovanni; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe, chronic and debilitating mental disorder. Past literature has reported various hypotheses about the psychopathology of schizophrenia. Recently, a growing literature has been trying to explain the role of inflammation in the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia. In the past, numerous immune modulation and anti-inflammatory treatment options have been proposed for schizophrenia, but sometimes the results were inconsistent. Electronic search was carried out in November 2015. PubMed and Scopus databases have been used to find studies to introduce in this review. Only randomized-placebo-controlled add-on trials were taken into account. In this way, six articles were obtained for the discussion. Celecoxib showed beneficial effects mostly in early stages of schizophrenia. In chronic schizophrenia, the data are controversial, possibly in part for methodological reasons. PMID:27524864

  17. Celecoxib Adjunctive Treatment to Antipsychotics in Schizophrenia: A Review of Randomized Clinical Add-On Trials

    PubMed Central

    De Berardis, Domenico; Vellante, Federica; Santacroce, Rita; Orsolini, Laura; Valchera, Alessandro; Girinelli, Gabriella; Carano, Alessandro; Fornaro, Michele; Gambi, Francesco; Martinotti, Giovanni; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe, chronic and debilitating mental disorder. Past literature has reported various hypotheses about the psychopathology of schizophrenia. Recently, a growing literature has been trying to explain the role of inflammation in the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia. In the past, numerous immune modulation and anti-inflammatory treatment options have been proposed for schizophrenia, but sometimes the results were inconsistent. Electronic search was carried out in November 2015. PubMed and Scopus databases have been used to find studies to introduce in this review. Only randomized-placebo-controlled add-on trials were taken into account. In this way, six articles were obtained for the discussion. Celecoxib showed beneficial effects mostly in early stages of schizophrenia. In chronic schizophrenia, the data are controversial, possibly in part for methodological reasons. PMID:27524864

  18. Control of Jovian Radio Emission by Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menietti, J. D.; Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Groene, J. B.

    1998-01-01

    Galileo has been in orbit around Jupiter since December 1995. We present the results of a survey of the data for the frequency range 3.2 MHz to 5.6 MHz, the low-frequency decametric (DAM) emissions. While the control of a portion of the radio emission by the moon Io is well-known, we report that a small but significant portion of low-frequency DAM emission is seen to be correlated with the orbital phase of Ganymede. This result is in agreement with other recent results indicating a significant interaction of the magnetosphere of Ganymede with that of Jupiter.

  19. Advanced CIDI Emission Control System Development

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, Christine

    2006-05-31

    Ford Motor Company, with ExxonMobil and FEV, participated in the Department of Energy's (DOE) Ultra-Clean Transportation Fuels Program with the goal to develop an innovative emission control system for light-duty diesel vehicles. The focus on diesel engine emissions was a direct result of the improved volumetric fuel economy (up to 50%) and lower CO2 emissions (up to 25%) over comparable gasoline engines shown in Europe. Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) with aqueous urea as the NOx reductant and a Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter (CDPF) were chosen as the primary emission control system components. The program expected to demonstrate more than 90% durable reduction in particulate matter (PM) and NOx emissions on a light-duty truck application, based on the FTP-75 drive cycle. Very low sulfur diesel fuel (<15 ppm-wt) enabled lower PM emissions, reduced fuel economy penalty due to the emission control system and improved long-term system durability. Significant progress was made toward a durable system to meet Tier 2 Bin 5 emission standards on a 6000 lbs light-duty truck. A 40% reduction in engine-out NOx emissions was achieved with a mid-size prototype diesel engine through engine recalibration and increased exhaust gas recirculation. Use of a rapid warm-up strategy and urea SCR provided over 90% further NOx reduction while the CDPF reduced tailpipe PM to gasoline vehicle levels. Development work was conducted to separately improve urea SCR and CDPF system durability, as well as improved oxidation catalyst function. Exhaust gas NOx and ammonia sensors were also developed further. While the final emission control system did not meet Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx after 120k mi of aging on the dynamometer, it did meet the standards for HC, NMOG, and PM, and an improved SCR catalyst was shown to have potential to meet the NOx standard, assuming the DOC durability could be improved further. Models of DOC and SCR function were developed to guide the study of several key design

  20. Variable emissivity laser thermal control system

    DOEpatents

    Milner, J.R.

    1994-10-25

    A laser thermal control system for a metal vapor laser maintains the wall temperature of the laser at a desired level by changing the effective emissivity of the water cooling jacket. This capability increases the overall efficiency of the laser. 8 figs.

  1. FIRED HEATERS: NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSIONS AND CONTROLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from, and controls for, fired heaters. The petroleum refining and chemical manufacturing industries account for most of fired-heater energy use with an estimated 4600 fired heaters in operation, in these two in...

  2. CONTROLLING ODOROUS EMISSIONS FROM IRON FOUNDRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the control of odorous emissions from iron foundries. he main process sources of odors in iron foundries are mold and core making, casting, and sand shakeout. he odors are usually caused by chemicals, which may be present as binders and other additives to the...

  3. CONTROLLING EMISSIONS FROM FUEL AND WASTE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Control of emissions from combustion of fuels and wastes has been a traditional focus of air pollution regulations. Significant technology developments of the '50s and '60s have been refined into reliable chemical and physical process unit operations. In the U.S., acid rain legis...

  4. Efficacy and safety of muscarinic antagonists as add-on therapy for male lower urinary tract symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinhong; Shi, Qingquan; Bai, Yunjin; Pu, Chunxiao; Tang, Yin; Yuan, Haichao; Wu, Yunjian; Wei, Qiang; Han, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists (alpha-blockers) are widely prescribed to treat lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in men but fail to ameliorate LUTS sufficiently, especially the storage symptoms related to frequency, urgency and nocturia. We performed a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing an alpha-blocker plus muscarinic antagonist with an alpha-blocker alone in male LUTS patients who were treated with alpha-blocker prior to randomisation. The review contained six randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that included a total of 2,208 male patients who were randomised to receive alpha-blocker plus muscarinic antagonist or alpha-blocker alone. The add-on group experienced significantly greater improvement in both total IPSS (International Prostate Symptom Score) and storage IPSS. Adverse events (AEs) were commonly experienced by both groups (41.6 vs. 33.3%) though they were not severe. Our meta-analysis indicated that muscarinic antagonists as add-on therapy alleviate LUTS, especially storage symptoms. The add-on therapy demonstrated safety and tolerability comparable with alpha-blocker monotherapy in male with LUTS. PMID:24492830

  5. Effect and Potential Mechanism of Electroacupuncture Add-On Treatment in Patients with Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Sun, Li; Zhang, Xiao-Zhe; Jia, Jun; Liu, Zhuo; Huang, Xi-Yan; Yu, Shu-Yang; Zuo, Li-Jun; Cao, Chen-Jie; Wang, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To explore effectiveness and mechanisms of electroacupuncture (EA) add-on treatment in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Methods. Fifty PD patients were randomly assigned to drug plus EA (D + EA) group and drug alone (D) group. Subjects in D + EA group received stimulation in points of bilateral fengfu, fengchi, hegu, and central dazhui. Participants were evaluated by scales for motor and nonmotor symptoms. Levels of neuroinflammatory factors and neurotransmitters in serum were detected. Results. EA add-on treatment remarkably reduced scores of Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) III and its subitems of tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia and conspicuously decreased UPDRS III scores in patients with bradykinesia-rigidity and mixed types and mild severity. Depression and sleep disturbances were eased, which were reflected by decreased scores of Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and elevated noradrenaline level. Effects of EA add-on treatment on motor symptoms and sleep disturbances were superior to drug alone treatment, markedly improving life quality of PD patients. EA add-on treatment decreased nitric oxide level in serum. Conclusions. EA add-on treatment is effective on most motor symptoms and some nonmotor symptoms and is particularly efficacious in PD patients at early stage. Antineuroinflammation may be a mechanism of EA add-on treatment. PMID:26351515

  6. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program: Phase III

    SciTech Connect

    G.T. Amrhein; R.T. Bailey; W. Downs; M.J. Holmes; G.A. Kudlac; D.A. Madden

    1999-07-01

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. The project goal is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (baghouses - BH), and wet flue gas desulfurization systems (WFGD). Development work concentrated on the capture of trace metals, fine particulate, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride, with an emphasis on the control of mercury. The AECDP project is jointly funded by the US Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (OCDO), and Babcock and Wilcox, a McDermott company (B and W). This report discusses results of all three phases of the AECDP project with an emphasis on Phase III activities. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on characterization of the emissions of mercury and other air toxics and the control of these emissions for typical operating conditions of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment. Some general comments that can be made about the control of air toxics while burning a high-sulfur bituminous coal are as follows: (1) particulate control devices such as ESP's and baghouses do a good job of removing non-volatile trace metals, (2) particulate control devices (ESPs and baghouses) effectively remove the particulate-phase mercury, but the particulate-phase mercury was only a small fraction of the total for the coals tested, (3) wet scrubbing can effectively remove hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride, and (4) wet scrubbers show good potential for the removal of mercury when operated under certain conditions, however, for certain applications, system enhancements can be required to achieve high

  7. Controlling NOx emission from industrial sources

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, R.K.; Nueffer, W.; Grano, D.; Khan, S.; Staudt, J.E.; Jozewicz, W.

    2005-07-01

    A number of regulatory actions focused on reducing NOx emissions from stationary combustion sources have been taken in the United States in the last decade. These actions include the Acid Rain NOx regulations, the Ozone Transport Commission's NOx Budget Program, and the NOx SIP Call rulemakings. In addition to these regulations, the recent Interstate Air Quality Rulemaking proposal and other bills in the Congress are focusing on additional reductions of NOx. Industrial combustion sources accounted for about 18016 of NOx emissions in the United States in 2000 and constituted the second largest emitting source category within stationary sources, only behind electric utility sources. Based on these data, reduction of NOx emissions from industrial combustion sources is an important consideration in efforts undertaken to address the environmental concerns associated with NOx. This paper discusses primary and secondary NOx control technologies applicable to various major categories of industrial sources. The sources considered in this paper include large boilers, furnaces and fired heaters, combustion turbines, large IC engines, and cement kilns. For each source category considered in this paper, primary NOx controls are discussed first, followed by a discussion of secondary NOx controls.

  8. Factors controlling dimethylsulfide emission from salt marshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dacey, John W. H.; Wakeham, S. G.; Howes, B. L.

    1985-01-01

    The factors that control the emission of methylated gases from salt marshes are being studied. Research focusses on dimethylsulfide (DMS) formation and the mechanism of DMS and CH4 emission to the atmosphere. The approach is to consider the plants as valves regulating the emission of methylated gases to the atmosphere with the goal of developing appropriate methods for emission measurement. In the case of CH4, the sediment is the source and transport to the atmosphere occurs primarily through the internal gas spaces in the plants. The source of DMS appears to be dimethyl sulfoniopropionate (DMSP) which may play a role in osmoregulation in plant tissues. Concentrations of DMSP in leaves are typically several-fold higher than in roots and rhizomes. Even so, the large below ground biomass of this plant means that 2/3 of the DMSP in the ecosystem is below ground on the aerial basis. Upon introduction to sediment water, DMSP rapidly decomposes to DMS and acrylic acid. The solubility of a gas (its equilibrium vapor pressure) is a fundamental aspect of gas exchange kinetics. The first comprehensive study was conducted of DMS solubility in freshwater and seawater. Data suggest that the Setchenow relation holds for H at intermediate salinities collected. These data support the concept that the concentration of DMS in the atmosphere is far from equilibrium with seawater.

  9. Model Identification for Optimal Diesel Emissions Control

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, Andrew J.; Sun, Yannan; Song, Xiaobo; Parker, Gordon

    2013-06-20

    In this paper we develop a model based con- troller for diesel emission reduction using system identification methods. Specifically, our method minimizes the downstream readings from a production NOx sensor while injecting a minimal amount of urea upstream. Based on the linear quadratic estimator we derive the closed form solution to a cost function that accounts for the case some of the system inputs are not controllable. Our cost function can also be tuned to trade-off between input usage and output optimization. Our approach performs better than a production controller in simulation. Our NOx conversion efficiency was 92.7% while the production controller achieved 92.4%. For NH3 conversion, our efficiency was 98.7% compared to 88.5% for the production controller.

  10. Long-acting muscarinic antagonists: a potential add-on therapy in the treatment of asthma?

    PubMed

    Busse, William W; Dahl, Ronald; Jenkins, Christine; Cruz, Alvaro A

    2016-03-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways that is a major global burden on both individuals and healthcare systems. Despite guideline-directed treatment, a significant proportion of patients with asthma do not achieve control. This review focuses on the potential use of long-acting anticholinergics as bronchodilators in the treatment of asthma, with results published from clinical trials of glycopyrrolate, umeclidinium and tiotropium. The tiotropium clinical trial programme is the most advanced, with data available from a number of phase II and III studies of tiotropium as an add-on to inhaled corticosteroid maintenance therapy, with or without a long-acting β2-agonist, in patients across asthma severities. Recent studies using the Respimat Soft Mist inhaler have identified 5 µg once daily as the preferred dosing regimen, which has shown promising results in adults, adolescents and children with asthma. Tiotropium Respimat has recently been incorporated into the Global Initiative for Asthma 2015 treatment strategy as a recommended alternative therapy at steps 4 and 5 in adult patients with a history of exacerbations. The increasing availability of evidence from ongoing and future clinical trials will be beneficial in determining where long-acting anticholinergic agents fit in future treatment guidelines across a variety of patient populations and disease severities. PMID:26929422

  11. CONTROLLING MULTIPLE EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents and analyzes nine existing and novel control technologies designed to achieve multipollutant emissions reductions. It provides an evaluation of multipollutant emission control technologies that are potentially available for coal-fired power plants of 25 MW capa...

  12. Hot stuff controls for VOC emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Yewshenko, P.

    1995-12-01

    For close to three decades, American industry has paved the way and led the world in controlling volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. As more and more systems have been installed, the history of operation for the various types of systems has broadened dramatically, spurring significant technological advances, the traditional technologies and those on the cutting edge of VOC control. With the number of technologies available, the environmental professional may have a difficult task choosing the most strategic environmental solution. The conventional, traditional or proven methodology for VOC control has been incineration. Other technologies have been used for very specific applications. In deciding the specific type of incineration system to select, the environmental professional will look at a broad spectrum of evaluation factors. These include initial system cost, operational cost, maintenance requirements, reliability factors and most importantly, the projected success of achieving 99% VOC destruction efficiency. This article provides an overview of the basic differences among incineration technologies.

  13. REDUCING EMISSIONS FROM THE WOOD FURNITURE INDUSTRY WITH WATERBORNE COATINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This program was initiated to develop meaningful, defensible, and reliable data on emission reduction benefits from the use of reduced hydrocarbon finishes. The program also included assessing add-on emission control options and considering installation aspects such as costs. Thi...

  14. Emission control apparatus for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Strachan, J. B.

    1980-02-26

    Apparatus for controlling the emission of exhaust gases from a diesel engine used in mining operations consists of a purifier chamber within a water jacketed adaptor and having an inlet for connection to the outlet from the exhaust manifold of the engine. The purifier chamber contains a catalytic purifier for the reduction of carbon monoxide passing from the inlet of the purifier chamber to its outlet, which is connected to a water scrubber for the reduction of the temperature of exhaust gases, the removal of some of the products of combustion, and for quenching exhaust flames.

  15. Sensitivity analysis of add-on price estimate for select silicon wafering technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mokashi, A. R.

    1982-01-01

    The cost of producing wafers from silicon ingots is a major component of the add-on price of silicon sheet. Economic analyses of the add-on price estimates and their sensitivity internal-diameter (ID) sawing, multiblade slurry (MBS) sawing and fixed-abrasive slicing technique (FAST) are presented. Interim price estimation guidelines (IPEG) are used for estimating a process add-on price. Sensitivity analysis of price is performed with respect to cost parameters such as equipment, space, direct labor, materials (blade life) and utilities, and the production parameters such as slicing rate, slices per centimeter and process yield, using a computer program specifically developed to do sensitivity analysis with IPEG. The results aid in identifying the important cost parameters and assist in deciding the direction of technology development efforts.

  16. Improving the Laboratory Add-On Process and Increasing Housestaff Satisfaction with an EMR Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Shahnazarian, Vahe; Mehta, Parag

    2016-01-01

    At a community hospital in Brooklyn, New York, the process for ordering add-on testing to drawn blood tubes involved filling out a paper sheet, then faxing and bulleting that sheet to the lab. It was a very inefficient, cumbersome, and unsatisfactory way of completing the process. In light of this, an EMR intervention was implemented in which the add-on order was placed as an EMR order. The study spanned over almost five years, over a year of which was post-intervention. There was a statistically significant increase in the number of add-on orders being placed as a result of the intervention. This has greatly improved housestaff satisfaction with the overall process. In conclusion, the project was a great success and met its goals of simplifying a difficult and cumbersome process while increasing user satisfaction. PMID:27239309

  17. Continuous particulate monitoring for emission control

    SciTech Connect

    Bock, A.H. )

    1993-08-01

    An optical continuous particle monitoring system has been developed to overcome common problems associated with emissions monitoring equipment. Opacity monitors generally use a single- or double-pass system to analyze the presence of dust particles in the flue gas stream. The particles scatter and absorb light as it passes through the stack. As the particle content in the gas stream increases due to bag failure or some other problem, the amount of light that is blocked also increases. The opacity monitor compares the amount of lost light energy to the total energy of the light available and translates the signal to percentage of opacity. Opacity monitors are typically installed to meet the requirements set forth by pollution control agencies. Most opacity monitors are designed to meet all of the requirements of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 40 CFR, Part 60, Appendix B, Performance Specification. The new continuous particle monitor (CPM) increases the accuracy of emission monitoring and overcomes typical problems found in conventional emission monitoring devices. The CPM is an optically based, calibratible, continuous dust monitor that uses a microprocessor, transmitter head, and receiver head. When calibrated with an isokinetic sample, a continuous readout of particulate concentration (in mg/m[sup 3]) in the exhaust gas is provided. The system can be used as a filter bag failure system or a long-term emission trend analyzer. Formal testing was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the optically based CPM. The monitor was calibrated using particles of a range of compositions, size distributions, and concentrations. The feasibility of using the instrument to measure particle concentration as low as 10 mg/m[sup 3] was examined.

  18. Electrostatic control of acid mist emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlin, R S; Brown, T D

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a two-phased study of the control of acid mist emissions using a compact, wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP). The goal of the study was to determine the degree of acid mist control that could be achieved when a compact WESP is used to replace or augment the mist eliminators in a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. Phase I of the study examined the electrical operation of a lab-scale WESP collecting an acid mist from a coal combustion pilot plant equipped with a spray chamber. The results of this study were used to develop and validate a computer model of the WESP. In Phase II, measurements were made at two utility scrubber installations to determine the loadings of acid mist, fly ash, and scrubber carryover. These measurements were used as input to the model to project the performance of a retrofitted WESP.

  19. Xiaoqinglong Granules as Add-On Therapy for Asthma: Latent Class Analysis of Symptom Predictors of Response

    PubMed Central

    Zha, Qinglin; Lin, Seqi; Zhang, Chi; Chang, Christopher; Xue, Hanrong; Lu, Cheng; Jiang, Miao; Liu, Yan; Xiao, Zuke; Liu, Weiyou; Shang, Yunfei; Chen, Jianjian; Wen, Minyong; Lu, Aiping

    2013-01-01

    Xiaoqinglong granules (XQLG) has been shown to be an effective therapy in asthma animal models. We reviewed the literature and conducted this study to assess the impact of XQLG as an add-on therapy to treatment with fluticasone/salmeterol (seretide) in adult patients with mild-to-moderate, persistent asthma. A total of 178 patients were randomly assigned to receive XQLG and seretide or seretide plus placebo for 90 days. Asthma control was assessed by asthma control test (ACT), symptoms scores, FEV1, and PEF. Baseline patient-reported Chinese medicine (CM)-specific symptoms were analyzed to determine whether the symptoms may be possible indicators of treatment response by conducting latent class analysis (LCA). There was no statistically significant difference in ACT score between two groups. In the subset of 70 patients with symptoms defined by CM criteria, XQLG add-on therapy was found to significantly increase the levels of asthma control according to global initiative for asthma (GINA) guidelines (P = 0.0329). There was no significant difference in another subset of 100 patients with relatively low levels of the above-mentioned symptoms (P = 0.1291). Results of LCA suggest that patients with the six typical symptoms defined in CM may benefit from XQLG. PMID:23431348

  20. IDENTIFICATION, ASSESSMENT, AND CONTROL OF FUGITIVE PARTICULATE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The technical manual, designed to assist national, state, and local control agency personnel and industry personnel in evaluating fugitive emission control plans and in developing cost-effective control strategies, describes the identification, assessment, and control of fugitive...

  1. 40 CFR 63.4763 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Surface Coating of Wood Building Products Compliance Requirements for the Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63... in § 63.4761(h), you must treat the materials used during a deviation on a controlled...

  2. Increased inspiratory esophagogastric junction pressure in systemic sclerosis: An add-on to antireflux barrier

    PubMed Central

    Nobre e Souza, Miguel Ângelo; Bezerra, Patrícia Carvalho; Nobre, Rivianny Arrais; Holanda, Esther Studart da Fonseca; dos Santos, Armênio Aguiar

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate crural diaphragm (CD) function in systemic sclerosis (SSc) using high-resolution manometry and standardized inspiratory maneuvers. METHODS: Eight SSc volunteers (average age, 40.1 years; one male) and 13 controls (average age, 32.2 years; six males) participated in the study. A high-resolution manometry/impedance system measured the esophagus and esophagogastric junction (EGJ) pressure profile during swallows and two respiratory maneuvers: sinus arrhythmia maneuver (SAM; the average of six EGJ peak pressures during 5-s deep inhalations) and threshold maneuver (TM; the EGJ peak pressures during forced inhalation under 12 and 24 cmH2O loads). Inspiratory diaphragm lowering (IDL) was taken as the displacement of the EGJ high-pressure zone during the SAM. RESULTS: SSc patients had lower mean lower esophageal sphincter pressure than controls during normal breathing (19.7 ± 2.8 mmHg vs 32.2 ± 2.7 mmHg, P = 0.007). Sinus arrhythmia maneuver pressure was higher in SSc patients than in controls (142.6 ± 9.4 mmHg vs 104.6 ± 13.8 mmHg, P = 0.019). Sinus arrhythmia maneuver pressure normalized to IDL was also higher in SSc patients than in controls (83.8 ± 13.4 mmHg vs 37.5 ± 6.9 mmHg, P = 0.005). Threshold maneuver pressures normalized to IDL were also greater in SSc patients than in controls (TM 12 cmH2O: 85.1 ± 16.4 mmHg vs 43.9 ± 6.3 mmHg, P = 0.039; TM 24 cmH2O: 85.2 ± 16.4 mmHg vs 46.2 ± 6.6 mmHg, P = 0.065). Inspiratory diaphragm lowering in SSc patients was less than in controls (2.1 ± 0.3 cm vs 3 ± 0.2 cm, P = 0.011). CONCLUSION: SSc patients had increased inspiratory EGJ pressure. This is an add-on to EGJ pressure and indicates that the antireflux barrier can be trained. PMID:25717239

  3. Control emissions from marine vessel loading

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, G.N.; Cross, S.R.

    1994-03-01

    Regulations set by the US Coast Guard require safety measures during the loading of marine vessels connected to vapor collection systems. These regulations (which were promulgated in July 1990) immediately impacted all companies involved with the loading of benzene, due to previously enacted US Environmental Protection Agency regulations governing benzene transfer. In addition, regulations issued by the states of California, New Jersey, and Louisiana impose additional marine emission control requirements. These regulations effectively work together--the federal or state environmental rule first requires the collection of the vapors generate from vessel loading, and then the Coast Guard regulation governs the safety features that must be applied to the system. Depending on the vapor pressure of the chemical, a 10,000-barrel barge may emit over one ton of chemical to the atmosphere. Such large volumes make marine loading a prime target for the push to further reduce atmospheric pollution, and its is a good be that many more companies will be asked to look at the recovery of vapors during the loading of marine vessels. This article will aid the engineer who may be asked to evaluate the various methods of controlling emissions from vessel loading. It provides some guidance on the requirements of the Coast Guard regulations and briefly outlines some of the technologies that have been used to process the collected vapors. Some important design considerations unique to marine systems are discussed to help engineers avoid some of the potential pitfalls. Finally, some estimated costs are provided for two common types of marine vapor control systems.

  4. 40 CFR 89.110 - Emission control information label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission control information label. 89.110 Section 89.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards and Certification Provisions §...

  5. 40 CFR 89.110 - Emission control information label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission control information label. 89.110 Section 89.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards and Certification Provisions §...

  6. 40 CFR 89.110 - Emission control information label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission control information label. 89.110 Section 89.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards and Certification Provisions §...

  7. 24 CFR 990.190 - Other formula expenses (add-ons).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Other formula expenses (add-ons). 990.190 Section 990.190 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT THE PUBLIC...

  8. Civic Engagement and Global Citizenship in a University Context: Core Business or Desirable Add-On?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munck, Ronaldo

    2010-01-01

    Can civic engagement become a "core business" of the contemporary university, or is it an attractive "add-on" that is not affordable in the current economic climate? Contemporary universities often play an important role in local community development and, as such, have the opportunity to develop civic engagement strategies to sit alongside…

  9. Treatment of infectious waste: development and testing of an add-on set for used gravity displacement autoclaves.

    PubMed

    Stolze, René; Kühling, Jan-Gerd

    2009-06-01

    The safe management of potentially infectious healthcare waste is gaining increasing worldwide importance. In developing countries, simple incinerators are used for the treatment of this type of waste stream. However, as these incinerators produce high emissions and represent the main generators of dioxin and furans in these countries, alternative and cost-effective solutions are needed. As steam treatment systems do not produce persistent organic pollutants, the use of existing (older) medical autoclaves could represent a solution for the treatment of infectious waste. ETLog Health EnviroTech & Logistics, the German-based consulting and engineering company carried out the first research into whether gravity air displacement autoclaves can be used for the safe decontamination of infectious waste. The research showed that it is not possible to decontaminate waste using this type of autoclave. A subsequent research and development phase might, however, make it possible to develop a new process cycle. Tests carried out on the basis of international standards and norms showed that by applying this process cycle and using an add-on set, it is possible to treat healthcare waste using the existing stock of older medical autoclaves. The process cycle and the add-on set developed were tested under existing conditions in Hanoi, Vietnam using the treatment cycle developed for a 13-year-old autoclave. All the parameters for infectious waste decontamination were reached. As modified autoclaves prevent the emission of toxic substances, this approach presents an interim solution, which avoids the impacts on human health and the environment caused by the incineration of healthcare waste. PMID:19470532

  10. CONTROL OF HYDROCARBON EMISSIONS FROM GASOLINE LOADING BY REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of the capabilities of refrigeration systems, operated at three temperatures, to control volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from truck loading at bulk gasoline terminals. Achievable VOC emission rates were calculated for refrigeration sy...

  11. Implications of diesel emissions control failures to emission factors and road transport NOx evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Papadimitriou, Giannis; Ligterink, Norbert; Hausberger, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Diesel NOx emissions have been at the forefront of research and regulation scrutiny as a result of failures of late vehicle technologies to deliver on-road emissions reductions. The current study aims at identifying the actual emissions levels of late light duty vehicle technologies, including Euro 5 and Euro 6 ones. Mean NOx emission factor levels used in the most popular EU vehicle emission models (COPERT, HBEFA and VERSIT+) are compared with latest emission information collected in the laboratory over real-world driving cycles and on the road using portable emissions measurement systems (PEMS). The comparison shows that Euro 5 passenger car (PC) emission factors well reflect on road levels and that recently revealed emissions control failures do not call for any significant corrections. However Euro 5 light commercial vehicles (LCVs) and Euro 6 PCs in the 2014-2016 period exhibit on road emission levels twice as high as used in current models. Moreover, measured levels vary a lot for Euro 6 vehicles. Scenarios for future evolution of Euro 6 emission factors, reflecting different degree of effectiveness of emissions control regulations, show that total NOx emissions from diesel Euro 6 PC and LCV may correspond from 49% up to 83% of total road transport emissions in 2050. Unless upcoming and long term regulations make sure that light duty diesel NOx emissions are effectively addressed, this will have significant implications in meeting future air quality and national emissions ceilings targets.

  12. 40 CFR 75.17 - Specific provisions for monitoring emissions from common, bypass, and multiple stacks for NOX...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reduction program must also meet the provisions for monitoring NOX emission rate in §§ 75.71 and 75.72. (a... operating properly, as described in the quality assurance/quality control program for the unit, required by... record parametric data to verify the proper operation of the NOX add-on emission controls as described...

  13. 40 CFR 75.17 - Specific provisions for monitoring emissions from common, bypass, and multiple stacks for NOX...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reduction program must also meet the provisions for monitoring NOX emission rate in §§ 75.71 and 75.72. (a... operating properly, as described in the quality assurance/quality control program for the unit, required by... record parametric data to verify the proper operation of the NOX add-on emission controls as described...

  14. COMPUTER-CONTROLLED, REAL-TIME AUTOMOBILE EMISSIONS MONITORING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A minicomputer controlled automotive emissions sampling and analysis system (the Real-Time System) was developed to determine vehicular modal emissions over various test cycles. This data acquisition system can sample real-time emissions at a rate of 10 samples/s. A buffer utiliz...

