Science.gov

Sample records for added corn oil

  1. Corn kernel oil and corn fiber oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unlike most edible plant oils that are obtained directly from oil-rich seeds by either pressing or solvent extraction, corn seeds (kernels) have low levels of oil (4%) and commercial corn oil is obtained from the corn germ (embryo) which is an oil-rich portion of the kernel. Commercial corn oil cou...

  2. Carcass fat quality of pigs is not improved by adding corn germ, beef tallow, palm kernel oil, or glycerol to finishing diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Lee, J W; Kil, D Y; Keever, B D; Killefer, J; McKeith, F K; Sulabo, R C; Stein, H H

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that the reduced carcass fat quality that is often observed in pigs fed diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) may be ameliorated if corn germ, beef tallow, palm kernel oil, or glycerol is added to diets fed during the finishing period. A total of 36 barrows and 36 gilts (initial BW 43.7 ± 2.0 kg) were individually housed and randomly allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments in a 2 × 6 factorial arrangement, with gender and diet as main factors. Each dietary treatment had 12 replicate pigs. A corn-soybean meal control diet and a diet containing corn, soybean meal, and 30% DDGS were formulated. Four additional diets were formulated by adding 15% corn germ, 3% beef tallow, 3% palm kernel oil, or 5% glycerol to the DDGS-containing diet. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, and LM quality were determined, and backfat and belly fat samples were collected for fatty acid analysis. There was no gender × diet interaction for any of the response variables measured. For the entire finisher period (d 0 to 88), diet had no effect on ADG, but pigs fed 3% palm kernel oil tended (P < 0.10) to have less ADFI and greater G:F than pigs fed the control diet. Barrows had greater (P < 0.01) ADG and ADFI, and less (P < 0.001) G:F than gilts. Pigs fed the DDGS diet had reduced (P < 0.05) loin eye area compared with pigs fed the control diet, but diet had no effect on other carcass characteristics. Barrows had greater (P < 0.001) final BW at the end of both phases, greater (P < 0.001) HCW and backfat thickness, and tended (P = 0.10) to have greater dressing percentage, but less (P < 0.001) fat-free lean percentage than gilts. Backfat of pigs fed the 5 DDGS-containing diets had less (P < 0.05) L* values than pigs fed the control diet and backfat of gilts had greater (P < 0.001) a* and b* values than barrows. Pigs fed the control diet had greater (P < 0.05) belly flop distance compared with pigs fed

  3. Value-added oil and animal feed production from corn-ethanol stillage using the oleaginous fungus Mucor circinelloides.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Debjani; Rasmussen, Mary L; Chand, Priyanka; Chintareddy, Venkat Reddy; Yao, Linxing; Grewell, David; Verkade, John G; Wang, Tong; van Leeuwen, J Hans

    2012-03-01

    This study highlights the potential of oleaginous fungus, Mucor circinelloides in adsorbing/assimilating oil and nutrients in thin stillage (TS), and producing lipid and protein-rich fungal biomass. Fungal cultivation on TS for 2 days in a 6-L airlift bioreactor, resulted in a 92% increase in oil yield from TS, and 20 g/L of fungal biomass (dry) with a lipid content of 46% (g of oil per 100g dry biomass). Reduction in suspended solids and soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) in TS were 95% and 89%, respectively. The polyunsaturated fatty acids in fungal oil were 52% of total lipids. Fungal cells grown on Yeast Malt (YM) broth had a higher concentration of γ-linolenic acid (17 wt.%) than those grown on TS (1.4 wt.%). Supplementing TS with crude glycerol (10%, v/v) during the stationary growth phase led to a further 32% increase (from 46% to 61%) in cellular oil content. PMID:22237170

  4. Influence of corn oil recovery on life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of corn ethanol and corn oil biodiesel

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Zhichao; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Han, Jeongwoo; Wang, Michael

    2015-11-04

    Corn oil recovery and conversion to biodiesel has been widely adopted at corn ethanol plants recently. The US EPA has projected 2.6 billion liters of biodiesel will be produced from corn oil in 2022. Corn oil biodiesel may qualify for federal renewable identification number (RIN) credits under the Renewable Fuel Standard, as well as for low greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensity credits under California’s Low Carbon Fuel Standard. Because multiple products [ethanol, biodiesel, and distiller’s grain with solubles (DGS)] are produced from one feedstock (corn), however, a careful co-product treatment approach is required to accurately estimate GHG intensities of bothmore » ethanol and corn oil biodiesel and to avoid double counting of benefits associated with corn oil biodiesel production. This study develops four co-product treatment methods: (1) displacement, (2) marginal, (3) hybrid allocation, and (4) process-level energy allocation. Life-cycle GHG emissions for corn oil biodiesel were more sensitive to the choice of co-product allocation method because significantly less corn oil biodiesel is produced than corn ethanol at a dry mill. Corn ethanol life-cycle GHG emissions with the displacement, marginal, and hybrid allocation approaches are similar (61, 62, and 59 g CO2e/MJ, respectively). Although corn ethanol and DGS share upstream farming and conversion burdens in both the hybrid and process-level energy allocation methods, DGS bears a higher burden in the latter because it has lower energy content per selling price as compared to corn ethanol. As a result, with the process-level allocation approach, ethanol’s life-cycle GHG emissions are lower at 46 g CO2e/MJ. Corn oil biodiesel life-cycle GHG emissions from the marginal, hybrid allocation, and process-level energy allocation methods were 14, 59, and 45 g CO2e/MJ, respectively. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to investigate the influence corn oil yield, soy biodiesel, and defatted DGS displacement

  5. Influence of corn oil recovery on life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of corn ethanol and corn oil biodiesel

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhichao; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Han, Jeongwoo; Wang, Michael

    2015-11-04

    Corn oil recovery and conversion to biodiesel has been widely adopted at corn ethanol plants recently. The US EPA has projected 2.6 billion liters of biodiesel will be produced from corn oil in 2022. Corn oil biodiesel may qualify for federal renewable identification number (RIN) credits under the Renewable Fuel Standard, as well as for low greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensity credits under California’s Low Carbon Fuel Standard. Because multiple products [ethanol, biodiesel, and distiller’s grain with solubles (DGS)] are produced from one feedstock (corn), however, a careful co-product treatment approach is required to accurately estimate GHG intensities of both ethanol and corn oil biodiesel and to avoid double counting of benefits associated with corn oil biodiesel production. This study develops four co-product treatment methods: (1) displacement, (2) marginal, (3) hybrid allocation, and (4) process-level energy allocation. Life-cycle GHG emissions for corn oil biodiesel were more sensitive to the choice of co-product allocation method because significantly less corn oil biodiesel is produced than corn ethanol at a dry mill. Corn ethanol life-cycle GHG emissions with the displacement, marginal, and hybrid allocation approaches are similar (61, 62, and 59 g CO2e/MJ, respectively). Although corn ethanol and DGS share upstream farming and conversion burdens in both the hybrid and process-level energy allocation methods, DGS bears a higher burden in the latter because it has lower energy content per selling price as compared to corn ethanol. As a result, with the process-level allocation approach, ethanol’s life-cycle GHG emissions are lower at 46 g CO2e/MJ. Corn oil biodiesel life-cycle GHG emissions from the marginal, hybrid allocation, and process-level energy allocation methods were 14, 59, and 45 g CO2e/MJ, respectively. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to investigate the influence corn oil yield, soy biodiesel, and

  6. The development of a "Green" aqueous enzymatic process to extract corn oil from corn germ

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Approximately 2.4 million tons of commercial corn oil were produced worldwide in 2012, compared to 2012 world production of palm oil (53.3 MT) and soybean oil (43.1 MT) according to FAS, USDA. Most commercial corn oil (~90%) is produced from corn germ that is expeller pressed and/or hexane extracte...

  7. 21 CFR 73.315 - Corn endosperm oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Corn endosperm oil. 73.315 Section 73.315 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.315 Corn endosperm oil. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive corn endosperm oil is a reddish-brown liquid composed chiefly of glycerides, fatty acids,...

  8. 21 CFR 73.315 - Corn endosperm oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Corn endosperm oil. 73.315 Section 73.315 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.315 Corn endosperm oil. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive corn endosperm oil is a reddish-brown liquid composed chiefly of glycerides, fatty acids,...

  9. 21 CFR 73.315 - Corn endosperm oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Corn endosperm oil. 73.315 Section 73.315 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.315 Corn endosperm oil. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive corn endosperm oil is a reddish-brown liquid composed chiefly of glycerides, fatty acids,...

  10. Effect of increasing oil from distillers grains or corn oil on lactation performance.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, C; Bertics, S; Armentano, L E

    2005-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate production response and more specifically percentage and yield of fat in milk from dairy cows fed distillers grains with added solubles (DGS). It was hypothesized that the oil present in DGS would decrease milk fat yield. Four dietary treatments consisted of dried DGS replacing soybean meal and soybean hulls. The DGS inclusion rates as a percentage of dry matter (DM) were 0, 5, 10, and 15% DGS. To determine the role of oil in DGS, a fifth diet similar to 0% DGS with added corn oil (OIL) was included. Twenty multiparous Holsteins were assigned to a replicated, 5 x 5 Latin Square design with periods of 21 d. Diets were formulated to have similar crude protein and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentration. Feeding OIL or 15% DGS resulted in similar production of milk, milk protein, and milk fat. Increasing dietary DGS linearly increased milk production and milk true protein yield. Adding corn oil increased milk yield and, although milk true protein yield also tended to increase with oil, milk true protein concentration decreased. The addition of DGS or OIL did not significantly change fat yield from 0% DGS; however, fat concentration in milk was significantly decreased by DGS due to increased fluid milk production. In diets containing approximately 28% NDF, cottonseed, blood and fish meal, feeding DGS to bring total dietary fatty acids to 5% of diet DM increased milk and milk protein yield without decreasing milk fat yield. Reduced proportions of shorter chain fatty acids and increased proportions of longer chain fatty acids in milk as dietary fatty acid content increased suggests that de novo fatty acid synthesis in the mammary gland was inhibited but this was offset by increased secretion of long-chain fatty acids, presumably absorbed from the diet. Therefore, our hypothesis that feeding corn oil either as DGS or as pure corn oil would decrease milk fat yield was not correct. PMID:16027196

  11. Aqueous extraction of corn oil after fermentation in the dry grind ethanol process

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn oil is a popular vegetable oil in the US and in many other countries. Among all of the vegetable oils, corn oil ranks tenth in terms of annual worldwide production. Most commercial corn oil is obtained from corn germ that is a by-product of the wet milling industry. In recent years a new proce...

  12. A process for the aqueous enzymatic extraction of corn oil from dry-milled corn germ and enzymatic wet milled corn germ (E-Germ)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously, we reported an aqueous enzymatic oil extraction process that achieved oil yields of 80-90% using corn germ from a commercial corn wet mill. Three commercial cellulases were reported to result in similar oil yields when wet milles corn germ was used as a feedstock in this process. When ...

  13. Sterol composition of Bulgarian soya and corn oils.

    PubMed

    Milkova, T; Popov, A; Selva, A; Vettori, U

    1977-01-01

    The free sterols, the sterol esters and the sterol glycosides of the raw soya and corn oils as well as those of the technical lecithin and the deodorizer distillated of the latter oils were isolated by preparative TLC. The composition of each of the isolated sterol derivatives was determined by GLC and MS. Sitosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol and an unknown sterol with a molecular weight of 428 are contained in almost all of the examined fractions of the soya oil and its refinement byproducts. Dehydrocampesterol is present in the free sterols of the raw soya oil and the soya lecithin. Stigmasterol is contained in the soya deodorizer distillate in high amounts. It was established that cholesterol was present in the sterol esters of the raw soya oil high amounts. Delta7-stigmastenol occurs only in the sterol esters of the latter oil. Sitosterol, campesterol and stimgasterol are the main components of all sterol fractions of the corn oil and its refinement products. Dehydrocampesterol and unknown sterols with molecular weights of 428 are present in the free sterols of the raw corn oil. Some sterol glycosides of the soya and corn lecithin are esterified with the same major fatty acid components of the glycerides, palmitic acid being the main one. The fatty acid compositon of sterol esters of the raw soya and corn oil roughly corresponds to the fatty acid composition of oils. PMID:558512

  14. The effects of feeding increasing concentrations of corn oil on energy metabolism and nutrient balance in finishing beef steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of added fat source is common in high-concentrate finishing diets. The objective of our experiment was to determine if feeding increasing concentrations of added dietary corn oil would decrease enteric methane production, increase the ME:DE ratio, and improve retained energy in finishing be...

  15. Impact of applying edible oils to silk channels on ear pests of sweet corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of applying vegetable oils to corn silks on ear-feeding insects in sweet corn production was evaluated in 2006 and 2007. Six vegetable oils used in this experiment were canola, corn, olive, peanut, sesame, and soybean. Water and two commercial insecticidal oils (Neemix' neem oil and Sun...

  16. The composition of corn oil produced after fermentation via centrifugation in a commercial dry grind ethanol process

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to examine the chemical composition of corn oil obtained via centrifugation after fermentation of corn to make fuel ethanol, and compare its composition to that of corn germ oil (commercial corn oil) and experimental corn oils. The levels of free fatty acids in the post fermen...

  17. Oil separation from foam fractions of enzymatically treated wet milled corn germ dispersions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The many recent dry grind plants that convert corn to ethanol are potential sources of substantial amounts of corn oil, if an economical method of separating it can be developed. Oil was separated from corn germ by aqueous enzymatic extraction (AEE). Batches of wet- milled corn germ in water were...

  18. Food uses and health effects of corn oil.

    PubMed

    Dupont, J; White, P J; Carpenter, M P; Schaefer, E J; Meydani, S N; Elson, C E; Woods, M; Gorbach, S L

    1990-10-01

    This review of corn oil provides a scientific assessment of the current knowledge of its contribution to the American diet. Refined corn oil is composed of 99% triacylglycerols with polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) 59%, monounsaturated fatty acid 24%, and saturated fatty acid (SFA) 13%. The PUFA is linoleic acid (C18:2n-6) primarily, with a small amount of linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) giving a n-6/n-3 ratio of 83. Corn oil contains a significant amount of ubiquinone and high amounts of alpha- and gamma-tocopherols (vitamin E) that protect it from oxidative rancidity. It has good sensory qualities for use as a salad and cooking oil. Corn oil is highly digestible and provides energy and essential fatty acids (EFA). Linoleic acid is a dietary essential that is necessary for integrity of the skin, cell membranes, the immune system, and for synthesis of icosanoids. Icosanoids are necessary for reproductive, cardiovascular, renal, and gastrointestinal functions and resistance to disease. Corn oil is a highly effective food oil for lowering serum cholesterol. Because of its low content of SFAs which raises cholesterol and its high content of PUFAs which lowers cholesterol, consumption of corn oil can replace SFAs with PUFAs, and the combination is more effective in lowering cholesterol than simple reduction of SFA. PUFA primarily lowers low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) which is atherogenic. Research shows that PUFA has little effect on high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) which is protective against atherosclerosis. PUFA generally improves the ratio of LDL-C to HDL-C. Studies in animals show that PUFA is required for the growth of cancers; the amount required is considered to be greater than that which satisfies the EFA requirement of the host. At this time there is no indication from epidemiological studies that PUFA intake is associated with increased risk of breast or colon cancer, which have been suggested to be promoted by high-fat diets in humans

  19. AQUEOUS ENZYMATIC OIL EXTRACTION: A "GREEN" BIOPROCESS TO OBTAIN OIL FROM CORN GERM AND OTHER OIL-RICH PLANT MATERIALS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several methods have been developed to obtain oil from corn germ and other oil-rich plant materials using aqueous enzymatic methods. Unlike traditional oil extraction methods, these new bioprocesses are performed without the use of presses and without organic solvents. Beginning with olive oil in ...

  20. Thermophysical properties of conjugated soybean oil/corn stover biocomposites.

    PubMed

    Pfister, Daniel P; Larock, Richard C

    2010-08-01

    Novel "green composites" have been prepared using a conjugated soybean oil-based resin and corn stover as a natural fiber. Corn stover is the residue remaining after grain harvest and it is estimated that approximately 75 million tons are available annually in the United States. The effect of the amount of filler, the length of the fiber, and the amount of the crosslinker on the structure and thermal and mechanical properties of the composites has been determined using Soxhlet extraction analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, dynamic mechanical analysis, and tensile testing. Increasing the amount of corn stover and decreasing the length of the fiber results in significant improvements in the mechanical properties of the composites. The Young's moduli and tensile strengths of the composites prepared range from 291 to 1398 MPa and 2.7 to 7.4 MPa, respectively. Water uptake data indicate that increasing the amount and fiber length of the corn stover results in significant increases in the absorption of water by the composites. The composites, containing 20 to 80 wt.% corn stover and a resin composed of 50 wt.% natural oil, contain 60 to 90 wt.% renewable materials and should find applications in the construction, automotive, and furniture industries. PMID:20227274

  1. Modification of aqueous enzymatic oil extraction to increase the yield of corn oil from dry fractionated corn germ

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In previous aqueous enzymatic extraction experiments we reported an oil yield of 67 grams from 800 grams of dry fractionated corn germ. In the current experiments, a dispersion of 10% cooked, dry-fractionated germ in water and was treated with amylases and a cellulase complex. A foam fraction was s...

  2. Effect of "Natural" Water and "Added" Water on Dielectric Properties of Shelled Corn at Microwave Frequencies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dielectric properties of samples of shelled corn of “natural” water content and those prepared by adding water were measured in free space at microwave frequencies and room temperature of 23 oC. Results of measurements of attenuation, phase shift and dielectric constant and loss factor at 6 GHz show...

  3. Blood oxygenation level-dependent response to intragastric load of corn oil emulsion in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Tsurugizawa, Tomokazu; Uematsu, Akira; Uneyama, Hisayuki; Torii, Kunio

    2009-12-01

    The postingestive actions after intragastric or oronasal stimulation of fat have been well investigated. The blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes, however, after intragastric load of corn oil emulsion have yet to be elucidated. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the BOLD signal response to gut corn oil emulsion in nonanesthetized rats. Intragastrically infused 7% corn oil emulsion induced a BOLD signal increase in several brain regions, including the bilateral amygdala, hippocampus and the ventral tegmental area. These results indicate that the limbic system responds to gut corn oil emulsion and that activation of this system could promote the reinforcing action for food with high fat content. PMID:19918206

  4. [Corn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa History for Young People, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on corn. Iowa is the number one corn producing state in the United States. The featured articles in the issue concern, among other topics, Iowa children who live on farms, facts and statistics about corn, the Mesquakie Indians and corn shelling, corn hybrids, a short story, and the corn palaces of Sioux City. Activities,…

  5. Impact of applying edible oils to silk channels on ear pests of sweet corn.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xinzhi; Sparks, Alton N; Riley, David G; Li, Xianchun

    2011-06-01

    The impact of applying edible oils to corn silks on ear-feeding insects in sweet corn, Zea mays L., production was evaluated in 2006 and 2007. Six edible oils used in this experiment were canola, corn, olive, peanut, sesame, and soybean. Water and two commercial insecticidal oils (Neemix neem oil and nC21 Sunspray Ultrafine, a horticultural mineral oil) were used as the controls for the experiment. Six parameters evaluated in this experiment were corn earworm [Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)] damage rating, the number of sap beetle [Carpophilus spp. (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae)] adults and larvae, the number of corn silk fly (or picture-winged fly) (Diptera: Ulidiidae) larvae, common smut [Ustilago maydis (D.C.) Corda] infection rate, and corn husk coverage. Among the two control treatments, neem oil reduced corn earworm damage at both pre- and postpollination applications in 2006, but not in 2007, whereas the mineral oil applied at postpollination treatments reduced corn earworm damage in both years. The mineral oil also reduced the number of sap beetle adults, whereas the neem oil applied at postpollination attracted the most sap beetle adults in 2007. Among the six edible oil treatments, the corn and sesame oils applied at postpollination reduced corn earworm damage only in 2007. The application of the peanut oil at postpollination attracted more sap beetle adults in 2006, and more sap beetle larvae in 2007. Olive and neem oils significantly reduced husk coverage compared with the water control in both years. The mineral oil application consistently increased smut infection rate in both 2006 and 2007. Ramifications of using oil treatments in ear pest management also are discussed. PMID:21735916

  6. Oil separation from wet milled corn germ dispersions as part of aqueous oil extraction and aqueous enzymatic oil extraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oil was obtained from corn germ by aqueous extraction (AE). 100 g batches of germ were mixed with a buffer solution to a mass concentration of 5 to 20% germ, preheated under 2 atm. pressure (120oC), milled in a blender and then churned in an incubator/shaker to coalesce and float oil droplets. The ...

