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Sample records for addax addax nasomaculatus

  1. Bilateral carpal contracture in a neonatal addax (Addax nasomaculatus).

    PubMed

    Watson, Megan K; Langan, Jennifer; Adkesson, Michael J

    2013-09-01

    A neonate male addax calf displayed an inability to extend its forelimbs bilaterally (range of motion restricted to 45 degrees-50 degrees on full extension) with resultant inability to stand. Based on examination and radiographs, the congenital defect was attributed to contracted soft tissue structures (joint capsule and/or intercarpal ligaments). Splinting, support of the limbs, and physical therapy resulted in moderate improvement of the angle of contraction (full flexion to approximately 120 degrees on extension at day 10). The animal was able to walk with splints but died at 10 days from acute head trauma, presumably related to a traumatic fall caused by challenges with ambulation. Postmortem examination confirmed soft-tissue contracture of the forelimbs. Malposition of the calf in utero was considered a possible cause of the defect. PMID:24063116

  2. Melengestrol acetate implant contraception in addax (Addax Nasomaculatus) and Arabian oryx (Oryx Leucoryx).

    PubMed

    Hall-Woods, Monica L; Bauman, Karen L; Bauman, Joan E; Fischer, Martha; Houston, E William; Asa, Cheryl S

    2007-07-01

    Melengestrol acetate (MGA) implants were used for contraception in three addax and three Arabian oryx females housed at the Saint Louis Zoo. Serum estradiol and progesterone or fecal estrogen and progestin analysis and ultrasonography of reproductive tracts were used for monitoring changes before, during, and after MGA treatment. Follicular development and irregular uterine fluid accumulation were detected in all females during MGA treatment. Although housed with an intact male for all or most of the contraceptive period, no pregnancies occurred.One female addax may have ovulated, based on sustained elevated progesterone levels, and another showed continued follicle development, as seen by fluctuating estradiol concentrations. Reversibility was documented in two of the three addax that resumed reproductive cycles post-MGA-implant removal, whereas the third, a peripubertal female, did not cycle before, during, or after treatment. Addax females were lost to further follow-up after transfer to another institution, so the possibility of subsequent pregnancies is not known.All three Arabian oryx ovulated during the initial MGA treatment, but two of the three females had implants past the typical 2-year efficacy period. They had regular ovulatory cycles after implant removal, with mean cycle length of 27.5+/-1.5 days and mean luteal phase duration of 15.2+/-0.7 days. Reversibility was further shown in all three oryx by pregnancies after placement with a male approximately 2 years after MGA implant removal. Two produced healthy calves, but the third died owing to an unrelated terminal illness in the mother. Zoo Biol 26:299-310, 2007. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:19360582

  3. Fluid and particle retention in the digestive tract of the addax antelope (Addax nasomaculatus)--adaptations of a grazing desert ruminant.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Jürgen; Steuer, Patrick; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Hammer, Sven; Hammer, Catrin; Streich, W Jürgen; Clauss, Marcus

    2008-02-01

    Retention time of food in the digestive tract is a major aspect describing the digestive physiology of herbivores. Differences in feed retention times have been described for different ruminant feeding types. In this study, a dominantly grazing desert ruminant, the addax (Addax nasomaculatus), was investigated in this respect. Eight animals with a body weight (BW) of 87+/-5.3 kg on an ad libitum grass hay (Chloris gayana) diet were available. Co-EDTA and Cr-mordanted fibers (<2 mm) were used as pulse-dose markers. Mean retention time (MRT) in the digestive tract was calculated from faecal marker excretion. Average daily intake of the addax was found to be 1.7 kg dry matter (DM) or 60+/-8.3 g DM/kg BW(0.75). The MRT of fluid and particles in the reticulo-rumen (MRT(fluid)RR and MRT(particle)RR) were quantified to be 20+/-5.8 and 42+/-7.0 h respectively. When compared to literature data, MRT(fluid)RR was significantly longer than in cattle species, and MRT(particle)RR was significantly longer than in 11 taxa of all feeding types. The ratio of MRT(particle)RR/MRT(fluid)RR (2.3+/-0.5) was found to be within the range described for grazing ruminants. The long retention times found in the addax can be interpreted as an adaptation to a diet including a high proportion of slow fermenting grasses, while the long retention time of the fluid phase can be interpreted as a consequence of water saving mechanisms of the desert-adapted addax with a potentially low water turnover and capacious water storing rumen. PMID:18083600