  15. Add on testosterone therapy in negative symptoms of schizophrenia with gonadal trauma: Hitting the bull's eye.

    PubMed

    Jha, Shailesh; Garg, Amit

    2016-06-30

    The coincidence or causal incidence of hormonal dysregulation leading to psychotic manifestation had been a point of debate. The interplay of these hormones in pathogenesis of psychotic symptom domains is still inconclusive along with some symptom domains which worsen with antipsychotics. Early detection and treatment with liaison approach is of great help to such patients. We report a case of schizophrenia with primary hypogonadism that responded dramatically to add on testosterone supplement. PMID:27138816

  16. Emissions control for ground power gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudney, R. A.; Priem, R. J.; Juhasz, A. J.; Anderson, D. N.; Mroz, T. S.; Mularz, E. J.

    1977-01-01

    The similarities and differences of emissions reduction technology for aircraft and ground power gas turbines is described. The capability of this technology to reduce ground power emissions to meet existing and proposed emissions standards is presented and discussed. Those areas where the developing aircraft gas turbine technology may have direct application to ground power and those areas where the needed technology may be unique to the ground power mission are pointed out. Emissions reduction technology varying from simple combustor modifications to the use of advanced combustor concepts, such as catalysis, is described and discussed.

  17. Percolating plasmonic networks for light emission control.

    PubMed

    Gaio, Michele; Castro-Lopez, Marta; Renger, Jan; van Hulst, Niek; Sapienza, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Optical nanoantennas have revolutionised the way we manipulate single photons emitted by individual light sources in a nanostructured photonic environment. Complex plasmonic architectures allow for multiscale light control by shortening or stretching the light wavelength for a fixed operating frequency, meeting the size of the emitter and that of propagating modes. Here, we study self-assembled semi-continuous gold films and lithographic gold networks characterised by large local density of optical state (LDOS) fluctuations around the electrical percolation threshold, a regime where the surface is characterised by large metal clusters with fractal topology. We study the formation of plasmonic networks and their effect on light emission from embedded fluorescent probes in these systems. Through fluorescence dynamics experiments we discuss the role of global long-range interactions linked to the degree of percolation and to the network fractality, as well as the local near-field contributions coming from the local electro-magnetic fields and the topology. Our experiments indicate that local properties dominate the fluorescence modification. PMID:25711923

  18. 40 CFR 63.4752 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Surface Coating of Wood Building Products Compliance Requirements for the Emission Rate Without Add-on Controls Option... semiannual compliance report required by § 63.4720, you must identify the coating operation(s) for which...

  19. 40 CFR 63.4752 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Surface Coating of Wood Building Products Compliance Requirements for the Emission Rate Without Add-on Controls Option... semiannual compliance report required by § 63.4720, you must identify the coating operation(s) for which...

  20. 40 CFR 52.987 - Control of hydrocarbon emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control of hydrocarbon emissions. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Louisiana § 52.987 Control of hydrocarbon... compliance date of January 1, 1980. This shall result in an estimated hydrocarbon emission reduction of...

  1. 40 CFR 52.987 - Control of hydrocarbon emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control of hydrocarbon emissions. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Louisiana § 52.987 Control of hydrocarbon... compliance date of January 1, 1980. This shall result in an estimated hydrocarbon emission reduction of...

  2. 40 CFR 52.987 - Control of hydrocarbon emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control of hydrocarbon emissions. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Louisiana § 52.987 Control of hydrocarbon... compliance date of January 1, 1980. This shall result in an estimated hydrocarbon emission reduction of...

  3. 40 CFR 52.987 - Control of hydrocarbon emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control of hydrocarbon emissions. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Louisiana § 52.987 Control of hydrocarbon... compliance date of January 1, 1980. This shall result in an estimated hydrocarbon emission reduction of...

  4. 40 CFR 52.987 - Control of hydrocarbon emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control of hydrocarbon emissions. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Louisiana § 52.987 Control of hydrocarbon... compliance date of January 1, 1980. This shall result in an estimated hydrocarbon emission reduction of...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1384 - Emission control regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission control regulations. 52.1384 Section 52.1384 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1384 Emission control regulations. (a) Administrative Rules...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1384 - Emission control regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission control regulations. 52.1384 Section 52.1384 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1384 Emission control regulations. (a) Administrative Rules...

  7. Gaseous emissions from plants in controlled environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubay, Denis T.

    1988-01-01

    Plant growth in a controlled ecological life support system may entail the build-up over extended time periods of phytotoxic concentrations of volatile organic compounds produced by the plants themselves. Ethylene is a prominent gaseous emission of plants, and is the focus of this report. The objective was to determine the rate of ethylene release by spring wheat, white potato, and lettuce during early, middle, and late growth stages, and during both the light and dark segments of the diurnal cycle. Plants grown hydroponically using the nutrient film technique were covered with plexiglass containers for 4 to 6 h. At intervals after enclosure, gas samples were withdrawn with a syringe and analyzed for ethylene with a gas chromatograph. Lettuce produced 10 to 100 times more ethylene than wheat or potato, with production rates ranging from 141 to 158 ng g-dry/wt/h. Wheat produced from 1.7 to 14.3 ng g-dry/wt/h, with senescent wheat producing the least amount and flowering wheat the most. Potatoes produced the least amount of ethylene, with values never exceeding 5 ng g-dry/wt/h. Lettuce and potatoes each produced ethylene at similar rates whether in dark period or light period. Ethylene sequestering of 33 to 43 percent by the plexiglass enclosures indicated that these production estimates may be low by one-third to one-half. These results suggest that concern for ethylene build-up in a contained atmosphere should be greatest when growing lettuce, and less when growing wheat or potato.

  8. Efficacy of Add-on Montelukast in Nonasthmatic Eosinophilic Bronchitis: The Additive Effect on Airway Inflammation, Cough and Life Quality

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Wuping; Liu, Ping; Qiu, Zhongmin; Yu, Li; Hang, Jingqing; Gao, Xiaohua; Zhou, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Background: The efficacy of montelukast (MONT), a cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist, in nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis (NAEB), especially its influence on cough associated life quality is still indefinite. We evaluated the efficacy of MONT combined with budesonide (BUD) as compared to BUD monotherapy in improving life quality, suppressing airway eosinophilia and cough remission in NAEB. Methods: A prospective, open-labeled, multicenter, randomized controlled trial was conducted. Patients with NAEB (aged 18-75 years) were randomized to inhaled BUD (200 μg, bid) or BUD plus oral MONT (10 μg, qn) for 4 weeks. Leicester cough questionnaire (LCQ) life quality scores, cough visual analog scale (CVAS) scores, eosinophil differential ratio (Eos), and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in induced sputum were monitored and compared. Results: The control and MONT groups contained 33 and 32 patients, respectively, with similar baseline characteristics. Significant with-in group improvement in CVAS, LCQ scores, Eos, and ECP was observed in both groups during treatment. After 2-week treatment, add-on treatment of MONT was significantly more effective than BUD monotherapy for CVAS decrease and LCQ scores improvement (both P < 0.05). Similar results were seen at 4-week assessment (both P < 0.05). 4-week add-on therapy of MONT also resulted in a higher percentage of patients with normal sputum Eos (<2.5%) and greater decrease of ECP (both P < 0.05). Conclusions: MONT combined with BUD was demonstrated cooperative effects in improvement of life quality, suppression of eosinophilic inflammation, and cough remission in patients with NAEB. PMID:25563311

  9. Temperature Dependence of Factors Controlling Isoprene Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, Bryan N.; Yoshida, Yasuko; Damon, Megan R.; Douglass, Anne R.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the relationship of variability in the formaldehyde (HCHO) columns measured by the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) to isoprene emissions in the southeastern United States for 2005-2007. The data show that the inferred, regional-average isoprene emissions varied by about 22% during summer and are well correlated with temperature, which is known to influence emissions. Part of the correlation with temperature is likely associated with other causal factors that are temperature-dependent. We show that the variations in HCHO are convolved with the temperature dependence of surface ozone, which influences isoprene emissions, and the dependence of the HCHO column to mixed layer height as OMI's sensitivity to HCHO increases with altitude. Furthermore, we show that while there is an association of drought with the variation in HCHO, drought in the southeastern U.S. is convolved with temperature.

  10. Gas turbine combustion and emission control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schetter, B.

    The fundamentals of combustion are discussed in the context of gaseous and liquid fuels and gas turbine fuels. Methods for reducing the emission of pollutants in gas turbines are considered. These emissions are carbon monoxide, unburnt hydrocarbons, smoke/soot, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, and carbon dioxide. The focus is on nitrogen oxides. The general principles of combustor and burner design are considered: aero/can type combustors, silo combustors, and annular combustors. Premix and diffusion flames are discussed.

  11. Active control of excessive sound emission on a mobile device.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Se-Woon; Youn, Dae Hee; Park, Young-cheol; Lee, Gun-Woo

    2015-04-01

    During a phone conversation, loud vocal emission from the far-end to the near-end space can disturb nearby people. In this paper, the possibility of actively controlling such unwanted sound emission using a control source placed on the mobile device is investigated. Two different approaches are tested: Global control, minimizing the potential energy measured along a volumetric space surface, and local control, minimizing the squared sound pressure at a discrete point on the phone. From the test results, both approaches can reduce the unwanted sound emission by more than 6 dB in the frequency range up to 2 kHz. PMID:25920885

  12. Characterization of an add-on multileaf collimator for electron beam therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauer, T.; Sokoll, J.; Cremers, F.; Harmansa, R.; Luzzara, M.; Schmidt, R.

    2008-02-01

    An add-on multileaf collimator for electrons (eMLC) has been developed that provides computer-controlled beam collimation and isocentric dose delivery. The design parameters result from the design study by Gauer et al (2006 Phys. Med. Biol. 51 5987-6003) and were configured such that a compact and light-weight eMLC with motorized leaves can be industrially manufactured and stably mounted on a conventional linear accelerator. In the present study, the efficiency of an initial computer-controlled prototype was examined according to the design goals and the performance of energy- and intensity-modulated treatment techniques. This study concentrates on the attachment and gantry stability as well as the dosimetric characteristics of central-axis and off-axis dose, field size dependence, collimator scatter, field abutment, radiation leakage and the setting of the accelerator jaws. To provide isocentric irradiation, the eMLC can be placed either 16 or 28 cm above the isocentre through interchangeable holders. The mechanical implementation of this feature results in a maximum field displacement of less than 0.6 mm at 90° and 270° gantry angles. Compared to a 10 × 10 cm applicator at 6-14 MeV, the beam penumbra of the eMLC at a 16 cm collimator-to-isocentre distance is 0.8-0.4 cm greater and the depth-dose curves show a larger build-up effect. Due to the loss in energy dependence of the therapeutic range and the much lower dose output at small beam sizes, a minimum beam size of 3 × 3 cm is necessary to avoid suboptimal dose delivery. Dose output and beam symmetry are not affected by collimator scatter when the central axis is blocked. As a consequence of the broader beam penumbra, uniform dose distributions were measured in the junction region of adjacent beams at perpendicular and oblique beam incidence. However, adjacent beams with a high difference in a beam energy of 6 to 14 MeV generate cold and hot spots of approximately 15% in the abutting region. In order to

  13. Sensitivity analysis of the add-on price estimate for the silicon web growth process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mokashi, A. R.

    1981-01-01

    The web growth process, a silicon-sheet technology option, developed for the flat plate solar array (FSA) project, was examined. Base case data for the technical and cost parameters for the technical and commercial readiness phase of the FSA project are projected. The process add on price, using the base case data for cost parameters such as equipment, space, direct labor, materials and utilities, and the production parameters such as growth rate and run length, using a computer program developed specifically to do the sensitivity analysis with improved price estimation are analyzed. Silicon price, sheet thickness and cell efficiency are also discussed.

  14. Controlling laser emission by selecting crystal orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lijuan; Han, Shujuan; Wang, Zhengping; Wang, Jiyang; Zhang, Huanjin; Yu, Haohai; Han, Shuo; Xu, Xinguang

    2013-01-01

    Based on the anisotropy of laser crystal, we demonstrate a method of adjusting laser emission by selecting crystal orientation. When the light propagating direction varies from a to c axis of Nd:LiGd(MoO4)2 crystal, emission wavelength exhibits a sensitive change of 1061 nm → 1061/1062 + 1068 nm → 1068 nm. The experimental discipline is well explained by a theoretical study of simulating on the spatial distribution of stimulated emission cross-section. This letter manifests that the laser property along non-principal-axis direction is also valuable for research and application, which breaks through the traditional custom of using laser materials processed along principal-axis.

  15. Controls over hydrocarbon emissions from boreal forest conifers

    SciTech Connect

    Lerdau, M.; Litvak, M.; Monson, R. |

    1995-06-01

    The emissions of monoterpenes and isoprene were measured from two species of conifers native to the boreal forest of Canada, jack pine, Pinus rigida, and black spruce, Picea Mariana. We examined the effects of phenology and needle age on the emissions of these compounds, and the variations in tissue concentrations of monoterpenes. We measured photosynthetic carbon uptake and hydrocarbon emissions at two sites in northern Saskatchewan under controlled light, temperatures, and CO{sub 2} concentrations, and analyzed carbon uptake rates using an infra-red gas analyzer and hydrocarbon emissions using a solid sorbent/thermal desorption system coupled to a gas chromatograph with a mass spectrometer. Our data indicate a strong effect of temperature and seasonality on emissions but only small effects of site conditions. These results suggest that regional models of hydrocarbon emissions from boreal forests should focus on temperature and phenology as the most important controlling variables.

  16. Laboratory study of efficient add-on treatments for interior noise control in light aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mixson, J. S.; Roussos, L. A.; Barton, C. K.; Vaicaitist, R.; Slazak, M.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies of the transmission loss (TL) of 1.15 x 1.46 m flat stiffened-skin aluminum panels are described. Panel configurations included panels with no treatment and eight combinations of treatments consisting of a fiberglass-septum layer, a foam-foil damping material, and a plywood double wall trim panel. Measured TL of the untreated panel and the panel with a damping layer showed characteristics of the double mass law: at low frequencies the TL followed a mass law trend associated with the average mass of both skin and stiffness, while at higher frequencies the TL followed a mass law trend associated with skin mass only. A comparison of TL for panels treated with a damping layer, a fiberglass layer, or a trim panel showed that the effects of damping are frequency dependent with some performing better below 500 Hz and others performing better above 500 Hz. Treatment combinations showed that two treatments with the same mass could have TL values different by about 10 dB, while other combinations having weights different by a factor of two could have TL values within a few dB over most of the frequency range. The highest TL values (50 dB at 1000 Hz) were obtained with a treatment consisting of a fiberglass layer, a trim panel, and damping layers on both the stiffened panel and the trim panel.

  17. CONTROLLING NOX EMISSION FROM INDUSTRIAL SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of regulatory actions focused on reducing NOx emissions from stationary combustion sources have been taken in the United States in the last decade. These actions include the Acid Rain NOx regulations, the Ozone Transport Commission's NOx ...

  18. Sulfur oxide adsorbents and emissions control

    DOEpatents

    Li, Liyu; King, David L.

    2006-12-26

    High capacity sulfur oxide absorbents utilizing manganese-based octahedral molecular sieve (Mn--OMS) materials are disclosed. An emissions reduction system for a combustion exhaust includes a scrubber 24 containing these high capacity sulfur oxide absorbents located upstream from a NOX filter 26 or particulate trap.

  19. Emission control devices, fuel additive, and fuel composition changes.

    PubMed Central

    Piver, W T

    1977-01-01

    Emission control devices are installed to meet the exhaust standards of the Clean Air Act for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, and it is necessary to know, from a public health point of view, how exhaust emissions may be affected by changes in fuel additives and fuel composition. Since these topics are concerned with developing technologies, the available literature on exhaust emission characteristics and the limited information on health effects, is reviewed. PMID:71235

  20. Emission control devices, fuel additive, and fuel composition changes.

    PubMed

    Piver, W T

    1977-08-01

    Emission control devices are installed to meet the exhaust standards of the Clean Air Act for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, and it is necessary to know, from a public health point of view, how exhaust emissions may be affected by changes in fuel additives and fuel composition. Since these topics are concerned with developing technologies, the available literature on exhaust emission characteristics and the limited information on health effects, is reviewed. PMID:71235

  1. Adding power to PowerPoint. Add-ons and plug-ins.

    PubMed

    Giannavola, S

    2001-01-01

    Microsoft's PowerPoint (PPT) has been around for about ten years. It works on both the Macintosh and Windows platforms. Many users have a Macintosh at home and a Windows PC in the office and files can be easily transferred. Presentations magazine estimated that 85 percent of all presentations given in the U.S. last year used PPT. These presentations can be done as 35 mm slides, black and white or color overhead transparencies, electronic lectures or the software can be used to produce pages for Web sites. PPT has become the "Swiss Army Knife" for presenters and can be found everywhere. Since PPT has such a large share of the marketplace, a secondary market has developed to cater to PPT users who need something that didn't come in the box. These products are referred to as add-ons or plug-ins. They are available as commercial products, shareware or even directly from Microsoft. This article will look at several of these add-ons and discuss their possible use in a health care media production environment. PMID:11447780

  2. radEq Add-On Module for CFD Solver Loci-CHEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCloud, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Loci-CHEM to be applied to flow velocities where surface radiation due to heating from compression and friction becomes significant. The module adds a radiation equilibrium boundary condition to the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code to produce accurate results. The module expanded the upper limit for accurate CFD solutions of Loci-CHEM from Mach 4 to Mach 10 based on Space Shuttle Orbiter Re-Entry trajectories. Loci-CHEM already has a very promising architecture and performance, but absence of radiation equilibrium boundary condition limited the application of Loci-CHEM to below Mach 4. The immediate advantage of the add-on module is that it allows Loci-CHEM to work with supersonic flows up to Mach 10. This transformed Loci-CHEM from a rocket engine- heritage CFD code with general subsonic and low-supersonic applications, to an aeroheating code with hypersonic applications. The follow-on advantage of the module is that it is a building block for additional add-on modules that will solve for the heating generated at Mach numbers higher than 10.

  3. Alternative control technology document for bakery oven emissions. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, C.W.

    1992-12-01

    The document was produced in response to a request by the baking industry for Federal guidance to assist in providing a more uniform information base for State decision-making with regard to control of bakery oven emissions. The information in the document pertains to bakeries that produce yeast-leavened bread, rolls, buns, and similar products but not crackers, sweet goods, or baked foodstuffs that are not yeast leavened. Information on the baking processes, equipment, operating parameters, potential emissions from baking, and potential emission control options are presented. Catalytic and regenerative oxidation are identified as the most appropriate existing control technologies applicable to VOC emissions from bakery ovens. Cost analyses for catalytic and regenerative oxidation are included. A predictive formula for use in estimating oven emissions has been derived from source tests done in junction with the development of the document. Its use and applicability are described.

  4. Achieving Acceptable Air Quality: Some Reflections on Controlling Vehicle Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvert, J. G.; Heywood, J. B.; Sawyer, R. F.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    1993-07-01

    Motor vehicle emissions have been and are being controlled in an effort to abate urban air pollution. This article addresses the question: Will the vehicle exhaust emission control and fuel requirements in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments and the California Air Resources Board regulations on vehicles and fuels have a significant impact? The effective control of in-use vehicle emissions is the key to a solution to the motor vehicle part of the urban air pollution problem for the next decade or so. It is not necessary, except perhaps in Southern California, to implement extremely low new car emission standards before the end of the 20th century. Some of the proposed gasoline volatility and composition changes in reformulated gasoline will produce significant reductions in vehicle emissions (for example, reduced vapor pressure, sulfur, and light olefin and improved high end volatility), whereas others (such as substantial oxygenate addition and aromatics reduction) will not.

  5. Gantry and isocenter displacements of a linear accelerator caused by an add-on micromultileaf collimator

    SciTech Connect

    Riis, Hans L.; Zimmermann, Sune J.; Hjelm-Hansen, Mogens

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: The delivery of high quality stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) treatments to the patient requires knowledge of the position of the isocenter to submillimeter accuracy. To meet the requirements the deviation between the radiation and mechanical isocenters must be less than 1 mm. The use of add-on micromultileaf collimators ({mu}MLCs) in SRS and SRT is an additional challenge to the anticipated high-level geometric and dosimetric accuracy of the treatment. The aim of this work was to quantify the gantry excursions during rotation with and without an add-on {mu}MLC attached to the gantry head. In addition, the shift in the position of the isocenter and its correlation to the kV beam center of the cone-beam CT system was included in the study. Methods: The quantification of the gantry rotational performance was done using a pointer supported by an in-house made rigid holder attached to the gantry head of the accelerator. The pointer positions were measured using a digital theodolite. To quantify the effect of an {mu}MLC of 50 kg, the measurements were repeated with the {mu}MLC attached to the gantry head. The displacement of the isocenter due to an add-on {mu}MLC of 50 kg was also investigated. In case of the pointer measurement the {mu}MLC was simulated by weights attached to the gantry head. A method of least squares was applied to determine the position and displacement of the mechanical isocenter. Additionally, the displacement of the radiation isocenter was measured using a ball-bearing phantom and the electronic portal image device system. These measurements were based on 8 MV photon beams irradiated onto the ball from the four cardinal angles and two opposed collimator angles. The measurements and analysis of the data were carried out automatically using software delivered by the manufacturer. Results: The displacement of the mechanical isocenter caused by a 50 kg heavy {mu}MLC was found to be (-0.01 {+-} 0.05, -0

  6. Integrated emissions control system for residential CWS furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Balsavich, J.C. Jr.

    1991-11-01

    To meet the emission goals set by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC), Tecogen Inc. is developing a novel, integrated emission control system to control NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, and particulate emissions. At the heart of this system is a unique emissions control reactor for the control of SO{sub 2}. This reactor provides high sorbent particle residence time within the reactor while doing so in a very compact geometry. In addition to controlling SO{sub 2} emissions, the reactor provides a means of extracting a substantial amount of the particulates present in the combustion gases. Final cleanup of any fine particulates exiting the reactor, including respirable-sized particulates, is completed with the use of high efficiency bag filters. With SO{sub 2} and particulate emissions being dealt with by an emissions control reactor and bag filters, the control of NO{sub x} emissions needs to be addressed. Under a previous contract with PETC (contract No. AC22-87PC79650), Tecogen developed a residential-scale Coal Water Slurry (CWS) combustor. This combustor makes use of centrifugal forces, set up by a predominantly tangential flow field, to separate and confine larger unburned coal particles in the furnace upper chamber. Various partitions are used to retard the axial, downward flow of these particles, and thus maximize their residence time in the hottest section of the combustor. By operating this combustor under staged conditions, the local stoichiometry in the primary zone can be controlled in such a manner as to minimize NO{sub x} emissions.

  7. CONTROL OF MOTOR VEHICLE EMISSIONS - THE U.S. EXPERIENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An historical overview of the U.S. experience with controlling emissions from highway motor vehicles is presented. he evolution of new motor vehicle emissions certification practice, end-of-assembly-line inspection, in-use surveillance and recall, inspection and maintenance, and ...

  8. IRON AND STEEL PLANT OPEN SOURCE FUGITIVE EMISSION CONTROL EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of measurements of the control efficiency of various techniques used to mitigate emissions from open dust sources in the iron and steel industry. Of estimated emissions of 88,800 tons/year suspended particulate in 1978 (based on a 10-plant survey), 70, 13...

  9. PERFORMANCE OF EMISSIONS CONTROL SYSTEMS ON MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reports results of several EPA-supported field evaluations of data on gaseous pollutant emissions from modern municipal waste combustors/incinerators and emissions control by flue gas cleaning systems. The results are presented in terms of acid gas (HCl and SO2), trace ...

  10. EVALUATION OF MAINTENANCE FOR FUGITIVE VOC EMISSIONS CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) has the responsibility for formulating regulations for the control of fugitive emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC). 'Fugitive emissions' generally refers to the diffuse release of vaporized hydrocarbon or...

  11. Advanced Combustion and Emission Control Technical Team Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-01

    The Advanced Combustion and Emission Control (ACEC) Technical Team is focused on removing technical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high-efficiency, emission-compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light-duty vehicle powertrains (i.e., passenger car, minivan, SUV, and pickup trucks).

  12. Controls on methane emissions from Alnus glutinosa saplings.

    PubMed

    Pangala, Sunitha R; Gowing, David J; Hornibrook, Edward R C; Gauci, Vincent

    2014-02-01

    Recent studies have confirmed significant tree-mediated methane emissions in wetlands; however, conditions and processes controlling such emissions are unclear. Here we identify factors that control the emission of methane from Alnus glutinosa. Methane fluxes from the soil surface, tree stem surfaces, leaf surfaces and whole mesocosms, pore water methane concentrations and physiological factors (assimilation rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration) were measured from 4-yr old A. glutinosa trees grown under two artificially controlled water-table positions. Up to 64% of methane emitted from the high water-table mesocosms was transported to the atmosphere through A. glutinosa. Stem emissions from 2 to 22 cm above the soil surface accounted for up to 42% of total tree-mediated methane emissions. Methane emissions were not detected from leaves and no relationship existed between leaf surface area and rates of tree-mediated methane emissions. Tree stem methane flux strength was controlled by the amount of methane dissolved in pore water and the density of stem lenticels. Our data show that stem surfaces dominate methane egress from A. glutinosa, suggesting that leaf area index is not a suitable approach for scaling tree-mediated methane emissions from all types of forested wetland. PMID:24219654

  13. Energetic ion emission for active spacecraft control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, R.; Arends, H.; Riedler, W.; Torkar, K.; Ruedenauer, F.; Fehringer, M.; Maehlum, B.; Narheim, B.

    1992-12-01

    First results from vacuum chamber tests are presented, and the emission behavior and characteristics of emitters producing In(+) and N2(+) beams with an energy of not less than 5 keV are described. The liquid metal ion source (LMIS) is a 'solid-needle' type liquid metal ion source using indium as a charge metal. The typical operating characteristics of the LMIS for space applications require a high voltage of 5 to 8 kV applied across the extraction electrode and the needle/reservoir combination. The nitrogen ion source (NIS) is a type of cold cathode source based on prolonged electron oscillatory paths around an electric field saddle point. Both LMIS and NIS are designed for a mean operational lifetime of 5000 hr in orbit at a typical ion emission current of 10 micro-A.

  14. Self-organized global control of carbon emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhenyuan; Fenn, Daniel J.; Hui, Pak Ming; Johnson, Neil F.

    2010-09-01

    There is much disagreement concerning how best to control global carbon emissions. We explore quantitatively how different control schemes affect the collective emission dynamics of a population of emitting entities. We uncover a complex trade-off which arises between average emissions (affecting the global climate), peak pollution levels (affecting citizens’ everyday health), industrial efficiency (affecting the nation’s economy), frequency of institutional intervention (affecting governmental costs), common information (affecting trading behavior) and market volatility (affecting financial stability). Our findings predict that a self-organized free-market approach at the level of a sector, state, country or continent can provide better control than a top-down regulated scheme in terms of market volatility and monthly pollution peaks. The control of volatility also has important implications for any future derivative carbon emissions market.

  15. VOC from Vehicular Evaporation Emissions: Status and Control Strategy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan; Man, Hanyang; Tschantz, Michael; Wu, Ye; He, Kebin; Hao, Jiming

    2015-12-15

    Vehicular evaporative emissions is an important source of volatile organic carbon (VOC), however, accurate estimation of emission amounts and scientific evaluation of control strategy for these emissions have been neglected outside of the United States. This study provides four kinds of basic emission factors: diurnal, hot soak, permeation, and refueling. Evaporative emissions from the Euro 4 vehicles (1.6 kg/year/car) are about four times those of U.S. vehicles (0.4 kg/year/car). Closing this emissions gap would have a larger impact than the progression from Euro 3 to Euro 6 tailpipe HC emission controls. Even in the first 24 h of parking, China's current reliance upon the European 24 h diurnal standard results in 508 g/vehicle/year emissions, higher than 32 g/vehicle/year from Tier 2 vehicles. The U.S. driving cycle matches Beijing real-world conditions much better on both typical trip length and average speed than current European driving cycles. At least two requirements should be added to the Chinese emissions standards: an onboard refueling vapor recovery to force the canister to be sized sufficiently large, and a 48-h evaporation test requirement to ensure that adequate purging occurs over a shorter drive sequence. PMID:26599318

  16. Emission control cost-effectiveness of alternative-fuel vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Q.; Sperling, D.; Olmstead, J.

    1993-06-14

    Although various legislation and regulations have been adopted to promote the use of alternative-fuel vehicles for curbing urban air pollution problems, there is a lack of systematic comparisons of emission control cost-effectiveness among various alternative-fuel vehicle types. In this paper, life-cycle emission reductions and life-cycle costs were estimated for passenger cars fueled with methanol, ethanol, liquefied petroleum gas, compressed natural gas, and electricity. Vehicle emission estimates included both exhaust and evaporative emissions for air pollutants of hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and air-toxic pollutants of benzene, formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, and acetaldehyde. Vehicle life-cycle cost estimates accounted for vehicle purchase prices, vehicle life, fuel costs, and vehicle maintenance costs. Emission control cost-effectiveness presented in dollars per ton of emission reduction was calculated for each alternative-fuel vehicle types from the estimated vehicle life-cycle emission reductions and costs. Among various alternative-fuel vehicle types, compressed natural gas vehicles are the most cost-effective vehicle type in controlling vehicle emissions. Dedicated methanol vehicles are the next most cost-effective vehicle type. The cost-effectiveness of electric vehicles depends on improvements in electric vehicle battery technology. With low-cost, high-performance batteries, electric vehicles are more cost-effective than methanol, ethanol, and liquified petroleum gas vehicles.

