Science.gov

Sample records for add-on emission controls

  1. 40 CFR 75.34 - Units with add-on emission controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Units with add-on emission controls... add-on emission controls. (a) The owner or operator of an affected unit equipped with add-on SO2 and... which the add-on emission controls are documented to be operating properly, as described in the...

  2. 40 CFR 75.34 - Units with add-on emission controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Units with add-on emission controls. 75.34 Section 75.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING Missing Data Substitution Procedures § 75.34 Units...

  3. 40 CFR 75.34 - Units with add-on emission controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Units with add-on emission controls. 75.34 Section 75.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING Missing Data Substitution Procedures § 75.34 Units...

  4. 40 CFR 75.34 - Units with add-on emission controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... assurance/quality control program for the unit, required by section 1 in appendix B of this part. To provide... parametric data to verify the proper operation of the SO2 or NOX add-on emission controls during each hour, as described in paragraph (d) of this section. For any missing data hour(s) in which such...

  5. 40 CFR 63.3555 - How do I determine the outlet THC emissions and add-on control device emission destruction or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... an alternative to Method 3B, the manual method for measuring the oxygen, carbon dioxide, and carbon... emissions and add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency? 63.3555 Section 63.3555... add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency? You must use the procedures and...

  6. 40 CFR 63.3555 - How do I determine the outlet THC emissions and add-on control device emission destruction or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... an alternative to Method 3B, the manual method for measuring the oxygen, carbon dioxide, and carbon... emissions and add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency? 63.3555 Section 63.3555... add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency? You must use the procedures and...

  7. 40 CFR 63.3555 - How do I determine the outlet THC emissions and add-on control device emission destruction or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... an alternative to Method 3B, the manual method for measuring the oxygen, carbon dioxide, and carbon... emissions and add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency? 63.3555 Section 63.3555... add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency? You must use the procedures and...

  8. 40 CFR 63.4965 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... dioxide, and carbon monoxide content of exhaust gas in ANSI/ASME PTC 19.10-1981, “Flue and Exhaust Gas... device emission destruction or removal efficiency? 63.4965 Section 63.4965 Protection of Environment... Controls Option § 63.4965 How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or...

  9. 40 CFR 63.4166 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide content of exhaust gas in ANSI/ASME, PTC 19.10-1981, “Flue and... device emission destruction or removal efficiency? 63.4166 Section 63.4166 Protection of Environment... Controls Option § 63.4166 How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or...

  10. 40 CFR 63.4166 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide content of exhaust gas in ANSI/ASME, PTC 19.10-1981, “Flue and... device emission destruction or removal efficiency? 63.4166 Section 63.4166 Protection of Environment... Controls Option § 63.4166 How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or...

  11. 40 CFR 63.4166 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide content of exhaust gas in ANSI/ASME, PTC 19.10-1981, “Flue and... device emission destruction or removal efficiency? 63.4166 Section 63.4166 Protection of Environment... Controls Option § 63.4166 How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or...

  12. 40 CFR 63.4965 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... dioxide, and carbon monoxide content of exhaust gas in ANSI/ASME PTC 19.10-1981, “Flue and Exhaust Gas... device emission destruction or removal efficiency? 63.4965 Section 63.4965 Protection of Environment... Controls Option § 63.4965 How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or...

  13. 40 CFR 63.4965 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... dioxide, and carbon monoxide content of exhaust gas in ANSI/ASME PTC 19.10-1981, “Flue and Exhaust Gas... device emission destruction or removal efficiency? 63.4965 Section 63.4965 Protection of Environment... Controls Option § 63.4965 How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or...

  14. 40 CFR 63.3545 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... appendix A to 40 CFR part 60 to subtract methane emissions from measured total gaseous organic mass... = Concentration of organic compounds as carbon in the vent gas, as determined by Method 25 or Method 25A, ppmvd... gaseous organic emissions mass flow rate at the inlet(s) to the add-on control device, using Equation 1...

  15. 40 CFR 63.9323 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... device emission destruction or removal efficiency? 63.9323 Section 63.9323 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Engine Test Cells/Stands Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements § 63.9323 How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency? You must use the...

  16. 40 CFR 63.3545 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... also use as an alternative to Method 3B the manual method for measuring the oxygen, carbon dioxide, and... device emission destruction or removal efficiency? 63.3545 Section 63.3545 Protection of Environment... Option § 63.3545 How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal...

  17. 40 CFR 63.4766 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... also use as an alternative to Method 3B, the manual method for measuring the oxygen, carbon dioxide... device emission destruction or removal efficiency? 63.4766 Section 63.4766 Protection of Environment... Option § 63.4766 How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal...

  18. 40 CFR 63.3545 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... also use as an alternative to Method 3B the manual method for measuring the oxygen, carbon dioxide, and... device emission destruction or removal efficiency? 63.3545 Section 63.3545 Protection of Environment... Option § 63.3545 How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal...

  19. 40 CFR 63.4362 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide content of exhaust gas in ANSI/ASME, PTC 19.10-1981, “Flue and... device emission destruction or removal efficiency? 63.4362 Section 63.4362 Protection of Environment... § 63.4362 How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?...

  20. 40 CFR 63.4965 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... an alternative to Method 3B, the manual method for measuring the oxygen, carbon dioxide, and carbon... device emission destruction or removal efficiency? 63.4965 Section 63.4965 Protection of Environment....4965 How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency? You...

  1. 40 CFR 63.4766 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... also use as an alternative to Method 3B, the manual method for measuring the oxygen, carbon dioxide... device emission destruction or removal efficiency? 63.4766 Section 63.4766 Protection of Environment... Option § 63.4766 How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal...

  2. 40 CFR 63.4166 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... also use as an alternative to Method 3B, the manual method for measuring the oxygen, carbon dioxide... device emission destruction or removal efficiency? 63.4166 Section 63.4166 Protection of Environment....4166 How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency? (a)...

  3. 40 CFR 63.4166 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... also use as an alternative to Method 3B, the manual method for measuring the oxygen, carbon dioxide... device emission destruction or removal efficiency? 63.4166 Section 63.4166 Protection of Environment....4166 How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency? (a)...

  4. 40 CFR 63.4362 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide content of exhaust gas in ANSI/ASME, PTC 19.10-1981, “Flue and... device emission destruction or removal efficiency? 63.4362 Section 63.4362 Protection of Environment... Requirements § 63.4362 How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal...

  5. 40 CFR 63.4362 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide content of exhaust gas in ANSI/ASME, PTC 19.10-1981, “Flue and... device emission destruction or removal efficiency? 63.4362 Section 63.4362 Protection of Environment... Requirements § 63.4362 How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal...

  6. 40 CFR 63.3545 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... an alternative to Method 3B the manual method for measuring the oxygen, carbon dioxide, and carbon... device emission destruction or removal efficiency? 63.3545 Section 63.3545 Protection of Environment... How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency? You must...

  7. 40 CFR 63.4362 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide content of exhaust gas in ANSI/ASME, PTC 19.10-1981, “Flue and... device emission destruction or removal efficiency? 63.4362 Section 63.4362 Protection of Environment... Requirements § 63.4362 How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal...

  8. 40 CFR 63.4965 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... an alternative to Method 3B, the manual method for measuring the oxygen, carbon dioxide, and carbon... device emission destruction or removal efficiency? 63.4965 Section 63.4965 Protection of Environment....4965 How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency? You...

  9. 40 CFR 63.3545 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... also use as an alternative to Method 3B the manual method for measuring the oxygen, carbon dioxide, and... device emission destruction or removal efficiency? 63.3545 Section 63.3545 Protection of Environment... Option § 63.3545 How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal...

  10. 40 CFR 63.4966 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true How do I establish the emission capture... with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4966 How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control... to § 63.4965. (c) Carbon adsorbers. If your add-on control device is a carbon adsorber, establish...

  11. 40 CFR 63.4767 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true How do I establish the emission capture... Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4767 How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on...) Carbon adsorbers. If your add-on control device is a carbon adsorber, establish the operating...

  12. 40 CFR 63.4362 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... organic compounds as carbon in the vent gas, as determined by Method 25 or Method 25A, ppmv, dry basis... gaseous organic emissions mass flow rate at the outlet(s) of the add-on control device, using Equation 1... paragraphs (a)(1) through (5) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60,...

  13. 40 CFR 63.3546 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How do I establish the emission capture... Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.3546 How do I establish the emission capture system and add... the emission stream for leakage. (d) Carbon adsorbers. If your add-on control device is a...

  14. 40 CFR 63.3556 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true How do I establish the emission capture.../outlet Concentration Option § 63.3556 How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control... the emission stream for leakage. (d) Carbon adsorbers. If your add-on control device is a...

  15. 40 CFR 63.3546 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true How do I establish the emission capture... Add-on Controls Option § 63.3546 How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control... valves during internal inspections; and/or actual testing of the emission stream for leakage. (d)...

  16. 40 CFR 63.4767 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How do I establish the emission capture... for the Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4767 How do I establish the emission capture...) Carbon adsorbers. If your add-on control device is a carbon adsorber, establish the operating...

  17. 40 CFR 63.4966 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How do I establish the emission capture... Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4966 How do I establish the emission capture system and add... to § 63.4965. (c) Carbon adsorbers. If your add-on control device is a carbon adsorber, establish...

  18. 40 CFR 75.34 - Units with add-on emission controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING Missing Data Substitution Procedures § 75.34 Units with.../or NOX emission controls shall provide substitute data in accordance with paragraphs (a)(1), through (a)(5) of this section for each hour in which quality-assured data from the outlet SO2 and/or...

  19. 40 CFR 63.4167 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true How do I establish the emission capture... with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4167 How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control... test to determine destruction efficiency according to § 63.4166. (c) Carbon adsorbers. If your...

  20. 40 CFR 63.3555 - How do I determine the outlet THC emissions and add-on control device emission destruction or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... alternative to Method 3B, the manual method for measuring the oxygen, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide... emissions and add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency? 63.3555 Section 63.3555... device emission destruction or removal efficiency? You must use the procedures and test methods in...

  1. 40 CFR 63.3555 - How do I determine the outlet THC emissions and add-on control device emission destruction or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... appendix A to 40 CFR part 60 to subtract methane emissions from measured total gaseous organic mass... organic compounds as carbon in the vent gas, as determined by Method 25 or Method 25A, ppmvd. Qsd... gaseous organic emissions mass flow rate at the inlet(s) to the add-on control device, using Equation 1...

  2. 40 CFR 63.9323 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the add-on control device simultaneously, using either Method 25 or 25A of appendix A to 40 CFR part... both the inlet and outlet measurements. (1) Use Method 25 of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60 if the add-on.... (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select sampling sites...

  3. 40 CFR 63.4167 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How do I establish the emission capture... Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4167 How do I establish the emission capture system and add... test to determine destruction efficiency according to § 63.4166. (c) Carbon adsorbers. If your...

  4. 40 CFR 63.4566 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... outlet of the add-on control device simultaneously, using either Method 25 or 25A of appendix A to 40 CFR...) through (5) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to... to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or...

  5. 40 CFR 63.4566 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... outlet of the add-on control device simultaneously, using either Method 25 or 25A of appendix A to 40 CFR...) through (5) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to... to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or...

  6. 40 CFR 63.3966 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... simultaneously, using either Method 25 or 25A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60. (1) Use Method 25 if the add-on... 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select sampling sites and velocity traverse points. (2) Use Method 2, 2A, 2C, 2D, 2F, or 2G of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate,...

  7. 40 CFR 63.3966 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... simultaneously, using either Method 25 or 25A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60. (1) Use Method 25 if the add-on... 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select sampling sites and velocity traverse points. (2) Use Method 2, 2A, 2C, 2D, 2F, or 2G of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate,...

  8. 40 CFR 63.4766 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide content of exhaust gas in ANSI/ASME PTC 19.10-1981, “Flue and Exhaust... device emission destruction or removal efficiency? 63.4766 Section 63.4766 Protection of Environment... removal efficiency? You must use the procedures and test methods in this section to determine the...

  9. 40 CFR 63.4766 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide content of exhaust gas in ANSI/ASME PTC 19.10-1981, “Flue and Exhaust... device emission destruction or removal efficiency? 63.4766 Section 63.4766 Protection of Environment... removal efficiency? You must use the procedures and test methods in this section to determine the...

  10. 40 CFR 63.4766 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide content of exhaust gas in ANSI/ASME PTC 19.10-1981, “Flue and Exhaust... device emission destruction or removal efficiency? 63.4766 Section 63.4766 Protection of Environment... removal efficiency? You must use the procedures and test methods in this section to determine the...

  11. 40 CFR 63.9324 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Thermal oxidizers. If your add-on control device is a thermal oxidizer, establish the operating limits... runs. You must monitor the temperature in the firebox of the thermal oxidizer or immediately downstream... test. This average combustion temperature is the minimum operating limit for your thermal oxidizer....

  12. Randomized Controlled Trials of Add-On Antidepressants in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Joffe, Grigori; Stenberg, Jan-Henry

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite adequate treatment with antipsychotics, a substantial number of patients with schizophrenia demonstrate only suboptimal clinical outcome. To overcome this challenge, various psychopharmacological combination strategies have been used, including antidepressants added to antipsychotics. Methods: To analyze the efficacy of add-on antidepressants for the treatment of negative, positive, cognitive, depressive, and antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal symptoms in schizophrenia, published randomized controlled trials assessing the efficacy of adjunctive antidepressants in schizophrenia were reviewed using the following parameters: baseline clinical characteristics and number of patients, their on-going antipsychotic treatment, dosage of the add-on antidepressants, duration of the trial, efficacy measures, and outcomes. Results: There were 36 randomized controlled trials reported in 41 journal publications (n=1582). The antidepressants used were the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, duloxetine, imipramine, mianserin, mirtazapine, nefazodone, reboxetin, trazodone, and bupropion. Mirtazapine and mianserin showed somewhat consistent efficacy for negative symptoms and both seemed to enhance neurocognition. Trazodone and nefazodone appeared to improve the antipsychotics-induced extrapyramidal symptoms. Imipramine and duloxetine tended to improve depressive symptoms. No clear evidence supporting selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors’ efficacy on any clinical domain of schizophrenia was found. Add-on antidepressants did not worsen psychosis. Conclusions: Despite a substantial number of randomized controlled trials, the overall efficacy of add-on antidepressants in schizophrenia remains uncertain mainly due to methodological issues. Some differences in efficacy on several schizophrenia domains seem, however, to exist and to vary by the antidepressant subgroups—plausibly due to differences in the mechanisms of action. Antidepressants may not worsen

  13. 40 CFR 63.3556 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of key parameters of the valve operating system (e.g., solenoid valve operation, air pressure... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National...

  14. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Pppp of... - Operating Limits if Using the Emission Rate With Add-On Controls Option

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Method 204 of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51. i. See items 6.a.i and 6.a.ii. 7. Emission capture system... practicable consistent with the manufacturer's recommendations. 3. Regenerative carbon adsorber a. The total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must...

  15. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Pppp of... - Operating Limits if Using the Emission Rate With Add-On Controls Option

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Method 204 of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51. i. See items 6.a.i and 6.a.ii. 7. Emission capture system... practicable consistent with the manufacturer's recommendations. 3. Regenerative carbon adsorber a. The total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must...

  16. 40 CFR 63.3174 - What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... system or add-on control device which is not taken into account when demonstrating compliance with the... Electrodeposition Primer Emission Limitations § 63.3174 What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on... limitations? You may have capture systems or add-on control devices which you choose not to take into...

  17. 40 CFR 63.3174 - What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... system or add-on control device which is not taken into account when demonstrating compliance with the... Electrodeposition Primer Emission Limitations § 63.3174 What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on... limitations? You may have capture systems or add-on control devices which you choose not to take into...

  18. Add-on simple adaptive control improves performance of classical control design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Haim; Rusnak, Ilan

    2014-12-01

    The Simple Adaptive Control (SAC) controls an augmented plant that comprises the true plant with parallel feed-forward. The Almost Strictly Positive Real (ASPR) property of the augmented plant leads to asymptotic following. Prior publications have shown that, based only on the prior knowledge on stabilizability properties of systems (usually available), the parallel feed-forward configuration (PFC) allows adaptive control of realistic systems, even if they are both unstable and non-minimum phase. However, it was commonly thought that the PFC addition requires a price when compared with good linear time invariant (LTI) designs that do not use any addition to the plant. The paper shows that the use of SAC with PFC as Add-On to LTI system design improves the performance. Although SAC directly controls the augmented error, it always gives improved performance, i.e., smaller tracking error and reduced sensitivity to plant disturbance, with respect to the best LTI controller.

  19. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Jjjj of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Operating Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System 1 Table 1 to Subpart JJJJ of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System If you are required to comply with...

  20. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ssss of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-on Control Devices and Capture System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Operating Limits if Using Add-on Control Devices and Capture System 1 Table 1 to Subpart SSSS of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Using Add-on Control Devices and Capture System If you are required to comply with operating limits...

  1. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Oooo of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Operating Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System 2 Table 2 to Subpart OOOO of Part 63 Protection of Environment... OOOO of Part 63—Operating Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System If you are...

  2. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ssss of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-on Control Devices and Capture System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Operating Limits if Using Add-on Control Devices and Capture System 1 Table 1 to Subpart SSSS of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Using Add-on Control Devices and Capture System If you are required to comply with operating limits...

  3. 40 CFR 63.4363 - How do I establish the add-on control device operating limits during the performance test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true How do I establish the add-on control... § 63.4363 How do I establish the add-on control device operating limits during the performance test... specified in § 63.4292. (a) Thermal oxidizers. If your add-on control device is a thermal...

  4. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart IIIi of... - Operating Limits for Capture Systems and Add-On Control Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Operating Limits for Capture Systems... 63—Operating Limits for Capture Systems and Add-On Control Devices If you are required to comply with... consistent with the manufacturer's recommendations. 3. Regenerative carbon adsorber a. The total...

  5. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart IIIi of... - Operating Limits for Capture Systems and Add-On Control Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Operating Limits for Capture Systems... Subpart IIII of Part 63—Operating Limits for Capture Systems and Add-On Control Devices If you are... consistent with the manufacturer's recommendations. 3. Regenerative carbon adsorber a. The total...

  6. TEST DESIGN FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) OF ADD-ON NOX CONTROL UTILIZING OZONE INJECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the test design for environmental technology verification (ETV) of add-0n nitrogen oxides (NOx) control utilizing ozone injection. (NOTE: ETV is an EPA-established program to enhance domestic and international market acceptance of new or improved commercially...

  7. 40 CFR Table 1b to Subpart Dddd of... - Add-on Control Systems Compliance Options

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Compliance Options For each of the following process units . . . You must comply with one of the following... sources only); pressurized refiners; primary tube dryers; secondary tube dryers; reconstituted wood... entering the control device are greater than or equal to 10 ppmvd. a You may choose to subtract...

  8. 40 CFR Table 1b to Subpart Dddd of... - Add-on Control Systems Compliance Options

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Compliance Options For each of the following process units . . . You must comply with one of the following... sources only); pressurized refiners; primary tube dryers; secondary tube dryers; reconstituted wood... entering the control device are greater than or equal to 10 ppmvd. a You may choose to subtract...

  9. 40 CFR Table 1b to Subpart Dddd of... - Add-on Control Systems Compliance Options

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Compliance Options For each of the following process units . . . You must comply with one of the following... sources only); pressurized refiners; primary tube dryers; secondary tube dryers; reconstituted wood... entering the control device are greater than or equal to 10 ppmvd. a You may choose to subtract...

  10. Effects of add-on mirtazapine on neurocognition in schizophrenia: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Stenberg, Jan-Henry; Terevnikov, Viatcheslav; Joffe, Marina; Tiihonen, Jari; Tchoukhine, Evgueni; Burkin, Mark; Joffe, Grigori

    2010-05-01

    Mirtazapine added to antipsychotics appears to improve the clinical picture of schizophrenia, including both negative and positive symptoms. This study explored the effect of adjunctive mirtazapine on neurocognition in patients with schizophrenia who had shown an insufficient response to first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs). Thirty-seven schizophrenia patients, who were at least moderately ill despite their FGA treatment, received add-on mirtazapine (n=19) or placebo (n=18) in a 6-wk double-blind, randomized trial. Widely used neuropsychological tests were performed to explore visual-spatial functions, verbal and visual memory, executive functions, verbal fluency and general mental and psychomotor speed. The data were analysed on the modified intent-to-treat basis with last observation carried forward. False discovery rate was applied to correct for multiple testing. Mirtazapine outperformed placebo in the domains of visual-spatial ability and general mental speed/attentional control as assessed by, correspondingly, Block Design and Stroop dots. The difference in the degree of change (i.e. change while on mirtazapine minus that on placebo) was 18.6% (p=0.044) and 11.1% (p=0.044), respectively. Adjunctive mirtazapine might offer a safe, effective and cost-saving option as a neurocognitive enhancer for FGA-treated schizophrenia patients. Mirtazapine+FGA combinations may become especially useful in light of the currently increasing attention towards FGAs. Larger and longer studies that incorporate functional outcomes, as well as comparisons with second-generation antipsychotics are, however, still needed for more definite conclusions. PMID:19941694

  11. N-Acetylcysteine in the Treatment of Pediatric Trichotillomania: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Add-On Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloch, Michael H.; Panza, Kaitlyn E.; Grant, Jon E.; Pittenger, Christopher; Leckman, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for the treatment of pediatric trichotillomania (TTM) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, add-on study. Method: A total of 39 children and adolescents aged 8 to 17 years with pediatric trichotillomania were randomly assigned to receive NAC or matching placebo for 12 weeks. Our primary…

  12. 40 CFR 63.4363 - How do I establish the add-on control device operating limits during the performance test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... specified in § 63.4292. (a) Thermal oxidizers. If your add-on control device is a thermal oxidizer... the three test runs. You must monitor the temperature in the firebox of the thermal oxidizer or... performance test. This average temperature is the minimum operating limit for your thermal oxidizer....

  13. Exhaled Nitric Oxide Fraction as an Add-On to ACQ-7 for Not Well Controlled Asthma Detection

    PubMed Central

    Plaza, Vicente; Ramos-Barbón, David; Muñoz, Ana María; Fortuna, Ana María; Crespo, Astrid; Murio, Cristina; Palomino, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Background The measurement of fractional nitric oxide concentration in exhaled breath (FeNO), a noninvasive indicator of airway inflammation, remains controversial as a tool to assess asthma control. Guidelines currently limit asthma control assessment to symptom and spirometry based appraisals such as the Asthma Control Questionnaire-7 (ACQ-7). We aimed at determining whether adding FeNO to ACQ-7 improves current asthma clinical control assessment, through enhanced detection of not well controlled asthma. Methods Asthmatic subjects, classified as not well controlled as per ACQ-7 on regular clinical practice, were included in a prospective, multicenter fashion, and had their maintenance treatment adjusted on visit 1. On follow-up (visit 2) four weeks later, the subjects were reevaluated as controlled or not well controlled using ACQ-7 versus a combination of FeNO and ACQ-7. Results Out of 381 subjects enrolled, 225 (59.1%) had not well controlled asthma on visit 2 as determined by ACQ-7, and 264 (69.3%) as per combined FeNO and ACQ-7. The combination of FeNO to ACQ-7 increased by 14.8% the detection of not well controlled asthma following maintenance therapy adjustment. Conclusions The addition of FeNO to ACQ-7 increased the detectability of not well controlled asthma upon adjustment of maintenance therapy. Adding a measure of airway inflammation to usual symptom and spirometry based scores increases the efficacy of current asthma clinical control assessment. PMID:24204742

  14. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Oooo of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Control Devices and Capture System 2 Table 2 to Subpart OOOO of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Pollutants: Printing, Coating, and Dyeing of Fabrics and Other Textiles Pt. 63, Subpt. OOOO, Table 2 Table 2... operating limits in the following table: For the following device . . . You must meet the...

  15. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Jjjj of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Control Devices and Capture System 1 Table 1 to Subpart JJJJ of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Pollutants: Paper and Other Web Coating Pt. 63, Subpt. JJJJ, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart JJJJ of Part 63... operating limits by § 63.3321, you must comply with the applicable operating limits in the following...

  16. Dapagliflozin add-on to metformin in type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with metformin: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 102-week trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Management of type 2 diabetes with metformin often does not provide adequate glycemic control, thereby necessitating add-on treatment. In a 24-week clinical trial, dapagliflozin, an investigational sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, improved glycemic control in patients inadequately controlled with metformin. The present study is an extension that was undertaken to evaluate dapagliflozin as long-term therapy in this population. Methods This was a long-term extension (total 102 weeks) of a 24-week phase 3, multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group trial. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) to blinded daily treatment (placebo, or dapagliflozin 2.5 to 5, or 10 mg) plus open-label metformin (≥1,500 mg). The previously published primary endpoint was change from baseline in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) at 24 weeks. This paper reports the follow-up to week 102, with analysis of covariance model performed at 24 weeks with last observation carried forward; a repeated measures analysis was utilized to evaluate changes from baseline in HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and weight. Results A total of 546 patients were randomized to 1 of the 4 treatments. The completion rate for the 78-week double-blind extension period was lower for the placebo group (63.5%) than for the dapagliflozin groups (68.3% to 79.8%). At week 102, mean changes from baseline HbA1c (8.06%) were +0.02% for placebo compared with -0.48% (P = 0.0008), -0.58% (P <0.0001), and -0.78% (P <0.0001) for dapagliflozin 2.5 to 5, and 10 mg, respectively. In addition, all dapagliflozin groups had sustained reductions from baseline in FPG (-1.07 to -1.47 mmol/l) and body weight (-1.10 to -1.74 kg) at 102 weeks, whereas increases were noted in placebo-treated patients for both of these outcomes. Events of hypoglycemia were rare and were not severe. Evidence suggestive of genital infection was reported in 11.7% to 14.6% of dapagliflozin patients and 5.1% of

  17. Double-blind, randomized sham controlled study of deep-TMS add-on treatment for negative symptoms and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Rabany, Liron; Deutsch, Lisa; Levkovitz, Yechiel

    2014-07-01

    Negative symptoms and cognitive deficits are considered core symptoms of schizophrenia, yet treatment for them remains inadequate. Deep-transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a novel technology that enables non-invasive stimulation of deep layers of the prefrontal cortex. Preliminary evidence suggests that deep-TMS could be effective in the treatment of negative symptoms and cognitive deficits. The current study is the first double-blind, randomized sham-controlled study to examine the feasibility of deep-TMS add-on treatment for negative symptoms and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Twenty daily H1 deep-TMS treatments (20Hz, 120% MT) were delivered, in a double-blind, randomized sham-controlled design (n=30). Extensive clinical and cognitive assessments were carried out throughout the study and for an additional one month follow-up period. The results indicate that at the end of the treatment period, negative symptoms (as indicated by the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS)) significantly reduced in the TMS group (-7.7), but not in the sham group (-1.9). Differences between the groups were not statistically significant.

  18. Lithium as add-on to quetiapine XR in adult patients with acute mania: a 6-week, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Bourin, Michel S; Severus, Emanuel; Schronen, Juan P; Gass, Peter; Szamosi, Johan; Eriksson, Hans; Chandrashekar, Hongally

    2014-01-01

    Quetiapine extended release (XR) and lithium are treatments with proven efficacy in acute mania. This randomized study evaluated the efficacy and safety of lithium or placebo as add-on to quetiapine XR in adult patients with manic or mixed symptoms of bipolar I disorder. In this 6-week, double-blind study (Trial D144AC00003), adult patients with DSM-IV-TR-diagnosed bipolar I disorder (current episode manic or mixed), a Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) total score ≥20, and score ≥4 on two of four core YMRS items were administered quetiapine XR (400 to 800 mg/day) and randomly assigned to receive add-on lithium (600 to 1,800 mg/day) or placebo. The primary efficacy end point was change in the YMRS total score from baseline to day 43, analyzed using a mixed-model for repeated measures (MMRM) approach. Secondary efficacy and safety end points were also measured. Rating scales were administered by trained staff. Three hundred fifty-six patients treated with quetiapine XR were randomized to add-on lithium (n = 173) or placebo (n = 183). Two hundred ninety-one patients (81.7%) completed the study. At day 43, least squares mean change in YMRS total score was -22.8 for add-on lithium and -20.1 for add-on placebo, a statistically significant treatment group difference of -2.69 (p < 0.001). On secondary measures, add-on lithium was associated with significant improvements in response, remission, illness severity, and overall illness versus add-on placebo (p < 0.05). The number needed to treat was 9.1 for response and 7.9 for remission for add-on lithium compared with add-on placebo. Lithium in combination with quetiapine XR was generally well tolerated, with a similar profile to quetiapine XR in combination with placebo. The addition of lithium to quetiapine XR therapy was associated with significantly greater efficacy than placebo as add-on and was generally well tolerated in patients with acute bipolar I mania. This study was registered under Clinicaltrials

  19. Efficacy of Zinc Sulfate as an Add-on Therapy to Risperidone Versus Risperidone Alone in Patients With Schizophrenia: A Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Mehran; Farzin, Davood; Zarhghami, Mehran; Hosseini, Seyed Hamzeh; Mansoori, Parisa; Nateghi, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Zinc can modulate fast-excitatory transmission, facilitate the release of amino butyric acid and potentiate nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. There are also emerging evidences discussing the implication of these neurotransmitters in pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Zn sulfate as an add-on therapy in the treatment of schizophrenia in a 6-week, double-blind and placebo-controlled trial. Patients and Methods: Eligible participants were 30 inpatients with schizophrenia according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria. Patients were randomly allocated into two equal groups; one group of patients received risperidone 6 mg/day plus capsules of Zn sulfate (each containing 50 mg elemental Zn) three times a day and another group received risperidone 6 mg/day plus placebo. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was applied to assess the psychotic symptoms and aggression risk at baseline, week 2, 4, and 6 of the study. Results: The results of this study showed that both protocols significantly decreased the scores on all subscales of the PANSS and supplemental aggression risk subscale as well as PANSS total score over the study. However, this improvement was significantly higher in Zn sulfate receiving group compared to the placebo group. No major clinical side-effects were detected. Conclusions: It may be concluded that Zn is an effective adjuvant agent in the management of patients with schizophrenia. PMID:26576178

  20. The effect of add-on memantine on global function and quality of life in schizophrenia: A randomized, double-blind, controlled, clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Omranifard, Victoria; Rajabi, Fatemeh; Mohammadian-Sichani, Maryam; Maracy, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Schizophrenia severely influences function and quality of life. The benefit of newer antipsychotics in improving the quality of life in schizophrenia still remains controversial. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of memantine on global function and quality of life in patients with schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial on inpatient cases of schizophrenia in Noor University Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. A number of 64 patients were selected through sequential sampling; patients were randomly allocated in intervention and placebo groups. The intervention group was treated with memantine plus previously administered, stabled-dose, atypical antipsychotic, while the control group received placebo plus previously administered, stabled-dose, atypical antipsychotic. Memantine administration was initiated at 5 mg daily; the dosage was increased at weekly intervals by 5 mg and finally up-titrated to 20 mg daily within 4 weeks. All patients were assessed by means of Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and quality of life scale (QLS) initially and every four weeks to the end of the 12th week. Results: Analysis of baseline GAF and QLS scores showed no significant differences between the two groups (P = 0.081 and P = 0.225, respectively). GAF and QLS scores increased in both groups; but it was higher in the intervention group. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant. (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively) memantine was well tolerated, with no significant side effects. Conclusion: Add-on memantine was significantly effective in improving the global function of patients as well as their quality of life. PMID:26605240

  1. Semi-individualised Chinese medicine treatment as an adjuvant management for diabetic nephropathy: a pilot add-on, randomised, controlled, multicentre, open-label pragmatic clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kam Wa; Ip, Tai Pang; Kwong, Alfred Siu Kei; Lui, Sing Leung; Chan, Gary Chi Wang; Cowling, Benjamin John; Yiu, Wai Han; Wong, Dickson Wai Leong; Liu, Yang; Feng, Yibin; Tan, Kathryn Choon Beng; Chan, Loretta Yuk Yee; Leung, Joseph Chi Kam; Lai, Kar Neng; Tang, Sydney Chi Wai

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy (DN) are prevalent and costly to manage. DN is the leading cause of end-stage kidney disease. Conventional therapy blocking the renin–angiotensin system has only achieved limited effect in preserving renal function. Recent observational data show that the use of Chinese medicine (CM), a major form of traditional medicine used extensively in Asia, could reduce the risk of end-stage kidney disease. However, existing clinical practice guidelines are weakly evidence-based and the effect of CM remains unclear. This trial explores the effect of an existing integrative Chinese–Western medicine protocol for the management of DN. Objective To optimise parameters and assess the feasibility for a subsequent phase III randomised controlled trial through preliminary evaluation on the effect of an adjuvant semi-individualised CM treatment protocol on patients with type 2 diabetes with stages 2–3 chronic kidney disease and macroalbuminuria. Methods and analysis This is an assessor-blind, add-on, randomised, controlled, parallel, multicentre, open-label pilot pragmatic clinical trial. 148 patients diagnosed with DN will be recruited and randomised 1:1 to a 48-week additional semi-individualised CM treatment programme or standard medical care. Primary end points are the changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate and spot urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio between baseline and treatment end point. Secondary end points include fasting blood glucose, glycated haemoglobin, brain natriuretic peptide, fasting insulin, C peptide, fibroblast growth factor 23, urinary monocyte chemotactic protein-1, cystatin C, nephrin, transforming growth factor-β1 and vascular endothelial growth factor. Adverse events are monitored through self-completed questionnaire and clinical visits. Outcomes will be analysed by regression models. Enrolment started in July 2015. Ethics and registration This protocol is approved by the Institutional

  2. Ephedrine as add-on therapy for patients with myasthenia gravis: protocol for a series of randomised, placebo-controlled n-of-1 trials

    PubMed Central

    Vrinten, Charlotte; Lipka, Alexander F; van Zwet, Erik W; Schimmel, Kirsten J M; Cornel, Martina C; Kuijpers, Marja R; Hekster, Yechiel A; Weinreich, Stephanie S; Verschuuren, Jan J G M

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Myasthenia gravis (MG), a rare neuromuscular disease, is often initially treated using acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Patients who do not respond adequately depend on the use of corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive medication, but these may have serious side effects. Clinical observations suggest that ephedrine can diminish, postpone or even prevent the need for immunosuppressive therapy when added to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors or low-dose prednisone. In the Netherlands, ephedrine is not licensed for MG nor is reimbursement guaranteed. MG is a rare condition, and ephedrine might be indicated only in a subset of patients. Thus, randomised controlled trials comparing large groups are difficult to conduct. We, therefore, aim to aggregate data from a small series of n-of-1 trials (also known as single patient trials) to assess the effect of ephedrine as add-on treatment for MG. Methods and analysis Single-centre, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomised, multiple crossover n-of-1 studies in 4 adult patients with generalised MG who show inadequate improvement on pyridostigmine and/or immunosuppressive drugs. Each n-of-1 trial has 3 cycles of two 5-day intervention periods. Treatment: 25 mg ephedrine or placebo, twice daily. Main outcome measure: Quantitative Myasthenia Gravis (QMG) test. Statistical analysis: fixed effects linear model for QMG for all patients combined. Secondary outcome measures: Clinical: effects on MG-Composite and MG-Activities of Daily Living (MG-ADL) scales; QMG at individual level; adverse events. Acceptability of trial design: number of patients eligible and enrolled; number of treatment cycles completed; patients’ and caregivers’ experiences. Ethics and dissemination This study was approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of Leiden University Medical Center, No. P14.108. Results of the trial will be reported in a peer-reviewed publication. Regulatory stakeholders will comment on the suitability of the trial

  3. Acarbose improves glycemic control as add-on or monotherapy in Indian type-2 diabetes: Findings from the GlucoVIP multinational observational study

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Elizabeth; Sundaram, Meenakshi L.; Das, Rupam; Chauhan, Sushil Kumar; Deshpande, Sandeep; Ambhore, Sanjay; Rathod, Rahul; Manjrekar, Pravin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the efficacy and tolerability of the anti-diabetic agent acarbose (Glucobay®) as add-on or monotherapy in a range of patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), including those with cardiovascular morbidities in India. Materials and Methods: This was a part of a prospective, non-interventional, non-controlled, multicentre, multinational, observational study. The study included patients of either gender if they were aged at least 18 years and had untreated or pre-treated type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) or impaired glucose tolerance and no acarbose treatment within the 3 months before study inclusion. Results: In total, 1996 Indian patients were included in the effectiveness and 2010 in the safety analysis. Patients received acarbose (25-150 mg/day). The mean age of the patients was 50.1 years and the mean BMI was 27.2 kg/m2. Mean 2-h post-prandial plasma glucose (PPG) value and fasting blood glucose (FBG) decreased from 243.9 to 169.5 mg/dl and 158.3 to 120.4 mg/dl, respectively after the last follow-up of 12.4 weeks. The mean HbA1c value at initial visit was 8.4% and was 7.4% at the last follow-up visit. FBG, PPG and HbA1c deceased in 90.6%, 94.4% and 52.4% patients respectively, by the last follow-up visit. The mean decrease in weight and waist circumference was 1.4 kg and 1.6 cm, respectively by the last follow-up visit. Physicians assessed the efficacy of drug as positive response in “very good to good” in 91.08%, “sufficient” in 7.92% and “insufficient” in 0.90% of patients. Also, continuation of Acarbose was reported in 97.09% of patients. Adverse events were reported in 2.74% and drug-related adverse events were reported in 2.19% of patients. Majority of them were gastrointestinal adverse events but were not serious. Conclusion: Acarbose is effective and safe in Indian patients with T2DM. Further, it helps in weight reduction and has very good compliance in patients with T2DM. PMID:24910836

  4. 40 CFR 63.3169 - What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Surfacer, Topcoat, Final Repair, Glass Bonding Primer, and Glass Bonding Adhesive Emission Limitations § 63... Primer, and Glass Bonding Adhesive Emission Limitations and the Separate Electrodeposition...

  5. 40 CFR 63.3169 - What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Primer, Primer-Surfacer, Topcoat, Final Repair, Glass Bonding Primer, and Glass Bonding Adhesive Emission... Primer, and Glass Bonding Adhesive Emission Limitations and the Separate Electrodeposition...

  6. 40 CFR 63.3169 - What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-Surfacer, Topcoat, Final Repair, Glass Bonding Primer, and Glass Bonding Adhesive Emission Limitations § 63... Primer, and Glass Bonding Adhesive Emission Limitations and the Separate Electrodeposition...

  7. 40 CFR 63.3169 - What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Electrodeposition Primer, Primer-Surfacer, Topcoat, Final Repair, Glass Bonding Primer, and Glass Bonding Adhesive... Primer, and Glass Bonding Adhesive Emission Limitations and the Separate Electrodeposition...

  8. 40 CFR 63.3169 - What are the requirements for a capture system or add-on control device which is not taken into...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Electrodeposition Primer, Primer-Surfacer, Topcoat, Final Repair, Glass Bonding Primer, and Glass Bonding Adhesive... Primer, and Glass Bonding Adhesive Emission Limitations and the Separate Electrodeposition...

  9. 40 CFR 63.3166 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) through (5) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to... to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, for gas analysis to determine dry molecular...

  10. 40 CFR 63.3166 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select... CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, for gas analysis to determine dry molecular weight. The...

  11. 40 CFR 63.3166 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) through (5) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to... to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, for gas analysis to determine dry molecular...

  12. 40 CFR 63.3166 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) through (5) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to... to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, for gas analysis to determine dry molecular...

  13. 40 CFR 63.3166 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) of this section. (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select... CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, for gas analysis to determine dry molecular weight. The...

  14. 40 CFR 63.9323 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select sampling sites and velocity traverse points. (2) Use Method 2, 2A, 2C, 2D, 2F, or 2G of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part...

  15. 40 CFR 63.9323 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select sampling sites and velocity traverse points. (2) Use Method 2, 2A, 2C, 2D, 2F, or 2G of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part...

  16. 40 CFR 63.9323 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... (1) Use Method 1 or 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select sampling sites and velocity traverse points. (2) Use Method 2, 2A, 2C, 2D, 2F, or 2G of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part...

  17. 40 CFR 63.3966 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select sampling sites and velocity traverse points. (2) Use Method 2, 2A, 2C, 2D, 2F, or 2G of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60,...

  18. 40 CFR 63.3966 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select sampling sites and velocity traverse points. (2) Use Method 2, 2A, 2C, 2D, 2F, or 2G of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60,...

  19. 40 CFR 63.3966 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 1A of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to select sampling sites and velocity traverse points. (2) Use Method 2, 2A, 2C, 2D, 2F, or 2G of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60, as appropriate, to measure gas volumetric flow rate. (3) Use Method 3, 3A, or 3B of appendix A to 40 CFR part 60,...

  20. 40 CFR 63.4363 - How do I establish the add-on control device operating limits during the performance test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air... section, unless you have received approval for alternative monitoring and operating limits under § 63.8(f.... (3) As an alternative to monitoring the temperature difference across the catalyst bed, you...

  1. 12-week, placebo-controlled trial of add-on riluzole in the treatment of childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Grant, Paul J; Joseph, Lisa A; Farmer, Cristan A; Luckenbaugh, David A; Lougee, Lorraine C; Zarate, Carlos A; Swedo, Susan E

    2014-05-01

    Many children with childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) fail to respond adequately to standard therapies. Evidence from preclinical and clinical studies suggests that the glutamatergic neurotransmitter system might be an alternative treatment target. This study examined the efficacy of riluzole, a glutamatergic modulator, as an adjunctive therapy for children with treatment-resistant OCD. In a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 60 treatment-resistant children and adolescents (mean age=14.5 ± 2.4 years), with moderate to severe OCD (mean Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS)=28.2 ± 3.7), 17 of whom also had concomitant autism spectrum disorder, were randomized to receive riluzole (final dose of 100 mg/day) or placebo in addition to the existing treatment regimen. Fifty-nine subjects completed the randomized trial. Primary outcome measures were changes on the CY-BOCS, the Clinical Global Impressions Scale, and the Children's Global Assessment Scale. Riluzole was fairly well tolerated, although it was associated with one case of pancreatitis and five instances of slight increases in transaminases. All subjects showed significant reductions in CY-BOCS scores during treatment; however, there was no significant difference between placebo and riluzole on any of the primary or secondary outcome measures. The study failed to demonstrate superiority of riluzole over placebo as an adjunctive treatment for children with childhood-onset OCD. However, future studies may show benefits for less treatment-refractory children with fewer concomitant medications.

  2. Automotive Emissions Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, George

    2002-03-01

    Serious efforts to control emissions from automobiles commenced more than thirty-five years ago, focusing initially on aspects of engine design and the combustion process. For the past quarter century, however, the major emphasis has been on treating the engine exhaust gas before it leaves the vehicle, in order to limit the release of toxic and other pollutants. The system that was eventually devised and is now used on most gasoline-burning automobiles combines sensing, electronic engine control, and catalysis to decrease the emission of certain pollutants by more than ninety percent. This presentation will describe how the system works and briefly touch upon some of the consequences of automotive emissions control.