  7. Bio-oil and biochar production from corn cobs and stover by fast pyrolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bio-oil and bio-char were produced from corn cobs and corn stover (stalks, leaves and husks) by fast pyrolysis using a pilot scale fluidized bed reactor. Yields of 60% (mass/mass) bio-oil (high heating values are ~20,000 kJ/kg, and densities > 1.0 g/mL) were realized from both corn cobs and from co...

  8. Lipid digestibility and energy content of distillers corn oil in swine and poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the DE and ME, and apparent total tract digestibility of ether extract of 3 distillers corn oil (DCO; 4.9, 12.8, or 13.9% FFA), compared with a sample of refined corn oil (CO, 0.04% FFA), and an industrially-hydrolyzed high FFA DCO (93.8% FFA) in young pig...

  9. Composition and oxidative stability of crude oil extracts of corn germ and distillers grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fatty acid composition, Acid Value, and the content and composition of tocopherols, tocotrienols, carotenoids, phytosterols, and steryl ferulates were determined in corn germ oil and four post-fermentation corn oils from the ethanol dry grind process. The oxidative stability index at 110ºC was ...

  10. Temperature dependence of the oxidative stability of corn oil and polyalphaolefin in the presence of sulfides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of sulfide-modified corn oil (SMCO) and ditertiary dodecyl pentasulfide (PS) additives on the oxidative stability of corn (CO) and polyalphaolefin (PAO) oils was investigated using pressurized differential scanning calorimetry in dynamic (DDSC) and isothermal (IDSC) modes. DDSC showed a ...

  11. Effect of the phytochemicals curcumin, cinnamaldehyde, thymol and carvacrol on the oxidative stability of corn and palm oils at frying temperatures.

    PubMed

    İnanç Horuz, Tuğba; Maskan, Medeni

    2015-12-01

    Several active components naturally available in plants are strongly considered as good antioxidants to retard the lipid oxidation. Response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects of frying temperature (150-180 °C) and concentration of four plant-based active components (60-350 mg/kg oil); curcumin, cinnamaldehyde, thymol and carvacrol on oxidative stability of corn and palm oils. According to induction time values, the stability of oils drastically decreased with increasing temperature. Curcumin and cinnamaldehyde showed no significant effect (p > 0.05) on both oils. Carvacrol significantly increased induction times of corn and palm oils, but thymol was effective in palm oil only (p < 0.05). An actual frying experiment was carried out with only corn oil to confirm efficiency of carvacrol. The free fatty acid (%), peroxide value (meq/kg), para-anisidine, and total polar component values (%) of the fresh oil were 0.080, 2.55, 2.85, and 7.5, respectively. These values changed to 0.144, 1.47, 12.01, 10.0, respectively for the control oil; 0.138, 2.27, 11.49, 10.0 for BHT-added oil; 0.132, 1.42, 5.66, 9.5 for carvacrol-added oil after 30 frying cycles. Therefore, carvacrol could be considered as a good alternative to BHT for preservation of oils at frying temperatures. PMID:26604376

  12. Grooming behavior in mice induced by stimuli of corn oil in oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Imaizumi, M; Sawano, S; Takeda, M; Fushiki, T

    Mice show a strong preference for corn oil, which was thought to be elicited by stimulation in the oral cavity. Grooming behavior is known to be induced by dopamine D(1) stimulation in rodents. Therefore, we evaluated stimulation by corn oil in the oral cavity and the contribution of D(1) receptors to corn-oil-induced grooming in mice. Intraoral injection (0.1 ml) of corn oil induced grooming behavior similarly to SKF 38393 (10 mg/kg i.p.), a D(1) agonist, and both were antagonized by pretreatment with SCH 23390, a D(1) antagonist. However, a higher dose was needed for antagonism of the corn-oil-induced grooming compared with that induced by SKF 38393. Long-chain fatty acids, their methyl esters and alcohol, their triglycerides, mineral oil and silicone oil but not glycerin, a short-chain triglyceride, xanthan gum solution, or sucrose solution also induced grooming in mice. Xanthan gum solution, which was suggested to mask oil-like texture, attenuated the silicone-oil- but not corn-oil-induced grooming when injected intraorally as a mixture with an equal volume of the oil (50% suspension). The silicone-oil-induced grooming was reduced by SCH 23390 similarly to that induced by corn oil. These results suggested that stimulation by the oil-like texture in the oral cavity in mice induced grooming behavior and that it might be mediated at least partially via D(1) receptors. Moreover, stimuli other than texture might also contribute to the corn-oil-induced grooming. PMID:11150574

  13. Corn content of French fry oil from national chain vs. small business restaurants.

    PubMed

    Jahren, A Hope; Schubert, Brian A

    2010-02-01

    Several issues, ranging from sustainability to health, may interest the consumers in the corn content of their food. However, because restaurants are excluded from the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990, national chain restaurants provide nonspecific ingredient information and small businesses supply none. We measured the carbon isotope composition of fry oil in French fries purchased from 68 (67%) of the 101 national chain fast food restaurants on Oahu (i.e., McDonald's, Burger King, Wendy's, Arby's, and Jack in the Box), and paired this with a similar number of small businesses (n = 66) to calculate minimum percent contribution of corn to total fry oil. We found that the majority (69%) of the national chain restaurants served fries containing corn oil, whereas this was true for only a minority (20%) of the small businesses. Corn oil is more expensive than soybean oil (for example) when purchased from a small business supplier, suggesting that large-scale corporate agreements are necessary to make corn oil frying cost-effective. When considering French fry oil along with corn-fed beef and chicken, as well as high-fructose corn syrup-sweetened soda, we see the pervasive influence of corn as an ingredient in national chain fast food. PMID:20133856

  14. Physical and Chemical Properties of Bio-Oils From Microwave Pyrolysis of Corn Stover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Fei; Deng, Shaobo; Chen, Paul; Liu, Yuhuan; Wan, Yiqin; Olson, Andrew; Kittelson, David; Ruan, Roger

    This study was aimed to understand the physical and chemical properties of pyrolytic bio-oils produced from microwave pyrolysis of corn stover regarding their potential use as gas turbine and home heating fuels. The ash content, solids content, pH, heating value, minerals, elemental ratio, moisture content, and viscosity of the bio-oils were determined. The water content was approx 15.2 wt%, solids content 0.22 wt%, alkali metal content 12 parts per million, dynamic viscosity 185 mPa·s at 40°C, and gross high heating value 17.5 MJ/kg for a typical bio-oil produced. Our aging tests showed that the viscosity and water content increased and phase separation occurred during the storage at different temperatures. Adding methanol and/or ethanol to the bio-oils reduced the viscosity and slowed down the increase in viscosity and water content during the storage. Blending of methanol or ethanol with the bio-oils may be a simple and cost-effective approach to making the pyrolytic bio-oils into a stable gas turbine or home heating fuels.

  15. Physical and chemical properties of bio-oils from microwave pyrolysis of corn stover.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fei; Deng, Shaobo; Chen, Paul; Liu, Yuhuan; Wan, Yiqin; Olson, Andrew; Kittelson, David; Ruan, Roger

    2007-04-01

    This study was aimed to understand the physical and chemical properties of pyrolytic bio-oils produced from microwave pyrolysis of corn stover regarding their potential use as gas turbine and home heating fuels. The ash content, solids content, pH, heating value, minerals, elemental ratio, moisture content, and viscosity of the bio-oils were determined. The water content was approx 15.2 wt%, solids content 0.22 wt%, alkali metal content 12 parts per million, dynamic viscosity 185 mPa.s at 40 degrees C, and gross high heating value 17.5 MJ/kg for a typical bio-oil produced. Our aging tests showed that the viscosity and water content increased and phase separation occurred during the storage at different temperatures. Adding methanol and/or ethanol to the bio-oils reduced the viscosity and slowed down the increase in viscosity and water content during the storage. Blending of methanol or ethanol with the bio-oils may be a simple and cost-effective approach to making the pyrolytic bio-oils into a stable gas turbine or home heating fuels. PMID:18478448

  16. Glass transitions and physical aging of cassava starch - corn oil blends.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Adriana; Sandoval, Aleida J; Cova, Aura; Müller, Alejandro J

    2014-05-25

    Glass transition temperatures and physical aging of amorphous cassava starch and their blends with corn oil were assessed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Two enthalpic relaxation endotherms, well separated in temperature values, were exhibited by neat amorphous cassava starch with 10.6% moisture content, evidencing two amorphous regions within the starch with different degrees of mobility. The phase segregation of these two amorphous regions was favored by added corn oil at low moisture contents during storage. The presence of amylose-lipid complexes in this matrix, may also affect the molecular dynamics of these two amorphous regions at low moisture contents. Increasing moisture content, leads to a homogeneous amorphous phase, with an aging process characterized by a single enthalpic relaxation peak. In all cases, after deleting the thermal history of the samples only one glass transition temperature was detected (during DSC second heating runs) indicating that a single homogeneous amorphous phase was attained after erasing the effects of physical aging. Trends of the enthalpic relaxation parameters were also different at the two moisture contents considered in this work. PMID:24708977

  17. Oil Biotechnology: Value-Added Products and Bioactive Fatty Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During my 40+ years research career, I have been working on "biocatalysis" of hydrophobic organic compounds, both petroleum oil and vegetable oil, to convert them to value-added products. "Biocatalysis" is defined as the use of a biocatalyst such as whole microbial cells or enzymes, in an aqueous o...

  18. Corn

    MedlinePlus

    ... composed of a dense core that presses on sensory nerves, causing extreme pain. Soft corns occur between ... a benign condition and may not require medical evaluation. However, if corns become very painful, evaluation should ...

  19. Detection of Chemlali extra-virgin olive oil adulteration mixed with soybean oil, corn oil, and sunflower oil by using GC and HPLC.

    PubMed

    Jabeur, Hazem; Zribi, Akram; Makni, Jamel; Rebai, Ahmed; Abdelhedi, Ridha; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2014-05-28

    Fatty acid composition as an indicator of purity suggests that linolenic acid content could be used as a parameter for the detection of extra/virgin olive oil fraud with 5% of soybean oil. The adulteration could also be detected by the increase of the trans-fatty acid contents with 3% of soybean oil, 2% of corn oil, and 4% of sunflower oil. The use of the ΔECN42 proved to be effective in Chemlali extra-virgin olive oil adulteration even at low levels: 1% of sunflower oil, 3% of soybean oil, and 3% of corn oil. The sterol profile is almost decisive in clarifying the adulteration of olive oils with other cheaper ones: 1% of sunflower oil could be detected by the increase of Δ7-stigmastenol and 4% of corn oil by the increase of campesterol. Linear discriminant analysis could represent a powerful tool for faster and cheaper evaluation of extra-virgin olive oil adulteration. PMID:24811341

  20. Effects of adding MIN-AD to steam-flaked corn-based diets with or without wet corn distiller's grain plus solubles on performance by beef cattle during receiving and finishing phases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of wet corn distillers grain (WCDG) and MIN-AD (MIN-AD Inc., Amarillo, TX), a commercial source of calcium-magnesium carbonate, on cattle performance and carcass measurements were evaluated in a 42-d receiving phase (220 steers; initial BW = 279.3 kg) and a subsequent finishing phase (192 s...

  1. Effects of an essential fatty acid deficiency, pair-feeding and level of dietary corn oil on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and other physiological parameters in the male chicken.

    PubMed

    Engster, H M; Carew, L B; Cunningham, F J

    1978-06-01

    Two studies were conducted to observe the effects of an essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency, added dietary corn oil and pair-feeding on growth, reproduction and other physiological parameters in the mature cockerel. A purified, linoleic acid (LA)-deficient diet (0.01% LA), or additions of 5% (3.01% LA) or 15% (9.04% LA) corn oil, were fed ad libitum from hatching through 24 weeks of age. Reductions in growth, feed consumption, and comb, and testes size, incomplete spermatogenesis, increased tissue eicosatrienoic acid (20: 3 omega 9) and changes in weights of selected internal organs were observed in deficient cockerels. Total pituitary gonadotropic activity was measured by two bioassay procedures and blood luteinizing hormone was measured by radioimmunoassay. By maturity both of these parameters were significantly reduced in deficient chickens. When these chickens were fed diets with 5% or 15% corn oil under pair-feeding or ad libitum conditions from 20 to 24 weeks, the reduced growth, comb and testes size and gonadotropin metabolism appeared to be caused by depressions in appetite and energy intake rather than EFA per se. The degenerate testicular histology of the 20-week old deficient cockerels, while responding fully to the ad libitum intake of the diets containing corn oil, showed only partial rehabilitation of spermatogenesis when diets with either 5% or 15% corn oil were pair-fed. In general, increasing the level of dietary fat from 5% to 15% did not cause many physiological changes. PMID:650291

  2. Use of corn oil in the production of Turkish white cheese.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Seher; Topcu, Ali; Saldamli, Ilbilge; Koksal, Gülden

    2014-10-01

    The use of corn oil in white cheese production instead of milk fat was investigated and its effects on the quality parameters of cheese were studied. It was demonstrated that the use of corn oil significantly affected the levels of dry matter, fat in dry matter, protein, salt in dry matter and titratable acidity and pH value of samples (p < 0.05). The water-soluble nitrogen based ripening indices of cheeses increased throughout the ripening period. However, there were not large quantitative differences among the peptide profiles of all the cheese samples. The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), the polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratios (PUFA/SFA) and total cis fatty acid contents were found to be higher whilst the saturated fatty acid and trans fatty acid content were found to be lower than those of the control cheese (p < 0.05). It was found that the use of corn oil instead of milk fat in cheese production decreased the cholesterol content of the cheese samples (p < 0.05). The sensory scores of corn oil cheese were almost similar to the control cheese. The results indicated that corn oil utilization in cheese production has commercial potential in overcoming the defects related to fat reduction. PMID:25328177

  3. Effects of "Natural" Water and "Added" Water on Microwave Dielectric Properties of Shelled Corn at Microwave Frequencies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dielectric properties of samples of shelled corn of “natural” water content and those prepared by adding water were measured in free space at microwave frequencies and 23 oC. Results of measurements of attenuation, phase shift and dielectric constant and loss factor at 6 GHz show no difference betw...

  4. Effects of peroxidized corn oil on performance, AMEn, and abdominal fat pad weight in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Ehr, I J; Kerr, B J; Persia, M E

    2015-07-01

    There is a trend to use more alternative lipids in poultry diets, either through animal-vegetable blends, distillers corn oil, or yellow grease. This has resulted in the use of lipids in poultry diets with a higher concentration of unsaturated fatty acids, which have a greater potential for peroxidation. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of peroxidized corn oil on broiler performance, dietary AMEn, and abdominal fat pad weight. The same refined corn oil sample was divided into 3 subsamples, 2 of which were exposed to different peroxidative processes. The 3 diets contained the unperoxidized corn oil (UO), a slowly peroxidized corn oil (SO; heated for 72 h at 95°C with compressed air flow rate of 12 L/min), or a rapidly peroxidized corn oil (RO; heated for 12 h at 185°C with compressed air flow rate of 12 L/min). Diets were fed from 0 to 14 d of age with each lipid fed at a 5% inclusion rate, continuing on from 15 to 27 d of age with each lipid fed at a 10% inclusion rate. There were 6 Ross 708 broiler chicks per cage with 10 replicates for each of the 3 dietary treatments. Abdominal fat pad and excreta collection was performed on d 27. Body weight gain, feed intake and feed efficiency were measured for the 0 to 14 and 0 to 27 d periods. The increased level of peroxidation reduced AMEn in broiler diets (UO = 3,490 kcal/kg; SO = 3,402 kcal/kg; RO = 3,344 kcal/kg on an as-is basis; SEM = 12.9, P ≤ 0.01). No significant treatment differences were observed among oil supplemented birds for BW gain, feed intake, feed efficiency, or abdominal fat pad weight. In conclusion, corn oil peroxidation status resulted in a decrease in dietary AMEn, but had minimal effects on broiler performance or fat pad weights. PMID:26015587

  5. Improving Biomethane Production and Mass Bioconversion of Corn Stover Anaerobic Digestion by Adding NaOH Pretreatment and Trace Elements

    PubMed Central

    Liu, ChunMei; Yuan, HaiRong; Zou, DeXun; Liu, YanPing; Zhu, BaoNing; Li, XiuJin

    2015-01-01

    This research applied sodium hydroxide (NaOH) pretreatment and trace elements to improve biomethane production when using corn stover for anaerobic digestion. Full-factor experimental tests identified the best combination of trace elements with the NaOH pretreatment, indicating that the best combination was with 1.0, 0.4, and 0.4 mg·L−1·d−1 of elements Fe, Co, and Ni, respectively. The cumulative biomethane production adding NaOH pretreatment and trace elements was 11,367 mL; total solid bioconversion rate was 55.7%, which was 41.8%–62.2% higher than with NaOH-pretreatment alone and 22.2%–56.3% higher than with untreated corn stover. The best combination was obtained 5–9 days shorter than T90 and maintained good system operation stability. Only a fraction of the trace elements in the best combination was present in the resulting solution; more than 85% of the total amounts added were transferred into the solid fraction. Adding 0.897 g of Fe, 0.389 g of Co, and 0.349 g of Ni satisfied anaerobic digestion needs and enhanced biological activity at the beginning of the operation. The results showed that NaOH pretreatment and adding trace elements improve corn stover biodegradability and enhance biomethane production. PMID:26137469

  6. Improving Biomethane Production and Mass Bioconversion of Corn Stover Anaerobic Digestion by Adding NaOH Pretreatment and Trace Elements.

    PubMed

    Liu, ChunMei; Yuan, HaiRong; Zou, DeXun; Liu, YanPing; Zhu, BaoNing; Li, XiuJin

    2015-01-01

    This research applied sodium hydroxide (NaOH) pretreatment and trace elements to improve biomethane production when using corn stover for anaerobic digestion. Full-factor experimental tests identified the best combination of trace elements with the NaOH pretreatment, indicating that the best combination was with 1.0, 0.4, and 0.4 mg·L(-1)·d(-1) of elements Fe, Co, and Ni, respectively. The cumulative biomethane production adding NaOH pretreatment and trace elements was 11,367 mL; total solid bioconversion rate was 55.7%, which was 41.8%-62.2% higher than with NaOH-pretreatment alone and 22.2%-56.3% higher than with untreated corn stover. The best combination was obtained 5-9 days shorter than T90 and maintained good system operation stability. Only a fraction of the trace elements in the best combination was present in the resulting solution; more than 85% of the total amounts added were transferred into the solid fraction. Adding 0.897 g of Fe, 0.389 g of Co, and 0.349 g of Ni satisfied anaerobic digestion needs and enhanced biological activity at the beginning of the operation. The results showed that NaOH pretreatment and adding trace elements improve corn stover biodegradability and enhance biomethane production. PMID:26137469

  7. Effect of extrusion cooking, with and without added glucose, on fumonisin B1 in corn grits.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extrusion cooking reduces fumonisin concentrations in corn but how it affects fumonisin toxicity is not well characterized. A batch of corn grits (SG) was spiked with fumonisin B1 (FB1) and two batches (FG1 & FG2) were contaminated with FB1 by fermentation. Respective FB1 concentrations of SG, FG1...

  8. Effects of peroxidized corn oil on performance, AMEn, and abdominal fat pad weight in broiler chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a trend to use more alternative lipids in poultry diets, either through animal-vegetable blends, distillers corn oil, or yellow grease. This has resulted in the use of lipids in poultry diets with a higher concentration of unsaturated fatty acids which have a greater potential for peroxidat...

  9. Soybean seed protein oil fatty acids and mineral composition as influenced by soybean-corn rotation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of crop rotation on soybean (Glycine max (L) Merr.) seed composition have yet to be thoroughly investigated. This study investigated the effects of soybean-corn (Zea mays L.) rotations on seed protein, oil, fatty acids, and mineral nutrient composition on soybean. The cultivar DBK 4651 was g...

  10. Effect of oil extraction method on the enzymatic digestibility of corn germ arabinoxylan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole corn germ and germs extracted by three different processes were all excellent substrates for arabinoxylan digestion by crude enzymes from Aureobasidium strain NRRL Y-2311-1. Thus, oil extraction does not serve as a pretreatment to enhance digestibility. Fully expelled germ was slightly more ...