  17. Emission current control system for multiple hollow cathode devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beattie, John R. (Inventor); Hancock, Donald J. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    An emission current control system for balancing the individual emission currents from an array of hollow cathodes has current sensors for determining the current drawn by each cathode from a power supply. Each current sensor has an output signal which has a magnitude proportional to the current. The current sensor output signals are averaged, the average value so obtained being applied to a respective controller for controlling the flow of an ion source material through each cathode. Also applied to each controller are the respective sensor output signals for each cathode and a common reference signal. The flow of source material through each hollow cathode is thereby made proportional to the current drawn by that cathode, the average current drawn by all of the cathodes, and the reference signal. Thus, the emission current of each cathode is controlled such that each is made substantially equal to the emission current of each of the other cathodes. When utilized as a component of a multiple hollow cathode ion propulsion motor, the emission current control system of the invention provides for balancing the thrust of the motor about the thrust axis and also for preventing premature failure of a hollow cathode source due to operation above a maximum rated emission current.

  18. Controlling spontaneous emission in bioreplica photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgensen, Matthew R.; Butler, Elizabeth S.; Bartl, Michael H.

    2012-04-01

    Sophisticated methods have been created by nature to produce structure-based colors as a way to address the need of a wide variety of organisms. This pallet of available structures presents a unique opportunity for the investigation of new photonic crystal designs. Low-temperature sol-gel biotemplating methods were used to transform a single biotemplate into a variety of inorganic oxide structures. The density of optical states was calculated for a diamond-based natural photonic crystal, as well as several structures templated from it. Calculations were experimentally probed by spontaneous emission studies using time correlated single photon counting measurements.

  19. On Io's control of Jovian decametric radio emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winglee, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    Io's control of Jovian decametric radio emission (DAM) has been attributed to Io distorting the electron distribution in the inner Jovian magnetosphere. Observations of Faraday rotation in DAM are used to determine the properties of the electron distribution before and after its interaction with Io. It is shown that there is an enhancement in the density of the energetic component in the Io plasma torus correlated with certain Jovian longitude. Io's interaction with this energetic component can produce heating of this component. The Io-controlled emission is attributed to enhanced emission from the heated electrons moving down the field lines to Jupiter.

  20. How add-on solutions can extend the life of static OADMs and protect carrier investment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queller, Abe; Kronenthal, Guy

    2004-10-01

    While most OADM systems deployed today are static, carriers offering new wavelength services, are looking for ways to migrate towards reconfigurable OADM and dynamically reconfigurable OADM. ROADMs allow carriers to automate service provisioning, wavelength management and failsafe mechanisms, thereby eliminating slow, costly and error-prone manual network configuration. And although next-generation systems offer this flexibility as an integral part of their architecture, carriers must protect their existing investment, extending the life of their existing networks. This article examines the use of add-on optical switching systems, as a cost- and time-effective means for upgrading legacy networks. Two examples are given. In the first, a static OADM is upgraded into a reconfigurable system. The second example shows how existing OADM systems can be upgraded to support dynamic reconfigurability. The article examines also particular advantages of Planar Lightwave Circuits (PLC) for these applications.

  1. Space station systems technology study (add-on task). Volume 2: Trade study and technology selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The current Space Station Systems Technology Study add on task was an outgrowth of the Advanced Platform Systems Technology Study (APSTS) that was completed in April 1983 and the subsequent Space Station System Technology Study completed in April 1984. The first APSTS proceeded from the identification of 106 technology topics to the selection of five for detailed trade studies. During the advanced platform study, the technical issues and options were evaluated through detailed trade processes, individual consideration was given to costs and benefits for the technologies identified for advancement, and advancement plans were developed. An approach similar to that was used in the subsequent study, with emphasis on system definition in four specific technology areas to facilitate a more in depth analysis of technology issues.

  2. Flunarizine as add-on therapy in epilepsy. Crossover study vs placebo.

    PubMed

    Moglia, A; Bergamasco, B; Di Perri, R; Mancia, D

    1986-01-01

    The anticonvulsive effect of flunarizine was studied in a multicenter trial, by means of a randomized, double-blind, single crossover design. The subjects who entered the study were 51 males and 39 females, aged 15 to 73 years. They were epileptic patients who suffered from at least two generalized seizures per month or more than 4 partial seizures per month. The patients were already being treated with major antiepileptic drugs. Flunarizine was administered in a single evening dose of 10 mg/die in patients who weighed less than 70 kg and of 15 mg/die in patients who weighed more 70 kg. Our results show that flunarizine, given as add-on therapy, produced a slight but significant decrease in the number of monthly seizures at the end of a 3-month period, while placebo did not significantly change the seizures frequency. PMID:3301560

  3. Addiction surplus: the add-on margin that makes addictive consumptions difficult to contain.

    PubMed

    Adams, Peter J; Livingstone, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Addictive consumptions generate financial surpluses over-and-above non-addictive consumptions because of the excessive consumption of addicted consumers. This add-on margin or 'addiction surplus' provides a powerful incentive for beneficiaries to protect their income by ensuring addicted consumers keep consuming. Not only that, addiction surplus provides the financial base that enables producers to sponsor activities which aim to prevent public health initiatives from reducing consumption. This paper examines the potency of addiction surplus to engage industry, governments and communities in an on-going reliance on addiction surplus. It then explores how neo-liberal constructions of a rational consumer disguise the ethical and exploitative dynamics of addiction surplus by examining ways in which addictive consumptions fail to conform to notions of autonomy and rationality. Four measures are identified to contain the distorting effects of addiction surplus. PMID:25175598

  4. The CONVEX Liner Add-On to the DIAMOND-FORTUNE event

    SciTech Connect

    Heuze, F.E.; Swift, R.P.; Hill, L.R.; Barrett, W.H.

    1993-11-15

    This report describes the execution of the CONVEX Liner Add-On to the DIAMOND FORTUNE low-yield cavity test of the Defense Nuclear Agency. CONVEX stands for COntained Nuclear Vessel EXperiment. It concerns the design of underground chambers where repeated low-yield nuclear explosions could be conducted. The approach proposed by the first author in the early 1980`s was to engineer a steel-lined rock cavern where the steel liner would be prestressed against the rock by tendons and/or bolts. These would daylight in tunnels surrounding the main cavity. From there, they could be initially tensioned and retensioned, if needed, after each test. The CONVEX Liner Add-On to DIAMOND FORTUNE consisted of anchoring a 1.4-m square, 2.5-cm thick steel plate to the wall of the cavity, using a 5-cm diameter center bolt, and four 2.5-cm diameter comer bolts. The bolts daylighted in a drift surrounding the gallery, and separated from it by a 9-m thick rock pillar. The liner plate, the bolts, and the rock pillar were equipped with 23 gages to describe the thermal and mechanical response of the system during pretensioning, during the dynamic loading phase, and post-test. Particular emphasis was given to obtaining the response both upon loading and during the rebound of the system, in order to determine whether the plate ever separated from the rock. So, the main operational objectives of this project were to acquire response data of the system under nuclear loading and to ascertain the status of contact between the steel plate and the rock, as shown by toadstool data and bolt tension data. The instrumentation and data acquisition system performed extremely well. Data were recorded during the dynamic phase; plate temperature was monitored for several hours after the test; and the remaining tension was obtained for several bolts more than three months after the test, upon re-entry in the runaround drift.

  5. Programmable smart electron emission controller for hot filament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaxer, Eli

    2011-02-01

    In electron ionization source, electrons are produced through thermionic emission by heating a wire filament, accelerating the electrons by high voltage, and ionizing the analyzed molecules. In such a system, one important parameter is the filament emission current that determines the ionization rate; therefore, one needs to regulate this current. On the one hand, fast responses control is needed to keep the emission current constant, but on the other hand, we need to protect the filament from damage that occurs by large filaments current transients and overheating. To control our filament current and emission current, we developed a digital circuit based on a digital signal processing controller that has several modes of operation. We used a smart algorithm that has a fast response to a small signal and a slow response to a large signal. In addition, we have several protective measures that prevent the current from reaching unsafe values.

  6. Electric-utility emissions: control strategies and costs

    SciTech Connect

    Van Horn, A.; Arpi, D.; Bowen, C.; Chapman, R.; Cooper, R.; Greenfield, S.; Moffett, M.; Wells, M.

    1981-04-01

    The Utility Simulation Model has been used to project the emissions, costs, and operating decisions of the electric utilities for each year between 1980 and 2000. For each steam generating unit in the United States, the model simulates the compliance decision, including choice of fuels and pollution controls, as well as emissions and pollution control costs. Results are aggregated to state, regional, and national levels. The results presented here, summarized by strategy for selected years, include SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions, annual revenue requirements, the average price of electricity, dollars per ton of SO/sub 2/ reduced, coal capacity with FGD, utility fuel consumption, and regional production of coal for utility consumption. Because the strategies analyzed were aimed at SO/sub 2/ reduction, the results focus on the emissions and costs of controlling SO/sub 2/. This report is not intended to provide complete analysis and interpretation of the numerical results given in Section 3.

  7. Historical evaluation of vehicle emission control in Guangzhou based on a multi-year emission inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Liu, Huan; Wu, Xiaomeng; Zhou, Yu; Yao, Zhiliang; Fu, Lixin; He, Kebin; Hao, Jiming

    2013-09-01

    The Guangzhou government adopted many vehicle emission control policies and strategies during the five-year preparation (2005-2009) to host the 2010 Asian Games. This study established a multi-year emission inventory for vehicles in Guangzhou during 2005-2009 and estimated the uncertainty in total vehicle emissions by taking the assumed uncertainties in fleet-average emission factors and annual mileage into account. In 2009, the estimated total vehicle emissions in Guangzhou were 313 000 (242 000-387 000) tons of CO, 60 900 (54 000-70 200) tons of THC, 65 600 (56 800-74 100) tons of NOx and 2740 (2100-3400) tons of PM10. Vehicle emissions within the urban area of Guangzhou were estimated to be responsible for ˜40% of total gaseous pollutants and ˜25% of total PM10 in the entire city. Although vehicle use intensity increased rapidly in Guangzhou during 2005-2009, vehicle emissions were estimated to have been reduced by 12% for CO, 21% for THC and 20% for PM10 relative to those in 2005. NOx emissions were estimated to have remained almost constant during this period. Compared to the "without control" scenario, 19% (15%-23%) of CO, 20% (18%-23%) of THC, 9% (8%-10%) of NOx and 16% (12%-20%) of PM10 were estimated to have been mitigated from a combination of the implementation of Euro III standards for light-duty vehicles (LDVs) and heavy-duty diesel vehicles and improvement of fuel quality. This study also evaluated several enhanced vehicle emission control actions taken recently. For example, the enhanced I/M program for LDVs was estimated to reduce 11% (9%-14%) of CO, 9% (8%-10%) of THC and 2% (2%-3%) of NOx relative to total vehicle emissions in 2009. Total emission reductions by temporary traffic controls for the Asian Games were estimated equivalent to 9% (7%-11%) of CO, 9% (8%-10%) of THC, 5% (5%-6%) of NOx and 10% (8%-13%) of PM10 estimated total vehicle emissions in 2009. Those controls are essential to further vehicle emission mitigation in Guangzhou

  8. Method and apparatus for emission control

    SciTech Connect

    Kempf, T.W.; Corcoran, R.F.; Sikora, D.

    1992-01-01

    The invention includes process and apparatus for removing pollutants from a gas including fluidizing a bed of particles in a container, introducing a gas containing pollutant into the bed, removing the pollutant through deposition on the particles, controlling temperatures in the container by injecting coolant fluid through a coolant nozzle, and reducing clogging or fouling on the coolant nozzle. The process and apparatus includes controlling temperatures in the container within narrowly specified ranges of temperatures and providing a constant pressure of coolant fluid and constant pressure of purge gas to the coolant nozzle such that interchangeable selection made between the coolant fluid and purge gas in a time period sufficiently short provides accurate temperature control and reduces clogging or fouling on the coolant nozzle.

  9. CONTROL OF SULFUR EMISSIONS FROM OIL SHALE RETORTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this study were to determine the best available control technology (BACT) for control of sulfur emissions from oil shale processing facilities and then to develop a design for a mobile slipstream pilot plant that could be used to test and demonstrate that techno...

  10. SUMMARY REPORT CONTROL OF NOX EMISSIONS BY REBURNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report covers NOx control employing reburning technology: A new, effective method of controlling NOx emissions from a wide range of stationary combustion sources including large, coal-fired, utility boilers. Although reburning potentially is applicable ...

  11. Systems and methods for controlling diesel engine emissions

    DOEpatents

    Webb, Cynthia Chaffin; Weber, Phillip Anthony; Khair, Magdi K.

    2004-06-01

    Systems and methods for controlling diesel engine emissions, including, for example, oxides of nitrogen emissions, particulate matter emissions, and the like. The emission control system according to this invention is provided in the exhaust passageway of a diesel engine and includes a catalyst-based particulate filter; and first and second lean NO.sub.x trap systems coupled to the catalyst-based particulate filter. The first and second lean NO.sub.x trap systems are arranged in a parallel flow configuration with each other. Each of the first and second lean NO.sub.x trap systems include a carbon monoxide generating catalyst device, a sulfur trap device, a lean NO.sub.x device, a supplemental fuel injector device, and a plurality of flow diverter devices.

  12. Coal-fueled diesel emissions control technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, C.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Van Kleunen, W.

    1993-03-01

    The objective of this project is to develop an emissions control system for a GE locomotive powered by a Coal Water Slurry (CWS) fuel diesel engine. The development effort is directed toward reducing particulate matter, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions from the engine exhaust gas at 700--800F and 1-2 psig. The commercial system should be economically attractive while subject to limited space constraints. After testing various alternatives, a system composed of a barrier filter with sorbent injection ups was selected for controlling particulates, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions. In bench scale and 500 acfm slip s tests, removal efficiencies greater than 90% for SO{sub 2} and 85% for NO{sub x} were achieved. Particulate emissions from the barrier filter are within NSPS limits.

  13. Coal-fueled diesel emissions control technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, C.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Van Kleunen, W.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop an emissions control system for a GE locomotive powered by a Coal Water Slurry (CWS) fuel diesel engine. The development effort is directed toward reducing particulate matter, SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x] emissions from the engine exhaust gas at 700--800F and 1-2 psig. The commercial system should be economically attractive while subject to limited space constraints. After testing various alternatives, a system composed of a barrier filter with sorbent injection ups was selected for controlling particulates, SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x] emissions. In bench scale and 500 acfm slip s tests, removal efficiencies greater than 90% for SO[sub 2] and 85% for NO[sub x] were achieved. Particulate emissions from the barrier filter are within NSPS limits.

  14. Positional control of plasmonic fields and electron emission

    SciTech Connect

    Word, R. C.; Fitzgerald, J. P. S.; Könenkamp, R.

    2014-09-15

    We report the positional control of plasmonic fields and electron emission in a continuous gap antenna structure of sub-micron size. We show experimentally that a nanoscale area of plasmon-enhanced electron emission can be motioned by changing the polarization of an exciting optical beam of 800 nm wavelength. Finite-difference calculations are presented to support the experiments and to show that the plasmon-enhanced electric field distribution of the antenna can be motioned precisely and predictively.

  15. Primary production control of methane emission from wetlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiting, G. J.; Chanton, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    Based on simultaneous measurements of CO2 and CH4 exchange in wetlands extending from subarctic peatlands to subtropical marshes, a positive correlation between CH4 emission and net ecosystem production is reported. It is suggested that net ecosystem production is a master variable integrating many factors which control CH4 emission in vegetated wetlands. It is found that about 3 percent of the daily net ecosystem production is emitted back to the atmosphere as CH4. With projected stimulation of primary production and soil microbial activity in wetlands associated with elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, the potential for increasing CH4 emission from inundated wetlands, further enhancing the greenhouse effect, is examined.

  16. Environmental controls over methyl halide emissions from rice paddies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redeker, K. R.; Cicerone, R. J.

    2004-03-01

    This paper examines primary controlling factors that affect methyl halide emissions from rice paddy ecosystems. Observations of four cultivars under multiple growth conditions during studies in commercial fields and the University of California, Irvine, greenhouse lead to the conclusion that daily emissions of methyl halides are primarily determined by the growth stage of the rice plant, with the exception that methyl chloride emissions show no clear seasonal pattern. Methyl chloride emissions appear to be more from the paddy water and/or soil as opposed to the plants; however, in soils with high chloride content, these emissions appear to peak during the reproductive phase. Strong secondary influences include air temperature, soil halide concentration, and soil pore water saturation. The cultivars studied had statistically separate seasonally integrated emissions. Irradiant light and aboveground biomass appear to have little effect on emissions. Emissions of methyl chloride, methyl bromide, and methyl iodide are estimated to be 3.5, 2.3, and 48 mg/m2/yr, or 5.3, 3.5, and 72 Gg/yr, from rice paddies globally.

  17. The use of intake condition modifications to control diesel emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, C.E.; Reader, G.T.; Potter, I.J.; Gustafson, R.W.

    1995-12-31

    Diesel engines have the inherent capability of producing emissions, such as NOx, particulates, unburned hydrocarbons, and noise which at certain levels and concentrations are considered to be environmentally unfriendly. To control these emissions, techniques have been developed which are aimed at reducing the amount of pollutants formed in the combustion process or preventing them from reaching the atmosphere (after treatment). The initial condition of the in-cylinder reactants and diluents affects how the combustion process proceeds and hence influences the formation and rate of formation of the pollutants. Thus, one approach to emission control is to modify the intake oxidant conditions, i.e., the composition and thermodynamic state of the working fluid. This modification can be accomplished by the use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). EGR has been extensively developed for use with SI engine emission control systems and for specialized diesel engine operations where synthetic atmospheres are used (underwater) or where operations take place in contaminated environments (underground). More recently EGR has been considered as a technique for helping reduce NOx emissions from conventional diesel engine systems. Usually, experimental investigations involving EGR have dealt with the global effects on emissions and performance but in the research reported in this paper efforts have been made to identify the specific effects of altering intake conditions, e.g., oxygen concentration, on the operation of an Indirect-Injection (IDI) diesel engine.

  18. Prospective open-label study of add-on and monotherapy topiramate in civilians with chronic nonhallucinatory posttraumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Berlant, Jeffrey L

    2004-01-01

    Background In order to confirm therapeutic effects of topiramate on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) observed in a prior study, a new prospective, open-label study was conducted to examine acute responses in chronic, nonhallucinatory PTSD. Methods Thirty-three consecutive newly recruited civilian adult outpatients (mean age 46 years, 85% female) with DSM-IV-diagnosed chronic PTSD, excluding those with concurrent auditory or visual hallucinations, received topiramate either as monotherapy (n = 5) or augmentation (n = 28). The primary measure was a change in the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) score from baseline to 4 weeks, with response defined as a ≥ 30% reduction of PTSD symptoms. Results For those taking the PCL-C at both baseline and week 4 (n = 30), total symptoms declined by 49% at week 4 (paired t-test, P < 0.001) with similar subscale reductions for reexperiencing, avoidance/numbing, and hyperarousal symptoms. The response rate at week 4 was 77%. Age, sex, bipolar comorbidity, age at onset of PTSD, duration of symptoms, severity of baseline PCL-C score, and monotherapy versus add-on medication administration did not predict reduction in PTSD symptoms. Median time to full response was 9 days and median dosage was 50 mg/day. Conclusions Promising open-label findings in a new sample converge with findings of a previous study. The use of topiramate for treatment of chronic PTSD, at least in civilians, warrants controlled clinical trials. PMID:15315714

  19. Controlling formaldehyde emissions with boiler ash.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Jennifer; Abu-Daabes, Malyuba; Banerjee, Sujit

    2005-07-01

    Fluidized wood ash reduces formaldehyde in air from about 20 to <1 ppmv. Methanol is removed to a much lower extent. The efficiency of formaldehyde reduction increases with increasing moisture content of the ash. Sorption of formaldehyde to ash can be substantially accounted for by partitioning to the water contained in the ash followed by rate-controlling binding to the ash solids. Adsorption occurs at temperatures of up to 165 degrees C; oxidation predominates thereafter. It is proposed that formaldehyde could be stripped from an air stream in a fluidized bed containing ash, which could then be returned to a boiler to incinerate the formaldehyde. PMID:16053116

  20. New emission controls for Missouri batch-type charcoal kilns

    SciTech Connect

    Yronwode, P.; Graf, W.J.

    1999-07-01

    Charcoal kilns have been exempted from air emission regulation in the state of Missouri. Today, 80% of US charcoal production takes place in Missouri. As a result of a petition filed by people in the area around an installation in southern Missouri, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) set up air monitors and measured ambient air levels at that charcoal manufacturing installation. These monitors yielded the highest particulate matter less than 10 micron (PM{sub 10}) levels ever recorded in the state. Earlier stack testing at another charcoal manufacturing installation indicated that toxics and carcinogens are present in charcoal kiln air emissions. A Charcoal Kiln Workgroup was formed to determine the Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for charcoal kilns and to draft a charcoal kiln rule that requires BACT. The BACT report determined that afterburners were suitable for controlling emissions from batch-type charcoal kilns. In addition, the charcoal industry supported incorporating the BACT limits and requirements into an enforceable state rule and submitting this rule to the EPA for federal approval. A consent agreement between the EPA and three major charcoal companies was signed with provisions to install, operate, and maintain emission control devices on charcoal kilns. This agreement was to settle complaints alleging that the three major charcoal producers had failed to report toxic air emissions to federal and state regulators. The agreement provided that industry would install control devices on a set schedule with some charcoal kilns being shut down.

  1. Acoustic emission feedback control for control of boiling in a microwave oven

    DOEpatents

    White, Terry L.

    1991-01-01

    An acoustic emission based feedback system for controlling the boiling level of a liquid medium in a microwave oven is provided. The acoustic emissions from the medium correlated with surface boiling is used to generate a feedback control signal proportional to the level of boiling of the medium. This signal is applied to a power controller to automatically and continuoulsly vary the power applied to the oven to control the boiling at a selected level.

  2. ATOM - an OMERO add-on for automated import of image data

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Modern microscope platforms are able to generate multiple gigabytes of image data in a single experimental session. In a routine research laboratory workflow, these data are initially stored on the local acquisition computer from which files need to be transferred to the experimenter's (remote) image repository (e.g., DVDs, portable hard discs or server-based storage) because of limited local data storage. Although manual solutions for this migration, such as OMERO - a client-server software for visualising and managing large amounts of image data - exist, this import process may be a time-consuming and tedious task. Findings We have developed ATOM, a Java-based and thus platform-independent add-on for OMERO enabling automated transfer of image data from a wide variety of acquisition software packages into OMERO. ATOM provides a graphical user interface and allows pre-organisation of experimental data for the transfer. Conclusions ATOM is a convenient extension of the OMERO software system. An automated interface to OMERO will be a useful tool for scientists working with file formats supported by the Bio-Formats file format library, a platform-independent library for reading the most common file formats of microscope images. PMID:21978452

  3. Mercury emissions control technologies for mixed waste thermal treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, A.; Knecht, M.; Soelberg, N.; Eaton, D.; Roberts, D.; Broderick, T.

    1997-12-31

    EPA has identified wet scrubbing at low mercury feedrates, as well as carbon adsorption via carbon injection into the offgas or via flow through fixed carbon beds, as control technologies that can be used to meet the proposed Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) rule limit for mercury emissions from hazardous waste incinerators. DOE is currently funding demonstrations of gold amalgamation that may also control mercury to the desired levels. Performance data from a variety of sources was reviewed to determine ranges of achievable mercury control. Preliminary costs were estimated for using these technologies to control mercury emissions from mixed waste incineration. Mercury emissions control for mixed waste incineration may need to be more efficient than for incineration of other hazardous wastes because of higher mercury concentrations in some mixed waste streams. However, mercury control performance data for wet scrubbing and carbon adsorption is highly variable. More information is needed to demonstrate control efficiencies that are achievable under various design and operating conditions for wet scrubbing, carbon adsorption, and gold amalgamation technologies. Given certain assumptions made in this study, capital costs, operating costs, and lifecycle costs for carbon injection, carbon beds, and gold amalgamation generally vary for different assumed mercury feedrates and for different offgas flowrates. Assuming that these technologies can in fact provide the necessary mercury control performance, each of these technologies may be less costly than the others for certain mercury feedrates and the offgas flowrates.

  4. External control of planetary radio emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rucker, H. O.; Desch, M. D.

    1983-01-01

    Recent studies using data from Voyagers 1 and 2 to correlate variations in the Saturn kilometric radiation (SKR) with changes in solar-wind properties are summarized and illustrated with graphs. Best SKR correlations have been obtained with the solar-wind ram pressure and the related kinetic energy flux. It is pointed out that the related phenomenon on earth, the auroral kilometric radiation, occurs mainly in the nightside auroral region (as opposed to the dayside cleft region for SKR) and is best correlated with solar-wind velocity and inverted-V electron-precipitation events, implying a different stimulation process. The evidence for solar-wind control of the non-Io-related decametric radiation of Jupiter is also reviewed.

  5. Coal-fueled diesel technology development emissions control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vankleunen, W.; Kaldor, S.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.

    1994-01-01

    General Electric Environmental Services, Inc. (GEESI), Emissions Control program activity ranged from control concept testing of 10 CFM slipstream from a coal-water-slurry (CWS) fuel single cylinder research diesel engine to the design, installation, and operation of a full-size emissions control system for a full-size CWS fuel diesel engine designed for locomotive operation. Early 10 CFM slipstream testing program activity was performed to determine emissions characteristics and to evaluate emissions control concepts such a barrier filtration, granular bed filtration, and cyclone particulate collection for reduction of particulate and gaseous emissions. Use of sorbent injection into the engine exhaust gas upstream of the barrier filter or use of sorbent media in the granular bed filter were found to provide reduction of exhaust gas SO2 and NO(x) in addition to collection of ash particulate. Emergence of the use of barrier filtration as a most practical emissions control concept disclosed a need to improve cleanability of the filter media in order to avoid reduction of turbocharger performance by excessive barrier filter pressure drop. The next progression of program activity, after the slipstream feasibility state, was 500 CFM cold flow testing of control system concepts. The successful completion of 500 CFM cold flow testing of the envelope filter led to a subsequent progression to a similar configuration envelope filter designed to operate at 500 CFM hot gas flow from the CWS fuel research diesel engine in the GETS engine test laboratory. This envelope filter included the design aspect proven by cold flow testing as well as optimization of the selection of the installed filter media.

  6. Coal-fueled diesel technology development Emissions Control

    SciTech Connect

    Van Kleunen, W.; Kaldor, S.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.

    1994-01-01

    GEESI Emissions Control program activity ranged from control concept testing of 10 CFM slipstream from a CWS fuel single cylinder research diesel engine to the design, installation, and operation of a full-size Emissions Control system for a full-size CWS fuel diesel engine designed for locomotive operation.Early 10 CFM slipstream testing program activity was performed to determine Emissions Characteristics and to evaluate Emissions Control concepts such a Barrier filtration, Granular bed filtration, and Cyclone particulate collection for reduction of particulate and gaseous emissions. Use of sorbent injection into the engine exhaust gas upstream of the barrier filter or use of sorbent media in the granular bed filter were found to provide reduction of exhaust gas SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} in addition to collection of ash particulate. Emergence of the use of barrier filtration as a most practical Emissions Control concept disclosed a need to improve cleanability of the filter media in order to avoid reduction of turbocharger performance by excessive barrier filter pressure drop. The next progression of program activity, after the slipstream feasibility state, was 500 CFM cold flow testing of control system concepts. The successful completion of 500 CFM cold flow testing of the Envelope Filter led to a subsequent progression to a similar configuration Envelope Filter designed to operate at 500 CFM hot gas flow from the CWS fuel research diesel engine in the GETS engine test laboratory. This Envelope Filter included the design aspect proven by cold flow testing as well as optimization of the selection of the installed filter media.

  7. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors or sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors as an add-on to insulin therapy: A comparative review

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Awadhesh Kumar; Singh, Ritu

    2016-01-01

    The gradual decline in β-cell function is inevitable in type 2 diabetes mellitus and therefore, substantial proportions of patients require insulin subsequently, in order to achieve optimal glucose control. While weight gain, hypoglycemia, and fluid retention especially during dose intensification is a known limitation to insulin therapy, these adverse effects also reduce patient satisfaction and treatment adherence. It is also possible that the benefits of intensive control achieved by insulin therapy, perhaps get nullified by the weight gain and hypoglycemia. In addition, improvement in plasma glucose or glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) itself is associated with weight gain. Notably, studies have already suggested that reduction in body weight by ~3–5%, may allow a significantly better glycemic control. Thus, a class of drugs, which can reduce HbA1c effectively, yet are weight neutral or preferably reduce body weight, could be the most sought out strategy as an add-on therapy to insulin. While sulfonylureas (SUs) are associated with weight gain and hypoglycemia, pioglitazone increases body weight and fluid retention. Moreover, SUs are not recommended once premix or prandial insulin is commenced. The addition of newer agents, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist to insulin certainly appears to be an effective tool in reducing both HbA1c and body weight as is evident across the studies; however, this approach incurs an additional injection as well as cost. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4I) and sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2I) are other exciting options, as an add-on to insulin therapy primarily because these are oral drugs and do not possess any intrinsic potential of hypoglycemia. Furthermore, these are either weight neutral or induce significant weight loss. This review article aims to comparatively analyze the safety and efficacy of DPP-4I and SGLT-2I, as an add-on therapy to insulin. PMID:26904466

  8. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors or sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors as an add-on to insulin therapy: A comparative review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Awadhesh Kumar; Singh, Ritu

    2016-01-01

    The gradual decline in β-cell function is inevitable in type 2 diabetes mellitus and therefore, substantial proportions of patients require insulin subsequently, in order to achieve optimal glucose control. While weight gain, hypoglycemia, and fluid retention especially during dose intensification is a known limitation to insulin therapy, these adverse effects also reduce patient satisfaction and treatment adherence. It is also possible that the benefits of intensive control achieved by insulin therapy, perhaps get nullified by the weight gain and hypoglycemia. In addition, improvement in plasma glucose or glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) itself is associated with weight gain. Notably, studies have already suggested that reduction in body weight by ~3-5%, may allow a significantly better glycemic control. Thus, a class of drugs, which can reduce HbA1c effectively, yet are weight neutral or preferably reduce body weight, could be the most sought out strategy as an add-on therapy to insulin. While sulfonylureas (SUs) are associated with weight gain and hypoglycemia, pioglitazone increases body weight and fluid retention. Moreover, SUs are not recommended once premix or prandial insulin is commenced. The addition of newer agents, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist to insulin certainly appears to be an effective tool in reducing both HbA1c and body weight as is evident across the studies; however, this approach incurs an additional injection as well as cost. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4I) and sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2I) are other exciting options, as an add-on to insulin therapy primarily because these are oral drugs and do not possess any intrinsic potential of hypoglycemia. Furthermore, these are either weight neutral or induce significant weight loss. This review article aims to comparatively analyze the safety and efficacy of DPP-4I and SGLT-2I, as an add-on therapy to insulin. PMID:26904466

  9. Plasmonic phase-gradient metasurface for spontaneous emission control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langguth, L.; Schokker, A. H.; Guo, K.; Koenderink, A. F.