  3. Automotive Emission Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Billy D.; And Others

    This publication contains instructional materials for both teachers and students for a course in automotive emission control. Instructional materials in this publication are written in terms of student performance using measurable objectives. The course includes 16 units. Each instructional unit includes some or all of the basic components of a…

  4. Automotive Emission Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Billy D.; Ragazzi, Ronald

    This guide designed to assist teachers in improving instruction in the area of automotive emission control curriculum includes four areas. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction, with each instructional unit including some or all of the following basic components: Performance objectives, suggested activities for teacher and…

  5. An assessment of styrene emission control technologies for the FRP and boat building industries

    SciTech Connect

    Bahner, M.; Kong, E.; Turner, S.; Kaplan, N.

    1996-12-31

    Styrene emissions from open molding processes in fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP) and boat building facilities are typically diluted by general ventilation to ensure that worker exposures to not exceed Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards. This practice tends to increase the costs of add-on controls, since costs are strongly dependent on air flow rate through the control system. Also, add-on styrene emission controls are currently not generally mandated by regulations. Therefore, emission controls are infrequently used in these industries at present. In order to provide technical and cost information to companies that might choose emission controls to reduce styrene emissions, Research Triangle Institute (RTI), working with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), examined several emission control technologies that have been used to treat styrene emissions in the US and abroad. Control costs for these technologies were developed and compared for three hypothetical plant sizes. The results of this cost analysis indicate that increasing styrene concentration in the exhaust streams can significantly reduce cost per ton of styrene removed for all technologies examined. Therefore, a company should evaluate methods to increases concentrations in the exhaust stream before considering any add-on control devices. This paper also presents air flow management practices and enclosure concepts that could be used to create a concentrated exhaust stream while maintaining a safe working environment. 19 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Add-on unidirectional elastic metamaterial plate cloak

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Min Kyung; Kim, Yoon Young

    2016-01-01

    Metamaterial cloaks control the propagation of waves to make an object invisible or insensible. To manipulate elastic waves in space, a metamaterial cloak is typically embedded in a base system that includes or surrounds a target object. The embedding is undesirable because it structurally weakens or permanently alters the base system. In this study, we propose a new add-on metamaterial elastic cloak that can be placed over and mechanically coupled with a base structure without embedding. We designed an add-on type annular metamaterial plate cloak through conformal mapping, fabricated it and performed cloaking experiments in a thin-plate with a hole. Experiments were performed in a thin plate by using the lowest symmetric Lamb wave centered at 100 kHz. As a means to check the cloaking performance of the add-on elastic plate cloak, possibly as a temporary stress reliever or a so-called “stress bandage”, the degree of stress concentration mitigation and the recovery from the perturbed wave field due to a hole were investigated. PMID:26860896

  7. Add-on unidirectional elastic metamaterial plate cloak.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min Kyung; Kim, Yoon Young

    2016-01-01

    Metamaterial cloaks control the propagation of waves to make an object invisible or insensible. To manipulate elastic waves in space, a metamaterial cloak is typically embedded in a base system that includes or surrounds a target object. The embedding is undesirable because it structurally weakens or permanently alters the base system. In this study, we propose a new add-on metamaterial elastic cloak that can be placed over and mechanically coupled with a base structure without embedding. We designed an add-on type annular metamaterial plate cloak through conformal mapping, fabricated it and performed cloaking experiments in a thin-plate with a hole. Experiments were performed in a thin plate by using the lowest symmetric Lamb wave centered at 100 kHz. As a means to check the cloaking performance of the add-on elastic plate cloak, possibly as a temporary stress reliever or a so-called "stress bandage", the degree of stress concentration mitigation and the recovery from the perturbed wave field due to a hole were investigated. PMID:26860896

  8. Add-on unidirectional elastic metamaterial plate cloak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Min Kyung; Kim, Yoon Young

    2016-02-01

    Metamaterial cloaks control the propagation of waves to make an object invisible or insensible. To manipulate elastic waves in space, a metamaterial cloak is typically embedded in a base system that includes or surrounds a target object. The embedding is undesirable because it structurally weakens or permanently alters the base system. In this study, we propose a new add-on metamaterial elastic cloak that can be placed over and mechanically coupled with a base structure without embedding. We designed an add-on type annular metamaterial plate cloak through conformal mapping, fabricated it and performed cloaking experiments in a thin-plate with a hole. Experiments were performed in a thin plate by using the lowest symmetric Lamb wave centered at 100 kHz. As a means to check the cloaking performance of the add-on elastic plate cloak, possibly as a temporary stress reliever or a so-called “stress bandage”, the degree of stress concentration mitigation and the recovery from the perturbed wave field due to a hole were investigated.

  9. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Kkkk of... - Operating Limits If Using the Emission Rate With Add-on Controls Option or the Control Efficiency...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must not fall below the...). i. Measuring the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle according to § 63.3547(d) or § 63.3557(d); andii. Maintaining the total...

  10. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Kkkk of... - Operating Limits If Using the Emission Rate With Add-on Controls Option or the Control Efficiency...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must not fall below the total... the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle... regeneration and any cooling cycle, must not exceed the carbon bed temperature limit established according...

  11. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Kkkk of... - Operating Limits If Using the Emission Rate With Add-on Controls Option or the Control Efficiency...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must not fall below the...). i. Measuring the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle according to § 63.3547(d) or § 63.3557(d); andii. Maintaining the total...

  12. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Kkkk of... - Operating Limits If Using the Emission Rate With Add-on Controls Option or the Control Efficiency...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., 2.b, and 2.c of this table. 4. Carbon adsorber a. The total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must not fall below the total... at or above the mass flow limit. b. The temperature of the carbon bed, after completing...

  13. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Kkkk of... - Operating Limits If Using the Emission Rate With Add-on Controls Option or the Control Efficiency...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... items in 2.a, 2.b, and 2.c of this table. 4. Carbon adsorber a. The total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must not fall below the... desorbing gas mass flow at or above the mass flow limit. b. The temperature of the carbon bed,...

  14. Progress in emission control technologies

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    Partial contents of this book include: Ozone precursor emissions from alternatively fueled vehicles; Cycle resolved measurements of diesel particulate by optical techniques; A lubricant formulation for lower unburnt hydrocarbon emissions; Chassis test cycles for assessing emissions from heavy duty trucks; A non-intrusive method of measuring PCV blowby constituents; Some problems in the improvement of measurement of transient emissions; and Oxidation catalyst systems for emission control of LPG-powered forklift trucks.

  15. Control of Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor); Chung, Landy (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods and apparatus utilizing chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide are useful to reduce NOx emissions, as well as SOx and mercury (or other heavy metal) emissions, from combustion flue gas streams.

  16. Assessment of VOC emissions and their control from baker's yeast manufacturing facilities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, R.; Williamson, M.

    1992-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Control Technology Center (CTC) conducted a study to obtain information on the baker's yeast manufacturing industry. Baker's yeast is produced by a fermentation process that generates large quantities of ethanol and acetaldehyde. Currently, 13 facilities produce baker's yeast in the United States. The volatile organic compound (VOC) emission rate from a typical facility is estimated at 82 megagrams per year (90 tons per year). The majority of these emissions occurs in the final trade fermentations. The VOC emission alternatives that were evaluated during the study were process control measures to reduce the formation of VOC emissions as well as wet scrubbers, carbon adsorbers, incinerators, condensers, and biological filters to control VOC emissions. Of these approaches, it appears that process control measures, catalytic incinerators, or a combination of add-on control techniques (e.g., wet scrubbers followed by an incinerator or a biological filter) are the most feasible approaches for controlling yeast process emissions. Based on the results of the study, the control efficiency associated with the add-on control systems is estimated to be 95 to 98 percent. The report contains information on the baker's yeast fermentation process, the number and locations of yeast plants, the potential emissions from the process, and an evaluation of potential emission control options.

  17. ADVANCED EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    G.A. Farthing

    2001-02-06

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, or air toxics) from coal-fired boilers. The project goal is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (baghouses), and wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) systems. Development work initially concentrated on the capture of trace metals, fine particulate, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen fluoride. Recent work has focused almost exclusively on the control of mercury emissions.

  18. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    G. A. Farthing; G. T. Amrhein; G. A. Kudlac; D. A. Yurchison; D. K. McDonald; M. G. Milobowski

    2001-03-31

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, or air toxics) from coal-fired boilers. This objective is being met by identifying ways to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (fabric filters), and wet flue gas desulfurization (wet FGD) systems. Development work initially concentrated on the capture of trace metals, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen fluoride. Recent work has focused almost exclusively on the control of mercury emissions.

  19. Emission control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor); Chung, J. Landy (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Methods and apparatus utilizing hydrogen peroxide are useful to reduce SOx and mercury (or other heavy metal) emissions from combustion flue gas streams. The methods and apparatus may further be modified to reduce NOx emissions. Continuous concentration of hydrogen peroxide to levels approaching or exceeding propellant-grade hydrogen peroxide facilitates increased system efficiency. In this manner, combustion flue gas streams can be treated for the removal of SOx and heavy metals, while isolating useful by-products streams of sulfuric acid as well as solids for the recovery of the heavy metals. Where removal of NOx emissions is included, nitric acid may also be isolated for use in fertilizer or other industrial applications.

  20. ADVANCED EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. Holmes

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop practical strategies and systems for the simultaneous control of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, particulate matter, and air toxics emissions from coal-fired boilers in such a way as to keep coal economically and environmentally competitive as a utility boiler fuel. Of particular interest is the control of air toxics emissions through the cost-effective use of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESP's), fabric filters (baghouses), and SO{sub 2} removal systems such as wet scrubbers and various clean coal technologies. This objective will be achieved through extensive development testing in the state-of-the art, 10 MW{sub e} equivalent, Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF). The project has extended the capabilities of the CEDF to facilitate air toxics emissions control development work on backend flue gas cleanup equipment. Specifically, an ESP, a baghouse, and a wet scrubber for SO{sub 2} (and air toxics) control were added--all designed to yield air toxics emissions data under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. A schematic of the CEDF and the project test equipment is shown in Figure 1. The specific objectives of the project are to: (1) Measure and understand production and partitioning of air toxics species in coal-fired power plant systems; (2) Optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems; (3) Quantify the impacts of coal cleaning on air toxics emissions; (4) Identify and/or develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts; (5) Develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques; (6) Establish an air toxics data library to facilitate studies of the impacts of coal selection, coal cleaning, and emissions control strategies on the emissions of coal-fired power plants.

  1. ADVANCED EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. Holmes

    1998-10-01

    The objective of this project is to develop practical strategies and systems for the simultaneous control of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, particulate matter, and air toxics emissions from coal-fired boilers in such a way as to keep coal economically and environmentally competitive as a utility boiler fuel. Of particular interest is the control of air toxics emissions through the cost-effective use of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESP's), fabric filters (baghouses), and SO{sub 2} removal systems such as wet scrubbers and various clean coal technologies. This objective will be achieved through extensive development testing in the state-of-the art, 10 MW{sub e} equivalent, Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF). The project has extended the capabilities of the CEDF to facilitate air toxics emissions control development work on backend flue gas cleanup equipment. Specifically, an ESP, a baghouse, and a wet scrubber for SO{sub 2} (and air toxics) control were added--all designed to yield air toxics emissions data under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. A schematic of the CEDF and the project test equipment is shown in Figure 1. The specific objectives of the project are to: (1) Measure and understand production and partitioning of air toxics species in coal-fired power plant systems; (2) Optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems; (3) Quantify the impacts of coal cleaning on air toxics emissions; (4) Identify and/or develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts; (5) Develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques; (6) Establish an air toxics data library to facilitate studies of the impacts of coal selection, coal cleaning, and emissions control strategies on the emissions of coal-fired power plants.

  2. ADVANCED EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. Holmes

    1998-07-01

    The objective of this project is to develop practical strategies and systems for the simultaneous control of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, particulate matter, and air toxics emissions from coal-fired boilers in such a way as to keep coal economically and environmentally competitive as a utility boiler fuel. Of particular interest is the control of air toxics emissions through the cost-effective use of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESP's), fabric filters (baghouses), and SO{sub 2} removal systems such as wet scrubbers and various clean coal technologies. This objective will be achieved through extensive development testing in the state-of-the art, 10 MW{sub e} equivalent, Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF). The project has extended the capabilities of the CEDF to facilitate air toxics emissions control development work on backend flue gas cleanup equipment. Specifically, an ESP, a baghouse, and a wet scrubber for SO{sub 2} (and air toxics) control were added--all designed to yield air toxics emissions data under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. A schematic of the CEDF and the project test equipment is shown in Figure 1. The specific objectives of the project are to: (1) Measure and understand production and partitioning of air toxics species in coal-fired power plant systems; (2) Optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems; (3) Quantify the impacts of coal cleaning on air toxics emissions; (4) Identify and/or develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts; (5) Develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques; (6) Establish an air toxics data library to facilitate studies of the impacts of coal selection, coal cleaning, and emissions control strategies on the emissions of coal-fired power plants.

  3. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Pppp of... - Operating Limits if Using the Emission Rate With Add-On Controls Option

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must not...); and i. Measuring the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle according to § 63.4568(d); andii. Maintaining the total regeneration desorbing gas mass...

  4. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Rrrr of... - Operating Limits if Using the Emission Rate With Add-on Controls Option

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must not fall below.... measuring the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle according § 63.4967(d); andii. maintaining the total regeneration desorbing gas mass flow at...

  5. 40 CFR 63.3556 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... must monitor and record the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, and the carbon bed temperature after each carbon bed regeneration and cooling cycle for the regeneration cycle either immediately preceding or immediately following the...

  6. 40 CFR 63.3546 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... must monitor and record the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, and the carbon bed temperature after each carbon bed regeneration and cooling cycle for the regeneration cycle either immediately preceding or immediately following the...

  7. 40 CFR 63.4966 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, and the carbon bed temperature after each carbon bed regeneration and cooling cycle, for the regeneration cycle either immediately preceding or immediately following the performance test. (2) The...

  8. 40 CFR 63.3967 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... (1) You must monitor and record the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, and the carbon bed temperature after each carbon bed regeneration and cooling cycle for the regeneration cycle either immediately preceding or immediately following...

  9. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Rrrr of... - Operating Limits if Using the Emission Rate With Add-on Controls Option

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must not fall below.... measuring the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle according § 63.4967(d); andii. maintaining the total regeneration desorbing gas mass flow at...

  10. 40 CFR 63.4567 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, and the carbon bed temperature after each carbon bed regeneration and cooling cycle for the regeneration cycle either immediately preceding or... the minimum total desorbing gas mass flow recorded during the regeneration cycle and the...

  11. 40 CFR 63.4167 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle and the carbon bed temperature after each carbon bed regeneration and cooling cycle for the regeneration cycle either immediately preceding or immediately following... desorbing gas mass flow recorded during the regeneration cycle and the maximum carbon bed...

  12. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Nnnn of... - Operating Limits if Using the Emission Rate With Add-On Controls Option

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must not.... measuring the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle according to § 63.4168(d); andii. maintaining the total regeneration desorbing gas mass flow at...

  13. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Qqqq of... - Operating Limits if Using the Emission Rate With Add-On Controls Option

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must not fall below the total regeneration desorbing gas mass flow limit established according to § 63.4767(c) i. Measuring the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow...

  14. 40 CFR 63.4567 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, and the carbon bed temperature after each carbon bed regeneration and cooling cycle for the regeneration cycle either immediately preceding or... the minimum total desorbing gas mass flow recorded during the regeneration cycle and the...

  15. 40 CFR 63.4966 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, and the carbon bed temperature after each carbon bed regeneration and cooling cycle, for the regeneration cycle either immediately preceding or immediately following the performance test. (2) The...

  16. 40 CFR 63.3967 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... (1) You must monitor and record the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, and the carbon bed temperature after each carbon bed regeneration and cooling cycle for the regeneration cycle either immediately preceding or immediately following...

  17. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Nnnn of... - Operating Limits if Using the Emission Rate With Add-On Controls Option

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must not.... measuring the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle according to § 63.4168(d); andii. maintaining the total regeneration desorbing gas mass flow at...

  18. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Rrrr of... - Operating Limits if Using the Emission Rate With Add-on Controls Option

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must not fall below.... measuring the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle according § 63.4967(d); andii. maintaining the total regeneration desorbing gas mass flow at...

  19. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Mmmm of... - Operating Limits if Using the Emission Rate With Add-On Controls Option

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle according to § 63.3968(d); andii. Maintaining the total... carbon adsorber a. The total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must not fall below the total regeneration desorbing gas mass flow...

  20. 40 CFR 63.4767 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and record the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, and the carbon bed temperature after each carbon bed regeneration and cooling cycle for the regeneration cycle either immediately preceding or immediately following the performance test. (2)...

  1. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Nnnn of... - Operating Limits if Using the Emission Rate With Add-On Controls Option

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must not.... measuring the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle according to § 63.4168(d); andii. maintaining the total regeneration desorbing gas mass flow at...

  2. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Mmmm of... - Operating Limits if Using the Emission Rate With Add-On Controls Option

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle according to § 63.3968(d); andii. Maintaining the total... carbon adsorber a. The total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must not fall below the total regeneration desorbing gas mass flow...

  3. 40 CFR 63.4567 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, and the carbon bed temperature after each carbon bed regeneration and cooling cycle for the regeneration cycle either immediately preceding or... the minimum total desorbing gas mass flow recorded during the regeneration cycle and the...

  4. 40 CFR 63.4767 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, and the carbon bed temperature after each carbon bed regeneration and cooling cycle for the regeneration cycle either immediately... are the minimum total desorbing gas mass flow recorded during the regeneration cycle, and the...

  5. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Mmmm of... - Operating Limits if Using the Emission Rate With Add-On Controls Option

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must not...); and i. Measuring the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle according to § 63.3968(d); andii. Maintaining the total regeneration desorbing gas mass...

  6. 40 CFR 63.3556 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... must monitor and record the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, and the carbon bed temperature after each carbon bed regeneration and cooling cycle for the regeneration cycle either immediately preceding or immediately following the...

  7. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Pppp of... - Operating Limits if Using the Emission Rate With Add-On Controls Option

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must not...); and i. Measuring the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle according to § 63.4568(d); andii. Maintaining the total regeneration desorbing gas mass...

  8. 40 CFR 63.4966 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, and the carbon bed temperature after each carbon bed regeneration and cooling cycle, for the regeneration cycle either immediately preceding or immediately following the performance test. (2) The...

  9. 40 CFR 63.3967 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (1) You must monitor and record the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, and the carbon bed temperature after each carbon bed regeneration and cooling cycle for the regeneration cycle either immediately preceding or immediately following...

  10. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Qqqq of... - Operating Limits if Using the Emission Rate With Add-On Controls Option

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must not fall below the total regeneration desorbing gas mass flow limit established according to § 63.4767(c) i. Measuring the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow...

  11. 40 CFR 63.4167 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle and the carbon bed temperature after each carbon bed regeneration and cooling cycle for the regeneration cycle either immediately... are the minimum total desorbing gas mass flow recorded during the regeneration cycle and the...

  12. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Pppp of... - Operating Limits if Using the Emission Rate With Add-On Controls Option

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must not...); and i. Measuring the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle according to § 63.4568(d); andii. Maintaining the total regeneration desorbing gas mass...

  13. 40 CFR 63.3556 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... must monitor and record the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, and the carbon bed temperature after each carbon bed regeneration and cooling cycle for the regeneration cycle either immediately preceding or immediately following the...

  14. 40 CFR 63.4167 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle and the carbon bed temperature after each carbon bed regeneration and cooling cycle for the regeneration cycle either immediately... are the minimum total desorbing gas mass flow recorded during the regeneration cycle and the...

  15. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Qqqq of... - Operating Limits if Using the Emission Rate With Add-On Controls Option

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must not fall below the total regeneration desorbing gas mass flow limit established according to § 63.4767(c) i. Measuring the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow...

  16. 40 CFR 63.3546 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... must monitor and record the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, and the carbon bed temperature after each carbon bed regeneration and cooling cycle for the regeneration cycle either immediately preceding or immediately following the...

  17. 40 CFR 63.3546 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, and the carbon bed temperature after each carbon bed regeneration and cooling cycle for the regeneration cycle either immediately... are the minimum total desorbing gas mass flow recorded during the regeneration cycle, and the...

  18. 40 CFR 63.4767 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and record the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle, and the carbon bed temperature after each carbon bed regeneration and cooling cycle for the regeneration cycle either immediately preceding or immediately following the performance test. (2)...

  19. 40 CFR 63.9324 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... performance test, you must monitor and record the temperature just before the catalyst bed and the temperature difference across the catalyst bed at least once every 15 minutes during each of the three test runs. (2) Use... before the catalyst bed and the average temperature difference across the catalyst bed maintained...

  20. 40 CFR 63.9324 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... performance test, you must monitor and record the temperature just before the catalyst bed and the temperature difference across the catalyst bed at least once every 15 minutes during each of the three test runs. (2) Use... before the catalyst bed and the average temperature difference across the catalyst bed maintained...

  1. 40 CFR 63.9324 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... performance test, you must monitor and record the temperature just before the catalyst bed and the temperature difference across the catalyst bed at least once every 15 minutes during each of the three test runs. (2) Use... before the catalyst bed and the average temperature difference across the catalyst bed maintained...

  2. 40 CFR 63.3967 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of the firebox before any substantial heat exchange occurs. (2) Use the data collected during the... manufacturer's recommendations. If the catalyst bed is replaced and is not of like or better kind and quality as the old catalyst then you must conduct a new performance test to determine destruction...

  3. 40 CFR 63.4567 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... not of like or better kind and quality as the old catalyst then you must conduct a new performance... of the firebox before any substantial heat exchange occurs. (2) Use the data collected during the... replacement catalyst is of like or better kind and quality as the old catalyst, then a new performance test...

  4. 40 CFR 63.4567 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... not of like or better kind and quality as the old catalyst then you must conduct a new performance... substantial heat exchange occurs. (2) Use the data collected during the performance test to calculate and... replacement catalyst is of like or better kind and quality as the old catalyst, then a new performance test...

  5. 40 CFR 63.3967 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of the firebox before any substantial heat exchange occurs. (2) Use the data collected during the... manufacturer's recommendations. If the catalyst bed is replaced and is not of like or better kind and quality as the old catalyst then you must conduct a new performance test to determine destruction...

  6. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Mmmm of... - Operating Limits if Using the Emission Rate With Add-On Controls Option

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... according to § 63.3967(b) (for magnet wire coating machines, temperature can be monitored before or after... for magnet wire coating machines after) the catalyst bed at or above the temperature limit. b. Ensure.... The average combustion temperature in any 3-hour period must not fall below the combustion...

  7. 40 CFR 63.9324 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (b)(4)(i) through (iii) of this section. (i) Annual sampling and analysis of the catalyst activity (i... or duct static pressure, as specified in paragraphs (c)(1) and (2) of this section. The operating... required by § 63.9310, you must monitor and record either the gas volumetric flow rate or the duct...

  8. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Qqqq of... - Operating Limits if Using the Emission Rate With Add-On Controls Option

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... inspection and maintenance plan developed according to § 63.4767(b)(3) and (4). 3. Carbon absorber a. The total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration... gas mass flow at or above the mass flow limit. b. The temperature of the carbon bed, after...

  9. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Nnnn of... - Operating Limits if Using the Emission Rate With Add-On Controls Option

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... soon as practicable consistent with the manufacturer's recommendations. 3. carbon adsorber a. the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must not... above the mass flow limit. b. the temperature of the carbon bed, after completing each regeneration...

  10. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Mmmm of... - Operating Limits if Using the Emission Rate With Add-On Controls Option

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... carbon adsorber a. The total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must not fall below the total regeneration desorbing gas mass flow limit... regeneration desorbing gas mass flow at or above the mass flow limit. b. The temperature of the carbon...

  11. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Qqqq of... - Operating Limits if Using the Emission Rate With Add-On Controls Option

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... inspection and maintenance plan developed according to § 63.4767(b)(3) and (4). 3. Carbon absorber a. The total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration... gas mass flow at or above the mass flow limit. b. The temperature of the carbon bed, after...

  12. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Nnnn of... - Operating Limits if Using the Emission Rate With Add-On Controls Option

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... soon as practicable consistent with the manufacturer's recommendations. 3. carbon adsorber a. the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must not... above the mass flow limit. b. the temperature of the carbon bed, after completing each regeneration...

  13. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Rrrr of... - Operating Limits if Using the Emission Rate With Add-on Controls Option

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., as established in Method 204 of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51 i. collecting the direction of air flow...; and either i. collecting the direction of air flow, and either the facial velocity of air through all... § 63.4967(f)(2); andii. maintaining the facial velocity of air flow through all natural draft...

  14. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Rrrr of... - Operating Limits if Using the Emission Rate With Add-on Controls Option

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., as established in Method 204 of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51 i. collecting the direction of air flow...; and either i. collecting the direction of air flow, and either the facial velocity of air through all... § 63.4967(f)(2); andii. maintaining the facial velocity of air flow through all natural draft...

  15. Add-on prolonged-release melatonin for cognitive function and sleep in mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease: a 6-month, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Alan G; Farmer, Mildred; Harari, Gil; Fund, Naama; Laudon, Moshe; Nir, Tali; Frydman-Marom, Anat; Zisapel, Nava

    2014-01-01

    Purpose A link between poor sleep quality and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has recently been suggested. Since endogenous melatonin levels are already reduced at preclinical AD stages, it is important to ask whether replenishing the missing hormone would be beneficial in AD and whether any such effects would be related to the presence of sleep disorder in patients. Patients and methods The effects of add-on prolonged-release melatonin (PRM) (2 mg) to standard therapy on cognitive functioning and sleep were investigated in 80 patients (men [50.7%], women [49.3%], average age 75.3 years [range, 52–85 years]) diagnosed with mild to moderate AD, with and without insomnia comorbidity, and receiving standard therapy (acetylcholinesterase inhibitors with or without memantine). In this randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study, patients were treated for 2 weeks with placebo and then randomized (1:1) to receive 2 mg of PRM or placebo nightly for 24 weeks, followed by 2 weeks placebo. The AD Assessment Scale–Cognition (ADAS-Cog), Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL), Mini–Mental State Examination (MMSE), sleep, as assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and a daily sleep diary, and safety parameters were measured. Results Patients treated with PRM (24 weeks) had significantly better cognitive performance than those treated with placebo, as measured by the IADL (P=0.004) and MMSE (P=0.044). Mean ADAS-Cog did not differ between the groups. Sleep efficiency, as measured by the PSQI, component 4, was also better with PRM (P=0.017). In the comorbid insomnia (PSQI ≥6) subgroup, PRM treatment resulted in significant and clinically meaningful effects versus the placebo, in mean IADL (P=0.032), MMSE score (+1.5 versus −3 points) (P=0.0177), and sleep efficiency (P=0.04). Median ADAS-Cog values (−3.5 versus +3 points) (P=0.045) were significantly better with PRM. Differences were more significant at longer treatment duration. PRM was well

  16. Emission control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Methods and apparatus utilizing hydrogen peroxide are useful to reduce NOx, SOx and mercury (or other heavy metal) emissions from combustion flue gas streams. Continuous concentration of hydrogen peroxide to levels approaching or exceeding propellant-grade hydrogen peroxide facilitates increased system efficiency. In this manner, combustion flue gas streams can be treated for the removal of NOx, SOx and heavy metals, while isolating useful by-products streams of sulfuric acid and nitric acid as well as solids for the recovery of the heavy metals.

  17. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    A.P.Evans; K.E. Redinger; M.J. Holmes

    1998-04-01

    The objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. Ideally, the project aim is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPS), fabric filters (baghouse), and wet flue gas desulfurization. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate and hydrogen chloride. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on the evaluation of mercury and several other air toxics emissions. The AECDP is jointly funded by the United States Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (oCDO), and Babcock& Wilcox-a McDermott company (B&W).

  18. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program: Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A.P.; Redinger, K.W.; Holmes, M.J.

    1997-07-01

    McDermott Technology, Inc. (a subsidiary of Babcock & Wilcox) is conducting the Advanced Emissions Control Development Project (AECDP) which is aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPS) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for such controls may arise as the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proceeds with implementation of requirements set forth in the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA`s) of 1990. Promulgation of air toxics emissions regulations for electric utility plants could dramatically impact utilities burning coal, their industrial and residential customers, and the coal industry. AECDP project work will supply the information needed by utilities to respond to potential HAPs regulations in a timely, cost-effective, enviromnentally-sound manner which supports the continued use of the Nation`s abundant reserves of coal, such as those in the State of Ohio. The development work is being carried out using the 10 MW Clean Environment Development Facility wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions. The specific objectives of the project are to (1) measure and understand production and partitioning of air toxics species for a variety of coals, (2) optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems, (3) develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts, (4) develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques, and (5) establish a comprehensive, self-consistent air toxics data library. This project is supported by the Department of Energy, the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development and Babcock & Wilcox. A comprehensive assessment of HAP emissions from coal-fired electric utility boilers sponsored by the Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute concluded that with the exception of selenium and mercury

  19. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    M. J. Holmes

    1998-12-03

    McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using the Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  20. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    A. P. Evans

    1998-12-03

    McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using the Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  1. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A P

    1998-12-03

    Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B&W's new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  2. Advanced Emission Control Development Program.

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A.P.

    1997-12-31

    Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B&W`s new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  3. Efficacy and safety of alirocumab as add-on therapy in high-cardiovascular-risk patients with hypercholesterolemia not adequately controlled with atorvastatin (20 or 40 mg) or rosuvastatin (10 or 20 mg): design and rationale of the ODYSSEY OPTIONS Studies.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jennifer G; Colhoun, Helen M; Bays, Harold E; Jones, Peter H; Du, Yunling; Hanotin, Corinne; Donahue, Stephen

    2014-10-01

    The phase 3 ODYSSEY OPTIONS studies (OPTIONS I, NCT01730040; OPTIONS II, NCT01730053) are multicenter, multinational, randomized, double-blind, active-comparator, 24-week studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of alirocumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody targeting proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, as add-on therapy in ∼ 650 high-cardiovascular (CV)-risk patients whose low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are ≥100 mg/dL or ≥70 mg/dL according to the CV-risk category, high and very high CV risk, respectively, with atorvastatin (20-40 mg/d) or rosuvastatin (10-20 mg/d). Patients are randomized to receive alirocumab 75 mg via a single, subcutaneous, 1-mL injection by prefilled pen every 2 weeks (Q2W) as add-on therapy to atorvastatin (20-40 mg) or rosuvastatin (10-20 mg); or to receive ezetimibe 10 mg/d as add-on therapy to statin; or to receive statin up-titration; or to switch from atorvastatin to rosuvastatin (OPTIONS I only). At week 12, based on week 8 LDL-C levels, the alirocumab dose may be increased from 75 mg to 150 mg Q2W if LDL-C levels remain ≥100 mg/dL or ≥70 mg/dL in patients with high or very high CV risk, respectively. The primary efficacy endpoint in both studies is difference in percent change in calculated LDL-C from baseline to week 24 in the alirocumab vs control arms. The studies may provide guidance to inform clinical decision-making when patients with CV risk require additional lipid-lowering therapy to further reduce LDL-C levels. The flexibility of the alirocumab dosing regimen allows for individualized therapy based on the degree of LDL-C reduction required to achieve the desired LDL-C level. PMID:25269777

  4. Efficacy and Safety of Alirocumab as Add-on Therapy in High–Cardiovascular-Risk Patients With Hypercholesterolemia Not Adequately Controlled With Atorvastatin (20 or 40 mg) or Rosuvastatin (10 or 20 mg): Design and Rationale of the ODYSSEY OPTIONS Studies

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Jennifer G; Colhoun, Helen M; Bays, Harold E; Jones, Peter H; Du, Yunling; Hanotin, Corinne; Donahue, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The phase 3 ODYSSEY OPTIONS studies (OPTIONS I, NCT01730040; OPTIONS II, NCT01730053) are multicenter, multinational, randomized, double-blind, active-comparator, 24-week studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of alirocumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody targeting proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, as add-on therapy in ∼ 650 high-cardiovascular (CV)-risk patients whose low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are ≥100 mg/dL or ≥70 mg/dL according to the CV-risk category, high and very high CV risk, respectively, with atorvastatin (20–40 mg/d) or rosuvastatin (10–20 mg/d). Patients are randomized to receive alirocumab 75 mg via a single, subcutaneous, 1-mL injection by prefilled pen every 2 weeks (Q2W) as add-on therapy to atorvastatin (20–40 mg) or rosuvastatin (10–20 mg); or to receive ezetimibe 10 mg/d as add-on therapy to statin; or to receive statin up-titration; or to switch from atorvastatin to rosuvastatin (OPTIONS I only). At week 12, based on week 8 LDL-C levels, the alirocumab dose may be increased from 75 mg to 150 mg Q2W if LDL-C levels remain ≥100 mg/dL or ≥70 mg/dL in patients with high or very high CV risk, respectively. The primary efficacy endpoint in both studies is difference in percent change in calculated LDL-C from baseline to week 24 in the alirocumab vs control arms. The studies may provide guidance to inform clinical decision-making when patients with CV risk require additional lipid-lowering therapy to further reduce LDL-C levels. The flexibility of the alirocumab dosing regimen allows for individualized therapy based on the degree of LDL-C reduction required to achieve the desired LDL-C level. PMID:25269777

  5. Efficacy and safety of alirocumab as add-on therapy in high-cardiovascular-risk patients with hypercholesterolemia not adequately controlled with atorvastatin (20 or 40 mg) or rosuvastatin (10 or 20 mg): design and rationale of the ODYSSEY OPTIONS Studies.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jennifer G; Colhoun, Helen M; Bays, Harold E; Jones, Peter H; Du, Yunling; Hanotin, Corinne; Donahue, Stephen

    2014-10-01

    The phase 3 ODYSSEY OPTIONS studies (OPTIONS I, NCT01730040; OPTIONS II, NCT01730053) are multicenter, multinational, randomized, double-blind, active-comparator, 24-week studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of alirocumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody targeting proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, as add-on therapy in ∼ 650 high-cardiovascular (CV)-risk patients whose low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are ≥100 mg/dL or ≥70 mg/dL according to the CV-risk category, high and very high CV risk, respectively, with atorvastatin (20-40 mg/d) or rosuvastatin (10-20 mg/d). Patients are randomized to receive alirocumab 75 mg via a single, subcutaneous, 1-mL injection by prefilled pen every 2 weeks (Q2W) as add-on therapy to atorvastatin (20-40 mg) or rosuvastatin (10-20 mg); or to receive ezetimibe 10 mg/d as add-on therapy to statin; or to receive statin up-titration; or to switch from atorvastatin to rosuvastatin (OPTIONS I only). At week 12, based on week 8 LDL-C levels, the alirocumab dose may be increased from 75 mg to 150 mg Q2W if LDL-C levels remain ≥100 mg/dL or ≥70 mg/dL in patients with high or very high CV risk, respectively. The primary efficacy endpoint in both studies is difference in percent change in calculated LDL-C from baseline to week 24 in the alirocumab vs control arms. The studies may provide guidance to inform clinical decision-making when patients with CV risk require additional lipid-lowering therapy to further reduce LDL-C levels. The flexibility of the alirocumab dosing regimen allows for individualized therapy based on the degree of LDL-C reduction required to achieve the desired LDL-C level.

  6. Emissions from combustion engines and their control

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, D.J.; Henein, N.A.

    1981-01-01

    This standard text for the automotive industry explains in detail the fundamentals of emission formation and control for gasoline and diesel engines. These concepts can be applied to other combustion systems, such as gas turbines and stationary power plants. Topics of discussion include: combustion in homogeneous mixtures; effect of design and operating variables on gasoline engine exhaust emissions; hydrocarbon evaporation emissions; diesel engine combustion emissions and controls; emission instrumentation; and automotive exhaust emission testing. 200 references, 197 figures.

  7. 40 CFR 63.4551 - How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limitations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Surface Coating of Plastic Parts and Products Compliance Requirements for the Emission Rate Without Add-on... use the emission rate without add-on controls option for any individual coating operation, for any group of coating operations in the affected source, or for all the coating operations in the...

  8. 40 CFR 63.4332 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., and Dyeing of Fabrics and Other Textiles Compliance Requirements for the Emission Rate Without Add-on... according to § 63.4331(a) for web coating/printing operations and according to § 63.4331(b) for dyeing... operation or dyeing/finishing operation for which you used the emission rate without add-on controls...

  9. 40 CFR 63.4332 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., and Dyeing of Fabrics and Other Textiles Compliance Requirements for the Emission Rate Without Add-on... according to § 63.4331(a) for web coating/printing operations and according to § 63.4331(b) for dyeing... operation or dyeing/finishing operation for which you used the emission rate without add-on controls...

  10. Exhaust emission control and diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    Mazur, Christopher John; Upadhyay, Devesh

    2006-11-14

    A diesel engine emission control system uses an upstream oxidation catalyst and a downstream SCR catalyst to reduce NOx in a lean exhaust gas environment. The engine and upstream oxidation catalyst are configured to provide approximately a 1:1 ratio of NO to NO2 entering the downstream catalyst. In this way, the downstream catalyst is insensitive to sulfur contamination, and also has improved overall catalyst NOx conversion efficiency. Degradation of the system is determined when the ratio provided is no longer near the desired 1:1 ratio. This condition is detected using measurements of engine operating conditions such as from a NOx sensor located downstream of the catalysts. Finally, control action to adjust an injected amount of reductant in the exhaust gas based on the actual NO to NO2 ratio upstream of the SCR catalyst and downstream of the oxidation catalyst.

  11. Stereovision Imaging in Smart Mobile Phone Using Add on Prisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Magen Numhauser, Jonathan; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2014-03-01

    In this work we present the use of a prism-based add on component installed on top of a smart phone to achieve stereovision capabilities using iPhone mobile operating system. Through these components and the combination of the appropriate application programming interface and mathematical algorithms the obtained results will permit the analysis of possible enhancements for new uses to such system, in a variety of areas including medicine and communications.

  12. PARTICULATE EMISSION MEASUREMENTS FROM CONTROLLED CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarized the results of field testing of the effectiveness of control measures for sources of fugitive particulate emissions found at construction sites. The effectiveness of watering temporary, unpaved travel surfaces on emissions of particulate matter with aerodyna...

  13. Patients' preferences for treatment outcomes of add-on antiepileptic drugs: a conjoint analysis.

    PubMed

    Manjunath, Ranjani; Yang, Jui-Chen; Ettinger, Alan B

    2012-08-01

    To understand the relative importance of the outcomes of add-on antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and the willingness of patients with epilepsy to accept therapeutic trade-offs between seizure control and tolerability, we administered a Web-enabled, choice-format conjoint survey to patients with a self-reported physician diagnosis of epilepsy and symptoms of partial seizures. Patients answered nine choice questions to evaluate treatment outcomes of two different hypothetical add-on AEDs. Patients were first asked to choose the better of the two medicines and then asked a follow-up question about whether or not they would add the selected AED to their current treatment regimen. Our study demonstrated that patients with epilepsy consider seizure reduction to be the top priority when ranking it against the reduction or elimination of side effects. This study aids in better understanding of patients' AED treatment preferences and may aid in management of epilepsy.

  14. Ecological controls over monoterpene emissions from confiers

    SciTech Connect

    Lerdau, M.T.

    1994-01-01

    Ecological controls over monoterpene emissions from two species of conifers, Ponderosa pine and Douglas fir are studied. Monoterpenes are hydrocarbons that serve as part of these plant's chemical defense system. They are highly volatile and make up approximately 40% of the reduced carbon budget of the lower atmosphere playing a major role in tropospheric photochemistry. Previous research has emphasized the controls over emissions from any one plant at any one time. This paper considers some of the controls over the baseline emission rates from different plants. In field studies on Ponderosa pine and greenhouse experiments with Douglas fir in which photosynthesis, tissue chemistry, and monoterpene emissions were measured, there is a strong correlation between the concentration of particular monoterpenes within foliage and emissions from that foliage. Changes in pine photosynthesis were not correlated with changes in monoterpene emissions. In Douglas fir a strong relationship existed among nitrogen availability, phenology (seasonal plant growth), and monoterpene concentration and emission. When foliage is not expanding, there is a direct relationship among nitrogen availability and monoterpene concentrations and emissions. However, during that time of the year when needles are expanding, there is a negative relationship among nitrogen availability and monoterpene concentrations and emissions. From these results I have parameterized a model of monoterpene emissions from vegetation that runs as a subroutine of an ecosystem gas exchange model. The model includes the physiochemical controls on instantaneous flux found in previous work and biological controls on baseline emission rates. Results from initial simulations suggest that low temperatures can decouple monoterpene concentrations from monoterpene emissions. These results also indicate that herbivory could be a major factor controlling monoterpene emissions from forests.

  15. Controlling air emissions from incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Foisy, M.B.; Li, R.; Chattapadhyay, A.

    1994-04-01

    Last year, EPA published final rules establishing technical standards for the use and disposal of wastewater biosolids (40 CFR, Part 503). Subpart E specifically regulates the operations of and emissions from municipal wastewater biosolids incinerators.

  16. Study protocol of Prednisone in episodic Cluster Headache (PredCH): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral prednisone as an add-on therapy in the prophylactic treatment of episodic cluster headache with verapamil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Episodic cluster headache (ECH) is a primary headache disorder that severely impairs patient’s quality of life. First-line therapy in the initiation of a prophylactic treatment is verapamil. Due to its delayed onset of efficacy and the necessary slow titration of dosage for tolerability reasons prednisone is frequently added by clinicians to the initial prophylactic treatment of a cluster episode. This treatment strategy is thought to effectively reduce the number and intensity of cluster attacks in the beginning of a cluster episode (before verapamil is effective). This study will assess the efficacy and safety of oral prednisone as an add-on therapy to verapamil and compare it to a monotherapy with verapamil in the initial prophylactic treatment of a cluster episode. Methods and design PredCH is a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with parallel study arms. Eligible patients with episodic cluster headache will be randomized to a treatment intervention with prednisone or a placebo arm. The multi-center trial will be conducted in eight German headache clinics that specialize in the treatment of ECH. Discussion PredCH is designed to assess whether oral prednisone added to first-line agent verapamil helps reduce the number and intensity of cluster attacks in the beginning of a cluster episode as compared to monotherapy with verapamil. Trial registration German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00004716 PMID:23889923

  17. Add-on laser reading device for a camera phone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkinen, Jukka-Tapani; Niemelä, Karri; Vasama, Hannu; Mattila, Rauno; Aikio, Mika; Aikio, Sanna; Aikio, Janne

    2005-09-01

    A novel add-on device to a mobile camera phone has been developed. The prototype system contains both laser and LED illumination as well as imaging optics. Main idea behind the device is to have a small printable diffractive ROM (Read Only Memory) element, which can be read by illuminating it with a laser-beam and recording the resulting datamatrix pattern with a camera phone. The element contains information in the same manner as a traditional bar-code, but due to the 2D-pattern and diffractive nature of the tag, a much larger amount of information can be packed on a smaller area. Optical and mechanical designs of the prototype device have been made in such a way that the system can be used in three different modes: as a laser reader, as a telescope and as a microscope.

  18. A subsurface add-on for standard atomic force microscopes.

    PubMed

    Verbiest, G J; van der Zalm, D J; Oosterkamp, T H; Rost, M J

    2015-03-01

    The application of ultrasound in an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) gives access to subsurface information. However, no commercially AFM exists that is equipped with this technique. The main problems are the electronic crosstalk in the AFM setup and the insufficiently strong excitation of the cantilever at ultrasonic (MHz) frequencies. In this paper, we describe the development of an add-on that provides a solution to these problems by using a special piezo element with a lowest resonance frequency of 2.5 MHz and by separating the electronic connection for this high frequency piezo element from all other connections. In this sense, we support researches with the possibility to perform subsurface measurements with their existing AFMs and hopefully pave also the way for the development of a commercial AFM that is capable of imaging subsurface features with nanometer resolution.