  11. Feeding a corn oil/sucrose-enriched diet enhances steatohepatitis in sedentary rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current study investigated the combined effects of feeding a high-fat/high-sucrose (HF/HS) diet to rodents rendered sedentary via hindlimb unloading (HU). For 3 wk before HU, male Wistar rats were fed chow or a diet in which 32% of calories were derived from corn oil fat and 48% of calories from...

  12. Corn fiber oil and sitostanol decrease cholesterol absorption independently of intestinal sterol transporters in hamsters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the cholesterol-lowering mechanism of corn fiber oil (CFO), ferulate phytostanyl esters (FPE) and parent compounds including sitostanol and ferulic acid in hamsters. Method: Seventy male golden syrian hamsters were randomly assigned to six experimental diets ...

  13. Concentration and State Dependent Reductions in Corn Oil Intakes after Glossopharyngeal Nerve Transections in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Foo, H.; Norgren, R.N.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies indicate a role for the glossopharyngeal nerve (GL) in the detection of dietary fats. The present experiments examined the effects of bilateral glossopharyngeal nerve transections (GLx) on the intake of low (4.8%), moderate (16%), and full-fat (100%) corn oil in non-deprived, food-deprived, and water-deprived rats. The rats had access to oils, 0.3 M sucrose, and water in a gustometer that measured number of licks and latency to the first lick during brief access trials. The behavioral measures were used as indices of the amount consumed and the motivation to ingest, respectively. After baseline intakes had stabilized, the rats received GLx or sham transections (Sham), and were then re-tested. Pre and post-surgery responses were compared to determine the impact of GLx on intake and the motivation to ingest. In non-deprived rats, GLx reduced the intake of 4.8% and 16% oils and decreased the motivation to ingest these oils. In food-deprived rats, GLx prevented increases in the ingestion of 4.8% and 16% oils and in the motivation to ingest these oils. In water-deprived rats, GLx reduced the intake of 100% oil and produced a general decrease in the motivation to consume low, moderate, and full-fat emulsions. These results indicate that GL is partially involved in corn oil intake and suggest an interactive effect of oil concentration with homeostatic state. PMID:24534178

  14. Pontine and Thalamic Influences on Fluid Rewards: II. Sucrose and Corn Oil Conditioned Aversions

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Nu-Chu; Grigson, Patricia S.; Norgren, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    In this study conditioned aversions were produced in sham feeding rats to limit postingestive feedback from the oral stimulus. All control rats learned an aversion to either 100% corn oil or 0.3M sucrose when ingestion of these stimuli was followed by an injection of lithium chloride (LiCl). Rats with lesions of the ventroposteromedial thalamus also learned to avoid either corn oil or sucrose. After 3 trials, rats with damage to the parabrachial nuclei (PBN) learned to avoid 100% corn oil, but failed to do so when the stimulus was 0.3M sucrose. These results support our hypothesis that the PBN is necessary to appropriately respond to a taste, but not an oil cue as a function of experience (i.e., pairings with LiCl). The results also are consistent with our results from operant tasks demonstrating that the trigeminal thalamus, the ventroposteromedial nucleus, is not required for responding to the rewarding properties of sucrose, oil, or for modifying the response to these stimuli as a function of experience. PMID:21699909

  15. Evaluation of oils and microbial pathogens for control of lepidopteran pests of sweet corn in New England.

    PubMed

    Hazzard, R V; Schultz, B B; Groden, E; Ngollo, E D; Seidlecki, E

    2003-12-01

    Vegetable and mineral oil, Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki Berliner were evaluated for control of Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in sweet corn (Zea mays L.). Field experiments in Maine and Massachusetts during 1993 and 1994 evaluated oils and pathogens singly or in combinations, using a single application directly to the top of the silk channel, immediately after pollination. Mineral oil alone provided equal (1993) or better (1994) control compared with corn oil. In both years, mineral or corn oil plus B. thuringiensis resulted in 93-98% marketable ears, compared with 48-52% marketable ears in untreated plots. In three factorial experiments with B. bassiana, B. thuringiensis and corn oil, B. bassiana at 5 x 10(7) conidia per ear provided little or no control while B. thuringiensis and corn oil provided significant though not always consistent control of all three species. The combination of B. thuringiensis and corn oil provided the largest and most consistent reduction in numbers of larvae and feeding damage to ears. PMID:14977100

  16. Combinations of corn glutel meal, clove oil, and sweep cultivation are ineffective for weed control in organic peanut production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control in organic peanut is difficult and lack of residual weed control complicates weed management efforts. Weed management systems using corn gluten meal in combination with clove oil and sweep cultivation were evaluated in a series of irrigated field trials. Corn gluten meal applied in a ...

  17. Permeability studies of redox-sensitive nitroxyl spin probes in corn oil using an L-band ESR spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jebaraj, D. David; Utsumi, Hideo; Asath, R. Mohamed; Benial, A. Milton Franklin

    2016-05-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) studies were carried out for 2mM 14N labeled 2H enriched 3-methoxycarbonyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-pyrrolidine-1-oxyl (MC-PROXYL) and 3-carboxy-2,2,5,5,-tetramethyl-1-pyrrolidinyloxy (carboxy-PROXYL) in pure water and various concentrations of corn oil. The ESR parameters, such as the line width, hyperfine coupling constant, g-factor, rotational correlation time, partition parameter and permeability were reported for the samples. The line width broadening was observed for both nitroxyl radicals in corn oil solutions. The partition parameter for permeable MC-PROXYL in corn oil increases with increasing concentration of corn oil, which reveals that the nitroxyl spin probe permeates into the oil phase. From the results, the corn oil concentration was optimized as 50 % for phantom studies. The rotational correlation time also increases with increasing concentration of corn oil. The permeable and impermeable nature of nitroxyl spin probes was demonstrated. These results will be useful for the development of ESR/OMR imaging modalities in in vivo and in vitro studies.

  18. CORN FLAVOR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn is a large part of the modern diet through sweeteners, oil, processed foods, and animal-derived foods. In addition, corn is eaten directly in bread and cereal-type foods, snack foods, and foods made from masa flour. Corn gluten meal is a byproduct of grain processed by wet milling. Although pri...

  19. Stripped corn oil controls scald and maintains volatile production potential in golden supreme and delicious apples.

    PubMed

    Ju, Z; Curry, E A

    2000-06-01

    Effects of stripped (alpha-tocopherol < 5 mg L(-)(1)) corn oil on flesh firmness, skin color, acidity, soluble solids content (SSC), scald, and fruit volatiles during 6 months at 0 degrees C were studied using Golden Supreme and Delicious apples. Treatment with 10% oil emulsion reduced production of ethylene, alpha-farnesene, and major volatile esters in the first 3 months of storage, but this trend reversed after 5 months. After 6 months at 0 degrees C plus 7 days at 20 degrees C, oil-treated fruit were firmer and greener and had higher levels of titratable acidity than the controls. In addition, control fruit developed 27% and 42% scald in Golden Supreme and Delicious apples, respectively, whereas oil-treated fruit were free from scald. Soluble solids content and ethanol production were unaffected by oil treatment. PMID:10888517

  20. The Integrated Biorefinery: Conversion of Corn Fiber to Value-added Chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Susanne Kleff

    2007-03-24

    This presentation provides a summary of Michigan Biotechnology Institute's efforts to employ the corn fiber fraction of a dry grind ethanol plant as a feedstock to produce succinic acid which has potential as a building block intermediate for a wide range of commodity chemicals.

  1. Peripheral nerve metabolism and zinc levels in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Effect of diets high in fish and corn oil

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, J.P.; Fenton, M.R. )

    1991-03-15

    This study was designed to assess the effects of diets high in fish and corn oil on peripheral nerve metabolism in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. A type I diabetic state was induced in female Sprague-Dawley rats by injection of STZ. Animals were divided into three dietary groups; normal rat chow, high corn oil diet and high fish oil diet. After 4 weeks animals were analyzed for nerve conduction velocity, bled and then sacrificed. Sciatic nerves were removed, processed and several biochemical parameters determined. Plasma zinc levels were elevated in the STZ normal chow group compared to non-diabetic controls. Both corn oil and fish oil diets tended to eliminate the rise in plasma zinc. Differences in subcellular distribution of zinc in sciatic nerves were also observed. Normal chow STZ animals displayed a 20% decrease in nerve conduction velocity compared to control. Dietary supplementation with either fish or corn oil seemed to ameliorate these effects. Biochemical analysis of Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase and protein kinase C revealed a decrease in activity in normal chow animals compared to control groups. Again, dietary intervention with either fish or corn oil seemed to return these activities back to normal. The results suggest a link between zinc metabolism and peripheral nerve metabolism which can be modified by dietary intervention.

  2. Water reclamation and value-added animal feed from corn-ethanol stillage by fungal processing.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, M L; Khanal, S K; Pometto, A L; van Leeuwen, J Hans

    2014-01-01

    Rhizopus oligosporus was cultivated on thin stillage from a dry-grind corn ethanol plant. The aim of the research was to develop a process to replace the current energy-intensive flash evaporation and make use of this nutrient-rich stream to create a new co-product in the form of protein-rich biomass. Batch experiments in 5- and 50-L stirred bioreactors showed prolific fungal growth under non-sterile conditions. COD, suspended solids, glycerol, and organic acids removals, critical for in-plant water reuse, reached ca. 80%, 98%, 100% and 100%, respectively, within 5 d of fungal inoculation, enabling effluent recycle as process water. R. oligosporus contains 2% lysine, good levels of other essential amino acids, and 43% crude protein - a highly nutritious livestock feed. Avoiding water evaporation from thin stillage would furthermore save substantial energy inputs on corn ethanol plants. PMID:24269825

  3. Conjugated linoleic acid increases in milk from cows fed condensed corn distillers solubles and fish oil.

    PubMed

    Bharathan, M; Schingoethe, D J; Hippen, A R; Kalscheur, K F; Gibson, M L; Karges, K

    2008-07-01

    Twelve lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 experimental diets in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 4-wk periods to ascertain the lactational response to feeding fish oil (FO), condensed corn distillers solubles (CDS) as a source of extra linoleic acid, or both. Diets contained either no FO or 0.5% FO and either no CDS or 10% CDS in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Diets were fed as total mixed rations for ad libitum consumption. The forage to concentrate ratio was 55:45 on a dry matter basis for all diets and the diets contained 16.2% crude protein. The ether extract concentrations were 2.86, 3.22, 4.77, and 5.02% for control, FO, CDS, and FOCDS diets, respectively. Inclusion of FO or CDS or both had no effect on dry matter intake, feed efficiency, body weight, and body condition scores compared with diets without FO and CDS, respectively. Yields of milk (33.3 kg/d), energy-corrected milk, protein, lactose, and milk urea N were similar for all diets. Feeding FO and CDS decreased milk fat percentages (3.85, 3.39, 3.33, and 3.12%) and yields compared with diets without FO and CDS. Proportions of trans-11 C18:1 (vaccenic acid), cis-9 trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 0.52, 0.90, 1.11, and 1.52 g/100 g of fatty acids), and trans-10 cis-12 CLA (0.07, 0.14, 0.13, and 0.16 g/100 g of fatty acids) in milk fat were increased by FO and CDS. No interactions were observed between FO and CDS on cis-9 trans-11 CLA although vaccenic acid tended to be higher with the interaction. The addition of CDS to diets increased trans-10 C18:1. Greater ratios of vaccenic acid to cis-9 trans-11 CLA in plasma than in milk fat indicate tissue synthesis of cis-9 trans-11 CLA in the mammary gland from vaccenic acid in cows fed FO or CDS. Feeding fish oil at 0.5% of diet dry matter with a C18:2 n-6 rich source such as CDS increased the milk CLA content but decreased milk fat percentages. PMID:18565937

  4. Distribution and Antioxidant Efficiency of Resveratrol in Stripped Corn Oil Emulsions

    PubMed Central

    Losada-Barreiro, Sonia; Costa, Marlene; Bravo-Díaz, Carlos; Paiva-Martins, Fátima

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of resveratrol (RES) on the oxidative stability of emulsions composed of stripped corn oil, acidic water and Tween 20 and determined its distribution in the intact emulsions by employing a well-established kinetic method. The distribution of RES is described by two partition constants, that between the oil-interfacial region, POI, and that between the aqueous and interfacial region, PWI. The partition constants, POI and PWI, are obtained in the intact emulsions from the variations of the observed rate constant, kobs, for the reaction between the hydrophobic 4-hexadecylbenzenediazonium ion and RES with the emulsifier volume fraction, ФI. The obtained POI and PWI values are quite high, PWI = 4374 and POI = 930, indicating that RES is primarily located in the interfacial region of the emulsions, %RESI > 90% at ФI = 0.005, increasing up to 99% at ФI = 0.04. The oxidative stability of the corn oil emulsions was determined by measuring the formation of conjugated dienes at a given time in the absence and in the presence of RES. The addition of RES did not improve their oxidative stability in spite that more than 90% of RES is located in the interfacial region of the emulsion, because of the very low radical scavenging activity of RES. PMID:26784868

  5. EFFECT OF GAVAGE VEHICLE ON HEPATOTOXICITY OF CARBON TETRACHLORIDE IN CD-1 MICE: CORN OIL VERSUS TWEEN-60 AQUEOUS EMULSION (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The investigation was conducted to evaluate the effect of corn oil gavage on the subchronic hepatotoxicity of carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)). Male and female CD-1 mice were gavaged with 0, 1.2, 12, and 120 mg/kg CCl(4) in either corn oil or 1% Tween-60 vehicles once daily for five...

  6. Model of the world oil market with an OPEC cartel. [1980 AD to 2040 AD

    SciTech Connect

    Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.; Horwedel, J.E.; Marshalla, R.A.; Nesbitt, D.M.; Haas, S.M.

    1984-08-01

    A world oil market model (WOM) with OPEC treated as a Stackelberg cartel has been developed within the framework of the Generalized Equilibrium Modeling System (GEMS) that is available from Decision Focus, Inc. The US sector of the model is represented by a Liquid Fuels Supply model that was presented previously. The WOM model is described and results obtained with the model for the period 1980 to 2040 are presented. For comparative purposes, results obtained with the model when OPEC is treated as a competitive producer are also presented. By comparing the world oil price as a function of time from the two calculations, the influence that OPEC may have on the oil market by exploiting all of its market power is quantified. The world oil price as obtained with the WOM model is also compared with world oil price projections from a variety of sources. 22 references, 9 figures, 2 tables.

  7. Co-pyrolysis of corn cob and waste cooking oil in a fixed bed.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guanyi; Liu, Cong; Ma, Wenchao; Zhang, Xiaoxiong; Li, Yanbin; Yan, Beibei; Zhou, Weihong

    2014-08-01

    Corn cob (CC) and waste cooking oil (WCO) were co-pyrolyzed in a fixed bed. The effects of various temperatures of 500 °C, 550 °C, 600 °C and CC/WCO mass ratios of 1:0, 1:0.1, 1:0.5, 1:1 and 0:1 were investigated, respectively. Results show that co-pyrolysis of CC/WCO produce more liquid and less bio-char than pyrolysis of CC individually. Bio-oil and bio-char yields were found to be largely dependent on temperature and CC/WCO ratios. GC/MS of bio-oil show it consists of different classes and amounts of organic compounds other than that from CC pyrolysis. Temperature of 550 °C and CC/WCO ratio of 1:1 seem to be the optimum considering high bio-oil yields (68.6 wt.%) and good bio-oil properties (HHV of 32.78 MJ/kg). In this case, bio-char of 24.96 MJ/kg appears attractive as a renewable source, while gas with LHV of 16.06 MJ/Nm(3) can be directly used in boilers as fuel. PMID:24951937

  8. Fattening Holstein heifers by feeding high-moisture corn (whole or ground) ad libitum separately from concentrate and straw.

    PubMed

    Devant, M; Quintana, B; Aris, A; Bach, A

    2015-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of high-moisture corn (HMC), either whole or ground, fed separately from concentrate and straw on feeding behavior, rumen fermentation, whole tract digestibility, and nitrogen balance. Twenty-four Holstein heifers (199 ± 5.5 kg BW and 157 ± 6.9 d age) housed in individual pens were assigned to 3 treatments: 1) whole (unprocessed) HMC fed along with concentrate and barley straw, all fed separately and ad libitum (WHMC); 2) HMC ground through a 0.4-cm screen before ensiling and fed along with concentrate and barley straw, all fed separately and ad libitum (GHMC); and 3) a concentrate composed of mainly corn meal, ground through a roller mill with screen openings of 6 mm, and barley straw, both fed separately and ad libitum (Control). Concentrate, HMC, and straw were offered separately ad libitum in a free-choice situation and consumption was recorded daily and BW was recorded weekly. Apparent nutrient digestibility and N balance were determined at the beginning, middle, and end of the study. At the same time points, rumen fluid was collected through rumenocentesis to determine rumen pH and VFA concentrations. Feeding behavior was monitored throughout the study. Animals were harvested after 134 d and HCW, rumen and cecum wall lesions, and liver abscesses were recorded. Treatment did not affect total DMI, feed efficiency, ADG, final BW, and carcass weight or classification. Concentrate consumption (6.6 ± 0.35 kg/d) of Control heifers was greater ( < 0.001) than that of GHMC (4.1 ± 0.35 kg/d) and WHMC heifers (2.8 ± 0.35 kg/d), and GHMC heifers consumed less ( < 0.001) HMC than WHMC heifers (2.3 ± 0.31 and 4.2 ± 0.31 kg/d, respectively). Dietary treatments did not affect rumination, self-grooming, nonnutritive oral behaviors, and rumen pH. However, rumen acetate to propionate ratio decreased when heifers received HMC (1.77 ± 0.276) compared with when heifers received the Control (2.82 ± 0.276). Total

  9. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production via Catalytic Hydroprocessing of Phenolic Oils Fractionated from Fast Pyrolysis of Red Oak and Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Wang, Huamin; Rover, Majorie; Whitmer, Lysle; Smith, Ryan; Brown, Robert C.

    2015-04-13

    Phenolic oils were produced from fast pyrolysis of two different biomass feedstocks, red oak and corn stover and evaluated in hydroprocessing tests for production of liquid hydrocarbon products. The phenolic oils were produced with a bio-oil fractionating process in combination with a simple water wash of the heavy ends from the fractionating process. Phenolic oils derived from the pyrolysis of red oak and corn stover were recovered with yields (wet biomass basis) of 28.7 wt% and 14.9 wt%, respectively, and 54.3% and 58.6% on a carbon basis. Both precious metal catalysts and sulfided base metal catalyst were evaluated for hydrotreating the phenolic oils, as an extrapolation from whole bio-oil hydrotreatment. They were effective in removing heteroatoms with carbon yields as high as 81% (unadjusted for the 90% carbon balance). There was nearly complete heteroatom removal with residual O of only 0.4% to 5%, while N and S were reduced to less than 0.05%. Use of the precious metal catalysts resulted in more saturated products less completely hydrotreated compared to the sulfided base metal catalyst, which was operated at higher temperature. The liquid product was 42-52% gasoline range molecules and about 43% diesel range molecules. Particulate matter in the phenolic oils complicated operation of the reactors, causing plugging in the fixed-beds especially for the corn stover phenolic oil. This difficulty contrasts with the catalyst bed fouling and plugging, which is typically seen with hydrotreatment of whole bio-oil. This problem was substantially alleviated by filtering the phenolic oils before hydrotreating. More thorough washing of the phenolic oils during their preparation from the heavy ends of bio-oil or on-line filtration of pyrolysis vapors to remove particulate matter before condensation of the bio-oil fractions is recommended.

  10. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production via Catalytic Hydroprocessing of Phenolic Oils Fractionated from Fast Pyrolysis of Red Oak and Corn Stover

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Wang, Huamin; Rover, Majorie; Whitmer, Lysle; Smith, Ryan; Brown, Robert C.