  4. Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) from the critically endangered antelope Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Boufana, Belgees; Saïd, Yousra; Dhibi, Mokhtar; Craig, Philip S; Lahmar, Samia

    2015-12-01

    Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is a zoonotic disease highly endemic in Tunisia. Canids including stray and semi-stray dogs, jackals and foxes are known as definitive hosts and a wide range of ungulates have been shown to harbour the metacestode hydatid stage and may serve as intermediate hosts. Fertile hydatid cysts of Echinococcus equinus and E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) were recently molecularly identified for the first time from Tunisian donkeys. E. granulosus (s.s.) was also identified from wild boars in Tunisia. Here we report the confirmation of hydatid cysts caused by E. granulosus (s.s.) in the critically endangered antelope, Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia. DNA-based molecular analysis revealed that A.nasomaculatus was infected with E. granulosus (s.s.) which had a 100% identity with the main globally distributed E. granulosus (s.s.) (EgTu01) haplotype. Cysts of Taenia hydatigena (n=33) were also observed on the liver and in the body cavity. Due to their endangered status and their relatively small numbers, it is unlikely that hydatid infection of A. nasomaculatus will form a major contribution to the epidemiology and transmission of E. granulosus in Tunisia, but infection may result in pathology, morbidity and early mortality, and may still play a role in the perpetuation of the parasite in wildlife cycles. PMID:26314229

  5. Comparisons among selected neonatal biomedical parameters of four species of semi-free ranging Hippotragini: Addax (Addax nasomaculatus), scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah), Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx), and sable antelope (Hippotragus niger).

    PubMed

    Ferrell, Shannon T.; Radcliffe, Robin W.; Marsh, Rodney; Thurman, Cathy B.; Cartwright, Christine M.; De Maar, Thomas W.J.; Blumer, Evan S; Spevak, Ed; Osofsky, Steven A.

    2001-01-01

    Basic biomedical data from 164 neonates of four species of the tribe Hippotragini, addax (Addax nasomaculatus), scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah), Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx), and sable antelope (Hippotragus niger), were compared at one zoological institution over a 9-year period. Measured biomedical parameters included body weight, temperature, pulse and respiratory rates, packed cell volume (PCV), total plasma protein, glucose, IgG assessment via zinc sulfate turbidity, and white blood cell count with differential. All species were maintained in a semi-free ranging setting with the same diet, available shelter, and opportunity for social interaction. Based on clinical and field observations, all neonates used in the study were believed to be at least 24 hr old, to have bonded with the dam, and to have no obvious physical abnormalities. Median body weights were similar only in the addax and Arabian oryx with sable antelope having the largest median body weight. No significant differences in rectal temperatures or pulse rates were found among species. Median respiratory rates were similar between certain groups. Arabian oryx and scimitar-horned oryx shared the highest packed cell volumes while the sable antelope had the lowest. Sable antelope had the highest median total plasma protein with no significant differences among the other species. Sable were also significantly lower in median blood glucose than the three other Hippotraginae. Zinc sulfate turbidities in all species were similar. Addax had higher median total white blood cell counts than sable. No significant differences in the median numbers of segmented neutrophils, band neutrophils, and eosinophils were detected among species. Basophils were only found in the scimitar-horned oryx in one animal. Addax had higher median lymphocyte counts than sable and Arabian oryx as well as higher median monocyte counts than sable. All four species exhibited higher median counts of neutrophils compared with

  6. Physical characteristics of rumen contents in four large ruminants of different feeding type, the addax (Addax nasomaculatus), bison (Bison bison), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and moose (Alces alces).