  19. A subsurface add-on for standard atomic force microscopes

    SciTech Connect

    Verbiest, G. J.; Zalm, D. J. van der; Oosterkamp, T. H.; Rost, M. J.

    2015-03-15

    The application of ultrasound in an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) gives access to subsurface information. However, no commercially AFM exists that is equipped with this technique. The main problems are the electronic crosstalk in the AFM setup and the insufficiently strong excitation of the cantilever at ultrasonic (MHz) frequencies. In this paper, we describe the development of an add-on that provides a solution to these problems by using a special piezo element with a lowest resonance frequency of 2.5 MHz and by separating the electronic connection for this high frequency piezo element from all other connections. In this sense, we support researches with the possibility to perform subsurface measurements with their existing AFMs and hopefully pave also the way for the development of a commercial AFM that is capable of imaging subsurface features with nanometer resolution.

  20. Variable emissivity laser thermal control system

    DOEpatents

    Milner, Joseph R.

    1994-01-01

    A laser thermal control system for a metal vapor laser maintains the wall mperature of the laser at a desired level by changing the effective emissivity of the water cooling jacket. This capability increases the overall efficiency of the laser.

  1. Control of Jovian Radio Emission by Callisto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menietti, J. D.; Gurnett, D. A.; Christopher, I.

    2001-01-01

    Galileo has been in orbit around Jupiter since December 1995 and a large database has been collected. We present the results of a survey of the plasma wave data for the frequency range 2.0 MHz to 5.6 MHz, the low frequency decametric (DAM) emissions. While the control of a portion of the radio emission by the moon lo is well known, and Ganymede control has been more recently indicated, we report that a small but significant portion of DAM emission is seen to be correlated with the orbital phase of Callisto. While the occurrence rate of emission controlled by Ganymede and Callisto is considerably less than for lo, the power levels can be nearly the same. We estimate the power of the Callisto-dependent emission to be approx. 70% of the Io-dependent radio emission and about the same as the Ganymede-dependent radio emission. This result indicates an Alfven current system associated with Callisto, and thus a significant interaction of the magnetosphere of Callisto with that of Jupiter as is believed to exist for both lo and Ganymede.

  2. Economic growth and carbon emission control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhenyu

    The question about whether environmental improvement is compatible with continued economic growth remains unclear and requires further study in a specific context. This study intends to provide insight on the potential for carbon emissions control in the absence of international agreement, and connect the empirical analysis with theoretical framework. The Chinese electricity generation sector is used as a case study to demonstrate the problem. Both social planner and private problems are examined to derive the conditions that define the optimal level of production and pollution. The private problem will be demonstrated under the emission regulation using an emission tax, an input tax and an abatement subsidy respectively. The social optimal emission flow is imposed into the private problem. To provide tractable analytical results, a Cobb-Douglas type production function is used to describe the joint production process of the desired output and undesired output (i.e., electricity and emissions). A modified Hamiltonian approach is employed to solve the system and the steady state solutions are examined for policy implications. The theoretical analysis suggests that the ratio of emissions to desired output (refer to 'emission factor'), is a function of productive capital and other parameters. The finding of non-constant emission factor shows that reducing emissions without further cutting back the production of desired outputs is feasible under some circumstances. Rather than an ad hoc specification, the optimal conditions derived from our theoretical framework are used to examine the relationship between desired output and emission level. Data comes from the China Statistical Yearbook and China Electric Power Yearbook and provincial information of electricity generation for the year of 1993-2003 are used to estimate the Cobb-Douglas type joint production by the full information maximum likelihood (FIML) method. The empirical analysis shed light on the optimal

  3. Genotype variant associated with add-on memantine in bipolar II disorder.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sheng-Yu; Chen, Shiou-Lan; Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Chen, Shih-Heng; Chu, Chun-Hsieh; Huang, San-Yuan; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Wang, Chen-Lin; Wang, Liang-Jen; Lee, I Hui; Yeh, Tzung Lieh; Yang, Yen Kuang; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Lu, Ru-Band

    2014-02-01

    Memantine is a non-competitive N-methyl-d-asparate (NMDA) receptor antagonist with a mood-stabilizing effect. We investigated whether using valproic acid (VPA) plus add-on memantine to treat bipolar II disorder (BP-II) is more effective than using VPA alone (VPA + Pbo). We also evaluated, in BP-II patients, the association between the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism with treatment response to VPA + add-on memantine and to VPA + Pbo. In this randomized, double-blind, controlled 12 wk study, BP-II patients undergoing regular VPA treatments were randomly assigned to a group: VPA + Memantine (5 mg/day) (n = 115) or VPA + Pbo (n = 117). The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) were used to evaluate clinical response during week 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12. The genotypes of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms were determined using polymerase chain reactions plus restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. To adjust within-subject dependence over repeated assessments, multiple linear regression with generalized estimating equation methods was used to analyze the effects of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism on the clinical performance of memantine. Both groups showed significantly decreased YMRS and HDRS scores after 12 wk of treatment; the differences between groups were non-significant. When stratified by the BDNF Val66Met genotypes, significantly greater decreases in HDRS scores were found in the VPA + memantine group in patients with the Val Met genotype (p = 0.004). We conclude that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism influenced responses to add-on memantine by decreasing depressive symptoms in patients with BP-II.

  4. What’s next after metformin? focus on sulphonylurea: add-on or combination therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Phei C.; Chong, Chee P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) mainly focused on insulin resistance and insulin deficiency over the past decades. Currently, the pathophysiologies expanded to ominous octet and guidelines were updated with newer generation of antidiabetic drug classes. However, many patients had yet to achieve their target glycaemic control. Although all the guidelines suggested metformin as first line, there was no definite consensus on the second line drug agents as variety of drug classes were recommended. Objectives: The aim of this review was to evaluate the drug class after metformin especially sulphonylurea and issues around add-on or fixed dose combination therapy. Methods: Extensive literature search for English language articles, clinical practice guidelines and references was performed using electronic databases. Results: Adding sulphonylurea to metformin targeted both insulin resistance and insulin deficiency. Sulphonylurea was efficacious and cheaper than thiazolidinedione, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, glucagon-like peptide 1 analogue and insulin. The main side effect of sulphonylurea was hypoglycaemia but there was no effect on the body weight when combining with metformin. Fixed dose sulphonylurea/metformin was more efficacious at lower dose and reported to have fewer side effects with better adherence. Furthermore, fixed dose combination was cheaper than add-on therapy. In conclusion, sulphonylurea was feasible as the second line agent after metformin as the combination targeted on two pathways, efficacious, cost-effective and had long safety history. Fixed dose combination tablet could improve patient’s adherence and offered an inexpensive and more efficacious option regardless of original or generic product as compared to add-on therapy. PMID:26445623

  5. Nanophotonic control of circular dipole emission.

    PubMed

    le Feber, B; Rotenberg, N; Kuipers, L

    2015-01-01

    Controlling photon emission by single emitters with nanostructures is crucial for scalable on-chip information processing. Nowadays, nanoresonators can affect the lifetime of linear dipole emitters, while nanoantennas can steer the emission direction. Expanding this control to the emission of orbital angular momentum-changing transitions would enable a future coupling between solid state and photonic qubits. As these transitions are associated with circular dipoles, such control requires knowledge of the interaction of a complex dipole with optical eigenstates containing local helicity. We experimentally map the coupling of classical, circular dipoles to photonic modes in a photonic crystal waveguide. We show that, depending on the combination of the local helicity of the mode and the dipole helicity, circular dipoles can couple to left- or rightwards propagating modes with a near-unity directionality. The experimental maps are in excellent agreement with calculations. Our measurements, therefore, demonstrate the possibility of coupling the spin to photonic pathway. PMID:25833305

  6. Less Costly Catalysts for Controlling Engine Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, II, James E

    2010-01-01

    Lowering the fuel consumption of transportation vehicles could decrease both emissions of greenhouse gases and our dependence on fossil fuels. One way to increase the fuel efficiency of internal combustion engines is to run them 'lean,' in the presence of more air than needed to burn all of the fuel. It may seem strange that engines are usually designed to run with fuel and air at stoichiometric balance, or even fuel rich. However, the way emissions have been controlled with catalytic converters has required some unburned fuel in the exhaust, especially for controlling the nitrogen oxide pollutants NO and NO{sub 2} (called NO{sub x}). On page 1624 of this issue, Kim et al. (1) report encouraging results for catalysts that can process NO{sub x} in lean-burn engines. These perovskite oxide catalysts may help reduce or even eliminate the need for expensive and scarce platinum group metals (PGMs) in emission control catalysts.

  7. Advanced CIDI Emission Control System Development

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, Christine

    2006-05-31

    Ford Motor Company, with ExxonMobil and FEV, participated in the Department of Energy's (DOE) Ultra-Clean Transportation Fuels Program with the goal to develop an innovative emission control system for light-duty diesel vehicles. The focus on diesel engine emissions was a direct result of the improved volumetric fuel economy (up to 50%) and lower CO2 emissions (up to 25%) over comparable gasoline engines shown in Europe. Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) with aqueous urea as the NOx reductant and a Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter (CDPF) were chosen as the primary emission control system components. The program expected to demonstrate more than 90% durable reduction in particulate matter (PM) and NOx emissions on a light-duty truck application, based on the FTP-75 drive cycle. Very low sulfur diesel fuel (<15 ppm-wt) enabled lower PM emissions, reduced fuel economy penalty due to the emission control system and improved long-term system durability. Significant progress was made toward a durable system to meet Tier 2 Bin 5 emission standards on a 6000 lbs light-duty truck. A 40% reduction in engine-out NOx emissions was achieved with a mid-size prototype diesel engine through engine recalibration and increased exhaust gas recirculation. Use of a rapid warm-up strategy and urea SCR provided over 90% further NOx reduction while the CDPF reduced tailpipe PM to gasoline vehicle levels. Development work was conducted to separately improve urea SCR and CDPF system durability, as well as improved oxidation catalyst function. Exhaust gas NOx and ammonia sensors were also developed further. While the final emission control system did not meet Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx after 120k mi of aging on the dynamometer, it did meet the standards for HC, NMOG, and PM, and an improved SCR catalyst was shown to have potential to meet the NOx standard, assuming the DOC durability could be improved further. Models of DOC and SCR function were developed to guide the study of several key design

  8. [Diesel emission control technologies: a review].

    PubMed

    He, Hong; Weng, Duan; Zi, Xin-Yun

    2007-06-01

    The authors reviewed the researches on diesel emission control for both new engine technologies and aftertreatment technologies. Emphases were focused on the recent advancements of the diesel particulate filter (DPF) and the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO(x). In addition, it was explored for the future development in this field.

  9. Variable emissivity laser thermal control system

    DOEpatents

    Milner, J.R.

    1994-10-25

    A laser thermal control system for a metal vapor laser maintains the wall temperature of the laser at a desired level by changing the effective emissivity of the water cooling jacket. This capability increases the overall efficiency of the laser. 8 figs.

  10. CONTROLLING ODOROUS EMISSIONS FROM IRON FOUNDRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the control of odorous emissions from iron foundries. he main process sources of odors in iron foundries are mold and core making, casting, and sand shakeout. he odors are usually caused by chemicals, which may be present as binders and other additives to the...

  11. Automotive emission control and computer systems

    SciTech Connect

    Knowles, D.

    1989-01-01

    This book provides information on automotive computer technology emission control. Special emphasis is placed on the service and diagnosis of on-board computers, making this work useful for service technicians. Many easy-to-follow diagnostic charts are provided to simplify procedures.

  12. CONTROLLING EMISSIONS FROM FUEL AND WASTE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Control of emissions from combustion of fuels and wastes has been a traditional focus of air pollution regulations. Significant technology developments of the '50s and '60s have been refined into reliable chemical and physical process unit operations. In the U.S., acid rain legis...

  13. Celecoxib Adjunctive Treatment to Antipsychotics in Schizophrenia: A Review of Randomized Clinical Add-On Trials.

    PubMed

    Marini, Stefano; De Berardis, Domenico; Vellante, Federica; Santacroce, Rita; Orsolini, Laura; Valchera, Alessandro; Girinelli, Gabriella; Carano, Alessandro; Fornaro, Michele; Gambi, Francesco; Martinotti, Giovanni; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe, chronic and debilitating mental disorder. Past literature has reported various hypotheses about the psychopathology of schizophrenia. Recently, a growing literature has been trying to explain the role of inflammation in the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia. In the past, numerous immune modulation and anti-inflammatory treatment options have been proposed for schizophrenia, but sometimes the results were inconsistent. Electronic search was carried out in November 2015. PubMed and Scopus databases have been used to find studies to introduce in this review. Only randomized-placebo-controlled add-on trials were taken into account. In this way, six articles were obtained for the discussion. Celecoxib showed beneficial effects mostly in early stages of schizophrenia. In chronic schizophrenia, the data are controversial, possibly in part for methodological reasons. PMID:27524864

  14. Celecoxib Adjunctive Treatment to Antipsychotics in Schizophrenia: A Review of Randomized Clinical Add-On Trials

    PubMed Central

    De Berardis, Domenico; Vellante, Federica; Santacroce, Rita; Orsolini, Laura; Valchera, Alessandro; Girinelli, Gabriella; Carano, Alessandro; Fornaro, Michele; Gambi, Francesco; Martinotti, Giovanni; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe, chronic and debilitating mental disorder. Past literature has reported various hypotheses about the psychopathology of schizophrenia. Recently, a growing literature has been trying to explain the role of inflammation in the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia. In the past, numerous immune modulation and anti-inflammatory treatment options have been proposed for schizophrenia, but sometimes the results were inconsistent. Electronic search was carried out in November 2015. PubMed and Scopus databases have been used to find studies to introduce in this review. Only randomized-placebo-controlled add-on trials were taken into account. In this way, six articles were obtained for the discussion. Celecoxib showed beneficial effects mostly in early stages of schizophrenia. In chronic schizophrenia, the data are controversial, possibly in part for methodological reasons. PMID:27524864

  15. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program: Phase III

    SciTech Connect

    G.T. Amrhein; R.T. Bailey; W. Downs; M.J. Holmes; G.A. Kudlac; D.A. Madden

    1999-07-01

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. The project goal is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (baghouses - BH), and wet flue gas desulfurization systems (WFGD). Development work concentrated on the capture of trace metals, fine particulate, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride, with an emphasis on the control of mercury. The AECDP project is jointly funded by the US Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (OCDO), and Babcock and Wilcox, a McDermott company (B and W). This report discusses results of all three phases of the AECDP project with an emphasis on Phase III activities. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on characterization of the emissions of mercury and other air toxics and the control of these emissions for typical operating conditions of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment. Some general comments that can be made about the control of air toxics while burning a high-sulfur bituminous coal are as follows: (1) particulate control devices such as ESP's and baghouses do a good job of removing non-volatile trace metals, (2) particulate control devices (ESPs and baghouses) effectively remove the particulate-phase mercury, but the particulate-phase mercury was only a small fraction of the total for the coals tested, (3) wet scrubbing can effectively remove hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride, and (4) wet scrubbers show good potential for the removal of mercury when operated under certain conditions, however, for certain applications, system enhancements can be required to achieve high

  16. Controlling NOx emission from industrial sources

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, R.K.; Nueffer, W.; Grano, D.; Khan, S.; Staudt, J.E.; Jozewicz, W.

    2005-07-01

    A number of regulatory actions focused on reducing NOx emissions from stationary combustion sources have been taken in the United States in the last decade. These actions include the Acid Rain NOx regulations, the Ozone Transport Commission's NOx Budget Program, and the NOx SIP Call rulemakings. In addition to these regulations, the recent Interstate Air Quality Rulemaking proposal and other bills in the Congress are focusing on additional reductions of NOx. Industrial combustion sources accounted for about 18016 of NOx emissions in the United States in 2000 and constituted the second largest emitting source category within stationary sources, only behind electric utility sources. Based on these data, reduction of NOx emissions from industrial combustion sources is an important consideration in efforts undertaken to address the environmental concerns associated with NOx. This paper discusses primary and secondary NOx control technologies applicable to various major categories of industrial sources. The sources considered in this paper include large boilers, furnaces and fired heaters, combustion turbines, large IC engines, and cement kilns. For each source category considered in this paper, primary NOx controls are discussed first, followed by a discussion of secondary NOx controls.

  17. Factors controlling dimethylsulfide emission from salt marshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dacey, John W. H.; Wakeham, S. G.; Howes, B. L.

    1985-01-01

    The factors that control the emission of methylated gases from salt marshes are being studied. Research focusses on dimethylsulfide (DMS) formation and the mechanism of DMS and CH4 emission to the atmosphere. The approach is to consider the plants as valves regulating the emission of methylated gases to the atmosphere with the goal of developing appropriate methods for emission measurement. In the case of CH4, the sediment is the source and transport to the atmosphere occurs primarily through the internal gas spaces in the plants. The source of DMS appears to be dimethyl sulfoniopropionate (DMSP) which may play a role in osmoregulation in plant tissues. Concentrations of DMSP in leaves are typically several-fold higher than in roots and rhizomes. Even so, the large below ground biomass of this plant means that 2/3 of the DMSP in the ecosystem is below ground on the aerial basis. Upon introduction to sediment water, DMSP rapidly decomposes to DMS and acrylic acid. The solubility of a gas (its equilibrium vapor pressure) is a fundamental aspect of gas exchange kinetics. The first comprehensive study was conducted of DMS solubility in freshwater and seawater. Data suggest that the Setchenow relation holds for H at intermediate salinities collected. These data support the concept that the concentration of DMS in the atmosphere is far from equilibrium with seawater.

  18. Model Identification for Optimal Diesel Emissions Control

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, Andrew J.; Sun, Yannan; Song, Xiaobo; Parker, Gordon

    2013-06-20

    In this paper we develop a model based con- troller for diesel emission reduction using system identification methods. Specifically, our method minimizes the downstream readings from a production NOx sensor while injecting a minimal amount of urea upstream. Based on the linear quadratic estimator we derive the closed form solution to a cost function that accounts for the case some of the system inputs are not controllable. Our cost function can also be tuned to trade-off between input usage and output optimization. Our approach performs better than a production controller in simulation. Our NOx conversion efficiency was 92.7% while the production controller achieved 92.4%. For NH3 conversion, our efficiency was 98.7% compared to 88.5% for the production controller.

  19. CONTROLLING MULTIPLE EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents and analyzes nine existing and novel control technologies designed to achieve multipollutant emissions reductions. It provides an evaluation of multipollutant emission control technologies that are potentially available for coal-fired power plants of 25 MW capa...

  20. Efficacy and safety of muscarinic antagonists as add-on therapy for male lower urinary tract symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinhong; Shi, Qingquan; Bai, Yunjin; Pu, Chunxiao; Tang, Yin; Yuan, Haichao; Wu, Yunjian; Wei, Qiang; Han, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists (alpha-blockers) are widely prescribed to treat lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in men but fail to ameliorate LUTS sufficiently, especially the storage symptoms related to frequency, urgency and nocturia. We performed a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing an alpha-blocker plus muscarinic antagonist with an alpha-blocker alone in male LUTS patients who were treated with alpha-blocker prior to randomisation. The review contained six randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that included a total of 2,208 male patients who were randomised to receive alpha-blocker plus muscarinic antagonist or alpha-blocker alone. The add-on group experienced significantly greater improvement in both total IPSS (International Prostate Symptom Score) and storage IPSS. Adverse events (AEs) were commonly experienced by both groups (41.6 vs. 33.3%) though they were not severe. Our meta-analysis indicated that muscarinic antagonists as add-on therapy alleviate LUTS, especially storage symptoms. The add-on therapy demonstrated safety and tolerability comparable with alpha-blocker monotherapy in male with LUTS. PMID:24492830

  1. Hot stuff controls for VOC emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Yewshenko, P.

    1995-12-01

    For close to three decades, American industry has paved the way and led the world in controlling volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. As more and more systems have been installed, the history of operation for the various types of systems has broadened dramatically, spurring significant technological advances, the traditional technologies and those on the cutting edge of VOC control. With the number of technologies available, the environmental professional may have a difficult task choosing the most strategic environmental solution. The conventional, traditional or proven methodology for VOC control has been incineration. Other technologies have been used for very specific applications. In deciding the specific type of incineration system to select, the environmental professional will look at a broad spectrum of evaluation factors. These include initial system cost, operational cost, maintenance requirements, reliability factors and most importantly, the projected success of achieving 99% VOC destruction efficiency. This article provides an overview of the basic differences among incineration technologies.

  2. Emission control apparatus for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Strachan, J. B.

    1980-02-26

    Apparatus for controlling the emission of exhaust gases from a diesel engine used in mining operations consists of a purifier chamber within a water jacketed adaptor and having an inlet for connection to the outlet from the exhaust manifold of the engine. The purifier chamber contains a catalytic purifier for the reduction of carbon monoxide passing from the inlet of the purifier chamber to its outlet, which is connected to a water scrubber for the reduction of the temperature of exhaust gases, the removal of some of the products of combustion, and for quenching exhaust flames.

  3. Laser Control of Collective Spontaneous Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macovei, M.; Keitel, C. H.

    2003-09-01

    The collective spontaneous emission of a pair of two coupled three-level radiators in vacuum is investigated in the presence of a possibly intense laser field. The parameters describing the collective interaction along with the population and decay rates of all involved dressed states are shown to be controllable by the applied laser field. In particular, all populations of the collective system may be transferred at will in a reversible way into a subradiant state, allowing effective storage and manipulation of the quantum system.

  4. 40 CFR 63.4552 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of Plastic Parts and Products Compliance Requirements for the Emission Rate Without Add-on Controls... compliance with the emission limitations? 63.4552 Section 63.4552 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS...

  5. 40 CFR 63.4563 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of Plastic Parts and Products Compliance Requirements for the Emission Rate with Add-on Controls... compliance with the emission limitations? 63.4563 Section 63.4563 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS...

  6. Electrostatic control of acid mist emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlin, R S; Brown, T D

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a two-phased study of the control of acid mist emissions using a compact, wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP). The goal of the study was to determine the degree of acid mist control that could be achieved when a compact WESP is used to replace or augment the mist eliminators in a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. Phase I of the study examined the electrical operation of a lab-scale WESP collecting an acid mist from a coal combustion pilot plant equipped with a spray chamber. The results of this study were used to develop and validate a computer model of the WESP. In Phase II, measurements were made at two utility scrubber installations to determine the loadings of acid mist, fly ash, and scrubber carryover. These measurements were used as input to the model to project the performance of a retrofitted WESP.

  7. Control emissions from marine vessel loading

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, G.N.; Cross, S.R.

    1994-03-01

    Regulations set by the US Coast Guard require safety measures during the loading of marine vessels connected to vapor collection systems. These regulations (which were promulgated in July 1990) immediately impacted all companies involved with the loading of benzene, due to previously enacted US Environmental Protection Agency regulations governing benzene transfer. In addition, regulations issued by the states of California, New Jersey, and Louisiana impose additional marine emission control requirements. These regulations effectively work together--the federal or state environmental rule first requires the collection of the vapors generate from vessel loading, and then the Coast Guard regulation governs the safety features that must be applied to the system. Depending on the vapor pressure of the chemical, a 10,000-barrel barge may emit over one ton of chemical to the atmosphere. Such large volumes make marine loading a prime target for the push to further reduce atmospheric pollution, and its is a good be that many more companies will be asked to look at the recovery of vapors during the loading of marine vessels. This article will aid the engineer who may be asked to evaluate the various methods of controlling emissions from vessel loading. It provides some guidance on the requirements of the Coast Guard regulations and briefly outlines some of the technologies that have been used to process the collected vapors. Some important design considerations unique to marine systems are discussed to help engineers avoid some of the potential pitfalls. Finally, some estimated costs are provided for two common types of marine vapor control systems.

  8. Mercury emission control technologies: An EPRI synopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Change, R.; Offen, G.R.

    1995-11-01

    The air toxics provisions under Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) require the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to conduct a study that focuses on electric utility emissions. Due to be completed by the end of 1995, this study is being conducted to determine whether the release of toxic materials, including mercury, present an unacceptable risk to public health. Of the 189 substances designated hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics), mercury was also singled out for a separate report because of concerns that humans could be harmed by the consumption of fish that have accumulated methylmercury from their food sources. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the research and development arm of its member electric utilities, is conducting research on mercury in four areas: (1) determining the extent of mercury emissions from electric utility power plants, (2) understanding health effects, (3) modeling mercury dispersion transport, deposition and bioaccumulation, and (4) assessing mercury control strategies. While the focus of this paper is on the last area, a precis of the results obtained to date in the other three areas is presented first.

  9. 40 CFR 63.3542 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...: Surface Coating of Metal Cans Compliance Requirements for the Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option... applicable emission limit in § 63.3490. Alternatively, if you calculate an OSEL for all coating type segments... treat the materials used during a deviation on a controlled coating operation as if they were used on...

  10. 40 CFR 63.3542 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: Surface Coating of Metal Cans Compliance Requirements for the Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option... applicable emission limit in § 63.3490. Alternatively, if you calculate an OSEL for all coating type segments... treat the materials used during a deviation on a controlled coating operation as if they were used on...

  11. Implications of diesel emissions control failures to emission factors and road transport NOx evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Papadimitriou, Giannis; Ligterink, Norbert; Hausberger, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Diesel NOx emissions have been at the forefront of research and regulation scrutiny as a result of failures of late vehicle technologies to deliver on-road emissions reductions. The current study aims at identifying the actual emissions levels of late light duty vehicle technologies, including Euro 5 and Euro 6 ones. Mean NOx emission factor levels used in the most popular EU vehicle emission models (COPERT, HBEFA and VERSIT+) are compared with latest emission information collected in the laboratory over real-world driving cycles and on the road using portable emissions measurement systems (PEMS). The comparison shows that Euro 5 passenger car (PC) emission factors well reflect on road levels and that recently revealed emissions control failures do not call for any significant corrections. However Euro 5 light commercial vehicles (LCVs) and Euro 6 PCs in the 2014-2016 period exhibit on road emission levels twice as high as used in current models. Moreover, measured levels vary a lot for Euro 6 vehicles. Scenarios for future evolution of Euro 6 emission factors, reflecting different degree of effectiveness of emissions control regulations, show that total NOx emissions from diesel Euro 6 PC and LCV may correspond from 49% up to 83% of total road transport emissions in 2050. Unless upcoming and long term regulations make sure that light duty diesel NOx emissions are effectively addressed, this will have significant implications in meeting future air quality and national emissions ceilings targets.

  12. A PC add-on card for Mössbauer data acquisition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chittaranjan, C. M.; Jayapandian, J.; Gopinathan, K. P.

    1993-02-01

    A user friendly Mössbauer data acquisition add-on card for IBM compatible PC has been designed and fabricated. It is a firmware which acquires data and shares the CPU of the host PC to transfer the data into the PC memory. The card generates the wave form for the drive unit, generates dwell time marker pulses and counts the energy selected single channel analyzer (SCA) pulses. The significant feature of the system is that the counting of the SCA pulses is done with two counters, resulting in zero dead time. Two temporary dual port RAMs (DP RAM) on board enable real time data acquisition. The software which controls the hardware is menu driven and user friendly and works under DOS environment. An on line display of the spectrum is provided with a cursor which enables the inspection of counts in any channel during the acquisition. The current version of the spectrometer has a capacity of 2048 channels and this can be extended easily up to 8192 channels.

  13. IEC: streamlining the environmental control package. [Integrated emission controls

    SciTech Connect

    Nesbit, W.; Giovanni, D.

    1980-12-01

    Integrated emission control (IEC) systems should lower the capital and operating costs of power-plant pollution-control equipment from its present level of 40% of total plant cost. The new IEC systems are no longer considered as plant additions, but are an integral design component. A pilot-plant test facility operated by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) uses coal, which will continue to increase its position as the major fuel for power generation. The IEC approach offers advantages in siting, plant flexibility and reliability, and lower costs for environmental control. The EPRI test facility is comparing five basic equipment configurations: baghouse and wet scrubber, precipitator with a wet scrubber, a baghouse or precipitator with a spray dryer, a baghouse or precipitator with dry sorbent injection upstream of the baghouse, and a hot electrostatic precipitator with a wet scrubber. (DCK)

  14. A review of modafinil and armodafinil as add-on therapy in antipsychotic-treated patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Arends, Johannes; Timmerman, Leo; Lancel, Marike

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by reality distortion, psychomotor poverty and cognitive disturbances. These characteristics contribute to a lesser social functioning and lower quality of life in patients with schizophrenia. It has been suggested that modafinil and its isomer armodafinil as an add-on strategy to antipsychotic treatment in patients with schizophrenia may improve cognitive functioning, attenuate fatigue, inactiveness and other negative functions as well as weight gain. In this paper we review the literature relevant to the question of whether modafinil and armodafinil are beneficial as add-on therapy in antipsychotic-treated patients with schizophrenia. A total of 15 articles were included in this review; of the 15 articles, 10 were randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Evidence for the use of modafinil or armodafinil as add-on therapy to antipsychotic drugs to alleviate fatigue, sleepiness and inactivity is inconclusive. One cohort study and one out of two single-dose crossover RCTs in which modafinil addition was studied could demonstrate a positive effect. All five RCTs of modafinil (three RCTs) and armodafinil (two RCTs) addition with a longer study duration could not demonstrate a positive effect. With respect to cognitive disturbances, animal models of cognitive deficits show clear improvements with modafinil. In RCTs with a treatment duration of 4 weeks or more, however, no positive effect could be demonstrated on cognitive functioning with modafinil and armodafinil addition. Yet, four single-dose crossover RCTs of modafinil addition show significant positive effects on executive functioning, verbal memory span, visual memory, working memory, spatial planning, slowing in latency, impulse control and recognition of faces expressing sadness and sadness misattribution in the context of disgust recognition. The addition of modafinil or armodafinil to an antipsychotic regime, despite theoretical and preclinical considerations, has not been proved to

  15. A review of modafinil and armodafinil as add-on therapy in antipsychotic-treated patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Wittkampf, Laura Christina; Arends, Johannes; Timmerman, Leo; Lancel, Marike

    2012-06-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by reality distortion, psychomotor poverty and cognitive disturbances. These characteristics contribute to a lesser social functioning and lower quality of life in patients with schizophrenia. It has been suggested that modafinil and its isomer armodafinil as an add-on strategy to antipsychotic treatment in patients with schizophrenia may improve cognitive functioning, attenuate fatigue, inactiveness and other negative functions as well as weight gain. In this paper we review the literature relevant to the question of whether modafinil and armodafinil are beneficial as add-on therapy in antipsychotic-treated patients with schizophrenia. A total of 15 articles were included in this review; of the 15 articles, 10 were randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Evidence for the use of modafinil or armodafinil as add-on therapy to antipsychotic drugs to alleviate fatigue, sleepiness and inactivity is inconclusive. One cohort study and one out of two single-dose crossover RCTs in which modafinil addition was studied could demonstrate a positive effect. All five RCTs of modafinil (three RCTs) and armodafinil (two RCTs) addition with a longer study duration could not demonstrate a positive effect. With respect to cognitive disturbances, animal models of cognitive deficits show clear improvements with modafinil. In RCTs with a treatment duration of 4 weeks or more, however, no positive effect could be demonstrated on cognitive functioning with modafinil and armodafinil addition. Yet, four single-dose crossover RCTs of modafinil addition show significant positive effects on executive functioning, verbal memory span, visual memory, working memory, spatial planning, slowing in latency, impulse control and recognition of faces expressing sadness and sadness misattribution in the context of disgust recognition. The addition of modafinil or armodafinil to an antipsychotic regime, despite theoretical and preclinical considerations, has not been proved to

  16. Sensitivity analysis of add-on price estimate for select silicon wafering technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mokashi, A. R.

    1982-01-01

    The cost of producing wafers from silicon ingots is a major component of the add-on price of silicon sheet. Economic analyses of the add-on price estimates and their sensitivity internal-diameter (ID) sawing, multiblade slurry (MBS) sawing and fixed-abrasive slicing technique (FAST) are presented. Interim price estimation guidelines (IPEG) are used for estimating a process add-on price. Sensitivity analysis of price is performed with respect to cost parameters such as equipment, space, direct labor, materials (blade life) and utilities, and the production parameters such as slicing rate, slices per centimeter and process yield, using a computer program specifically developed to do sensitivity analysis with IPEG. The results aid in identifying the important cost parameters and assist in deciding the direction of technology development efforts.

  17. Emissions control for ground power gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudney, R. A.; Priem, R. J.; Juhasz, A. J.; Anderson, D. N.; Mroz, T. S.; Mularz, E. J.

    1977-01-01

    The similarities and differences of emissions reduction technology for aircraft and ground power gas turbines is described. The capability of this technology to reduce ground power emissions to meet existing and proposed emissions standards is presented and discussed. Those areas where the developing aircraft gas turbine technology may have direct application to ground power and those areas where the needed technology may be unique to the ground power mission are pointed out. Emissions reduction technology varying from simple combustor modifications to the use of advanced combustor concepts, such as catalysis, is described and discussed.

  18. 40 CFR 75.17 - Specific provisions for monitoring emissions from common, bypass, and multiple stacks for NOX...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reduction program must also meet the provisions for monitoring NOX emission rate in §§ 75.71 and 75.72. (a... operating properly, as described in the quality assurance/quality control program for the unit, required by... record parametric data to verify the proper operation of the NOX add-on emission controls as described...

  19. 40 CFR 75.17 - Specific provisions for monitoring emissions from common, bypass, and multiple stacks for NOX...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reduction program must also meet the provisions for monitoring NOX emission rate in §§ 75.71 and 75.72. (a... operating properly, as described in the quality assurance/quality control program for the unit, required by... record parametric data to verify the proper operation of the NOX add-on emission controls as described...

  20. Treatment of infectious waste: development and testing of an add-on set for used gravity displacement autoclaves.

    PubMed

    Stolze, René; Kühling, Jan-Gerd

    2009-06-01

    The safe management of potentially infectious healthcare waste is gaining increasing worldwide importance. In developing countries, simple incinerators are used for the treatment of this type of waste stream. However, as these incinerators produce high emissions and represent the main generators of dioxin and furans in these countries, alternative and cost-effective solutions are needed. As steam treatment systems do not produce persistent organic pollutants, the use of existing (older) medical autoclaves could represent a solution for the treatment of infectious waste. ETLog Health EnviroTech & Logistics, the German-based consulting and engineering company carried out the first research into whether gravity air displacement autoclaves can be used for the safe decontamination of infectious waste. The research showed that it is not possible to decontaminate waste using this type of autoclave. A subsequent research and development phase might, however, make it possible to develop a new process cycle. Tests carried out on the basis of international standards and norms showed that by applying this process cycle and using an add-on set, it is possible to treat healthcare waste using the existing stock of older medical autoclaves. The process cycle and the add-on set developed were tested under existing conditions in Hanoi, Vietnam using the treatment cycle developed for a 13-year-old autoclave. All the parameters for infectious waste decontamination were reached. As modified autoclaves prevent the emission of toxic substances, this approach presents an interim solution, which avoids the impacts on human health and the environment caused by the incineration of healthcare waste.

  1. Civic Engagement and Global Citizenship in a University Context: Core Business or Desirable Add-On?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munck, Ronaldo

    2010-01-01

    Can civic engagement become a "core business" of the contemporary university, or is it an attractive "add-on" that is not affordable in the current economic climate? Contemporary universities often play an important role in local community development and, as such, have the opportunity to develop civic engagement strategies to sit alongside…

  2. 24 CFR 990.190 - Other formula expenses (add-ons).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Other formula expenses (add-ons). 990.190 Section 990.190 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT THE PUBLIC...

  3. 40 CFR 52.987 - Control of hydrocarbon emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control of hydrocarbon emissions. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Louisiana § 52.987 Control of hydrocarbon... compliance date of January 1, 1980. This shall result in an estimated hydrocarbon emission reduction of...

  4. 40 CFR 52.987 - Control of hydrocarbon emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control of hydrocarbon emissions. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Louisiana § 52.987 Control of hydrocarbon... compliance date of January 1, 1980. This shall result in an estimated hydrocarbon emission reduction of...

  5. 40 CFR 52.987 - Control of hydrocarbon emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control of hydrocarbon emissions. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Louisiana § 52.987 Control of hydrocarbon... compliance date of January 1, 1980. This shall result in an estimated hydrocarbon emission reduction of...

  6. 40 CFR 52.987 - Control of hydrocarbon emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control of hydrocarbon emissions. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Louisiana § 52.987 Control of hydrocarbon... compliance date of January 1, 1980. This shall result in an estimated hydrocarbon emission reduction of...

  7. 40 CFR 52.987 - Control of hydrocarbon emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control of hydrocarbon emissions. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Louisiana § 52.987 Control of hydrocarbon... compliance date of January 1, 1980. This shall result in an estimated hydrocarbon emission reduction of...

  8. 40 CFR 266.104 - Standards to control organic emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards to control organic emissions... Standards to control organic emissions. (a) DRE standard—(1) General. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(3... and removal efficiency (DRE) of 99.99% for all organic hazardous constituents in the waste feed....

  9. 40 CFR 266.104 - Standards to control organic emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards to control organic emissions... Standards to control organic emissions. (a) DRE standard—(1) General. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(3... and removal efficiency (DRE) of 99.99% for all organic hazardous constituents in the waste feed....

  10. 40 CFR 266.104 - Standards to control organic emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards to control organic emissions... Standards to control organic emissions. (a) DRE standard—(1) General. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(3... and removal efficiency (DRE) of 99.99% for all organic hazardous constituents in the waste feed....

  11. 40 CFR 266.104 - Standards to control organic emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards to control organic emissions... Standards to control organic emissions. (a) DRE standard—(1) General. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(3... and removal efficiency (DRE) of 99.99% for all organic hazardous constituents in the waste feed....

  12. 40 CFR 266.104 - Standards to control organic emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards to control organic emissions... Standards to control organic emissions. (a) DRE standard—(1) General. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(3... and removal efficiency (DRE) of 99.99% for all organic hazardous constituents in the waste feed....

  13. 40 CFR 266.106 - Standards to control metals emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... height (Ha) may not exceed good engineering practice as specified in 40 CFR 51.100(ii). (iii) If the TESH... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards to control metals emissions... Standards to control metals emissions. (a) General. The owner or operator must comply with the...

  14. 40 CFR 266.106 - Standards to control metals emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... height (Ha) may not exceed good engineering practice as specified in 40 CFR 51.100(ii). (iii) If the TESH... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards to control metals emissions... Standards to control metals emissions. (a) General. The owner or operator must comply with the...

  15. Gaseous emissions from plants in controlled environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubay, Denis T.

    1988-01-01

    Plant growth in a controlled ecological life support system may entail the build-up over extended time periods of phytotoxic concentrations of volatile organic compounds produced by the plants themselves. Ethylene is a prominent gaseous emission of plants, and is the focus of this report. The objective was to determine the rate of ethylene release by spring wheat, white potato, and lettuce during early, middle, and late growth stages, and during both the light and dark segments of the diurnal cycle. Plants grown hydroponically using the nutrient film technique were covered with plexiglass containers for 4 to 6 h. At intervals after enclosure, gas samples were withdrawn with a syringe and analyzed for ethylene with a gas chromatograph. Lettuce produced 10 to 100 times more ethylene than wheat or potato, with production rates ranging from 141 to 158 ng g-dry/wt/h. Wheat produced from 1.7 to 14.3 ng g-dry/wt/h, with senescent wheat producing the least amount and flowering wheat the most. Potatoes produced the least amount of ethylene, with values never exceeding 5 ng g-dry/wt/h. Lettuce and potatoes each produced ethylene at similar rates whether in dark period or light period. Ethylene sequestering of 33 to 43 percent by the plexiglass enclosures indicated that these production estimates may be low by one-third to one-half. These results suggest that concern for ethylene build-up in a contained atmosphere should be greatest when growing lettuce, and less when growing wheat or potato.

  16. 40 CFR 63.4765 - How do I determine the emission capture system efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How do I determine the emission capture system efficiency? 63.4765 Section 63.4765 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Building Products Compliance Requirements for the Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4765...

  17. 40 CFR 63.4752 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations? 63.4752 Section 63.4752 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Wood Building Products Compliance Requirements for the Emission Rate Without Add-on Controls...

  18. 40 CFR 63.4763 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations? 63.4763 Section 63.4763 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Wood Building Products Compliance Requirements for the Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option §...

  19. 40 CFR 63.4763 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations? 63.4763 Section 63.4763 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Wood Building Products Compliance Requirements for the Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option §...

  20. 40 CFR 63.4752 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations? 63.4752 Section 63.4752 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Wood Building Products Compliance Requirements for the Emission Rate Without Add-on Controls...

  1. 40 CFR 63.3951 - How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limitations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Surface Coating of Miscellaneous Metal Parts and Products Compliance Requirements for the Emission Rate... limitations? You may use the emission rate without add-on controls option for any individual coating operation, for any group of coating operations in the affected source, or for all the coating operations in...

  2. Proposed helmet PET geometries with add-on detectors for high sensitivity brain imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tashima, Hideaki; Yamaya, Taiga

    2016-10-01

    For dedicated brain PET, we can significantly improve sensitivity for the cerebrum region by arranging detectors in a compact hemisphere. The geometrical sensitivity for the top region of the hemisphere is increased compared with conventional cylindrical PET consisting of the same number of detectors. However, the geometrical sensitivity at the center region of the hemisphere is still low because the bottom edge of the field-of-view is open, the same as for the cylindrical PET. In this paper, we proposed a helmet PET with add-on detectors for high sensitivity brain PET imaging for both center and top regions. The key point is the add-on detectors covering some portion of the spherical surface in addition to the hemisphere. As the location of the add-on detectors, we proposed three choices: a chin detector, ear detectors, and a neck detector. For example, the geometrical sensitivity for the region-of-interest at the center was increased by 200% by adding the chin detector which increased the size by 12% of the size of the hemisphere detector. The other add-on detectors gave almost the same increased sensitivity effect as the chin detector did. Compared with standard whole-body-cylindrical PET, the proposed geometries can achieve 2.6 times higher sensitivity for brain region even with less than 1/4 detectors. In addition, we conducted imaging simulations for geometries with a diameter of 250 mm and with high resolution depth-of-interaction detectors. The simulation results showed that the proposed geometries increased image quality, and all of the add-on detectors were equivalently effective. In conclusion, the proposed geometries have high potential for widespread applications in high-sensitivity, high-resolution, and low-cost brain PET imaging.

  3. Precipitation controls isoprene emissions from tropical ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potosnak, M. J.; Gatti, L. V.; Guenther, A. B.; Karl, T.; Trostdorf, C. R.; Martins, W. C.; Rinne, H. J.; Yamazaki, A.