    2015-04-13

    Phenolic oils were produced from fast pyrolysis of two different biomass feedstocks, red oak and corn stover and evaluated in hydroprocessing tests for production of liquid hydrocarbon products. The phenolic oils were produced with a bio-oil fractionating process in combination with a simple water wash of the heavy ends from the fractionating process. Phenolic oils derived from the pyrolysis of red oak and corn stover were recovered with yields (wet biomass basis) of 28.7 wt% and 14.9 wt%, respectively, and 54.3% and 58.6% on a carbon basis. Both precious metal catalysts and sulfided base metal catalyst were evaluated for hydrotreatingmore » the phenolic oils, as an extrapolation from whole bio-oil hydrotreatment. They were effective in removing heteroatoms with carbon yields as high as 81% (unadjusted for the 90% carbon balance). There was nearly complete heteroatom removal with residual O of only 0.4% to 5%, while N and S were reduced to less than 0.05%. Use of the precious metal catalysts resulted in more saturated products less completely hydrotreated compared to the sulfided base metal catalyst, which was operated at higher temperature. The liquid product was 42-52% gasoline range molecules and about 43% diesel range molecules. Particulate matter in the phenolic oils complicated operation of the reactors, causing plugging in the fixed-beds especially for the corn stover phenolic oil. This difficulty contrasts with the catalyst bed fouling and plugging, which is typically seen with hydrotreatment of whole bio-oil. This problem was substantially alleviated by filtering the phenolic oils before hydrotreating. More thorough washing of the phenolic oils during their preparation from the heavy ends of bio-oil or on-line filtration of pyrolysis vapors to remove particulate matter before condensation of the bio-oil fractions is recommended.« less

  11. The Ectopic Expression of the Wheat Puroindoline Genes Increase Germ Size and Seed Oil Content in Transgenic Corn

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinrui; Martin, John M.; Beecher, Brian; Lu, Chaofu; Hannah, L. Curtis; Wall, Michael L.; Altosaar, Illimar; Giroux, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Plant oil content and composition improvement is a major goal of plant breeding and biotechnology. The Puroindoline a and b (PINA and PINB) proteins together control whether wheat seeds are soft or hard textured and share a similar structure to that of plant non-specific lipid-transfer proteins. Here we transformed corn (Zea mays L.) with the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) puroindoline genes (Pina and Pinb) to assess their effects upon seed oil content and quality. Pina and Pinb coding sequences were introduced into corn under the control of a corn Ubiquitin promoter. Three Pina/Pinb expression positive transgenic events were evaluated over two growing seasons. The results showed that Pin expression increased germ size significantly without negatively impacting seed size. Germ yield increased 33.8% while total seed oil content was increased by 25.23%. Seed oil content increases were primarily the result of increased germ size. This work indicates that higher oil content corn hybrids having increased food or feed value could be produced via puroindoline expression. PMID:20725765

  12. Nutritive value of high-oil corn grown under semi-arid conditions and its impact on broiler performance and carcass composition.

    PubMed

    Daghir, N J; Farran, M T; Barbour, G W; Beck, M M

    2003-02-01

    A series of experiments was conducted to evaluate nutritive value of a high-oil corn (HOC) cultivar, grown under semiarid conditions, and its impact on performance and carcass characteristics of male broilers raised to market age. Conventional corn (CC) and HOC used in this research were produced under similar semi-arid conditions. By using a glucose containing reference diet in Experiment 1, the AMEn of CC, as determined on 11-d-old male broilers, was lower (P < 0.05) than that of HOC (3,541 vs. 3,669 kcal/kg DM). The TME, TMEn, and true amino acid availability of CC and HOC were determined in Experiment 2 through individual precision feeding of eight intact mature roosters per ingredient. The TMEn of HOC was significantly higher than that of CC (4,126 vs. 3,870 kcal/kg DM), but true availability of amino acids was comparable for both cultivars. By using the CP and TMEn values determined in Experiment 2, two corn soybean meal starter and grower diets, containing no added fat, were prepared in Experiment 3, in which HOC replaced CC. Diets were provided ad libitum in five replicates to 5-d-old male broilers with eight birds per replicate until market age. Broiler performance, carcass yield, and carcass composition were comparable between both corn cultivars. Birds on HOC diet, however, deposited more (P < 0.05) abdominal fat (0.695%) than those on CC diet (0.575%). The results indicated that the extra calories derived from HOC could have been funneled primarily toward abdominal fat pad deposition rather than increased growth. PMID:12619804

  13. Bioavailability of zinc oxide added to corn tortilla is similar to that of zinc sulfate and is not affected by simultaneous addition of iron

    PubMed Central

    Rosado, Jorge L.; Díaz, Margarita; Muñoz, Elsa; Westcott, Jamie L.; González, Karla E.; Krebs, Nancy F.; Caamaño, María C.; Hambidge, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background Corn tortilla is the staple food of Mexico and its fortification with zinc, iron, and other micronutrients is intended to reduce micronutrient deficiencies. However, no studies have been performed to determine the relative amount of zinc absorbed from the fortified product and whether zinc absorption is affected by the simultaneous addition of iron. Objective To compare zinc absorption from corn tortilla fortified with zinc oxide versus zinc sulfate and to determine the effect of simultaneous addition of two doses of iron on zinc bioavailability. Methods A randomized, double-blind, crossover design was carried out in two phases. In the first phase, 10 adult women received corn tortillas with either 20 mg/kg of zinc oxide added, 20 mg/kg of zinc sulfate added, or no zinc added. In the second phase, 10 adult women received corn tortilla with 20 mg/kg of zinc oxide added and either with no iron added or with iron added at one of two different levels. Zinc absorption was measured by the stable isotope method. Results The mean (± SEM) fractional zinc absorption from unfortified tortilla, tortilla fortified with zinc oxide, and tortilla fortified with zinc sulfate did not differ among treatments: 0.35 ± 0.07, 0.36 ± 0.05, and 0.37 ± 0.07, respectively. The three treatment groups with 0, 30, and 60 mg/kg of added iron had similar fractional zinc absorption (0.32 ± 0.04, 0.33 ± 0.02, and 0.32 ± 0.05, respectively) and similar amounts of zinc absorbed (4.8 ± 0.7, 4.5 ± 0.3, and 4.8 ± 0.7 mg/day, respectively). Conclusions Since zinc oxide is more stable and less expensive and was absorbed equally as well as zinc sulfate, we suggest its use for corn tortilla fortification. Simultaneous addition of zinc and iron to corn tortilla does not modify zinc bioavailability at iron doses of 30 and 60 mg/kg of corn flour. PMID:23424892

  14. Effect of tocopherols on the anti-polymerization activity of oryzanol and corn steryl ferulates in soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Steryl ferulates (SF) are ferulic acid esters of phytosterols and/or triterpene alcohols which have potential as frying oil antioxidants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-polymerization and antioxidant activity at frying temperatures of corn steryl ferulates (CSF), rice steryl f...

  15. Gastric preloads of corn oil and mineral oil produce different patterns of increases of c-Fos-like immunoreacitve cells in the brain of 9-12 day-old rats.

    PubMed

    Blumberg, Sara; Schroeder, Mariana; Malkesman, Oz; Torregrossa, Ann Marie; Smith, Gerard P; Weller, Aron

    2007-02-23

    Equivolumetric gastric preloads of corn oil and mineral oil administered to rats on postnatal day 12 (P12) inhibited intake equally during a 30-min test of independent ingestion (II), but preloads of corn oil inhibited intake significantly more than preloads of mineral oil on P15 and P18 [Weller, A., Gispan, I.H., Armony-Sivan, R., Ritter, R.C., Smith, G.P., 1997. Preloads of corn oil inhibit independent ingestion on postnatal day 15 in rats. Physiol. Behav. 62, 871-874]. It is possible that the equivalent inhibition of intake by the oil preloads on P12 resulted from the failure of the preabsorptive sensory properties of the preloads to be discriminated by peripheral or central sensory mechanisms. To investigate this possibility, we administered equivolumetric gastric preloads of 25% corn oil and 25% mineral oil to pups on P9-12 and counted the number of c-Fos-like immunoreactive (CFLI) cells in central sites that are activated by food intake and postingestive preabsortive mechanisms in adult rats and in pups on P10-11. The major result was that preloads of 25% corn oil and 25% mineral oil that produced equivalent inhibition of II intake produced differential increases of CFLI cells in the forebrain and hindbrain. Specifically, preloads of corn oil increased the number of CFLI cells in the caudal Nucleus Tractus Solitarius significantly more than preloads of mineral oil. Furthermore, preloads of corn oil increased the number of CFLI cells in the Paraventricular and Supraoptic nuclei, but preloads of mineral oil did not. This differential pattern of increases of CFLI cells is evidence that the brain discriminates the preabsorptive sensory properties of preloads of corn oil and mineral oil on P9-12. PMID:17196183

  16. Hydrogenation impairs the hypolipidemic effect of corn oil in humans. Hydrogenation, trans fatty acids, and plasma lipids.

    PubMed

    Lichtenstein, A H; Ausman, L M; Carrasco, W; Jenner, J L; Ordovas, J M; Schaefer, E J

    1993-02-01

    The effects of plasma lipoproteins and apolipoproteins of replacing corn oil with corn-oil margarine in stick form as two thirds of the fat in the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Step 2 diet were assessed in 14 middle-aged and elderly women and men (age range, 44-78 years) with moderate hypercholesterolemia (low density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C] range, 133-219 mg/dl [3.45-5.67 mmol/l] at screening). During each 32-day study phase, subjects received all their food and drink from a metabolic kitchen. Subjects were first studied while being fed a diet approximating the composition of the current US diet (baseline), which contained 35% of calories as fat (13% saturated fatty acids [SFAs], 12% monounsaturated fatty acids [MUFAs; 0.8% 18:1n-9 trans], and 8% polyunsaturated fatty acids [PUFAs]) and 128 mg cholesterol/1,000 kcal. This baseline phase was followed by a corn oil-enriched diet containing 30% fat (6% SFA, 11% MUFA [0.4% 18:1n-9 trans], and 10% PUFA) and 83 mg cholesterol/1,000 kcal, and then a corn-oil margarine-enriched diet containing 30% fat (8% SFA, 12% MUFA [4.2% 18:1n-9 trans], and 8% PUFA) and 77 mg cholesterol/1,000 kcal. All diets were isocaloric. Mean fasting LDL-C and apolipoprotein (apo) B levels were 153 mg/dl (3.96 mmol/l) and 101 mg/dl on the baseline diet, 17% and 20% lower (both p < 0.001) on the corn oil-enriched diet, and 10% and 10% lower (both p < 0.01) on the margarine-enriched diet.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8427852

  17. ADS genes for reducing saturated fatty acid levels in seed oils

    DOEpatents

    Heilmann, Ingo H.; Shanklin, John

    2010-02-02

    The present invention relates to enzymes involved in lipid metabolism. In particular, the present invention provides coding sequences for Arabidopsis Desaturases (ADS), the encoded ADS polypeptides, and methods for using the sequences and encoded polypeptides, where such methods include decreasing and increasing saturated fatty acid content in plant seed oils.

  18. ADS genes for reducing saturated fatty acid levels in seed oils

    DOEpatents

    Heilmann, Ingo H; Shanklin, John

    2014-03-18

    The present invention relates to enzymes involved in lipid metabolism. In particular, the present invention provides coding sequences for Arabidopsis Desaturases (ADS), the encoded ADS polypeptides, and methods for using the sequences and encoded polypeptides, where such methods include decreasing and increasing saturated fatty acid content in plant seed oils.

  19. High corn oil and high extra virgin olive oil diets have different effects on the expression of differentiation-related genes in experimental mammary tumors.

    PubMed

    Moral, Raquel; Solanas, Montserrat; Garcia, Gemma; Grau, Laura; Vela, Elena; Escrich, Raquel; Escrich, Eduard

    2008-08-01

    Dietary lipids can modify the clinical behavior and morphological features of experimental breast tumors. We previously demonstrated that a high corn oil diet has a tumor-enhancing effect in 7,12-dimethylbenz(alpha)anthracene (DMBA)-induced rat mammary adenocarcinomas, whereas a high olive oil diet acts as a negative modulator of carcinogenesis. In this study, we investigated whether these high fat diets modulate the expression of genes related to differentiation. Rats were induced with DMBA and fed a low fat diet, a high corn oil diet, a high olive oil diet, or both high fat diets. The expression levels of the mammary differentiation biomarkers alpha-casein, beta-casein and transferrin and of beta-actin and its transporter zipcode binding protein 1 (ZBP1) were analyzed by Northern and/or Western blot in the mammary adenocarcinomas. The high fat diets did not induce changes in the expression of caseins, while transferrin expression was increased as a result of the high olive oil diet. beta-actin mRNA levels were higher in the high fat diet groups, though no changes in the protein levels were observed. The expression of ZBP1, a protein reported as having a role in carcinogenesis, was significantly increased by the high corn oil diet. These results suggest that in this model caseins are not good biomarkers of the changes in tumor morphological differentiation conferred by the high fat diets. The modulation of transferrin and ZBP1 expression by the high olive oil and the high corn oil diets could be one of the mechanisms by which such diets have a different influence on mammary carcinogenesis. PMID:18636208

  20. Oleaginous yeast: a value-added platform for renewable oils.

    PubMed

    Probst, Kyle V; Schulte, Leslie R; Durrett, Timothy P; Rezac, Mary E; Vadlani, Praveen V

    2016-10-01

    Yeast single cell oil (SCO) is a non-crop-based, renewable oil source that can be used for the production of bio-based oleochemicals. Stand-alone production of SCO for oleochemicals is currently not cost-competitive because lower-cost alternatives from petroleum and crop-based resources are available. Utilizing low-valued nutrient sources, implementing cost-efficient downstream processes and adopting biotechnological advancements such as systems biology and metabolic engineering could prove valuable in making an SCO platform a reality in the emerging bio-based economy. This review aims to consider key biochemical pathways for storage lipid synthesis, possible pathways for SCO yield improvement, previously used bioprocessing techniques for SCO production, challenges in SCO commercialization and advantages of adopting a renewable SCO platform. PMID:26180999

  1. Physical, mechanical and barrier properties of corn starch films incorporated with plant essential oils.

    PubMed

    Ghasemlou, Mehran; Aliheidari, Nahal; Fahmi, Ronak; Shojaee-Aliabadi, Saeedeh; Keshavarz, Behnam; Cran, Marlene J; Khaksar, Ramin

    2013-10-15

    Corn starch-based films are inherently brittle and lack the necessary mechanical integrity for conventional packaging. However, the incorporation of additives can potentially improve the mechanical properties and processability of starch films. In this work two essential oils, Zataria multiflora Boiss (ZEO) or Mentha pulegium (MEO) at three levels (1%, 2% and 3% (v/v)), were incorporated into starch films using a solution casting method to improve the mechanical and water vapor permeability (WVP) properties and to impart antimicrobial activity. Increasing the content of ZEO or MEO from 2% to 3% (v/v) increased values for elongation at break from 94.38% to 162.45% and from 53.34% to 107.71% respectively, but did not significantly change tensile strength values of the films. The WVP properties of the films decreased from 7.79 to 3.37 or 3.19 g mm m(-2) d(-1) kPa(-1) after 3% (v/v) ZEO or MEO incorporation respectively. The oxygen barrier properties were unaffected at the 1% and 2% (v/v) oil concentration used but oxygen transmission increased with 3% (v/v) for both formulations. The films' color became slightly yellow as the levels of ZEO or MEO were increased although transparency was maintained. Both films demonstrated antimicrobial activity with films containing ZEO more effective against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus than those containing MEO. These results suggest that ZEO and MEO have the potential to be directly incorporated into corn starch to prepare antimicrobial biodegradable films for various food packaging applications. PMID:23987453

  2. The effect of extrusion on the functional components and in vitro lycopene bioaccessibility of tomato pulp added corn extrudates.

    PubMed

    Tonyali, Bade; Sensoy, Ilkay; Karakaya, Sibel

    2016-02-01

    The effect of processing on functional ingredients and their in vitro bioaccessibility should be investigated to develop better food products. Tomato pulp was added as a functional ingredient to extrudates. The effects of extrusion on the functional properties of the extrudates and the in vitro bioaccessibility of lycopene were investigated. Two different temperature sets were applied during extrusion: 80 °C, 90 °C, 100 °C and 130 °C and 80 °C, 100 °C, 130 °C and 160 °C. Screw speed and feed rate were kept constant at 225 rpm and 36 ± 1 g min(-1), respectively. The feed moisture content was adjusted to 30 ± 1% by mixing the tomato pulp to the corn grit. Antioxidant activity and the total phenolic content decreased after the extrusion process. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated that the lycopene content decreased after the extrusion process when feed and extrudates were compared. In vitro bioaccessibility of lycopene for the extruded samples with 160 °C last zone treatment temperature was higher than the feed and extruded samples with 130 °C last zone treatment temperature. The results indicate that extrusion affects the food matrix and the release of functional components. PMID:26674172

  3. Effect of primrose oil and corn oil diets on eicosanoid synthesis by rat mammary tumor induced by dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA)

    SciTech Connect

    El-Ela, S.H.A.; Bunce, O.R.

    1986-03-01

    Evening primrose oil (PO) contains 9% gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and 75% linoleic acid (LA) each of which are prostaglandin precursors. Corn oil (CO) contains 60% linoleic acid. Fifty day old virgin female rats were given DMBA (5 mg, intragastric). Three weeks post DMBA the rats were separated into two dietary groups of 20% PO and 20% CO, respectively. At 16 weeks post DMBA the rats were killed and mammary tumors analyzed by RIA for PGE/sub 1/, PGE/sub 2/, and 6-keto F/sub 1..cap alpha... PGE/sub 1/ levels in PO fed animals were increased two fold over those fed CO indicating that it is possible to shunt GLA toward monoenoic eicosanoid synthesis. However PGE/sub 2/ and 6 keto F/sub 1..cap alpha../ levels were 5x higher in PO compared to CO. Although this could be attributed to higher cis linoleic acid content of PO, more subtle mechanisms may be responsible.

  4. Production of astaxanthin from corn fiber as a value-added co-product of fuel ethanol fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five strains of the yeast Phaffia rhodozyma, NRRL Y-17268, NRRL Y-17270, ATCC 96594 (CBS 6938), ATCC 24202 (UCD 67-210), and ATCC 74219 (UBV-AX2) were tested for astaxanthin production using the major sugars derived from corn fiber, a byproduct from the wet milling of corn kernels that contains prim...

  5. Effect of four different vegetable oils (red palm olein, palm olein, corn oil, coconut oil) on antioxidant enzymes activity of rat liver.

    PubMed

    Dauqan, Eqbal; Sani, Halimah Abdullah; Abdullah, Aminah; Kasim, Zalifah Mohd

    2011-03-15

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of four different vegetable oils [red palm olein (RPO), palm olein (PO), corn oil (CO), coconut oil (COC)] on antioxidant enzymes activity of rat liver. Sixty six Sprague Dawley male rats which were randomly divided into eleven groups of 6 rats per group and were treated with 15% of RPO, PO, CO and COC for 4 and 8 weeks. Rats in the control group were given normal rat pellet only while in treated groups, 15% of additional different vegetable oils were given. After 4 weeks of treatment the catalase (CAT) activity results showed that there was no significance difference (p > or = 0.05) between the control group and treated groups while after 8 weeks of treatment showed that there was no significant different (p > or = 0.05) between control group and RPO group but the treated rat liver with PO, CO and COC groups were the lowest and it were significantly lower (> or = 0.05) than control group. For superoxide dismutase (SOD) there was no significance difference (p > or = 0.05) between the control group and treated groups of vegetable oils after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment. Thus the study indicated that there was no significant (p > or = 0.05) effect on antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase) but there was significant effect (p > or = 0.05) on catalase in rat liver. PMID:21902064

  6. Corn oil or corn grain supplementation to steers grazing endophyte-free tall fescue. II. Effects on subcutaneous fatty acid content and lipogenic gene expression.