    2015-11-01

    We combine the concept of phase-gradient metasurfaces with fluorescence directionality control of an ensemble of incoherent emitters. We design a periodic metasurface to control the scattering amplitude of the lattice in momentum space. The lattice is embedded in a waveguiding layer doped with organic fluorophores. In contrast to the usual symmetric directionality that plasmonic lattices impart on emission, we find that the phase gradient translates into asymmetric directional emission into the far field, determined by scattering on a subset of the reciprocal lattice vectors. The measured asymmetry is well explained by analytical modeling.

  10. Environmental controls on Pan-Arctic wetland methane emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaodong; Bohn, Theodore; Lettenmaier, Dennis

    2015-04-01

    Environmental conditions such as soil temperature and moisture, incident solar radiation, and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration are important environmental controls on methane emissions from northern wetlands. We investigated the spatio-temporal distributions of influence of these factors over northern wetland methane emissions via the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model. We simulated methane emissions from wetlands across the Pan-Arctic domain over the period 1948-2006, with annual average emissions of 35.1±6.7 TgCH4/year. From control simulations that each held one environmental factor constant, we characterized sensitivities to air temperature, precipitation, incident long- and short-wave radiation, and atmospheric [CO2] as a function of average summer air temperature and precipitation. Trade-offs between air temperature and precipitation caused maximal emissions to occur along a line in precipitation-temperature space with a slope of approximately 13 mm month-1 / K, leading to separation of wetlands into various combinations of water-limited and temperature-limited regimes. Emissions from relatively warm and dry wetlands in the southern (permafrost-free) portion of the domain tended to be positively correlated with precipitation and negatively correlated with air temperature, while emissions from wetter and colder wetlands further north (permafrost) tended to be positively correlated with air temperature. Over the period 1960-2006, emissions increased by 20%, over 90% of which can be attributed to climate change, with summer air temperatures explaining the majority of the variance. We estimated future emissions in response to CMIP5 model projections under the RCP4.5 scenario via two methods: (1) the VIC model and (2) the temperature- and precipitation-dependent sensitivities computed from the historical simulation. The two methods yielded similar projections of emissions, with end-of-century emissions at 142% of present-day levels, accompanied by

  11. The controls of methane emission from an Indian mangrove

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purvaja, R.; Ramesh, R.; Frenzel, P.

    2003-04-01

    Mangroves have been rated for a long time as a minor methane source, but recent reports have shown that polluted mangroves may emit substantial amounts of methane. In an Indian mangrove dominated by Avicennia marina we measured annual methane emission rates of 10 g methane/year, comparable to those from Northern wetlands. Methane emission from a freshwater-influenced area was higher, but lower from a stunted mangrove growing on a hypersaline soil, respectively. Methane emission was mediated by the pneumatophores of Avicennia. This was consistent with the methane concentration in the aerenchyma that decreased on average from 350 ppmv in the cable roots to 10 ppmv in the emergent part of the pneumatophores. The number of pneumatophores varied seasonally. During the monsoon floods less pneumatophores emerged from the water, reducing methane fluxes largely. Hence, CH4 emission was controlled via the pneumatophores by the water level.

  12. Survey of medical waste incinerators and emissions control. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, R.G.; Hansell, D.W.; Furlong, D.; Hassell, G.R.; Lanier, W.S.

    1992-01-01

    The report contains two volumes. Volume I of the report assesses the state-of-the-art of medical waste thermal treatment. The program involved a survey of existing information on medical waste treatment. This information was combined with data from municipal and hazardous waste combustion to identify potential mechanisms responsible for toxic emissions. Manufacturers of combustion and flue gas cleaning equipment were contacted. Information on current design practice was obtained. Volume II was prepared to assist local air pollution management districts implement Section 93104, Title 17, of the California Code of Regulations. Section 93104 places restrictions on polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDF) emission levels and medical waste incinerator operating parameters which may affect PCDD/PCDF emissions. Part I of Volume II provides direct guidance for implementing the regulations. Part II provides background information on the operation and capabilities of flue gas cleaning systems used to control particulate, acid gas, metals, and PCDD/PCDF emissions.

  13. NOx Sensor for Direct Injection Emission Control

    SciTech Connect

    Betteridge, William J

    2006-02-28

    The Electricore/Delphi team continues to leverage the electrochemical planar sensor technology that has produced stoichiometric planar and wide range oxygen sensors as the basis for development of a NOx sensor. Zirconia cell technology with an integrated heater will provide the foundation for the sensor structure. Proven materials and packaging technology will help to ensure a cost-effective approach to the manufacture of this sensor. The electronics technique and interface is considered to be an area where new strategies need to be employed to produce higher S/N ratios of the NOx signal with emphasis on signal stability over time for robustness and durability Both continuous mode and pulse mode control techniques are being evaluated. Packaging the electronics requires careful design and circuit partitioning so that only the necessary signal conditioning electronics are coupled directly in the wiring harness, while the remainder is situated within the ECM for durability and costs reasons. This task continues to be on hold due to the limitation that the definition of the interface electronics was unavailable until very late in the project. The sense element is based on the amperometric method utilizing integrated alumina and zirconia ceramics. Precious metal electrodes are used to form the integrated heater, the cell electrodes and leads. Inside the actual sense cell structure, it is first necessary to separate NOx from the remaining oxygen constituents of the exhaust, without reducing the NOx. Once separated, the NOx will be measured using a measurement cell. Development or test coupons have been used to facilitate material selection and refinement, cell, diffusion barrier, and chamber development. The sense element currently requires elaborate interconnections. To facilitate a robust durable connection, mechanical and metallurgical connections are under investigation. Materials and process refinements continue to play an important role in the development of the

  14. 40 CFR 63.3531 - How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limitations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 CFR part 262, 264, 265, or 266 or otherwise managed in accordance with applicable Federal and...: Surface Coating of Metal Cans Compliance Requirements for the Emission Rate Without Add-on Controls Option... coating used during each month according to the requirements in § 63.3521(b). (c) Determine the density...

  15. 40 CFR 63.3531 - How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limitations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... section and that will be treated or disposed of by a facility regulated as a TSDF under 40 CFR part 262... Metal Cans Compliance Requirements for the Emission Rate Without Add-on Controls Option § 63.3531 How do... month according to the requirements in § 63.3521(b). (c) Determine the density of each...

  16. 40 CFR 63.4951 - How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limitations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... section and that will be treated or disposed of by a facility regulated as a TSDF under 40 CFR part 262...: Surface Coating of Metal Furniture Compliance Requirements for the Emission Rate Without Add-on Controls... to the requirements in § 63.4941(b). (c) Determine the density of each material. You must...

  17. 40 CFR 63.3531 - How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limitations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 CFR part 262, 264, 265, or 266 or otherwise managed in accordance with applicable Federal and...: Surface Coating of Metal Cans Compliance Requirements for the Emission Rate Without Add-on Controls Option... coating used during each month according to the requirements in § 63.3521(b). (c) Determine the density...

  18. 40 CFR 63.3531 - How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limitations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 CFR part 262, 264, 265, or 266 or otherwise managed in accordance with applicable Federal and...: Surface Coating of Metal Cans Compliance Requirements for the Emission Rate Without Add-on Controls Option... coating used during each month according to the requirements in § 63.3521(b). (c) Determine the density...

  19. 40 CFR 63.3531 - How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limitations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... section and that will be treated or disposed of by a facility regulated as a TSDF under 40 CFR part 262... Metal Cans Compliance Requirements for the Emission Rate Without Add-on Controls Option § 63.3531 How do... month according to the requirements in § 63.3521(b). (c) Determine the density of each...

  20. 40 CFR 63.4951 - How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limitations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... section and that will be treated or disposed of by a facility regulated as a TSDF under 40 CFR part 262...: Surface Coating of Metal Furniture Compliance Requirements for the Emission Rate Without Add-on Controls... to the requirements in § 63.4941(b). (c) Determine the density of each material. You must...

  1. 40 CFR 63.4291 - What are my options for meeting the emission limits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... option. (3) Emission rate with add-on controls option. Demonstrate that, based on the regulated materials... balances according to § 63.4351(d)(5), and that you meet the work practice standards required in § 63.4293... Finishing. You may apply any one of the compliance options in paragraphs (c)(1) through (3) of this...

  2. 40 CFR 63.4291 - What are my options for meeting the emission limits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... option. (3) Emission rate with add-on controls option. Demonstrate that, based on the regulated materials... balances according to § 63.4351(d)(5), and that you meet the work practice standards required in § 63.4293... Finishing. You may apply any one of the compliance options in paragraphs (c)(1) through (3) of this...

  3. 40 CFR 63.4291 - What are my options for meeting the emission limits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... option. (3) Emission rate with add-on controls option. Demonstrate that, based on the regulated materials... balances according to § 63.4351(d)(5), and that you meet the work practice standards required in § 63.4293... Finishing. You may apply any one of the compliance options in paragraphs (c)(1) through (3) of this...

  4. 40 CFR 63.4291 - What are my options for meeting the emission limits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... option. (3) Emission rate with add-on controls option. Demonstrate that, based on the regulated materials... balances according to § 63.4351(d)(5), and that you meet the work practice standards required in § 63.4293... Finishing. You may apply any one of the compliance options in paragraphs (c)(1) through (3) of this...

  5. 40 CFR 63.4342 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., and Dyeing of Fabrics and Other Textiles Compliance Requirements for the Emission Rate with Add-on.../printing operations and according to § 63.4341(f) for dyeing/finishing operations, must be equal to or less... materials applied during a deviation on a controlled coating/printing or dyeing/finishing operation as...

  6. 40 CFR 63.4342 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., and Dyeing of Fabrics and Other Textiles Compliance Requirements for the Emission Rate with Add-on.../printing operations and according to § 63.4341(f) for dyeing/finishing operations, must be equal to or less... materials applied during a deviation on a controlled coating/printing or dyeing/finishing operation as...

  7. Modeling the benefits of power plant emission controls in Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Levy, Jonathan I; Spengler, John D

    2002-01-01

    Older fossil-fueled power plants provide a significant portion of emissions of criteria air pollutants in the United States, in part because these facilities are not required to meet the same emission standards as new sources under the Clean Air Act. Pending regulations for older power plants need information about any potential public health benefits of emission reductions, which can be estimated by combining emissions information, dispersion modeling, and epidemiologic evidence. In this article, we develop an analytical modeling framework that can evaluate health benefits of emission controls, and we apply our model to two power plants in Massachusetts. Using the CALPUFF atmospheric dispersion model, we estimate that use of Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for NOx and SO2 would lead to maximum annual average secondary particulate matter (PM) concentration reductions of 0.2 microg/m3. When we combine concentration reductions with current health evidence, our central estimate is that the secondary PM reductions from these two power plants would avert 70 deaths per year in a population of 33 million individuals. Although benefit estimates could differ substantially with different interpretations of the health literature, parametric perturbations within CALPUFF and other simple model changes have relatively small impacts from an aggregate risk perspective. While further analysis would be required to reduce uncertainties and expand on our analytical model, our framework can help decision-makers evaluate the magnitude and distribution of benefits under different control scenarios. PMID:15152660

  8. Enhanced control of mercury emissions through modified speciation

    SciTech Connect

    Livengood, C.D.; Mendelsohn, M.H.

    1997-07-01

    In anticipation of possible regulations regarding mercury emissions, research efforts sponsored by DOE, EPRI, and others are investigating the risks posed by mercury emissions, improved techniques for measuring those emissions, and possible control measures. The focus in the control research is on techniques that can be used in conjunction with existing flue-gas-cleanup (FGC) systems in order to minimize additional capital costs and operational complexity. Argonne National Laboratory has supported the DOE Fossil Energy Program for over 15 years with research on advanced environmental control technologies. The emphasis in Argonne`s work has been on integrated systems that combine control of several pollutants. Specific topics have included spray drying for sulfur dioxide and particulate-matter control with high-sulfur coal, combined sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides control technologies, and techniques to enhance mercury control in existing FGC systems. The latter area has focused on low-cost dry sorbents for use with fabric filters or electrostatic precipitators and techniques for improving the capture of mercury in wet flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. This paper presents results from recent work that has studied the effects of several oxidizing agents in combination with typical flue-gas species (e.g., nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide) on the oxidation of Hg{sup 0}.

  9. Switching regulator emission control circuit for ion sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clay, F. P., Jr.; Brock, F. J.; Melfi, L. T., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    An electron emission control circuit of the switching regulator type operating at 100 kHz has been developed which maintains a constant emission current within 0.1% for a cathode power demand variation of approximately 100%. The power output stage has an efficiency of 67%, and the overall efficiency is 45% when driving a thoria-coated iridium cathode having a nominal resistance at operating temperature of 2.5 ohms. Under optimum conditions, the bus power demand is 1.75 W. The circuit is useful in controlling the electron emission current of ion sources in applications which involve a substantial variation of the cathode work function, such as oxygen partial pressure measurements over a large dynamic range.

  10. A cost-effective add-on-value card-assisted firewall over Taiwan's NHI VPN framework.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jyh-Win; Hou, Ting-Wei

    2007-06-01

    Besides the overall budget for building the infrastructure of a healthcare-service-based virtual private network (VPN) in Taiwan, two issues were considered critical for its acceptance by the country's 17,000 plus medical institutions. One was who was to pay for the network (ADSL or modem) connection fee; the other was who was to pay for the firewall/anti-virus software. This paper addresses the second issue by proposing an efficient freeware firewall, named card-assisted firewall (CAF), for NHI VPN edge-hosts, which is also an add-on-value application of the National Healthcare IC card that every insurant and medical professional has. The innovative concept is that any NHI VPN site (edge-host) can establish diversified secure-authenticated connections with other sites only by an authentication mechanism, which requires a NHI Java card state machine and the Access Control List of the host. It is different from two-factor authentication cards in four ways: (1) a PIN code is not a must; (2) it requires authentication with the remote IC card Data Centre; (3) the NHI cards are already available, no modification is needed, and there is no further cost for the deployment of the cards; (4) although the cards are in the reader, the communication cannot start unless the cards are in the corresponding states; i.e. the states allow communication. An implementation, on a Microsoft Windows XP platform, demonstrated the system's feasibility over an emulation of the NHI VPN framework. It maintained a high line speed, the driver took up 39 KB of disk space, installation was simple, not requiring any extra hardware or software, and the average packet processing time of the CAF driver measured was 0.3084 ms. The average overhead in comparing the Access Control List predefined routing in card, in an FTP testing experiment, was 5.7 micros (receiving) and 8 micros (sending). PMID:17541860

  11. Effects of gliclazide add on metformin on serum omentin-1 levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Al-Gareeb, Ali I.; Alrubai, Haidar F.; Suliaman, Sammar M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Omentin is a newly identified adipokine that has beneficial influence against cardiovascular disorders. Hence, considering the impact of anti-diabetic drug on omentin levels may provide an adjuvant strategy to protect diabetic patients against valuable clinical hazards. Aim of the Study: To investigate the influence of metformin alone or in combination with gliclazide on the level of serum omentin among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Patients and Methods: A total of 70 newly diagnosed patients with T2DM were enrolled in this randomized, double-blind prospective study, and divided into two equal groups based on treatment regimen in which Group 1 treated with metformin (1000 mg) and Group 2 treated with metformin (1000 mg) plus gliclazide (80 mg). Blood glucose levels, HbA1C, insulin levels, and serum omentin-1 were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. Result: Use of gliclazide as an add-on therapy to metformin in patients with T2DM result in better glycemic control evidenced by significant reductions in the levels of blood glucose levels and HbA1C and much more improvement in insulin sensitivity evidenced by significant decreased in insulin resistance index, whereas it has adverse impact on serum omentin-1 levels evidenced by significant decrement in omentin-1 level in comparison to their pretreatment levels among Group 2 patients. Conclusions: Adding of gliclazide to metformin in treatment of patients with T2DM might extend the therapeutic action of metformin in regarding much better controlling of glycemic indices, but, at the same time, it might attenuate the cardioprotective effects of metformin by its adverse influence on serum omentin-1 levels. PMID:27042415

  12. Mozart K.448 acts as a potential add-on therapy in children with refractory epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lung-Chang; Lee, Wei-Te; Wang, Chien-Hua; Chen, Hsiu-Lin; Wu, Hui-Chuan; Tsai, Chin-Lin; Wei, Ruey-Chang; Mok, Hin-Kiu; Weng, Chia-Fen; Lee, Mei-Wen; Yang, Rei-Cheng

    2011-03-01

    Mozart's Sonata for two pianos in D major, K.448 (Mozart K.448), has been shown to improve mental function, leading to what is known as the Mozart effect. Our previous work revealed that epileptiform discharges in children with epilepsy decreased during and immediately after listening to Mozart K.448. In this study, we evaluated the long-term effects of Mozart K.448 on children with refractory epilepsy. Eleven children with refractory epilepsy were enrolled. All of the patients were diagnosed as having had refractory epilepsy for more than 1 year (range =1 year to 6 years 4 months, mean =3 years 11 months) and had been receiving at least two antiepileptic drugs (AED). During the study period, they listened to Mozart K.448 once a day before bedtime for 6 months. Seizure frequencies were recorded 6 months before they started listening to this music and monthly during the study period. All of the patients remained on the same AEDs during the 6-month study period. Frequencies of seizures were compared before and after listening to Mozart K.448. Eight of eleven patients were seizure free (N=2) or had very good responses (N=6) after 6 months of listening to Mozart K.448. The remaining three (27.3%) showed minimal or no effect (effectiveness <50%; unmodified or worsened seizure frequency). The average seizure reduction was 53.6 ± 62.0%. There were no significant differences in seizure reduction with IQ, etiology, or gender. We conclude that Mozart K.448 should be further studied as a potential add-on therapy in the treatment of children with refractory epilepsy. PMID:21292560

  13. Establishing a Near Term Lunar Farside Gravity Model via Inexpensive Add-on Navigation Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Mesarch, Michael; Miller, Ronald; Bell, David; Jedrey, Tom; Butman, Stanley; Asmar, Sami

    2007-01-01

    The Space Communications and Navigation, Constellation Integration Project (SCIP) is tasked with defining, developing, deploying and operating an evolving multi-decade communications and navigation (C/N) infrastructure including services and subsystems that will support both robotic and human exploration activities at the Moon. This paper discusses an early far side gravitational mapping service and related telecom subsystem that uses an existing spacecraft (WIND) and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) to collect data that would address several needs of the SCIP. An important aspect of such an endeavor is to vastly improve the current lunar gravity model while demonstrating the navigation and stationkeeping of a relay spacecraft. We describe a gravity data acquisition activity and the trajectory design of the relay orbit in an Earth-Moon L2 co-linear libration orbit. Several phases of the transfer from an Earth-Sun to the Earth-Moon region are discussed along with transfers within the Earth-Moon system. We describe a proposed, but not integrated, add-on to LRO scheduled to be launched in October of 2008. LRO provided a real host spacecraft against which we designed the science payload and mission activities. From a strategic standpoint, LRO was a very exciting first flight opportunity for gravity science data collection. Gravity Science data collection requires the use of one or more low altitude lunar polar orbiters. Variations in the lunar gravity field will cause measurable variations in the orbit of a low altitude lunar orbiter. The primary means to capture these induced motions is to monitor the Doppler shift of a radio signal to or from the low altitude spacecraft, given that the signal is referenced to a stable frequency reference. For the lunar far side, a secondary orbiting radio signal platform is required. We provide an in-depth look at link margins, trajectory design, and hardware implications. Our approach posed minimum risk to a host mission while

  14. Aromatase inhibitors as add-on treatment for men with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Harden, Cynthia; MacLusky, Neil J

    2005-01-01

    Manipulation of neurosteroids to treat epilepsy has been an area of active research. The effect of testosterone on brain excitability and seizure threshold has been mixed; the estradiol metabolite of testosterone increases brain excitability, while the reduced metabolite of testosterone, 3alpha-androstanediol, decreases brain excitability, likely through an action at the gamma-amino butyric acid A receptor. Therefore, the metabolites of testosterone produce opposite effects on brain excitability in seizure models. Aromatase is the enzyme for the conversion of testosterone to 17beta-estradiol. Aromatase inhibitors could decrease brain excitability by decreasing local estradiol levels and therefore, could be beneficial for the treatment of epilepsy. Aromatase inhibitors are US Food and Drug Administration-approved and have a long history of safe use in menopausal women with breast cancer. This review presents the results of using anastrazole in an open-label, add-on manner in a small group of men with epilepsy in order to improve seizures. The results suggested some effect on reduction of seizures and no side effects. Testosterone levels did increase, but not to above the normal range. Letrozole used in a single case was also beneficial for seizures. It was concluded that aromatase inhibitors may be a useful adjunct to the treatment of epilepsy, but habituation to the treatment may be limiting. Many men with epilepsy have low testosterone, and aromatase inhibition may be helpful in restoring levels to normal. Modulation of reproductive hormones by aromatase inhibition as well as enhancement of the 3alpha-androstanediol pathway may be an avenue of epilepsy treatment that would not produce sedative side effects, which is often a limiting factor with standard antiseizure medications. A further interesting result is that elevated follicle stimulating hormone and luteal stimulating hormone levels were associated with seizure reduction, suggesting that they may be a

  15. Aerodynamic drag reduction tests on a full-scale tractor-trailer combination with several add-on devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montoya, L. C.; Steers, L. L.

    1974-01-01

    Aerodynamic drag tests were performed on a conventional cab-over-engine tractor with a 45-foot trailer and five commercially available or potentially available add-on devices using the coast-down method. The tests ranged in velocity from approximately 30 miles per hour to 65 miles per hour and included some flow visualization. A smooth, level runway at Edwards Air Force Base was used for the tests, and deceleration measurements were taken with both accelerometers and stopwatches. An evaluation of the drag reduction results obtained with each of the five add-on devices is presented.

  16. Controlling sulfur emissions with BSRP and Selectox technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Hass, R.H.; Ward, J.W.; Bertram, R.V.; Robinson, P.R.

    1986-01-01

    Two processes have been developed for controlling sulfur emissions from gas streams. They are the Beavon Sulfur Recovery Process (BSRP) which recovers sulfur from Claus tail gas, and the Selectox process which oxidizes gaseous H/sub 2/S to sulfur using air. Recent developments and commercial experience for both processes are reviewed.

  17. SPRAY CHARGING AND TRAPPING SCRUBBER FOR FUGITIVE PARTICLE EMISSION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a theoretical and experimental evaluation of the control of fugitive particle emissions (FPE) with a Spray Charging and Trapping (SCAT) Scrubber that uses an air curtain and/or jets to contain, convey, and divert the FPE into a charged spray scrubber. ...

  18. ASSESSMENT OF THE USE OF FUGITIVE EMISSION CONTROL DEVICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report compares the efficiencies and utility consumptions expected from three fugitive emission control techniques--building evacuation, charged fog sprays, and water sprays with additives--if they were applied in primary lead and copper smelters. Estimates are provided of th...

  19. PHYSICAL COAL CLEANING FOR UTILITY BOILER SO2 EMISSION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report examines physical coal cleaning as a control technique for sulfur oxides emissions. It includes an analysis of the availability of low-sulfur coal and of coal cleanable to compliance levels for alternate New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). Various alternatives to ...

  20. No effect of switching to high-dose rosuvastatin, add-on nicotinic acid, or add-on fenofibrate on serum vitamin D levels in patients with mixed dyslipidemia

    PubMed Central

    Makariou, E S; Elisaf, M; Kei, A; Challa, A; DiNicolantonio, J J; Liberopoulos, E

    2015-01-01

    Background Low 25-hydroxy-vitamin D [25(OH)VitD] levels may represent a novel cardiovascular disease risk factor. Several statins may increase 25(OH)VitD concentration. The effect of other lipid-lowering drugs is unknown. Aim To investigate whether switching to high-dose rosuvastatin, add-on-statin nicotinic acid or add-on-statin fenofibrate would alter 25(OH)VitD levels in patients with mixed dyslipidemia who are already on a conventional statin dose. Methods This is a prespecified analysis of a previously published study. Forty-four patients with mixed dyslipidemia not at treatment goal despite treatment with simvastatin 10-40 mg or atorvastatin 10-20 mg or rosuvastatin 5-10 mg were randomly allocated to switch to rosuvastatin 40 mg (n=17), add-on-statin extended release nicotinic acid (ER-NA)/laropiprant (LRPT) (1000/20 mg first four weeks and 2000/40 mg thereafter) (n=14), or add-on-statin micronized fenofibrate (200 mg) for three months. The endpoint for this analysis was between-group difference in changes in 25(OH)VitD levels. Results Serum 25(OH)VitD levels did not significantly change in any group. In the switch to the highest dose of rosuvastatin group and the add-on-statin ER-NA/LRPT group there was an insignificant decrease in 25(OH)VitD levels {-4.7% [from 16.8 (3.2-37) to 16.0 (7.9-51.6)] and -14.8% [from 12.8 (2.0-54.8) to 10.9 (2.4-34)], respectively]}, while in the add-on-statin fenofibrate group there was an insignificant increase [+13% (from 14.5 (1.0-42) to 16.4 (4.4-30.4) ng/mL)]. No significant difference between groups was found. Conclusion In patients already on a conventional statin dose, neither switching to high-dose rosuvastatin (40 mg) nor add-on-statin ER-NA/LRPT or fenofibrate were associated with significant changes in 25(OH)VitD serum levels. Hippokratia 2015; 19 (2):136-140. PMID:27418762

  1. Tillage and field scale controls on greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Juhwan; Six, Johan; King, Amy P; van Kessel, Chris; Rolston, Dennis E

    2006-01-01

    There is a lack of understanding of how associations among soil properties and management-induced changes control the variability of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from soil. We performed a laboratory investigation to quantify relationships between GHG emissions and soil indicators in an irrigated agricultural field under standard tillage (ST) and a field recently converted (2 yr) to no-tillage (NT). Soil cores (15-cm depth) were incubated at 25 degrees C at field moisture content and 75% water holding capacity. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified that most of the variation of the measured soil properties was related to differences in soil C and N and soil water conditions under ST, but soil texture and bulk density under NT. This trend became more apparent after irrigation. However, principal component regression (PCR) suggested that soil physical properties or total C and N were less important in controlling GHG emissions across tillage systems. The CO2 flux was more strongly determined by microbial biomass under ST and inorganic N content under NT than soil physical properties. Similarly, N2O and CH4 fluxes were predominantly controlled by NO3- content and labile C and N availability in both ST and NT soils at field moisture content, and NH4+ content after irrigation. Our study indicates that the field-scale variability of GHG emissions is controlled primarily by biochemical parameters rather than physical parameters. Differences in the availability and type of C and N sources for microbial activity as affected by tillage and irrigation develop different levels and combinations of field-scale controls on GHG emissions. PMID:16585613

  2. Particulate Emissions from a Pre-Emissions Control Era Spark-Ignition Vehicle: A Historical Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    John M.E. Storey; C. Scott Sluder; Douglas A. Blom; Erin Higinbotham

    2000-06-19

    This study examined the particulate emissions from a pre-emissions control era vehicle operated on both leaded and unleaded fuels for the purpose of establishing a historical benchmark. A pre-control vehicle was located that had been rebuilt with factory original parts to approximate an as-new vehicle prior to 1968. The vehicle had less than 20,000 miles on the rebuilt engine and exhaust. The vehicle underwent repeated FTP-75 tests to determine its regulated emissions, including particulate mass. Additionally, measurements of the particulate size distribution were made, as well as particulate lead concentration. These tests were conducted first with UTG96 certification fuel, followed by UTG96 doped with tetraethyl lead to approximate 1968 levels. Results of these tests, including transmission electron micrographs of individual particles from both the leaded and unleaded case are presented. The FTP composite PM emissions from this vehicle averaged 40.5 mg/mile using unleaded fuel. The results from the leaded fuel tests showed that the FTP composite PM emissions increased to an average of 139.5 mg/mile. Analysis of the particulate size distribution for both cases demonstrated that the mass-based size distribution of particles for this vehicle is heavily skewed towards the nano-particle range. The leaded-fuel tests showed a significant increase in mass concentration at the <0.1 micron size compared with the unleaded-fuel test case. The leaded-fuel tests produced lead emissions of nearly 0.04 g/mi, more than a 4-order-of-magnitude difference compared with unleaded-fuel results. Analysis of the size-fractionated PM samples showed that the lead PM emissions tended to be distributed in the 0.25 micron and smaller size range.