    2003-12-01

    Isoprene emissions from tropical regions account for a majority of isoprene produced globally. Current estimates of global isoprene emissions use meteorological inputs (temperature and light), ecosystem leaf area, and a time invariant, ecosystem specific emissions factor. This approach has been verified to work well for deciduous mid-latitude forests, but the approach has not been tested for tropical ecosystems where seasonality is induced by precipitation. Recent flux studies at two field stations in the tropics found strong effects of precipitation regime (dry vs. wet season) on isoprene emissions. A flux study conducted during the wet season (October 1999) at the La Selva Biological Station (10° 26' N, 83° 59' W, precipitation 4000 mm yr{-1}) found whole system isoprene emissions rates between 2--10 mg C m-2 h-1, while a second campaign during the dry season (April 2003) found values ranging 8--16 mg C m-2 h-1. This difference could not be explained by changes in ambient temperature or light using established emissions algorithms. The second field site near Santarém, Brazil in the Floresta Nacional do Tapajós (2° 51' S, 54° 58' W, precipitation 2000 mm yr{-1}), part of the Large scale Biosphere-atmosphere experiment in Amazônia (LBA), showed a similar pattern. Additionally, a 13 month isoprene concentration record at this station found a 4 fold increase during the dry season. Application of a one dimensional chemistry model predicts a similar change in isoprene source strength. A standard emission model using temperature and light could not account for these seasonal changes, but adding an empirical term that accounted for previous precipitation greatly enhanced the fit.

  4. Active control of excessive sound emission on a mobile device.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Se-Woon; Youn, Dae Hee; Park, Young-cheol; Lee, Gun-Woo

    2015-04-01

    During a phone conversation, loud vocal emission from the far-end to the near-end space can disturb nearby people. In this paper, the possibility of actively controlling such unwanted sound emission using a control source placed on the mobile device is investigated. Two different approaches are tested: Global control, minimizing the potential energy measured along a volumetric space surface, and local control, minimizing the squared sound pressure at a discrete point on the phone. From the test results, both approaches can reduce the unwanted sound emission by more than 6 dB in the frequency range up to 2 kHz. PMID:25920885

  5. Active control of excessive sound emission on a mobile device.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Se-Woon; Youn, Dae Hee; Park, Young-cheol; Lee, Gun-Woo

    2015-04-01

    During a phone conversation, loud vocal emission from the far-end to the near-end space can disturb nearby people. In this paper, the possibility of actively controlling such unwanted sound emission using a control source placed on the mobile device is investigated. Two different approaches are tested: Global control, minimizing the potential energy measured along a volumetric space surface, and local control, minimizing the squared sound pressure at a discrete point on the phone. From the test results, both approaches can reduce the unwanted sound emission by more than 6 dB in the frequency range up to 2 kHz.

  6. Controlling laser emission by selecting crystal orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lijuan; Han, Shujuan; Wang, Zhengping; Wang, Jiyang; Zhang, Huanjin; Yu, Haohai; Han, Shuo; Xu, Xinguang

    2013-01-01

    Based on the anisotropy of laser crystal, we demonstrate a method of adjusting laser emission by selecting crystal orientation. When the light propagating direction varies from a to c axis of Nd:LiGd(MoO4)2 crystal, emission wavelength exhibits a sensitive change of 1061 nm → 1061/1062 + 1068 nm → 1068 nm. The experimental discipline is well explained by a theoretical study of simulating on the spatial distribution of stimulated emission cross-section. This letter manifests that the laser property along non-principal-axis direction is also valuable for research and application, which breaks through the traditional custom of using laser materials processed along principal-axis.

  7. Control and pollution prevention options for ammonia emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.

    1995-04-01

    In response to requests for guidance concerning technologies available for the control and prevention of ammonia emissions, the Control Technology Center (CTC) initiated a review of current and potential methods for ammonia emissions control. A review of various industries has identified significant sources of ammonia to be fertilizer production, coke production using the by-product recovery method, fossil fuel combustion, livestock management, and refrigeration using ammonia as a refrigerant. Control methods implemented by these sources include wet scrubbers, condensate strippers, recovery and recycle of exhaust streams, capture systems, and good maintenance practices. The report discusses each industry process identified above, concentrating on the sources of ammonia emissions and the controls and pollution prevention (P2) methods applied. Other industries may have minor ammonia emissions but they are not addressed in this report because neither control technologies nor P2 are applied.

  8. Controls over hydrocarbon emissions from boreal forest conifers

    SciTech Connect

    Lerdau, M.; Litvak, M.; Monson, R. |

    1995-06-01

    The emissions of monoterpenes and isoprene were measured from two species of conifers native to the boreal forest of Canada, jack pine, Pinus rigida, and black spruce, Picea Mariana. We examined the effects of phenology and needle age on the emissions of these compounds, and the variations in tissue concentrations of monoterpenes. We measured photosynthetic carbon uptake and hydrocarbon emissions at two sites in northern Saskatchewan under controlled light, temperatures, and CO{sub 2} concentrations, and analyzed carbon uptake rates using an infra-red gas analyzer and hydrocarbon emissions using a solid sorbent/thermal desorption system coupled to a gas chromatograph with a mass spectrometer. Our data indicate a strong effect of temperature and seasonality on emissions but only small effects of site conditions. These results suggest that regional models of hydrocarbon emissions from boreal forests should focus on temperature and phenology as the most important controlling variables.

  9. CONTROLLING NOX EMISSION FROM INDUSTRIAL SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of regulatory actions focused on reducing NOx emissions from stationary combustion sources have been taken in the United States in the last decade. These actions include the Acid Rain NOx regulations, the Ozone Transport Commission's NOx ...

  10. Sulfur oxide adsorbents and emissions control

    DOEpatents

    Li, Liyu; King, David L.

    2006-12-26

    High capacity sulfur oxide absorbents utilizing manganese-based octahedral molecular sieve (Mn--OMS) materials are disclosed. An emissions reduction system for a combustion exhaust includes a scrubber 24 containing these high capacity sulfur oxide absorbents located upstream from a NOX filter 26 or particulate trap.

  11. Emission control devices, fuel additive, and fuel composition changes.

    PubMed Central

    Piver, W T

    1977-01-01

    Emission control devices are installed to meet the exhaust standards of the Clean Air Act for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, and it is necessary to know, from a public health point of view, how exhaust emissions may be affected by changes in fuel additives and fuel composition. Since these topics are concerned with developing technologies, the available literature on exhaust emission characteristics and the limited information on health effects, is reviewed. PMID:71235

  12. Alternative control technology document for bakery oven emissions. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, C.W.

    1992-12-01

    The document was produced in response to a request by the baking industry for Federal guidance to assist in providing a more uniform information base for State decision-making with regard to control of bakery oven emissions. The information in the document pertains to bakeries that produce yeast-leavened bread, rolls, buns, and similar products but not crackers, sweet goods, or baked foodstuffs that are not yeast leavened. Information on the baking processes, equipment, operating parameters, potential emissions from baking, and potential emission control options are presented. Catalytic and regenerative oxidation are identified as the most appropriate existing control technologies applicable to VOC emissions from bakery ovens. Cost analyses for catalytic and regenerative oxidation are included. A predictive formula for use in estimating oven emissions has been derived from source tests done in junction with the development of the document. Its use and applicability are described.

  13. Add on testosterone therapy in negative symptoms of schizophrenia with gonadal trauma: Hitting the bull's eye.

    PubMed

    Jha, Shailesh; Garg, Amit

    2016-06-30

    The coincidence or causal incidence of hormonal dysregulation leading to psychotic manifestation had been a point of debate. The interplay of these hormones in pathogenesis of psychotic symptom domains is still inconclusive along with some symptom domains which worsen with antipsychotics. Early detection and treatment with liaison approach is of great help to such patients. We report a case of schizophrenia with primary hypogonadism that responded dramatically to add on testosterone supplement. PMID:27138816

  14. Advanced Combustion and Emission Control Technical Team Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-01

    The Advanced Combustion and Emission Control (ACEC) Technical Team is focused on removing technical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high-efficiency, emission-compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light-duty vehicle powertrains (i.e., passenger car, minivan, SUV, and pickup trucks).

  15. THERIAK_D: An add-on to implement equilibrium computations in geodynamic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duesterhoeft, Erik; Capitani, Christian

    2013-11-01

    This study presents the theory, applicability, and merits of the new THERIAK_D add-on for the open source Theriak/Domino software package. The add-on works as an interface between Theriak and user-generated scripts, providing the opportunity to process phase equilibrium computation parameters in a programming environment (e.g., C or MATLAB®). THERIAK_D supports a wide range of features such as calculating the solid rock density or testing the stability of mineral phases along any pressure-temperature (P-T) path and P-T grid. To demonstrate applicability, an example is given in which the solid rock density of a 2-D-temperature-pressure field is calculated, portraying a simplified subduction zone. Consequently, the add-on effectively combines thermodynamics and geodynamic modeling. The carefully documented examples could be easily adapted for a broad range of applications. THERIAK_D is free, and the program, user manual, and source codes may be downloaded from http://www.min.uni-kiel.de/˜ed/theriakd/.

  16. VOC from Vehicular Evaporation Emissions: Status and Control Strategy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan; Man, Hanyang; Tschantz, Michael; Wu, Ye; He, Kebin; Hao, Jiming

    2015-12-15

    Vehicular evaporative emissions is an important source of volatile organic carbon (VOC), however, accurate estimation of emission amounts and scientific evaluation of control strategy for these emissions have been neglected outside of the United States. This study provides four kinds of basic emission factors: diurnal, hot soak, permeation, and refueling. Evaporative emissions from the Euro 4 vehicles (1.6 kg/year/car) are about four times those of U.S. vehicles (0.4 kg/year/car). Closing this emissions gap would have a larger impact than the progression from Euro 3 to Euro 6 tailpipe HC emission controls. Even in the first 24 h of parking, China's current reliance upon the European 24 h diurnal standard results in 508 g/vehicle/year emissions, higher than 32 g/vehicle/year from Tier 2 vehicles. The U.S. driving cycle matches Beijing real-world conditions much better on both typical trip length and average speed than current European driving cycles. At least two requirements should be added to the Chinese emissions standards: an onboard refueling vapor recovery to force the canister to be sized sufficiently large, and a 48-h evaporation test requirement to ensure that adequate purging occurs over a shorter drive sequence.

  17. VOC from Vehicular Evaporation Emissions: Status and Control Strategy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan; Man, Hanyang; Tschantz, Michael; Wu, Ye; He, Kebin; Hao, Jiming

    2015-12-15

    Vehicular evaporative emissions is an important source of volatile organic carbon (VOC), however, accurate estimation of emission amounts and scientific evaluation of control strategy for these emissions have been neglected outside of the United States. This study provides four kinds of basic emission factors: diurnal, hot soak, permeation, and refueling. Evaporative emissions from the Euro 4 vehicles (1.6 kg/year/car) are about four times those of U.S. vehicles (0.4 kg/year/car). Closing this emissions gap would have a larger impact than the progression from Euro 3 to Euro 6 tailpipe HC emission controls. Even in the first 24 h of parking, China's current reliance upon the European 24 h diurnal standard results in 508 g/vehicle/year emissions, higher than 32 g/vehicle/year from Tier 2 vehicles. The U.S. driving cycle matches Beijing real-world conditions much better on both typical trip length and average speed than current European driving cycles. At least two requirements should be added to the Chinese emissions standards: an onboard refueling vapor recovery to force the canister to be sized sufficiently large, and a 48-h evaporation test requirement to ensure that adequate purging occurs over a shorter drive sequence. PMID:26599318

  18. Controlling spontaneous emission in bioreplica photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgensen, Matthew R.; Butler, Elizabeth S.; Bartl, Michael H.

    2012-04-01

    Sophisticated methods have been created by nature to produce structure-based colors as a way to address the need of a wide variety of organisms. This pallet of available structures presents a unique opportunity for the investigation of new photonic crystal designs. Low-temperature sol-gel biotemplating methods were used to transform a single biotemplate into a variety of inorganic oxide structures. The density of optical states was calculated for a diamond-based natural photonic crystal, as well as several structures templated from it. Calculations were experimentally probed by spontaneous emission studies using time correlated single photon counting measurements.

  19. Wastewater treatment -- New regs add emissions control to managers' duties

    SciTech Connect

    Gorman, P.M. ); Forrest, C.J. )

    1994-06-01

    Wastewater treatment facilities traditionally were regulated primarily from the standpoint of effluent criteria and solid waste disposal requirements. However, since passage of the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments, wastewater treatment facility operators must be concerned with air emissions, especially of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), generated by their processes. Three basic approaches are used to manage VOC emissions from wastewater treatment systems--pollution prevention activities, wastewater treatment control methods and emissions control methods. These approaches may be used in combination to minimize VOCs in industrial and municipal wastewater streams.

  20. Circadian control of isoprene emissions from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis).

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Michael J; Owen, Susan M; Possell, Malcolm; Hartwell, James; Gould, Peter; Hall, Anthony; Vickers, Claudia; Nicholas Hewitt, C

    2006-09-01

    The emission of isoprene from the biosphere to the atmosphere has a profound effect on the Earth's atmospheric system. Until now, it has been assumed that the primary short-term controls on isoprene emission are photosynthetically active radiation and temperature. Here we show that isoprene emissions from a tropical tree (oil palm, Elaeis guineensis) are under strong circadian control, and that the circadian clock is potentially able to gate light-induced isoprene emissions. These rhythms are robustly temperature compensated with isoprene emissions still under circadian control at 38 degrees C. This is well beyond the acknowledged temperature range of all previously described circadian phenomena in plants. Furthermore, rhythmic expression of LHY/CCA1, a genetic component of the central clock in Arabidopsis thaliana, is still maintained at these elevated temperatures in oil palm. Maintenance of the CCA1/LHY-TOC1 molecular oscillator at these temperatures in oil palm allows for the possibility that this system is involved in the control of isoprene emission rhythms. This study contradicts the accepted theory that isoprene emissions are primarily light-induced.

  1. NO sub x /CO emissions and control in ethylene plants

    SciTech Connect

    Gomaa, H.M.; Hackemesser, L.G.; Cindric, D.T. )

    1991-11-01

    The principal emission source of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and carbon monoxide (CO) from ethylene plants is the pyrolysis furnace. This paper addresses NO{sub x}/CO emissions and controls for gas fired pyrolysis furnaces. Typical NO{sub x} and CO generation rates for furnaces are quantified. The impact of fuel composition on NO{sub x} generation is discussed. Commercially available and emerging control technologies are reviewed. The relative costs of these controls are compared. Case-by-case considerations will dictate the selection of the control technology required to comply with the environmental demands of the specific site.

  2. Electric-utility emissions: control strategies and costs

    SciTech Connect

    Van Horn, A.; Arpi, D.; Bowen, C.; Chapman, R.; Cooper, R.; Greenfield, S.; Moffett, M.; Wells, M.

    1981-04-01

    The Utility Simulation Model has been used to project the emissions, costs, and operating decisions of the electric utilities for each year between 1980 and 2000. For each steam generating unit in the United States, the model simulates the compliance decision, including choice of fuels and pollution controls, as well as emissions and pollution control costs. Results are aggregated to state, regional, and national levels. The results presented here, summarized by strategy for selected years, include SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions, annual revenue requirements, the average price of electricity, dollars per ton of SO/sub 2/ reduced, coal capacity with FGD, utility fuel consumption, and regional production of coal for utility consumption. Because the strategies analyzed were aimed at SO/sub 2/ reduction, the results focus on the emissions and costs of controlling SO/sub 2/. This report is not intended to provide complete analysis and interpretation of the numerical results given in Section 3.

  3. Alternative control techniques document. NOx emissions from stationary gas turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    The Alternative Control Techniques document describes available control technologies for reducing NOx emissions levels from stationary combustion gas turbines. Information on the formation of NOx and uncontrolled NOx emissions from gas turbines is included. Water injection, steam injection, and low-NOx combustors, used independently or in combination with selective catalytic reduction (SCR), are discussed. Achievable controlled NOx emissions levels, costs and cost effectiveness, and environmental impacts are presented and applicability to new equipment as well as retrofit applications is discussed. The application of these technologies to gas turbines operating in offshore platform applications is included. Information on the use of alternate fuels, catalytic combustion, and selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR) to reduce NOx emissions is also briefly presented.

  4. Historical evaluation of vehicle emission control in Guangzhou based on a multi-year emission inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Liu, Huan; Wu, Xiaomeng; Zhou, Yu; Yao, Zhiliang; Fu, Lixin; He, Kebin; Hao, Jiming

    2013-09-01

    The Guangzhou government adopted many vehicle emission control policies and strategies during the five-year preparation (2005-2009) to host the 2010 Asian Games. This study established a multi-year emission inventory for vehicles in Guangzhou during 2005-2009 and estimated the uncertainty in total vehicle emissions by taking the assumed uncertainties in fleet-average emission factors and annual mileage into account. In 2009, the estimated total vehicle emissions in Guangzhou were 313 000 (242 000-387 000) tons of CO, 60 900 (54 000-70 200) tons of THC, 65 600 (56 800-74 100) tons of NOx and 2740 (2100-3400) tons of PM10. Vehicle emissions within the urban area of Guangzhou were estimated to be responsible for ˜40% of total gaseous pollutants and ˜25% of total PM10 in the entire city. Although vehicle use intensity increased rapidly in Guangzhou during 2005-2009, vehicle emissions were estimated to have been reduced by 12% for CO, 21% for THC and 20% for PM10 relative to those in 2005. NOx emissions were estimated to have remained almost constant during this period. Compared to the "without control" scenario, 19% (15%-23%) of CO, 20% (18%-23%) of THC, 9% (8%-10%) of NOx and 16% (12%-20%) of PM10 were estimated to have been mitigated from a combination of the implementation of Euro III standards for light-duty vehicles (LDVs) and heavy-duty diesel vehicles and improvement of fuel quality. This study also evaluated several enhanced vehicle emission control actions taken recently. For example, the enhanced I/M program for LDVs was estimated to reduce 11% (9%-14%) of CO, 9% (8%-10%) of THC and 2% (2%-3%) of NOx relative to total vehicle emissions in 2009. Total emission reductions by temporary traffic controls for the Asian Games were estimated equivalent to 9% (7%-11%) of CO, 9% (8%-10%) of THC, 5% (5%-6%) of NOx and 10% (8%-13%) of PM10 estimated total vehicle emissions in 2009. Those controls are essential to further vehicle emission mitigation in Guangzhou

  5. 40 CFR 63.4163 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: Surface Coating of Large Appliances Compliance Requirements for the Emission Rate with Add-on Controls... the materials used during a deviation on a controlled coating operation as if they were used on an uncontrolled coating operation for the time period of the deviation. You must not include those materials...

  6. 40 CFR 63.4962 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...: Surface Coating of Metal Furniture Compliance Requirements for the Emission Rate with Add-on Controls... must treat the materials used during a deviation on a controlled coating operation as if they were used on an uncontrolled coating operation for the time period of the deviation, as indicated in Equation...

  7. 40 CFR 63.4163 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...: Surface Coating of Large Appliances Compliance Requirements for the Emission Rate with Add-on Controls... the materials used during a deviation on a controlled coating operation as if they were used on an uncontrolled coating operation for the time period of the deviation. You must not include those materials...

  8. 40 CFR 63.4962 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: Surface Coating of Metal Furniture Compliance Requirements for the Emission Rate with Add-on Controls... must treat the materials used during a deviation on a controlled coating operation as if they were used on an uncontrolled coating operation for the time period of the deviation, as indicated in Equation...

  9. Effects of minocycline add-on treatment on brain morphometry and cerebral perfusion in recent-onset schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Cristiano; Marque, Cristiane R; Maia-de-Oliveira, João P; Wichert-Ana, Lauro; Ferrari, Thiago B; Santos, Antonio C; Araújo, David; Machado-de-Sousa, João P; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Elkis, Helio; Crippa, José A; Guimarães, Francisco S; Zuardi, Antônio W; Baker, Glen B; Dursun, Serdar M; Hallak, Jaime E C

    2015-02-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the tetracycline antibiotic minocycline has neuroprotective effects and is a potential treatment for schizophrenia. However, the mechanisms of action of minocycline in the CNS remain elusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of minocycline on brain morphology and cerebral perfusion in patients with recent-onset schizophrenia after 12months of a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of minocycline add-on treatment. This study included 24 outpatients with recent-onset schizophrenia randomized for 12months of adjuvant treatment with minocycline (200mg/d) or placebo. MRI (1.5T) and [(99m)Tc]-ECD SPECT brain scans were performed at the end of the 12-month of trial. Between-condition comparisons of SPECT and MRI brain images were performed using statistical parametric mapping and analyzed by voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Minocycline adjuvant treatment significantly reduced positive and negative symptoms when compared with placebo. The VBM analysis of MRI scans showed that the patients in the placebo group had significant lower gray matter volumes in the midposterior cingulate cortex and in the precentral gyrus in comparison with the patients in the minocycline group. In addition, a decreased ECD uptake in the minocycline condition was observed in fronto-temporal areas. These results suggest that minocycline may protect against gray matter loss and modulate fronto-temporal areas involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Furthermore, minocycline add-on treatment may be a potential treatment in the early stages of schizophrenia and may ameliorate clinical deterioration and brain alterations observed in this period.

  10. Sensitivity analysis of the add-on price estimate for the silicon web growth process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mokashi, A. R.

    1981-01-01

    The web growth process, a silicon-sheet technology option, developed for the flat plate solar array (FSA) project, was examined. Base case data for the technical and cost parameters for the technical and commercial readiness phase of the FSA project are projected. The process add on price, using the base case data for cost parameters such as equipment, space, direct labor, materials and utilities, and the production parameters such as growth rate and run length, using a computer program developed specifically to do the sensitivity analysis with improved price estimation are analyzed. Silicon price, sheet thickness and cell efficiency are also discussed.

  11. Systems and methods for controlling diesel engine emissions

    DOEpatents

    Webb, Cynthia Chaffin; Weber, Phillip Anthony; Khair, Magdi K.

    2004-06-01

    Systems and methods for controlling diesel engine emissions, including, for example, oxides of nitrogen emissions, particulate matter emissions, and the like. The emission control system according to this invention is provided in the exhaust passageway of a diesel engine and includes a catalyst-based particulate filter; and first and second lean NO.sub.x trap systems coupled to the catalyst-based particulate filter. The first and second lean NO.sub.x trap systems are arranged in a parallel flow configuration with each other. Each of the first and second lean NO.sub.x trap systems include a carbon monoxide generating catalyst device, a sulfur trap device, a lean NO.sub.x device, a supplemental fuel injector device, and a plurality of flow diverter devices.

  12. SUMMARY REPORT CONTROL OF NOX EMISSIONS BY REBURNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report covers NOx control employing reburning technology: A new, effective method of controlling NOx emissions from a wide range of stationary combustion sources including large, coal-fired, utility boilers. Although reburning potentially is applicable ...

  13. 40 CFR Table 1b to Subpart Dddd of... - Add-on Control Systems Compliance Options

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Options For each of the following process units . . . You must comply with one of the following six...); pressurized refiners; primary tube dryers; secondary tube dryers; reconstituted wood product board coolers (at... are greater than or equal to 10 ppmvd. a You may choose to subtract methane from THC as...

  14. 40 CFR Table 1b to Subpart Dddd of... - Add-on Control Systems Compliance Options

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Options For each of the following process units . . . You must comply with one of the following six...); pressurized refiners; primary tube dryers; secondary tube dryers; reconstituted wood product board coolers (at... are greater than or equal to 10 ppmvd. a You may choose to subtract methane from THC as...

  15. Primary production control of methane emission from wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiting, G. J.; Chanton, J. P.

    1993-08-01

    Based on simultaneous measurements of CO2 and CH4 exchange in wetlands extending from subarctic peatlands to subtropical marshes, a positive correlation between CH4 emission and net ecosystem production is reported. It is suggested that net ecosystem production is a master variable integrating many factors which control CH4 emission in vegetated wetlands. It is found that about 3 percent of the daily net ecosystem production is emitted back to the atmosphere as CH4. With projected stimulation of primary production and soil microbial activity in wetlands associated with elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, the potential for increasing CH4 emission from inundated wetlands, further enhancing the greenhouse effect, is examined.

  16. Positional control of plasmonic fields and electron emission

    SciTech Connect

    Word, R. C.; Fitzgerald, J. P. S.; Könenkamp, R.

    2014-09-15

    We report the positional control of plasmonic fields and electron emission in a continuous gap antenna structure of sub-micron size. We show experimentally that a nanoscale area of plasmon-enhanced electron emission can be motioned by changing the polarization of an exciting optical beam of 800 nm wavelength. Finite-difference calculations are presented to support the experiments and to show that the plasmon-enhanced electric field distribution of the antenna can be motioned precisely and predictively.

  17. radEq Add-On Module for CFD Solver Loci-CHEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCloud, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Loci-CHEM to be applied to flow velocities where surface radiation due to heating from compression and friction becomes significant. The module adds a radiation equilibrium boundary condition to the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code to produce accurate results. The module expanded the upper limit for accurate CFD solutions of Loci-CHEM from Mach 4 to Mach 10 based on Space Shuttle Orbiter Re-Entry trajectories. Loci-CHEM already has a very promising architecture and performance, but absence of radiation equilibrium boundary condition limited the application of Loci-CHEM to below Mach 4. The immediate advantage of the add-on module is that it allows Loci-CHEM to work with supersonic flows up to Mach 10. This transformed Loci-CHEM from a rocket engine- heritage CFD code with general subsonic and low-supersonic applications, to an aeroheating code with hypersonic applications. The follow-on advantage of the module is that it is a building block for additional add-on modules that will solve for the heating generated at Mach numbers higher than 10.

  18. Gantry and isocenter displacements of a linear accelerator caused by an add-on micromultileaf collimator

    SciTech Connect

    Riis, Hans L.; Zimmermann, Sune J.; Hjelm-Hansen, Mogens

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: The delivery of high quality stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) treatments to the patient requires knowledge of the position of the isocenter to submillimeter accuracy. To meet the requirements the deviation between the radiation and mechanical isocenters must be less than 1 mm. The use of add-on micromultileaf collimators ({mu}MLCs) in SRS and SRT is an additional challenge to the anticipated high-level geometric and dosimetric accuracy of the treatment. The aim of this work was to quantify the gantry excursions during rotation with and without an add-on {mu}MLC attached to the gantry head. In addition, the shift in the position of the isocenter and its correlation to the kV beam center of the cone-beam CT system was included in the study. Methods: The quantification of the gantry rotational performance was done using a pointer supported by an in-house made rigid holder attached to the gantry head of the accelerator. The pointer positions were measured using a digital theodolite. To quantify the effect of an {mu}MLC of 50 kg, the measurements were repeated with the {mu}MLC attached to the gantry head. The displacement of the isocenter due to an add-on {mu}MLC of 50 kg was also investigated. In case of the pointer measurement the {mu}MLC was simulated by weights attached to the gantry head. A method of least squares was applied to determine the position and displacement of the mechanical isocenter. Additionally, the displacement of the radiation isocenter was measured using a ball-bearing phantom and the electronic portal image device system. These measurements were based on 8 MV photon beams irradiated onto the ball from the four cardinal angles and two opposed collimator angles. The measurements and analysis of the data were carried out automatically using software delivered by the manufacturer. Results: The displacement of the mechanical isocenter caused by a 50 kg heavy {mu}MLC was found to be (-0.01 {+-} 0.05, -0

  19. Controlling formaldehyde emissions with boiler ash.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Jennifer; Abu-Daabes, Malyuba; Banerjee, Sujit

    2005-07-01

    Fluidized wood ash reduces formaldehyde in air from about 20 to <1 ppmv. Methanol is removed to a much lower extent. The efficiency of formaldehyde reduction increases with increasing moisture content of the ash. Sorption of formaldehyde to ash can be substantially accounted for by partitioning to the water contained in the ash followed by rate-controlling binding to the ash solids. Adsorption occurs at temperatures of up to 165 degrees C; oxidation predominates thereafter. It is proposed that formaldehyde could be stripped from an air stream in a fluidized bed containing ash, which could then be returned to a boiler to incinerate the formaldehyde.

  20. New emission controls for Missouri batch-type charcoal kilns

    SciTech Connect

    Yronwode, P.; Graf, W.J.

    1999-07-01

    Charcoal kilns have been exempted from air emission regulation in the state of Missouri. Today, 80% of US charcoal production takes place in Missouri. As a result of a petition filed by people in the area around an installation in southern Missouri, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) set up air monitors and measured ambient air levels at that charcoal manufacturing installation. These monitors yielded the highest particulate matter less than 10 micron (PM{sub 10}) levels ever recorded in the state. Earlier stack testing at another charcoal manufacturing installation indicated that toxics and carcinogens are present in charcoal kiln air emissions. A Charcoal Kiln Workgroup was formed to determine the Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for charcoal kilns and to draft a charcoal kiln rule that requires BACT. The BACT report determined that afterburners were suitable for controlling emissions from batch-type charcoal kilns. In addition, the charcoal industry supported incorporating the BACT limits and requirements into an enforceable state rule and submitting this rule to the EPA for federal approval. A consent agreement between the EPA and three major charcoal companies was signed with provisions to install, operate, and maintain emission control devices on charcoal kilns. This agreement was to settle complaints alleging that the three major charcoal producers had failed to report toxic air emissions to federal and state regulators. The agreement provided that industry would install control devices on a set schedule with some charcoal kilns being shut down.

  1. Cliffside 6 integrated emissions control system

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, D.G.; Rader, P.C.; Gansley, R.R.; Wang, W.

    2009-04-15

    The article takes an inside look into the environmental hardware going into one of the highest profile coal-fired power plants projects in the US, a new 800 MW supercritical coal-fired facility at Cliffside, NC, Unit C6. This is currently under construction and scheduled to be in commercial service in 2012. To evaluate the alternative air quality control system (AQCS) options, Duke Energy established a cross-functional team and used a decision analysis process to select the 'best balanced choice'. Alstom's integrated AQCS which combines dry and wet flue gas desulfurization systems was the best balanced choice. Replacing an ESP with a spray dryer absorber achieved major cost savings and eliminated the need for wastewater treatment. 1 ref., 2 photos.

  2. Coal-fueled diesel technology development emissions control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vankleunen, W.; Kaldor, S.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.

    1994-01-01

    General Electric Environmental Services, Inc. (GEESI), Emissions Control program activity ranged from control concept testing of 10 CFM slipstream from a coal-water-slurry (CWS) fuel single cylinder research diesel engine to the design, installation, and operation of a full-size emissions control system for a full-size CWS fuel diesel engine designed for locomotive operation. Early 10 CFM slipstream testing program activity was performed to determine emissions characteristics and to evaluate emissions control concepts such a barrier filtration, granular bed filtration, and cyclone particulate collection for reduction of particulate and gaseous emissions. Use of sorbent injection into the engine exhaust gas upstream of the barrier filter or use of sorbent media in the granular bed filter were found to provide reduction of exhaust gas SO2 and NO(x) in addition to collection of ash particulate. Emergence of the use of barrier filtration as a most practical emissions control concept disclosed a need to improve cleanability of the filter media in order to avoid reduction of turbocharger performance by excessive barrier filter pressure drop. The next progression of program activity, after the slipstream feasibility state, was 500 CFM cold flow testing of control system concepts. The successful completion of 500 CFM cold flow testing of the envelope filter led to a subsequent progression to a similar configuration envelope filter designed to operate at 500 CFM hot gas flow from the CWS fuel research diesel engine in the GETS engine test laboratory. This envelope filter included the design aspect proven by cold flow testing as well as optimization of the selection of the installed filter media.

  3. Coal-fueled diesel technology development Emissions Control

    SciTech Connect

    Van Kleunen, W.; Kaldor, S.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.

    1994-01-01

    GEESI Emissions Control program activity ranged from control concept testing of 10 CFM slipstream from a CWS fuel single cylinder research diesel engine to the design, installation, and operation of a full-size Emissions Control system for a full-size CWS fuel diesel engine designed for locomotive operation.Early 10 CFM slipstream testing program activity was performed to determine Emissions Characteristics and to evaluate Emissions Control concepts such a Barrier filtration, Granular bed filtration, and Cyclone particulate collection for reduction of particulate and gaseous emissions. Use of sorbent injection into the engine exhaust gas upstream of the barrier filter or use of sorbent media in the granular bed filter were found to provide reduction of exhaust gas SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} in addition to collection of ash particulate. Emergence of the use of barrier filtration as a most practical Emissions Control concept disclosed a need to improve cleanability of the filter media in order to avoid reduction of turbocharger performance by excessive barrier filter pressure drop. The next progression of program activity, after the slipstream feasibility state, was 500 CFM cold flow testing of control system concepts. The successful completion of 500 CFM cold flow testing of the Envelope Filter led to a subsequent progression to a similar configuration Envelope Filter designed to operate at 500 CFM hot gas flow from the CWS fuel research diesel engine in the GETS engine test laboratory. This Envelope Filter included the design aspect proven by cold flow testing as well as optimization of the selection of the installed filter media.

  4. Acoustic emission feedback control for control of boiling in a microwave oven

    DOEpatents

    White, Terry L.

    1991-01-01

    An acoustic emission based feedback system for controlling the boiling level of a liquid medium in a microwave oven is provided. The acoustic emissions from the medium correlated with surface boiling is used to generate a feedback control signal proportional to the level of boiling of the medium. This signal is applied to a power controller to automatically and continuoulsly vary the power applied to the oven to control the boiling at a selected level.

  5. NOx Sensor for Direct Injection Emission Control

    SciTech Connect

    Betteridge, William J

    2006-02-28

    The Electricore/Delphi team continues to leverage the electrochemical planar sensor technology that has produced stoichiometric planar and wide range oxygen sensors as the basis for development of a NOx sensor. Zirconia cell technology with an integrated heater will provide the foundation for the sensor structure. Proven materials and packaging technology will help to ensure a cost-effective approach to the manufacture of this sensor. The electronics technique and interface is considered to be an area where new strategies need to be employed to produce higher S/N ratios of the NOx signal with emphasis on signal stability over time for robustness and durability Both continuous mode and pulse mode control techniques are being evaluated. Packaging the electronics requires careful design and circuit partitioning so that only the necessary signal conditioning electronics are coupled directly in the wiring harness, while the remainder is situated within the ECM for durability and costs reasons. This task continues to be on hold due to the limitation that the definition of the interface electronics was unavailable until very late in the project. The sense element is based on the amperometric method utilizing integrated alumina and zirconia ceramics. Precious metal electrodes are used to form the integrated heater, the cell electrodes and leads. Inside the actual sense cell structure, it is first necessary to separate NOx from the remaining oxygen constituents of the exhaust, without reducing the NOx. Once separated, the NOx will be measured using a measurement cell. Development or test coupons have been used to facilitate material selection and refinement, cell, diffusion barrier, and chamber development. The sense element currently requires elaborate interconnections. To facilitate a robust durable connection, mechanical and metallurgical connections are under investigation. Materials and process refinements continue to play an important role in the development of the

  6. Emissions, combustion dynamics, and control of a multiple swirl combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guoqiang

    To achieve single digit NOx emission from gas turbine combustors and prevent the combustion dynamics encountered in Lean Premixed Combustion, it is essential to understand the correlations among emission characteristics, combustion dynamics, and dynamics and characteristics of swirling flow field. The focus of this dissertation is to investigate the emission characteristics and combustion dynamics of multiple swirl dump combustors either in premixing or non-premixed combustion (e.g. Lean Direct Injection), and correlate these combustion characteristics (emissions, combustion instability and lean flammability) to the fluids dynamics (flow structures and its evolution). This study covers measurement of velocity flow field, temperature field, and combustion under effects of various parameters, including inlet flow Reynolds number, inlet air temperature, swirl configurations, downstream exhaust nozzle contraction ratios, length of mixing tube. These parameters are tested in both liquid and gaseous fuel combustions. Knowledge obtained through this comprehensive study is applied to passive and active controls for improving gas turbine combustion performance in the aid of novel sensor and actuator technologies. Emissions and combustion characteristics are shown closely related to the shape and size of central recirculation zone (CRZ), the mean and turbulence velocity and strain rate, and dynamics of large vortical structures. The passive controls, mostly geometry factors, affect the combustion characteristics and emissions through their influences on flow fields, and consequently temperature and radical fields. Air assist, which is used to adjust the momentum of fuel spray, is effective in reducing NOx and depress combustion oscillation without hurting LBO. Fuel distribution/split is also one important factor for achieving low NOx emission and control of combustion dynamics. The dynamics of combustion, including flame oscillations close to LBO and acoustic combustion

  7. Benefits and risks of add-on therapies for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Magierski, Radoslaw; Sobow, Tomasz

    2015-10-01

    Despite three decades of intensive research, the efforts of scientific society and industry and the expenditures, numerous attempts to develop effective treatments for Alzheimer's disease have failed. Currently, approved and widely used medications to treat cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease are symptomatic only and show at best modest efficacy. In this context, the need to develop a successful, disease-modifying treatment is loudly expressed. One way to achieve this goal is the use of add-on therapies or various combinations of existing 'conventional' drugs. Results of several clinical studies and post hoc analyses of combination therapy with all cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine are published. Moreover, there is a need for studies on long-term efficacy of combination therapy in Alzheimer's.

  8. Space station systems technology study (add-on task). Volume 2: Trade study and technology selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The current Space Station Systems Technology Study add on task was an outgrowth of the Advanced Platform Systems Technology Study (APSTS) that was completed in April 1983 and the subsequent Space Station System Technology Study completed in April 1984. The first APSTS proceeded from the identification of 106 technology topics to the selection of five for detailed trade studies. During the advanced platform study, the technical issues and options were evaluated through detailed trade processes, individual consideration was given to costs and benefits for the technologies identified for advancement, and advancement plans were developed. An approach similar to that was used in the subsequent study, with emphasis on system definition in four specific technology areas to facilitate a more in depth analysis of technology issues.

  9. Addiction surplus: the add-on margin that makes addictive consumptions difficult to contain.

    PubMed

    Adams, Peter J; Livingstone, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Addictive consumptions generate financial surpluses over-and-above non-addictive consumptions because of the excessive consumption of addicted consumers. This add-on margin or 'addiction surplus' provides a powerful incentive for beneficiaries to protect their income by ensuring addicted consumers keep consuming. Not only that, addiction surplus provides the financial base that enables producers to sponsor activities which aim to prevent public health initiatives from reducing consumption. This paper examines the potency of addiction surplus to engage industry, governments and communities in an on-going reliance on addiction surplus. It then explores how neo-liberal constructions of a rational consumer disguise the ethical and exploitative dynamics of addiction surplus by examining ways in which addictive consumptions fail to conform to notions of autonomy and rationality. Four measures are identified to contain the distorting effects of addiction surplus.

  10. The CONVEX Liner Add-On to the DIAMOND-FORTUNE event

    SciTech Connect

    Heuze, F.E.; Swift, R.P.; Hill, L.R.; Barrett, W.H.

    1993-11-15

    This report describes the execution of the CONVEX Liner Add-On to the DIAMOND FORTUNE low-yield cavity test of the Defense Nuclear Agency. CONVEX stands for COntained Nuclear Vessel EXperiment. It concerns the design of underground chambers where repeated low-yield nuclear explosions could be conducted. The approach proposed by the first author in the early 1980`s was to engineer a steel-lined rock cavern where the steel liner would be prestressed against the rock by tendons and/or bolts. These would daylight in tunnels surrounding the main cavity. From there, they could be initially tensioned and retensioned, if needed, after each test. The CONVEX Liner Add-On to DIAMOND FORTUNE consisted of anchoring a 1.4-m square, 2.5-cm thick steel plate to the wall of the cavity, using a 5-cm diameter center bolt, and four 2.5-cm diameter comer bolts. The bolts daylighted in a drift surrounding the gallery, and separated from it by a 9-m thick rock pillar. The liner plate, the bolts, and the rock pillar were equipped with 23 gages to describe the thermal and mechanical response of the system during pretensioning, during the dynamic loading phase, and post-test. Particular emphasis was given to obtaining the response both upon loading and during the rebound of the system, in order to determine whether the plate ever separated from the rock. So, the main operational objectives of this project were to acquire response data of the system under nuclear loading and to ascertain the status of contact between the steel plate and the rock, as shown by toadstool data and bolt tension data. The instrumentation and data acquisition system performed extremely well. Data were recorded during the dynamic phase; plate temperature was monitored for several hours after the test; and the remaining tension was obtained for several bolts more than three months after the test, upon re-entry in the runaround drift.

  11. Enhanced control of mercury emissions through modified speciation

    SciTech Connect

    Livengood, C.D.; Mendelsohn, M.H.

    1997-07-01

    In anticipation of possible regulations regarding mercury emissions, research efforts sponsored by DOE, EPRI, and others are investigating the risks posed by mercury emissions, improved techniques for measuring those emissions, and possible control measures. The focus in the control research is on techniques that can be used in conjunction with existing flue-gas-cleanup (FGC) systems in order to minimize additional capital costs and operational complexity. Argonne National Laboratory has supported the DOE Fossil Energy Program for over 15 years with research on advanced environmental control technologies. The emphasis in Argonne`s work has been on integrated systems that combine control of several pollutants. Specific topics have included spray drying for sulfur dioxide and particulate-matter control with high-sulfur coal, combined sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides control technologies, and techniques to enhance mercury control in existing FGC systems. The latter area has focused on low-cost dry sorbents for use with fabric filters or electrostatic precipitators and techniques for improving the capture of mercury in wet flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. This paper presents results from recent work that has studied the effects of several oxidizing agents in combination with typical flue-gas species (e.g., nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide) on the oxidation of Hg{sup 0}.

  12. 40 CFR 52.1384 - Emission control regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1384 Emission control..., the State must adopt a SIP revision and obtain our approval of the revision. (b)(1) In 40 CFR 52.1370... Baghouse Maintenance Plan shall be effective only upon full approval of the plan, as revised. This...

  13. The FAST module: an add-on unit for driving commercial scanning probe microscopes at video rate and beyond.

    PubMed

    Esch, Friedrich; Dri, Carlo; Spessot, Alessio; Africh, Cristina; Cautero, Giuseppe; Giuressi, Dario; Sergo, Rudi; Tommasini, Riccardo; Comelli, Giovanni

    2011-05-01

    We present the design and the performance of the FAST (Fast Acquisition of SPM Timeseries) module, an add-on instrument that can drive commercial scanning probe microscopes (SPM) at and beyond video rate image frequencies. In the design of this module, we adopted and integrated several technical solutions previously proposed by different groups in order to overcome the problems encountered when driving SPMs at high scanning frequencies. The fast probe motion control and signal acquisition are implemented in a way that is totally transparent to the existing control electronics, allowing the user to switch immediately and seamlessly to the fast scanning mode when imaging in the conventional slow mode. The unit provides a completely non-invasive, fast scanning upgrade to common SPM instruments that are not specifically designed for high speed scanning. To test its performance, we used this module to drive a commercial scanning tunneling microscope (STM) system in a quasi-constant height mode to frame rates of 100 Hz and above, demonstrating extremely stable and high resolution imaging capabilities. The module is extremely versatile and its application is not limited to STM setups but can, in principle, be generalized to any scanning probe instrument.

  14. Modeling study of natural emissions, source apportionment, and emission control of atmospheric mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shetty, Suraj K.