    PubMed

    Duckett, S K; Pratt, S L; Pavan, E

    2009-03-01

    Twenty-eight Angus steers (289 kg) were finished on a high-concentrate diet (85% concentrate: 15% roughage; CONC), or endophyte-free tall fescue pastures with corn grain supplement (0.52% of BW; PC), corn oil plus soybean hull supplement (0.10% of BW corn oil plus 0.45% of BW soybean hulls; PO), or no supplement (pasture only; PA). Subcutaneous adipose tissues were processed for total cellular RNA extraction and fatty acid composition by GLC. Relative expression of genes involved in lipogenesis [fatty acid synthase (FASN), acetyl-CoA carboxylase, lipoprotein lipase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)] and activators of transcription [(peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma), C/EBPalpha, sterol regulatory binding protein-1, signal transducer and activator of transcription-5, and Spot-14] was determined by real-time quantitative PCR. Housekeeping gene (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and beta-actin) expression was used in analysis to normalize expression data. Total fatty acid content was greatest (P < 0.001) for CONC and least (P < 0.001) for PA. Supplementation of grazing cattle increased (P < 0.001) total fatty acid content compared with PA, but concentrations were less (P < 0.001) than for CONC. Myristic and palmitic acid contents were greater (P < 0.001) for CONC than for PO and PC, which were greater (P < 0.001) than for PA. Stearic acid content was greater (P < 0.01) for PO than for CONC, PC, and PA. Finishing on CONC increased (P < 0.001) total MUFA content by 68% compared with PA. Corn grain supplementation increased (P < 0.001) MUFA content compared with PA; in contrast, MUFA content did not differ (P > 0.05) between PO and PA. Corn oil supplementation increased (P < 0.001) trans-11 vaccenic acid content in subcutaneous fat by 1.2-, 1.7- and 5.6-fold relative to PA, PC, and CONC, respectively. Concentrations of the cis-9, trans-11 CLA isomer were 54, 58, and 208% greater (P < 0.01) for PO than for PA, PC, and CONC, respectively. Corn grain

  7. Voluntary feed intake, acid-base balance and partitioning of urinary nitrogen in lambs fed corn silage with added sodium bicarbonate or sodium sesquicarbonate.

    PubMed

    Phillip, L E; Hidalgo, V

    1989-08-01

    An experiment with growing lambs was designed to test the hypothesis that alterations in blood acid-base status would influence intake of corn silage. Six wethers (29 kg) were fed a diet of corn silage (36% DM, 8% CP) supplemented with 1.25% urea and .2% sulfur. At feeding time, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and sodium sesquicarbonate (NaSC) were added to the silage at levels of 0, 2% or 4% of diet DM. The treatments were arranged as a 2 x 3 factorial, and the study was conducted as a 6 x 4 incomplete latin square with four 17-d periods. Voluntary intake of OM was not different (P greater than .05) between NaHCO3 (1,008 g/d) and NaSC (1,041 g/d). There was no significant interaction between type of buffer (NaHCO3 or NaSC) and level of buffer on any of the variables measured. The progressive increase in buffer load did not alter feed intake (P greater than .05), although there was a quadratic response (P less than .05) in urine pH and a linear increase (P less than .01) in blood HCO3- 2 h after feeding. There was no evidence that lambs fed corn silage experienced metabolic acid stress. Urinary excretion of ammonia and urea were indicative of changes, although not pronounced, in ammoniuria and ureapoiesis in response to bicarbonate loading. This study implies that corn silage imposes no "acid stress" on lambs and, consequently, that there is no nutritional benefit in adding buffers to corn silage for sheep. PMID:2551870

  8. Red imported fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) control with a corn grit bait of fenoxycarb without soybean oil.

    PubMed

    Williams, D F; Banks, W A; Vander Meer, R K; Lofgren, C S

    1991-06-01

    The standard fenoxycarb fire ant bait formulation (Logic), composed of pregel defatted corn grits and soybean oil toxicant, was modified by eliminating the soybean oil. This formulation without soybean oil contained greater than 2 times more fenoxycarb and was as effective as the standard bait formulation against laboratory colonies of red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren. In field tests, the modified and standard baits were equally effective in controlling fire ants after 6, 12, and 18 wk. Individual worker ants obtained from plots treated with fenoxycarb baits without soybean oil had greater than 47 times less fenoxycarb than did workers from the plots treated with the standard fenoxycarb baits containing soybean oil. PMID:1885843

  9. Release properties on gelatin-gum arabic microcapsules containing camphor oil with added polystyrene.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Pong; Leung, Ting-Kai; Lin, Shang-Ming; Hsu, Che-Chang

    2006-07-01

    In this study, gelatin blended with arabic gum microcapsules containing camphor oil with added polystyrene were fabricated by a compound coacervation method. The parameters of oil/wall volume ratio, emulsification stirring speed, concentration of cross-linking agent, treated time and oil release properties were investigated. In order to improve the constant release effect of camphor oil, oil-soluble polystyrene (PS) was used as a sustained release agent. The camphor oil release curves were expressed by the exponential equation: psi(t)=C(eq)(1-e(-t/tau)), where psi(t) represent the variant of camphor oil concentration in the operation environment, C(eq) as the equilibrium state, t as the release time and tau as time constant. C(eq) and tau are significant factors pertaining to the camphor oil release properties. The results indicated that, for the microcapsules, the optimal oil/wall volume ratio was 0.75 to achieve the encapsulation efficiency of 99.6 wt.%. The average particle size were 294.7+/-14.2 microm, 167.2+/-11.2 microm, 85.7+/-8.7 microm at the homogenization stirring speed of 500, 1000, and 2000 rpm, respectively. The effect of sustained oil release will increase whereas the stirring speed decreases and the concentration of glutaraldehyde (GA) and treated time increases. Along with the increasing of quantity of polystyrene added, C(eq) decreased and tau increased, indicating that the sustained oil release amount and the release rate depend on the quantity of PS considerably. PMID:16797942

  10. Fabrication, stability and efficacy of dual-component antimicrobial nanoemulsions: essential oil (thyme oil) and cationic surfactant (lauric arginate).

    PubMed

    Chang, Yuhua; McLandsborough, Lynne; McClements, David Julian

    2015-04-01

    The influence of a cationic surfactant (lauric arginate, LAE) on the physical properties and antimicrobial efficacy of thyme oil nanoemulsions was investigated. Nanoemulsions prepared from pure thyme oil were highly unstable due to Ostwald ripening, but they could be stabilized by adding a ripening inhibitor (corn oil) to the oil phase prior to homogenisation. The loading capacity and antimicrobial efficacy of thyme oil nanoemulsions were significantly increased by adding LAE. In the absence of LAE, at least 60 wt% corn oil had to be added to the lipid phase to inhibit Ostwald ripening; but in the presence of 0.1 wt% LAE, only 30 wt% corn oil was needed. LAE addition substantially increased the antimicrobial efficacy of the thyme oil nanoemulsions: 200 μg/ml thyme oil was needed to inhibit growth of a spoilage yeast (Zygosaccharomyces bailii) if LAE was added, whereas ⩾ 400 μg/ml was needed in the absence of LAE. PMID:25442557

  11. Efficient and eco-friendly extraction of corn germ oil using aqueous ethanol solution assisted by steam explosion.

    PubMed

    Ni, Shuangshuang; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Yiqi; Gasmalla, Mohammed A A; Yang, Ruijin

    2016-04-01

    An improved aqueous extraction method has been established for extraction of oil from corn germs. This method primarily included steam explosion pretreatment and aqueous ethanol extraction. Process variables such as steam pressure, resident time, particle size and ethanol concentration were investigated. The highest yield of 93.74 % was obtained when ground steam-exploded corn germ (1.3 MPa, 30 s, 30-35 μm particle size) was treated with 30 % (v/v) aqueous ethanol for 2 h, at 60 °C and pH 9.0. The residual oil content in water and sediment phase decreased dramatically to 4 % and 3 %, respectively. The enhancement mechanism of the process induced by steam explosion was analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). The quality of extracted crude oil was also investigated. The results showed that the quality of extracted oil was superior to commercial oils. PMID:27413241

  12. Lipid digestibility and energy content of distillers' corn oil in swine and poultry.

    PubMed

    Kerr, B J; Dozier, W A; Shurson, G C

    2016-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the DE and ME and apparent total tract digestibility of ether extract of 3 distillers' corn oil (DCO; 4.9, 12.8, or 13.9% free fatty acids [FFA]) samplescompared with a sample of refined corn oil (CO; 0.04% FFA) and an industrially hydrolyzed high-FFA DCO (93.8% FFA) in young pigs and growing broilers. In Exp. 1, 54 barrows (initial age = 28 d) were fed a common diet for 7 d and then fed their allotted dietary treatment (either 100% basal diet or 1 of 5 test diets consisting of 90% basal diet plus 10% test lipid) for the next 7 d in group pens (9 pigs/pen). For the next 10 d, pigs were moved to individual metabolism crates for continued diet and crate adaptation and to a twice-daily feeding regimen. Pigs remained on their respective diets for a 4-d total fecal and urine collection period. For Exp. 2, 567 male broilers were obtained from a commercial hatchery (1 d of age) and reared in grower battery cages that contained 9 chicks per cage. Broilers were fed a common corn-soybean meal starter diet from placement until the beginning of the trial (19 d of age). Birds were then randomly assigned to 1 of 6 dietary treatments (94% basal diet plus 6% dextrose or 94% basal diet plus 6% test lipid substituted for dextrose) on d 19 and were allowed an 8-d dietary acclimation period followed by a 48-h energy balance assay. In Exp. 1, the DCO sample with 12.8% FFA contained the lowest ( < 0.05) DE (8,036 kcal/kg) content compared with the 0.04% refined CO sample and the 4.9 or 93.8% FFA DCO samples (8,814, 8,828, and 8,921 kcal/kg, respectively), with the DCO source containing 13.9% FFA having intermediate DE (8,465 kcal/kg) content. The ME content of these lipid sources also differed among treatments ( < 0.01), following trends similar to their DE values, with no differences noted for ME as a percentage of DE ( > 0.35) content among the lipids evaluated. In Exp. 2, lipids containing 0.04, 4.9, 12.8, and 13.9% FFA had similar nitrogen

  13. Quality improvement of pyrolysis oil from waste rubber by adding sawdust

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wen-liang; Chang, Jian-min; Cai, Li-ping; Shi, Sheldon Q.

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Rubber-pyrolysis oil is difficult to be fuel due to high proportion of PAHs. • The efficiency of pyrolysis was increased as the percentage of sawdust increased. • The adding of sawdust improved pyrolysis oil quality by reducing the PAHs content. • Adding sawdust reduced nitrogen/sulfur in oil and was easier to convert to diesel. - Abstract: This work was aimed at improving the pyrolysis oil quality of waste rubber by adding larch sawdust. Using a 1 kg/h stainless pyrolysis reactor, the contents of sawdust in rubber were gradually increased from 0%, 50%, 100% and 200% (wt%) during the pyrolysis process. Using a thermo-gravimetric (TG) analyzer coupled with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis of evolving products (TG–FTIR), the weight loss characteristics of the heat under different mixtures of sawdust/rubber were observed. Using the pyrolysis–gas chromatography (GC)–mass spectrometry (Py–GC/MS), the vapors from the pyrolysis processes were collected and the compositions of the vapors were examined. During the pyrolysis process, the recovery of the pyrolysis gas and its composition were measured in-situ at a reaction temperature of 450 °C and a retaining time of 1.2 s. The results indicated that the efficiency of pyrolysis was increased and the residual carbon was reduced as the percentage of sawdust increased. The adding of sawdust significantly improved the pyrolysis oil quality by reducing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrogen and sulfur compounds contents, resulting in an improvement in the combustion efficiency of the pyrolysis oil.

  14. A Simple and Effective Mass Spectrometric Approach to Identify the Adulteration of the Mediterranean Diet Component Extra-Virgin Olive Oil with Corn Oil

    PubMed Central

    Di Girolamo, Francesco; Masotti, Andrea; Lante, Isabella; Scapaticci, Margherita; Calvano, Cosima Damiana; Zambonin, Carlo; Muraca, Maurizio; Putignani, Lorenza

    2015-01-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) with its nutraceutical characteristics substantially contributes as a major nutrient to the health benefit of the Mediterranean diet. Unfortunately, the adulteration of EVOO with less expensive oils (e.g., peanut and corn oils), has become one of the biggest source of agricultural fraud in the European Union, with important health implications for consumers, mainly due to the introduction of seed oil-derived allergens causing, especially in children, severe food allergy phenomena. In this regard, revealing adulterations of EVOO is of fundamental importance for health care and prevention reasons, especially in children. To this aim, effective analytical methods to assess EVOO purity are necessary. Here, we propose a simple, rapid, robust and very sensitive method for non-specialized mass spectrometric laboratory, based on the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) coupled to unsupervised hierarchical clustering (UHC), principal component (PCA) and Pearson’s correlation analyses, to reveal corn oil (CO) adulterations in EVOO at very low levels (down to 0.5%). PMID:26340625

  15. A Simple and Effective Mass Spectrometric Approach to Identify the Adulteration of the Mediterranean Diet Component Extra-Virgin Olive Oil with Corn Oil.

    PubMed

    Di Girolamo, Francesco; Masotti, Andrea; Lante, Isabella; Scapaticci, Margherita; Calvano, Cosima Damiana; Zambonin, Carlo; Muraca, Maurizio; Putignani, Lorenza

    2015-01-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) with its nutraceutical characteristics substantially contributes as a major nutrient to the health benefit of the Mediterranean diet. Unfortunately, the adulteration of EVOO with less expensive oils (e.g., peanut and corn oils), has become one of the biggest source of agricultural fraud in the European Union, with important health implications for consumers, mainly due to the introduction of seed oil-derived allergens causing, especially in children, severe food allergy phenomena. In this regard, revealing adulterations of EVOO is of fundamental importance for health care and prevention reasons, especially in children. To this aim, effective analytical methods to assess EVOO purity are necessary. Here, we propose a simple, rapid, robust and very sensitive method for non-specialized mass spectrometric laboratory, based on the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) coupled to unsupervised hierarchical clustering (UHC), principal component (PCA) and Pearson's correlation analyses, to reveal corn oil (CO) adulterations in EVOO at very low levels (down to 0.5%). PMID:26340625

  16. Impact of synthetic antioxidants on lipid peroxidation of distiller's dried grains with solubles and distiller's corn oil stored under high temperature and humidity conditions.

    PubMed

    Hanson, A R; Urriola, P E; Johnston, L J; Shurson, G C

    2015-08-01

    This experiment evaluated the effect of antioxidants, oil content in distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS), quality of distiller's corn oil, and storage time on lipid peroxidation. A source of low-oil DDGS (LO-DDGS; 5.0% ether extract [EE], as-fed basis), high-oil DDGS (HO-DDGS; 13.0% EE, as-fed basis), and 2 sources of distiller's corn oil (DCO; 1.20, 0.08, and 0.48% moisture, insoluble impurities, and unsaponifiables [MIU], respectively [DCO-1], and 1.20, 0.01, and 0.10% MIU, respectively [DCO-2]) were obtained. Each of the 4 ingredients was divided into 18 representative subsamples (approximately 908 g for DDGS or 2 kg of DCO). Six subsamples of each ingredient were mixed with either no supplemental antioxidants (CON), Rendox-CQ (REN; 1,000 mg/kg EE; Kemin, Industries, Des Moines, IA), or Santoquin-Q4T (SAN; 1,500 mg/kg EE; Novus International, St. Louis, MO). Each mixture ( = 72) was split into thirds, and 1 portion was immediately frozen at -20°C (d 0). Two portions were stored under hot (38.6 ± 0.1°C) and humid conditions (94.0 ± 0.3% relative humidity) for 14 or 28 d. The MIXED procedure of SAS was used to evaluate the effects of ingredient, antioxidant, storage time, and interactions, with d-0 values used as a covariate. From d 14 to 28, peroxide value (PV), -anisidine value (AnV), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) of DCO and DDGS increased by 3- to 4-fold ( < 0.05). Over the entire storage period, PV of DCO-1 and HO-DDGS (12.3 ± 0.3 and 12.6 ± 0.3 mEq O/kg oil, respectively) exceeded ( < 0.05) that of DCO-2 and LO-DDGS (9.6 ± 0.3 and 9.3 ± 0.3 mEq O/kg oil, respectively). Adding REN or SAN ( < 0.05) reduced TBARS and AnV relative to CON (TBARS = 11.0 ± 0.2 mg malondialdehyde Eq/kg oil and AnV = 6.5 ± 0.2) over the entire period (mean of d 14 and 28), but TBARS and AnV did not differ ( > 0.05) between antioxidants (TBARS = 6.1 ± 0.2 and 5.9 ± 0.2 mg malondialdehyde Eq/kg oil, respectively, and AnV = 1.9 ± 0.2 and 1.8

  17. Evaluation of corn oil as an additive in the pre-enrichment step to increase recovery of Salmonella enterica from oregano.

    PubMed

    Jean-Gilles Beaubrun, Junia; Flamer, Marie-Laure; Addy, Nicole; Ewing, Laura; Gopinath, Gopal; Jarvis, Karen; Grim, Chris; Hanes, Darcy E

    2016-08-01

    Phenolic compounds associated with essential oils of spices and herbs possess a variety of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties that interfere with Salmonella detection from fresh and dried products. Finding a compound to neutralize the effect of these antimicrobial compounds, while allowing Salmonella growth during pre-enrichment, is a crucial step in both traditional pathogen isolation and molecular detection from these foods. This study evaluated the effectiveness of corn oil as a component of the pre-enrichment broth to counteract antimicrobial compounds properties and increase the recovery of Salmonella from spices. Oregano samples artificially contaminated with Salmonella enterica were pre-enriched in modified Buffered Peptone Water (mBPW) supplemented with and without 2% (vol/vol) corn oil respectively. Samples were incubated overnight at 37 °C. The results showed that recovery of Salmonella from oregano samples was increased by ≥50% when pre-enriched with corn oil. Serovars were confirmed using a PCR serotyping method. In addition, shot-gun metagenomics analyses demonstrated bacterial diversity and the effect of corn oil on the relative prevalence of Salmonella in the oregano samples. Modifying pre-enrichment broths with corn oil improved the detection and isolation of Salmonella from oregano, and may provide an alternative method for pathogen detection in dried food matrices such as spices. PMID:27052719

  18. Storage stability of sunflower oil with added natural antioxidant concentrate from sesame seed oil.

    PubMed

    Nasirullah; Latha, R Baby

    2009-01-01

    Demand for use of natural additives such as nutraceuticals, antioxidants, coloring and flavoring matter is continuously increasing world over. It is due to nutritional awareness among the masses and belief that most of the natural products are safe for human consumption. Interest has been shown recently on the use of natural antioxidants from oil seeds. Hence, oils obtained from sesame (Sesamum indicum) had been utilized for this purpose. Oils were thermally treated (T) to enhance the sesamol content from 4,900 to 9,500 ppm. A portion of resultant oil had been extracted with ethanol in a controlled conditions to yield a concentrate (ESSO-T) with sesamol content of 28,500 ppm. Whereas another portion after silica gel column separation yielded a concentrate (SSO-TFII) with sesamol content of 27,100 ppm. Refined sunflower oil without antioxidant was mixed with ESSO-T and SSO-TFII separately at the level of 2,000, 1,000, 500 and 200 ppm and its storage stability assessed was at ambient (22-28 degrees C) and elevated (37 degrees C) temperatures. Peroxide value (PV) and Free Fatty Acid content (FFA) of samples were estimated at intervals of 2 weeks for a total storage period of 12 weeks. Results indicated that ESSO-T at the level of 500 ppm had maximum protective effect on refined sunflower oil, where PV and FFA were found ranging between 2.1 to 5.9 and 0.10 to 0.15%; and 4.1 to 9.8 and 0.11 to 0.21% for samples stored at ambient and elevated conditions respectively. The storage stability of this sample was very close to the storage stability of sunflower oil containing TBHQ at 200 ppm. Comparatively in sunflower oil without antioxidant PV and FFA had gone up from 2.0 to 45.4 and 0.11 to 1.3% at ambient and 2.0 to 56.4 and 0.11 to 2.8% at elevated temperatures. PMID:19654454

  19. Magnetorheology of suspensions based on graphene oxide coated or added carbonyl iron microspheres and sunflower oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kaikai; Zhang, Wen Ling; Shan, Lei; Zhang, Xiangjun; Meng, Yonggang; Choi, Hyoung Jin; Tian, Yu

    2014-10-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) fluids based on carbonyl iron (CI) particles coated with graphene oxide (GO) and sunflower oils were studied and compared with MR fluids (MRFs) prepared with CI particles added with GO sheets. Adding GO sheets into CI had a negligible effect on the rheological properties of the MRF. Coating the spheres with GO markedly decreased the shear strength at high shear rates due to the remarkable lubricating function of the GO surface. Different behaviors were observed in the shear thickening phenomenon when the GO surface changed the mechanical interaction between particles. The results demonstrated the importance of the role of interparticle friction for MRF in shear mode and discussed the weak shear thickening phenomenon with fine lubricating coating layers and oils.