  3. Control of diesel engine emissions by dilute oxidizer injection

    SciTech Connect

    Duva, A.W.; Ibrahim, O.; Zhang, Z.

    1996-12-31

    The current diesel engine power systems have progressed to the point where significant reduction in emissions or fuel consumption are at the limit of the state of the art with the present fuels. It is proposed that overall system weight, power or efficiency must be traded to achieve reduced exhaust emission levels. Emission control through the injection of dilute oxidizers are explored to minimize the formation of noxious gases, emission of unburned hydrocarbons and soot in internal combustion diesel cycle engines. Relevant literature detailing the attempts to control exhaust emissions by altering the intake charge are reviewed and utilized as the foundation for the current study. Steady flow type combustion simulations utilizing low concentration hydrogen peroxide with available air in varying ratios are presented for trend comparison to experimental data developed during this investigation. The empirical portion of the study focused on the adaptation of proposed dilute hydrogen peroxide injection to a standard four cylinder marine diesel engine. The main thrust evaluated the impact of oxidizer injection on an aging engine without significant modifications to the existing auxiliary equipment. A simple spray apparatus delivered the dilute hydrogen peroxide to the air intake stream to minimize the alterations to the existing system. Water injection was performed as an experimental control for comparison to reference literature and to normalize the results obtained from the injection of the 5% and 10% concentration hydrogen peroxide. The injection of both concentrations of hydrogen peroxide showed an improvement relative to water injection for unburned hydrocarbon and oxides of nitrogen emissions. The improvements relative to water was greater with the higher concentration of hydrogen peroxide.

  4. Modeling study of natural emissions, source apportionment, and emission control of atmospheric mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shetty, Suraj K.

    ) and CAMNet (Canadian Atmospheric Mercury Measurement Network). The model estimated a total deposition of 474 Mg yr-1 to the CONUS (Contiguous United States) domain, with two-thirds being dry deposited. Reactive gaseous mercury contributed the most to 60% of deposition. Emission speciation distribution is a key factor for local deposition as contribution from large point sources can be as high as 75% near (< 100 km) the emission sources, indicating that emission reduction may result in direct deposition decrease near the source locations. Among the sources, BC contributes to about 68% to 91% of total deposition. Excluding the BC's contribution, EGU contributes to nearly 50% of deposition caused by CONUS emissions in the Northeast, Southeast and East Central regions, while emissions from natural processes are more important in the Pacific and West Central regions (contributing up to 40% of deposition). The modeling results implies that implementation of the new emission standards proposed by USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) would significantly benefit regions that have larger contributions from EGU sources. Control of mercury emissions from coal combustion processes has attracted great attention due to its toxicity and the emission-control regulations and has lead to advancement in state-of-the-art control technologies that alleviate the impact of mercury on ecosystem and human health. This part of the work applies a sorption model to simulate adsorption of mercury in flue gases, onto a confined-bed of activated carbon. The model's performances were studied at various flue gas flow rates, inlet mercury concentrations and adsorption bed temperatures. The process simulated a flue gas, with inlet mercury concentration of 300 ppb, entering at a velocity of 0.3 m s-1 from the bottom into a fixed bed (inside bed diameter of 1 m and 3 m bed height; bed temperature of 25 °C) of activated carbon (particle size of 0.004 m with density of 0.5 g cm-3 and

  5. Clinical Characteristics and Metabolic Predictors of Rapid Responders to Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor as an Add-on Therapy to Sulfonylurea and Metformin

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ye An; Yoo, Won Sang; Hong, Eun Shil; Ku, Eu Jeong; Park, Kyeong Seon; Lim, Soo; Cho, Young Min; Park, Kyong Soo; Jang, Hak Chul

    2015-01-01

    Background Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor add-on therapy is a new option for patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes who are taking combined metformin and sulfonylurea (SU). We evaluated the efficacy and safety of this triple therapy and the characteristics of rapid responders and hypoglycemia-prone patients. Methods We included 807 patients with type 2 diabetes who were prescribed a newly added DPP-4 inhibitor to ongoing metformin and SU in 2009 to 2011. Glycemia and other metabolic parameters at baseline, 12, 24, and 52 weeks, as well as episodes of hypoglycemia were analyzed. Rapid responders were defined as patients with ≥25% reduction in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) within 12 weeks. Results At baseline, while on the submaximal metformin and SU combination, the mean HbA1c level was 8.4%. Twelve weeks after initiation of DPP-4 inhibitor add-on, 269 patients (34.4%) achieved an HbA1c level ≤7%. Sixty-six patients (8.2%, 47 men) were rapid responders. The duration of diabetes was shorter in rapid responders, and their baseline fasting plasma glucose (FPG), HbA1c, C-peptide, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance were significantly higher. Patients who experienced hypoglycemia after taking DPP-4 inhibitor add-on were more likely to be female, to have a lower body weight and lower triglyceride and FPG levels, and to have higher homeostasis model assessment of β-cells. Conclusion An oral hypoglycemic triple agent combination including a DPP-4 inhibitor was effective in patients with uncontrolled diabetes. Proactive dose reduction of SU should be considered when a DPP-4 inhibitor is added for rapid responders and hypoglycemia-prone patients. PMID:26616595

  6. Solar wind control of Jupiter's hectometric radio emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrow, C. H.; Desch, M. D.

    1989-01-01

    Radio, plasma, and magnetic field data obtained by Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 were used to examine the manner in which the Jovian hectometric radio emission (HOM) is controlled by the solar wind. Using the method of superposed epochs, it was found that the higher energy HOM is correlated with the IMF as well as with the solar wind density and pressure. However, unlike the Io-independent decametric radio emission (Non-Io DAM), the HOM displayed no correlation with the solar wind velocity, although this radio component appear to be also influenced by the IMF. The results suggest separate HOM amd Non-Io DAM sources.

  7. Standardized Emission Quantification and Control of Costs for Environmental Measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, J.; Hustedt, M.; Wesling, V.; Barcikowski, S.

    Laser welding and soldering are important industrial joining processes. As is known, LGACs (Laser Generated Air Contaminants) cause costs for environmental measures during production of complex metallic components (steel, aluminium, magnesium, alloys). The hazardous potential of such processes has been assessed by analyzing the specific emissions with respect to relevant threshold limit values (TLVs). Avoiding and controlling emissions caused by laser processing of metals or metal composites is an important task. Using the experimental results, the planning of appropriate exhaust systems for laser processing is facilitated significantly. The costs quantified for environmental measures account for significant percentages of the total manufacturing costs.

  8. Control of Trace Metal Emissions During Coal Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas C. Ho

    1996-10-01

    Emissions of toxic trace metals in the form of metal fumes or submicron particulate from a coal-fired combustion source have received greater environmental and regulatory concern over the past years. Current practice of controlling these emissions is to collect them at the cold-end of the process by air-pollution control devices (APCDS) such as electrostatic precipitators and baghouses. However, trace metal fumes may not always be effectively collected by these devices because the formed fumes are extremely small. The proposed research is to explore the opportunities for improved control of toxic trace metal emissions, alternatively, at the hot-end of the coal combustion process, i.e., in the combustion chamber. The technology proposed is to prevent the metal fumes from forming during the process, which would effectively eliminate the metal emission problems. Specifically, the technology is to employ suitable sorbents to (1) reduce the amount of metal volatilization during combustion and (2) capture volatilized metal vapors. The objectives of the project are to demonstrate the technology and to characterize the metal capture process during coal combustion in a fluidized bed combustor.

  9. Air emission control equipment - the new challenge for equpiment suppliers

    SciTech Connect

    Lobb, F.H.

    1997-12-31

    The combination of Title V, the CAM Rule and the Credible Evidence Rule demand industrial sites view the selection and operation of emission control devices in a whole new light. No longer can users see these devices as detached end of pipe pieces of equipment essentially purchased off lowest bid. These regulatory changes force plants to fully integrate the operation of these devices into their process control systems and instrumentation. And this is specifically EPA`s stated intent. EPA believes that by forcing sites to exercise the same knowledge and attention to air emissions that they do to operate their production processes, emissions will undergo a natural reduction across the country. Process and operational data that historically has been the sole province of sites becomes public. And compliance with state defined requirements must be demonstrated essentially continuously. This paper explores the new approach to compliance and provides insight through specific field examples/installations of emission control equipment. The author seeks to promote understanding through discussion of these significant regulatory changes.

  10. Control of Trace Metal Emissions During Coal Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas C. Ho

    1997-10-01

    Emissions of toxic trace metals in the form of metal fumes or submicron particulates from a coal-fired combustion source have received greater environmental and regulatory concern over the past years. Current practice of controlling these emissions is to collect them at the cold-end of the process by air-pollution control devices (APCDs) such as electrostatic precipitators and baghouses. However, trace metal fumes may not always be effectively collected by these devices because the formed fumes are extremely small. The proposed research is to explore the opportunities for improved control of toxic trace metal emissions, alternatively, at the hot-end of the coal combustion process, i.e., in the combustion chamber. The technology proposed is to prevent the metal fumes from forming during the process, which would effectively eliminate the metal emission problems. Specifically, the technology is to employ suitable sorbents to (1) reduce the amount of metal volatilization during combustion and (2) capture volatilized metal vapors. The objectives of the project are to demonstrate the technology and to characterize the metal capture process during coal combustion in a fluidized bed combustor. The project was started on July 1, 1994 and this is the thirteenth quarterly technical progress report. Specifically, the following progress has been made during this performance period from July 1, 1997 through September 30, 1997.

  11. Control of Trace Metal Emissions During Coal Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas C. Ho

    1997-01-01

    Emissions of toxic trace metals in the form of metal fumes or submicron particulates from a coal-fired combustion source have received greater environmental and regulatory concern over the past years. Current practice of controlling these emissions is to collect them at the cold-end of the process by air-pollution control devices (APCDs) such as electrostatic precipitators and baghouses. However, trace metal fumes may not always be effectively collected by these devices because the formed fumes are extremely small. The proposed research is to explore the opportunities for improved control of toxic trace metal emissions, alternatively, at the hot-end of the coal combustion process, i.e., in the combustion chamber. The technology proposed is to prevent the metal fumes from forming during the process, which would effectively eliminate the metal emission problems. Specifically, the technology is to employ suitable sorbents to (1) reduce the amount of metal volatilization during combustion and (2) capture volatilized metal vapors. The objectives of the project are to demonstrate the technology and to characterize the metal capture process during coal combustion in a fluidized bed combustor.

  12. Control of Trace Metal Emissions During Coal Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas C. Ho

    1997-07-01

    Emissions of toxic trace metals in the form of metal fumes or submicron particulates from a coal-fired combustion source have received greater environmental and regulatory concern over the past years. Current practice of controlling these emissions is to collect them at the cold-end of the process by air-pollution control devices (APCDs) such as electrostatic precipitators and baghouses. However, trace metal fumes may not always be effectively collected by these devices because the formed fumes are extremely small. The proposed research is to explore the opportunities for improved control of toxic trace metal emissions, alternatively, at the hot-end of the coal combustion process, i.e., in the combustion chamber. The technology proposed is to prevent the metal fumes from forming during the process, which would effectively eliminate the metal emission problems. Specifically, the technology is to employ suitable sorbents to (1) reduce the amount of metal volatilization during combustion and (2) capture volatilized metal vapors. The objectives of the project are to demonstrate the technology and to characterize the metal capture process during coal combustion in a fluidized bed combustor.

  13. Control of Trace Metal Emissions During Coal Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas C. Ho

    1997-04-01

    Emissions of toxic trace metals in the form of metal fumes or submicron particulates from a coal-fired combustion source have received greater environmental and regulatory concern over the past years. Current practice of controlling these emissions is to collect them at the cold-end of the process by air-pollution control devices (APCDs) such as electrostatic precipitators and baghouses. However, trace metal fumes may not always be effectively collected by these devices because the formed fumes are extremely small. The proposed research is to explore the opportunities for improved control of toxic trace metal emissions, alternatively, at the hot-end of the coal combustion process, i.e., in the combustion chamber. The technology proposed is to prevent the metal fumes from forming during the process, which would effectively eliminate the metal emission problems. Specifically, the technology is to employ suitable sorbents to (1) reduce the amount of metal volatilization during combustion and (2) capture volatilized metal vapors. The objectives of the project are to demonstrate the technology and to characterize the metal capture process during coal combustion in a fluidized bed combustor.

  14. Loxapine Add-on for Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Irritability

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Gregory; Cain, Sharon E.; Zhou, Xinghua; Barth, Francis X.; Aman, Michael G.; Palaguachi, Gladys I.; Mikhnev, Dmytro; Teng, Rujia; Andridge, Rebecca; Logan, Marilyn; Butler, Merlin G.; Han, Joan C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: Our clinical experience with low dose loxapine (5–15 mg/day) suggests promising efficacy and safety for irritability in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We studied low dose loxapine prospectively in adolescents and adults with ASD and irritability. Additionally, we measured loxapine and metabolite concentrations, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as a biomarker of neuromodulation. Methods: We performed a 12 week open trial of add-on loxapine in subjects, ages 13–65 years, diagnosed with ASD, and Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Irritability (ABC-I) subscale scores >14. Loxapine was dosed flexibly up to 15 mg daily, starting with 5 mg on alternate days. From weeks 1 to 6, other psychoactive medications were tapered if possible; from weeks 6 to 12, all medication doses were held stable. The primary outcome was the Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement subscale (CGI-I), ratings of Much Improved or Very Much Improved. Secondary outcomes were the ABC-I, Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised, and Schalock Quality of Life scale. Serum BDNF and loxapine and metabolite concentrations were assayed. BDNF rs6265 was genotyped. Results: Sixteen subjects were enrolled; 12 completed all visits. Median age was 18 years (range 13–39). Median final loxapine dose was 7.5 mg/day (2.5–15). All 14 subjects (100%) with data at week 12 were rated as Much Improved on CGI-I at 12 weeks. Mean change on ABC-I at 12 weeks was −31%, p=0.01. Mean body mass index (BMI)-Z decreased between weeks 6 and 12, p=0.03. Side effects were minimal, and prolactin elevation occurred in only one subject. BDNF concentrations measured in 11 subjects increased significantly (p=0.04). Subjects with AG genotype for BDNF rs6265 required a lower dose of loxapine at study end, but had similar behavioral and BDNF concentration changes as the GG genotype. Conclusions: Low dose loxapine shows promise as a repurposed drug for irritability in ASD. Loxapine effects on BDNF warrant

  15. Control of mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    This project at Argonne is designed to investigate new concepts leading to advanced control technologies for fossil-energy systems. The objective of this new task on air toxics control is to develop new or improved, cost-effective control technology for the abatement of emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from fossil-fuel combustion plants and to evaluate the possible effects of any captured species on waste disposal. The HAPs to be investigated initially in this task include mercury and arsenic compounds.

  16. Control of mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.

    1992-09-01

    This project at Argonne is designed to investigate new concepts leading to advanced control technologies for fossil-energy systems. The objective of this new task on air toxics control is to develop new or improved, cost-effective control technology for the abatement of emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from fossil-fuel combustion plants and to evaluate the possible effects of any captured species on waste disposal. The HAPs to be investigated initially in this task include mercury and arsenic compounds.

  17. 78 FR 36776 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Emission Control System Performance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... AGENCY Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Emission Control System Performance... an information collection request (ICR), ``Emission Control System Performance Warranty Regulations and Voluntary Aftermarket Part Certification Program (Renewal)'' (EPA ICR No. 0116.10, OMB Control...

  18. Emissions from premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion and affect on emission control devices

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, II, James E; Kass, Michael D; Huff, Shean P; Barone, Teresa L; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Storey, John Morse

    2010-01-01

    A light-duty diesel engine has been operated in advanced combustion modes known generally as premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI). The emissions have been characterized for several load and speed combinations. Fewer NO{sub x} and particulate matter (PM) emissions are produced by PCCI, but higher CO and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions result. In addition, the nature of the PM differs from conventional combustion; the PM is smaller and has a much higher soluble organic fraction (SOF) content (68% vs. 30% for conventional combustion). Three catalyst technologies were studied to determine the affects of HECC on catalyst performance; the technologies were a lean NO{sub x} trap (LNT), diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), and diesel particulate filter (DPF). The LNT benefited greatly from the reduced NO{sub x} emissions associated with PCCI. NO{sub x} capacity requirements are reduced as well as overall tailpipe NO{sub x} levels particularly at low load and temperature conditions where regeneration of the LNT is difficult. The DOC performance requirements for PCCI are more stringent due to the higher CO and HC emissions; however, the DOC was effective at controlling the higher CO and HC emissions at conditions above the light-off temperature. Below light-off, CO and HC emissions are problematic. The study of DPF technology focused on the fuel penalties associated with DPF regeneration or 'desoot' due to the different PM loading rates from PCCI vs. conventional combustion. Less frequent desoot events were required from the lower PM from PCCI and, when used in conjunction with an LNT, the lower PM from less frequent LNT regeneration. The lower desoot frequency leads a {approx}3% fuel penalty for a mixture of PCCI and conventional loads vs. {approx}4% for conventional only combustion.

  19. Control of Several Emissions during Olive Pomace Thermal Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Teresa; Nogales, Sergio; Román, Silvia; Montero, Irene; Arranz, José Ignacio; Sepúlveda, Francisco José

    2014-01-01

    Biomass plays an important role as an energy source, being an interesting alternative to fossil fuels due to its environment-friendly and sustainable characteristics. However, due to the exposure of customers to emissions during biomass heating, evolved pollutants should be taken into account and controlled. Changing raw materials or mixing them with another less pollutant biomass could be a suitable step to reduce pollution. This work studied the thermal behaviour of olive pomace, pyrenean oak and their blends under combustion using thermogravimetric analysis. It was possible to monitor the emissions released during the process by coupling mass spectrometry analysis. The experiments were carried out under non-isothermal conditions at the temperature range 25–750 °C and a heating rate of 20 °C·min−1. The following species were analysed: aromatic compounds (benzene and toluene), sulphur emissions (sulphur dioxide), 1,4-dioxin, hydrochloric acid, carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides. The results indicated that pollutants were mainly evolved in two different stages, which are related to the thermal degradation steps. Thus, depending on the pollutant and raw material composition, different emission profiles were observed. Furthermore, intensity of the emission profiles was related, in some cases, to the composition of the precursor. PMID:25314298

  20. Ozone trends in Atlanta, Georgia - Have emission controls been effective?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsay, Ronald W.; Richardson, Jennifer L.; Chameldes, William L.

    1989-01-01

    Nine years of summertime ozone data from the Atlanta metropolitan area are analyzed and compared to local emissions of volatile organic carbon and nitrogen oxides. Trends from 1979 to 1987 were studied for the number of days per year ozone exceeded the NAAQS standard, the second-highest ozone level observed per year, and the first quartile summertime average ozone observed, as well as the mean difference between the ozone level observed downwind and upwind of the city. Because this last parameter is sensitive to chemical factors but relatively insensitive to the number of days each year with meteorological conditions conducive to ozone formation, its trend may be best suited for determining how effective emission controls have been in reducing O3 in the Atlanta area. In spite of the fact that sizeable reductions have been claimed for volatile organic carbon emissions over the past several years, the data give no indication that ozone levels have decreased and in fact, imply that summertime ozone production may have increased. The results imply that either emissions have not decreased as much as has been claimed or that ozone is not sensitive to anthropogenic volatile organic carbon emissions.

  1. Control of several emissions during olive pomace thermal degradation.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Teresa; Nogales, Sergio; Román, Silvia; Montero, Irene; Arranz, José Ignacio; Sepúlveda, Francisco José

    2014-01-01

    Biomass plays an important role as an energy source, being an interesting alternative to fossil fuels due to its environment-friendly and sustainable characteristics. However, due to the exposure of customers to emissions during biomass heating, evolved pollutants should be taken into account and controlled. Changing raw materials or mixing them with another less pollutant biomass could be a suitable step to reduce pollution. This work studied the thermal behaviour of olive pomace, pyrenean oak and their blends under combustion using thermogravimetric analysis. It was possible to monitor the emissions released during the process by coupling mass spectrometry analysis. The experiments were carried out under non-isothermal conditions at the temperature range 25-750 °C and a heating rate of 20 °C·min⁻¹. The following species were analysed: aromatic compounds (benzene and toluene), sulphur emissions (sulphur dioxide), 1,4-dioxin, hydrochloric acid, carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides. The results indicated that pollutants were mainly evolved in two different stages, which are related to the thermal degradation steps. Thus, depending on the pollutant and raw material composition, different emission profiles were observed. Furthermore, intensity of the emission profiles was related, in some cases, to the composition of the precursor. PMID:25314298

  2. Venturi/vortex technology for controlling chromium electroplating emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, K.J.; Northrup, J.; Heck, S.R.

    1997-12-31

    A new technology has been developed to control air emissions from hexavalent chromium electroplating tanks. The venturi/vortex scrubber uses a patented drain assembly to pull plating solution, air with toxic particulates above the solution, and unpopped bubbles of generated gases down with a gravity generated vortex effect. The recirculated plating solution acts as the scrubbing liquid and air agitation is eliminated. Separated gases are passed through a condenser/filter to remove any remaining fumes. The device is almost entirely constructed of CPVC. This device offers several advantages over conventional end-of-pipe systems including significantly lower cost, no wastewater, no extensive ventilation system, and emissions are recycled. The system can be is easily retrofitted to existing tanks, however, a loose fitting tank lid is recommended. A pilot demonstration has been performed at Benet Laboratory, Watervliet, NY (US Army) with a 1,500 gallon chromic acid electroplating tank and 1,500 Amps of applied current. Overall chromium emissions results were 0.00002 mg/Amp-hr, surpassing the stringent California State requirement of 0.006 mg/Amp-hr. Emission prevention by capturing unpopped bubbles is the method in which this system reduces the most emissions. The system met current ambient worker safety standards. Two major improvements are recommended: an increase in gas flow rate through the system and a solution to the system`s sensitivity to the plating solution level.

  3. LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Don Augenstein

    1999-01-11

    ''Conventional'' waste landfills emit methane, a potent greenhouse gas, in quantities such that landfill methane is a major factor in global climate change. Controlled landfilling is a novel approach to manage landfills for rapid completion of total gas generation, maximizing gas capture and minimizing emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated and brought to much earlier completion by improving conditions for biological processes (principally moisture levels) in the landfill. Gas recovery efficiency approaches 100% through use of surface membrane cover over porous gas recovery layers operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project's results at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California are, to date, highly encouraging. Two major controlled landfilling benefits would be the reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions.

  4. Health and climate policy impacts on sulfur emission control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Yi; Russell, Lynn M.; Bradford, David F.

    2005-12-01

    Sulfate aerosol from burning fossil fuels not only has strong cooling effects on the Earth's climate but also imposes substantial costs on human health. To assess the impact of addressing air pollution on climate policy, we incorporate both the climate and health effects of sulfate aerosol into an integrated-assessment model of fossil fuel emission control. Our simulations show that a policy that adjusts fossil fuel and sulfur emissions to address both warming and health simultaneously will support more stringent fossil fuel and sulfur controls. The combination of both climate and health objectives leads to an acceleration of global warming in the 21st century as a result of the short-term climate response to the decreased cooling from the immediate removal of short-lived sulfate aerosol. In the long term (more than 100 years), reducing sulfate aerosol emissions requires that we decrease fossil fuel combustion in general, thereby removing some of the coemitted carbon emissions and leading to a reduction in global warming.

  5. The effects of energy paths and emission controls and standards on future trends in China's emissions of primary air pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhang, J.; Nielsen, C. P.

    2014-03-01

    To examine the efficacy of China's actions to control atmospheric pollution, three levels of growth of energy consumption and three levels of implementation of emission controls are estimated, generating a total of nine combined activity-emission control scenarios that are then used to estimate trends of national emissions of primary air pollutants through 2030. The emission control strategies are expected to have more effects than the energy paths on the future emission trends for all the concerned pollutants. As recently promulgated national action plans of air pollution prevention and control (NAPAPPC) are implemented, China's anthropogenic pollutant emissions should decline. For example, the emissions of SO2, NOx, total primary particulate matter (PM), PM10, and PM2.5 are estimated to decline 7%, 20%, 41%, 34%, and 31% from 2010 to 2030, respectively, in the "best guess" scenario that includes national commitment of energy saving policy and partial implementation of NAPAPPC. Should the issued/proposed emission standards be fully achieved, a less likely scenario, annual emissions would be further reduced, ranging from 17% (for primary PM2.5) to 29% (for NOx) declines in 2015, and the analogue numbers would be 12% and 24% in 2030. The uncertainties of emission projections result mainly from the uncertain operational conditions of swiftly proliferating air pollutant control devices and lack of detailed information about emission control plans by region. The predicted emission trends by sector and chemical species raise concerns about current pollution control strategies: the potential for emissions abatement in key sectors may be declining due to the near saturation of emission control devices use; risks of ecosystem acidification could rise because emissions of alkaline base cations may be declining faster than those of SO2; and radiative forcing could rise because emissions of positive-forcing carbonaceous aerosols may decline more slowly than those of SO2

  6. The effects of energy paths and emission controls and standards on future trends in China's emissions of primary air pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhang, J.; Nielsen, C. P.

    2014-09-01

    To examine the efficacy of China's actions to control atmospheric pollution, three levels of growth of energy consumption and three levels of implementation of emission controls are estimated, generating a total of nine combined activity-emission control scenarios that are then used to estimate trends of national emissions of primary air pollutants through 2030. The emission control strategies are expected to have more effects than the energy paths on the future emission trends for all the concerned pollutants. As recently promulgated national action plans of air pollution prevention and control (NAPAPPC) are implemented, China's anthropogenic pollutant emissions should decline. For example, the emissions of SO2, NOx, total suspended particles (TSP), PM10, and PM2.5 are estimated to decline 7, 20, 41, 34, and 31% from 2010 to 2030, respectively, in the "best guess" scenario that includes national commitment of energy saving policy and implementation of NAPAPPC. Should the issued/proposed emission standards be fully achieved, a less likely scenario, annual emissions would be further reduced, ranging from 17 (for primary PM2.5) to 29% (for NOx) declines in 2015, and the analogue numbers would be 12 and 24% in 2030. The uncertainties of emission projections result mainly from the uncertain operational conditions of swiftly proliferating air pollutant control devices and lack of detailed information about emission control plans by region. The predicted emission trends by sector and chemical species raise concerns about current pollution control strategies: the potential for emissions abatement in key sectors may be declining due to the near saturation of emission control devices use; risks of ecosystem acidification could rise because emissions of alkaline base cations may be declining faster than those of SO2; and radiative forcing could rise because emissions of positive-forcing carbonaceous aerosols may decline more slowly than those of SO2 emissions and thereby

  7. Method and means for diesel exhaust particulate emission control

    SciTech Connect

    Ludecke, O.A.

    1983-04-19

    A method and means for controlling diesel particulate emissions involves providing an exhaust trap filter to collect exhaust particulates at a point near the engine exhaust ports and providing means to periodically vent burning combustion chamber gases to the exhaust filter to initiate combustion and incineration of the collected particulates. Various means for conducting burning mixture to ignite the particulates in the filter are disclosed.

  8. Space station systems technology study (add-on task). Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    System concepts were characterized in order to define cost versus benefits for autonomous functional control and for controls and displays for OMV, OTV, and spacecraft servicing and operation. The attitude control topic focused on characterizing the Space Station attitude control problem through simulation of control system responses to structural disturbances. The first two topics, mentioned above, focused on specific technology items that require advancement in order to support an early 1990s initial launch of a Space Station, while the attitude control study was an exploration of the capability of conventional controller techniques.

  9. Controlling automotive exhaust emissions: successes and underlying science.

    PubMed

    Twigg, Martyn V

    2005-04-15

    Photochemical reactions of vehicle exhaust pollutants were responsible for photochemical smog in many cities during the 1960s and 1970s. Engine improvements helped, but additional measures were needed to achieve legislated emissions levels. First oxidation catalysts lowered hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide, and later nitrogen oxides were reduced to nitrogen in a two-stage process. By the 1980s, exhaust gas could be kept stoichiometric and hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides were simultaneously converted over a single 'three-way catalyst'. Today, advanced three-way catalyst systems emissions are exceptionally low. NOx control from lean-burn engines demands an additional approach because NO cannot be dissociated under lean conditions. Current lean-burn gasoline engine NOx control involves forming a nitrate phase and periodically enriching the exhaust to reduce it to nitrogen, and this is being modified for use on diesel engines. Selective catalytic reduction with ammonia is an alternative that can be very efficient, but it requires ammonia or a compound from which it can be obtained. Diesel engines produce particulate matter, and, because of health concerns, filtration processes are being introduced to control these emissions. On heavy duty diesel engines the exhaust gas temperature is high enough for NO in the exhaust to be oxidised over a catalyst to NO2 that smoothly oxidises particulate material (PM) in the filter. Passenger cars operate at lower temperatures, and it is necessary to periodically burn the PM in air at high temperatures. PMID:15901550

  10. Solid state carbon nanotube device for controllable trion electroluminescence emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Shuang; Ma, Ze; Wei, Nan; Liu, Huaping; Wang, Sheng; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2016-03-01

    Semiconducting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have a direct chirality-dependent bandgap and reduced dimensionality-related quantum confinement effects, which are closely related to the performance of optoelectronic devices. Here, taking advantage of the large energy separations between neutral singlet excitons and charged excitons, i.e. trions in CNTs, we have achieved for the first time all trion electroluminescence (EL) emission from chirality-sorted (8,3) and (8,4) CNT-based solid state devices. We showed that strong trion emission can be obtained as a result of localized impact excitation and electrically injected holes, with an estimated efficiency of ~5 × 10-4 photons per injected hole. The importance of contact-controlled carrier injection (including symmetric and asymmetric contact configurations) and EL spectral stability for gradually increasing bias were also investigated. The realization of electrically induced pure trion emission opens up a new opportunity for CNT film-based optoelectronic devices, providing a new degree of freedom in controlling the devices to extend potential applications in spin or magnetic optoelectronics fields.Semiconducting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have a direct chirality-dependent bandgap and reduced dimensionality-related quantum confinement effects, which are closely related to the performance of optoelectronic devices. Here, taking advantage of the large energy separations between neutral singlet excitons and charged excitons, i.e. trions in CNTs, we have achieved for the first time all trion electroluminescence (EL) emission from chirality-sorted (8,3) and (8,4) CNT-based solid state devices. We showed that strong trion emission can be obtained as a result of localized impact excitation and electrically injected holes, with an estimated efficiency of ~5 × 10-4 photons per injected hole. The importance of contact-controlled carrier injection (including symmetric and asymmetric contact configurations) and EL spectral stability for

  11. THE IMPACT OF PARTICULATE EMISSIONS CONTROL ON THE CONTROL OF OTHER MWC AIR EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    On December 20, 1989, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed revised new source performance standards for new municipal waste combustion (MWC) units and guidelines for existing sources. The proposed national regulations require tighter particulate matter control and a...