    ) and CAMNet (Canadian Atmospheric Mercury Measurement Network). The model estimated a total deposition of 474 Mg yr-1 to the CONUS (Contiguous United States) domain, with two-thirds being dry deposited. Reactive gaseous mercury contributed the most to 60% of deposition. Emission speciation distribution is a key factor for local deposition as contribution from large point sources can be as high as 75% near (< 100 km) the emission sources, indicating that emission reduction may result in direct deposition decrease near the source locations. Among the sources, BC contributes to about 68% to 91% of total deposition. Excluding the BC's contribution, EGU contributes to nearly 50% of deposition caused by CONUS emissions in the Northeast, Southeast and East Central regions, while emissions from natural processes are more important in the Pacific and West Central regions (contributing up to 40% of deposition). The modeling results implies that implementation of the new emission standards proposed by USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) would significantly benefit regions that have larger contributions from EGU sources. Control of mercury emissions from coal combustion processes has attracted great attention due to its toxicity and the emission-control regulations and has lead to advancement in state-of-the-art control technologies that alleviate the impact of mercury on ecosystem and human health. This part of the work applies a sorption model to simulate adsorption of mercury in flue gases, onto a confined-bed of activated carbon. The model's performances were studied at various flue gas flow rates, inlet mercury concentrations and adsorption bed temperatures. The process simulated a flue gas, with inlet mercury concentration of 300 ppb, entering at a velocity of 0.3 m s-1 from the bottom into a fixed bed (inside bed diameter of 1 m and 3 m bed height; bed temperature of 25 °C) of activated carbon (particle size of 0.004 m with density of 0.5 g cm-3 and

  15. 40 CFR 63.3544 - How do I determine the emission capture system efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Surface Coating of Metal... meets the criteria in Method 204 of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51 for a PTE and directs all the exhaust gases from the enclosure to an add-on control device. (2) All coatings and thinners used in the...

  16. 40 CFR 63.4565 - How do I determine the emission capture system efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Surface Coating of Plastic Parts and... meets the criteria in Method 204 of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51 for a PTE and directs all the exhaust gases from the enclosure to an add-on control device. (2) All coatings, thinners and/or other...

  17. 40 CFR 63.3965 - How do I determine the emission capture system efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Surface Coating of...) The capture system meets the criteria in Method 204 of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51 for a PTE and directs all the exhaust gases from the enclosure to an add-on control device. (2) All coatings,...

  18. 40 CFR 63.4565 - How do I determine the emission capture system efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Surface Coating of... system meets the criteria in Method 204 of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51 for a PTE and directs all the exhaust gases from the enclosure to an add-on control device. (2) All coatings, thinners and/or...

  19. 40 CFR 63.4165 - How do I determine the emission capture system efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to 40 CFR part 51 to determine the mass fraction of TVH liquid input from each coating, thinner, and... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Surface Coating of Large... CFR part 51 for a PTE and directs all the exhaust gases from the enclosure to an add-on control...

  20. 40 CFR 63.4964 - How do I determine the emission capture system efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Surface Coating of Metal... meets the criteria in Method 204 of appendix M to 40 CFR part 51 for a PTE and directs all the exhaust gases from the enclosure to an add-on control device. (2) All coatings, thinners, and cleaning...

  1. 40 CFR 63.4342 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., and Dyeing of Fabrics and Other Textiles Compliance Requirements for the Emission Rate with Add-on.../printing operations and according to § 63.4341(f) for dyeing/finishing operations, must be equal to or less... materials applied during a deviation on a controlled coating/printing or dyeing/finishing operation as...

  2. 40 CFR 63.4551 - How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limitations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of Plastic Parts and Products Compliance Requirements for the Emission Rate Without Add-on Controls... initial compliance demonstration for each general use, TPO, automotive lamp, and assembled on-road vehicle... facility that is regulated as a TSDF under 40 CFR part 262, 264, 265, or 266. The TSDF may be either...

  3. 40 CFR 63.4751 - How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limitations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Wood Building Products Compliance Requirements for the Emission Rate Without Add-on Controls Option... in § 63.4741(b). (c) Determine the density of each material. Determine the density of each coating..., information from the supplier or manufacturer of the material, or reference sources providing density...

  4. 40 CFR 63.4342 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., and Dyeing of Fabrics and Other Textiles Compliance Requirements for the Emission Rate with Add-on.../printing operations and according to § 63.4341(f) for dyeing/finishing operations, must be equal to or less... materials applied during a deviation on a controlled coating/printing or dyeing/finishing operation as...

  5. 40 CFR 63.4331 - How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limitations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... web coating/printing operations, you may use the emission rate without add-on controls option for any individual web coating/printing operation, for any group of web coating/printing operations in the affected source, or for all the web coating/printing operations as a group in the affected source. You must...

  6. Controlling emissions from electroplating by the application of ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Mason, T J; Lorimer, J P; Saleem, S; Paniwnyk, L

    2001-08-15

    Ultrasonic irradiation applied either above the surface of a chromic acid plating bath or through the plating bath itself during the process of chromium electroplating reduces the emissions of hazardous chromic acid mist The use of ultrasound is particularly effective at high current densities. The results suggest that sonication during the electroplating of chromium may provide a useful method of controlling chrome mist emission without the need for a chemical additive (mist suppressant). In conjunction with lip extraction this could lead to a more efficient process since the use of ultrasound has been shown to be of benefit in the electroplating process itself.

  7. Air emission control equipment - the new challenge for equpiment suppliers

    SciTech Connect

    Lobb, F.H.

    1997-12-31

    The combination of Title V, the CAM Rule and the Credible Evidence Rule demand industrial sites view the selection and operation of emission control devices in a whole new light. No longer can users see these devices as detached end of pipe pieces of equipment essentially purchased off lowest bid. These regulatory changes force plants to fully integrate the operation of these devices into their process control systems and instrumentation. And this is specifically EPA`s stated intent. EPA believes that by forcing sites to exercise the same knowledge and attention to air emissions that they do to operate their production processes, emissions will undergo a natural reduction across the country. Process and operational data that historically has been the sole province of sites becomes public. And compliance with state defined requirements must be demonstrated essentially continuously. This paper explores the new approach to compliance and provides insight through specific field examples/installations of emission control equipment. The author seeks to promote understanding through discussion of these significant regulatory changes.

  8. Emissions from premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion and affect on emission control devices

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, II, James E; Kass, Michael D; Huff, Shean P; Barone, Teresa L; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Storey, John Morse

    2010-01-01

    A light-duty diesel engine has been operated in advanced combustion modes known generally as premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI). The emissions have been characterized for several load and speed combinations. Fewer NO{sub x} and particulate matter (PM) emissions are produced by PCCI, but higher CO and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions result. In addition, the nature of the PM differs from conventional combustion; the PM is smaller and has a much higher soluble organic fraction (SOF) content (68% vs. 30% for conventional combustion). Three catalyst technologies were studied to determine the affects of HECC on catalyst performance; the technologies were a lean NO{sub x} trap (LNT), diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), and diesel particulate filter (DPF). The LNT benefited greatly from the reduced NO{sub x} emissions associated with PCCI. NO{sub x} capacity requirements are reduced as well as overall tailpipe NO{sub x} levels particularly at low load and temperature conditions where regeneration of the LNT is difficult. The DOC performance requirements for PCCI are more stringent due to the higher CO and HC emissions; however, the DOC was effective at controlling the higher CO and HC emissions at conditions above the light-off temperature. Below light-off, CO and HC emissions are problematic. The study of DPF technology focused on the fuel penalties associated with DPF regeneration or 'desoot' due to the different PM loading rates from PCCI vs. conventional combustion. Less frequent desoot events were required from the lower PM from PCCI and, when used in conjunction with an LNT, the lower PM from less frequent LNT regeneration. The lower desoot frequency leads a {approx}3% fuel penalty for a mixture of PCCI and conventional loads vs. {approx}4% for conventional only combustion.

  9. The next generation of automobile emissions reduction: Innovative control of off-cycle emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, T F; Lyons, C E

    1995-03-01

    Innovative heat management technologies can reduce emissions from cars by an order of magnitude. Substantial reductions would be realized during cold starts and in evaporative emissions. Such improvements result from a new class of variable-conductance steel vacuum insulations that insulate during one time period and take advantage of beneficial thermal conditions during another. Around a catalytic converter, for example, such control allows heat from one driving cycle to catalyze engine-out emissions occurring at the beginning of the next cycle. As with other more efficient uses of heat in automobiles, reduced complexity and cost are likely compared to supplemental catalyst heating systems. In a similar way, thermal cycling of fuel and the resulting vapor release can be reduced or avoided. Urban air quality could be greatly improved by the wide availability of vehicles using these technologies early in the next century. This paper presents analyses and prototype data supporting the design, operation, and rapid market penetration of internal combustion engine vehicles with significantly lower emissions based on such improved thermal management. Potential implications for fleet emissions are discussed.

  10. Prospective open-label study of add-on and monotherapy topiramate in civilians with chronic nonhallucinatory posttraumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Berlant, Jeffrey L

    2004-01-01

    Background In order to confirm therapeutic effects of topiramate on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) observed in a prior study, a new prospective, open-label study was conducted to examine acute responses in chronic, nonhallucinatory PTSD. Methods Thirty-three consecutive newly recruited civilian adult outpatients (mean age 46 years, 85% female) with DSM-IV-diagnosed chronic PTSD, excluding those with concurrent auditory or visual hallucinations, received topiramate either as monotherapy (n = 5) or augmentation (n = 28). The primary measure was a change in the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) score from baseline to 4 weeks, with response defined as a ≥ 30% reduction of PTSD symptoms. Results For those taking the PCL-C at both baseline and week 4 (n = 30), total symptoms declined by 49% at week 4 (paired t-test, P < 0.001) with similar subscale reductions for reexperiencing, avoidance/numbing, and hyperarousal symptoms. The response rate at week 4 was 77%. Age, sex, bipolar comorbidity, age at onset of PTSD, duration of symptoms, severity of baseline PCL-C score, and monotherapy versus add-on medication administration did not predict reduction in PTSD symptoms. Median time to full response was 9 days and median dosage was 50 mg/day. Conclusions Promising open-label findings in a new sample converge with findings of a previous study. The use of topiramate for treatment of chronic PTSD, at least in civilians, warrants controlled clinical trials. PMID:15315714

  11. Control of several emissions during olive pomace thermal degradation.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Teresa; Nogales, Sergio; Román, Silvia; Montero, Irene; Arranz, José Ignacio; Sepúlveda, Francisco José

    2014-01-01

    Biomass plays an important role as an energy source, being an interesting alternative to fossil fuels due to its environment-friendly and sustainable characteristics. However, due to the exposure of customers to emissions during biomass heating, evolved pollutants should be taken into account and controlled. Changing raw materials or mixing them with another less pollutant biomass could be a suitable step to reduce pollution. This work studied the thermal behaviour of olive pomace, pyrenean oak and their blends under combustion using thermogravimetric analysis. It was possible to monitor the emissions released during the process by coupling mass spectrometry analysis. The experiments were carried out under non-isothermal conditions at the temperature range 25-750 °C and a heating rate of 20 °C·min⁻¹. The following species were analysed: aromatic compounds (benzene and toluene), sulphur emissions (sulphur dioxide), 1,4-dioxin, hydrochloric acid, carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides. The results indicated that pollutants were mainly evolved in two different stages, which are related to the thermal degradation steps. Thus, depending on the pollutant and raw material composition, different emission profiles were observed. Furthermore, intensity of the emission profiles was related, in some cases, to the composition of the precursor. PMID:25314298

  12. Control of several emissions during olive pomace thermal degradation.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Teresa; Nogales, Sergio; Román, Silvia; Montero, Irene; Arranz, José Ignacio; Sepúlveda, Francisco José

    2014-01-01

    Biomass plays an important role as an energy source, being an interesting alternative to fossil fuels due to its environment-friendly and sustainable characteristics. However, due to the exposure of customers to emissions during biomass heating, evolved pollutants should be taken into account and controlled. Changing raw materials or mixing them with another less pollutant biomass could be a suitable step to reduce pollution. This work studied the thermal behaviour of olive pomace, pyrenean oak and their blends under combustion using thermogravimetric analysis. It was possible to monitor the emissions released during the process by coupling mass spectrometry analysis. The experiments were carried out under non-isothermal conditions at the temperature range 25-750 °C and a heating rate of 20 °C·min⁻¹. The following species were analysed: aromatic compounds (benzene and toluene), sulphur emissions (sulphur dioxide), 1,4-dioxin, hydrochloric acid, carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides. The results indicated that pollutants were mainly evolved in two different stages, which are related to the thermal degradation steps. Thus, depending on the pollutant and raw material composition, different emission profiles were observed. Furthermore, intensity of the emission profiles was related, in some cases, to the composition of the precursor.

  13. Add-on conservation benefits of marine territorial user rights fishery policies in central Chile.

    PubMed

    Gelcich, Stefan; Godoy, Natalio; Prado, Luis; Castilla, Juan Carlos

    2008-01-01

    To combine the rational use of marine benthic resources and economic development of small-scale fishers, Chile passed legislation in 1991 establishing a comanagement policy that grants exclusive territorial user rights for fisheries (TURFs) to artisanal fisher organizations in well-defined inshore coastal areas, known as Management and Exploitation Areas for Benthic Resources (MEABRs). In general the policy has been proclaimed a management and economic success because benthic resource abundances have increased inside MEABRs in comparison with open-access areas. However, there is a lack of studies assessing the impact of this management policy on nontargeted subtidal species and community assemblages and the policy's implications for biodiversity and conservation. This study starts to fill this gap and links the allocation of TURFs for benthic resources with add-on conservation benefits for species that are not directly linked with the fishery policy. Comparative subtidal surveys inside vs. outside MEABRs were used to assess the effects of three MEABRs on managed targeted benthic species, biodiversity (species richness), and community assemblages in central Chile. Surveys focused exclusively on subtidal kelp forest habitats dominated by Lessonia trabeculata, spanning 4-12 m in depth and with similar levels of habitat complexity. The study comprised: (1) quantification of kelp forest complexity, (2) understory survey of sessile species, (3) quantification of conspicuous benthic macroinvertebrates, including those under management, and (4) quantification of reef-fish species inside the kelp habitat. Results showed population enhancement of target-managed invertebrates inside MEABRs. Moreover, reef-fish species were significantly more diverse and abundant inside MEABRs, and community assemblages of nontarget benthic invertebrates and reef fish were significantly different inside vs. outside MEABRs. The comanagement of inshore benthic resources in Chile, through MEABRs

  14. LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Don Augenstein

    1999-01-11

    ''Conventional'' waste landfills emit methane, a potent greenhouse gas, in quantities such that landfill methane is a major factor in global climate change. Controlled landfilling is a novel approach to manage landfills for rapid completion of total gas generation, maximizing gas capture and minimizing emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated and brought to much earlier completion by improving conditions for biological processes (principally moisture levels) in the landfill. Gas recovery efficiency approaches 100% through use of surface membrane cover over porous gas recovery layers operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project's results at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California are, to date, highly encouraging. Two major controlled landfilling benefits would be the reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions.

  15. Health and climate policy impacts on sulfur emission control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Yi; Russell, Lynn M.; Bradford, David F.

    2005-12-01

    Sulfate aerosol from burning fossil fuels not only has strong cooling effects on the Earth's climate but also imposes substantial costs on human health. To assess the impact of addressing air pollution on climate policy, we incorporate both the climate and health effects of sulfate aerosol into an integrated-assessment model of fossil fuel emission control. Our simulations show that a policy that adjusts fossil fuel and sulfur emissions to address both warming and health simultaneously will support more stringent fossil fuel and sulfur controls. The combination of both climate and health objectives leads to an acceleration of global warming in the 21st century as a result of the short-term climate response to the decreased cooling from the immediate removal of short-lived sulfate aerosol. In the long term (more than 100 years), reducing sulfate aerosol emissions requires that we decrease fossil fuel combustion in general, thereby removing some of the coemitted carbon emissions and leading to a reduction in global warming.

  16. Emissions trading -- Market-based approaches offer pollution control incentives

    SciTech Connect

    Tombach, I.

    1994-06-01

    In the last several years, market-based'' strategies for achieving air quality goals have joined the traditional command-and-control'' approach to air pollution management. The premise behind market approaches is that the right'' to emit air pollutants provided by a permit has monetary value. A market-based approach provides facility operators with incentives to take advantage of the monetary value associated with reducing emissions below permitted levels. It has been recognized for some time that applying such a mechanism can be a cost-effective regional air quality management strategy. To date, economic incentives have been exploited somewhat in emissions reduction credit programs operating in non-attainment areas, but transactions have been tightly controlled by regulatory agencies. Two recently implemented programs have taken to the marketplace the management of emissions from specific sources. One is incorporated in the acid rain mitigation provisions of Title 4 of the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments; the other is the Regional Clean Air Incentives Market (RECLAIM), a program based on reducing ozone. Both Title 4 and RECLAIM are intended to achieve substantial reductions during the next decade in emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) and oxides of nitrogens (NO[sub x]) from selected larger sources.

  17. The effects of energy paths and emission controls and standards on future trends in China's emissions of primary air pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhang, J.; Nielsen, C. P.

    2014-09-01

    To examine the efficacy of China's actions to control atmospheric pollution, three levels of growth of energy consumption and three levels of implementation of emission controls are estimated, generating a total of nine combined activity-emission control scenarios that are then used to estimate trends of national emissions of primary air pollutants through 2030. The emission control strategies are expected to have more effects than the energy paths on the future emission trends for all the concerned pollutants. As recently promulgated national action plans of air pollution prevention and control (NAPAPPC) are implemented, China's anthropogenic pollutant emissions should decline. For example, the emissions of SO2, NOx, total suspended particles (TSP), PM10, and PM2.5 are estimated to decline 7, 20, 41, 34, and 31% from 2010 to 2030, respectively, in the "best guess" scenario that includes national commitment of energy saving policy and implementation of NAPAPPC. Should the issued/proposed emission standards be fully achieved, a less likely scenario, annual emissions would be further reduced, ranging from 17 (for primary PM2.5) to 29% (for NOx) declines in 2015, and the analogue numbers would be 12 and 24% in 2030. The uncertainties of emission projections result mainly from the uncertain operational conditions of swiftly proliferating air pollutant control devices and lack of detailed information about emission control plans by region. The predicted emission trends by sector and chemical species raise concerns about current pollution control strategies: the potential for emissions abatement in key sectors may be declining due to the near saturation of emission control devices use; risks of ecosystem acidification could rise because emissions of alkaline base cations may be declining faster than those of SO2; and radiative forcing could rise because emissions of positive-forcing carbonaceous aerosols may decline more slowly than those of SO2 emissions and thereby

  18. The effects of energy paths and emission controls and standards on future trends in China's emissions of primary air pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhang, J.; Nielsen, C. P.

    2014-03-01

    To examine the efficacy of China's actions to control atmospheric pollution, three levels of growth of energy consumption and three levels of implementation of emission controls are estimated, generating a total of nine combined activity-emission control scenarios that are then used to estimate trends of national emissions of primary air pollutants through 2030. The emission control strategies are expected to have more effects than the energy paths on the future emission trends for all the concerned pollutants. As recently promulgated national action plans of air pollution prevention and control (NAPAPPC) are implemented, China's anthropogenic pollutant emissions should decline. For example, the emissions of SO2, NOx, total primary particulate matter (PM), PM10, and PM2.5 are estimated to decline 7%, 20%, 41%, 34%, and 31% from 2010 to 2030, respectively, in the "best guess" scenario that includes national commitment of energy saving policy and partial implementation of NAPAPPC. Should the issued/proposed emission standards be fully achieved, a less likely scenario, annual emissions would be further reduced, ranging from 17% (for primary PM2.5) to 29% (for NOx) declines in 2015, and the analogue numbers would be 12% and 24% in 2030. The uncertainties of emission projections result mainly from the uncertain operational conditions of swiftly proliferating air pollutant control devices and lack of detailed information about emission control plans by region. The predicted emission trends by sector and chemical species raise concerns about current pollution control strategies: the potential for emissions abatement in key sectors may be declining due to the near saturation of emission control devices use; risks of ecosystem acidification could rise because emissions of alkaline base cations may be declining faster than those of SO2; and radiative forcing could rise because emissions of positive-forcing carbonaceous aerosols may decline more slowly than those of SO2

  19. Understanding and constraining global controls on dust emissions from playas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, Robert; Eckardt, Frank; Vickery, Kate; Wiggs, Giles; Hipondoka, Martin; Murray, Jon; Baddock, Matt; Brindley, Helen; King, James; Nield, Jo; Thomas, Dave; Washington, Richard; Haustein, Karsten

    2016-04-01

    Playas are ephemeral, endorheic lake systems that are common in arid regions. They have been identified as both regionally and globally significant sources of mineral dust. Emissions of dust from large playas can therefore impact significantly on regional climate through a range of land/atmosphere interactions. However, not all playas have or will emit dust, and those that do emit dust rarely do so consistently. Thus, global models that target ephemeral lakes at source areas often struggle to model the emission characteristics of the locations accurately. It is clear that our understanding of controls on dust emission from these environments varies at global scales (i.e. relevant to climate models) is poorly understood. Existing research confirms that the potential for dust emission from playas within dryland regions can be extremely varied; large disparities are noted to exist from one playa to another, and significant spatial/temporal heterogeneity has been observed within those playas that do emit dust. Research also shows that dust fluxes from playa surfaces varies vary based on hydrological gradient or ephemeral inflows and may change over time in response to human or climate forcing mechanisms. Consequently, despite the presence of abundant fine sediment and suitable wind conditions, some playas will remain supply limited and will not emit dust as they are either too wet (e.g. via extensive groundwater discharge) not salty enough (e.g. salts have been removed from the surface by groundwater recharge) or there is not a sufficient supply of sand (coarse particles) on or at the upwind edge of the playa surface to cause dust emission. Other playas (e.g. Owens Lake) have emitted dust at a disproportionate (regionally/nationally) significant level seemingly without constraint (becoming effectively transport capacity limited) through optimal combinations of the same factors. Finally, we can also see situations where dust emitting playa systems flip between supply

  20. Control of mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Hann S.; Livengood, C.D.; Wu, Jiann M.

    1993-06-01

    The Development of Advanced Environmental Control Technology project at Argonne is designed to investigate new concepts leading to advanced control technologies for fossil-energy systems. Within that project, specific research tasks are focused on the development of combined NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2}control technologies, evaluation of waste/byproduct materials from advanced flue-gas-cleanup (FGC) systems, and development of new or improved control measures for the abatement of emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from fossil-fuel combustion. The last task, which is the subject of this paper, also includes the evaluation of any possible effects of captured HAP species on waste disposal, as well as the evaluation of HAP measuring techniques and instruments. The HAPs currently under investigation in this task include mercury and arsenic compounds. Only experimental activities concerning mercury control are reported in this paper.

  1. Controlling automotive exhaust emissions: successes and underlying science.

    PubMed

    Twigg, Martyn V

    2005-04-15

    Photochemical reactions of vehicle exhaust pollutants were responsible for photochemical smog in many cities during the 1960s and 1970s. Engine improvements helped, but additional measures were needed to achieve legislated emissions levels. First oxidation catalysts lowered hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide, and later nitrogen oxides were reduced to nitrogen in a two-stage process. By the 1980s, exhaust gas could be kept stoichiometric and hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides were simultaneously converted over a single 'three-way catalyst'. Today, advanced three-way catalyst systems emissions are exceptionally low. NOx control from lean-burn engines demands an additional approach because NO cannot be dissociated under lean conditions. Current lean-burn gasoline engine NOx control involves forming a nitrate phase and periodically enriching the exhaust to reduce it to nitrogen, and this is being modified for use on diesel engines. Selective catalytic reduction with ammonia is an alternative that can be very efficient, but it requires ammonia or a compound from which it can be obtained. Diesel engines produce particulate matter, and, because of health concerns, filtration processes are being introduced to control these emissions. On heavy duty diesel engines the exhaust gas temperature is high enough for NO in the exhaust to be oxidised over a catalyst to NO2 that smoothly oxidises particulate material (PM) in the filter. Passenger cars operate at lower temperatures, and it is necessary to periodically burn the PM in air at high temperatures.

  2. [Topiramate in clinical practice (part 1). Multicentric retrospective analysis of the efficacy of topiramate as add-on therapy according to the topographic form of focal epilepsy].

    PubMed

    Biraben, A; Genton, P

    2000-11-01

    Randomized, controlled studies of new antiepileptic drugs do not always highlight their best utilization in clinical practice. The authors gathered 361 cases of focal epilepsies treated with topiramate (TPM) as an add-on to other anti epileptic drugs prior to marketing. Among these, only 237 were treated for at least 3 months and analyzed here. These patients were treated by neurologists in a clinical setting, with free choice of associated drugs, titration and final daily doses. Compared with controlled studies, TPM was titrated slowly (mean rate: 43 mg/week, vs 100 to 200), and was given at a lower final dose (346 mg/d, vs 200 to 1000). This analysis confirmed the efficacy of TPM as add-on therapy in focal epilepsies (9.3p.100 totally controlled, 19 p.100 with reduction of seizures=90 p. 100, 52.7 p.100 responders at=50 p.100). It showed that there was a striking response in epilepsies originating from the central areas, which are often drug-resistant (19 p.100 totally controlled, 33.33 p. 100 with reduction of seizures=90 p.100). There were responders in all topographic groups. There was however no specific response according to etiology. PMID:11119051

  3. Solid state carbon nanotube device for controllable trion electroluminescence emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Shuang; Ma, Ze; Wei, Nan; Liu, Huaping; Wang, Sheng; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2016-03-01

    Semiconducting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have a direct chirality-dependent bandgap and reduced dimensionality-related quantum confinement effects, which are closely related to the performance of optoelectronic devices. Here, taking advantage of the large energy separations between neutral singlet excitons and charged excitons, i.e. trions in CNTs, we have achieved for the first time all trion electroluminescence (EL) emission from chirality-sorted (8,3) and (8,4) CNT-based solid state devices. We showed that strong trion emission can be obtained as a result of localized impact excitation and electrically injected holes, with an estimated efficiency of ~5 × 10-4 photons per injected hole. The importance of contact-controlled carrier injection (including symmetric and asymmetric contact configurations) and EL spectral stability for gradually increasing bias were also investigated. The realization of electrically induced pure trion emission opens up a new opportunity for CNT film-based optoelectronic devices, providing a new degree of freedom in controlling the devices to extend potential applications in spin or magnetic optoelectronics fields.Semiconducting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have a direct chirality-dependent bandgap and reduced dimensionality-related quantum confinement effects, which are closely related to the performance of optoelectronic devices. Here, taking advantage of the large energy separations between neutral singlet excitons and charged excitons, i.e. trions in CNTs, we have achieved for the first time all trion electroluminescence (EL) emission from chirality-sorted (8,3) and (8,4) CNT-based solid state devices. We showed that strong trion emission can be obtained as a result of localized impact excitation and electrically injected holes, with an estimated efficiency of ~5 × 10-4 photons per injected hole. The importance of contact-controlled carrier injection (including symmetric and asymmetric contact configurations) and EL spectral stability for

  4. THE IMPACT OF PARTICULATE EMISSIONS CONTROL ON THE CONTROL OF OTHER MWC AIR EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    On December 20, 1989, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed revised new source performance standards for new municipal waste combustion (MWC) units and guidelines for existing sources. The proposed national regulations require tighter particulate matter control and a...

  5. Effects of gliclazide add on metformin on serum omentin-1 levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Al-Gareeb, Ali I.; Alrubai, Haidar F.; Suliaman, Sammar M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Omentin is a newly identified adipokine that has beneficial influence against cardiovascular disorders. Hence, considering the impact of anti-diabetic drug on omentin levels may provide an adjuvant strategy to protect diabetic patients against valuable clinical hazards. Aim of the Study: To investigate the influence of metformin alone or in combination with gliclazide on the level of serum omentin among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Patients and Methods: A total of 70 newly diagnosed patients with T2DM were enrolled in this randomized, double-blind prospective study, and divided into two equal groups based on treatment regimen in which Group 1 treated with metformin (1000 mg) and Group 2 treated with metformin (1000 mg) plus gliclazide (80 mg). Blood glucose levels, HbA1C, insulin levels, and serum omentin-1 were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. Result: Use of gliclazide as an add-on therapy to metformin in patients with T2DM result in better glycemic control evidenced by significant reductions in the levels of blood glucose levels and HbA1C and much more improvement in insulin sensitivity evidenced by significant decreased in insulin resistance index, whereas it has adverse impact on serum omentin-1 levels evidenced by significant decrement in omentin-1 level in comparison to their pretreatment levels among Group 2 patients. Conclusions: Adding of gliclazide to metformin in treatment of patients with T2DM might extend the therapeutic action of metformin in regarding much better controlling of glycemic indices, but, at the same time, it might attenuate the cardioprotective effects of metformin by its adverse influence on serum omentin-1 levels. PMID:27042415

  6. A cost-effective add-on-value card-assisted firewall over Taiwan's NHI VPN framework.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jyh-Win; Hou, Ting-Wei

    2007-06-01

    Besides the overall budget for building the infrastructure of a healthcare-service-based virtual private network (VPN) in Taiwan, two issues were considered critical for its acceptance by the country's 17,000 plus medical institutions. One was who was to pay for the network (ADSL or modem) connection fee; the other was who was to pay for the firewall/anti-virus software. This paper addresses the second issue by proposing an efficient freeware firewall, named card-assisted firewall (CAF), for NHI VPN edge-hosts, which is also an add-on-value application of the National Healthcare IC card that every insurant and medical professional has. The innovative concept is that any NHI VPN site (edge-host) can establish diversified secure-authenticated connections with other sites only by an authentication mechanism, which requires a NHI Java card state machine and the Access Control List of the host. It is different from two-factor authentication cards in four ways: (1) a PIN code is not a must; (2) it requires authentication with the remote IC card Data Centre; (3) the NHI cards are already available, no modification is needed, and there is no further cost for the deployment of the cards; (4) although the cards are in the reader, the communication cannot start unless the cards are in the corresponding states; i.e. the states allow communication. An implementation, on a Microsoft Windows XP platform, demonstrated the system's feasibility over an emulation of the NHI VPN framework. It maintained a high line speed, the driver took up 39 KB of disk space, installation was simple, not requiring any extra hardware or software, and the average packet processing time of the CAF driver measured was 0.3084 ms. The average overhead in comparing the Access Control List predefined routing in card, in an FTP testing experiment, was 5.7 micros (receiving) and 8 micros (sending).

  7. A cost-effective add-on-value card-assisted firewall over Taiwan's NHI VPN framework.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jyh-Win; Hou, Ting-Wei

    2007-06-01

    Besides the overall budget for building the infrastructure of a healthcare-service-based virtual private network (VPN) in Taiwan, two issues were considered critical for its acceptance by the country's 17,000 plus medical institutions. One was who was to pay for the network (ADSL or modem) connection fee; the other was who was to pay for the firewall/anti-virus software. This paper addresses the second issue by proposing an efficient freeware firewall, named card-assisted firewall (CAF), for NHI VPN edge-hosts, which is also an add-on-value application of the National Healthcare IC card that every insurant and medical professional has. The innovative concept is that any NHI VPN site (edge-host) can establish diversified secure-authenticated connections with other sites only by an authentication mechanism, which requires a NHI Java card state machine and the Access Control List of the host. It is different from two-factor authentication cards in four ways: (1) a PIN code is not a must; (2) it requires authentication with the remote IC card Data Centre; (3) the NHI cards are already available, no modification is needed, and there is no further cost for the deployment of the cards; (4) although the cards are in the reader, the communication cannot start unless the cards are in the corresponding states; i.e. the states allow communication. An implementation, on a Microsoft Windows XP platform, demonstrated the system's feasibility over an emulation of the NHI VPN framework. It maintained a high line speed, the driver took up 39 KB of disk space, installation was simple, not requiring any extra hardware or software, and the average packet processing time of the CAF driver measured was 0.3084 ms. The average overhead in comparing the Access Control List predefined routing in card, in an FTP testing experiment, was 5.7 micros (receiving) and 8 micros (sending). PMID:17541860

  8. Aerodynamic drag reduction tests on a full-scale tractor-trailer combination with several add-on devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montoya, L. C.; Steers, L. L.

    1974-01-01

    Aerodynamic drag tests were performed on a conventional cab-over-engine tractor with a 45-foot trailer and five commercially available or potentially available add-on devices using the coast-down method. The tests ranged in velocity from approximately 30 miles per hour to 65 miles per hour and included some flow visualization. A smooth, level runway at Edwards Air Force Base was used for the tests, and deceleration measurements were taken with both accelerometers and stopwatches. An evaluation of the drag reduction results obtained with each of the five add-on devices is presented.

  9. Add-on prednisolone in the management of cervical lymph node tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Bunkar, Moti Lal; Agnihotri, Shashi Prakash; Gupta, Prahlad Ral; Arya, Savita

    2016-04-01

    Studies defining role of systemic steroids in routine management of cervical lymph node tuberculosis (CLNTB) are too few and inconclusive. The present study was carried out to define the role of add-on prednisolone in the management of CLNTB. Patients of CLNTB were randomized into two groups. Group I patients received DOTS Category I treatment along with prednisolone 1mg/kg for first 4 weeks and then tapered down. Group II patients received DOTS Category I treatment along with placebo. Patients were kept under close follow up for 6 months. Response to therapy and adverse drug reactions, if any, were recorded. A total of 120 patients completed the study protocol. The two groups were similar with respect to age, sex, smoking, alcoholism, and clinical profile (p>0.5). At 2 months, 54 out of 60 patients in Group I showed symptom relief when compared with 44 out of 60 patients in Group II (p<0.001). Abscess, sinus, and/or appearance of new lymph node/s were noted in 3 and 13 patients in Group I and Group II, respectively (p<0.001). Complete resolution was seen in 57 patients in Group I when compared with only 40 patients of Group II and sequel in form of residual LN was noted in three patients of Group I when compared with 20 in Group II (p<0.001). Gastrointestinal side effects were reported by higher number of patients in Group I but skin rashes and joint pain were fewer when compared with Group II (p>0.05). All the adverse reactions were transient and amenable to symptomatic treatment. PMID:27451818

  10. Establishing a Near Term Lunar Farside Gravity Model via Inexpensive Add-on Navigation Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Mesarch, Michael; Miller, Ronald; Bell, David; Jedrey, Tom; Butman, Stanley; Asmar, Sami

    2007-01-01

    The Space Communications and Navigation, Constellation Integration Project (SCIP) is tasked with defining, developing, deploying and operating an evolving multi-decade communications and navigation (C/N) infrastructure including services and subsystems that will support both robotic and human exploration activities at the Moon. This paper discusses an early far side gravitational mapping service and related telecom subsystem that uses an existing spacecraft (WIND) and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) to collect data that would address several needs of the SCIP. An important aspect of such an endeavor is to vastly improve the current lunar gravity model while demonstrating the navigation and stationkeeping of a relay spacecraft. We describe a gravity data acquisition activity and the trajectory design of the relay orbit in an Earth-Moon L2 co-linear libration orbit. Several phases of the transfer from an Earth-Sun to the Earth-Moon region are discussed along with transfers within the Earth-Moon system. We describe a proposed, but not integrated, add-on to LRO scheduled to be launched in October of 2008. LRO provided a real host spacecraft against which we designed the science payload and mission activities. From a strategic standpoint, LRO was a very exciting first flight opportunity for gravity science data collection. Gravity Science data collection requires the use of one or more low altitude lunar polar orbiters. Variations in the lunar gravity field will cause measurable variations in the orbit of a low altitude lunar orbiter. The primary means to capture these induced motions is to monitor the Doppler shift of a radio signal to or from the low altitude spacecraft, given that the signal is referenced to a stable frequency reference. For the lunar far side, a secondary orbiting radio signal platform is required. We provide an in-depth look at link margins, trajectory design, and hardware implications. Our approach posed minimum risk to a host mission while

  11. Mozart K.448 acts as a potential add-on therapy in children with refractory epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lung-Chang; Lee, Wei-Te; Wang, Chien-Hua; Chen, Hsiu-Lin; Wu, Hui-Chuan; Tsai, Chin-Lin; Wei, Ruey-Chang; Mok, Hin-Kiu; Weng, Chia-Fen; Lee, Mei-Wen; Yang, Rei-Cheng

    2011-03-01

    Mozart's Sonata for two pianos in D major, K.448 (Mozart K.448), has been shown to improve mental function, leading to what is known as the Mozart effect. Our previous work revealed that epileptiform discharges in children with epilepsy decreased during and immediately after listening to Mozart K.448. In this study, we evaluated the long-term effects of Mozart K.448 on children with refractory epilepsy. Eleven children with refractory epilepsy were enrolled. All of the patients were diagnosed as having had refractory epilepsy for more than 1 year (range =1 year to 6 years 4 months, mean =3 years 11 months) and had been receiving at least two antiepileptic drugs (AED). During the study period, they listened to Mozart K.448 once a day before bedtime for 6 months. Seizure frequencies were recorded 6 months before they started listening to this music and monthly during the study period. All of the patients remained on the same AEDs during the 6-month study period. Frequencies of seizures were compared before and after listening to Mozart K.448. Eight of eleven patients were seizure free (N=2) or had very good responses (N=6) after 6 months of listening to Mozart K.448. The remaining three (27.3%) showed minimal or no effect (effectiveness <50%; unmodified or worsened seizure frequency). The average seizure reduction was 53.6 ± 62.0%. There were no significant differences in seizure reduction with IQ, etiology, or gender. We conclude that Mozart K.448 should be further studied as a potential add-on therapy in the treatment of children with refractory epilepsy.

  12. Emission control of gas effluents from geothermal power plants.

    PubMed

    Axtmann, R C

    1975-01-01

    Geothermal steam at the world's five largest power plants contains from 0.15 to 30% noncondensable gases including CO(2), H(2)S, H(2), CH(4), N(2), H(3)BO(3), and NH(3). At four of the plants the gases are first separated from the steam and then discharged to the environment; at the fifth, the noncondensables exhaust directly to the atmosphere along with spent steam. Some CO(2) and sulfur emission rates rival those from fossil-fueled plants on a per megawatt-day basis. The ammonia and boron effluents can interfere with animal and plant life. The effects of sulfur (which emerges as H(2)S but may oxidize to SO(2)) on either ambient air quality or longterm human health are largely unknown. Most geothermal turbines are equipped with direct contact condensers which complicate emission control because they provide two or more pathways for the effluents to reach the environment. Use of direct contact condensers could permit efficient emission control if coupled to processes that produce saleable quantities of purified carbon dioxide and elemental sulfur.

  13. Technology for CO{sub 2} emission monitoring and control

    SciTech Connect

    Joyce, E.L. Jr.; Unkefer, P.J.; Pendergrass, J.H.; Parkinson, W.J.; Loose, V.W.; Brainard, J.R.

    1998-12-31

    The authors examined three specific areas relative to CO{sub 2} emissions and controls: (1) the effect of deregulation of the utility industry on emissions, (2) the role of advanced power systems in reducing emissions, and (3) developing CO{sub 2} mitigation technologies. In this work the Energy Technologies program office at Los Alamos attempted to initiate an integrated approach that includes a range of tasks involving both point and distributed CO{sub 2} control. The authors have examined evolving mitigation (separation and sequestration) technologies for CO{sub 2} disposal. The separation of hydrogen gas from high-temperature CO{sub 2}-containing streams is a critical component of carbon dioxide mitigation technology, and cost-effective point sequestration will require separation of CO{sub 2} from H{sub 2}. They investigated four types of separation techniques: two high-temperature membrane technologies, an intermediate-temperature membrane technology, and a separation technology based on the formation of CO{sub 2} hydrate compounds through reaction of CO{sub 2} with water at near freezing conditions. At Los Alamos, sequestration technologies are being developed along three principal areas: mineral sequestration of CO{sub 2}, the enhancement of natural sinks using biotechnology methods, and the conversion of CO{sub 2} to methanol using high-temperature photolysis.

  14. Proposed rule highlights need for effective emissions monitoring, control

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    While the regulated community for the last year or so has found comfort in reports that EPA has failed to meet its mandated schedule for issuing new CAA regulations and setting compliance deadlines, the Agency has not been idle. The Agency in October proposed a major rule that would, in effect, abandon traditional methods of monitoring and enforcing compliance with CAA's air pollution control regulations. Instead of relying on plant inspections or citizens' complaints to uncover regulatory infractions, the proposed regulations would require most emissions sources to demonstrate--not during a single test or inspection, but continuously--compliance with emissions regulations. This proposed continuous, or enhanced,'' monitoring rule would be tied to CAA's Title 5 operating permit program.

  15. Emission control of four-stroke motorcycle engine

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C.Y.Y.; Peng, Y.Y.; Gau, T.H.

    1995-12-31

    Experimental studies of the intake-generated charge motion (swirl and tumble) and engine combustion were conducted in a 125 cc four-stroke motorcycle engine. In this work, a Variable Inlet Port (VIP) was designed to generate various levels of charge motion in different operation conditions. The static flow test and the engine experiments were performed to study the effects of inlet charge motion on the engine combustion, cycle variation, fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. The results show that the cycle variation decreased, the lean limit extended, and the burning rate and the fuel economy increased when the charge motion increased. With this new design of flow control system, the motorcycle can be run with lean mixture and drastically reduce the exhaust emissions and fuel consumption while still maintaining high specific power output.

  16. Quality control of thermal barrier coatings using acoustic emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, David J.; Taylor, Jenifer A. T.

    2000-06-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are used to protect underlying metal from heat generated during combustion of fuel, especially in truck engines and jet turbines. These coatings are thin, partially stabilized zirconia, separated from the substrate metal by an interface layer, which serves to enhance bonding and reduce the thermal expansion mismatch between the metal and the ceramic. The reliability of these coatings is currently not predictable. The work described in this paper focused on the use of acoustic emission (AE) as a quality control test for TBCs. The test specimens were commercially sprayed straps. The data show that differences in spraying parameters and microstructure are clearly visible in the emissions during thermal cycling. This work indicates that the failure mechanism can be predicted from the AEs during the first thermal cycle.

  17. Automated Boiler Combustion Controls for Emission Reduction and Efficiency Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1998-12-02

    In the late 1980s, then President Bush visited Krakow, Poland. The terrible air quality theremotivated him to initiate a USAID-funded program, managed by DOE, entitled "Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program." The primary objective of this program was to encourage the formation of commercial ventures between U.S. and Polish firms to provide equipment and/or services to reduce pollution from low-emission sources in Krakow, Poland. This program led to the award of a number of cooperative agreements, including one to Control Techtronics International. The technical objective of CTI's cooperative agreement is to apply combustion controls to existing boiler plants in Krakow and transfer knowledge and technology through a joint U.S. and Polish commercial venture. CTI installed automatic combustion controls on five coal boilers for the district heating system in Krakow. Three of these were for domestic hot-water boilers, and two were for steam for industrial boilers. The following results have occurred due to the addition of CTI's combustion controls on these five existing boilers: ! 25% energy savings ! 85% reduction in particulate emissions The joint venture company CTI-Polska was then established. Eleven additional technical and costing proposals were initiated to upgrade other coal boilers in Krakow. To date, no co-financing has been made available on the Polish side. CTI-Polska continues in operation, serving customers in Russia and Ukraine. Should the market in Poland materialize, the joint venture company is established there to provide equipment and service.

  18. DEGRADATION OF EMISSIONS CONTROL PERFORMANCE OF WOODSTOVES IN CRESTED BUTTE, CO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the degradation of emissions control performance of woodstoves in Crested Butte, Colorado. Four seasons of field monitoring of EPA-certified woodstoves in and around Crested Butte has demonstrated some significant failures in emissions control performance. In...