    PubMed

    Clauss, Marcus; Fritz, Julia; Bayer, Dorothee; Nygren, Kaarlo; Hammer, Sven; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Hummel, Jürgen

    2009-03-01

    Based on morphological and physiological observations, it has been suggested that differences exist in the degree that reticuloruminal (RR) contents are stratified between various ruminant species. However, the occurrence of stratification has hardly been measured in non-domestic species. Forestomach contents of free-ranging moose (n=22) and red deer (24) shot during regular hunting procedures, and of captive (but 100% forage fed) addax (6) and bison (10) culled for commercial or management purposes were investigated. There was no difference between the species in the degree by which RR ingesta separated according to size due to buoyancy characteristics in vitro. However, RR fluid of moose was more viscous than that of the other species, and no difference in moisture content was evident between the dorsal and the ventral rumen in moose, in contrast to the other species. Hence, the RR milieu in moose appears less favourable for gas or particle separation due to buoyancy characteristics. These findings are in accord with notable differences in RR papillation between the species. In moose, particle separation is most likely restricted to the reticulum, whereas in the other species, the whole rumen may pre-sort particles in varying degrees; a possible explanation for this pattern is a hypothetically lesser saliva production and fluid throughput in moose. The results suggest that differences in RR physiology may occur across ruminant species. The RR sorting mechanism should be considered a dynamic process that is better measured by its result--the significantly smaller particle size in the distal digestive tract when compared to the RR--than by regional differences in particle size within the RR. PMID:19049897

  7. 78 FR 4162 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies of January 21, 2009--Transparency and Open Government (74 FR... specimens of hawksbill sea turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) collected from wild populations in Honduras...), scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah), Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx), addax (Addax nasomaculatus), dama...

  8. 78 FR 33790 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Findings on Petitions To Delist U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (``Service''), announce 12-month findings on two petitions to remove the U.S. captive-bred and U.S. captive ``populations'' of three antelope species, the scimitar- horned oryx (Oryx dammah), dama gazelle (Gazella dama), and addax (Addax nasomaculatus), from the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife as determined under the Endangered Species Act of......

  9. Intraocular pressure and tear production in five herbivorous wildlife species.

    PubMed

    Ofri, R; Horowitz, I H; Raz, D; Shvartsman, E; Kass, P H

    2002-08-31

    The intraocular pressure and rate of tear production were measured in 18 addax antelopes (Addax nasomaculatus), four impalas (Aepyceros melampus), 11 wide-lipped rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum), 10 white-tailed wildebeests (Connochaetes gnou) and seven scimitar-horned oryxes (Oryx dammah). The animals were anaesthetised with an intramuscular injection of etorphine hydrochloride and acepromazine maleate, and the Schirmer tear test I was used to evaluate tear production, and applanation tonometry was used to evaluate the intraocular pressure. The mean (sd) rate of tear production ranged from 17.6 (3.1) mm/minute in the rhinoceros to 28.8 (8.3) mm/minute in the addax. The intraocular pressure ranged from 8.0 (1.2) mmHg in the impala to 32.1 (10.4) mmHg in the rhinoceros. The rate of tear production in the addax and the intraocular pressure in the rhinoceros appear to be the highest values of these variables to have been reported in any species. PMID:12233828

  10. Bayesian, maximum parsimony and UPGMA models for inferring the phylogenies of antelopes using mitochondrial markers.

    PubMed

    Khan, Haseeb A; Arif, Ibrahim A; Bahkali, Ali H; Al Farhan, Ahmad H; Al Homaidan, Ali A

    2008-01-01

    This investigation was aimed to compare the inference of antelope phylogenies resulting from the 16S rRNA, cytochrome-b (cyt-b) and d-loop segments of mitochondrial DNA using three different computational models including Bayesian (BA), maximum parsimony (MP) and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA). The respective nucleotide sequences of three Oryx species (Oryx leucoryx, Oryx dammah and Oryx gazella) and an out-group (Addax nasomaculatus) were aligned and subjected to BA, MP and UPGMA models for comparing the topologies of respective phylogenetic trees. The 16S rRNA region possessed the highest frequency of conserved sequences (97.65%) followed by cyt-b (94.22%) and d-loop (87.29%). There were few transitions (2.35%) and none transversions in 16S rRNA as compared to cyt-b (5.61% transitions and 0.17% transversions) and d-loop (11.57% transitions and 1.14% transversions) while comparing the four taxa. All the three mitochondrial segments clearly differentiated the genus Addax from Oryx using the BA or UPGMA models. The topologies of all the gamma-corrected Bayesian trees were identical irrespective of the marker type. The UPGMA trees resulting from 16S rRNA and d-loop sequences were also identical (Oryx dammah grouped with Oryx leucoryx) to Bayesian trees except that the UPGMA tree based on cyt-b showed a slightly different phylogeny (Oryx dammah grouped with Oryx gazella) with a low bootstrap support. However, the MP model failed to differentiate the genus Addax from Oryx. These findings demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of BA and UPGMA methods for phylogenetic analysis of antelopes using mitochondrial markers. PMID:19204824