  20. Effects of Adding Corn Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles (DDGS) to the Dairy Cow Diet and Effects of Bedding in Dairy Cow Slurry on Fugitive Methane Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Massé, Daniel I.; Jarret, Guillaume; Benchaar, Chaouki; Hassanat, Fadi

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary The objectives of this experiment were to investigate the effects of adding corn DDGS to the dairy cow diet as well as the bedding types (wood shavings, straw or peat moss) on manure fugitive CH4 emissions. The incorporation of DDGS in the diet has increased manure methane emission by 15% and the use of peat moss as bedding has increased manure methane emission by 27%. Abstract The specific objectives of this experiment were to investigate the effects of adding 10% or 30% corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) to the dairy cow diet and the effects of bedding type (wood shavings, straw or peat moss) in dairy slurry on fugitive CH4 emissions. The addition of DDGS10 to the dairy cow diet significantly increased (29%) the daily amount of fat excreted in slurry compared to the control diet. The inclusion of DDGS30 in the diet increased the daily amounts of excreted DM, volatile solids (VS), fat, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and hemicellulose by 18%, 18%, 70%, 30%, 15% and 53%, respectively, compared to the control diet. During the storage experiment, daily fugitive CH4 emissions showed a significant increase of 15% (p < 0.05) for the slurry resulting from the corn DDGS30 diet. The addition of wood shavings and straw did not have a significant effect on daily fugitive CH4 emissions relative to the control diet, whereas the addition of peat moss caused a significant increase of 27% (p < 0.05) in fugitive CH4 emissions. PMID:26479012

  1. Effects of distillers' dried grains with solubles and soybean oil on dietary lipid, fiber, and amino acid digestibility in corn-based diets fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, N A; Serão, N V L; Patience, J F

    2016-04-01

    The use of corn coproducts increases the concentration of fiber and, often, the use of supplemental lipids in swine diets, which may affect energy and nutrient digestibility. An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of reduced-oil distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and soybean oil (SBO) on dietary AA, acid hydrolyzed ether extract (AEE), and NDF digestibility in corn-based diets fed to growing pigs. Eighteen growing pigs (33.8 ± 2.2 kg BW) were surgically fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and allocated to 1 of 6 dietary treatment groups in a 3-period incomplete Latin square design, with 9 observations per treatment. Six dietary treatments were obtained by adding 0, 20, and 40% DDGS to corn-casein diets formulated with 2 and 6% SBO. Ileal digesta and fecal samples were collected and the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of AEE and NDF and the AID of AA were determined. Apparent values were corrected for endogenous losses of lipids, and true ileal (TID) and true total tract digestibility (TTTD) values of lipids were calculated. Results showed that the AID of Lys decreased ( < 0.001) with the inclusion of DDGS but was not affected ( = 0.63) by the inclusion of SBO. An interaction between DDGS and SBO on the AID ( = 0.002) and ATTD ( = 0.009) of NDF was observed, where the AID and ATTD of NDF decreased with DDGS at 6% SBO but no effect was observed at 2% SBO. The AID of NDF increased with SBO at 0% DDGS, but no effect was observed at 20 or 40% DDGS. An interaction between DDGS and SBO on the AID ( = 0.011) and ATTD ( = 0.008) of AEE was observed, where the AID and ATTD of AEE increased with SBO. The AID and ATTD of AEE increased with DDGS at 2% SBO, but no effect was observed at 6% SBO. Correction by ileal and fecal endogenous loss of AEE (9.5 and 13.6 g/kg of DMI, respectively) showed that increasing dietary AEE had no effect on the TID and TTD of AEE ( > 0.05). In conclusion, the AID of

  2. Cholesterol Lowering Effect of Plant Stanol Ester Yoghurt Drinks with Added Camelina Oil

    PubMed Central

    Salo, Pia; Kuusisto, Päivi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of yoghurt minidrinks containing two doses of plant stanol ester either with or without added camelina oil on the serum cholesterol levels in moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. In this randomised, double-blind, parallel group study, 143 subjects consumed a 65 mL minidrink together with a meal daily for four weeks. The minidrink contained 1.6 or 2.0 grams of plant stanols with or without 2 grams of alpha-linolenic acid-rich camelina oil. The placebo minidrink did not contain plant stanols or camelina oil. All plant stanol treated groups showed statistically significant total, LDL, and non-HDL cholesterol lowering relative to baseline and relative to placebo. Compared to placebo, LDL cholesterol was lowered by 9.4% (p < 0.01) and 8.1% (p < 0.01) with 1.6 g and 2 g plant stanols, respectively. With addition of Camelina oil, 1.6 g plant stanols resulted in 11.0% (p < 0.01) and 2 g plant stanols in 8.4% (p < 0.01) reduction in LDL cholesterol compared to placebo. In conclusion, yoghurt minidrinks with plant stanol ester reduced serum LDL cholesterol significantly and addition of a small amount of camelina oil did not significantly enhance the cholesterol lowering effect. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02628990. PMID:26998355

  3. Cholesterol Lowering Effect of Plant Stanol Ester Yoghurt Drinks with Added Camelina Oil.

    PubMed

    Salo, Pia; Kuusisto, Päivi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of yoghurt minidrinks containing two doses of plant stanol ester either with or without added camelina oil on the serum cholesterol levels in moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. In this randomised, double-blind, parallel group study, 143 subjects consumed a 65 mL minidrink together with a meal daily for four weeks. The minidrink contained 1.6 or 2.0 grams of plant stanols with or without 2 grams of alpha-linolenic acid-rich camelina oil. The placebo minidrink did not contain plant stanols or camelina oil. All plant stanol treated groups showed statistically significant total, LDL, and non-HDL cholesterol lowering relative to baseline and relative to placebo. Compared to placebo, LDL cholesterol was lowered by 9.4% (p < 0.01) and 8.1% (p < 0.01) with 1.6 g and 2 g plant stanols, respectively. With addition of Camelina oil, 1.6 g plant stanols resulted in 11.0% (p < 0.01) and 2 g plant stanols in 8.4% (p < 0.01) reduction in LDL cholesterol compared to placebo. In conclusion, yoghurt minidrinks with plant stanol ester reduced serum LDL cholesterol significantly and addition of a small amount of camelina oil did not significantly enhance the cholesterol lowering effect. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02628990. PMID:26998355

  4. Antifungal activity by vapor contact of essential oils added to amaranth, chitosan, or starch edible films.

    PubMed

    Avila-Sosa, Raúl; Palou, Enrique; Jiménez Munguía, María Teresa; Nevárez-Moorillón, Guadalupe Virginia; Navarro Cruz, Addí Rhode; López-Malo, Aurelio

    2012-02-01

    Antimicrobial agents can be incorporated into edible films to provide microbiological stability, since films can be used as carriers of a variety of additives to extend product shelf life and reduce the risk of microbial growth on food surfaces. Addition of antimicrobial agents to edible films offers advantages such as the use of small antimicrobial concentrations and low diffusion rates. The aim of this study was to evaluate inhibition by vapor contact of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium digitatum by selected concentrations of Mexican oregano (Lippia berlandieri Schauer), cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) or lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oils (EOs) added to amaranth, chitosan, or starch edible films. Essential oils were characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. Amaranth, chitosan and starch edible films were formulated with essential oil concentrations of 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 2.00, or 4.00%. Antifungal activity was evaluated by determining the mold radial growth on agar media inoculated with A. niger and P. digitatum after exposure to vapors arising from essential oils added to amaranth, chitosan or starch films using the inverted lid technique. The modified Gompertz model adequately described mold growth curves (mean coefficient of determination 0.991 ± 0.05). Chitosan films exhibited better antifungal effectiveness (inhibition of A. niger with 0.25% of Mexican oregano and cinnamon EO; inhibition of P. digitatum with 0.50% EOs) than amaranth films (2.00 and 4.00% of cinnamon and Mexican oregano EO were needed to inhibit the studied molds, respectively). For chitosan and amaranth films a significant increase (p<0.05) of lag phase was observed among film concentrations while a significant decrease (p<0.05) of maximum specific growth was determined. Chitosan edible films incorporating Mexican oregano or cinnamon essential oil could improve the quality of foods by the action of the volatile compounds on surface growth

  5. Natural control of corn postharvest fungi Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium sp. using essential oils from plants grown in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Camiletti, Boris X; Asensio, Claudia M; Pecci, María de la Paz Giménez; Lucini, Enrique I

    2014-12-01

    The objective in this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oils from native and commercial aromatic plants grown in Argentina against corn postharvest fungi and to link the essential oil bioactivity with lipid oxidation and morphological changes in fungus cell membrane. Essential oil (EO) of oregano variety Mendocino (OMen), Cordobes (OCor), and Compacto (OCom), mint variety Inglesa (Mi), and Pehaujo (Mp), Suico (Sui); rosemary (Ro), and Aguaribay (Ag) were tested in vitro against 4 corn fungi: A. flavus (CCC116-83 and BXC01), P. oxalicum (083296), and P. minioluteum (BXC03). The minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined. The chemical profiles of the EOs were analyzed by GC-MS. Lipid oxidation in cell membrane of fungi was determined by hydroperoxides and related with essential oil antifungal activity. The major compounds were Thymol in OCor (18.66%), Omen (12.18%), and OCom (9.44%); menthol in Mi and Mp; verbenone in Sui; dehydroxy-isocalamendiol in Ag; and eucaliptol in Ro. OCor, Omen, and OCom showed the best antifungal activity. No antifungal activity was observed in Ag and Ro EO. The hydroperoxide value depended on the fungi (P < 0.001) and the antimicrobial agent (P < 0.001).Membrane lipids were oxidized by Sui EO in A. flavus BXC01 and A. flavus CCC116-83 (0.021 and 0.027 meqO2 /kg, respectively). The results suggest that the EOs of OCor, OMen, OCom, Mi, Mp, and Sui grown in Argentina can be used as natural alternatives to control fungi that produce mycotoxin in maize. PMID:25376651

  6. Quality improvement of pyrolysis oil from waste rubber by adding sawdust.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-liang; Chang, Jian-min; Cai, Li-ping; Shi, Sheldon Q

    2014-12-01

    This work was aimed at improving the pyrolysis oil quality of waste rubber by adding larch sawdust. Using a 1 kg/h stainless pyrolysis reactor, the contents of sawdust in rubber were gradually increased from 0%, 50%, 100% and 200% (wt%) during the pyrolysis process. Using a thermo-gravimetric (TG) analyzer coupled with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis of evolving products (TG-FTIR), the weight loss characteristics of the heat under different mixtures of sawdust/rubber were observed. Using the pyrolysis-gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS), the vapors from the pyrolysis processes were collected and the compositions of the vapors were examined. During the pyrolysis process, the recovery of the pyrolysis gas and its composition were measured in-situ at a reaction temperature of 450 °C and a retaining time of 1.2s. The results indicated that the efficiency of pyrolysis was increased and the residual carbon was reduced as the percentage of sawdust increased. The adding of sawdust significantly improved the pyrolysis oil quality by reducing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrogen and sulfur compounds contents, resulting in an improvement in the combustion efficiency of the pyrolysis oil. PMID:25223439

  7. The Role of Dietary Extra Virgin Olive Oil and Corn Oil on the Alteration of Epigenetic Patterns in the Rat DMBA-Induced Breast Cancer Model.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Miguel, Cristina; Moral, Raquel; Escrich, Raquel; Vela, Elena; Solanas, Montserrat; Escrich, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of epigenetic patterns is a major change occurring in all types of cancers. Such alterations are characterized by global DNA hypomethylation, gene-promoter hypermethylation and aberrant histone modifications, and may be modified by environment. Nutritional factors, and especially dietary lipids, have a role in the etiology of breast cancer. Thus, we aimed to analyze the influence of different high fat diets on DNA methylation and histone modifications in the rat dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced breast cancer model. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a low-fat, a high corn-oil or a high extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) diet from weaning or from induction with DMBA. In mammary glands and tumors we analyzed global and gene specific (RASSF1A, TIMP3) DNA methylation by LUMA and bisulfite pyrosequencing assays, respectively. We also determined gene expression and enzymatic activity of DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b) and evaluated changes in histone modifications (H3K4me2, H3K27me3, H4K20me3 and H4K16ac) by western-blot. Our results showed variations along time in the global DNA methylation of the mammary gland displaying decreases at puberty and with aging. The olive oil-enriched diet, on the one hand, increased the levels of global DNA methylation in mammary gland and tumor, and on the other, changed histone modifications patterns. The corn oil-enriched diet increased DNA methyltransferase activity in both tissues, resulting in an increase in the promoter methylation of the tumor suppressor genes RASSF1A and TIMP3. These results suggest a differential effect of the high fat diets on epigenetic patterns with a relevant role in the neoplastic transformation, which could be one of the mechanisms of their differential promoter effect, clearly stimulating for the high corn-oil diet and with a weaker influence for the high EVOO diet, on breast cancer progression. PMID:26401660

  8. The Role of Dietary Extra Virgin Olive Oil and Corn Oil on the Alteration of Epigenetic Patterns in the Rat DMBA-Induced Breast Cancer Model

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Miguel, Cristina; Moral, Raquel; Escrich, Raquel; Vela, Elena; Solanas, Montserrat; Escrich, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of epigenetic patterns is a major change occurring in all types of cancers. Such alterations are characterized by global DNA hypomethylation, gene-promoter hypermethylation and aberrant histone modifications, and may be modified by environment. Nutritional factors, and especially dietary lipids, have a role in the etiology of breast cancer. Thus, we aimed to analyze the influence of different high fat diets on DNA methylation and histone modifications in the rat dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced breast cancer model. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a low-fat, a high corn-oil or a high extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) diet from weaning or from induction with DMBA. In mammary glands and tumors we analyzed global and gene specific (RASSF1A, TIMP3) DNA methylation by LUMA and bisulfite pyrosequencing assays, respectively. We also determined gene expression and enzymatic activity of DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b) and evaluated changes in histone modifications (H3K4me2, H3K27me3, H4K20me3 and H4K16ac) by western-blot. Our results showed variations along time in the global DNA methylation of the mammary gland displaying decreases at puberty and with aging. The olive oil-enriched diet, on the one hand, increased the levels of global DNA methylation in mammary gland and tumor, and on the other, changed histone modifications patterns. The corn oil-enriched diet increased DNA methyltransferase activity in both tissues, resulting in an increase in the promoter methylation of the tumor suppressor genes RASSF1A and TIMP3. These results suggest a differential effect of the high fat diets on epigenetic patterns with a relevant role in the neoplastic transformation, which could be one of the mechanisms of their differential promoter effect, clearly stimulating for the high corn-oil diet and with a weaker influence for the high EVOO diet, on breast cancer progression. PMID:26401660

  9. Dust suppression in swine feed using soybean oil.

    PubMed

    Mankell, K O; Janni, K A; Walker, R D; Wilson, M E; Pettigrew, J E; Jacobson, L D; Wilcke, W F

    1995-04-01

    Dust generation from swine feed (corn-soybean meal diet) treated with soybean oil was investigated using a cement mixer in a plywood box. Airborne total dust concentrations in the box were measured gravimetrically using a vacuum pump and filters while 12-kg feed samples were constantly mixed. The treatment factors were soybean oil concentration (0, 1, and 3%), corn bulk density (normal, 730 kg/m3 and low, 600 kg/m3), time of oil addition (before vs after grinding the corn), and storage time (0, 7, and 14 d). The feed was a mixture of soybean meal, base mix, and adjusted amounts of ground corn and soybean oil. Adding soybean oil after grinding at 1 and 3% levels to feed made with normal-bulk density corn suppressed total dust generation (3.39 and .99 mg/m3, respectively) (P < .001) compared with the no oil treatment (29.1 mg/m3). The 3% soybean oil treatment suppressed dust generation (.99 mg/m3) more than the 1% soybean oil treatment (3.39 mg/m3) (P < .001). Adding soybean oil after grinding the corn suppressed dust generation more than adding the oil to the corn before grinding for every oil level (P < .001). More dust was generated by feed made from low-bulk density corn than by feed made with normal-bulk density corn at every oil level (P < .001). There was no evidence of any storage time or treatment x storage time interactions. PMID:7628976

  10. Effects of Adding Corn Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles (DDGS) to the Dairy Cow Diet and Effects of Bedding in Dairy Cow Slurry on Fugitive Methane Emissions.

    PubMed

    Massé, Daniel I; Jarret, Guillaume; Benchaar, Chaouki; Hassanat, Fadi

    2014-01-01

    The specific objectives of this experiment were to investigate the effects of adding 10% or 30% corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) to the dairy cow diet and the effects of bedding type (wood shavings, straw or peat moss) in dairy slurry on fugitive CH₄ emissions. The addition of DDGS10 to the dairy cow diet significantly increased (29%) the daily amount of fat excreted in slurry compared to the control diet. The inclusion of DDGS30 in the diet increased the daily amounts of excreted DM, volatile solids (VS), fat, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and hemicellulose by 18%, 18%, 70%, 30%, 15% and 53%, respectively, compared to the control diet. During the storage experiment, daily fugitive CH₄ emissions showed a significant increase of 15% (p < 0.05) for the slurry resulting from the corn DDGS30 diet. The addition of wood shavings and straw did not have a significant effect on daily fugitive CH₄ emissions relative to the control diet, whereas the addition of peat moss caused a significant increase of 27% (p < 0.05) in fugitive CH₄ emissions. PMID:26479012

  11. ADS support for Hardy Oil`s subsea projects: Simple and cost effective

    SciTech Connect

    Gorman, N.; McCullough, G.; Subik, D.

    1996-12-31

    The use of Atmospheric Diving Systems in support of the Shasta and Mustique Subsea Field Developments for Hardy Oil and Gas and Texaco is reviewed as a simple and cost-effective solution to the subsea intervention requirements of underwater completion tiebacks. The design and installation of the pull-tube system for dual flowlines and a control umbilical on Texaco`s Green Canyon 6A Platform is reviewed as an example of how Atmospheric Diving Systems can be utilized to perform the difficult subsea construction of a pull-tube system on an existing deepwater platform. The design and installation of the flexible flowline jumpers and umbilical flying leads connecting the three subsea trees to the flowline termination skids and the umbilical termination assemblies is reviewed as an example of how Atmospheric Diving Systems can be utilized to connect flowlines and control umbilicals to subsea trees with standard bolted flanged connections and flying leads using the well completion drill rig as a work platform.

  12. FRYING STABILITY OF PURIFIED MID-OLEIC SUNFLOWER OIL TRIACYLGLYCEROLS WITH ADDED PURE TOCOPHEROLS AND TOCOPHEROL MIXTURES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the effects of the addition of pure tocopherols to triacylglycerols, alpha, gamma, and delta tocopherols were added singly and in various combinations to stripped mid-oleic sunflower oil (SMOSUN). Tortilla chips were fried in the treated oils and then aged at ambient temperature to det...

  13. Corn oil or corn grain supplementation to steers grazing endophyte-free tall fescue. I. Effects on in vivo digestibility, performance, and carcass quality.

    PubMed

    Pavan, E; Duckett, S K

    2008-11-01

    Twenty-eight Angus (289 +/- 3.8 kg) steers were used in a completely randomized design to evaluate the effect of isocaloric supplementation of 2 different energy sources to steers rotationally grazing tall fescue pastures for 197 d in comparison to positive and negative controls. Steers were supplemented with either corn grain (0.52% BW on a DM basis; PC) or soybean hulls plus corn oil (0.45% BW on a DM basis + 0.10% BW on an as-fed basis; PO) using Calan gates for individual intake measurement. Negative, pasture only (PA), and positive, high-concentrate control diets (85% concentrate:15% roughage on DM basis; C) were also included in the study. Steers on PC, PO, and PA treatments were managed together under a rotational grazing system, whereas C steers were fed a high-concentrate diet for the final 113 d using Calan gates. Forage DMI and apparent DM and NDF digestibility for the grazing treatments were evaluated using Cr(2)O(5) and indigestible NDF as digesta markers. Energy supplementation decreased (P = 0.02) forage DMI (% of BW) with respect to PA, but not (P = 0.58) total DMI. There were no differences (P = 0.53) among grazing treatments on apparent total DM digestibility. However, NDF digestibility was less (P < or = 0.05) in PC than in PO and PA; the latter 2 treatments did not differ (P > 0.05). Overall ADG was greater (P < 0.01) in supplemented, regardless of type, than in nonsupplemented grazing treatments. During the final 113 d, ADG was greater (P < 0.01) in C than in the grazing treatments. Overall supplement conversion did not differ (P = 0.73) between supplement types and was less (P = 0.006) than C. Carcass traits did not differ (P > 0.05) between energy sources. Dressing percentage and HCW were greater (P < 0.01) in supplemented cattle than in PA. Fat thickness and KPH percentage for PA were less (P < 0.05) than for PO but did not differ (P > 0.14) from PC. Marbling score, LM area, and quality grade did not differ (P > 0.05) between grazing

  14. DIFFERING HEPATOTOXICITY AND LETHALITY AFTER SUBACUTE TRICHLOROETHYLENE EXPOSURE IN AQUEOUS OR CORN OIL GAVAGE VEHICLES IN B6C3F1 MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Subacute toxicity of trichloroethylene (TCE) was evaluated in male and female B6C3F1 mice using corn oil or aqueous gavage vehicles. Mice received oral doses of TCE five times a week for 4 weeks at 600, 1200 and 2400 mg/kg/day for males and 450, 900 and 1800 mg/kg/day for females...