  19. 40 CFR 63.325 - Determination of equivalent emission control technology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... control technology. 63.325 Section 63.325 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Determination of equivalent emission control technology. (a) Any person requesting that the use of certain... equivalent emission reductions: (1) Diagrams, as appropriate, illustrating the emission control...

  20. 40 CFR 63.325 - Determination of equivalent emission control technology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... control technology. 63.325 Section 63.325 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Determination of equivalent emission control technology. (a) Any person requesting that the use of certain... equivalent emission reductions: (1) Diagrams, as appropriate, illustrating the emission control...

  1. 40 CFR 63.325 - Determination of equivalent emission control technology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... control technology. 63.325 Section 63.325 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Determination of equivalent emission control technology. (a) Any person requesting that the use of certain... equivalent emission reductions: (1) Diagrams, as appropriate, illustrating the emission control...

  2. Loxapine Add-on for Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Irritability

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Gregory; Cain, Sharon E.; Zhou, Xinghua; Barth, Francis X.; Aman, Michael G.; Palaguachi, Gladys I.; Mikhnev, Dmytro; Teng, Rujia; Andridge, Rebecca; Logan, Marilyn; Butler, Merlin G.; Han, Joan C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: Our clinical experience with low dose loxapine (5–15 mg/day) suggests promising efficacy and safety for irritability in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We studied low dose loxapine prospectively in adolescents and adults with ASD and irritability. Additionally, we measured loxapine and metabolite concentrations, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as a biomarker of neuromodulation. Methods: We performed a 12 week open trial of add-on loxapine in subjects, ages 13–65 years, diagnosed with ASD, and Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Irritability (ABC-I) subscale scores >14. Loxapine was dosed flexibly up to 15 mg daily, starting with 5 mg on alternate days. From weeks 1 to 6, other psychoactive medications were tapered if possible; from weeks 6 to 12, all medication doses were held stable. The primary outcome was the Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement subscale (CGI-I), ratings of Much Improved or Very Much Improved. Secondary outcomes were the ABC-I, Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised, and Schalock Quality of Life scale. Serum BDNF and loxapine and metabolite concentrations were assayed. BDNF rs6265 was genotyped. Results: Sixteen subjects were enrolled; 12 completed all visits. Median age was 18 years (range 13–39). Median final loxapine dose was 7.5 mg/day (2.5–15). All 14 subjects (100%) with data at week 12 were rated as Much Improved on CGI-I at 12 weeks. Mean change on ABC-I at 12 weeks was −31%, p=0.01. Mean body mass index (BMI)-Z decreased between weeks 6 and 12, p=0.03. Side effects were minimal, and prolactin elevation occurred in only one subject. BDNF concentrations measured in 11 subjects increased significantly (p=0.04). Subjects with AG genotype for BDNF rs6265 required a lower dose of loxapine at study end, but had similar behavioral and BDNF concentration changes as the GG genotype. Conclusions: Low dose loxapine shows promise as a repurposed drug for irritability in ASD. Loxapine effects on BDNF warrant

  3. Jovian longitudinal control of Io-related radio emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dessler, A. J.; Hill, T. W.

    1979-01-01

    A theoretical model is proposed to explain the control of Io-related radio emissions by Jupiter's rotational phase. The model is based on the hypothesis that the radio emissions are generated by Birkeland currents flowing between Io and the Jovian ionosphere. Specifically, it is suggested that the precipitation of radiation-belt electrons within a certain range of Jovian longitudes produces a restricted region of enhanced ionization and correspondingly enhanced conductivity in Jupiter's ionosphere and that the Io-Jupiter Birkeland current and the associated radio emissions are dramatically increased when Io's flux tube encounters this sector of enhanced ionization in Jupiter's ionosphere. The magnitude of the current is found to be about 100,000 A at most Jovian longitudes because of ionospheric resistance. It is estimated that within the favored longitudinal sector electron precipitation produces an enhancement of this current by one to three orders of magnitude. The model predictions are compared with observations made during the Pioneer 10 and 11 flybys, and satisfactory agreement is obtained.

  4. Work with existing hardware to maximize emissions control

    SciTech Connect

    Makansi, J.

    1995-03-01

    Regulatory uncertainty cripples capital investment, but has also helped unleash a surprising level of ingenuity to lower the costs of compliance. Techniques described here could become popular as CAA Phase 2 unfolds. Regulated rate-of-return structures are eroding as competitive forces erupt, permanently changing the business landscape. Meanwhile, complying with Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAA), a relative certainty, is clouded by a host of other potential environmental compliance issues -- air-toxics regulations, solid-waste restrictions, global warming and CO{sub 2} discharges, water management, and differing state, regional, and local regulations. As a result, utilities are reacting by spending as little as possible, especially in terms of compliance with CAA Phase 2. But by doing so, they are applying and/or demonstrating a variety of low-cost techniques that achieve significant emissions reductions. In some cases, these techniques may simply involve a trade off of capital investment for higher operating costs. But in a significant number of other cases, the techniques could emerge as key design improvements for the new generation of powerplants. To these techniques must be added the buying of SO{sub 2} allowances as a replacement for, or enhancement of, SO{sub 2}removal strategies. What many of these techniques have in common are (1) maximum use of existing hardware and (2) integration of emissions control into standard powerplant components. Broadly surveying the industry reveals the following general areas that are explored here: fuel changes, reducing NO{sub x} emissions through better control over the combustion process, employing low-cost catalyst and/or selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), getting more out of existing flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) processes, and improving existing particulate collection devices.

  5. Control of acid mist emissions from FGD systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlin, R S; Brown, T D

    1991-01-01

    Improved control of acid mist emissions can be achieved by replacing or augmenting the conventional mist eliminators with a wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP). This paper describes a two-phased study performed to determine the degree of control that can be achieved with this approach. Phase I was a study of the electrical operation of a lab-scale WESP collecting an acid mist from a coal combustion pilot plant equipped with a spray chamber. The results of this study were used to develop and validate a computer model of the WESP. In Phase II, measurements were made at two utility scrubber installations to determine the loadings of acid mist, fly ash, and scrubber carryover. These measurements were used as input to the model to project the performance of a retrofitted WESP.

  6. Active magneto-optical control of spontaneous emission in graphene

    DOE PAGES

    Kort-Kamp, W. J. M.; Amorim, B.; Bastos, G.; Pinheiro, F. A.; Rosa, F. S. S.; Peres, N. M. R.; Farina, C.

    2015-11-13

    In this study, we investigate the spontaneous emission rate of a two-level quantum emitter near a graphene-coated substrate under the influence of an external magnetic field or strain induced pseudomagnetic field. We demonstrate that the application of the magnetic field can substantially increase or decrease the decay rate. We show that a suppression as large as 99% in the Purcell factor is achieved even for moderate magnetic fields. The emitter's lifetime is a discontinuous function of |B|, which is a direct consequence of the occurrence of discrete Landau levels in graphene. We demonstrate that, in the near-field regime, the magneticmore » field enables an unprecedented control of the decay pathways into which the photon/polariton can be emitted. Our findings strongly suggest that a magnetic field could act as an efficient agent for on-demand, active control of light-matter interactions in graphene at the quantum level.« less

  7. Active magneto-optical control of spontaneous emission in graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Kort-Kamp, W. J. M.; Amorim, B.; Bastos, G.; Pinheiro, F. A.; Rosa, F. S. S.; Peres, N. M. R.; Farina, C.

    2015-11-13

    In this study, we investigate the spontaneous emission rate of a two-level quantum emitter near a graphene-coated substrate under the influence of an external magnetic field or strain induced pseudomagnetic field. We demonstrate that the application of the magnetic field can substantially increase or decrease the decay rate. We show that a suppression as large as 99% in the Purcell factor is achieved even for moderate magnetic fields. The emitter's lifetime is a discontinuous function of |B|, which is a direct consequence of the occurrence of discrete Landau levels in graphene. We demonstrate that, in the near-field regime, the magnetic field enables an unprecedented control of the decay pathways into which the photon/polariton can be emitted. Our findings strongly suggest that a magnetic field could act as an efficient agent for on-demand, active control of light-matter interactions in graphene at the quantum level.

  8. Controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, R.

    2009-07-15

    Increasingly stringent US federal and state limits on mercury emissions form coal-fired power plants demand optimal mercury control technologies. This article summarises the successful removal of mercury emissions achieved with activated carbon injection and boiler bromide addition, technologies nearing commercial readiness, as well as several novel control concepts currently under development. It also discusses some of the issues standing in the way of confident performance and cost predictions. In testing conducted on western coal-fired units with fabric filters or TOXECON to date, ACI has generally achieved mercury removal rates > 90%. At units with ESPs, similar performance requires brominated ACI. Alternatively, units firing western coals can use boiler bromide addition to increase flue gas mercury oxidation and downstream capture in a wet scrubber, or to enhance mercury removal by ACI. At eastern bituminous fired units with ESPs, ACI is not as effective, largely due to SO{sub 3} resulting from the high sulfur content of the coal or the use of SO{sub 3} flue gas conditioning to improve ESP performance. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Landfill aeration for emission control before and during landfill mining.

    PubMed

    Raga, Roberto; Cossu, Raffaello; Heerenklage, Joern; Pivato, Alberto; Ritzkowski, Marco

    2015-12-01

    The landfill of Modena, in northern Italy, is now crossed by the new high velocity railway line connecting Milan and Bologna. Waste was completely removed from a part of the landfill and a trench for the train line was built. With the aim of facilitating excavation and further disposal of the material extracted, suitable measures were defined. In order to prevent undesired emissions into the excavation area, the aerobic in situ stabilisation by means of the Airflow technology took place before and during the Landfill Mining. Specific project features involved the pneumatic leachate extraction from the aeration wells (to keep the leachate table low inside the landfill and increase the volume of waste available for air migration) and the controlled moisture addition into a limited zone, for a preliminary evaluation of the effects on process enhancement. Waste and leachate were periodically sampled in the landfill during the aeration before the excavation, for quality assessment over time; the evolution of biogas composition in the landfill body and in the extraction system for different plant set-ups during the project was monitored, with specific focus on uncontrolled migration into the excavation area. Waste biological stability significantly increased during the aeration (waste respiration index dropped to 33% of the initial value after six months). Leachate head decreased from 4 to 1.5m; leachate recirculation tests proved the beneficial effects of moisture addition on temperature control, without hampering waste aerobization. Proper management of the aeration plant enabled the minimization of uncontrolled biogas emissions into the excavation area.

  10. "APEC Blue": Secondary Aerosol Reductions from Emission Controls in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yele; Wang, Zifa; Wild, Oliver; Xu, Weiqi; Chen, Chen; Fu, Pingqing; Du, Wei; Zhou, Libo; Zhang, Qi; Han, Tingting; Wang, Qingqing; Pan, Xiaole; Zheng, Haitao; Li, Jie; Guo, Xiaofeng; Liu, Jianguo; Worsnop, Douglas R

    2016-01-01

    China implemented strict emission control measures in Beijing and surrounding regions to ensure good air quality during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit. We conducted synchronous aerosol particle measurements with two aerosol mass spectrometers at different heights on a meteorological tower in urban Beijing to investigate the variations in particulate composition, sources and size distributions in response to emission controls. Our results show consistently large reductions in secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) of 61-67% and 51-57%, and in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) of 55% and 37%, at 260 m and ground level, respectively, during the APEC summit. These changes were mainly caused by large reductions in accumulation mode particles and by suppression of the growth of SIA and SOA by a factor of 2-3, which led to blue sky days during APEC commonly referred to as "APEC Blue". We propose a conceptual framework for the evolution of primary and secondary species and highlight the importance of regional atmospheric transport in the formation of severe pollution episodes in Beijing. Our results indicate that reducing the precursors of secondary aerosol over regional scales is crucial and effective in suppressing the formation of secondary particulates and mitigating PM pollution. PMID:26891104

  11. CO₂ laser emission modes to control enamel erosion.

    PubMed

    Scatolin, Renata Siqueira; Alonso-Filho, Fernando Luiz; Galo, Rodrigo; Rios, Daniela; Borsatto, Maria Cristina; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori

    2015-08-01

    Considering the importance and prevalence of dental erosion, the aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of different modes of pulse emission of CO2 laser associated or not to acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) 1.23% gel, in controlling enamel erosion by profilometry. Ninety-six fragments of bovine enamel were flattened and polished, and the specimens were subjected to initial erosive challenge with hydrochloric acid (pH = 2). Specimens were randomly assigned according to surface treatment: APF 1.23% gel and gel without fluoride (control), and subdivided according to the modes of pulse CO2 laser irradiation: no irradiation (control), continuous, ultrapulse, and repeated pulse (n = 12). After surface treatment, further erosive challenges were performed for 5 days, 4 × 2 min/day. Enamel structure loss was quantitatively determined by a profilometer, after surface treatment and after 5 days of erosive challenges. Two-away ANOVA revealed a significant difference between the pulse emission mode of the CO2 laser and the presence of fluoride (P ≤ 0.05). The Duncan's test showed that CO2 laser irradiation in continuous mode and the specimens only received fluoride, promoted lower enamel loss than that other treatments. A lower dissolution of the enamel prisms was observed when it was irradiated with CO2 laser in continuous mode compared other groups. It can be concluded that CO2 laser irradiation in continuous mode was the most effective to control the enamel structure loss submitted to erosive challenges with hydrochloric acid.

  12. N2O and NO2 Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks with Advanced Emission Controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preble, C.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2014-12-01

    Diesel engines are the largest source of nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions nationally, and also a major contributor to the black carbon (BC) fraction of fine particulate matter (PM). Recently, diesel particle filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems that target exhaust PM and NOx have become standard equipment on new heavy-duty diesel trucks. However, the deliberate catalytic oxidation of engine-out nitric oxide (NO) to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in continuously regenerating DPFs leads to increased tailpipe emission of NO2. This is of potential concern due to the toxicity of NO2 and the resulting increases in atmospheric formation of other air pollutants such as ozone, nitric acid, and fine PM. While use of SCR reduces emissions of both NO and NO2, it may lead to increased emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas. Here we report results from on-road measurements of heavy-duty diesel truck emissions conducted at the Port of Oakland and the Caldecott Tunnel in the San Francisco Bay Area. Emission factors (g pollutant per kg of diesel) were linked via recorded license plates to individual truck attributes, including engine model year and installed emission control equipment. Between 2009 and 2013, the fraction of DPF-equipped trucks at the Port of Oakland increased from 2 to 99%, and median engine age decreased from 11 to 6 years. Over the same period, fleet-average emission factors for black carbon and NOx decreased by 76 ± 22% and 53 ± 8%, respectively. However, direct emissions of NO2 increased, and consequently the NO2/NOx emission ratio increased from 0.03 ± 0.02 to 0.18 ± 0.03. Older trucks retrofitted with DPFs emitted approximately 3.5 times more NO2 than newer trucks equipped with both DPF and SCR. Preliminary data from summer 2014 measurements at the Caldecott Tunnel suggest that some older trucks have negative emission factors for N2O, and that for newer trucks, N2O emission factors have changed sign and

  13. LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Don Augenstein; Ramin Yazdani; Rick Moore; Michelle Byars; Jeff Kieffer; Professor Morton Barlaz; Rinav Mehta

    2000-02-26

    Controlled landfilling is an approach to manage solid waste landfills, so as to rapidly complete methane generation, while maximizing gas capture and minimizing the usual emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated to more rapid and earlier completion to full potential by improving conditions (principally moisture, but also temperature) to optimize biological processes occurring within the landfill. Gas is contained through use of surface membrane cover. Gas is captured via porous layers, under the cover, operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project has been ongoing under NETL sponsorship for the past several years near Davis, CA. Results have been extremely encouraging. Two major benefits of the technology are reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times, more predictably, than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role both in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions and in US renewable energy. The work described in this report, to demonstrate and advance this technology, has used two demonstration-scale cells of size (8000 metric tons [tonnes]), sufficient to replicate many heat and compaction characteristics of larger ''full-scale'' landfills. An enhanced demonstration cell has received moisture supplementation to field capacity. This is the maximum moisture waste can hold while still limiting liquid drainage rate to minimal and safely manageable levels. The enhanced landfill module was compared to a parallel control landfill module receiving no moisture additions. Gas recovery has continued for a period of over 4 years. It is quite encouraging that the enhanced cell methane recovery has been close to 10-fold that experienced with conventional

  14. Implementing Strategies for Drying and Pressing Wood Without Emissions Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Sujit Banerjee; Terrance Conners

    2007-09-07

    Drying and pressing wood for the manufacture of lumber, particleboard, oriented strand board (OSB), veneer and medium density fiberboard (MDF) release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. These emissions require control equipment that are capital-intensive and consume significant quantities of natural gas and electricity. The objective of our work was to understand the mechanisms through which volatile organic compounds are generated and released and to develop simple control strategies. Of the several strategies developed, two have been implemented for OSB manufacture over the course of this study. First, it was found that increasing final wood moisture by about 2-4 percentage points reduced the dryer emissions of hazardous air pollutants by over 70%. As wood dries, the escaping water evaporatively cools the wood. This cooling tapers off wood when the wood is nearly dry and the wood temperature rises. Thermal breakdown of the wood tissue occurs and VOCs are released. Raising the final wood moisture by only a few percentage points minimizes the temperature rise and reduces emissions. Evaporative cooling also impacts has implications for VOC release from wood fines. Flaking wood for OSB manufacture inevitable generates fines. Fines dry out rapidly because of their high surface area and evaporative cooling is lost more rapidly than for flakes. As a result, fines emit a disproportionate quantity of VOCs. Fines can be reduced in two ways: through screening of the green furnish and through reducing their generation during flaking. The second approach is preferable because it also increased wood yield. A procedure to do this by matching the sharpness angle of the flaker knife to the ambient temperature was also developed. Other findings of practical interests are as follows: Dielectric heating of wood under low-headspace conditions removes terpenes and other extractives from softwood; The monoterpene content in trees depend upon temperature and seasonal

  15. Space station systems technology study (add-on task). Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    System concepts were characterized in order to define cost versus benefits for autonomous functional control and for controls and displays for OMV, OTV, and spacecraft servicing and operation. The attitude control topic focused on characterizing the Space Station attitude control problem through simulation of control system responses to structural disturbances. The first two topics, mentioned above, focused on specific technology items that require advancement in order to support an early 1990s initial launch of a Space Station, while the attitude control study was an exploration of the capability of conventional controller techniques.

  16. Portable air pollution control equipment for the control of toxic particulate emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Chaurushia, A.; Odabashian, S.; Busch, E.

    1997-12-31

    Chromium VI (Cr VI) has been identified by the environmental regulatory agencies as a potent carcinogen among eleven heavy metals. A threshold level of 0.0001 lb/year for Cr VI emissions has been established by the California Air Resources Board for reporting under Assembly Bill 2588. A need for an innovative control technology to reduce fugitive emissions of Cr VI was identified during the Air Toxic Emissions Reduction Program at Northrop Grumman Military Aircraft Systems Division (NGMASD). NGMASD operates an aircraft assembly facility in El Segundo, CA. Nearly all of the aircraft components are coated with a protective coating (primer) prior to assembly. The primer has Cr VI as a component for its excellent corrosion resistance property. The complex assembly process requires fasteners which also need primer coating. Therefore, NGMASD utilizes High Volume Low Pressure (HVLP) guns for the touch-up spray coating operations. During the touch-up spray coating operations, Cr VI particles are atomized and transferred to the aircraft surface. The South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) has determined that the HVLP gun transfers 65% of the paint particles onto the substrate and the remaining 35% are emitted as an overspray if air pollution controls are not applied. NGMASD has developed the Portable Air Pollution Control Equipment (PAPCE) to capture and control the overspray in order to reduce fugitive Cr VI emissions from the touch-up spray coating operations. A source test was performed per SCAQMD guidelines and the final report has been approved by the SCAQMD.

  17. Control of VOC emissions from ink and paint manufacturing processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McMinn, B.W.; Marsosudiro, P.J.

    1992-04-01

    The document presents the results of a study to collect and report information on processes used to manufacture paint and ink, volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions generated during these operations, emission control techniques and their effectiveness, and costs associated with process changes and emission control options.

  18. Catalytic destruction vs. adsorption in controlling dioxin emission.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wei Ting; Hung, Pao Chen; Chang, Moo Been

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates the removal efficiencies of PCDD/Fs achieved with a catalytic filter (CF) and with activated carbon injection followed by bag filter (ACI+BF) as applied in an industrial waste incinerator (IWI) and a hazardous waste incinerator (HWI), respectively. Catalytic filtration has been successfully applied to remove PCDD/Fs from gas streams. Comparing the CF to the ACI+BF system, it appears that the PCDD/F removal efficiency achieved with a CF is higher than that of an ACI+BF system. The PCDD/F emissions from both incinerators are well controlled to meet the regulatory limit of 0.1 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3). Additionally, the PCDD/F concentration in BF ash is higher than the regulation limit of Taiwan (1.0 ng I-TEQ/g). In contrast, the PCDD/F concentration in CF ash is only 0.274 ng I-TEQ/g. The difference is attributed to the fact that the ACI+BF system just transfers PCDD/Fs from gas phase to solid phase and further increases the PCDD/F concentration in fly ash, while CF technology effectively destroys the gas-phase PCDD/Fs. Therefore, the disposal of the fly ash discharged from CF would be less expensive compared with the fly ash discharged from the ACI+BF system. In this study, the PCDD/F emission factors of both incinerators are also established.

  19. Catalytic destruction vs. adsorption in controlling dioxin emission.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wei Ting; Hung, Pao Chen; Chang, Moo Been

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates the removal efficiencies of PCDD/Fs achieved with a catalytic filter (CF) and with activated carbon injection followed by bag filter (ACI+BF) as applied in an industrial waste incinerator (IWI) and a hazardous waste incinerator (HWI), respectively. Catalytic filtration has been successfully applied to remove PCDD/Fs from gas streams. Comparing the CF to the ACI+BF system, it appears that the PCDD/F removal efficiency achieved with a CF is higher than that of an ACI+BF system. The PCDD/F emissions from both incinerators are well controlled to meet the regulatory limit of 0.1 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3). Additionally, the PCDD/F concentration in BF ash is higher than the regulation limit of Taiwan (1.0 ng I-TEQ/g). In contrast, the PCDD/F concentration in CF ash is only 0.274 ng I-TEQ/g. The difference is attributed to the fact that the ACI+BF system just transfers PCDD/Fs from gas phase to solid phase and further increases the PCDD/F concentration in fly ash, while CF technology effectively destroys the gas-phase PCDD/Fs. Therefore, the disposal of the fly ash discharged from CF would be less expensive compared with the fly ash discharged from the ACI+BF system. In this study, the PCDD/F emission factors of both incinerators are also established. PMID:26350401

  20. Methane emissions from process equipment at natural gas production sites in the United States: pneumatic controllers.

    PubMed

    Allen, David T; Pacsi, Adam P; Sullivan, David W; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Harrison, Matthew; Keen, Kindal; Fraser, Matthew P; Daniel Hill, A; Sawyer, Robert F; Seinfeld, John H

    2015-01-01

    Emissions from 377 gas actuated (pneumatic) controllers were measured at natural gas production sites and a small number of oil production sites, throughout the United States. A small subset of the devices (19%), with whole gas emission rates in excess of 6 standard cubic feet per hour (scf/h), accounted for 95% of emissions. More than half of the controllers recorded emissions of 0.001 scf/h or less during 15 min of measurement. Pneumatic controllers in level control applications on separators and in compressor applications had higher emission rates than controllers in other types of applications. Regional differences in emissions were observed, with the lowest emissions measured in the Rocky Mountains and the highest emissions in the Gulf Coast. Average methane emissions per controller reported in this work are 17% higher than the average emissions per controller in the 2012 EPA greenhouse gas national emission inventory (2012 GHG NEI, released in 2014); the average of 2.7 controllers per well observed in this work is higher than the 1.0 controllers per well reported in the 2012 GHG NEI.

  1. Application of microturbines to control emissions from associated gas

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Darren D.

    2013-04-16

    A system for controlling the emission of associated gas produced from a reservoir. In an embodiment, the system comprises a gas compressor including a gas inlet in fluid communication with an associated gas source and a gas outlet. The gas compressor adjusts the pressure of the associated gas to produce a pressure-regulated associated gas. In addition, the system comprises a gas cleaner including a gas inlet in fluid communication with the outlet of the gas compressor, a fuel gas outlet, and a waste product outlet. The gas cleaner separates at least a portion of the sulfur and the water from the associated gas to produce a fuel gas. Further, the system comprises a gas turbine including a fuel gas inlet in fluid communication with the fuel gas outlet of the gas cleaner and an air inlet. Still further, the system comprises a choke in fluid communication with the air inlet.

  2. Controlling the directionality of spontaneous emission by evanescent wave coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xue-Lun E-mail: gdhao2@hotmail.com; Hao, Guo-Dong E-mail: gdhao2@hotmail.com; Toda, Naoya

    2015-09-28

    We report an approach toward controlling the directionality of spontaneous emissions by employing the evanescent wave coupling effect in a subwavelength-sized ridge or truncated cone structure. An InGaAs/GaAs light-emitting diode in which a stripe-shaped InGaAs/GaAs quantum well with a stripe width of about 100 nm is embedded at the center of a subwavelength-sized GaAs ridge (of width ∼520 nm) is fabricated by micro processing and epitaxial regrowth techniques. Strong directionalities characterized by a half-intensity angle of 43° are observed in planes perpendicular to the ridge axis. The directionality is found to be almost independent of operating conditions.

  3. Condensing economizers for thermal efficiency improvements and emissions control

    SciTech Connect

    Heaphy, J.P.; Carbonara, J.; Litzke, W.; Butcher, T.A.

    1993-12-31

    Flue gas condensing economizers improve the thermal efficiency of boilers by recovering sensible heat and water vapor latent heat from flue gas exhaust. In addition to improving thermal efficiency, condensing economizers also have the potential to act as control devices for emissions of particulates, SO{sub x}, and air toxics. Both Consolidated Edison of New York and Brookhaven National LaborAtory are currently working on condensing economizer technology with an emphasis on developing their potential for emissions control. Con Edison is currently conducting a condensing economizer demonstration at their oil-fired 74th Street Station in New York. Since installing this equipment in February of 1992 a heat rate improvement of 800 Btu/kWh has been seen. At another location, Ravenswood Station, a two stage condensing economizer has been installed in a pilot test. In this advanced configuration -the ``Integrated Flue Gas Treatment or IFGT system- two heat exchanger sections are installed and sprays of water with and without SO{sub 2} sorbents are included. Detailed studies of the removal of particulates, SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, and selected air toxics have been done for a variety of operating conditions. Removal efficiencies for SO{sub 2} have been over 98% and for SO{sub 3} over 65%. Brookhaven National Laboratory`s studies involve predicting and enhancing particulate capture in condensing economizers with an emphasis on small, coal-fired applications. This work is funded by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the Department of Energy. Flyash capture efficiencies as high as 97% have been achieved to date with a single stage economizer.

  4. Landfill aeration for emission control before and during landfill mining.

    PubMed

    Raga, Roberto; Cossu, Raffaello; Heerenklage, Joern; Pivato, Alberto; Ritzkowski, Marco

    2015-12-01

    The landfill of Modena, in northern Italy, is now crossed by the new high velocity railway line connecting Milan and Bologna. Waste was completely removed from a part of the landfill and a trench for the train line was built. With the aim of facilitating excavation and further disposal of the material extracted, suitable measures were defined. In order to prevent undesired emissions into the excavation area, the aerobic in situ stabilisation by means of the Airflow technology took place before and during the Landfill Mining. Specific project features involved the pneumatic leachate extraction from the aeration wells (to keep the leachate table low inside the landfill and increase the volume of waste available for air migration) and the controlled moisture addition into a limited zone, for a preliminary evaluation of the effects on process enhancement. Waste and leachate were periodically sampled in the landfill during the aeration before the excavation, for quality assessment over time; the evolution of biogas composition in the landfill body and in the extraction system for different plant set-ups during the project was monitored, with specific focus on uncontrolled migration into the excavation area. Waste biological stability significantly increased during the aeration (waste respiration index dropped to 33% of the initial value after six months). Leachate head decreased from 4 to 1.5m; leachate recirculation tests proved the beneficial effects of moisture addition on temperature control, without hampering waste aerobization. Proper management of the aeration plant enabled the minimization of uncontrolled biogas emissions into the excavation area. PMID:26445364

  5. Plasma control using neural network and optical emission spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Byungwhan; Bae, Jung Ki; Hong, Wan-Shick

    2005-03-01

    Due to high sensitivity to process parameters, plasma processes should be tightly controlled. For plasma control, a predictive model was constructed using a neural network and optical emission spectroscopy (OES). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to reduce OES dimensionality. This approach was applied to an oxide plasma etching conducted in a CHF{sub 3}/CF{sub 4} magnetically enhanced reactive ion plasma. The etch process was systematically characterized by means of a statistical experimental design. Three etch outputs (etch rate, profile angle, and etch rate nonuniformity) were modeled using three different approaches, including conventional, OES, and PCA-OES models. For all etch outputs, OES models demonstrated improved predictions over the conventional or PCA-OES models. Compared to conventional models, OES models yielded an improvement of more than 25% in modeling profile angle and etch rate nonuniformtiy. More than 40% improvement over PCA-OES model was achieved in modeling etch rate and profile angle. These results demonstrate that nonreduced in situ data are more beneficial than reduced one in constructing plasma control model.

  6. Controlling satellite communication system unwanted emissions in congested RF spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Donald; Heymann, Roger

    2007-09-01

    The International Telecommunication Union (ITU), a United Nations (UN) agency, is the agency that, under an international treaty, sets radio spectrum usage regulations among member nations. Within the United States of America (USA), the organization that sets regulations, coordinates an application for use, and provides authorization for federal government/agency use of the radio frequency (RF) spectrum is the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA). In this regard, the NTIA defines which RF spectrum is available for federal government use in the USA, and how it is to be used. The NTIA is a component of the United States (U.S.) Department of Commerce of the federal government. The significance of ITU regulations is that ITU approval is required for U.S. federal government/agency permission to use the RF spectrum outside of U.S. boundaries. All member nations have signed a treaty to do so. U.S. federal regulations for federal use of the RF spectrum are found in the Manual of Regulations and Procedures for Federal Radio Frequency Management, and extracts of the manual are found in what is known as the Table of Frequency Allocations. Nonfederal government and private sector use of the RF spectrum within the U.S. is regulated by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). There is a need to control "unwanted emissions" (defined to include out-of-band emissions, which are those immediately adjacent to the necessary and allocated bandwidth, plus spurious emissions) to preclude interference to all other authorized users. This paper discusses the causes, effects, and mitigation of unwanted RF emissions to systems in adjacent spectra. Digital modulations are widely used in today's satellite communications. Commercial communications sector standards are covered for the most part worldwide by Digital Video Broadcast - Satellite (DVB-S) and digital satellite news gathering (DSNG) evolutions and the second generation of DVB-S (DVB-S2) standard

  7. Dynamics of non-Controlled Emission of Biogas From Landfills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, R.; Salazar, J.; Hernandez, P.; Perez, N.

    2001-12-01

    Landfills are important sources of CH4 and CO2 as well as other toxic gas components to the atmosphere. A significant amount of gases could be released to the surrounding environment as a "non-controlled" emission in a diffuse form. To understand the dynamics of non-controlled emission of biogas from landfills several soil gas and CO2 efflux surveys were performed at Arico's landfill (Tenerife, Canary Islands). Estimated diffuse CO2 emission for Arico's landfill (0.33 Km2) were 507 td-1 (1998) and 131 td-1 (2000), showing different spatial CO2 efflux patterns that can be explained in terms of new waste disposal and covering materials as well as the action of the biogas extraction system. Secular variations of diffuse CO2 efflux and meteorological and soil variables were measured hourly at one site in the center of the landfill for 11 months. Diffuse CO2 efflux ranged from 9.9 to 433.3 gm-2d^{-1} with a median value of 242.7 \\pm 73.3 gm^{-2}d-1. Diffuse CO2 efflux showed a temporal behavior that could be divided in two different periods: (a) a quasi-stationary period with minor fluctuations due to the influence of meteorological and soil variables, and (b) a non-stationary period with changing CO2 efflux level and major variations related to the preliminary tests on the biogas extraction system for Arico's landfill. Air and ground temperatures exhibit significant positive correlation with the observed CO2 efflux. Peaks of maximum inverse correlation between barometric pressure and CO2 efflux are found at semi-diurnal and diurnal frequencies. Wind speed and wind direction are cross-correlated with CO2 efflux by 12 hours. These results suggest that (i) minor fluctuations in the CO2 efflux could be driven by meteorological variations (solar radiation cycles and local wind patterns), and (ii) sudden and major fluctuations in the CO2 efflux cannot be explained sufficiently in terms of the observed meteorological and soil variables' fluctuations.

  8. Add-on LABA in a separate inhaler as asthma step-up therapy versus increased dose of ICS or ICS/LABA combination inhaler

    PubMed Central

    Colice, Gene; Israel, Elliot; Roche, Nicolas; Postma, Dirkje S.; Guilbert, Theresa W.; van Aalderen, Willem M.C.; Grigg, Jonathan; Hillyer, Elizabeth V.; Thomas, Victoria; Martin, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Asthma management guidelines recommend adding a long-acting β2-agonist (LABA) or increasing the dose of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) as step-up therapy for patients with uncontrolled asthma on ICS monotherapy. However, it is uncertain which option works best, which ICS particle size is most effective, and whether LABA should be administered by separate or combination inhalers. This historical, matched cohort study compared asthma-related outcomes for patients (aged 12–80 years) prescribed step-up therapy as a ≥50% extrafine ICS dose increase or add-on LABA, via either a separate inhaler or a fine-particle ICS/LABA fixed-dose combination (FDC) inhaler. Risk-domain asthma control was the primary end-point in comparisons of cohorts matched for asthma severity and control during the baseline year. After 1:2 cohort matching, the increased extrafine ICS versus separate ICS+LABA cohorts included 3232 and 6464 patients, respectively, and the fine-particle ICS/LABA FDC versus separate ICS+LABA cohorts included 7529 and 15 058 patients, respectively (overall mean age 42 years; 61–62% females). Over one outcome year, adjusted OR (95% CI) for achieving asthma control were 1.25 (1.13–1.38) for increased ICS versus separate ICS+LABA and 1.06 (1.05–1.09) for ICS/LABA FDC versus separate ICS+LABA. For patients with asthma, increased dose of extrafine-particle ICS, or add-on LABA via ICS/LABA combination inhaler, is associated with significantly better outcomes than ICS+LABA via separate inhalers. PMID:27730200

  9. The next decade and emission controls for electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Herrin, W.D.

    1997-12-31

    The historical efforts to achieve attainment with the ozone and particulate related standards span over 25 years and involve billions of dollars with only minimal success related to ozone and unknown success related to certain fine particulates. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments mandated significant new efforts, including Title IV - Acid Rain, to achieve reductions in ozone and fine particulate precursors and attainment with the standards. Initial reduction efforts have only recently been implemented and yet another hot summer continues to portray our futile efforts to gain much ground towards attainment with existing and revised or new standards. In order to review the issues more fully and to investigate the issue of regional transport. EPA has given the states a reprieve on ozone attainment plans until mid-1997 and set up the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC) structure to review implementation issues with new or revised standards. The states and other stockholders are involved in these EPA processes through the Ozone Transport Assessment Group (OTAG) and the CAAAC along with numerous working groups to get new answers arid help towards innovative solutions. A major target in these efforts is emissions from fossil-fuel fired utility boilers. The OTAG process has developed regional control strategy targets for utility NO{sub x} sources at three levels. These levels include consideration of costs, timing and availability of controls, and the anticipated reductions in NO{sub x}. The CAAAC is also considering regional controls and the associated implementation issues for both ozone and fine particulates. EPA is also considering a Clean Air Power Initiative (CAPI) to wrap all the utility control issues in a single consensus package. The next 10 years will be a crucial time for electric utilities in juggling environmental and competitive issues.

  10. Mercury Emission Control Technologies for PPL Montana-Colstrip Testing

    SciTech Connect

    John P. Kay; Michael L. Jones; Steven A. Benson

    2007-04-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) was asked by PPL Montana LLC (PPL) to provide assistance and develop an approach to identify cost-effective options for mercury control at its coal-fired power plants. The work conducted focused on baseline mercury level and speciation measurement, short-term parametric testing, and week long testing of mercury control technology at Colstrip Unit 3. Three techniques and various combinations of these techniques were identified as viable options for mercury control. The options included oxidizing agents or sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) such as chlorine-based SEA1 and an EERC proprietary SEA2 with and without activated carbon injection. Baseline mercury emissions from Colstrip Unit 3 are comparatively low relative to other Powder River Basin (PRB) coal-fired systems and were found to range from 5 to 6.5 g/Nm3 (2.9 to 3.8 lb/TBtu), with a rough value of approximately 80% being elemental upstream of the scrubber and higher than 95% being elemental at the outlet. Levels in the stack were also greater than 95% elemental. Baseline mercury removal across the scrubber is fairly variable but generally tends to be about 5% to 10%. Parametric results of carbon injection alone yielded minimal reduction in Hg emissions. SEA1 injection resulted in 20% additional reduction over baseline with the maximum rate of 400 ppm (3 gal/min). Week long testing was conducted with the combination of SEA2 and carbon, with injection rates of 75 ppm (10.3 lb/hr) and 1.5 lb/MMacf (40 lb/hr), respectively. Reduction was found to be an additional 30% and, overall during the testing period, was measured to be 38% across the scrubber. The novel additive injection method, known as novel SEA2, is several orders of magnitude safer and less expensive than current SEA2 injection methods. However, used in conjunction with this plant configuration, the technology did not demonstrate a significant level of mercury reduction. Near-future use of this

  11. Optical sensors for process control and emissions monitoring in industry

    SciTech Connect

    S. W. Alendorf; D. K. Ottensen; D. W. Hahn; T. J. Kulp; U. B. Goers

    1999-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has a number of ongoing projects developing optical sensors for industrial environments. Laser-based sensors can be attractive for relatively harsh environments where extractive sampling is difficult, inaccurate, or impractical. Tools developed primarily for laboratory research can often be adapted for the real world and applied to problems far from their original uses. Spectroscopic techniques, appropriately selected, have the potential to impact the bottom line of a number of industries and industrial processes. In this paper the authors discuss three such applications: a laser-based instrument for process control in steelmaking, a laser-induced breakdown method for hazardous metal detection in process streams, and a laser-based imaging sensor for evaluating surface cleanliness. Each has the potential to provide critical, process-related information in a real-time, continuous manner. These sensor techniques encompass process control applications and emissions monitoring for pollution prevention. They also span the range from a field-tested pre-commercial prototype to laboratory instrumentation. Finally, these sensors employ a wide range of sophistication in both the laser source and associated analytical spectroscopy. In the ultimate applications, however, many attributes of the sensors are in common, such as the need for robust operation and hardening for harsh industrial environments.

  12. Humidity control of particle emissions in aeolian systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna Neuman, Cheryl; Sanderson, Steven

    2008-06-01

    Humidity is an important control of the wind speed required to entrain particles into an air flow and is well known to vary on a global scale, as do dust emissions. This paper reports on wind tunnel experiments which quantify this control through placing a polymer capacitance sensor immediately at the bed surface. The sensor measured changes in the humidity (RH) of the pore air in real time. RH was varied between 15% and 80% and the critical wind speed determined for the release of particles to the air stream. The results strongly support earlier suggestions that fine particles are most affected in relatively dry atmospheres, particularly those which are tightly packed. An analytical model is proposed to describe this relationship which depends on determination of the matric potential from the Kelvin equation. The total contact area between particle asperities adjoined by pendular rings is represented as a power function of the number of layers of adsorbed water. The value of the exponent appears to be governed by the surface roughness of the particles and their packing arrangement. Parallel developments in colloid interface science and atomic force microscopy, relevant to industrial and pharmaceutical applications, support these conclusions in principle and will likely have an important bearing on future progress in parameterization of the proposed model.

  13. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 75 - Quality Assurance and Quality Control Procedures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... as sampling and analysis methods. 1.2.4Parametric Monitoring for Units With Add-on Emission Controls... sampling and analysis methods. 1.5Requirements for Sorbent Trap Monitoring Systems 1.5.1Sorbent Trap... periodic recalibration to maintain the accuracy and NIST-traceability of the calibrator. 1.5.3Hg...

  14. The evolution of shipping emissions and the costs of recent and forthcoming emission regulations in the northern European emission control area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, L.; Jalkanen, J.-P.; Kalli, J.; Kukkonen, J.

    2013-06-01

    An extensive inventory of marine exhaust emissions is presented in the northern European emission control area (ECA) in 2009 and 2011. The emissions of SOx, NOx, CO2, CO and PM2.5 were evaluated using the Ship Traffic Emission Assessment Model (STEAM). We have combined the information on individual vessel characteristics and position reports generated by the Automatic Identification System (AIS). The emission limitations from 2009 to 2011 have had a significant impact on reducing the emissions of both SOx and PM2.5. The predicted emissions of SOx originated from IMO-registered marine traffic have been reduced by 33%, from 322 ktons to 217 ktons, in the ECA from 2009 to 2011. The corresponding predicted reduction of PM2.5 emissions was 20%, from 74 ktons to 59 ktons. The highest CO2 and PM2.5 emissions in 2011 were located in the vicinity of the coast of the Netherlands, in the English Channel, near the South-Eastern UK and along the busiest shipping lines in the Danish Straits and the Baltic Sea. The changes of emissions and the financial costs caused by various regulative actions since 2005 were also evaluated, based on the increased direct fuel costs. We also simulated the effects and direct costs associated with the forthcoming switch to low-sulfur distillate fuels in 2015. According to the projections for the future, there will be a reduction of 85% in SOx emissions and a~reduction of 50% in PM2.5 emissions in 2015, compared with the corresponding shipping emissions in 2011 in the ECA. The corresponding relative increase in fuel costs for all shipping varied between 10% and 63%, depending on the development of the prices of fuels and the use of the sulfur scrubber equipment.