  11. Bayesian, Maximum Parsimony and UPGMA Models for Inferring the Phylogenies of Antelopes Using Mitochondrial Markers

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Haseeb A.; Arif, Ibrahim A.; Bahkali, Ali H.; Al Farhan, Ahmad H.; Al Homaidan, Ali A.

    2008-01-01

    This investigation was aimed to compare the inference of antelope phylogenies resulting from the 16S rRNA, cytochrome-b (cyt-b) and d-loop segments of mitochondrial DNA using three different computational models including Bayesian (BA), maximum parsimony (MP) and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA). The respective nucleotide sequences of three Oryx species (Oryx leucoryx, Oryx dammah and Oryx gazella) and an out-group (Addax nasomaculatus) were aligned and subjected to BA, MP and UPGMA models for comparing the topologies of respective phylogenetic trees. The 16S rRNA region possessed the highest frequency of conserved sequences (97.65%) followed by cyt-b (94.22%) and d-loop (87.29%). There were few transitions (2.35%) and none transversions in 16S rRNA as compared to cyt-b (5.61% transitions and 0.17% transversions) and d-loop (11.57% transitions and 1.14% transversions) while comparing the four taxa. All the three mitochondrial segments clearly differentiated the genus Addax from Oryx using the BA or UPGMA models. The topologies of all the gamma-corrected Bayesian trees were identical irrespective of the marker type. The UPGMA trees resulting from 16S rRNA and d-loop sequences were also identical (Oryx dammah grouped with Oryx leucoryx) to Bayesian trees except that the UPGMA tree based on cyt-b showed a slightly different phylogeny (Oryx dammah grouped with Oryx gazella) with a low bootstrap support. However, the MP model failed to differentiate the genus Addax from Oryx. These findings demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of BA and UPGMA methods for phylogenetic analysis of antelopes using mitochondrial markers. PMID:19204824

  12. 77 FR 58084 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Findings on Petitions To Delist U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... oryx, 1,500 addax, and 750 dama gazelle in captivity worldwide (70 FR 52319). These include at least 1... their entirety, i.e. wherever found, on June 2, 1970 (35 FR 8491). On November 5, 1991, we published in the Federal Register (56 FR 56491) a proposed rule to list the scimitar-horned oryx, addax, and...

  13. Basic haematological values in antelopes--II. The Hippotraginae and the Tragelaphinae.

    PubMed

    Pospísil, J; Kase, F; Vahala, J; Mouchová, I

    1984-01-01

    Basic haematological values in 49 animals of five species of the subfamily Hippotraginae, namely the roan antelope Hippotragus equinus, sable antelope Hippotragus niger, adax antelope Addax nasomaculatus, gemsbok oryx Oryx gazella gazella and scimitar horned oryx Oryx damah and in 51 individuals of five species in the subfamily Tragelaphinae, including the bushbuck Tragelaphus scriptus, nyala Tragelaphus angasi, greater kudu Tragelaphus strepsiceros, cape eland Tautotragus oryx and bongo Bocercus euryceros are reported. The erythrocyte counts were in the range of 12.62 X 10(12)/l in the gemsbok oryx to 6.44 X 10(12)/l in the bongo, the haematocrit values varied from 0.488 in the nyala to 0.380 in the roan antelope and for the haemoglobin highest levels (164.0 g/l) were noted in the adax antelope, and the lowest (105.5 g/l) in the bongo. Leukocyte counts were found mostly in the normal human range and varied from 7.17 X 10(9)/l in the adax antelope to 4.05 X 10(9)/l in the nyala, only in the greater kudu decreased values of 3.02 X 10(9) were estimated. These results are compared with findings taken from the literature, and with the normal human range. PMID:6149054