  12. Space station systems technology study (add-on task). Volume 3: Technology advancement program plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Program plans are given for an integrating controller for space station autonomy as well as for controls and displays. The technical approach, facility requirements and candidate facilities, development schedules, and resource requirements estimates are given.

  13. Emission control of gas effluents from geothermal power plants.

    PubMed

    Axtmann, R C

    1975-01-01

    Geothermal steam at the world's five largest power plants contains from 0.15 to 30% noncondensable gases including CO(2), H(2)S, H(2), CH(4), N(2), H(3)BO(3), and NH(3). At four of the plants the gases are first separated from the steam and then discharged to the environment; at the fifth, the noncondensables exhaust directly to the atmosphere along with spent steam. Some CO(2) and sulfur emission rates rival those from fossil-fueled plants on a per megawatt-day basis. The ammonia and boron effluents can interfere with animal and plant life. The effects of sulfur (which emerges as H(2)S but may oxidize to SO(2)) on either ambient air quality or longterm human health are largely unknown. Most geothermal turbines are equipped with direct contact condensers which complicate emission control because they provide two or more pathways for the effluents to reach the environment. Use of direct contact condensers could permit efficient emission control if coupled to processes that produce saleable quantities of purified carbon dioxide and elemental sulfur. PMID:1132388

  14. Solid state carbon nanotube device for controllable trion electroluminescence emission.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shuang; Ma, Ze; Wei, Nan; Liu, Huaping; Wang, Sheng; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2016-03-28

    Semiconducting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have a direct chirality-dependent bandgap and reduced dimensionality-related quantum confinement effects, which are closely related to the performance of optoelectronic devices. Here, taking advantage of the large energy separations between neutral singlet excitons and charged excitons, i.e. trions in CNTs, we have achieved for the first time all trion electroluminescence (EL) emission from chirality-sorted (8,3) and (8,4) CNT-based solid state devices. We showed that strong trion emission can be obtained as a result of localized impact excitation and electrically injected holes, with an estimated efficiency of ∼5 × 10(-4) photons per injected hole. The importance of contact-controlled carrier injection (including symmetric and asymmetric contact configurations) and EL spectral stability for gradually increasing bias were also investigated. The realization of electrically induced pure trion emission opens up a new opportunity for CNT film-based optoelectronic devices, providing a new degree of freedom in controlling the devices to extend potential applications in spin or magnetic optoelectronics fields. PMID:26953676

  15. Technology for CO{sub 2} emission monitoring and control

    SciTech Connect

    Joyce, E.L. Jr.; Unkefer, P.J.; Pendergrass, J.H.; Parkinson, W.J.; Loose, V.W.; Brainard, J.R.

    1998-12-31

    The authors examined three specific areas relative to CO{sub 2} emissions and controls: (1) the effect of deregulation of the utility industry on emissions, (2) the role of advanced power systems in reducing emissions, and (3) developing CO{sub 2} mitigation technologies. In this work the Energy Technologies program office at Los Alamos attempted to initiate an integrated approach that includes a range of tasks involving both point and distributed CO{sub 2} control. The authors have examined evolving mitigation (separation and sequestration) technologies for CO{sub 2} disposal. The separation of hydrogen gas from high-temperature CO{sub 2}-containing streams is a critical component of carbon dioxide mitigation technology, and cost-effective point sequestration will require separation of CO{sub 2} from H{sub 2}. They investigated four types of separation techniques: two high-temperature membrane technologies, an intermediate-temperature membrane technology, and a separation technology based on the formation of CO{sub 2} hydrate compounds through reaction of CO{sub 2} with water at near freezing conditions. At Los Alamos, sequestration technologies are being developed along three principal areas: mineral sequestration of CO{sub 2}, the enhancement of natural sinks using biotechnology methods, and the conversion of CO{sub 2} to methanol using high-temperature photolysis.

  16. Active Control of Combustor Instability Shown to Help Lower Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLaat, John C.; Chang, Clarence T.

    2002-01-01

    In a quest to reduce the environmental impact of aerospace propulsion systems, extensive research is being done in the development of lean-burning (low fuel-to-air ratio) combustors that can reduce emissions throughout the mission cycle. However, these lean-burning combustors have an increased susceptibility to thermoacoustic instabilities, or high-pressure oscillations much like sound waves, that can cause severe high-frequency vibrations in the combustor. These pressure waves can fatigue the combustor components and even the downstream turbine blades. This can significantly decrease the safe operating life of the combustor and turbine. Thus, suppression of the thermoacoustic combustor instabilities is an enabling technology for lean, low-emissions combustors. Under the Aerospace Propulsion and Power Base Research and Technology Program, the NASA Glenn Research Center, in partnership with Pratt & Whitney and United Technologies Research Center, is developing technologies for the active control of combustion instabilities. With active combustion control, the fuel is pulsed to put pressure oscillations into the system. This cancels out the pressure oscillations being produced by the instabilities. Thus, the engine can have lower pollutant emissions and long life.The use of active combustion instability control to reduce thermo-acoustic-driven combustor pressure oscillations was demonstrated on a single-nozzle combustor rig at United Technologies. This rig has many of the complexities of a real engine combustor (i.e., an actual fuel nozzle and swirler, dilution cooling, etc.). Control was demonstrated through modeling, developing, and testing a fuel-delivery system able to the 280-Hz instability frequency. The preceding figure shows the capability of this system to provide high-frequency fuel modulations. Because of the high-shear contrarotating airflow in the fuel injector, there was some concern that the fuel pulses would be attenuated to the point where they would

  17. CONTROL OF AIR EMISSIONS FROM MOLYBDENUM ROASTING. VOLUME 1. EMISSIONS CHARACTERIZATION AND PARTICULATE CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary objective of this project was to evaluate a baghouse employing Teflon coated fabric bags for particulate recovery and control. This system was of great interest because of the corrosion resistance of Teflon coated fabric filters and this unique application in the nonf...

  18. Proposed rule highlights need for effective emissions monitoring, control

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    While the regulated community for the last year or so has found comfort in reports that EPA has failed to meet its mandated schedule for issuing new CAA regulations and setting compliance deadlines, the Agency has not been idle. The Agency in October proposed a major rule that would, in effect, abandon traditional methods of monitoring and enforcing compliance with CAA's air pollution control regulations. Instead of relying on plant inspections or citizens' complaints to uncover regulatory infractions, the proposed regulations would require most emissions sources to demonstrate--not during a single test or inspection, but continuously--compliance with emissions regulations. This proposed continuous, or enhanced,'' monitoring rule would be tied to CAA's Title 5 operating permit program.

  19. Emission control of four-stroke motorcycle engine

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C.Y.Y.; Peng, Y.Y.; Gau, T.H.

    1995-12-31

    Experimental studies of the intake-generated charge motion (swirl and tumble) and engine combustion were conducted in a 125 cc four-stroke motorcycle engine. In this work, a Variable Inlet Port (VIP) was designed to generate various levels of charge motion in different operation conditions. The static flow test and the engine experiments were performed to study the effects of inlet charge motion on the engine combustion, cycle variation, fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. The results show that the cycle variation decreased, the lean limit extended, and the burning rate and the fuel economy increased when the charge motion increased. With this new design of flow control system, the motorcycle can be run with lean mixture and drastically reduce the exhaust emissions and fuel consumption while still maintaining high specific power output.

  20. DEGRADATION OF EMISSIONS CONTROL PERFORMANCE OF WOODSTOVES IN CRESTED BUTTE, CO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the degradation of emissions control performance of woodstoves in Crested Butte, Colorado. Four seasons of field monitoring of EPA-certified woodstoves in and around Crested Butte has demonstrated some significant failures in emissions control performance. In...

  1. Greenhouse gas emission from covered windrow composting with controlled ventilation.

    PubMed

    Ermolaev, Evgheni; Pell, Mikael; Smårs, Sven; Sundberg, Cecilia; Jönsson, Håkan

    2012-02-01

    Data on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from full-scale composting of municipal solid waste, investigating the effects of process temperature and aeration combinations, is scarce. Oxygen availability affects the composition of gases emitted during composting. In the present study, two experiments with three covered windrows were set up, treating a mixture of source separated biodegradable municipal solid waste (MSW) fractions from Uppsala, Sweden, and structural amendment (woodchips, garden waste and re-used compost) in the volume proportion 1:2. The effects of different aeration and temperature settings on the emission of methane (CH(4)), nitrous oxide (N(2)O) and carbon dioxide (CO(2)) during windrow composting with forced aeration following three different control schemes were studied. For one windrow, the controller was set to keep the temperature below 40 °C until the pH increased, another windrow had minimal aeration at the beginning of the process and the third one had constant aeration. In the first experiment, CH(4) concentrations (CH(4):CO(2) ratio) increased, from around 0.1% initially to between 1 and 2% in all windrows. In the second experiment, the initial concentrations of CH(4) displayed similar patterns of increase between windrows until day 12, when concentration peaked at 3 and 6%, respectively, in two of the windrows. In general, the N(2)O fluxes remained low (0.46 ± 0.02 ppm) in the experiments and were two to three times the ambient concentrations. In conclusion, the emissions of CH(4) and N(2)O were low regardless of the amount of ventilation. The data indicates a need to perform longer experiments in order to observe further emission dynamics. PMID:21994145

  2. 40 CFR 63.325 - Determination of equivalent emission control technology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... control technology. 63.325 Section 63.325 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Determination of equivalent emission control technology. (a) Any person requesting that the use of certain... equivalent emission reductions: (1) Diagrams, as appropriate, illustrating the emission control...

  3. 40 CFR 63.325 - Determination of equivalent emission control technology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... control technology. 63.325 Section 63.325 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Determination of equivalent emission control technology. (a) Any person requesting that the use of certain... equivalent emission reductions: (1) Diagrams, as appropriate, illustrating the emission control...

  4. 40 CFR 63.325 - Determination of equivalent emission control technology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... control technology. 63.325 Section 63.325 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Determination of equivalent emission control technology. (a) Any person requesting that the use of certain... equivalent emission reductions: (1) Diagrams, as appropriate, illustrating the emission control...

  5. 40 CFR 63.325 - Determination of equivalent emission control technology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... control technology. 63.325 Section 63.325 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Determination of equivalent emission control technology. (a) Any person requesting that the use of certain... equivalent emission reductions: (1) Diagrams, as appropriate, illustrating the emission control...

  6. Optimizing the mix of strategies for control of vehicular emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Lejano, R.P.; Ayala, P.M.; Gonzales, E.A.

    1997-01-01

    A number of strategies for the control of vehicular emissions are being considered by the Philippine government to address Metropolitan Manila`s air quality problem. An analytical tool is needed for optimizing criteria pollutant reductions given the budgetary constraints. The simplest approach is to take costs and pollutant removals to be linear with each strategy`s scale of activity, and this is readily solved as a linear programming problem. Another approach is to use a dynamic system of weights which shift with progressive improvements in pollutant emissions. The two approaches yield somewhat different results, suggesting the sensitivity of the solution to the assumed weights. The study also illustrates the importance of a sound methodology for evaluating priorities given to different air quality goals. One such methodology may involve a polling of expert panels and the public to gain insight into the relative importance given to competing emissions reduction goals. An informal polling of resource agency staff was conducted and discussed in this paper. The authors take the position that proper planning involves tracing intermediate steps to the final outcome and not just focusing on the latter. 17 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  7. Jovian longitudinal control of Io-related radio emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dessler, A. J.; Hill, T. W.

    1979-01-01

    A theoretical model is proposed to explain the control of Io-related radio emissions by Jupiter's rotational phase. The model is based on the hypothesis that the radio emissions are generated by Birkeland currents flowing between Io and the Jovian ionosphere. Specifically, it is suggested that the precipitation of radiation-belt electrons within a certain range of Jovian longitudes produces a restricted region of enhanced ionization and correspondingly enhanced conductivity in Jupiter's ionosphere and that the Io-Jupiter Birkeland current and the associated radio emissions are dramatically increased when Io's flux tube encounters this sector of enhanced ionization in Jupiter's ionosphere. The magnitude of the current is found to be about 100,000 A at most Jovian longitudes because of ionospheric resistance. It is estimated that within the favored longitudinal sector electron precipitation produces an enhancement of this current by one to three orders of magnitude. The model predictions are compared with observations made during the Pioneer 10 and 11 flybys, and satisfactory agreement is obtained.

  8. Survey of Emissions Associated with Enclosed Combustor Emission Control Devices in the Denver-Julesburg Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knighton, W. B.; Floerchinger, C. R.; Wormhoult, J.; Massoli, P.; Fortner, E.; Brooks, B.; Roscioli, J. R.; Bon, D.; Herndon, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play an important role in local and regional air quality. A large source of VOCs comes from the oil and gas industry and the Denver-Julesburg Basin (D-J Basin) has seen a sharp increase in production in recent years primarily due to advances in horizontal drilling techniques. To help curb emissions with extraction and production of natural gas and its associated oil, emission control devices are required for facilities emitting over 6 tons of hydrocarbons per year. Within the ozone non-attainment area, which encompasses Denver and much of the front range, enclosed combustion devices (enclosed flares) are required to reduce hydrocarbon emissions by at least 95%. While certification tests indicate that these enclosed combustor devices provide high destruction removal efficiencies, there is considerable interest in knowing how well they perform in the field. As part of Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE) project conducted during the Summer of 2014, the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory (AML) surveyed oil and gas operations within the Wattenberg gas field and the surrounding D-J Basin. The AML deployed a full suite of gas and particle phase instrumentation providing a comprehensive set of on-line, real-time measurements for the major natural gas components (methane and ethane) and their combustion products (CO2, CO, NOx) using a variety of spectroscopic techniques. Additional gas phase organic gas emissions were made using a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS). Particle number and composition were determined using a condensation particle counter and an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS). A summary of the number of enclosed combustor devices measured and their observed combustion efficiencies will be presented.

  9. CONTROL OF TRACE METAL EMISSIONS DURING COAL COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect

    THOMAS C. HO

    1998-02-18

    Emissions of toxic trace metals in the form of metal fumes or submicron particulates from a coal-fired combustion source have received greater environmental and regulatory concern over the past years. Current practice of controlling these emissions is to collect them at the cold-end of the process by air-pollution control devices (APCDs) such as electrostatic precipitators and baghouses. However, trace metal fumes may not always be effectively collected by these devices because the formed fumes are extremely small. The proposed research is to explore the opportunities for improved control of toxic trace metal emissions, alternatively, at the hot-end of the coal combustion process, i.e., in the combustion chamber. The technology proposed is to prevent the metal fumes from forming during the process, which would effectively eliminate the metal emission problems. Specifically, the technology is to employ suitable sorbents to (1) reduce the amount of metal volatilization during combustion and (2) capture volatilized metal vapors. The objectives of the project are to demonstrate the technology and to characterize the metal capture process during coal combustion in a fluidized bed combustor. This final technical report details the work performed, the conclusions obtained, and the accomplishments achieved over the project performance period from July 1, 1994 through December 31, 1997. Specifically, this report consists of the following five chapters: Chapter 1. Executive Summary; Chapter 2. Metal Capture by Various Sorbents; Chapter 3. Simultaneous Metal and Sulfur Capture; Chapter 4. Sorption and Desorption of Mercury on Sorbents; and Chapter 5. Project Conclusions. In summary, the metals involved in the project were arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury and selenium and the sorbents tested included bauxite, zeolite and calcined limestone. The three sorbents have been found to have various degree of metal capture capability on arsenic, cadmium, chromium and lead

  10. Integrated low emissions cleanup system for multi-contaminant control

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, M.A.; Bachovchin, D.M.; Smeltzer, E.E.

    1993-06-01

    The Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Science & Technology Center (W-STC) is developing an Integrated Low Emissions Cleanup (ILEC) concept for high-temperature gas cleaning to meet environmental standards, as well as to provide economical gas turbine life. The ILEC concept can simultaneously control particulate, sulfur, alkali, and other contaminants in high-pressure fuel gases, or combustion gases, at temperatures up to about 1700{degrees}F in advanced, coal-fired, power generation systems. The objective of this program is to demonstrate, at a bench scale, the conceptual, technical feasibility of the ILEC concept for multi-contaminant control, and to provide test data applicable to the design of subsequent field tests.

  11. Active magneto-optical control of spontaneous emission in graphene

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kort-Kamp, W. J. M.; Amorim, B.; Bastos, G.; Pinheiro, F. A.; Rosa, F. S. S.; Peres, N. M. R.; Farina, C.

    2015-11-13

    In this study, we investigate the spontaneous emission rate of a two-level quantum emitter near a graphene-coated substrate under the influence of an external magnetic field or strain induced pseudomagnetic field. We demonstrate that the application of the magnetic field can substantially increase or decrease the decay rate. We show that a suppression as large as 99% in the Purcell factor is achieved even for moderate magnetic fields. The emitter's lifetime is a discontinuous function of |B|, which is a direct consequence of the occurrence of discrete Landau levels in graphene. We demonstrate that, in the near-field regime, the magneticmore » field enables an unprecedented control of the decay pathways into which the photon/polariton can be emitted. Our findings strongly suggest that a magnetic field could act as an efficient agent for on-demand, active control of light-matter interactions in graphene at the quantum level.« less

  12. Active magneto-optical control of spontaneous emission in graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Kort-Kamp, W. J. M.; Amorim, B.; Bastos, G.; Pinheiro, F. A.; Rosa, F. S. S.; Peres, N. M. R.; Farina, C.

    2015-11-13

    In this study, we investigate the spontaneous emission rate of a two-level quantum emitter near a graphene-coated substrate under the influence of an external magnetic field or strain induced pseudomagnetic field. We demonstrate that the application of the magnetic field can substantially increase or decrease the decay rate. We show that a suppression as large as 99% in the Purcell factor is achieved even for moderate magnetic fields. The emitter's lifetime is a discontinuous function of |B|, which is a direct consequence of the occurrence of discrete Landau levels in graphene. We demonstrate that, in the near-field regime, the magnetic field enables an unprecedented control of the decay pathways into which the photon/polariton can be emitted. Our findings strongly suggest that a magnetic field could act as an efficient agent for on-demand, active control of light-matter interactions in graphene at the quantum level.

  13. Control of acid mist emissions from FGD systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlin, R S; Brown, T D

    1991-01-01

    Improved control of acid mist emissions can be achieved by replacing or augmenting the conventional mist eliminators with a wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP). This paper describes a two-phased study performed to determine the degree of control that can be achieved with this approach. Phase I was a study of the electrical operation of a lab-scale WESP collecting an acid mist from a coal combustion pilot plant equipped with a spray chamber. The results of this study were used to develop and validate a computer model of the WESP. In Phase II, measurements were made at two utility scrubber installations to determine the loadings of acid mist, fly ash, and scrubber carryover. These measurements were used as input to the model to project the performance of a retrofitted WESP.

  14. Controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, R.

    2009-07-15

    Increasingly stringent US federal and state limits on mercury emissions form coal-fired power plants demand optimal mercury control technologies. This article summarises the successful removal of mercury emissions achieved with activated carbon injection and boiler bromide addition, technologies nearing commercial readiness, as well as several novel control concepts currently under development. It also discusses some of the issues standing in the way of confident performance and cost predictions. In testing conducted on western coal-fired units with fabric filters or TOXECON to date, ACI has generally achieved mercury removal rates > 90%. At units with ESPs, similar performance requires brominated ACI. Alternatively, units firing western coals can use boiler bromide addition to increase flue gas mercury oxidation and downstream capture in a wet scrubber, or to enhance mercury removal by ACI. At eastern bituminous fired units with ESPs, ACI is not as effective, largely due to SO{sub 3} resulting from the high sulfur content of the coal or the use of SO{sub 3} flue gas conditioning to improve ESP performance. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  15. "APEC Blue": Secondary Aerosol Reductions from Emission Controls in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yele; Wang, Zifa; Wild, Oliver; Xu, Weiqi; Chen, Chen; Fu, Pingqing; Du, Wei; Zhou, Libo; Zhang, Qi; Han, Tingting; Wang, Qingqing; Pan, Xiaole; Zheng, Haitao; Li, Jie; Guo, Xiaofeng; Liu, Jianguo; Worsnop, Douglas R

    2016-01-01

    China implemented strict emission control measures in Beijing and surrounding regions to ensure good air quality during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit. We conducted synchronous aerosol particle measurements with two aerosol mass spectrometers at different heights on a meteorological tower in urban Beijing to investigate the variations in particulate composition, sources and size distributions in response to emission controls. Our results show consistently large reductions in secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) of 61-67% and 51-57%, and in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) of 55% and 37%, at 260 m and ground level, respectively, during the APEC summit. These changes were mainly caused by large reductions in accumulation mode particles and by suppression of the growth of SIA and SOA by a factor of 2-3, which led to blue sky days during APEC commonly referred to as "APEC Blue". We propose a conceptual framework for the evolution of primary and secondary species and highlight the importance of regional atmospheric transport in the formation of severe pollution episodes in Beijing. Our results indicate that reducing the precursors of secondary aerosol over regional scales is crucial and effective in suppressing the formation of secondary particulates and mitigating PM pollution. PMID:26891104

  16. Automated Boiler Combustion Controls for Emission Reduction and Efficiency Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-02

    In the late 1980s, then President Bush visited Krakow, Poland. The terrible air quality theremotivated him to initiate a USAID-funded program, managed by DOE, entitled �Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program.� The primary objective of this program was to encourage the formation of commercial ventures between U.S. and Polish firms to provide equipment and/or services to reduce pollution from low-emission sources in Krakow, Poland. This program led to the award of a number of cooperative agreements, including one to Control Techtronics International. The technical objective of CTI�s cooperative agreement is to apply combustion controls to existing boiler plants in Krakow and transfer knowledge and technology through a joint U.S. and Polish commercial venture. CTI installed automatic combustion controls on five coal boilers for the district heating system in Krakow. Three of these were for domestic hot-water boilers, and two were for steam for industrial boilers. The following results have occurred due to the addition of CTI�s combustion controls on these five existing boilers: ! 25% energy savings ! 85% reduction in particulate emissions The joint venture company CTI-Polska was then established. Eleven additional technical and costing proposals were initiated to upgrade other coal boilers in Krakow. To date, no co-financing has been made available on the Polish side. CTI-Polska continues in operation, serving customers in Russia and Ukraine. Should the market in Poland materialize, the joint venture company is established there to provide equipment and service.

  17. CO₂ laser emission modes to control enamel erosion.

    PubMed

    Scatolin, Renata Siqueira; Alonso-Filho, Fernando Luiz; Galo, Rodrigo; Rios, Daniela; Borsatto, Maria Cristina; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori

    2015-08-01

    Considering the importance and prevalence of dental erosion, the aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of different modes of pulse emission of CO2 laser associated or not to acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) 1.23% gel, in controlling enamel erosion by profilometry. Ninety-six fragments of bovine enamel were flattened and polished, and the specimens were subjected to initial erosive challenge with hydrochloric acid (pH = 2). Specimens were randomly assigned according to surface treatment: APF 1.23% gel and gel without fluoride (control), and subdivided according to the modes of pulse CO2 laser irradiation: no irradiation (control), continuous, ultrapulse, and repeated pulse (n = 12). After surface treatment, further erosive challenges were performed for 5 days, 4 × 2 min/day. Enamel structure loss was quantitatively determined by a profilometer, after surface treatment and after 5 days of erosive challenges. Two-away ANOVA revealed a significant difference between the pulse emission mode of the CO2 laser and the presence of fluoride (P ≤ 0.05). The Duncan's test showed that CO2 laser irradiation in continuous mode and the specimens only received fluoride, promoted lower enamel loss than that other treatments. A lower dissolution of the enamel prisms was observed when it was irradiated with CO2 laser in continuous mode compared other groups. It can be concluded that CO2 laser irradiation in continuous mode was the most effective to control the enamel structure loss submitted to erosive challenges with hydrochloric acid. PMID:25988247

  18. LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Don Augenstein; Ramin Yazdani; Rick Moore; Michelle Byars; Jeff Kieffer; Professor Morton Barlaz; Rinav Mehta

    2000-02-26

    Controlled landfilling is an approach to manage solid waste landfills, so as to rapidly complete methane generation, while maximizing gas capture and minimizing the usual emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated to more rapid and earlier completion to full potential by improving conditions (principally moisture, but also temperature) to optimize biological processes occurring within the landfill. Gas is contained through use of surface membrane cover. Gas is captured via porous layers, under the cover, operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project has been ongoing under NETL sponsorship for the past several years near Davis, CA. Results have been extremely encouraging. Two major benefits of the technology are reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times, more predictably, than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role both in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions and in US renewable energy. The work described in this report, to demonstrate and advance this technology, has used two demonstration-scale cells of size (8000 metric tons [tonnes]), sufficient to replicate many heat and compaction characteristics of larger ''full-scale'' landfills. An enhanced demonstration cell has received moisture supplementation to field capacity. This is the maximum moisture waste can hold while still limiting liquid drainage rate to minimal and safely manageable levels. The enhanced landfill module was compared to a parallel control landfill module receiving no moisture additions. Gas recovery has continued for a period of over 4 years. It is quite encouraging that the enhanced cell methane recovery has been close to 10-fold that experienced with conventional

  19. Implementing Strategies for Drying and Pressing Wood Without Emissions Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Sujit Banerjee; Terrance Conners

    2007-09-07

    Drying and pressing wood for the manufacture of lumber, particleboard, oriented strand board (OSB), veneer and medium density fiberboard (MDF) release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. These emissions require control equipment that are capital-intensive and consume significant quantities of natural gas and electricity. The objective of our work was to understand the mechanisms through which volatile organic compounds are generated and released and to develop simple control strategies. Of the several strategies developed, two have been implemented for OSB manufacture over the course of this study. First, it was found that increasing final wood moisture by about 2-4 percentage points reduced the dryer emissions of hazardous air pollutants by over 70%. As wood dries, the escaping water evaporatively cools the wood. This cooling tapers off wood when the wood is nearly dry and the wood temperature rises. Thermal breakdown of the wood tissue occurs and VOCs are released. Raising the final wood moisture by only a few percentage points minimizes the temperature rise and reduces emissions. Evaporative cooling also impacts has implications for VOC release from wood fines. Flaking wood for OSB manufacture inevitable generates fines. Fines dry out rapidly because of their high surface area and evaporative cooling is lost more rapidly than for flakes. As a result, fines emit a disproportionate quantity of VOCs. Fines can be reduced in two ways: through screening of the green furnish and through reducing their generation during flaking. The second approach is preferable because it also increased wood yield. A procedure to do this by matching the sharpness angle of the flaker knife to the ambient temperature was also developed. Other findings of practical interests are as follows: Dielectric heating of wood under low-headspace conditions removes terpenes and other extractives from softwood; The monoterpene content in trees depend upon temperature and seasonal

  20. Alirocumab as Add-On to Atorvastatin Versus Other Lipid Treatment Strategies: ODYSSEY OPTIONS I Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gaudet, Daniel; Weiss, Robert; Ruiz, Juan Lima; Watts, Gerald F.; Gouni-Berthold, Ioanna; Robinson, Jennifer; Zhao, Jian; Hanotin, Corinne; Donahue, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Context: Despite current standard of care, many patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) still have elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Alirocumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody inhibitor of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9. Objective: The objective of the study was to compare the LDL-C-lowering efficacy of adding alirocumab vs other common lipid-lowering strategies. Design, Patients, and Interventions: Patients (n = 355) with very high CVD risk and LDL-C levels of 70 mg/dL or greater or high CVD risk and LDL-C of 100 mg/dL or greater on baseline atorvastatin 20 or 40 mg were randomized to one of the following: 1) add-on alirocumab 75 mg every 2 weeks (Q2W) sc; 2) add-on ezetimibe 10 mg/d; 3) double atorvastatin dose; or 4) for atorvastatin 40 mg regimen only, switch to rosuvastatin 40 mg. For patients not achieving protocol-defined LDL-C goals, the alirocumab dose was increased (blinded) at week 12 to 150 mg Q2W. Main Outcome Measure: The primary end point was percentage change in calculated LDL-C from baseline to 24 weeks (intent to treat). Results: Among atorvastatin 20 and 40 mg regimens, respectively, add-on alirocumab reduced LDL-C levels by 44.1% and 54.0% (P < .001 vs all comparators); add-on ezetimibe, 20.5% and 22.6%; doubling of atorvastatin dose, 5.0% and 4.8%; and switching atorvastatin 40 mg to rosuvastatin 40 mg, 21.4%. Most alirocumab-treated patients (87.2% and 84.6%) achieved their LDL-C goals. Most alirocumab-treated patients (86%) maintained their 75-mg Q2W regimen. Treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in 65.4% of alirocumab patients vs 64.4% ezetimibe and 63.8% double atorvastatin/switch to rosuvastatin (data were pooled). Conclusions: Adding alirocumab to atorvastatin provided significantly greater LDL-C reductions vs adding ezetimibe, doubling atorvastatin dose, or switching to rosuvastatin and enabled greater LDL-C goal achievement. PMID:26030325

  1. N2O and NO2 Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks with Advanced Emission Controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preble, C.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2014-12-01

    Diesel engines are the largest source of nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions nationally, and also a major contributor to the black carbon (BC) fraction of fine particulate matter (PM). Recently, diesel particle filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems that target exhaust PM and NOx have become standard equipment on new heavy-duty diesel trucks. However, the deliberate catalytic oxidation of engine-out nitric oxide (NO) to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in continuously regenerating DPFs leads to increased tailpipe emission of NO2. This is of potential concern due to the toxicity of NO2 and the resulting increases in atmospheric formation of other air pollutants such as ozone, nitric acid, and fine PM. While use of SCR reduces emissions of both NO and NO2, it may lead to increased emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas. Here we report results from on-road measurements of heavy-duty diesel truck emissions conducted at the Port of Oakland and the Caldecott Tunnel in the San Francisco Bay Area. Emission factors (g pollutant per kg of diesel) were linked via recorded license plates to individual truck attributes, including engine model year and installed emission control equipment. Between 2009 and 2013, the fraction of DPF-equipped trucks at the Port of Oakland increased from 2 to 99%, and median engine age decreased from 11 to 6 years. Over the same period, fleet-average emission factors for black carbon and NOx decreased by 76 ± 22% and 53 ± 8%, respectively. However, direct emissions of NO2 increased, and consequently the NO2/NOx emission ratio increased from 0.03 ± 0.02 to 0.18 ± 0.03. Older trucks retrofitted with DPFs emitted approximately 3.5 times more NO2 than newer trucks equipped with both DPF and SCR. Preliminary data from summer 2014 measurements at the Caldecott Tunnel suggest that some older trucks have negative emission factors for N2O, and that for newer trucks, N2O emission factors have changed sign and

  2. Comparative behavioral and neurochemical analysis of phenytoin and valproate treatment on epilepsy induced learning and memory deficit: Search for add on therapy.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Awanish; Goel, Rajesh Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Our previous work demonstrated, chronic epilepsy affects learning and memory of rodents along with peculiar neurochemical changes in discrete brain parts. Most commonly used antiepileptic drugs (phenytoin and sodium valproate) also worsen learning and memory in the patients with epilepsy. Therefore this study was designed to carry out comparison of behavioral and neurochemical changes with phenytoin and sodium valproate treatment in pentylenetetrazole-kindling induced learning and memory deficit to devise add on therapy for this menace. For the experimental epilepsy, animals were kindled using PTZ (35 mg/kg; i.p., at 48 ± 2 h intervals) and successful kindled animals were involved in the study. These kindled animals were treated with saline, phenytoin (30 mg/kg/day, i.p.) and sodium valproate (300 mg/kg/day, i.p.) for 20 days. These animals were challenged with PTZ challenging dose (35 mg/kg) on day 5, 10, 15 and 20 to evaluate the effect on seizure severity score on different days. Effect on learning and memory was evaluated using elevated plus maze and passive shock avoidance paradigm. On day 20, after behavioral evaluations, animals were sacrificed to analyze glutamate, GABA, norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, total nitrite level and acetylcholinesterase level in cortex and hippocampus. Behavioral evaluations suggested that phenytoin and sodium valproate treatment significantly reduced seizure severity in the kindled animals, while sodium valproate treatment controls seizures with least memory deficit in comparison to phenytoin. Neurochemical findings revealed that elevated cortical acetylcholinesterase level could be one of the responsible factors leading to memory deficit in phenytoin treated animals. However sodium valproate treatment reduced cortical acetylcholinesterase level and had least debilitating consequences on memory deficit. Therefore, attenuation of elevated AChE activity can be one of add-on approach for management of memory deficit

  3. 40 CFR 1060.103 - What permeation emission control requirements apply for fuel tanks?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements specified in 40 CFR 1051.110 or in this section. (4) Small SI fuel tanks must meet the permeation... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EVAPORATIVE EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD... tanks to a family emission limit for calculating evaporative emission credits as described in subpart...