  15. Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Pu-Xian

    2013-07-31

    This final report to the Department of Energy (DOE) and National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) for DE-EE0000210 covers the period from October 1, 2009 to July 31, 2013. Under this project, DOE awarded UConn about $1,248,242 to conduct the research and development on a new class of 3D composite nanostructure based catalysts for lean NOx emission control. Much of the material presented here has already been submitted to DOE/NETL in quarterly technical reports. In this project, through a scalable solution process, we have successfully fabricated a new class of catalytic reactors, i.e., the composite nanostructure array (nano-array) based catalytic converters. These nanocatalysts, distinct from traditional powder washcoat based catalytic converters, directly integrate monolithic substrates together with nanostructures with well-defined size and shape during the scalable hydrothermal process. The new monolithic nanocatalysts are demonstrated to be able to save raw materials including Pt-group metals and support metal oxides by an order of magnitude, while perform well at various oxidation (e.g., CO oxidation and NO oxidation) and reduction reactions (H{sub 2} reduction of NOx) involved in the lean NOx emissions. The size, shape and arrangement of the composite nanostructures within the monolithic substrates are found to be the key in enabling the drastically reduced materials usage while maintaining the good catalytic reactivity in the enabled devices. The further understanding of the reaction kinetics associated with the unique mass transport and surface chemistry behind is needed for further optimizing the design and fabrication of good nanostructure array based catalytic converters. On the other hand, the high temperature stability, hydrothermal aging stability, as well as S-poisoning resistance have been investigated in this project on the nanocatalysts, which revealed promising results toward good chemical and mechanical robustness, as well as S

  16. Metabolic and other effects of pioglitazone as an add-on therapy to metformin in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    PubMed

    Valsamakis, Georgios; Lois, Kostas; Kumar, Sudhesh; Mastorakos, George

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a key pathogenic defect of the clustered metabolic disturbances seen in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Metformin is an insulin sensitizer acting in the liver and the peripheral tissues that ameliorates the metabolic and reproductive defects in PCOS. In addition, pioglitazone is an insulin sensitizer used in diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM), improving insulin resistance (IR) in adipose tissue and muscles. In T2DM, these drugs are also used as a combined treatment due to their "add-on effect" on insulin resistance. Although the beneficial role of troglitazone (a member of the thiazolidinediones (TZDs) family) in PCOS has been shown in the past, currently only pioglitazone is available in the market. A few small randomized controlled trials have directly compared the effectiveness of pioglitazone in women with PCOS, while there are a limited number of small studies that support the beneficial metabolic add-on effect of pioglitazone on metformin-treated PCOS women as compared to metformin or pioglitazone monotherapy. These findings suggest a potentially promising role for combined pioglitazone/metformin treatment in the management of PCOS in metformin-resistant patients. In view of recent concerns regarding pioglitazone usage and its associated health risk, we aim to compare the pros and cons of each drug regarding their metabolic and other hormonal effects in women with PCOS and to explore the possible beneficial effect of combined therapy in certain cases, taking into consideration the teratogenic effect of pioglitazone. Finally, we discuss the need for a randomized controlled trial that will evaluate the metabolic and other hormonal effects of combined metformin/pioglitazone treatment in PCOS with selective treatment targets.

  17. Practical primer on design of electric arc furnace emission control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, P.G.A.; Manten, R.W. )

    1994-09-01

    The paper will cover the methodology for designing environmentally acceptable and cost-effective emission control systems in modern electric arc furnace meltshops. Fundamental requirements for effective direct evacuation control (DEC) of electric and ladle furnace melting operations and canopy/local hood control of secondary emissions from electric arc furnace charging and tapping emissions will be addressed. The following topics will be included: considerations in selecting appropriate DEC exhaust rates for effective emission control; water-cooled elbow, combustion gap and water-cooled duct design for maximizing post combustion and minimizing slag deposit build-up; off-gas cooling; deep storage-type canopy hood design for electric arc furnace charging emission control; local hood design for control of EBT emissions; furnace enclosures for improved secondary fume control and meltshop environment; off-gas system control philosophy; selecting appropriate equipment such as baghouses, fans and material handling systems; and common shortcomings of fume control systems. Emphasis will be on practical design aspects of meltshop emission control systems with guidelines on typical gas flow rates, system configuration, sizing and costs for effective fume control. The objective is to provide steelmakers with a practical guide toward improved electric arc furnace meltshop emission control system design.

  18. Fine particle (2.5 microns) emissions: regulations, measurement, and control

    SciTech Connect

    John D. McKenna; James H. Turner; James P. McKenna, Jr.

    2008-09-15

    Contents: Introduction; Health effects; Air monitoring; Emission control methods - fabric filter/baghouses, electrostatic precipitators, wet scrubbers; Environmental technology verification and baghouse filtration products; Cost considerations; and Nanoparticulates.

  19. Geomorphic and hydrologic controls of dust emissions during drought from Yellow Lake playa, West Texas, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research on the factors that control dust emissions from playas has revealed a number of complex geomorphic and hydrologic factors, yet there are few measurements of dust emissions from playas during drought or low-emission seasons. Deflation of Yellow Lake, a saline playa in West Texas, produces sa...

  20. COST EFFECTIVE VOC EMISSION CONTROL STARTEGIES FOR MILITARY, AEROSPACE,AND INDUSTRIAL PAINT SPRAY BOOTH OPERATIONS: COMBINING IMPROVED VENTILATION SYSTEMS WITH INNOVATIVE, LOW COST EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes a full-scale demonstration program in which several paint booths were modified for recirculation ventilation; the booth exhaust streams are vented to an innovative volatile organic compound (VOC) emission control system having extremely low operating costs. ...

  1. 40 CFR 63.985 - Nonflare control devices used to control emissions from storage vessels and low throughput...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nonflare control devices used to control emissions from storage vessels and low throughput transfer racks. 63.985 Section 63.985 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS...

  2. Sheath structure transition controlled by secondary electron emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweigert, I. V.; Langendorf, S. J.; Walker, M. L. R.; Keidar, M.

    2015-04-01

    In particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision (PIC MCC) simulations and in an experiment we study sheath formation over an emissive floating Al2O3 plate in a direct current discharge plasma at argon gas pressure 10-4 Torr. The discharge glow is maintained by the beam electrons emitted from a negatively biased hot cathode. We observe three types of sheaths near the floating emissive plate and the transition between them is driven by changing the negative bias. The Debye sheath appears at lower voltages, when secondary electron emission is negligible. With increasing applied voltage, secondary electron emission switches on and a first transition to a new sheath type, beam electron emission (BEE), takes place. For the first time we find this specific regime of sheath operation near the floating emissive surface. In this regime, the potential drop over the plate sheath is about four times larger than the temperature of plasma electrons. The virtual cathode appears near the emissive plate and its modification helps to maintain the BEE regime within some voltage range. Further increase of the applied voltage U initiates the second smooth transition to the plasma electron emission sheath regime and the ratio Δφs/Te tends to unity with increasing U. The oscillatory behavior of the emissive sheath is analyzed in PIC MCC simulations. A plasmoid of slow electrons is formed near the plate and transported to the bulk plasma periodically with a frequency of about 25 kHz.

  3. FUEL FORMULATION EFFECTS ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION, COMBUSTION, EMISSIONS AND EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Boehman, A; Alam, M; Song, J; Acharya, R; Szybist, J; Zello, V; Miller, K

    2003-08-24

    This paper describes work under a U.S. DOE sponsored Ultra Clean Fuels project entitled ''Ultra Clean Fuels from Natural Gas,'' Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41098. In this study we have examined the incremental benefits of moving from low sulfur diesel fuel and ultra low sulfur diesel fuel to an ultra clean fuel, Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel produced from natural gas. Blending with biodiesel, B100, was also considered. The impact of fuel formulation on fuel injection timing, bulk modulus of compressibility, in-cylinder combustion processes, gaseous and particulate emissions, DPF regeneration temperature and urea-SCR NOx control has been examined. The primary test engine is a 5.9L Cummins ISB, which has been instrumented for in-cylinder combustion analysis and in-cylinder visualization with an engine videoscope. A single-cylinder engine has also been used to examine in detail the impacts of fuel formulation on injection timing in a pump-line-nozzle fueling system, to assist in the interpretation of results from the ISB engine.

  4. Energy, Carbon-emission and Financial Savings from Thermostat Control

    SciTech Connect

    Blasing, T J; Schroeder, Dana

    2013-08-01

    Among the easiest approaches to energy, and cost, savings for most people is the adjustment of thermostats to save energy. Here we estimate savings of energy, carbon, and money in the United States of America (USA) that would result from adjusting thermostats in residential and commercial buildings by about half a degree Celsius downward during the heating season and upward during the cooling season. To obtain as small a unit as possible, and therefore the least likely to be noticeable by most people, we selected an adjustment of one degree Fahrenheit (0.56 degree Celsius) which is the gradation used almost exclusively on thermostats in the USA and is the smallest unit of temperature that has been used historically. Heating and/or cooling of interior building space for personal comfort is sometimes referred to as space conditioning, a term we will use for convenience throughout this work without consideration of humidity. Thermostat adjustment, as we use the term here, applies to thermostats that control the indoor temperature, and not to other thermostats such as those on water heaters. We track emissions of carbon only, rather than of carbon dioxide, because carbon atoms change atomic partners as they move through the carbon cycle, from atmosphere to biosphere or ocean and, on longer time scales, through the rock cycle. To convert a mass of carbon to an equivalent mass of carbon dioxide (thereby including the mass of the 2 oxygen atoms in each molecule) simply multiply by 3.67.

  5. Baseline Serum Aldosterone-to-Renin Ratio is Associated with the Add-on Effect of Thiazide Diuretics in Non-Diabetic Essential Hypertensives

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chin-Chou; Leu, Hsin-Bang; Huang, Po-Hsun; Wu, Tao-Cheng; Lin, Shing-Jong; Chen, Jaw-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Background The baseline status of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) might modify the blood pressure (BP) lowering effects of thiazide diuretics. This study aimed to determine if baseline RAAS indicated by serum aldosterone-to-renin ratio (ARR) could be associated with the add-on effects of thiazide on BP lowering in patients with other concomitant antihypertensive medication. Methods Non-diabetic hypertensive patients, either untreated or unsatisfactorily treated, were enrolled if their office systolic BP was ≥ 140 or diastolic BP ≥ 90 mmHg. After 2 weeks of diet control and lifestyle modification, patients with persistently elevated BP were prospectively given hydrochlorothiazide 50 mg daily for 2 weeks. Serum aldosterone-to-renin ratio (ARR) was determined before thiazide treatment. Patients with a significant (≥ 10%) reduction of office mean artery pressure (MAP) by thiazide treatment were defined as responders. Results Among the 66 patients studied, 27 were defined as responders after a 2-week hydrochlorothiazide treatment. Baseline serum renin level was reduced and ARR increased (p = 0.009) in the responders as compared with the non-responders. A similar pattern was also apparent in patients with or without concomitant medications. Furthermore, baseline renin level was inversely and ARR positively correlated to the MAP reduction both in the whole patient group and in patients with concomitant medications. By stepwise multiple linear regression analysis, ARR was the only independent predictor for the response to thiazide treatment (β = 0.051, p = 0.007). Conclusions Baseline ARR could be associated with the add-on effects of hydrochlorothiazide on BP reduction in patients with other concomitant antihypertensive treatment. PMID:27122683

  6. Alirocumab as Add-On to Atorvastatin Versus Other Lipid Treatment Strategies: ODYSSEY OPTIONS I Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gaudet, Daniel; Weiss, Robert; Ruiz, Juan Lima; Watts, Gerald F.; Gouni-Berthold, Ioanna; Robinson, Jennifer; Zhao, Jian; Hanotin, Corinne; Donahue, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Context: Despite current standard of care, many patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) still have elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Alirocumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody inhibitor of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9. Objective: The objective of the study was to compare the LDL-C-lowering efficacy of adding alirocumab vs other common lipid-lowering strategies. Design, Patients, and Interventions: Patients (n = 355) with very high CVD risk and LDL-C levels of 70 mg/dL or greater or high CVD risk and LDL-C of 100 mg/dL or greater on baseline atorvastatin 20 or 40 mg were randomized to one of the following: 1) add-on alirocumab 75 mg every 2 weeks (Q2W) sc; 2) add-on ezetimibe 10 mg/d; 3) double atorvastatin dose; or 4) for atorvastatin 40 mg regimen only, switch to rosuvastatin 40 mg. For patients not achieving protocol-defined LDL-C goals, the alirocumab dose was increased (blinded) at week 12 to 150 mg Q2W. Main Outcome Measure: The primary end point was percentage change in calculated LDL-C from baseline to 24 weeks (intent to treat). Results: Among atorvastatin 20 and 40 mg regimens, respectively, add-on alirocumab reduced LDL-C levels by 44.1% and 54.0% (P < .001 vs all comparators); add-on ezetimibe, 20.5% and 22.6%; doubling of atorvastatin dose, 5.0% and 4.8%; and switching atorvastatin 40 mg to rosuvastatin 40 mg, 21.4%. Most alirocumab-treated patients (87.2% and 84.6%) achieved their LDL-C goals. Most alirocumab-treated patients (86%) maintained their 75-mg Q2W regimen. Treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in 65.4% of alirocumab patients vs 64.4% ezetimibe and 63.8% double atorvastatin/switch to rosuvastatin (data were pooled). Conclusions: Adding alirocumab to atorvastatin provided significantly greater LDL-C reductions vs adding ezetimibe, doubling atorvastatin dose, or switching to rosuvastatin and enabled greater LDL-C goal achievement. PMID:26030325

  7. [Study on feasible emission control level of air pollutions for cement industry ].

    PubMed

    Ren, Chun; Jiang, Mei; Zou, Lan; Li, Xiao-qian; Wei, Yu-xia; Zhao, Guo-hua; Zhang, Guo-ning

    2014-09-01

    The revised National Emission Standard of Air Pollutions for Cement Industry has been issued, which will be effective for the new enterprises and the existing enterprises on Mar. 1st, 2014 and July 1st, 2015, respectively. In the process of revision, the key technical issues on determination of standard limits was how to determine the feasible emission control level of air pollutions. Feasible emission control requirements were put forward, according to air pollutants emission, technologies, environmental management requirements and foreign standards, etc. The main contents of the revised standard include expanding the scope of application, increasing the pollutants, improving the particulate and NO emissions control level, and increasing special emission limits applied to key areas of air pollutants. The standard will become the gripper of pollution prevention, total emission reduction, structural adjustment and optimization of the layout, and will promote scientific and technical progression for the cement industry.

  8. Controlling satellite communication system unwanted emissions in congested RF spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Donald; Heymann, Roger

    2007-09-01

    The International Telecommunication Union (ITU), a United Nations (UN) agency, is the agency that, under an international treaty, sets radio spectrum usage regulations among member nations. Within the United States of America (USA), the organization that sets regulations, coordinates an application for use, and provides authorization for federal government/agency use of the radio frequency (RF) spectrum is the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA). In this regard, the NTIA defines which RF spectrum is available for federal government use in the USA, and how it is to be used. The NTIA is a component of the United States (U.S.) Department of Commerce of the federal government. The significance of ITU regulations is that ITU approval is required for U.S. federal government/agency permission to use the RF spectrum outside of U.S. boundaries. All member nations have signed a treaty to do so. U.S. federal regulations for federal use of the RF spectrum are found in the Manual of Regulations and Procedures for Federal Radio Frequency Management, and extracts of the manual are found in what is known as the Table of Frequency Allocations. Nonfederal government and private sector use of the RF spectrum within the U.S. is regulated by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). There is a need to control "unwanted emissions" (defined to include out-of-band emissions, which are those immediately adjacent to the necessary and allocated bandwidth, plus spurious emissions) to preclude interference to all other authorized users. This paper discusses the causes, effects, and mitigation of unwanted RF emissions to systems in adjacent spectra. Digital modulations are widely used in today's satellite communications. Commercial communications sector standards are covered for the most part worldwide by Digital Video Broadcast - Satellite (DVB-S) and digital satellite news gathering (DSNG) evolutions and the second generation of DVB-S (DVB-S2) standard

  9. Effect of add-on valproate on craving in methamphetamine depended patients: A randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Kheirabadi, Gholam Reza; Ghavami, Masoud; Maracy, Mohammad Reza; Salehi, Mehrdad; Sharbafchi, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Methamphetamine dependence lead to the compulsive use, loss of control, and social and occupational dysfunctions. This study aimed to compare the effect of valproate in reducing the craving in methamphetamine dependents. Materials and Methods: This is a randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial on 40 men of 18–40 years old referred to Noor Hospital during December 2012–September 2013 in Isfahan, Iran. The subjects participated in matrix program and randomly were divided into two groups of valproate and placebo. A 4-months program of intervention with valproate or placebo was arranged for each group. The rate of craving to methamphetamine and positive methamphetamine urine tests were evaluated in both groups every 2 weeks using cocaine craving questionnaire-brief (CCQ-Brief) and urine test. After the 4 months (active treatment with valproate and placebo), the drug was tapered and discontinued within 10 days, and patients were introduced to self-help groups and monitored regularly on a weekly basis over another 3 months. Collected data were analyzed with SPSS 20 using analysis of covariance repeated measure, Chi-square, and t-test. Results: CCQ score of the intervention group was significantly less than the placebo group (P < 0.001), except on weeks 1, 3, and 28. The ratio of a positive urine test for methamphetamine in the intervention group was significantly lower than the control group in all screenings except weeks 3 and 28. Conclusion: Adding valproate to matrix program in the treatment of methamphetamine dependence showed significant effect on the reduction of the craving to methamphetamine.

  10. Effect of add-on valproate on craving in methamphetamine depended patients: A randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Kheirabadi, Gholam Reza; Ghavami, Masoud; Maracy, Mohammad Reza; Salehi, Mehrdad; Sharbafchi, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Methamphetamine dependence lead to the compulsive use, loss of control, and social and occupational dysfunctions. This study aimed to compare the effect of valproate in reducing the craving in methamphetamine dependents. Materials and Methods: This is a randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial on 40 men of 18–40 years old referred to Noor Hospital during December 2012–September 2013 in Isfahan, Iran. The subjects participated in matrix program and randomly were divided into two groups of valproate and placebo. A 4-months program of intervention with valproate or placebo was arranged for each group. The rate of craving to methamphetamine and positive methamphetamine urine tests were evaluated in both groups every 2 weeks using cocaine craving questionnaire-brief (CCQ-Brief) and urine test. After the 4 months (active treatment with valproate and placebo), the drug was tapered and discontinued within 10 days, and patients were introduced to self-help groups and monitored regularly on a weekly basis over another 3 months. Collected data were analyzed with SPSS 20 using analysis of covariance repeated measure, Chi-square, and t-test. Results: CCQ score of the intervention group was significantly less than the placebo group (P < 0.001), except on weeks 1, 3, and 28. The ratio of a positive urine test for methamphetamine in the intervention group was significantly lower than the control group in all screenings except weeks 3 and 28. Conclusion: Adding valproate to matrix program in the treatment of methamphetamine dependence showed significant effect on the reduction of the craving to methamphetamine. PMID:27656618

  11. COMBUSTION CONTROL OF ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    More than two decades ago, researchers identified benzo(a)pyrene and other organic species in the emissions from incineration of solid waste. Chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and-furans (CDD/CDF) were first detected in municipal waste combustor (MWC) emissions in 1977. Since then, C...

  12. Motor vehicle exhaust emissions and control in Finland

    SciTech Connect

    Laurikko, J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper outlines the status and trends of atmospheric pollution in Finland caused by motor vehicles and evaluates the effect of the current regulatory policy. Details of new emission regulations for passenger cars and heavy duty vehicles are given. Research activities and items of particular concern like the effect of low ambient temperature on emissions are also discussed.

  13. Factors controlling natural VOC emissions in a southeastern US pine forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jo-Chun

    A one-year field study was conducted to investigate the control factors of the monoterpene emissions from slash and loblolly pine saplings at the Austin Cary Forest site in Florida. The α-pinene, camphene, β-pinene, myrcene, d-limonene, and β-phellandrene were identified in the emission samples collected from native pine trees. The α-pinene was the principal (>60%) monoterpene emitted by both slash and loblolly pine saplings. Terpene emission rates in spring were the highest and most volatile for slash pine trees, possibly due to the influences of bud formation and elongation. Loblolly pine emissions, under a similar environmental temperature range, revealed different seasonal patterns of emissions when compared to those for slash pines. Emission rates of monoterpenes from slash and loblolly pine trees were found to depend on temperature, season's change (e.g., bud emissions), tree age, needle surface wetness, and rough handling. It is suggested that the emission control factors besides the environmental temperature should also be taken into account in assessing regional biogenic emissions for compling a worldwide hydrocarbon emission inventory. It is also found that monoterpene emission rates could easily change over a long period of time (e.g., years), and so it is desirable to analyze the emission data based on the short term (e.g., season, month) for reasonable temperature-emission algorithm.

  14. Management controls on nitrous oxide emissions from row crop agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfand, I.; Shcherbak, I.; Millar, N.; Robertson, G. P.

    2011-12-01

    Agriculture is a significant source of the potent greenhouse gas (GHG) nitrous oxide (N2O), accounting for ~70% of total anthropic N2O emissions in the US primarily as a result of N fertilizer application. Emissions of N2O are the largest contributor to the global warming potential of row-crop agriculture. Management, including choice of crop type and rotation strongly impacts N2O emissions, but continuous emissions data from row-crops over multiple rotations are lacking. Empirical quantification of these long-term emissions and the development of crop- and rotation-specific N2O emission factors are vital for improving estimates of agricultural GHG emissions, important for informing management practices to reduce agriculture's GHG footprint, and developing mitigation protocols for environmental markets. Over 20 years we measured soil N2O emissions and calculated crop and management specific emission factors in four continuous rotations of corn (Zea mays) - soybean (Glycine max) - wheat (Triticum aestivum) under conventional tillage (CT), zero tillage (NT), low chemical input (LI), and biologically (Org) based management. Two of these systems (LI and Org) included winter cover crops, red clover (Trifolium pratense) or ray (Secale cereale). While average soil N2O fluxes in all systems where similar (2.9±0.2 to 3.8±0.5 g N2O-N ha-1 d-1), there was a significant interaction of total emissions with crop and phase. Surprisingly, the lowest total emissions from the corn period of the rotation were from CT, and the highest from LI, with 608±4 and 983±8 g N2O-N ha-1 crop year-1, respectively. Total emissions during the wheat period of the rotation showed the opposite trend, with total emissions of 942±7 and 524±38 g N2O-N ha-1 crop year-1, for CT ant LI, respectively. Total emissions from the soybean period of the rotation were highest under NT and lowest under CT management (526±5 and 296±2 g N2O-N ha-1 crop year-1, respectively). Emission efficiency, N2O emitted

  15. Vehicular Diesel control emissions benefit assessment in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Reynoso, J.; Jazcilevich, A. D.; Ruiz-Suarez, L.; Cruz-Nuñez, X.; Rojas, A. R.; Tripp, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    Diesel vehicles contribute in an important proportion to the particle and black carbon (BC) ambient concentrations in urban areas. These pollutants can effect the climate and health. The average age of the Diesel fleet in Mexico is 15 year-old. An introduction of new technologies and retrofit systems can reduce emissions from this type of vehicles. A set of policies were selected and applied in order to identify their economic benefits in health. An air quality model was used to obtain ambient concentrations from the emissions and specific methodology for emissions inventory adjustment was developed for this project. Preliminary results show an important benefit due to the improvement of the emissions reduction from the Diesel fleet. PM2.5 differences for reduction scenario case 1 and base case. Output from WRF-chem using 2005 Naional Emissions Inventory Reductions obtained using data from the initial fleet, fleet temporal variation and substitution policies.

  16. How light, temperature, and measurement and growth [CO2] interactively control isoprene emission in hybrid aspen

    PubMed Central

    Niinemets, Ülo; Sun, Zhihong

    2015-01-01

    Plant isoprene emissions have been modelled assuming independent controls by light, temperature and atmospheric [CO2]. However, the isoprene emission rate is ultimately controlled by the pool size of its immediate substrate, dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMADP), and isoprene synthase activity, implying that the environmental controls might interact. In addition, acclimation to growth [CO2] can shift the share of the control by DMADP pool size and isoprene synthase activity, and thereby alter the environmental sensitivity. Environmental controls of isoprene emission were studied in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides) saplings acclimated either to ambient [CO2] of 380 μmol mol–1 or elevated [CO2] of 780 μmol mol–1. The data demonstrated strong interactive effects of environmental drivers and growth [CO2] on isoprene emissions. Light enhancement of isoprene emission was the greatest at intermediate temperatures and was greater in elevated-[CO2]-grown plants, indicating greater enhancement of the DMADP supply. The optimum temperature for isoprene emission was higher at lower light, suggesting activation of alternative DMADP sinks at higher light. In addition, [CO2] inhibition of isoprene emission was lost at a higher temperature with particularly strong effects in elevated-[CO2]-grown plants. Nevertheless, DMADP pool size was still predicted to more strongly control isoprene emission at higher temperatures in elevated-[CO2]-grown plants. We argue that interactive environmental controls and acclimation to growth [CO2] should be incorporated in future isoprene emission models at the level of DMADP pool size. PMID:25399006

  17. OVERVIEW OF ADVANCED PETROLEUM-BASED FUELS-DIESEL EMISSIONS CONTROL PROGRAM (APBF-DEC)

    SciTech Connect

    Sverdrup, George M.

    2000-08-20

    The Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels-Diesel Emissions Control Program (APBF-DEC) began in February 2000 and is supported by government agencies and industry. The purpose of the APBF-DEC program is to identify and evaluate the optimal combinations of fuels, lubricants, diesel engines, and emission control systems to meet the projected emission standards for the 2000 to 2010 time period. APBF-DEC is an outgrowth of the earlier Diesel Emission Control-Sulfur Effects Program (DECSE), whose objective is to determine the impact of the sulfur levels in fuel on emission control systems that could lower the emissions of NOx and particulate matter (PM) from diesel powered vehicles in the 2002 to 2004 period. Results from the DECSE studies of two emission control technologies-diesel particle filter (DPF) and NOx adsorber-will be used in the APBF-DEC program. These data are expected to provide initial information on emission control technology options and the effects of fuel properties (including additives) on the performance of emission control systems.

  18. How light, temperature, and measurement and growth [CO2] interactively control isoprene emission in hybrid aspen.

    PubMed

    Niinemets, Ülo; Sun, Zhihong

    2015-02-01

    Plant isoprene emissions have been modelled assuming independent controls by light, temperature and atmospheric [CO2]. However, the isoprene emission rate is ultimately controlled by the pool size of its immediate substrate, dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMADP), and isoprene synthase activity, implying that the environmental controls might interact. In addition, acclimation to growth [CO2] can shift the share of the control by DMADP pool size and isoprene synthase activity, and thereby alter the environmental sensitivity. Environmental controls of isoprene emission were studied in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides) saplings acclimated either to ambient [CO2] of 380 μmol mol(-1) or elevated [CO2] of 780 μmol mol(-1). The data demonstrated strong interactive effects of environmental drivers and growth [CO2] on isoprene emissions. Light enhancement of isoprene emission was the greatest at intermediate temperatures and was greater in elevated-[CO2]-grown plants, indicating greater enhancement of the DMADP supply. The optimum temperature for isoprene emission was higher at lower light, suggesting activation of alternative DMADP sinks at higher light. In addition, [CO2] inhibition of isoprene emission was lost at a higher temperature with particularly strong effects in elevated-[CO2]-grown plants. Nevertheless, DMADP pool size was still predicted to more strongly control isoprene emission at higher temperatures in elevated-[CO2]-grown plants. We argue that interactive environmental controls and acclimation to growth [CO2] should be incorporated in future isoprene emission models at the level of DMADP pool size.

  19. Estimates of increased black carbon emissions from electrostatic precipitators during powdered activated carbon injection for mercury emissions control.

    PubMed

    Clack, Herek L

    2012-07-01

    The behavior of mercury sorbents within electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) is not well-understood, despite a decade or more of full-scale testing. Recent laboratory results suggest that powdered activated carbon exhibits somewhat different collection behavior than fly ash in an ESP and particulate filters located at the outlet of ESPs have shown evidence of powdered activated carbon penetration during full-scale tests of sorbent injection for mercury emissions control. The present analysis considers a range of assumed differential ESP collection efficiencies for powdered activated carbon as compared to fly ash. Estimated emission rates of submicrometer powdered activated carbon are compared to estimated emission rates of particulate carbon on submicrometer fly ash, each corresponding to its respective collection efficiency. To the extent that any emitted powdered activated carbon exhibits size and optical characteristics similar to black carbon, such emissions could effectively constitute an increase in black carbon emissions from coal-based stationary power generation. The results reveal that even for the low injection rates associated with chemically impregnated carbons, submicrometer particulate carbon emissions can easily double if the submicrometer fraction of the native fly ash has a low carbon content. Increasing sorbent injection rates, larger collection efficiency differentials as compared to fly ash, and decreasing sorbent particle size all lead to increases in the estimated submicrometer particulate carbon emissions. PMID:22663136

  20. Guideline series: Control of volatile organic compound emissions from offset lithographic printing. Draft report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-09-01

    The report is a draft control techniques guideline (CTG) document for control of volatile organic compound emissions from offset lithographic printing. The document address sheet fed, non-heatset web, newspapers, and heat-set web offset lithographic printing. The principle emission sources addressed are fountain solution, cleaning solvents (blanket and roller washes) and heatset dryers. The purpose of a CTG document is to assist state and local air pollution agencies in developing regulations to limit emissions of volatile organic compounds.

  1. Antidiabetic Effects of Add-On Gynostemma pentaphyllum Extract Therapy with Sulfonylureas in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Huyen, V. T. T.; Phan, D. V.; Thang, P.; Ky, P. T.; Hoa, N. K.; Ostenson, C. G.

    2012-01-01

    Aims. To investigate the antidiabetic effect of the traditional Vietnamese herb Gynostemma pentaphyllum (GP) together with sulfonylurea (SU) in 25 drug-naïve type 2 diabetic patients. Methods. After 4-week treatment with gliclazide (SU), 30 mg daily, all patients were randomly assigned into 2 groups to add on GP extract or placebo extract, 6 g daily, during eight weeks. Results. After 4-week SU treatment, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HbA1C decreased significantly (P < 0.001). FPG was further reduced after add-on therapy with 2.9 ± 1.7 and 0.9 ± 0.6 mmol/L in the GP and placebo groups, respectively (P < 0.001). Therapy with GP extract also reduced 30- and 120-minute oral glucose tolerance test postload values. HbA1C levels decreased approximately 2% units in the GP group compared to 0.7% unit in the placebo group (P < 0.001). Conclusion. GP extract in addition to SU offers an alternative to addition of other oral medication to treat type 2 diabetic patients. PMID:23125867

  2. Analysis of the add-on effect of α-glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose in insulin therapy: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Feng-Fei; Fu, Li-Yuan; Xu, Xiao-Hua; Su, Xiao-Fei; Wu, Jin-Dan; Ye, Lei; Ma, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the add-on effect of acarbose therapy in oxidative stress, and the lipid and inflammatory profiles of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treated with insulin. This was an open and unblended study. Patients (n=134) with T2DM (haemoglobin A1c range, 9.0–12.0%) were recruited. After continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion for 7 days for initial rapid correction of hyperglycaemia, a premixed insulin titration period (duration, 4–6 days) subsequently followed. Patients were then randomized (1:1) into two groups as follows: An acarbose plus pre-mixed 30/70 insulin group or a pre-mixed 30/70 insulin only group; each group received treatment for 2 weeks. Plasma high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP), 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso PGF2α), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 levels were measured before and after therapy. Patients that received acarbose plus insulin demonstrated greater reduction in 8-iso PGF2α, Hs-CRP, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 levels when compared with the insulin only patients. Thus, acarbose add-on insulin therapy was identified to be associated with greater improvements in oxidative stress and inflammation in patients with T2DM when compared with those that received insulin only therapy.

  3. Control of NOx Emissions from Stationary Combustion Sources

    EPA Science Inventory

    In general, NOx control technologies are categorized as being either primary control technologies or secondary control technologies. Primary control technologies reduce the formation of NOx in the primary combustion zone. In contrast, secondary control technologies destroy the NO...

  4. Environmental controls over isoprene emission in deciduous oak canopies.

    PubMed

    Harley, P; Guenther, A; Zimmerman, P

    1997-11-01

    In summer 1992, isoprene emission was measured on intact leaves and branches of Quercus alba (L.) at two heights in a forest canopy. Isoprene emission capacity (measured at 30 degrees C and a photosynthetic photon flux density of 1000 micro mol m(-2) s(-1)) was significantly higher in sun leaves than in shade leaves when expressed on a leaf area basis (51 versus 31 nmol m(-2) s(-1); P < 0.01). Because leaf mass per unit area (LMA, g m(-2)) was higher in sun leaves than in shade leaves, emissions of sun and shade leaves expressed on a dry mass basis did not differ significantly (99 versus 89 micro g C g(DW) (-1) h(-1); P = 0.05). Similar measurements in 1995 were consistent with the 1992 data, but data from leaves in more shaded locations demonstrated that isoprene emission capacity decreased with decreasing growth irradiance, irrespective of units of expression. Isoprene emission capacity in leaves of Q. coccinea Muenchh. and Q. velutina Lam. also declined steeply with canopy depth. Emission capacity, on a dry mass basis, showed no obvious pattern with canopy position in Q. prinus L. There was no difference in the temperature response of sun versus shade leaves of Q. alba, but shade leaves exhibited a greater quantum efficiency and saturated at lower irradiance than sun leaves. Rates of isoprene emission measured on branches of Q. alba were approximately 60% of those measured on individual leaves, as a result of self-shading within branch enclosures. It is recommended that within-canopy variation in isoprene emission capacity be incorporated into regional emission models.

  5. Emissions of Transport Refrigeration Units with CARB Diesel, Gas-to-Liquid Diesel, and Emissions Control Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Barnitt, R. A.; Chernich, D.; Burnitzki, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Miyasato, M.; Lucht, E.; van der Merwe, D.; Schaberg, P.

    2010-05-01

    A novel in situ method was used to measure emissions and fuel consumption of transport refrigeration units (TRUs). The test matrix included two fuels, two exhaust configurations, and two TRU engine operating speeds. Test fuels were California ultra low sulfur diesel and gas-to-liquid (GTL) diesel. Exhaust configurations were a stock muffler and a Thermo King pDPF diesel particulate filter. The TRU engine operating speeds were high and low, controlled by the TRU user interface. Results indicate that GTL diesel fuel reduces all regulated emissions at high and low engine speeds. Application of a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions, sometimes almost entirely. The application of both GTL diesel and a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions at high engine speed, but showed an increase in oxides of nitrogen at low engine speed.

  6. MULTIPOLLUTANT EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY OPTIONS FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents and analyzes various existing and novel control technologies designed to achieve multipollutant [sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxide (NOX), and mercury (Hg)] emission reductions. Summary descriptions are included of 23 multipollutant control technologies that...

  7. 24 CFR 3280.308 - Formaldehyde emission controls for certain wood products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Formaldehyde emission controls for certain wood products. 3280.308 Section 3280.308 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... Body and Frame Construction Requirements § 3280.308 Formaldehyde emission controls for certain...

  8. 24 CFR 3280.308 - Formaldehyde emission controls for certain wood products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formaldehyde emission controls for certain wood products. 3280.308 Section 3280.308 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... Body and Frame Construction Requirements § 3280.308 Formaldehyde emission controls for certain...

  9. 24 CFR 3280.308 - Formaldehyde emission controls for certain wood products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Formaldehyde emission controls for certain wood products. 3280.308 Section 3280.308 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... Body and Frame Construction Requirements § 3280.308 Formaldehyde emission controls for certain...

  10. Preface: Special Issue on Catalytic Control of Lean-Burn Engine Exhaust Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Yezerets, Aleksey; Peden, Charles HF; Szanyi, Janos; Nova, Isabella; Epling, Bill

    2012-04-30

    This issue of Catalysis Today includes original research articles based on select presentations from the Mobile Emissions Control Symposium at the 22nd North American Catalysis Society (NACS) Meeting held in Detroit in June 2011, with a particular focus on catalyzed diesel emissions control. The Symposium was dedicated to the memory of Dr. Haren Gandhi, a visionary technology leader and a passionate environmental advocate.

  11. 40 CFR 57.704 - Compliance with fugitive emission evaluation and control requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compliance with fugitive emission evaluation and control requirements. 57.704 Section 57.704 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... within a reasonable period after the submission of the report on the fugitive emission control...

  12. 40 CFR 57.704 - Compliance with fugitive emission evaluation and control requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compliance with fugitive emission evaluation and control requirements. 57.704 Section 57.704 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... within a reasonable period after the submission of the report on the fugitive emission control...

  13. Engine Performance (Section C: Emission Control Systems). Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Module 3. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rains, Larry

    This engine performance (emission control systems) module is one of a series of competency-based modules in the Missouri Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Topics of this module's five units are: positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) and evaporative emission control systems; exhaust gas recirculation (EGR); air injection and catalytic converters;…

  14. Engine Tune-up Service. Unit 6: Emission Control Systems. Student Guide. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, E. Miles

    This student guide is for Unit 6, Emission Control Systems, in the Engine Tune-Up Service portion of the Automotive Mechanics Curriculum. It deals with inspecting, testing, and servicing an emission control system. A companion review exercise book and posttests are available separately as CE 031 221-222. An introduction tells how this unit fits…

  15. STRUCTURAL TRANSFORMATIONS IN CA-BASED SORBENTS USED FOR SO2 EMISSION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses structural transformations in Ca-based sorbents used for SO2 emission control. conomizer temperature injection of Ca-based sorbents is an option for dry control of SO2 emissions from coal-fired boilers. heir reactivity with SO2 was found to be a function of th...

  16. Environmental factors controlling methane emissions from peatlands in northern Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dise, Nancy B.; Gorham, Eville; Verry, Elon S.

    1993-01-01

    The environmental factors affecting the emission of methane from peatlands were investigated by correlating CH4 emission data for two years, obtained from five different peatland ecosystems in northern Minnesota, with peat temperature, water table position, and degree of peat humification. The relationship obtained between the CH4 flux and these factors was compared to results from a field manipulation experiment in which the water table was artificially raised in three experimental plots within the driest peatland. It was found that peat temperature, water table position, and degree of peat humification explained 91 percent of the variance in log CH4 flux, successfully predicted annual CH4 emission from individual wetlands, and predicted the change in flux due to the water table manipulation. Raising the water table in the bog corrals by an average of 6 cm in autumn 1989 and 10 cm in summer 1990 increased CH4 emission by 2.5 and 2.2 times, respectively.

  17. Environmental factors controlling methane emissions from peatlands in northern Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dise, Nancy B.; Gorham, Eville; Verry, Elon S.

    1993-06-01

    The environmental factors affecting the emission of methane from peatlands were investigated by correlating CH4 emission data for two years, obtained from five different peatland ecosystems in northern Minnesota, with peat temperature, water table position, and degree of peat humification. The relationship obtained between the CH4 flux and these factors was compared to results from a field manipulation experiment in which the water table was artificially raised in three experimental plots within the driest peatland. It was found that peat temperature, water table position, and degree of peat humification explained 91 percent of the variance in log CH4 flux, successfully predicted annual CH4 emission from individual wetlands, and predicted the change in flux due to the water table manipulation. Raising the water table in the bog corrals by an average of 6 cm in autumn 1989 and 10 cm in summer 1990 increased CH4 emission by 2.5 and 2.2 times, respectively.

  18. Environmental consequences of invasive species: greenhouse gas emissions of insecticide use and the role of biological control in reducing emissions.

    PubMed

    Heimpel, George E; Yang, Yi; Hill, Jason D; Ragsdale, David W

    2013-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions associated with pesticide applications against invasive species constitute an environmental cost of species invasions that has remained largely unrecognized. Here we calculate greenhouse gas emissions associated with the invasion of an agricultural pest from Asia to North America. The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, was first discovered in North America in 2000, and has led to a substantial increase in insecticide use in soybeans. We estimate that the manufacture, transport, and application of insecticides against soybean aphid results in approximately 10.6 kg of carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent greenhouse gasses being emitted per hectare of soybeans treated. Given the acreage sprayed, this has led to annual emissions of between 6 and 40 million kg of CO2 equivalent greenhouse gasses in the United States since the invasion of soybean aphid, depending on pest population size. Emissions would be higher were it not for the development of a threshold aphid density below which farmers are advised not to spray. Without a threshold, farmers tend to spray preemptively and the threshold allows farmers to take advantage of naturally occurring biological control of the soybean aphid, which can be substantial. We find that adoption of the soybean aphid economic threshold can lead to emission reductions of approximately 300 million kg of CO2 equivalent greenhouse gases per year in the United States. Previous studies have documented that biological control agents such as lady beetles are capable of suppressing aphid densities below this threshold in over half of the soybean acreage in the U.S. Given the acreages involved this suggests that biological control results in annual emission reductions of over 200 million kg of CO2 equivalents. These analyses show how interactions between invasive species and organisms that suppress them can interact to affect greenhouse gas emissions.

  19. Environmental Consequences of Invasive Species: Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Insecticide Use and the Role of Biological Control in Reducing Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Heimpel, George E.; Yang, Yi; Hill, Jason D.; Ragsdale, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions associated with pesticide applications against invasive species constitute an environmental cost of species invasions that has remained largely unrecognized. Here we calculate greenhouse gas emissions associated with the invasion of an agricultural pest from Asia to North America. The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, was first discovered in North America in 2000, and has led to a substantial increase in insecticide use in soybeans. We estimate that the manufacture, transport, and application of insecticides against soybean aphid results in approximately 10.6 kg of carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent greenhouse gasses being emitted per hectare of soybeans treated. Given the acreage sprayed, this has led to annual emissions of between 6 and 40 million kg of CO2 equivalent greenhouse gasses in the United States since the invasion of soybean aphid, depending on pest population size. Emissions would be higher were it not for the development of a threshold aphid density below which farmers are advised not to spray. Without a threshold, farmers tend to spray preemptively and the threshold allows farmers to take advantage of naturally occurring biological control of the soybean aphid, which can be substantial. We find that adoption of the soybean aphid economic threshold can lead to emission reductions of approximately 300 million kg of CO2 equivalent greenhouse gases per year in the United States. Previous studies have documented that biological control agents such as lady beetles are capable of suppressing aphid densities below this threshold in over half of the soybean acreage in the U.S. Given the acreages involved this suggests that biological control results in annual emission reductions of over 200 million kg of CO2 equivalents. These analyses show how interactions between invasive species and organisms that suppress them can interact to affect greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:23977273

  20. Control technology for radioactive emissions to the atmosphere at US Department of Energy facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, E.B.

    1984-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information to the US Environmental Protection agency (EPA) on existing technology for the control of radionuclide emissions into the air from US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, and to provide EPA with information on possible additional control technologies that could be used to further reduce these emissions. Included in this report are generic discussions of emission control technologies for particulates, iodine, rare gases, and tritium. Also included are specific discussions of existing emission control technologies at 25 DOE facilities. Potential additional emission control technologies are discussed for 14 of these facilities. The facilities discussed were selected by EPA on the basis of preliminary radiation pathway analyses. 170 references, 131 figures, 104 tables.

  1. Factors controlling emissions of dimethylsulphide from salt marshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dacey, John W. H.; Wakeham, Stuart G.; King, Gary M.

    1987-01-01

    Salt marshes are presently identified as systems exhibiting high area-specific sulfur emission in the form of dimethylsulfide (DMS) and H2S, with the former predominating in vegetated areas of the marshes. Attention is presently given to the distribution of DMS in salt marshes; it is found that this compound primarily arises from physiological processes in the leaves of higher plants, especially the grass species Spartina alterniflora. Uncertainties associated with DMS emission measurements are considered.

  2. Emission of greenhouse gases from controlled incineration of cattle manure.

    PubMed

    Oshita, Kazuyuki; Sun, Xiucui; Taniguchi, Miki; Takaoka, Masaki; Matsukawa, Kazutsugu; Fujiwara, Taku

    2012-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emission is a potential limiting factor in livestock farming development. While incineration is one approach to minimize livestock manure, there are concerns about significant levels of nitrogen and organic compounds in manure as potential sources of greenhouse gas emissions (N2O and CH4). In this study, the effects of various incineration conditions, such as the furnace temperature and air ratio on N2O and CH4 formation behaviour, of cattle manure (as a representative livestock manure) were investigated in a pilot rotary kiln furnace. The results revealed that N2O emissions decreased with increasing temperature and decreasing air ratio. In addition, CH4 emissions tended to be high above 800 degrees C at a low air ratio. The emission factors for N2O and CH4 under the general conditions (combustion temperature of 800-850 degrees C and air ratio of 1.4) were determined to be 1.9-6.0% g-N2O-N/g-N and 0.0046-0.26% g-CH4/g-burning object, respectively. The emission factor for CH4 differed slightly from the published values between 0.16 and 0.38% g-CH4/g-burning object. However, the emission factor for N2O was much higher than the currently accepted value of 0.7% g-N2O-N/g-N and, therefore, it is necessary to revise the N2O emission factor for the incineration of livestock manure.