  15. Location and Influence of Added Block Copolymers on the Droplet Size in Oil-in-Oil Emulsions.

    PubMed

    Asano, Itaru; So, Soonyong; Lodge, Timothy P

    2015-07-14

    We have investigated the effect of added polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (SO) copolymer on the stability of oil-in-oil (O/O) emulsions containing polystyrene (PS) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) in chloroform (CHCl3) and directly visualized the location of SO in the emulsions by using dye-labeled SO (SO*) with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The emulsion formed by PS/PEG/CHCl3 = 14/6/80 (wt %) consisted of a droplet phase of PS in CHCl3 and a continuous phase containing PEG in CHCl3. SO*s with various molecular weights (Mn,SO) and volume fractions of the PS block in SO (fPS) were prepared via living anionic polymerization and subsequent end-esterification. The effect of SO on the droplet size in the emulsions was investigated as a function of both Mn,SO and fPS. Increasing Mn,SO and decreasing fPS were effective at reducing the droplet size down to less than 1 μm, which is 100 times smaller than in the absence of SO. The location of SO*s in the O/O emulsions was further investigated by CLSM. We found that the location of SO*s changed from the droplet interior to the liquid-liquid interface and then to the continuous phase with decreasing fPS. We discuss the possible mechanism in terms of the relation of SO* location to the droplet size. PMID:26134549

  16. Impact of adding Saccharomyces strains on fermentation, aerobic stability, nutritive value, and select lactobacilli populations in corn silage.

    PubMed

    Duniere, L; Jin, L; Smiley, B; Qi, M; Rutherford, W; Wang, Y; McAllister, T

    2015-05-01

    Bacterial inoculants can improve the conservation and nutritional quality of silages. Inclusion of the yeast Saccharomyces in the diet of dairy cattle has also been reported to be beneficial. The present study assessed the ability of silage to be used as a means of delivering Saccharomyces strains to ruminants. Two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain 1 and 3)and 1 strain of Saccharomyces paradoxus (strain 2) were inoculated (10(3) cfu/g) individually onto corn forage that was ensiled in mini silos for 90 d. Fermentation characteristics, aerobic stability, and nutritive value of silages were determined and real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was used to quantify S. cerevisiae, S.paradoxus, total Saccharomyces, fungal, and bacterial populations. Fermentation characteristics of silage inoculated with S1 were similar to control silage. Although strain 3 inoculation increased ash and decreased OM contents of silage (P = 0.017), no differences were observed in nutrient composition or fermentation profiles after 90 d of ensiling. Inoculation with Saccharomyces had no detrimental effect on the aerobic stability of silage. In vitro DM disappearance, gas production, and microbial protein synthesis were not affected by yeast inoculation.Saccharomyces strain 1 was quantified throughout ensiling, whereas strain 2 was detected only immediately after inoculation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain 3 was quantified until d 7 and detectable 90 d after ensiling. All inoculants were detected and quantified during aerobic exposure. Inoculation with Saccharomyces did not alter lactobacilli populations. Saccharomycetales were detected by RT-qPCR throughout ensiling in all silages. Both S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus populations increased during aerobic exposure, demonstrating that the density of these yeast strains would increase between the time that silage was removed from storage and the time it was fed. PMID:26020328

  17. Fast microwave-assisted catalytic co-pyrolysis of corn stover and scum for bio-oil production with CaO and HZSM-5 as the catalyst.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shiyu; Xie, Qinglong; Zhang, Bo; Cheng, Yanling; Liu, Yuhuan; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated fast microwave-assisted catalytic co-pyrolysis of corn stover and scum for bio-oil production with CaO and HZSM-5 as the catalyst. Effects of reaction temperature, CaO/HZSM-5 ratio, and corn stover/scum ratio on co-pyrolysis product fractional yields and selectivity were investigated. Results showed that co-pyrolysis temperature was selected as 550°C, which provides the maximum bio-oil and aromatic yields. Mixed CaO and HZSM-5 catalyst with the weight ratio of 1:4 increased the aromatic yield to 35.77 wt.% of feedstock, which was 17% higher than that with HZSM-5 alone. Scum as the hydrogen donor, had a significant synergistic effect with corn stover to promote the production of bio-oil and aromatic hydrocarbons when the H/C(eff) value exceeded 1. The maximum yield of aromatic hydrocarbons (29.3 wt.%) were obtained when the optimal corn stover to scum ratio was 1:2. PMID:26773959

  18. Production of Lipase and Oxygenated Fatty Acids from Vegetable Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils such as soybean oil and corn oil are cheap raw materials. Various value-added oxygenated fatty acids have been produced from unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic and linoleic acid by biotransformation. Lipase from the non-pathogenic yeast Candida cylindracea is another important va...

  19. Corn oil supplementation to steers grazing endophyte-free tall fescue. I. Effects on in vivo digestibility, performance, and carcass traits.

    PubMed

    Pavan, E; Duckett, S K; Andrae, J G

    2007-05-01

    Eighteen Angus steers (438 +/- 4 kg of BW) were supplemented with varying levels of corn oil (0 g/kg of BW, none; 0.75 g/kg of BW, MED; or 1.5 g/kg of BW, HI) on rotationally stocked, endophyte-free tall fescue to determine the effect of supplemental oil level on in vivo digestibility, intake, performance, and carcass traits. Pelleted cottonseed hulls were used as a carrier for the oil supplements, and all supplements were offered to steers using Calan gate feeders for individual intake determination. On d 49, each steer was dosed with a controlled-release capsule containing chromium sesquioxide, and fecal samples were obtained 12 d later over a 7-d period to estimate fecal output that, with forage, supplement, and fecal indigestible NDF concentration, was used to estimate DMI and in vivo total diet digestibility. Steers were slaughtered at the end of the 116-d grazing period, and carcass data were collected at 24 h postmortem. Total fatty acid intake linearly increased with corn oil supplementation, and forage DMI, total DMI, and total DE intake were linearly decreased (P < 0.01). The decrease in total DMI was reflected in forage substitution rates greater (P < or = 0.01) than 1, with a trend (P = 0.09) for a greater substitution rate in HI than in MED. In vivo DM, OM, and NDF digestibility were linearly decreased (P < 0.01) by corn oil supplementation. Average daily gain and final BW tended (P = 0.09) to increase linearly in response to oil level. Oil conversion (0.36 kg of BW gain/kg of corn oil) was greater (P < or = 0.05) than zero and did not differ (P = 0.15) between MED and HI. Dressing percent (P = 0.09), carcass weight (P = 0.01), and carcass backfat thickness (P = 0.01) increased linearly with oil supplementation. No treatment effect was observed for carcass LM area, KPH percentage, marbling score, or yield grade (P > 0.10). Oil supplementation to grazing steers linearly reduced forage DMI intake; however, animal performance was maintained and tended to

  20. Synthesis and characterization of corn oil polyhydroxy fatty acids designed as additive agent for many applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Before the advent of the modern food industry, vegetable oils (triglycerides) from many sources had a long history of use as condiments in cooking, personal care and other therapeutic applications. Industrial applications of vegetable oils, on the other hand, have been limited on account of the shor...

  1. Evaluation of biosurfactants grown in corn oil by Rhodococcus rhodochrous on removing of heavy metal ion from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryanti, Venty; Hastuti, Sri; Pujiastuti, Dwi

    2016-02-01

    The potential application of biosurfactants to remove heavy metal ion from aqueous solution by batch technique was examined. The glycolipids type biosurfactants were grown in a media containing of 20% v/v corn oil with 7 days of fermentation by Rhodococcus rhodochrous. The biosurfactants reduced the surface tension of water of about 51% from 62 mN/m to 30 mN/m. The biosurfactant increased the E24 of water-palm oil emulsion of about 55% from 43% to 97% and could maintain this E24 value of above 50% for up to 9 days. Heavy metal ion removal, in this case cadmium ion, by crude and patially purified biosurfactants has been investigated from aqueous solution at pH 6. Adsorption capacity of Cd(II) ion by crude biosurfactant with 5 and 10 minutes of contact times were 1.74 and 1.82 mg/g, respectively. Additionally, the adsorption capacity of Cd(II) ion by partially purified biosurfactant with 5 and 10 minutes of contact times were 0.79 and 1.34 mg/g, respectively. The results demonstrated that the adsorption capacity of Cd(II) ion by crude biosurfactant was higher than that of by partially purified biosurfactant. The results suggested that the biosurfactant could be used in the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution.

  2. Chemometric analysis of comprehensive LC×LC-MS data: Resolution of triacylglycerol structural isomers in corn oil.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Reig, Meritxell; Jaumot, Joaquim; van Beek, Teris A; Vivó-Truyols, Gabriel; Tauler, Romà

    2016-11-01

    Comprehensive hyphenated two-dimensional liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC×LC-MS) is a very powerful analytical tool achieving high throughput resolution of highly complex natural samples. However, even using this approach there is still the possibility of not resolving some of the analytes of interest. For instance, triacylglycerols (TAGs) structural isomers in oil samples are extremely difficult to separate chromatographically due to their very similar structure and chemical properties. Traditional approaches based on current vendor chromatographic software cannot distinguish these isomers from their different mass spectral features. In this work, a chemometric approach is proposed to solve this problem. First, the experimental LC×LC-MS data structure is discussed, and results achieved by different methods based on the fulfilment of the trilinear model are compared. Then, the step-by-step resolution and identification of strongly coeluted compounds from different examples of triacylglycerols (TAGs) structural isomers in corn oil samples are described. As a conclusion, the separation power of two-dimensional chromatography can be significantly improved when it is combined with the multivariate curve resolution method. PMID:27591659

  3. Separation of Corn Fiber and Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals Phase II: Pilot-scale Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle; Orth, Rick; Zacher, Alan

    2007-09-28

    The purpose of the Department of Energy (DOE)-supported corn fiber conversion project, “Separation of Corn Fiber and Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals Phase II: Pilot-scale Operation” is to develop and demonstrate an integrated, economical process for the separation of corn fiber into its principal components to produce higher value-added fuel (ethanol and biodiesel), nutraceuticals (phytosterols), chemicals (polyols), and animal feed (corn fiber molasses). This project has successfully demonstrated the corn fiber conversion process on the pilot scale, and ensured that the process will integrate well into existing ADM corn wet-mills. This process involves hydrolyzing the corn fiber to solubilize 50% of the corn fiber as oligosaccharides and soluble protein. The solubilized fiber is removed and the remaining fiber residue is solvent extracted to remove the corn fiber oil, which contains valuable phytosterols. The extracted oil is refined to separate the phytosterols and the remaining oil is converted to biodiesel. The de-oiled fiber is enzymatically hydrolyzed and remixed with the soluble oligosaccharides in a fermentation vessel where it is fermented by a recombinant yeast, which is capable of fermenting the glucose and xylose to produce ethanol. The fermentation broth is distilled to remove the ethanol. The stillage is centrifuged to separate the yeast cell mass from the soluble components. The yeast cell mass is sold as a high-protein yeast cream and the remaining sugars in the stillage can be purified to produce a feedstock for catalytic conversion of the sugars to polyols (mainly ethylene glycol and propylene glycol) if desirable. The remaining materials from the purification step and any materials remaining after catalytic conversion are concentrated and sold as a corn fiber molasses. Additional high-value products are being investigated for the use of the corn fiber as a dietary fiber sources.

  4. Characterization and Functionality of Corn Germ Proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the functional properties of protein extracted from wet-milled corn germ and identify potential applications of the recovered protein. Corn germ comprises 12% of the total weight of normal dent corn and about 29% of the corn protein (moisture-free and oil- free ...

  5. Determination and prediction of energy values in corn distillers dried grains with solubles sources with varying oil content for growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, P; Li, D F; Zhang, H Y; Li, Z C; Zhao, P F; Zeng, Z K; Xu, X; Piao, X S

    2015-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the DE and ME content of 25 samples of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) fed to growing pigs and to generate prediction equations for DE and ME based on chemical analysis. The 25 samples included 15 full-oil (no oil extracted; ether extract [EE] > 8%) DDGS and 10 reduced-oil (oil extracted; EE < 8%) DDGS collected from 17 ethanol plants in China. A corn–soybean meal diet constituted the basal diet and the other 25 diets replaced a portion of the corn, soybean meal, and lysine of the basal diet with 28.8% of 1 of the 25 corn DDGS sources. Seventy-eight barrows (initial BW = 42.6 ± 6.2 kg) were used in the experiment conducted over 2 consecutive periods (n = 6 per treatment) using a completely randomized design. For each period, pigs were placed in metabolism cages for a 5-d total collection of feces and urine following a 7-d adaptation to the diets. Among the 25 corn DDGS samples, EE, NDF, DE, and ME content (DM basis) ranged from 2.8 to 14.2%, 31.0 to 46.6%, 3,255 to 4,103 kcal/kg, and 2,955 to 3,899 kcal/kg, respectively. Using a stepwise regression analysis, a series of DE and ME prediction equations were developed not only among all 25 DDGS but also only within 15 full-oil DDGS and 10 reduced-oil DDGS samples. The best fit equations of DE (kcal/kg DM) for the complete set of 25 DDGS, 15 full-oil DDGS, and 10 reduced-oil DDGS were 2,064 – (38.51 × % NDF) + (0.64 × % GE) – (39.70 × % ash), –(87.53 × % ADF) + (1.02 × % GE) – (22.99 × % hemicellulose), and 3,491 – (40.25 × % NDF) + (46.95 × % CP), respectively. The best fit equations for ME (kcal/kg DM) for the complete set of 25 DDGS, 15 full-oil DDGS, and 10 reduced-oil DDGS were 1,554 – (44.11 × % NDF) + (0.77 × % GE) – (68.51 × % ash), 7,898 – (42.08 × % NDF) – (136.17 × % ash) + (101.19 × % EE) (103.83 × % CP), and 4,066 – (46.30 × % NDF) + (45.80 × % CP) – (106.19 × % ash), respectively. Using the sum of squared

  6. DEVELOPMENTAL EFFECTS OF TRICHLOROACETONITRILE ADMINISTERED IN CORN OIL TO PREGNANT LONG-EVANS RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trichloroacetonitrile (TCAN) is a by-product of the chlorine disinfection of water containing natural organic material. When administered by gavage to pregnant Long-Evans rats in a medium-chain triglyceride vehicle, tricaprylin oil (Tricap), at a volume of 10 ml/kg, TCAN induced ...

  7. Preparation and Characterization of Paints and Coatings from Soy and Corn Oils

    SciTech Connect

    Larock, Richard C.

    2009-02-26

    This project was highly successful. A series of new waterborne polyurethane (PU)/acrylic hybrid latexes were successfully synthesized by the emulsion polymerization of acrylic monomers (butyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate) in the presence of a soybean oil-based waterborne PU dispersion using potassium persulfate as an initiator. The waterborne PU dispersion was synthesized by a polyaddition reaction of toluene 2,4-diisocyanate and a soybean oil-based polyol (SOL). The resulting hybrid latexes, containing 15-60 wt % SOL as a renewable resource, are very stable and exhibit uniform particle sizes of {approx}125 nm as determined by transmittance electronic microscopy. The structure, thermal, and mechanical properties of the resulting hybrid latex films have been investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, solid state {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy, dynamic mechanical analysis, extraction, and mechanical testing. Grafting copolymerization of the acrylic monomers onto the PU network occurs during the emulsion polymerization, leading to a significant increase in the thermal and mechanical properties of the resulting hybrid latexes. This work provides a new way of utilizing renewable resources to prepare environmentally friendly hybrid latexes with high performance for coating applications. In addition, a novel soybean oil-based vinyl-containing waterborne polyurethane (VPU) dispersion has been successfully synthesized from toluene 2,4-diisocyanate, dimethylol propionic acid and a 90:10 mixture of chlorinated soybean oil-based polyol and acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO). Then, a series of VPU/acrylic grafted latexes were prepared by emulsion graft copolymerization of acrylic monomers (40 wt% butyl acrylate and 60 wt% methyl methacrylate) in the presence of the VPU dispersion using potassium persulfate as an initiator. The structure, morphology, and thermal and mechanical properties of the resulting latexes, containing 15-60 wt% soybean oil-based polyols

  8. Fungal inactivation by Mexican oregano (Lippia berlandieri Schauer) essential oil added to amaranth, chitosan, or starch edible films.

    PubMed

    Avila-Sosa, Raúl; Hernández-Zamoran, Erika; López-Mendoza, Ingrid; Palou, Enrique; Jiménez Munguía, María Teresa; Nevárez-Moorillón, Guadalupe Virginia; López-Malo, Aurelio

    2010-04-01

    Edible films can incorporate antimicrobial agents to provide microbiological stability, since they can be used as carriers of a wide number of additives that can extend product shelf life and reduce the risk of pathogenic bacteria growth on food surfaces. Addition of antimicrobial agents to edible films offers advantages such as the use of low antimicrobial concentrations and low diffusion rates. The aim of this study was to evaluate inhibition of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium spp. by selected concentrations of Mexican oregano (Lippia berlandieri Schauer) essential oil added to amaranth, chitosan, or starch edible films. Oregano essential oil was characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. Amaranth, chitosan, and starch edible films were formulated with essential oil concentrations of 0%, 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%, 1%, 2%, and 4%. Mold radial growth was evaluated inoculating spores in 2 ways: edible films were placed over inoculated agar, Film/Inoculum mode (F/I), or the edible films were first placed in the agar and then films were inoculated, Inoculum/Film mode (I/F). The modified Gompertz model adequately described growth curves. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in growth parameters between the 2 modes of inoculation. Antifungal effectiveness of edible films was starch > chitosan > amaranth. In starch edible films, both studied molds were inhibited with 0.50% of essential oil. Edible films added with Mexican oregano essential oil could improve the quality of foods by controlling surface growth of molds. PMID:20492301

  9. Physical and nutritional properties of baby food containing added red salmon oil (Oncorhynchus nerka) and microencapsulated red salmon oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unpurified red salmon oil (UPSO) was purified (PSO) using chitosan. Both unpurified and purified oils were evaluated for peroxide value (PV), free fatty acids (FFA), fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), moisture, and color. An emulsion system containing PSO (EPSO) was prepared: system was analyzed for c...

  10. Effect of adding palm oil mill decanter cake slurry with regular turning operation on the composting process and quality of compost from oil palm empty fruit bunches.

    PubMed

    Yahya, Azmi; Sye, Chong Puay; Ishola, Tajudeen Abiodun; Suryanto, Hadi

    2010-11-01

    Formation of compost from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) and decanter cake slurry by adding palm oil mill effluent (POME) with regular turning operation was investigated. The experiment was conducted in a commercial composting plant under the normal production process. The addition of decanter cake slurry has hastened the composting process of the EFB. The C/N ratio after 51 days for the mature compost with the decanter cake slurry was 18.65 while that of the matured compost without the decanter cake slurry remained high at 28.96. The compost formed from the addition of decanter cake to EFB and POME had 46.4% nitrogen, 17.9% phosphorus, 17.7% potassium and 23.1% calcium more than that without decanter cake. The use of compost produced from EFB, POME and decanter cake slurry could solve more environmental problems and enhance economic benefits in the oil palm industry. PMID:20609579

  11. Catalytic modification of fats and oils to value-added biobased products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biobased materials derived from fats and oils can be relatively benign to the environment because they tend to have good biodegradability. Oils are used in a myriad of applications, including foods, cosmetics, paints, biodegradable lubricants and polymers, biodiesel, and more. For many of these ap...