  14. Phylogenetic analysis of oryx species using partial sequences of mitochondrial rRNA genes.

    PubMed

    Khan, H A; Arif, I A; Al Farhan, A H; Al Homaidan, A A

    2008-01-01

    We conducted a comparative evaluation of 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA genes of the mitochondrial genome for molecular differentiation among three oryx species (Oryx leucoryx, Oryx dammah and Oryx gazella) with respect to two closely related outgroups, addax and roan. Our findings showed the failure of 12S rRNA gene to differentiate between the genus Oryx and addax, whereas a 342-bp partial sequence of 16S rRNA accurately grouped all five taxa studied, suggesting the utility of 16S rRNA segment for molecular phylogeny of oryx at the genus and possibly species levels. PMID:19048493

  15. Application of 16S rRNA, cytochrome b and control region sequences for understanding the phylogenetic relationships in Oryx species.

    PubMed

    Khan, H A; Arif, I A; Al Homaidan, A A; Al Farhan, A H

    2008-01-01

    The present study reports the application of mitochondrial markers for the molecular phylogeny of Oryx species, including the Arabian oryx (AO), scimitar-horned oryx (SHO) and plains oryx (PO), using the Addax as an outgroup. Sequences of three molecular markers, 16S rRNA, cytochrome b and a control region, for the above four taxa were aligned and the topologies of respective phylogenetic trees were compared. All these markers clearly differentiated the genus Addax from Oryx. However, for species-level grouping, while 16S rRNA and cytochrome b produced similar phylogeny (SHO grouped with PO), the control region grouped SHO with AO. Further studies are warranted to generate more sequencing data, apply multiple bioinformatics tools and to include relevant nuclear markers for phylogenetic analysis of Oryx species. PMID:19224456

  16. Applying SNP-Derived Molecular Coancestry Estimates to Captive Breeding Programs.

    PubMed

    Ivy, Jamie A; Putnam, Andrea S; Navarro, Asako Y; Gurr, Jessica; Ryder, Oliver A

    2016-09-01

    Captive breeding programs for wildlife species typically rely on pedigrees to inform genetic management. Although pedigree-based breeding strategies are quite effective at retaining long-term genetic variation, management of zoo-based breeding programs continues to be hampered when pedigrees are poorly known. The objective of this study was to evaluate 2 options for generating single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data to resolve unknown relationships within captive breeding programs. We generated SNP data for a zoo-based population of addax (Addax nasomasculatus) using both the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip and double digest restriction site-associated DNA (ddRAD) sequencing. Our results demonstrated that estimates of allele sharing (AS) between pairs of individuals exhibited low variances. Average AS variances were highest when using 50 loci (SNPchipall = 0.00159; ddRADall = 0.0249), but fell below 0.0003 for the SNP chip dataset when sampling ≥250 loci and below 0.0025 for the ddRAD dataset when sampling ≥500 loci. Furthermore, the correlation between the SNPchipall and ddRADall AS datasets was 0.88 (95%CI = 0.84-0.91) when subsampling 500 loci. Collectively, our results indicated that both SNP genotyping methods produced sufficient data for accurately estimating relationships, even within an extremely bottlenecked population. Our results also suggested that analytic assumptions historically integrated into the addax pedigree are not adversely impacting long-term pedigree-based management; kinships calculated from the analytic pedigree were significantly correlated (P < 0.001) with AS estimates. Overall, our conclusions are intended to serve as both a proof of concept and a model for applying molecular data to the genetic management of captive breeding programs. PMID:27208150

  17. Cryptosporidiosis in young artiodactyls.

    PubMed

    Van Winkle, T J

    1985-12-01

    Cryptosporidium was found in the intestinal tract of 10 blackbuck, 2 scimitar-horned oryx, 2 fringe-eared oryx, 2 addax, and 1 sable antelope that had diarrhea. Cryptosporidia were most numerous in the small intestine, but also were found in the cecum, spiral colon, and colon. The small intestine had minimal inflammation in association with the cryptosporidia. Salmonella typhimurium was isolated from 10 of the 51 animals evaluated, with extensive inflammation of the cecum, spiral colon, and colon observed in these animals. PMID:4077628