  4. 40 CFR 1060.103 - What permeation emission control requirements apply for fuel tanks?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requirements specified in 40 CFR 1051.110 or in this section. (4) Small SI fuel tanks must meet the permeation... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EVAPORATIVE EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD... tanks to a family emission limit for calculating evaporative emission credits as described in subpart...

  5. 40 CFR 1060.103 - What permeation emission control requirements apply for fuel tanks?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirements specified in 40 CFR 1051.110 or in this section. (4) Small SI fuel tanks must meet the permeation... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EVAPORATIVE EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD... tanks to a family emission limit for calculating evaporative emission credits as described in subpart...

  6. Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels -- Diesel Emissions Control Project (APBF-DEC)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2003-03-01

    Annual progress report of the Advanced Petroleum-based fuels-Diesel Emissions Control Project. Contains information on 5 test projects to determine the best combinations of low-sulfur diesel fuels, lubricants, diesel engines, and emission control systems to meet projected emissions standards.

  7. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 75 - Quality Assurance and Quality Control Procedures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... as sampling and analysis methods. 1.2.4Parametric Monitoring for Units With Add-on Emission Controls... sampling and analysis methods. 1.5Requirements for Sorbent Trap Monitoring Systems 1.5.1Sorbent Trap... periodic recalibration to maintain the accuracy and NIST-traceability of the calibrator. 1.5.3Hg...

  8. Three years operation demonstrates exhaust emission control system

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The first field installation of a patented NO{sub x} emissions system completed its third year of operation as a demonstration site last August. The cogeneration site is powered by three Caterpillar 350 kW G398 natural gas-fueled engines. The Hybrid Low NO{sub x} system has achieved NO{sub x} and CO levels below 10 ppm consistently. Although this system initially appears complicated and somewhat sophisticated, it has been relatively maintenance free and easy to operate, according to university officials. Petrocon Technologies, of Beaumont, Texas, acquired the license to use the technology in 1994. The first step in the Hybrid Low NO{sub x} system`s process is an afterburner fired at substoichiometric conditions to increase the temperature while also increasing the CO content of the engine exhaust. The added fuel consumption of the burner limits the economy of the system to sites that have use for the additional thermal energy. Cogeneration plants are good candidates. Downstream from the burner, the high-temperature, CO-enriched exhaust passes through a heat recovery steam generator where the gas temperature is reduced to about 538{degree}C. Exhaust then passes over an Allied Signal-supplied reduction catalyst, where NO{sub x} is reduced to below 10 ppm. Controlled levels of CO in contact with the proprietary catalyst is the primary factor in achieving such extraordinarily low NO{sub x} emission levels.

  9. Solar control of the earth's emission of energetic O(+)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lennartsson, W.

    1991-01-01

    Energetic (0.1-16 keV/e) O(+) data obtained in the earth's plasma sheet (between 10 and 23 RE) by an ion mass spectrometer on the ISEE-1 spacecraft are compared statistically with published data on the concurrent solar wind and IMF. The most strongly variable parameter of the plasma sheet O(+) is its density, which is found to be well correlated with certain solar wind parameters, especially with the solar wind flow speed and the IMF component perpendicular to the flow vector. When those two solar wind parameters are combined to form an electric field (-v x B), both the number density and the energy density of the O(+) are found to vary in proportion to the square of that electric field, on average, suggesting that the emission of energetic O(+) ions from the earth may be powered by that same field. Based on this and on the previously published correlation with solar activity, it is argued that the emission of O(+) is controlled by a combination of HF (ionizing) and quasi-static (accelerating) solar electromagnetic fields.

  10. Methane emissions from process equipment at natural gas production sites in the United States: pneumatic controllers.

    PubMed

    Allen, David T; Pacsi, Adam P; Sullivan, David W; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Harrison, Matthew; Keen, Kindal; Fraser, Matthew P; Daniel Hill, A; Sawyer, Robert F; Seinfeld, John H

    2015-01-01

    Emissions from 377 gas actuated (pneumatic) controllers were measured at natural gas production sites and a small number of oil production sites, throughout the United States. A small subset of the devices (19%), with whole gas emission rates in excess of 6 standard cubic feet per hour (scf/h), accounted for 95% of emissions. More than half of the controllers recorded emissions of 0.001 scf/h or less during 15 min of measurement. Pneumatic controllers in level control applications on separators and in compressor applications had higher emission rates than controllers in other types of applications. Regional differences in emissions were observed, with the lowest emissions measured in the Rocky Mountains and the highest emissions in the Gulf Coast. Average methane emissions per controller reported in this work are 17% higher than the average emissions per controller in the 2012 EPA greenhouse gas national emission inventory (2012 GHG NEI, released in 2014); the average of 2.7 controllers per well observed in this work is higher than the 1.0 controllers per well reported in the 2012 GHG NEI. PMID:25488196

  11. Application of microturbines to control emissions from associated gas

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Darren D.

    2013-04-16

    A system for controlling the emission of associated gas produced from a reservoir. In an embodiment, the system comprises a gas compressor including a gas inlet in fluid communication with an associated gas source and a gas outlet. The gas compressor adjusts the pressure of the associated gas to produce a pressure-regulated associated gas. In addition, the system comprises a gas cleaner including a gas inlet in fluid communication with the outlet of the gas compressor, a fuel gas outlet, and a waste product outlet. The gas cleaner separates at least a portion of the sulfur and the water from the associated gas to produce a fuel gas. Further, the system comprises a gas turbine including a fuel gas inlet in fluid communication with the fuel gas outlet of the gas cleaner and an air inlet. Still further, the system comprises a choke in fluid communication with the air inlet.

  12. Controlling the directionality of spontaneous emission by evanescent wave coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xue-Lun E-mail: gdhao2@hotmail.com; Hao, Guo-Dong E-mail: gdhao2@hotmail.com; Toda, Naoya

    2015-09-28

    We report an approach toward controlling the directionality of spontaneous emissions by employing the evanescent wave coupling effect in a subwavelength-sized ridge or truncated cone structure. An InGaAs/GaAs light-emitting diode in which a stripe-shaped InGaAs/GaAs quantum well with a stripe width of about 100 nm is embedded at the center of a subwavelength-sized GaAs ridge (of width ∼520 nm) is fabricated by micro processing and epitaxial regrowth techniques. Strong directionalities characterized by a half-intensity angle of 43° are observed in planes perpendicular to the ridge axis. The directionality is found to be almost independent of operating conditions.

  13. Landfill aeration for emission control before and during landfill mining.

    PubMed

    Raga, Roberto; Cossu, Raffaello; Heerenklage, Joern; Pivato, Alberto; Ritzkowski, Marco

    2015-12-01

    The landfill of Modena, in northern Italy, is now crossed by the new high velocity railway line connecting Milan and Bologna. Waste was completely removed from a part of the landfill and a trench for the train line was built. With the aim of facilitating excavation and further disposal of the material extracted, suitable measures were defined. In order to prevent undesired emissions into the excavation area, the aerobic in situ stabilisation by means of the Airflow technology took place before and during the Landfill Mining. Specific project features involved the pneumatic leachate extraction from the aeration wells (to keep the leachate table low inside the landfill and increase the volume of waste available for air migration) and the controlled moisture addition into a limited zone, for a preliminary evaluation of the effects on process enhancement. Waste and leachate were periodically sampled in the landfill during the aeration before the excavation, for quality assessment over time; the evolution of biogas composition in the landfill body and in the extraction system for different plant set-ups during the project was monitored, with specific focus on uncontrolled migration into the excavation area. Waste biological stability significantly increased during the aeration (waste respiration index dropped to 33% of the initial value after six months). Leachate head decreased from 4 to 1.5m; leachate recirculation tests proved the beneficial effects of moisture addition on temperature control, without hampering waste aerobization. Proper management of the aeration plant enabled the minimization of uncontrolled biogas emissions into the excavation area. PMID:26445364

  14. Controlling satellite communication system unwanted emissions in congested RF spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Donald; Heymann, Roger

    2007-09-01

    The International Telecommunication Union (ITU), a United Nations (UN) agency, is the agency that, under an international treaty, sets radio spectrum usage regulations among member nations. Within the United States of America (USA), the organization that sets regulations, coordinates an application for use, and provides authorization for federal government/agency use of the radio frequency (RF) spectrum is the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA). In this regard, the NTIA defines which RF spectrum is available for federal government use in the USA, and how it is to be used. The NTIA is a component of the United States (U.S.) Department of Commerce of the federal government. The significance of ITU regulations is that ITU approval is required for U.S. federal government/agency permission to use the RF spectrum outside of U.S. boundaries. All member nations have signed a treaty to do so. U.S. federal regulations for federal use of the RF spectrum are found in the Manual of Regulations and Procedures for Federal Radio Frequency Management, and extracts of the manual are found in what is known as the Table of Frequency Allocations. Nonfederal government and private sector use of the RF spectrum within the U.S. is regulated by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). There is a need to control "unwanted emissions" (defined to include out-of-band emissions, which are those immediately adjacent to the necessary and allocated bandwidth, plus spurious emissions) to preclude interference to all other authorized users. This paper discusses the causes, effects, and mitigation of unwanted RF emissions to systems in adjacent spectra. Digital modulations are widely used in today's satellite communications. Commercial communications sector standards are covered for the most part worldwide by Digital Video Broadcast - Satellite (DVB-S) and digital satellite news gathering (DSNG) evolutions and the second generation of DVB-S (DVB-S2) standard

  15. Dynamics of non-Controlled Emission of Biogas From Landfills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, R.; Salazar, J.; Hernandez, P.; Perez, N.

    2001-12-01

    Landfills are important sources of CH4 and CO2 as well as other toxic gas components to the atmosphere. A significant amount of gases could be released to the surrounding environment as a "non-controlled" emission in a diffuse form. To understand the dynamics of non-controlled emission of biogas from landfills several soil gas and CO2 efflux surveys were performed at Arico's landfill (Tenerife, Canary Islands). Estimated diffuse CO2 emission for Arico's landfill (0.33 Km2) were 507 td-1 (1998) and 131 td-1 (2000), showing different spatial CO2 efflux patterns that can be explained in terms of new waste disposal and covering materials as well as the action of the biogas extraction system. Secular variations of diffuse CO2 efflux and meteorological and soil variables were measured hourly at one site in the center of the landfill for 11 months. Diffuse CO2 efflux ranged from 9.9 to 433.3 gm-2d^{-1} with a median value of 242.7 \\pm 73.3 gm^{-2}d-1. Diffuse CO2 efflux showed a temporal behavior that could be divided in two different periods: (a) a quasi-stationary period with minor fluctuations due to the influence of meteorological and soil variables, and (b) a non-stationary period with changing CO2 efflux level and major variations related to the preliminary tests on the biogas extraction system for Arico's landfill. Air and ground temperatures exhibit significant positive correlation with the observed CO2 efflux. Peaks of maximum inverse correlation between barometric pressure and CO2 efflux are found at semi-diurnal and diurnal frequencies. Wind speed and wind direction are cross-correlated with CO2 efflux by 12 hours. These results suggest that (i) minor fluctuations in the CO2 efflux could be driven by meteorological variations (solar radiation cycles and local wind patterns), and (ii) sudden and major fluctuations in the CO2 efflux cannot be explained sufficiently in terms of the observed meteorological and soil variables' fluctuations.

  16. The next decade and emission controls for electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Herrin, W.D.

    1997-12-31

    The historical efforts to achieve attainment with the ozone and particulate related standards span over 25 years and involve billions of dollars with only minimal success related to ozone and unknown success related to certain fine particulates. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments mandated significant new efforts, including Title IV - Acid Rain, to achieve reductions in ozone and fine particulate precursors and attainment with the standards. Initial reduction efforts have only recently been implemented and yet another hot summer continues to portray our futile efforts to gain much ground towards attainment with existing and revised or new standards. In order to review the issues more fully and to investigate the issue of regional transport. EPA has given the states a reprieve on ozone attainment plans until mid-1997 and set up the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC) structure to review implementation issues with new or revised standards. The states and other stockholders are involved in these EPA processes through the Ozone Transport Assessment Group (OTAG) and the CAAAC along with numerous working groups to get new answers arid help towards innovative solutions. A major target in these efforts is emissions from fossil-fuel fired utility boilers. The OTAG process has developed regional control strategy targets for utility NO{sub x} sources at three levels. These levels include consideration of costs, timing and availability of controls, and the anticipated reductions in NO{sub x}. The CAAAC is also considering regional controls and the associated implementation issues for both ozone and fine particulates. EPA is also considering a Clean Air Power Initiative (CAPI) to wrap all the utility control issues in a single consensus package. The next 10 years will be a crucial time for electric utilities in juggling environmental and competitive issues.

  17. Mercury Emission Control Technologies for PPL Montana-Colstrip Testing

    SciTech Connect

    John P. Kay; Michael L. Jones; Steven A. Benson

    2007-04-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) was asked by PPL Montana LLC (PPL) to provide assistance and develop an approach to identify cost-effective options for mercury control at its coal-fired power plants. The work conducted focused on baseline mercury level and speciation measurement, short-term parametric testing, and week long testing of mercury control technology at Colstrip Unit 3. Three techniques and various combinations of these techniques were identified as viable options for mercury control. The options included oxidizing agents or sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) such as chlorine-based SEA1 and an EERC proprietary SEA2 with and without activated carbon injection. Baseline mercury emissions from Colstrip Unit 3 are comparatively low relative to other Powder River Basin (PRB) coal-fired systems and were found to range from 5 to 6.5 g/Nm3 (2.9 to 3.8 lb/TBtu), with a rough value of approximately 80% being elemental upstream of the scrubber and higher than 95% being elemental at the outlet. Levels in the stack were also greater than 95% elemental. Baseline mercury removal across the scrubber is fairly variable but generally tends to be about 5% to 10%. Parametric results of carbon injection alone yielded minimal reduction in Hg emissions. SEA1 injection resulted in 20% additional reduction over baseline with the maximum rate of 400 ppm (3 gal/min). Week long testing was conducted with the combination of SEA2 and carbon, with injection rates of 75 ppm (10.3 lb/hr) and 1.5 lb/MMacf (40 lb/hr), respectively. Reduction was found to be an additional 30% and, overall during the testing period, was measured to be 38% across the scrubber. The novel additive injection method, known as novel SEA2, is several orders of magnitude safer and less expensive than current SEA2 injection methods. However, used in conjunction with this plant configuration, the technology did not demonstrate a significant level of mercury reduction. Near-future use of this

  18. Optical sensors for process control and emissions monitoring in industry

    SciTech Connect

    S. W. Alendorf; D. K. Ottensen; D. W. Hahn; T. J. Kulp; U. B. Goers

    1999-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has a number of ongoing projects developing optical sensors for industrial environments. Laser-based sensors can be attractive for relatively harsh environments where extractive sampling is difficult, inaccurate, or impractical. Tools developed primarily for laboratory research can often be adapted for the real world and applied to problems far from their original uses. Spectroscopic techniques, appropriately selected, have the potential to impact the bottom line of a number of industries and industrial processes. In this paper the authors discuss three such applications: a laser-based instrument for process control in steelmaking, a laser-induced breakdown method for hazardous metal detection in process streams, and a laser-based imaging sensor for evaluating surface cleanliness. Each has the potential to provide critical, process-related information in a real-time, continuous manner. These sensor techniques encompass process control applications and emissions monitoring for pollution prevention. They also span the range from a field-tested pre-commercial prototype to laboratory instrumentation. Finally, these sensors employ a wide range of sophistication in both the laser source and associated analytical spectroscopy. In the ultimate applications, however, many attributes of the sensors are in common, such as the need for robust operation and hardening for harsh industrial environments.

  19. Globes from global data: Charting international research networks with the GRASS GIS r.out.polycones add-on module.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löwe, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Many Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) tools have been created for the various application fields within geoscience. While FOSS allows re-implementation of functionalities in new environments by access to the original codebase, the easiest approach to build new software solutions for new problems is the combination or merging of existing software tools. Such mash-ups are implemented by embedding and encapsulating FOSS tools within each another, effectively focusing the use of the embedded software to the specific role it needs to perform in the given scenario, while ignoring all its other capabilities. GRASS GIS is a powerful and established FOSS GIS for raster, vector and volume data processing while the Generic Mapping Tools (GMT) are a suite of powerful Open Source mapping tools, which exceed the mapping capabilities of GRASS GIS. This poster reports on the new GRASS GIS add-on module r.out.polycones. It enables users to utilize non-continuous projections for map production within the GRASS production environment. This is implemented on the software level by encapsulating a subset of GMT mapping capabilities into a GRASS GIS (Version 6.x) add-on module. The module was developed at the German National Library of Science and Technology (TIB) to provide custom global maps of scientific collaboration networks, such as the DataCite consortium, the registration agency for Digital Object Identifiers (DOI) for research data. The GRASS GIS add-on module can be used for global mapping of raster data into a variety of non continuous sinosoidal projections, allowing the creation of printable biangles (gores) to be used for globe making. Due to the well structured modular nature of GRASS modules, technical follow-up work will focus on API-level Python-based integration in GRASS 7 [1]. Based on this, GMT based mapping capabilities in GRASS will be extended beyond non-continuous sinosoidal maps and advanced from raster-layers to content GRASS display monitors. References

  20. Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Pu-Xian

    2013-07-31

    This final report to the Department of Energy (DOE) and National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) for DE-EE0000210 covers the period from October 1, 2009 to July 31, 2013. Under this project, DOE awarded UConn about $1,248,242 to conduct the research and development on a new class of 3D composite nanostructure based catalysts for lean NOx emission control. Much of the material presented here has already been submitted to DOE/NETL in quarterly technical reports. In this project, through a scalable solution process, we have successfully fabricated a new class of catalytic reactors, i.e., the composite nanostructure array (nano-array) based catalytic converters. These nanocatalysts, distinct from traditional powder washcoat based catalytic converters, directly integrate monolithic substrates together with nanostructures with well-defined size and shape during the scalable hydrothermal process. The new monolithic nanocatalysts are demonstrated to be able to save raw materials including Pt-group metals and support metal oxides by an order of magnitude, while perform well at various oxidation (e.g., CO oxidation and NO oxidation) and reduction reactions (H{sub 2} reduction of NOx) involved in the lean NOx emissions. The size, shape and arrangement of the composite nanostructures within the monolithic substrates are found to be the key in enabling the drastically reduced materials usage while maintaining the good catalytic reactivity in the enabled devices. The further understanding of the reaction kinetics associated with the unique mass transport and surface chemistry behind is needed for further optimizing the design and fabrication of good nanostructure array based catalytic converters. On the other hand, the high temperature stability, hydrothermal aging stability, as well as S-poisoning resistance have been investigated in this project on the nanocatalysts, which revealed promising results toward good chemical and mechanical robustness, as well as S

  1. 40 CFR 63.325 - Determination of equivalent emission control technology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... technology; (3) Information on solvent mileage achieved with and without the candidate emission control... control technology. 63.325 Section 63.325 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Determination of equivalent emission control technology. (a) Any person requesting that the use of...

  2. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart IIIi of... - Operating Limits for Capture Systems and Add-On Control Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51 i. Collecting the direction of air flow, and either the facial... Pollutants: Surface Coating of Automobiles and Light-Duty Trucks Pt. 63, Subpt. IIII, Table 1 Table 1...

  3. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart IIIi of... - Operating Limits for Capture Systems and Add-On Control Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51 i. Collecting the direction of air flow, and either the facial... Pollutants: Surface Coating of Automobiles and Light-Duty Trucks Pt. 63, Subpt. IIII, Table 1 Table 1...

  4. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart IIIi of... - Operating Limits for Capture Systems and Add-On Control Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must not fall below... of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51 i. Collecting the direction of air flow, and either the facial.... Measuring the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each...

  5. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ssss of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-on Control Devices and Capture System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the catalyst bed in any 3-hour period must not fall below the limit established according to § 63.5160... catalyst bed at or above the temperature limit. b. ensure that the average temperature difference across the catalyst bed in any 3-hour period does not fall below the temperature difference limit...

  6. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Oooo of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the catalyst bed in any 3-hour block period must not fall below the limit established according to... data to 3-hour block averages; and iii. maintaining the 3-hour block average catalyst bed inlet... catalyst bed in any 3-hour block period does not fall below the temperature difference limit...

  7. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Oooo of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the catalyst bed in any 3-hour block period must not fall below the limit established according to... data to 3-hour block averages; and iii. maintaining the 3-hour block average catalyst bed inlet... catalyst bed in any 3-hour block period does not fall below the temperature difference limit...

  8. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Jjjj of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... catalyst bed in any 3-hour period must not fall below the combustion temperature limit established according to § 63.3360(e)(3)(ii) i. Collecting the catalyst bed inlet temperature data according to § 63... catalyst bed inlet temperature at or above the temperature limit. b. The temperature rise across...

  9. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Jjjj of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Catalytic oxidizer a. The average temperature at the inlet to the catalyst bed in any 3-hour period must not... the catalyst bed inlet temperature data according to § 63.3350(e)(9);ii. Reducing the data to 3-hour block averages; and iii. Maintain the 3-hour average catalyst bed inlet temperature at or above...

  10. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ssss of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-on Control Devices and Capture System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... before the catalyst bed in any 3-hour period must not fall below the limit established according to § 63... catalyst bed at or above the temperature limit. b. ensure that the average temperature difference across the catalyst bed in any 3-hour period does not fall below the temperature difference limit...

  11. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Jjjj of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... catalyst bed in any 3-hour period must not fall below the combustion temperature limit established according to § 63.3360(e)(3)(ii) i. Collecting the catalyst bed inlet temperature data according to § 63... catalyst bed inlet temperature at or above the temperature limit. b. The temperature rise across...

  12. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Oooo of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the catalyst bed in any 3-hour block period must not fall below the limit established according to... data to 3-hour block averages; and iii. maintaining the 3-hour block average catalyst bed inlet... catalyst bed in any 3-hour block period does not fall below the temperature difference limit...

  13. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Oooo of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the catalyst bed in any 3-hour block period must not fall below the limit established according to... data to 3-hour block averages; and iii. maintaining the 3-hour block average catalyst bed inlet... catalyst bed in any 3-hour block period does not fall below the temperature difference limit...

  14. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Jjjj of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Catalytic oxidizer a. The average temperature at the inlet to the catalyst bed in any 3-hour period must not... the catalyst bed inlet temperature data according to § 63.3350(e)(9);ii. Reducing the data to 3-hour block averages; and iii. Maintain the 3-hour average catalyst bed inlet temperature at or above...

  15. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Jjjj of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... catalyst bed in any 3-hour period must not fall below the combustion temperature limit established according to § 63.3360(e)(3)(ii) i. Collecting the catalyst bed inlet temperature data according to § 63... catalyst bed inlet temperature at or above the temperature limit. b. The temperature rise across...

  16. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ssss of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-on Control Devices and Capture System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... before the catalyst bed in any 3-hour period must not fall below the limit established according to § 63... catalyst bed at or above the temperature limit. b. ensure that the average temperature difference across the catalyst bed in any 3-hour period does not fall below the temperature difference limit...

  17. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Oooo of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the catalyst bed in any 3-hour block period must not fall below the limit established according to... data to 3-hour block averages; and iii. maintaining the 3-hour block average catalyst bed inlet... catalyst bed in any 3-hour block period does not fall below the temperature difference limit...

  18. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ssss of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-on Control Devices and Capture System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the catalyst bed in any 3-hour period must not fall below the limit established according to § 63.5160... catalyst bed at or above the temperature limit. b. ensure that the average temperature difference across the catalyst bed in any 3-hour period does not fall below the temperature difference limit...

  19. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ssss of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-on Control Devices and Capture System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... before the catalyst bed in any 3-hour period must not fall below the limit established according to § 63... catalyst bed at or above the temperature limit. b. ensure that the average temperature difference across the catalyst bed in any 3-hour period does not fall below the temperature difference limit...

  20. Cholinesterase inhibitors and add-on nutritional supplements in Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Rijpma, A; Meulenbroek, O; Olde Rikkert, M G M

    2014-07-01

    To date, single drug and nutrient-based interventions have failed to show a clinically relevant effect on Alzheimer's disease (AD). Multidomain interventions may alleviate symptoms and alter the disease course in a synergistic manner. This systematic review examines the effect of adding nutritional supplementation to cholinesterase inhibitors. A systematic PubMed and Cochrane search resulted in nine high quality studies. The studies had low to moderate risk of bias and focused on oxidative stress, homocysteine levels, membrane fluidity, inflammation and acetylcholine levels. Only the use of vitamin E supplements could reduce the rate of functional decline when combined with cholinesterase inhibitors in one study, whereas cognition was not affected in both this and other studies. None of the other nutritional supplements showed convincing evidence of a beneficial effect when combined with cholinesterase inhibitors. This shows that cognitive and functional improvement is difficult to achieve in patients with AD, despite epidemiological data and evidence of biological effects of nutritional supplements. Addressing one disease pathway in addition to cholinesterase inhibitor therapy is probably insufficient to alter the course of the disease. Personalized, multifactorial interventions may be more successful in improving cognition and daily functioning. PMID:24982004

  1. The evolution of shipping emissions and the costs of recent and forthcoming emission regulations in the northern European emission control area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, L.; Jalkanen, J.-P.; Kalli, J.; Kukkonen, J.