  3. Gaseous and particulate emission profiles during controlled rice straw burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchis, E.; Ferrer, M.; Calvet, S.; Coscollà, C.; Yusà, V.; Cambra-López, M.

    2014-12-01

    Burning of rice straw can emit considerable amounts of atmospheric pollutants. We evaluated the effect of rice straw moisture content (5%, 10%, and 20%) on the emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) and on the organic and inorganic constituents of released particulate matter (PM): dioxins, heavy metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Four burning tests were conducted per moisture treatment using the open chamber method. Additionally, combustion characteristics, including burning stages, durations, temperature, and relative humidity, were recorded. Burning tests showed flaming and smoldering stages were significantly longer in 20% moisture treatment (P < 0.05) compared with the rest. The amount of burned straw and ashes decreased with increasing straw moisture content (P < 0.001). Carbon dioxide was the main product obtained during combustion with emission values ranging from 692 g CO2 kg dry straw-1 (10% moisture content) to 835 g CO2 kg dry straw-1 (20% moisture content). Emission factors for PM were the highest in 20% moisture treatment (P < 0.005). Fine PM (PM2.5) accounted for more than 60% of total PM mass. Emission factors for dioxins increased with straw moisture content, being the highest in 20% moisture treatment, although showing a wide variability among burning tests (P > 0.05). Emissions factors for heavy metals were low and similar among moisture treatments (P > 0.05). Emission factors for individual PAHs were generally higher in 20% moisture treatment. Overall, emission factors of atmospheric pollutants measured in our study were higher in the 20% moisture content. This difference could be attributed to the incomplete combustion at higher levels of rice straw moisture content. According to our results, rice straw burning should be done after straw drying and under minimal moisture conditions to lower pollutant emission levels.

  4. Emissions and demonstration of an emission control technology for small two-stroke utility engines.

    PubMed

    Welch, William; Durbin, Thomas D

    2004-02-01

    Small utility engines represent an important contribution to the emissions inventory and have been subjected to increasingly stringent regulations in recent years. For this project, a Tanaka two-stroke engine was tested in its original condition and with a modified fuel/oil injection system. The modified fuel/oil injection system applied to the Tanaka two-stroke engine resulted in significant emissions reductions of approximately 52% for carbon monoxide (CO), 70% for total hydrocarbons (THC), 70% for particulate matter (PM), and 67% for the regulated THC + nitrogen oxides metric. This technology met the California Air Resources Board's 2000 model-year regulations for all pollutants, with the exception of slightly higher PM emissions. Two additional two-stroke engines were tested under a new condition and after at least 100 hr of use to examine the effects of deterioration on in-use, two-stroke engines. For one engine, CO and PM emissions more than tripled after 162 hr of operation in the field, with smaller increases also observed for THC (20%). For the second engine, significant repairs were required throughout the 100 operating hours, which counteracted the effects of the emissions deterioration and resulted in lower CO and THC emissions.

  5. Emission-control effectiveness of a woodstove catalyst and emission-measurement-methods comparison

    SciTech Connect

    McCrillis, R.C.; Merrill, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    The paper gives results of measurements of emissions from a prototype catalytic and a generic noncatalytic stove over a range of burn rates. For the catalytic stove, simultaneous EPA Modified Method 5 (MM5) samples were obtained before the catalyst and in the stack. For both stoves, Oregon Method 7 (OM7) and Condar dilution samplers (CDS) were operated simultaneously with the MM5 train at the stack location. Volatile organic samples were obtained by integrated bag sampler at the stack location. Results show a generally predictable correlation between MM5, OM7 and CDS results. Emission rates, based on MM5, were about twice those based on OM7 and CDS. Catalyst emission reduction effectiveness (by MM5) ranged from 72 to 98%. Catalyst inlet emissions appear to be affected by the test sequence: a high burn-rate test produced higher emissions when preceded by a low burn-rate test than when preceded by a high burn-rate test. Volatile organic emissions were about the same at all burn-rates on the catalytic stove and at low burn rates on the noncatalytic stove. At a high burn rate, the noncatalytic stove produced substantially less. All MM5 samples tested positive for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons.

  6. Influence of binder viscosity on the control of infrared emissivity in low emissivity coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Le; Weng, Xiaolong; Deng, Longjiang

    2013-01-01

    Low emissivity is the complex system and polymer binder is one of the most important factors that affect optical and mechanical properties of the coating. Low infrared emissivity coatings were prepared by using flake aluminum particles and three types of polymer resins as fillers and binders, respectively. The influence of polymer binder viscosity on pigment particles distribution, surface morphology and infrared emissivity of the coating was systematically investigated. The results indicate that infrared emissivity of the coating can be strongly affected by the resin viscosity at the same preparation condition, which induces different aluminum particles distribution and surface morphology of the coating. Low resin viscosity is helpful for aggregating pigments and reducing the top polymer layer thickness near the surface, thus the infrared emissivity is reduced. If the resin viscosity value is decreased by two orders of magnitude, the infrared emissivity values would be reduced as much as 0.2. Additionally, a theoretical model is proposed to account for this mechanism, which indicates that sedimentation, evaporation and diffusion play important roles in forming different aluminum particles distribution during the drying process of the coating.

  7. Quantifying the effects of China's pollution control on atmospheric mercury emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, H.

    2014-12-01

    China has conducted series of air pollution control policies to reduce the pollutant emissions. Although not specifically for mercury (Hg), those policies are believed to have co-benefits on atmospheric Hg emission control. On the basis of field-tests data and updated information of energy conservation and emission control, we have developed multiple-year inventories of anthropogenic mercury emissions in China from 2005 to 2012. Three scenarios (scenario 0(S0), scenario 1(S1), scenario 2(S2)) with different emission controls and energy path are designed for prediction of the future Hg emissions for the country. In particular, comprehensive assessments has been conducted to evaluate the evolution of emission factors, recent emission trends, effects of control measures as well as the reliability of our results. The national total emissions of anthropogenic Hg are estimated to increase from 679.0 metric tons (t) in 2005 to 749.8 t in 2012, with the peak at 770.6 t in 2011. The annual growth rate of emissions can then be calculated at 2.1% during 2005-2011, much lower than that of energy consumption or economy of the country. Coal combustion, gold metallurgy and nonferrous metal smelting are the most significant Hg sources of anthropogenic origin, accounting together for 85% of national total emissions. Tightened air pollution controls in China should be important reasons for the smooth emission trends. Compared with 2005, 299 t Hg were reduced in 2010 from power plants, iron and steel smelting, nonferrous-smelting and cement production, benefiting from the improvement of control measures for those sectors. The speciation of Hg emissions is relatively stable for recent years, with the mass fractions of around 55%, 9% and 6% for Hg0, Hg2+ and Hgp respectively. Integrating the policy commitments on energy saving, different from the most conservative case S0, S2 shares the same energy path with S1, but includes more stringent emission control. Under those scenarios, we

  8. Effects of After-Treatment Control Technologies on Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preble, C.; Dallmann, T. R.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Hering, S. V.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2015-12-01

    Diesel engines are major emitters of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and the black carbon (BC) fraction of particulate matter (PM). Diesel particle filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems that target exhaust PM and NOx have recently become standard on new heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDT). There is concern that DPFs may increase ultrafine particle (UFP) and total particle number (PN) emissions while reducing PM mass emissions. Also, the deliberate catalytic oxidation of engine-out NO to NO2 in continuously regenerating DPFs may lead to increased tailpipe emission of NO2 and near-roadway concentrations that exceed the 1-hr national ambient air quality standard. Increased NO2 emissions can also promote formation of ozone and secondary PM. We report results from ongoing on-road studies of HDDT emissions at the Port of Oakland and the Caldecott Tunnel in California's San Francisco Bay Area. Emission factors (g pollutant per kg diesel) were linked via recorded license plates to each truck's engine model year and installed emission controls. At both sites, DPF use significantly increased the NO2/NOx emission ratio. DPFs also significantly increased NO2 emissions when installed as retrofits on older trucks with higher baseline NOx emissions. While SCR systems on new trucks effectively reduce total NOx emissions and mitigate these undesirable DPF-related NO2 emissions, they also lead to significant emission of N2O, a potent greenhouse gas. When expressed on a CO2-equivalent basis, the N2O emissions increase offsets the fuel economy gain (i.e., the CO2 emission reduction) associated with SCR use. At the Port, average NOx, BC and PN emission factors from new trucks equipped with DPF and SCR were 69 ± 15%, 92 ± 32% and 66 ± 35% lower, respectively, than modern trucks without these emission controls. In contrast, at the Tunnel, PN emissions from older trucks retrofit with DPFs were ~2 times greater than modern trucks without DPFs. The difference

  9. Globes from global data: Charting international research networks with the GRASS GIS r.out.polycones add-on module.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löwe, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Many Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) tools have been created for the various application fields within geoscience. While FOSS allows re-implementation of functionalities in new environments by access to the original codebase, the easiest approach to build new software solutions for new problems is the combination or merging of existing software tools. Such mash-ups are implemented by embedding and encapsulating FOSS tools within each another, effectively focusing the use of the embedded software to the specific role it needs to perform in the given scenario, while ignoring all its other capabilities. GRASS GIS is a powerful and established FOSS GIS for raster, vector and volume data processing while the Generic Mapping Tools (GMT) are a suite of powerful Open Source mapping tools, which exceed the mapping capabilities of GRASS GIS. This poster reports on the new GRASS GIS add-on module r.out.polycones. It enables users to utilize non-continuous projections for map production within the GRASS production environment. This is implemented on the software level by encapsulating a subset of GMT mapping capabilities into a GRASS GIS (Version 6.x) add-on module. The module was developed at the German National Library of Science and Technology (TIB) to provide custom global maps of scientific collaboration networks, such as the DataCite consortium, the registration agency for Digital Object Identifiers (DOI) for research data. The GRASS GIS add-on module can be used for global mapping of raster data into a variety of non continuous sinosoidal projections, allowing the creation of printable biangles (gores) to be used for globe making. Due to the well structured modular nature of GRASS modules, technical follow-up work will focus on API-level Python-based integration in GRASS 7 [1]. Based on this, GMT based mapping capabilities in GRASS will be extended beyond non-continuous sinosoidal maps and advanced from raster-layers to content GRASS display monitors. References

  10. Controlled electron emission and vacuum breakdown with nanosecond pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seznec, B.; Dessante, Ph; Caillault, L.; Babigeon, J.-L.; Teste, Ph; Minea, T.

    2016-06-01

    Vacuum electron sources exploiting field emission are generally operated in direct current (DC) mode. The development of nanosecond and sub-nanosecond pulsed power supplies facilitates the emission of compact bunches of electrons of high density. The breakdown level is taken as the highest value of the voltage avoiding the thermo-emission instability. The effect of such ultra-fast pulses on the breakdown voltage and the emitted electron current is discussed as a result of the thermo-emission modelling applied to a significant protrusion. It is found that pulsing very rapidly the vacuum breakdown occurs at higher voltage values than for the DC case, because it rises faster than the heat diffusion. In addition, the electron emission current increases significantly regardless of the theoretical approach is used. A comparative study of this theoretical work is discussed for several different forms of the protrusion (elliptic and hyperbolic) and different metals (hence varying the melting point), particularly refractory (tungsten) versus conductor (titanium). Pulsed mode operation can provide an increase on breakdown voltage (up to 18%) and a significant increase (up to 330%) of the electron extracted current due to its high non-linear dependency with the voltage, for the case for the case with a hyperbolic protrusion.

  11. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart IIIi of... - Operating Limits for Capture Systems and Add-On Control Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must not fall below.... Measuring the total regeneration desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each regeneration cycle according to § 63.3168(d); andii. Maintaining the total regeneration desorbing gas mass flow at...

  12. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Oooo of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the catalyst bed in any 3-hour block period must not fall below the limit established according to... data to 3-hour block averages; and iii. maintaining the 3-hour block average catalyst bed inlet... catalyst bed in any 3-hour block period does not fall below the temperature difference limit...

  13. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Oooo of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the catalyst bed in any 3-hour block period must not fall below the limit established according to... data to 3-hour block averages; and iii. maintaining the 3-hour block average catalyst bed inlet... catalyst bed in any 3-hour block period does not fall below the temperature difference limit...

  14. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Jjjj of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... catalyst bed in any 3-hour period must not fall below the combustion temperature limit established according to § 63.3360(e)(3)(ii) i. Collecting the catalyst bed inlet temperature data according to § 63... catalyst bed inlet temperature at or above the temperature limit. b. The temperature rise across...

  15. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ssss of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-on Control Devices and Capture System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... before the catalyst bed in any 3-hour period must not fall below the limit established according to § 63... catalyst bed at or above the temperature limit. b. ensure that the average temperature difference across the catalyst bed in any 3-hour period does not fall below the temperature difference limit...

  16. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Jjjj of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... catalyst bed in any 3-hour period must not fall below the combustion temperature limit established according to § 63.3360(e)(3)(ii) i. Collecting the catalyst bed inlet temperature data according to § 63... catalyst bed inlet temperature at or above the temperature limit. b. The temperature rise across...

  17. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ssss of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-on Control Devices and Capture System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... before the catalyst bed in any 3-hour period must not fall below the limit established according to § 63... catalyst bed at or above the temperature limit. b. ensure that the average temperature difference across the catalyst bed in any 3-hour period does not fall below the temperature difference limit...

  18. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ssss of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-on Control Devices and Capture System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... before the catalyst bed in any 3-hour period must not fall below the limit established according to § 63... catalyst bed at or above the temperature limit. b. ensure that the average temperature difference across the catalyst bed in any 3-hour period does not fall below the temperature difference limit...

  19. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart IIIi of... - Operating Limits for Capture Systems and Add-On Control Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must not fall below... cycle according to § 63.3168(d); andii. Maintaining the total regeneration desorbing gas mass flow at or... any cooling cycle must not exceed the carbon bed temperature limit established according to §...

  20. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart IIIi of... - Operating Limits for Capture Systems and Add-On Control Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... desorbing gas (e.g., steam or nitrogen) mass flow for each carbon bed regeneration cycle must not fall below... cycle according to § 63.3168(d); andii. Maintaining the total regeneration desorbing gas mass flow at or... any cooling cycle must not exceed the carbon bed temperature limit established according to §...

  1. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Oooo of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the catalyst bed in any 3-hour block period must not fall below the limit established according to... data to 3-hour block averages; and iii. maintaining the 3-hour block average catalyst bed inlet... catalyst bed in any 3-hour block period does not fall below the temperature difference limit...

  2. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Jjjj of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Catalytic oxidizer a. The average temperature at the inlet to the catalyst bed in any 3-hour period must not... the catalyst bed inlet temperature data according to § 63.3350(e)(9);ii. Reducing the data to 3-hour block averages; and iii. Maintain the 3-hour average catalyst bed inlet temperature at or above...

  3. 40 CFR 63.985 - Nonflare control devices used to control emissions from storage vessels and low throughput...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Compliance Status whenever emissions of regulated material are routed to the control device except during... regulated material content, and the information specified in paragraphs (b)(1)(i)(A) through (E) of this... minimum temperature of 760 °C is used to meet an emission reduction requirement specified in a...

  4. 40 CFR 63.985 - Nonflare control devices used to control emissions from storage vessels and low throughput...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Compliance Status whenever emissions of regulated material are routed to the control device except during... regulated material content, and the information specified in paragraphs (b)(1)(i)(A) through (E) of this... minimum temperature of 760 °C is used to meet an emission reduction requirement specified in a...

  5. High-Capacity Sulfur Dioxide Absorbents for Diesel Emissions Control

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Liyu; King, David L.

    2005-01-05

    High capacity sulfur dioxide absorbents based on manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieves (OMS) have been identified. These materials are based on MnO6 octahedra sharing faces and edges to form various tunnel structures (2x2, 2x3, 2x4, 3x3) differentiated by the number of octahedra on a side. The SO2 capacities of these materials, measured at 325 C with a feed containing 250 ppmv SO2 in air, are as high as 70wt% (wt/wt), remarkably higher than conventional metal oxide-based SO2 absorbents. Among the OMS materials the 2x2 member, cryptomelane, exhibits the highest capacity and adsorption rate. Its SO2 absorption behavior has been further characterized as a function of temperature, space velocity, and feed composition. The dominant pathway for SO2 absorption is through the oxidation of SO2 to SO3 by Mn4+ followed by SO3 reaction with Mn2+ to form MnSO4. Absorption can occur in the absence of gas phase oxygen, with a moderate loss in overall capacity. The inclusion of reducible gases NO and CO in the feed does not reduce SO2 capacity. The absorption capacity decreases at high space velocity and lower absorption temperature, indicating the important role of diffusion of sulfate from the surface to the bulk of the material in order to reach full capacity. A color change of cryptomelane from black to yellow-brown after SO2 absorption can be used as an indicator of absorption progress. Cryptomelane can be synthesized using MnSO4 as a reagent. Therefore, after full SO2 absorption the product MnSO4 can be re-used as raw material for a subsequent cryptomelane synthesis. Cryptomelane has a similarly high capacity toward SO3, therefore it can be used for removal of all SOx species generated from a variety of combustion sources. Cryptomelane may find application as a replaceable absorbent for the removal of SOx from diesel truck exhaust, protecting downstream emissions control devices such as particulate filters and NOx traps.

  6. Laboratory tests on an aircraft fuselage to determine the insertion loss of various acoustic add-on treatments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heitman, K. E.; Mixson, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes a laboratory study of add-on acoustic treatments for a propeller-driven light aircraft fuselage. The treatments included: no treatment (i.e., baseline fuselage); a production-type double-wall interior; and various amounts of high density fiberglass added to the baseline fuselage. The sound source was a pneumatic-driver with attached exponential horn, supplied with a broadband signal. Data were acquired at the approximate head positions of the six passenger seats. The results were analyzed on space-averaged narrowband, one-third octave band and overall insertion loss basis. In addition, insertion loss results for the different configurations at specific frequencies representing propeller tone spectra are presented. The propeller tone data includes not only the space-averaged insertion loss, but also the variation of insertion loss at these particular frequencies across the six microphone positions.

  7. The Effects of Pycnogenol® as Add-on Drug to Metformin Therapy in Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Jankyova, Stanislava; Rubintova, Dominika; Janosikova, Lenka; Panek, Peter; Foltanova, Tatiana; Kralova, Eva

    2016-08-01

    The progression of diabetes mellitus leads in time to the development of serious cardiovascular complications. Pycnogenol® (PYC) belongs to strong antioxidants that may interfere with different pathways playing an important role in diseases associated with oxidative stress. Metformin (MET), commonly used antidiabetic drug, has cardio-protective effects via activation of AMP kinase (AMPK). In our study, we examined the effects of PYC as add-on drug to metformin therapy in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Our results revealed that both used agents, PYC and MET, showed improvement of blood glucose levels, vascular reactivity, left ventricular hypertrophy, expression of AMPK, glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in left ventricle of the hearts. However, the combination of these interventions has failed to possess higher efficacy. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27170051

  8. Delay-feedback control strategy for reducing CO2 emission of traffic flow system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li-Dong; Zhu, Wen-Xing

    2015-06-01

    To study the signal control strategy for reducing traffic emission theoretically, we first presented a kind of discrete traffic flow model with relative speed term based on traditional coupled map car-following model. In the model, the relative speed difference between two successive running cars is incorporated into following vehicle's acceleration running equation. Then we analyzed its stability condition with discrete control system stability theory. Third, we designed a delay-feedback controller to suppress traffic jam and decrease traffic emission based on modern controller theory. Last, numerical simulations are made to support our theoretical results, including the comparison of models' stability analysis, the influence of model type and signal control on CO2 emissions. The results show that the temporal behavior of our model is superior to other models, and the traffic signal controller has good effect on traffic jam suppression and traffic CO2 emission, which fully supports the theoretical conclusions.

  9. Mercury mass flow in iron and steel production process and its implications for mercury emission control.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengyang; Wang, Shuxiao; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Hai; Gao, Wei; Wu, Qingru; Hao, Jiming

    2016-05-01

    The iron and steel production process is one of the predominant anthropogenic sources of atmospheric mercury emissions worldwide. In this study, field tests were conducted to study mercury emission characteristics and mass flows at two iron and steel plants in China. It was found that low-sulfur flue gas from sintering machines could contribute up to 41% of the total atmospheric mercury emissions, and desulfurization devices could remarkably help reduce the emissions. Coal gas burning accounted for 17%-49% of the total mercury emissions, and therefore the mercury control of coal gas burning, specifically for the power plant burning coal gas to generate electricity, was significantly important. The emissions from limestone and dolomite production and electric furnaces can contribute 29.3% and 4.2% of the total mercury emissions from iron and steel production. More attention should be paid to mercury emissions from these two processes. Blast furnace dust accounted for 27%-36% of the total mercury output for the whole iron and steel production process. The recycling of blast furnace dust could greatly increase the atmospheric mercury emissions and should not be conducted. The mercury emission factors for the coke oven, sintering machine and blast furnace were 0.039-0.047gHg/ton steel, and for the electric furnace it was 0.021gHg/ton steel. The predominant emission species was oxidized mercury, accounting for 59%-73% of total mercury emissions to air.

  10. Preventive control of odor emissions through manipulation of operational parameters during the active phase of composting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenxiu; Lau, Anthony K; Wen, Zhiping S

    2009-06-01

    Better understanding of the effects of key operational parameters or environmental factors on odor emission is of critical importance for minimizing the generation of composting odors. A series of laboratory experiments was conducted to examine the effects of various operating conditions on odor emissions. The results revealed that airflow rates that were too high or too low could result in higher total odor emissions. An optimal flowrate for odor control would be approximately 0.6 L/min.kg dry matter with intermittent aeration and a duty cycle of 33%. Temperature setpoint at 60 degrees C appeared to be a turning point for odor emission. Below this point, odor emissions increased with increasing temperature setpoint; conversely, odor emissions decreased with increasing temperature setpoint above this point. With regard to the composting material properties, odor emissions were greatly affected by the initial moisture content of feedstock. Both peak odor concentration and emission rate generally increased with higher initial moisture content. Odor emission was significant only at moisture levels higher than 65%. An initial moisture level below 45% is not recommended due to concern with the resulting lower degree of biodegradation. Biodegradable volatile solids content (BVS) of feedstock had pronounced effect on odor emissions. Peak odor concentration and emission rate increased dramatically as BVS increased from 45% to 65%, thus, total odor emission increased exponentially with BVS. PMID:20183055

  11. Mercury mass flow in iron and steel production process and its implications for mercury emission control.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengyang; Wang, Shuxiao; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Hai; Gao, Wei; Wu, Qingru; Hao, Jiming

    2016-05-01

    The iron and steel production process is one of the predominant anthropogenic sources of atmospheric mercury emissions worldwide. In this study, field tests were conducted to study mercury emission characteristics and mass flows at two iron and steel plants in China. It was found that low-sulfur flue gas from sintering machines could contribute up to 41% of the total atmospheric mercury emissions, and desulfurization devices could remarkably help reduce the emissions. Coal gas burning accounted for 17%-49% of the total mercury emissions, and therefore the mercury control of coal gas burning, specifically for the power plant burning coal gas to generate electricity, was significantly important. The emissions from limestone and dolomite production and electric furnaces can contribute 29.3% and 4.2% of the total mercury emissions from iron and steel production. More attention should be paid to mercury emissions from these two processes. Blast furnace dust accounted for 27%-36% of the total mercury output for the whole iron and steel production process. The recycling of blast furnace dust could greatly increase the atmospheric mercury emissions and should not be conducted. The mercury emission factors for the coke oven, sintering machine and blast furnace were 0.039-0.047gHg/ton steel, and for the electric furnace it was 0.021gHg/ton steel. The predominant emission species was oxidized mercury, accounting for 59%-73% of total mercury emissions to air. PMID:27155436

  12. Long-term safety and tolerability of saxagliptin add-on therapy in older patients (aged ≥65 years) with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Nayyar; Allen, Elsie; Öhman, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background Treatment decisions for older patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus must balance glycemic control and adverse event risk. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term safety and tolerability of saxagliptin 5 mg as add-on therapy to common antihyperglycemic drugs in patients aged ≥65 years and <65 years. Methods Pooled adverse event data from three placebo-controlled trials of 76–206 weeks’ duration in older (≥65 years) and younger (<65 years) patients receiving saxagliptin 5 mg or matching placebo added to metformin, glyburide, or a thiazolidinedione were analyzed. Measurements were calculated from day of first dose to specified event or last dose and included time at risk for adverse events, treatment-related adverse events, serious adverse events, adverse events leading to discontinuation, and events of special interest. Weighted incidence rates (number of events/total time) and incidence rate ratios (saxagliptin/placebo) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated (Mantel-Haenszel test). Results A total of 205 older (mean age 69 years; saxagliptin, n=99; placebo, n=106) and 1,055 younger (mean age 52 years; saxagliptin, n=531; placebo, n=524) patients were assessed. Regardless of age category, the adverse event incidence rates were generally similar between treatments, with confidence intervals for incidence rate ratios bridging 1. Treatment-related adverse events occurred in 36 older patients receiving saxagliptin versus 32 receiving placebo (incidence rate 34.1 versus 27.1 per 100 person-years) and in 150 younger patients in both treatment groups (incidence rate 24.0 versus 27.8 per 100 person-years). With saxagliptin versus placebo, serious adverse events occurred in eight versus 14 older (incidence rate 5.7 versus 9.9 per 100 person-years) and 49 versus 44 younger patients (incidence rate 6.5 versus 6.6 per 100 person-years). There were two deaths (one patient ≥65 years) with saxagliptin and six (none aged ≥65 years

  13. Diesel fuel burner for diesel emissions control system

    DOEpatents

    Webb, Cynthia C.; Mathis, Jeffrey A.

    2006-04-25

    A burner for use in the emissions system of a lean burn internal combustion engine. The burner has a special burner head that enhances atomization of the burner fuel. Its combustion chamber is designed to be submersed in the engine exhaust line so that engine exhaust flows over the outer surface of the combustion chamber, thereby providing efficient heat transfer.

  14. Should sulfonylureas remain an acceptable first-line add-on to metformin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes? No, it's time to move on!

    PubMed

    Genuth, Saul

    2015-01-01

    Since their introduction to clinical practice in the 1950s, sulfonylureas have been widely prescribed for use in patients with type 2 diabetes. Of all the other medications currently available for clinical use, only metformin has been used more frequently. However, several new drug classes have emerged that are reported to have equal glucose-lowering efficacy and greater safety when added to treatment of patients in whom metformin monotherapy is no longer sufficient. Moreover, current arguments also suggest that the alternative drugs may be superior to sulfonylureas with regard to the risk of cardiovascular complications. Thus, while there is universal agreement that metformin should remain the first-line pharmacologic therapy for those in whom lifestyle modification is insufficient to control hyperglycemia, there is no consensus as to which drug should be added to metformin. Therefore, given the current controversy, we provide a Point-Counterpoint on this issue. In the preceding point narrative, Dr. Abrahamson provides his argument suggesting that avoiding use of sulfonylureas as a class of medication as an add-on to metformin is not appropriate as there are many patients whose glycemic control would improve with use of these drugs with minimal risk of adverse events. In the counterpoint narrative below, Dr. Genuth suggests there is no longer a need for sulfonylureas to remain a first-line addition to metformin for those patients whose clinical characteristics are appropriate and whose health insurance and/or financial resources make an alternative drug affordable.

  15. Fast pulsed operation of a small non-radioactive electron source with continuous emission current control.

    PubMed

    Cochems, P; Kirk, A T; Bunert, E; Runge, M; Goncalves, P; Zimmermann, S

    2015-06-01

    Non-radioactive electron sources are of great interest in any application requiring the emission of electrons at atmospheric pressure, as they offer better control over emission parameters than radioactive electron sources and are not subject to legal restrictions. Recently, we published a simple electron source consisting only of a vacuum housing, a filament, and a single control grid. In this paper, we present improved control electronics that utilize this control grid in order to focus and defocus the electron beam, thus pulsing the electron emission at atmospheric pressure. This allows short emission pulses and excellent stability of the emitted electron current due to continuous control, both during pulsed and continuous operations. As an application example, this electron source is coupled to an ion mobility spectrometer. Here, the pulsed electron source allows experiments on gas phase ion chemistry (e.g., ion generation and recombination kinetics) and can even remove the need for a traditional ion shutter.

  16. Fast pulsed operation of a small non-radioactive electron source with continuous emission current control

    SciTech Connect

    Cochems, P.; Kirk, A. T.; Bunert, E.; Runge, M.; Goncalves, P.; Zimmermann, S.

    2015-06-15

    Non-radioactive electron sources are of great interest in any application requiring the emission of electrons at atmospheric pressure, as they offer better control over emission parameters than radioactive electron sources and are not subject to legal restrictions. Recently, we published a simple electron source consisting only of a vacuum housing, a filament, and a single control grid. In this paper, we present improved control electronics that utilize this control grid in order to focus and defocus the electron beam, thus pulsing the electron emission at atmospheric pressure. This allows short emission pulses and excellent stability of the emitted electron current due to continuous control, both during pulsed and continuous operations. As an application example, this electron source is coupled to an ion mobility spectrometer. Here, the pulsed electron source allows experiments on gas phase ion chemistry (e.g., ion generation and recombination kinetics) and can even remove the need for a traditional ion shutter.

  17. Control of copper smelter fugitive emissions. Final report Mar 76-Oct 79

    SciTech Connect

    Devitt, T.W.

    1980-05-01

    This report deals with fugitive emissions from copper smelting and with related emission control measures. The study involved evaluation of the controls now used in the copper smelting industry and development of suggestions for alternative control devices and practices. A brief overview of copper smelting processes is followed by a more detailed analysis of the conventional processes identifying portions of the operating cycle that produce fugitive emissions. Emphasis is placed on Pierce-Smith Converting which is one of the major emission sources in copper smelting. Some alternate processes now in limited use in the U.S. are described including estimations of fugitive emissions from these conventional and alternative copper smelting processes. A specific report on the utilization of the Hoboken Converter is being prepared at the time of this report. The USEPA should be contacted if a copy of this report is desired.

  18. [Research advances in control of N2O emission from municipal solid waste landfill sites].

    PubMed

    Cai, Chuan-Yu; Li, Bo; Lü, Hao-Hao; Wu, Wei-Xiang

    2012-05-01

    Landfill is one of the main approaches for municipal solid waste treatment, and landfill site is a main emission source of greenhouse gases nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4). As a high-efficient trace greenhouse gas, N2O has a very high warming potential, with a warming capacity 296 times of CO2, and has a long-term stability in atmosphere, giving greater damage to the ozone layer. Aiming at the researches in the control of N2O emission from municipal solid waste landfill sites, this paper summarized the characteristics and related affecting factors of the N2O emission from the landfill sites, and put forward a series of the measures adaptable to the N2O emission control of present municipal solid waste landfill sites in China. Some further research focuses on the control of N2O emission from the landfill sites were also presented.

  19. Physical and chemical characterisation of PM emissions from two ships operating in European Emission Control Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldanová, J.; Fridell, E.; Winnes, H.; Holmin-Fridell, S.; Boman, J.; Jedynska, A.; Tishkova, V.; Demirdjian, B.; Joulie, S.; Bladt, H.; Ivleva, N. P.; Niessner, R.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper emission factors (EFs) for particulate matter (PM) and some sub-components as well as gaseous substances were investigated in two onboard measurement campaigns. Emissions from two 4-stroke main engines were measured under stable-load conditions. The impact of varying engine load on the emissions was investigated on one of the engines, and the impact of fuel quality on the other, where heavy fuel oil (HFO) with sulphur content 1% and 0.5% and marine gas oil (MGO) with sulphur content 0.1% were used. Furthermore, emissions from one auxiliary engine were studied. The measured EFs for PM mass were in the range of 0.3 to 2.7 g kg-1 fuel with the lowest values for emissions from the combustion of MGO, and the highest values for HFO with a sulphur content of 1%. The PM mass size distribution was dominated by particles in accumulation mode. Emission factors for particle numbers EF(PN) in the range of 5 × 1015-1 × 1017 # kg-1 fuel were found, the number concentration was dominated by particles in the ultrafine mode and ca. 2/3 of the particle number were non-volatile. The most abundant component of the PM mass was organic carbon, making up 25-60% of the PM. The measured EFs for organic carbon (OC) were 0.6 g kg-1 fuel for HFO and 0.2 g kg-1 fuel for MGO. Elemental carbon (EC) made up 10-38% of the PM mass, with no significant differences between HFO and MGO fuels. The concentrations of metals on sampled filters were investigated with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and the detected metal elements in exhaust when using HFO was concluded to originate from both the fuel (V, Ni, Fe) and the lubricant (Ca, Zn), while for the case of MGO combustion, most of the metals were concluded to originate from the lubricants. The measured emission factors for sulphate particles, EF (SO2-4), were low, ca. 0.1-0.2 g kg-1 fuel for HFO with 1% sulphur, 0.07-0.09 g kg-1 fuel for HFO with 0.5% sulphur and 0.003-0.006 g kg-1 fuel for MGO. This corresponds to 0

  20. ASSESSMENT OF STYRENE EMISSION CONTROLS FOR FRP/C AND BOAT BUILDING INDUSTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of several conventional and novel emission control technologies that have been used or could be used to treat styrene emissions from open molding processes in fiberglass-reinforced plastics/composites (FRP/C) and fiberglass boat building ...

  1. ADDENDUM TO ASSESSMENT OF STYRENE EMISSION CONTROLS FOR FRP/C AND BOAT BUILDING INDUSTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is an addendum to a 1996 report, Assessment of Styrene Emission Controls for FRP/C and Boat Building Industries. It presents additional evaluation of the biological treatment of styrene emissions, Dow Chemical Company's Sorbathene solvent vapor recovery system, Occupa...

  2. CONTROL OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS: INTERIM REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report provides additional information on mercury (Hg) emissions control following the release of "Study of Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions from Electric Utility Steam Generating Units--Final Report to Congress" in February 1998. Chapters 1-3 describe EPA's December 2000 de...

  3. Developing a Reference Material for Diffusion-Controlled Formaldehyde Emissions Testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions of formaldehyde from building materials can contaminate indoor air and create significant risks to human health. The need to control formaldehyde emissions from indoor materials is made more urgent by the prevailing drive to improve building energy by decreasing ventil...

  4. Systematic Field Study of NO(x) Emission Control Methods for Utility Boilers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartok, William; And Others

    A utility boiler field test program was conducted. The objectives were to determine new or improved NO (x) emission factors by fossil fuel type and boiler design, and to assess the scope of applicability of combustion modification techniques for controlling NO (x) emissions from such installations. A statistically designed test program was…

  5. PRELIMINARY PERFORMANCE AND COST ESTIMATES OF MERCURY EMISSION CONTROL OPTIONS FOR ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory


    The paper discusses preliminary performance and cost estimates of mercury emission control options for electric utility boilers. Under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, EPA had to determine whether mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants should be regulated. To a...

  6. Hydrological controls on nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide emissions across an agricultural landscape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes in hydrological controls on soil greenhouse gas emissions could result in important climate change feedbacks. Water table fluctuations into surface soils are “hot moments” of soil CO2 and N2O emissions. Future global change may affect the frequency and magnitude of water table fluctuations...

  7. Assessment of methods for methyl iodide emission reduction and pest control using a simulation model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various methods have been developed to reduce atmospheric emissions from the agricultural use of highly volatile pesticides and mitigate their adverse environmental effects. The effectiveness of various methods on emissions reduction and pest control was assessed using simulation model in this study...

  8. 40 CFR 1060.104 - What running loss emission control requirements apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and equipment must prevent fuel boiling during operation as specified in 40 CFR 1048.105. (3... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What running loss emission control... STATIONARY EQUIPMENT Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1060.104 What running loss...

  9. 40 CFR 1060.104 - What running loss emission control requirements apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and equipment must prevent fuel boiling during operation as specified in 40 CFR 1048.105. (3... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What running loss emission control... STATIONARY EQUIPMENT Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1060.104 What running loss...

  10. 40 CFR 1060.104 - What running loss emission control requirements apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and equipment must prevent fuel boiling during operation as specified in 40 CFR 1048.105. (3... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What running loss emission control... STATIONARY EQUIPMENT Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1060.104 What running loss...

  11. 40 CFR 1060.104 - What running loss emission control requirements apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and equipment must prevent fuel boiling during operation as specified in 40 CFR 1048.105. (3... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What running loss emission control... STATIONARY EQUIPMENT Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1060.104 What running loss...

  12. 40 CFR 1060.104 - What running loss emission control requirements apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and equipment must prevent fuel boiling during operation as specified in 40 CFR 1048.105. (3... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What running loss emission control... STATIONARY EQUIPMENT Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1060.104 What running loss...

  13. Physical Sciences Facility Air Emission Control Equivalency Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, David M.; Belew, Shan T.

    2008-10-17

    This document presents the adequacy evaluation for the application of technology standards during design, fabrication, installation and testing of radioactive air exhaust systems at the Physical Sciences Facility (PSF), located on the Horn Rapids Triangle north of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) complex. The analysis specifically covers the exhaust portion of the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems associated with emission units EP-3410-01-S, EP-3420-01-S and EP 3430-01-S.

  14. Greenhouse gas emissions control by economic incentives: Survey and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    South, D.W.; Kosobud, R.F.; Quinn, K.G.

    1991-12-31

    This paper presents a survey of issues and concerns raised in recent literature on the application of market-based approaches to greenhouse effect policy with an emphasis on tradeable emission permits. The potential advantages of decentralized decision-making -- cost-effectiveness or allocation efficiency, stimulation of innovations, and political feasibility are discussed. The potential difficulties of data recording, monitoring, enforcement, and of creating viable emission permit contracts and markets are examined. Special attention is given to the problem of designing a greenhouse effect policy that is cost-effective over time, a problem that has been given little attention to date. Proposals to reduce or stabilize greenhouse gas emission (especially CO{sub 2}) in the short run require high carbon tax rates or permit prices and impose heavy adjustment costs on the fossil fuel industry. A more cost-effective time path of permit prices is proposed that achieves the same long-run climate change stabilization goals. 21 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions control by economic incentives: Survey and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    South, D.W.; Kosobud, R.F.; Quinn, K.G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of issues and concerns raised in recent literature on the application of market-based approaches to greenhouse effect policy with an emphasis on tradeable emission permits. The potential advantages of decentralized decision-making -- cost-effectiveness or allocation efficiency, stimulation of innovations, and political feasibility are discussed. The potential difficulties of data recording, monitoring, enforcement, and of creating viable emission permit contracts and markets are examined. Special attention is given to the problem of designing a greenhouse effect policy that is cost-effective over time, a problem that has been given little attention to date. Proposals to reduce or stabilize greenhouse gas emission (especially CO{sub 2}) in the short run require high carbon tax rates or permit prices and impose heavy adjustment costs on the fossil fuel industry. A more cost-effective time path of permit prices is proposed that achieves the same long-run climate change stabilization goals. 21 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Multi-objective optimisation of wastewater treatment plant control to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Sweetapple, Christine; Fu, Guangtao; Butler, David

    2014-05-15

    This study investigates the potential of control strategy optimisation for the reduction of operational greenhouse gas emissions from wastewater treatment in a cost-effective manner, and demonstrates that significant improvements can be realised. A multi-objective evolutionary algorithm, NSGA-II, is used to derive sets of Pareto optimal operational and control parameter values for an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant, with objectives including minimisation of greenhouse gas emissions, operational costs and effluent pollutant concentrations, subject to legislative compliance. Different problem formulations are explored, to identify the most effective approach to emissions reduction, and the sets of optimal solutions enable identification of trade-offs between conflicting objectives. It is found that multi-objective optimisation can facilitate a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions without the need for plant redesign or modification of the control strategy layout, but there are trade-offs to consider: most importantly, if operational costs are not to be increased, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is likely to incur an increase in effluent ammonia and total nitrogen concentrations. Design of control strategies for a high effluent quality and low costs alone is likely to result in an inadvertent increase in greenhouse gas emissions, so it is of key importance that effects on emissions are considered in control strategy development and optimisation.

  17. Review of critical parameters in biomass combustion emissions control by means of hybrid filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz, D.; Rojas, E.; Rodríguez-Maroto, J. J.; Ramos, R.; Borjabad, E.; Escalada, R.; García-Alonso, S.; Gutierrez-Canas, C.; Aragon, G.; Mugica, I.; Ibarra, I.; Celades, I.; Sanfelix, V.

    2015-12-01

    Control of particulate matter emissions by means of hybrid filter has been included in the experimental plan of a research project in the field of Mediterranean agro-forestry waste biomass combustion at medium scale. Application of hybrid filters to biomass combustion has not been thoroughly experimented so far. An identification of the most important parameters in particulate matter emissions control by means of a hybrid filter was undertaken. The filter involves two of the most significant technologies in fly ash emission control, electrostatic precipitation and fabric filtration A discussion of these parameters and principles of operation of said technologies is presented, as well as the final selection of parameters to be included in the experimental matrix of the project in regards to emissions control. A novel approach is proposed for testing of filtration velocity influence in fabric filter module without impacting on operation of electrostatic precipitation module.

  18. Catalytic Control of Typical Particulate Matters and Volatile Organic Compounds Emissions from Simulated Biomass Burning.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yaxin; Tian, Guangkai; Zhou, Meijuan; Huang, Zhiwei; Lu, Chenxi; Hu, Pingping; Gao, Jiayi; Zhang, Zhaoliang; Tang, Xingfu

    2016-06-01

    Emissions of particulate matters (PMs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from open burning of biomass often cause severe air pollution; a viable approach is to allow biomass to burn in a furnace to collectively control these emissions, but practical control technologies for this purpose are lacking. Here, we report a hollandite manganese oxide (HMO) catalyst that can efficiently control both typical PMs and VOCs emissions from biomass burning. The results reveal that typical alkali-rich PMs such as KCl particles are disintegrated and the K(+) ions are trapped in the HMO "single-walled" tunnels with a great trapping capacity. The K(+)-trapping HMO increases the electron density of the lattice oxygen and the redox ability, thus promoting the combustion of soot PMs and the oxidation of typical VOCs such as aldehydes and acetylates. This could pave a way to control emissions from biomass burning concomitant with its utilization for energy or heat generation. PMID:27128185

  19. CONTROL OF PCDD/PCDF EMISSIONS FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article gives results of tests on five modern municipal waste combustors (MWCs) to characterize or determine the performance of representative combustor types and associated air emission control systems in the regulatory development process. Test results for uncontrolled (com...

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, HONEYWELL POWER SYSTEMS, INC. PARALLON 75 KW TURBOGENERATOR WITH CO EMISSIONS CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Greenhouse Gas Technology Center (GHG Center), one of six verification organizations under the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program, evaluated the performance of the Parallon 75 kW Turbogenerator (Turbogenerator) with carbon monoxide (CO) emissions control syst...