  18. A novel subgroup of rhadinoviruses in ruminants.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Gailbreath, Katherine; Flach, Edmund J; Taus, Naomi S; Cooley, Jim; Keller, Janice; Russell, George C; Knowles, Donald P; Haig, David M; Oaks, J Lindsay; Traul, Donald L; Crawford, Timothy B

    2005-11-01

    In the course of investigating the malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) subgroup of rhadinoviruses, seven novel rhadinoviruses were identified in a variety of ruminants, including domestic sheep, bighorn sheep, bison, black-tailed deer, mule deer, fallow deer, elk and addax. Based on the DNA polymerase gene sequences, these newly recognized viruses clustered into a second distinct subgroup in ruminants with three members identified previously in cattle, goats and oryx. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the currently known ruminant rhadinoviruses appear to comprise three distinct genetic lineages: (i) the MCF subgroup, defined by sequence identity and the presence of the 15A antigenic epitope; (ii) a second distinct subgroup, devoid of the 15A epitope, which contains the previously reported bovine lymphotropic herpesvirus and related viruses; and (iii) a third distinct subgroup represented by Bovine herpesvirus 4. Comparison of phylogenetic trees between the rhadinoviruses and their corresponding hosts further supports the gammaherpesvirus and host co-evolution theory. PMID:16227223

  19. Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae in Ticks Collected from Wild Animals in Israel

    PubMed Central

    Keysary, Avi; Eremeeva, Marina E.; Leitner, Moshe; Din, Adi Beth; Wikswo, Mary E.; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; Inbar, Moshe; Wallach, Arian D.; Shanas, Uri; King, Roni; Waner, Trevor

    2011-01-01

    We report molecular evidence for the presence of spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) in ticks collected from roe deer, addax, red foxes, and wild boars in Israel. Rickettsia aeschlimannii was detected in Hyalomma marginatum and Hyalomma detritum while Rickettsia massiliae was present in Rhipicephalus turanicus ticks. Furthermore, a novel uncultured SFGR was detected in Haemaphysalis adleri and Haemaphysalis parva ticks from golden jackals. The pathogenicity of the novel SFGR for humans is unknown; however, the presence of multiple SFGR agents should be considered when serological surveillance data from Israel are interpreted because of significant antigenic cross-reactivity among Rickettsia. The epidemiology and ecology of SFGR in Israel appear to be more complicated than was previously believed. PMID:22049050

  20. Spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks collected from wild animals in Israel.

    PubMed

    Keysary, Avi; Eremeeva, Marina E; Leitner, Moshe; Din, Adi Beth; Wikswo, Mary E; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; Inbar, Moshe; Wallach, Arian D; Shanas, Uri; King, Roni; Waner, Trevor

    2011-11-01

    We report molecular evidence for the presence of spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) in ticks collected from roe deer, addax, red foxes, and wild boars in Israel. Rickettsia aeschlimannii was detected in Hyalomma marginatum and Hyalomma detritum while Rickettsia massiliae was present in Rhipicephalus turanicus ticks. Furthermore, a novel uncultured SFGR was detected in Haemaphysalis adleri and Haemaphysalis parva ticks from golden jackals. The pathogenicity of the novel SFGR for humans is unknown; however, the presence of multiple SFGR agents should be considered when serological surveillance data from Israel are interpreted because of significant antigenic cross-reactivity among Rickettsia. The epidemiology and ecology of SFGR in Israel appear to be more complicated than was previously believed. PMID:22049050

  1. Changing Patterns of Health in Communities Impacted by a Bioenergy Project in Northern Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Knoblauch, Astrid M.; Hodges, Mary H.; Bah, Mohamed S.; Kamara, Habib I.; Kargbo, Anita; Paye, Jusufu; Turay, Hamid; Nyorkor, Emmanuel D.; Divall, Mark J.; Zhang, Yaobi; Utzinger, Jürg; Winkler, Mirko S.