    2013-06-01

    An extensive inventory of marine exhaust emissions is presented in the northern European emission control area (ECA) in 2009 and 2011. The emissions of SOx, NOx, CO2, CO and PM2.5 were evaluated using the Ship Traffic Emission Assessment Model (STEAM). We have combined the information on individual vessel characteristics and position reports generated by the Automatic Identification System (AIS). The emission limitations from 2009 to 2011 have had a significant impact on reducing the emissions of both SOx and PM2.5. The predicted emissions of SOx originated from IMO-registered marine traffic have been reduced by 33%, from 322 ktons to 217 ktons, in the ECA from 2009 to 2011. The corresponding predicted reduction of PM2.5 emissions was 20%, from 74 ktons to 59 ktons. The highest CO2 and PM2.5 emissions in 2011 were located in the vicinity of the coast of the Netherlands, in the English Channel, near the South-Eastern UK and along the busiest shipping lines in the Danish Straits and the Baltic Sea. The changes of emissions and the financial costs caused by various regulative actions since 2005 were also evaluated, based on the increased direct fuel costs. We also simulated the effects and direct costs associated with the forthcoming switch to low-sulfur distillate fuels in 2015. According to the projections for the future, there will be a reduction of 85% in SOx emissions and a~reduction of 50% in PM2.5 emissions in 2015, compared with the corresponding shipping emissions in 2011 in the ECA. The corresponding relative increase in fuel costs for all shipping varied between 10% and 63%, depending on the development of the prices of fuels and the use of the sulfur scrubber equipment.

  2. Laboratory tests on an aircraft fuselage to determine the insertion loss of various acoustic add-on treatments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heitman, K. E.; Mixson, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes a laboratory study of add-on acoustic treatments for a propeller-driven light aircraft fuselage. The treatments included: no treatment (i.e., baseline fuselage); a production-type double-wall interior; and various amounts of high density fiberglass added to the baseline fuselage. The sound source was a pneumatic-driver with attached exponential horn, supplied with a broadband signal. Data were acquired at the approximate head positions of the six passenger seats. The results were analyzed on space-averaged narrowband, one-third octave band and overall insertion loss basis. In addition, insertion loss results for the different configurations at specific frequencies representing propeller tone spectra are presented. The propeller tone data includes not only the space-averaged insertion loss, but also the variation of insertion loss at these particular frequencies across the six microphone positions.

  3. Fine particle (2.5 microns) emissions: regulations, measurement, and control

    SciTech Connect

    John D. McKenna; James H. Turner; James P. McKenna, Jr.

    2008-09-15

    Contents: Introduction; Health effects; Air monitoring; Emission control methods - fabric filter/baghouses, electrostatic precipitators, wet scrubbers; Environmental technology verification and baghouse filtration products; Cost considerations; and Nanoparticulates.

  4. Estimation of automobile emissions and control strategies in India.

    PubMed

    Nesamani, K S

    2010-03-15

    Rapid, but unplanned urban development and the consequent urban sprawl coupled with economic growth have aggravated auto dependency in India over the last two decades. This has resulted in congestion and pollution in cities. The central and state governments have taken many ameliorative measures to reduce vehicular emissions. However, evolution of scientific methods for emission inventory is crucial. Therefore, an attempt has been made to estimate the emissions (running and start) from on-road vehicles in Chennai using IVE model in this paper. GPS was used to collect driving patterns. The estimated emissions from motor vehicles in Chennai in 2005 were 431, 119, 46, 7, 4575, 29, and 0.41 tons/days respectively for CO, VOC, NO(x), PM, CO(2,) CH(4) and N(2)O. It is observed from the results that air quality in Chennai has degraded. The estimation revealed that two and three-wheelers emitted about 64% of the total CO emissions and heavy-duty vehicles accounted for more than 60% and 36% of the NO(x) and PM emissions respectively. About 19% of total emissions were that of start emissions. It is also estimated that on-road transport contributes about 6637 tons/day CO(2) equivalent in Chennai. This paper has further examined various mitigation options to reduce vehicular emissions. The study has concluded that advanced vehicular technology and augmentation of public transit would have significant impact on reducing vehicular emissions. PMID:20149922

  5. SETTING PRIORITIES FOR CONTROL OF FUGITIVE PARTICULATE EMISSIONS FROM OPEN SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes setting priorities for controlling fugitive particulate emissions. Emission rate estimates of suspended particulates from open sources in the U.S. were obtained from emission factors and source extents in the literature. Major open sources, with their estimat...

  6. Geomorphic and hydrologic controls of dust emissions during drought from Yellow Lake playa, West Texas, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research on the factors that control dust emissions from playas has revealed a number of complex geomorphic and hydrologic factors, yet there are few measurements of dust emissions from playas during drought or low-emission seasons. Deflation of Yellow Lake, a saline playa in West Texas, produces sa...

  7. COST EFFECTIVE VOC EMISSION CONTROL STARTEGIES FOR MILITARY, AEROSPACE,AND INDUSTRIAL PAINT SPRAY BOOTH OPERATIONS: COMBINING IMPROVED VENTILATION SYSTEMS WITH INNOVATIVE, LOW COST EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes a full-scale demonstration program in which several paint booths were modified for recirculation ventilation; the booth exhaust streams are vented to an innovative volatile organic compound (VOC) emission control system having extremely low operating costs. ...

  8. Sheath structure transition controlled by secondary electron emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweigert, I. V.; Langendorf, S. J.; Walker, M. L. R.; Keidar, M.

    2015-04-01

    In particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision (PIC MCC) simulations and in an experiment we study sheath formation over an emissive floating Al2O3 plate in a direct current discharge plasma at argon gas pressure 10-4 Torr. The discharge glow is maintained by the beam electrons emitted from a negatively biased hot cathode. We observe three types of sheaths near the floating emissive plate and the transition between them is driven by changing the negative bias. The Debye sheath appears at lower voltages, when secondary electron emission is negligible. With increasing applied voltage, secondary electron emission switches on and a first transition to a new sheath type, beam electron emission (BEE), takes place. For the first time we find this specific regime of sheath operation near the floating emissive surface. In this regime, the potential drop over the plate sheath is about four times larger than the temperature of plasma electrons. The virtual cathode appears near the emissive plate and its modification helps to maintain the BEE regime within some voltage range. Further increase of the applied voltage U initiates the second smooth transition to the plasma electron emission sheath regime and the ratio Δφs/Te tends to unity with increasing U. The oscillatory behavior of the emissive sheath is analyzed in PIC MCC simulations. A plasmoid of slow electrons is formed near the plate and transported to the bulk plasma periodically with a frequency of about 25 kHz.

  9. Emission Controls Using Different Temperatures of Combustion Air

    PubMed Central

    Holubčík, Michal; Papučík, Štefan

    2014-01-01

    The effort of many manufacturers of heat sources is to achieve the maximum efficiency of energy transformation chemically bound in the fuel to heat. Therefore, it is necessary to streamline the combustion process and minimize the formation of emission during combustion. The paper presents an analysis of the combustion air temperature to the heat performance and emission parameters of burning biomass. In the second part of the paper the impact of different dendromass on formation of emissions in small heat source is evaluated. The measured results show that the regulation of the temperature of the combustion air has an effect on concentration of emissions from the combustion of biomass. PMID:24971376

  10. Energy, Carbon-emission and Financial Savings from Thermostat Control

    SciTech Connect

    Blasing, T J; Schroeder, Dana

    2013-08-01

    Among the easiest approaches to energy, and cost, savings for most people is the adjustment of thermostats to save energy. Here we estimate savings of energy, carbon, and money in the United States of America (USA) that would result from adjusting thermostats in residential and commercial buildings by about half a degree Celsius downward during the heating season and upward during the cooling season. To obtain as small a unit as possible, and therefore the least likely to be noticeable by most people, we selected an adjustment of one degree Fahrenheit (0.56 degree Celsius) which is the gradation used almost exclusively on thermostats in the USA and is the smallest unit of temperature that has been used historically. Heating and/or cooling of interior building space for personal comfort is sometimes referred to as space conditioning, a term we will use for convenience throughout this work without consideration of humidity. Thermostat adjustment, as we use the term here, applies to thermostats that control the indoor temperature, and not to other thermostats such as those on water heaters. We track emissions of carbon only, rather than of carbon dioxide, because carbon atoms change atomic partners as they move through the carbon cycle, from atmosphere to biosphere or ocean and, on longer time scales, through the rock cycle. To convert a mass of carbon to an equivalent mass of carbon dioxide (thereby including the mass of the 2 oxygen atoms in each molecule) simply multiply by 3.67.

  11. FUEL FORMULATION EFFECTS ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION, COMBUSTION, EMISSIONS AND EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Boehman, A; Alam, M; Song, J; Acharya, R; Szybist, J; Zello, V; Miller, K

    2003-08-24

    This paper describes work under a U.S. DOE sponsored Ultra Clean Fuels project entitled ''Ultra Clean Fuels from Natural Gas,'' Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41098. In this study we have examined the incremental benefits of moving from low sulfur diesel fuel and ultra low sulfur diesel fuel to an ultra clean fuel, Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel produced from natural gas. Blending with biodiesel, B100, was also considered. The impact of fuel formulation on fuel injection timing, bulk modulus of compressibility, in-cylinder combustion processes, gaseous and particulate emissions, DPF regeneration temperature and urea-SCR NOx control has been examined. The primary test engine is a 5.9L Cummins ISB, which has been instrumented for in-cylinder combustion analysis and in-cylinder visualization with an engine videoscope. A single-cylinder engine has also been used to examine in detail the impacts of fuel formulation on injection timing in a pump-line-nozzle fueling system, to assist in the interpretation of results from the ISB engine.

  12. Controlling satellite communication system unwanted emissions in congested RF spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Donald; Heymann, Roger

    2007-09-01

    The International Telecommunication Union (ITU), a United Nations (UN) agency, is the agency that, under an international treaty, sets radio spectrum usage regulations among member nations. Within the United States of America (USA), the organization that sets regulations, coordinates an application for use, and provides authorization for federal government/agency use of the radio frequency (RF) spectrum is the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA). In this regard, the NTIA defines which RF spectrum is available for federal government use in the USA, and how it is to be used. The NTIA is a component of the United States (U.S.) Department of Commerce of the federal government. The significance of ITU regulations is that ITU approval is required for U.S. federal government/agency permission to use the RF spectrum outside of U.S. boundaries. All member nations have signed a treaty to do so. U.S. federal regulations for federal use of the RF spectrum are found in the Manual of Regulations and Procedures for Federal Radio Frequency Management, and extracts of the manual are found in what is known as the Table of Frequency Allocations. Nonfederal government and private sector use of the RF spectrum within the U.S. is regulated by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). There is a need to control "unwanted emissions" (defined to include out-of-band emissions, which are those immediately adjacent to the necessary and allocated bandwidth, plus spurious emissions) to preclude interference to all other authorized users. This paper discusses the causes, effects, and mitigation of unwanted RF emissions to systems in adjacent spectra. Digital modulations are widely used in today's satellite communications. Commercial communications sector standards are covered for the most part worldwide by Digital Video Broadcast - Satellite (DVB-S) and digital satellite news gathering (DSNG) evolutions and the second generation of DVB-S (DVB-S2) standard

  13. Advanced technology for controlling pollutant emissions from supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duerr, R. A.; Diehl, L. A.

    1980-01-01

    Gas turbine engine combustor technology for the reduction of pollutant emissions is summarized. Variations of conventional combustion systems and advanced combustor concepts are discussed. Projected results from far term technology efforts aimed at applying the premixed prevaporized and catalytic combustion techniques to aircraft combustion systems indicate a potential for significant reductions in pollutant emission levels.

  14. FIELD TESTING OF EMISSION CONTROLS FOR ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING WASTE PILES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abatement of fugitive emissions from asbestos cement waste disposal activities has been studied. The primary sources of asbestos emissions are, (1) transfer of baghouse fines to the dump, (2) crushing and leveling of waste on the fines, (3) active dump areas, (4) inactive dump ar...

  15. COMBUSTION CONTROL OF ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    More than two decades ago, researchers identified benzo(a)pyrene and other organic species in the emissions from incineration of solid waste. Chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and-furans (CDD/CDF) were first detected in municipal waste combustor (MWC) emissions in 1977. Since then, C...

  16. OVERVIEW OF ADVANCED PETROLEUM-BASED FUELS-DIESEL EMISSIONS CONTROL PROGRAM (APBF-DEC)

    SciTech Connect

    Sverdrup, George M.

    2000-08-20

    The Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels-Diesel Emissions Control Program (APBF-DEC) began in February 2000 and is supported by government agencies and industry. The purpose of the APBF-DEC program is to identify and evaluate the optimal combinations of fuels, lubricants, diesel engines, and emission control systems to meet the projected emission standards for the 2000 to 2010 time period. APBF-DEC is an outgrowth of the earlier Diesel Emission Control-Sulfur Effects Program (DECSE), whose objective is to determine the impact of the sulfur levels in fuel on emission control systems that could lower the emissions of NOx and particulate matter (PM) from diesel powered vehicles in the 2002 to 2004 period. Results from the DECSE studies of two emission control technologies-diesel particle filter (DPF) and NOx adsorber-will be used in the APBF-DEC program. These data are expected to provide initial information on emission control technology options and the effects of fuel properties (including additives) on the performance of emission control systems.

  17. How light, temperature, and measurement and growth [CO2] interactively control isoprene emission in hybrid aspen

    PubMed Central

    Niinemets, Ülo; Sun, Zhihong

    2015-01-01

    Plant isoprene emissions have been modelled assuming independent controls by light, temperature and atmospheric [CO2]. However, the isoprene emission rate is ultimately controlled by the pool size of its immediate substrate, dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMADP), and isoprene synthase activity, implying that the environmental controls might interact. In addition, acclimation to growth [CO2] can shift the share of the control by DMADP pool size and isoprene synthase activity, and thereby alter the environmental sensitivity. Environmental controls of isoprene emission were studied in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides) saplings acclimated either to ambient [CO2] of 380 μmol mol–1 or elevated [CO2] of 780 μmol mol–1. The data demonstrated strong interactive effects of environmental drivers and growth [CO2] on isoprene emissions. Light enhancement of isoprene emission was the greatest at intermediate temperatures and was greater in elevated-[CO2]-grown plants, indicating greater enhancement of the DMADP supply. The optimum temperature for isoprene emission was higher at lower light, suggesting activation of alternative DMADP sinks at higher light. In addition, [CO2] inhibition of isoprene emission was lost at a higher temperature with particularly strong effects in elevated-[CO2]-grown plants. Nevertheless, DMADP pool size was still predicted to more strongly control isoprene emission at higher temperatures in elevated-[CO2]-grown plants. We argue that interactive environmental controls and acclimation to growth [CO2] should be incorporated in future isoprene emission models at the level of DMADP pool size. PMID:25399006

  18. How light, temperature, and measurement and growth [CO2] interactively control isoprene emission in hybrid aspen.

    PubMed

    Niinemets, Ülo; Sun, Zhihong

    2015-02-01

    Plant isoprene emissions have been modelled assuming independent controls by light, temperature and atmospheric [CO2]. However, the isoprene emission rate is ultimately controlled by the pool size of its immediate substrate, dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMADP), and isoprene synthase activity, implying that the environmental controls might interact. In addition, acclimation to growth [CO2] can shift the share of the control by DMADP pool size and isoprene synthase activity, and thereby alter the environmental sensitivity. Environmental controls of isoprene emission were studied in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides) saplings acclimated either to ambient [CO2] of 380 μmol mol(-1) or elevated [CO2] of 780 μmol mol(-1). The data demonstrated strong interactive effects of environmental drivers and growth [CO2] on isoprene emissions. Light enhancement of isoprene emission was the greatest at intermediate temperatures and was greater in elevated-[CO2]-grown plants, indicating greater enhancement of the DMADP supply. The optimum temperature for isoprene emission was higher at lower light, suggesting activation of alternative DMADP sinks at higher light. In addition, [CO2] inhibition of isoprene emission was lost at a higher temperature with particularly strong effects in elevated-[CO2]-grown plants. Nevertheless, DMADP pool size was still predicted to more strongly control isoprene emission at higher temperatures in elevated-[CO2]-grown plants. We argue that interactive environmental controls and acclimation to growth [CO2] should be incorporated in future isoprene emission models at the level of DMADP pool size. PMID:25399006

  19. Factors controlling natural VOC emissions in a southeastern US pine forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jo-Chun

    A one-year field study was conducted to investigate the control factors of the monoterpene emissions from slash and loblolly pine saplings at the Austin Cary Forest site in Florida. The α-pinene, camphene, β-pinene, myrcene, d-limonene, and β-phellandrene were identified in the emission samples collected from native pine trees. The α-pinene was the principal (>60%) monoterpene emitted by both slash and loblolly pine saplings. Terpene emission rates in spring were the highest and most volatile for slash pine trees, possibly due to the influences of bud formation and elongation. Loblolly pine emissions, under a similar environmental temperature range, revealed different seasonal patterns of emissions when compared to those for slash pines. Emission rates of monoterpenes from slash and loblolly pine trees were found to depend on temperature, season's change (e.g., bud emissions), tree age, needle surface wetness, and rough handling. It is suggested that the emission control factors besides the environmental temperature should also be taken into account in assessing regional biogenic emissions for compling a worldwide hydrocarbon emission inventory. It is also found that monoterpene emission rates could easily change over a long period of time (e.g., years), and so it is desirable to analyze the emission data based on the short term (e.g., season, month) for reasonable temperature-emission algorithm.

  20. ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM FERROUS METALLURGICAL INDUSTRIES: COMPILATION OF EMISSION FACTORS AND CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a review and analysis of the information and data available in the public domain on organic emissions from the ferrous metallurgy industry, specifically the iron and steel, iron foundry, and ferroalloy industries. Emission sources and information gaps ...

  1. Management controls on nitrous oxide emissions from row crop agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfand, I.; Shcherbak, I.; Millar, N.; Robertson, G. P.

    2011-12-01

    Agriculture is a significant source of the potent greenhouse gas (GHG) nitrous oxide (N2O), accounting for ~70% of total anthropic N2O emissions in the US primarily as a result of N fertilizer application. Emissions of N2O are the largest contributor to the global warming potential of row-crop agriculture. Management, including choice of crop type and rotation strongly impacts N2O emissions, but continuous emissions data from row-crops over multiple rotations are lacking. Empirical quantification of these long-term emissions and the development of crop- and rotation-specific N2O emission factors are vital for improving estimates of agricultural GHG emissions, important for informing management practices to reduce agriculture's GHG footprint, and developing mitigation protocols for environmental markets. Over 20 years we measured soil N2O emissions and calculated crop and management specific emission factors in four continuous rotations of corn (Zea mays) - soybean (Glycine max) - wheat (Triticum aestivum) under conventional tillage (CT), zero tillage (NT), low chemical input (LI), and biologically (Org) based management. Two of these systems (LI and Org) included winter cover crops, red clover (Trifolium pratense) or ray (Secale cereale). While average soil N2O fluxes in all systems where similar (2.9±0.2 to 3.8±0.5 g N2O-N ha-1 d-1), there was a significant interaction of total emissions with crop and phase. Surprisingly, the lowest total emissions from the corn period of the rotation were from CT, and the highest from LI, with 608±4 and 983±8 g N2O-N ha-1 crop year-1, respectively. Total emissions during the wheat period of the rotation showed the opposite trend, with total emissions of 942±7 and 524±38 g N2O-N ha-1 crop year-1, for CT ant LI, respectively. Total emissions from the soybean period of the rotation were highest under NT and lowest under CT management (526±5 and 296±2 g N2O-N ha-1 crop year-1, respectively). Emission efficiency, N2O emitted

  2. Vehicular Diesel control emissions benefit assessment in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Reynoso, J.; Jazcilevich, A. D.; Ruiz-Suarez, L.; Cruz-Nuñez, X.; Rojas, A. R.; Tripp, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    Diesel vehicles contribute in an important proportion to the particle and black carbon (BC) ambient concentrations in urban areas. These pollutants can effect the climate and health. The average age of the Diesel fleet in Mexico is 15 year-old. An introduction of new technologies and retrofit systems can reduce emissions from this type of vehicles. A set of policies were selected and applied in order to identify their economic benefits in health. An air quality model was used to obtain ambient concentrations from the emissions and specific methodology for emissions inventory adjustment was developed for this project. Preliminary results show an important benefit due to the improvement of the emissions reduction from the Diesel fleet. PM2.5 differences for reduction scenario case 1 and base case. Output from WRF-chem using 2005 Naional Emissions Inventory Reductions obtained using data from the initial fleet, fleet temporal variation and substitution policies.

  3. Control of PCDD/PCDF emissions from municipal-waste combustion systems (reannouncement)

    SciTech Connect

    Brna, T.G.; Kilgroe, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    The article gives results of tests on five modern municipal waste combustors (MWCs) to characterize or determine the performance of representative combustor types and associated air emission control systems in the regulatory development process. Test results for uncontrolled (combustor outlet) and controlled (flue gas cleaning system outlet) polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are reported, along with pertinent information on other tests. The EPA is revising air pollutant emission rules for new MWCs and preparing guidelines for existing MWCs. These rules will limit emissions of PCDDs, PCDFs, CO2, and acid gases (HCl and SO2) as well as require tighter control of particulate matter emissions.

  4. Control of NOx Emissions from Stationary Combustion Sources

    EPA Science Inventory

    In general, NOx control technologies are categorized as being either primary control technologies or secondary control technologies. Primary control technologies reduce the formation of NOx in the primary combustion zone. In contrast, secondary control technologies destroy the NO...

  5. MULTIPOLLUTANT EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY OPTIONS FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents and analyzes various existing and novel control technologies designed to achieve multipollutant [sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxide (NOX), and mercury (Hg)] emission reductions. Summary descriptions are included of 23 multipollutant control technologies that...

  6. EVALUATION OF NOX EMISSION CONTROL CATALYSTS FOR POWER PLANT SCR INSTALLATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an evaluation of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission control catalysts commercially developed for power plant selective catalytic reduction (SCR) installations. ith the objective of establishing the performance of SCR catalysts and related technology, control...

  7. Engine Tune-up Service. Unit 6: Emission Control Systems. Student Guide. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, E. Miles

    This student guide is for Unit 6, Emission Control Systems, in the Engine Tune-Up Service portion of the Automotive Mechanics Curriculum. It deals with inspecting, testing, and servicing an emission control system. A companion review exercise book and posttests are available separately as CE 031 221-222. An introduction tells how this unit fits…

  8. STRUCTURAL TRANSFORMATIONS IN CA-BASED SORBENTS USED FOR SO2 EMISSION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses structural transformations in Ca-based sorbents used for SO2 emission control. conomizer temperature injection of Ca-based sorbents is an option for dry control of SO2 emissions from coal-fired boilers. heir reactivity with SO2 was found to be a function of th...

  9. 40 CFR 57.504 - Continuing evaluation of fugitive emission control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Continuing evaluation of fugitive emission control measures. 57.504 Section 57.504 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PRIMARY NONFERROUS SMELTER ORDERS Fugitive Emission Evaluation and Control § 57.504 Continuing evaluation...

  10. Engine Tune-up Service. Unit 6: Emission Control Systems. Review Exercise Book. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, E. Miles

    This book of pretests and review exercises is designed to accompany the Engine Tune-Up Service Student Guide for Unit 6, Emission Control Systems, available separately as CE 031 220. Focus of the exercises and pretests is inspecting, testing, and servicing emission control systems. Pretests and performance checklists are provided for each of the…

  11. Engine Tune-up Service. Unit 6: Emission Control Systems. Posttests. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, David T.; May, Theodore R.

    This book of posttests is designed to accompany the Engine Tune-Up Service Student Guide for Unit 6, Emission Control Systems, available separately as CE 031 220. Focus of the posttests is inspecting, testing, and servicing emission control systems. One multiple choice posttest is provided that covers the seven performance objectives contained in…

  12. Engine Performance (Section C: Emission Control Systems). Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Module 3. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rains, Larry

    This engine performance (emission control systems) module is one of a series of competency-based modules in the Missouri Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Topics of this module's five units are: positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) and evaporative emission control systems; exhaust gas recirculation (EGR); air injection and catalytic converters;…

  13. ASSESSMENT OF ROAD CARPET FOR CONTROL OF FUGITIVE EMISSIONS FROM UNPAVED ROADS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an assessment of the use of carpeting to control fugitive emissions from unpaved roads. Historically, emissions from unpaved roads have been controlled by watering, oiling, or chemical soil stabilization. An analysis of the forces which produce emissio...

  14. Preface: Special Issue on Catalytic Control of Lean-Burn Engine Exhaust Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Yezerets, Aleksey; Peden, Charles HF; Szanyi, Janos; Nova, Isabella; Epling, Bill

    2012-04-30

    This issue of Catalysis Today includes original research articles based on select presentations from the Mobile Emissions Control Symposium at the 22nd North American Catalysis Society (NACS) Meeting held in Detroit in June 2011, with a particular focus on catalyzed diesel emissions control. The Symposium was dedicated to the memory of Dr. Haren Gandhi, a visionary technology leader and a passionate environmental advocate.

  15. Global trends in two stroke emission control technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, G.K.; Raje, N.R.

    1996-12-31

    Two stroke engines are very popular as a means of personal transport wherever the climatic conditions permit their use. In the last decade, two stroke population in many countries has grown very rapidly, especially in Asian countries. While two stroke vehicles have many advantages, continued growth in their population raises serious concern regarding the health and environmental effects due to high hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from such engines. Smoke and noise emissions are also of concern. As a result, countries around the world are progressively tightening two stroke emission regulations and hence technology for reducing emission continues to advance. New engine design and research in lubricants and fuel has been targeted to reduce emissions. Besides improvement to reduce ``engine out`` emissions, catalytic convertors are necessary for exhaust after treatment to meet the stringent emission regulations. Substantial progress has been made in catalytic technology and as a result two stroke engines in many countries are fitted with catalytic convertors which continue to further improve.

  16. Estimates of increased black carbon emissions from electrostatic precipitators during powdered activated carbon injection for mercury emissions control.

    PubMed

    Clack, Herek L

    2012-07-01

    The behavior of mercury sorbents within electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) is not well-understood, despite a decade or more of full-scale testing. Recent laboratory results suggest that powdered activated carbon exhibits somewhat different collection behavior than fly ash in an ESP and particulate filters located at the outlet of ESPs have shown evidence of powdered activated carbon penetration during full-scale tests of sorbent injection for mercury emissions control. The present analysis considers a range of assumed differential ESP collection efficiencies for powdered activated carbon as compared to fly ash. Estimated emission rates of submicrometer powdered activated carbon are compared to estimated emission rates of particulate carbon on submicrometer fly ash, each corresponding to its respective collection efficiency. To the extent that any emitted powdered activated carbon exhibits size and optical characteristics similar to black carbon, such emissions could effectively constitute an increase in black carbon emissions from coal-based stationary power generation. The results reveal that even for the low injection rates associated with chemically impregnated carbons, submicrometer particulate carbon emissions can easily double if the submicrometer fraction of the native fly ash has a low carbon content. Increasing sorbent injection rates, larger collection efficiency differentials as compared to fly ash, and decreasing sorbent particle size all lead to increases in the estimated submicrometer particulate carbon emissions. PMID:22663136

  17. Climatic and Chemical Controls on Methane Emissions from Wetlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Elaine; Gauci, Vincent; Prigent, Catherine; Travis, Larry (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Natural wetlands are the largest single source of methane to the atmosphere and the only one dominated by climate. Although interannual variations in methane emissions from short-term climate variations are becoming better understood, major uncertainties remain with respect to the sensitivity of wetlands and their CH4 emissions to climate variability, the sensitivity of suppression of wetland methane missions to changes in low-dose sulfate deposition, and the response of wetland dynamics to climate variations. We present results from modeling, field, and remote sensing research that integrate current understanding of the dynamics of wetlands and their methane emissions.

  18. Emissions of Transport Refrigeration Units with CARB Diesel, Gas-to-Liquid Diesel, and Emissions Control Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Barnitt, R. A.; Chernich, D.; Burnitzki, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Miyasato, M.; Lucht, E.; van der Merwe, D.; Schaberg, P.

    2010-05-01

    A novel in situ method was used to measure emissions and fuel consumption of transport refrigeration units (TRUs). The test matrix included two fuels, two exhaust configurations, and two TRU engine operating speeds. Test fuels were California ultra low sulfur diesel and gas-to-liquid (GTL) diesel. Exhaust configurations were a stock muffler and a Thermo King pDPF diesel particulate filter. The TRU engine operating speeds were high and low, controlled by the TRU user interface. Results indicate that GTL diesel fuel reduces all regulated emissions at high and low engine speeds. Application of a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions, sometimes almost entirely. The application of both GTL diesel and a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions at high engine speed, but showed an increase in oxides of nitrogen at low engine speed.

  19. Control technology for radioactive emissions to the atmosphere at US Department of Energy facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, E.B.

    1984-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information to the US Environmental Protection agency (EPA) on existing technology for the control of radionuclide emissions into the air from US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, and to provide EPA with information on possible additional control technologies that could be used to further reduce these emissions. Included in this report are generic discussions of emission control technologies for particulates, iodine, rare gases, and tritium. Also included are specific discussions of existing emission control technologies at 25 DOE facilities. Potential additional emission control technologies are discussed for 14 of these facilities. The facilities discussed were selected by EPA on the basis of preliminary radiation pathway analyses. 170 references, 131 figures, 104 tables.

  20. CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL WOOD BURNING BY COMBUSTION MODIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes an exploratory study of factors contributing to atmospheric emissions from residential wood-fired combustion equipment. Three commercial appliances were operated with both normal and modified designs, providing different burning modes: updraft with a grate, u...