    2014-01-01

    Large private sector investments in low- and middle-income countries are often critically evaluated with regards to their environmental, social, human rights, and health impacts. A health impact assessment, including a baseline health survey, was commissioned by the Addax Bioenergy Sierra Leone project in 2010. As part of the monitoring, a follow-up survey was conducted three years later. A set of health indicators was assessed at six impacted and two control sites. Most of these indices improved, particularly at the impacted sites. The prevalences of stunting, wasting, and Plasmodium falciparum in children under five years of age decreased significantly at impacted sites (all p < 0.05) and non-significantly at control sites. Anemia in children and in women of reproductive age (15–49 years) decreased significantly at impacted and control sites (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively). Health facility-based deliveries increased significantly at the impacted sites (p < 0.05). The prevalences of helminth infections in children aged 10–15 years remained approximately at the same levels, although focal increases at the impacted sites were noted. Access to improved sanitation decreased significantly (p < 0.05) at control and non-significantly at impacted sites. Water quality remained poor without significant changes. The epidemiologic monitoring of a bioenergy project provides a useful contribution for evidence-based decision-making. PMID:25514152

  2. Changing patterns of health in communities impacted by a bioenergy project in northern Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Knoblauch, Astrid M; Hodges, Mary H; Bah, Mohamed S; Kamara, Habib I; Kargbo, Anita; Paye, Jusufu; Turay, Hamid; Nyorkor, Emmanuel D; Divall, Mark J; Zhang, Yaobi; Utzinger, Jürg; Winkler, Mirko S

    2014-01-01

    Large private sector investments in low- and middle-income countries are often critically evaluated with regards to their environmental, social, human rights, and health impacts. A health impact assessment, including a baseline health survey, was commissioned by the Addax Bioenergy Sierra Leone project in 2010. As part of the monitoring, a follow-up survey was conducted three years later. A set of health indicators was assessed at six impacted and two control sites. Most of these indices improved, particularly at the impacted sites. The prevalences of stunting, wasting, and Plasmodium falciparum in children under five years of age decreased significantly at impacted sites (all p < 0.05) and non-significantly at control sites. Anemia in children and in women of reproductive age (15-49 years) decreased significantly at impacted and control sites (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively). Health facility-based deliveries increased significantly at the impacted sites (p < 0.05). The prevalences of helminth infections in children aged 10-15 years remained approximately at the same levels, although focal increases at the impacted sites were noted. Access to improved sanitation decreased significantly (p < 0.05) at control and non-significantly at impacted sites. Water quality remained poor without significant changes. The epidemiologic monitoring of a bioenergy project provides a useful contribution for evidence-based decision-making. PMID:25514152

  3. Changing patterns of health in communities impacted by a bioenergy project in Northern Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Knoblauch, Astrid M; Hodges, Mary H; Bah, Mohamed S; Kamara, Habib I; Kargbo, Anita; Paye, Jusufu; Turay, Hamid; Nyorkor, Emmanuel D; Divall, Mark J; Zhang, Yaobi; Utzinger, Jürg; Winkler, Mirko S

    2014-12-01

    Large private sector investments in low- and middle-income countries are often critically evaluated with regards to their environmental, social, human rights, and health impacts. A health impact assessment, including a baseline health survey, was commissioned by the Addax Bioenergy Sierra Leone project in 2010. As part of the monitoring, a follow-up survey was conducted three years later. A set of health indicators was assessed at six impacted and two control sites. Most of these indices improved,particularly at the impacted sites. The prevalences of stunting, wasting, and Plasmodium falciparum in children under five years of age decreased significantly at impacted sites (all p < 0.05) and non-significantly at control sites. Anemia in children and in women of reproductive age (15–49 years) decreased significantly at impacted and control sites (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively). Health facility-based deliveries increased significantly at the impacted sites (p < 0.05). The prevalences of helminth infections in children aged 10–15 years remained approximately at the same levels, although focal increases at the impacted sites were noted. Access to improved sanitation decreased significantly (p < 0.05) at control and non-significantly at impacted sites. Water quality remained poor without significant changes. The epidemiologic monitoring of a bioenergy project provides a useful contribution for evidence-based decision-making. PMID:25590085