  12. Effects of corn oil and benzyl acetate on number and size of azaserine-induced foci in the pancreas of LEW and F344 rats

    SciTech Connect

    Longnecker, D.S.; Roebuck, B.D.; Curphey, T.J.; Lhoste, E.; Coon, C.I.; MacMillan, D.

    1986-09-01

    The response of LEW and F344 strain rats to the pancreatic carcinogen azaserine was compared using the size and number of azaserine-induced acidophilic acinar cell foci and nodules as parameters in a 4-month experiment. A second experiment compared the effect of corn oil intake by gavage and dietary routes on the growth of azaserine-induced pancreatic lesions in LEW rats. A third experiment tested the activity of benzyl acetate in regard to its ability to induce acinar cell foci or to promote the growth of such foci in azaserine-treated rats. The results showed that equivalent doses of azaserine induce two to seven times more foci in LEW than in F344 rats, and that LEW rats have a higher incidence of spontaneous foci than F344 rats. Azaserine-treated LEW rats that were given 5 mL corn oil/kg body weight 5 days per week by gavage developed more acinar cell foci than rats fed a basal diet (chow). Addition of an equivalent amount of corn oil to chow had a similar effect of enhancing the development of foci. Rats of neither strain developed acinar cell foci when benzyl acetate was given by gavage or in the diet nor was there evidence that benzyl acetate has a significant effect on the development of foci in azaserine-treated rats. These studies also demonstrate that the azaserine/rat model of pancreatic carcinogenesis which was developed in LEW rats can be adapted for use with F344 rats.

  13. Effect of Different Inclusion Level of Condensed Distillers Solubles Ratios and Oil Content on Amino Acid Digestibility of Corn Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles in Growing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Li, P.; Xu, X.; Zhang, Q.; Liu, J. D.; Li, Q. Y.; Zhang, S.; Ma, X. K.; Piao, X. S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to determine and compare the digestibility of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in full-oil (no oil extracted) and de-oiled (oil extracted) corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with different condensed distillers solubles (CDS) ratios. Six barrows (29.6±2.3 kg) fitted with ileal T-cannula were allotted into a 6×6 Latin square design. Each period was comprised of a 5-d adaption period followed by a 2-d collection of ileal digesta. The five test diets contained 62% DDGS as the sole source of AA. A nitrogen-free diet was used to measure the basal endogenous losses of CP and AA. Chromic oxide (0.3%) was used as an index in each diet. The results showed that CP and AA were very similar in 5 DDGS, but the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of lysine (from 56.16% to 71.15%) and tryptophan (from 54.90% to 68.38%) had the lowest values and largest variation within the essential AA, which suggests reduced availability of AA and different levels of Maillard reactions in the five DDGS. The apparent ileal digestibility and SID of CP and most of AA in full-oil DDGS (sources 1 and 2) were greater (p<0.05) than de-oiled DDGS (sources 3, 4, and 5). Comparing the AA SID in the 5 DDGS, full-oil with low CDS ratio DDGS (source 1) had non-significantly higher values (p >0.05) than full-oil with high CDS ratio DDGS (source 2); however, the SID of most AA of de-oiled with low CDS ratios DDGS (source 3) were non-significantly lower (p>0.05) than de-oiled with high CDS ratio DDGS (source 4); and the de-oiled DDGS with middle CDS ratio (source 5) but with different drying processing had the lowest SID AA values. In conclusion, de-oiled DDGS had lower SID of CP and AA than full-oil DDGS; a higher CDS ratio tended to decrease the SID of AA in full-oil DDGS but not in de-oiled DDGS; and compared with CDS ratio, processing, especially drying, may have more of an effect on AA digestibility of DDGS. PMID:25557681

  14. Remedial processing of oil shale fly ash (OSFA) and its value-added conversion into glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhikun; Zhang, Lei; Li, Aimin

    2015-12-01

    Recently, various solid wastes such as sewage sludge, coal fly ash and slag have been recycled into various products such as sintered bricks, ceramics and cement concrete. Application of these recycling approaches is much better and greener than conventional landfills since it can solve the problems of storage of industrial wastes and reduce exploration of natural resources for construction materials to protect the environment. Therefore, in this study, an attempt was made to recycle oil shale fly ash (OSFA), a by-product obtained from the extracting of shale oil in the oil shale industry, into a value-added glass-ceramic material via melting and sintering method. The influence of basicity (CaO/SiO2 ratio) by adding calcium oxide on the performance of glass-ceramics was studied in terms of phase transformation, mechanical properties, chemical resistances and heavy metals leaching tests. Crystallization kinetics results showed that the increase of basicity reduced the activation energies of crystallization but did not change the crystallization mechanism. When increasing the basicity from 0.2 to 0.5, the densification of sintering body was enhanced due to the promotion of viscous flow of glass powders, and therefore the compression strength and bending strength of glass-ceramics were increased. Heavy metals leaching results indicated that the produced OSFA-based glass-ceramics could be taken as non-hazardous materials. The maximum mechanical properties of compression strength of 186 ± 3 MPa, bending strength of 78 ± 6 MPa, good chemical resistances and low heavy metals leaching concentrations showed that it could be used as a substitute material for construction applications. The proposed approach will be one of the potential sustainable solutions in reducing the storage of oil shale fly ash as well as converting it into a value-added product. PMID:26387050

  15. Antioxidant properties of chlorogenic acid and its alkyl esters in stripped corn oil in combination with phospholipids and/or water.

    PubMed

    Laguerre, Mickaël; Chen, Bingcan; Lecomte, Jérôme; Villeneuve, Pierre; McClements, D Julian; Decker, Eric A

    2011-09-28

    In bulk oil, it is generally thought that hydrophilic antioxidants are more active than lipophilic antioxidants. To test this hypothesis, the antioxidant activity of phenolics with increasing hydrophobicity was evaluated in stripped corn oil using both conjugated diene and hexanal measurements. Chlorogenic acid and its butyl, dodecyl, and hexadecyl esters were used as model phenolic antioxidants with various hydrophobicities. Results showed that hydrophobicity did not correlate well with antioxidant capacity. The combination of chlorogenic acid derivatives with dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) and/or water was also studied to determine if the physical structure in the oil affected antioxidant activity. DOPC alone made hexadecyl chlorogenate a less effective antioxidant, but it did not change the antioxidant capacity of chlorogenic acid. In contrast, the combination of DOPC and water (∼400 ppm) renders chlorogenic acid a less active antioxidant, whereas it does not change the activity of hexadecyl chlorogenate. These results show, in bulk oil, that intrinsic parameters such as the hydrophobicity of lipophilized phenolics do not exert a strong influence on antioxidant capacity, but they can be highly influential if potentialized by extrinsic factors such as physical structures in the oil. PMID:21851125

  16. Single cell oil production by Mortierella isabellina from steam exploded corn stover degraded by three-stage enzymatic hydrolysis in the context of on-site enzyme production.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hao; Zhao, Chen; Chen, Shaolin

    2016-09-01

    Single cell oil (SCO), promising as alternative oil source, was produced from steam exploded corn stover (SECS) by Mortierella isabellina. Different bioprocesses from SECS to SCO were compared and the bioprocess C using the three-stage enzymatic hydrolysis was found to be the most efficient one. The bioprocess C used the lowest enzyme input 20FPIU cellulase/g glucan and the shortest time 222h, but produced 44.94g dry cell biomass and 25.77g lipid from 327.63g dry SECS. It had the highest lipid content 57.34%, and its productivities and yields were much higher than those of the bioprocess B and comparable to the bioprocess A, indicating that the three-stage enzymatic hydrolysis could greatly improve the efficiency of the bioprocess from high solid loading SECS to SCO by Mortierella isabellina. This work testified the application value of three-stage enzymatic hydrolysis in lignocellulose-based bioprocesses. PMID:27343451

  17. Value-added utilization of oil palm ash: a superior recycling of the industrial agricultural waste.

    PubMed

    Foo, K Y; Hameed, B H

    2009-12-30

    Concern about environmental protection has increased over the years from a global viewpoint. To date, the infiltration of oil palm ash into the groundwater tables and aquifer systems which poses a potential risk and significant hazards towards the public health and ecosystems, remain an intricate challenge for the 21st century. With the revolution of biomass reutilization strategy, there has been a steadily growing interest in this research field. Confirming the assertion, this paper presents a state of art review of oil palm ash industry, its fundamental characteristics and environmental implications. Moreover, the key advance of its implementations, major challenges together with the future expectation are summarized and discussed. Conclusively, the expanding of oil palm ash in numerous field of application represents a plausible and powerful circumstance, for accruing the worldwide environmental benefit and shaping the national economy. PMID:19695771

  18. An added dimension: GC atmospheric pressure chemical ionization FTICR MS and the Athabasca oil sands.

    PubMed

    Barrow, Mark P; Peru, Kerry M; Headley, John V

    2014-08-19

    The Athabasca oil sands industry, an alternative source of petroleum, uses large quantities of water during processing of the oil sands. In keeping with Canadian environmental policy, the processed water cannot be released to natural waters and is thus retained on-site in large tailings ponds. There is an increasing need for further development of analytical methods for environmental monitoring. The following details the first example of the application of gas chromatography atmospheric pressure chemical ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (GC-APCI-FTICR MS) for the study of environmental samples from the Athabasca region of Canada. APCI offers the advantages of reduced fragmentation compared to other ionization methods and is also more amenable to compounds that are inaccessible by electrospray ionization. The combination of GC with ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry can improve the characterization of complex mixtures where components cannot be resolved by GC alone. This, in turn, affords the ability to monitor extracted ion chromatograms for components of the same nominal mass and isomers in the complex mixtures. The proof of concept work described here is based upon the characterization of one oil sands process water sample and two groundwater samples in the area of oil sands activity. Using the new method, the Ox and OxS compound classes predominated, with OxS classes being particularly relevant to the oil sands industry. The potential to resolve retention times for individual components within the complex mixture, highlighting contributions from isomers, and to characterize retention time profiles for homologous series is shown, in addition to the ability to follow profiles of double bond equivalents and carbon number for a compound class as a function of retention time. The method is shown to be well-suited for environmental forensics. PMID:25036898

  19. Changes in oil content, fatty acid composition, and functional lipid profiles during dry grind ethanol production from corn.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Demand for alternatives to fossil fuels has resulted in a dramatic increase in ethanol production from corn. The dry grind method has been the major process, resulting in a large volume of dried distiller grains with solubles (DDGS) as a co-product. This presentation reports our study to monitor ...

  20. MHD generator performance comparisons between coal + ash firing. [Coal versus fuel oil with ashes added

    SciTech Connect

    Petty, S.; Enos, G.; Kessler, R.; Swallom, D.

    1983-08-01

    A two-stage slagging coal combustor developed by TRW Corporation, was successfully integrated with an MHD generator developed by the Avco Corporation, when the two companies cooperated in an operational demonstration of a coal fired MHD power train under the sponsorship of DOE. The experimental components, rated at a nominal 20 MW thermal input, are the engineering prototypes of 50 MW /SUB th/ hardware to be supplied by the contractors to the recently commissioned Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF), a federal MHD test site in Butte, Montana. A second series of tests was conducted in which the same channel and operating parameters were employed with an oil-fired ash-injected combustor (AIC) to provide performance comparisons. The only significant performance variation uncovered in the comparison tests was attributable to a non-optimum method and location for seed injection in the coal-fired combustor. The corrective measures are deemed to be relatively straightforward.

  1. Enhancement of the Hepatotoxicity of chloroform in B6C3F1 mice by corn oil: implications for chloroform carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bull, R.J.; Brown, J.M.; Meierhenry, E.A.; Jorgenson, T.A.; Robinson, M.; Stober, J.A.

    1986-11-01

    A recent study of the ability of chloroform in drinking water to produce cancer reported that male Osborne-Mendel rats developed renal tumors, but that female B6C3F1 mice failed to develop hepatocellular carcinomas. The results obtained in the male Osborne-Mendel rats were comparable to those observed in an earlier study sponsored by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). On the other hand, the lack of an increased incidence of hepatocellular carcinomas in female B6C3F1 mice was in sharp contrast to previously reported results. The doses of chloroform used were comparable to that which produced an 85% incidence in the NCI study. The authors have investigated the extent to which the vehicle might be responsible for the different results in these two studies by examining the differential effects of chloroform when it was administered by gavage using corn oil versus a 2% Emulphor suspension as the vehicle. Male and female B6C3F1 mice were administered chloroform at 60, 130, and 270 mg/kg per day for 90 days. At sacrifice, body and organ weights were measured, and blood was recovered to perform the following serum chemistry measurements (in order of priority): glutamate oxalacetate transaminase (SGOT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and triglyceride (TG) levels. The liver was sectioned for histopathological examination. These data indicate that administration of chloroform by corn oil gavage results in more marked hepatotoxic effects than observed when it is provided in an aqueous suspension. A major difference between two recent carcinogenesis bioassays of chloroform in this same mouse strain was the vehicle used.

  2. Effects of adding bulking agent, inorganic nutrient and microbial inocula on biopile treatment for oil-field drilling waste.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jie; Yang, Yongqi; Dai, Xiaoli; Chen, Yetong; Deng, Hanmei; Zhou, Huijun; Guo, Shaohui; Yan, Guangxu

    2016-05-01

    Contamination from oil-field drilling waste is a worldwide environmental problem. This study investigated the performance of four bench-scale biopiles in treating drilling waste: 1) direct biopile (DW), 2) biopile plus oil-degrading microbial consortium (DW + M), 3) biopile plus microbial consortium and bulking agents (saw dust) (DW + M + BA), 4) biopile plus microbial consortium, bulking agents, and inorganic nutrients (Urea and K2HPO4) (DW + M + BA + N). Ninety days of biopiling removed 41.0%, 44.0%, 55.7% and 87.4% of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in the pile "DW", "DW + M", "DW + M + BA", and "DW + M + BA + N" respectively. Addition of inorganic nutrient and bulking agents resulted in a 56.9% and 26.6% increase in TPH removal efficiency respectively. In contrast, inoculation of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms only slightly enhanced the contaminant removal (increased 7.3%). The biopile with stronger contaminant removal also had higher pile temperature and lower pile pH (e.g., in "DW + M + BA + N"). GC-MS analysis shows that biopiling significantly reduced the total number of detected contaminants and changed the chemical composition. Overall, this study shows that biopiling is an effective remediation technology for drilling waste. Adding inorganic nutrients and bulking agents can significantly improve biopile performance while addition of microbial inocula had minimal positive impacts on contaminant removal. PMID:26891352

  3. Dietary supplementation of pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium protects against oxidative stress and liver damage in laying hens fed an oxidized sunflower oil-added diet.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Zhang, H J; Xu, L; Long, C; Samuel, K G; Yue, H Y; Sun, L L; Wu, S G; Qi, G H

    2016-07-01

    The protective effects of dietary pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium (PQQ.Na2) supplementation against oxidized sunflower oil-induced oxidative stress and liver injury in laying hens were examined. Three hundred and sixty 53-week-old Hy-Line Gray laying hens were randomly allocated into one of the five dietary treatments. The treatments included: (1) a diet containing 2% fresh sunflower oil; (2) a diet containing 2% thermally oxidized sunflower oil; (3) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 100 mg/kg of added vitamin E; (4) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 0.08 mg/kg of PQQ.Na2; and (5) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 0.12 mg/kg of PQQ.Na2. Birds fed the oxidized sunflower oil diet showed a lower feed intake compared to birds fed the fresh oil diet or oxidized oil diet supplemented with vitamin E (P=0.009). Exposure to oxidized sunflower oil increased plasma malondialdehyde (P<0.001), hepatic reactive oxygen species (P<0.05) and carbonyl group levels (P<0.001), but decreased plasma glutathione levels (P=0.006) in laying hens. These unfavorable changes induced by the oxidized sunflower oil diet were modulated by dietary vitamin E or PQQ.Na2 supplementation to levels comparable to the fresh oil group. Dietary supplementation with PQQ.Na2 or vitamin E increased the activities of total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in plasma and the liver, when compared with the oxidized sunflower oil group (P<0.05). PQQ.Na2 or vitamin E diminished the oxidized sunflower oil diet induced elevation of liver weight (P=0.026), liver to BW ratio (P=0.001) and plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase (P=0.001) and aspartate aminotransferase (P<0.001) and maintained these indices at the similar levels to the fresh oil diet. Furthermore, oxidized sunflower oil increased hepatic DNA tail length (P<0.05) and tail moment (P<0.05) compared with the fresh oil group. Dietary supplementation of PQQ.Na2 or vitamin E decreased the oxidized oil diet induced DNA tail length

  4. Value-added conversion of waste cooking oil and post-consumer PET bottles into biodiesel and polyurethane foams.

    PubMed

    Dang, Yu; Luo, Xiaolan; Wang, Feng; Li, Yebo

    2016-06-01

    A sustainable process of value-added utilization of wastes including waste cooking oil (WCO) and post-consumer PET bottles for the production of biodiesel and polyurethane (PU) foams was developed. WCO collected from campus cafeteria was firstly converted into biodiesel, which can be used as vehicle fuel. Then crude glycerol (CG), a byproduct of the above biodiesel process, was incorporated into the glycolysis process of post-consumer PET bottles collected from campus to produce polyols. Thirdly, PU foams were synthesized through the reaction of the above produced polyols with isocyanate in the presence of catalysts and other additives. The characterization of the produced biodiesel demonstrated that its properties meet the specification of biodiesel standard. The effect of crude glycerol loading on the properties of polyols and PU foams were investigated. All the polyols showed satisfactory properties for the production of rigid PU foams which had performance comparable to those of some petroleum-based analogs. A mass balance and a cost analysis for the conversion of WCO and waste PET into biodiesel and PU foams were also discussed. This study demonstrated the potential of WCO and PET waste for the production of value-added products. PMID:27055365

  5. Analysis of Trans Fat in Edible Oils with Cooking Process

    PubMed Central

    Song, Juhee; Park, Joohyeok; Jung, Jinyeong; Lee, Chankyu; Gim, Seo Yeoung; Ka, HyeJung; Yi, BoRa; Kim, Mi-Ja; Kim, Cho-il

    2015-01-01

    Trans fat is a unsaturated fatty acid with trans configuration and separated double bonds. Analytical methods have been introduced to analyze trans fat content in foods including infrared (IR) spectroscopy, gas chromatography (GC), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, reverses-phase silver ion high performance liquid chromatography, and silver nitrate thin layer chromatography. Currently, FT-IR spectroscopy and GC are mostly used methods. Trans fat content in 6 vegetable oils were analyzed and processing effects including baking, stir-frying, pan-frying, and frying on the formation of trans fat in corn oil was evaluated by GC. Among tested vegetable oils, corn oil has 0.25 g trans fat/100 g, whereas other oils including rapeseed, soybean, olive, perilla, and sesame oils did not have detectable amount of trans fat content. Among cooking methods, stir-frying increased trans fat in corn oil whereas baking, pan-frying, and frying procedures did not make changes in trans fat content compared to untreated corn oils. However, the trans fat content was so low and food label can be declared as ‘0’ trans based on the regulation of Ministry of Food ad Drug Safety (MFDS) (< 2 g/100 g edible oil). PMID:26483890

  6. Analysis of Trans Fat in Edible Oils with Cooking Process.

    PubMed

    Song, Juhee; Park, Joohyeok; Jung, Jinyeong; Lee, Chankyu; Gim, Seo Yeoung; Ka, HyeJung; Yi, BoRa; Kim, Mi-Ja; Kim, Cho-Il; Lee, JaeHwan

    2015-09-01

    Trans fat is a unsaturated fatty acid with trans configuration and separated double bonds. Analytical methods have been introduced to analyze trans fat content in foods including infrared (IR) spectroscopy, gas chromatography (GC), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, reverses-phase silver ion high performance liquid chromatography, and silver nitrate thin layer chromatography. Currently, FT-IR spectroscopy and GC are mostly used methods. Trans fat content in 6 vegetable oils were analyzed and processing effects including baking, stir-frying, pan-frying, and frying on the formation of trans fat in corn oil was evaluated by GC. Among tested vegetable oils, corn oil has 0.25 g trans fat/100 g, whereas other oils including rapeseed, soybean, olive, perilla, and sesame oils did not have detectable amount of trans fat content. Among cooking methods, stir-frying increased trans fat in corn oil whereas baking, pan-frying, and frying procedures did not make changes in trans fat content compared to untreated corn oils. However, the trans fat content was so low and food label can be declared as '0' trans based on the regulation of Ministry of Food ad Drug Safety (MFDS) (< 2 g/100 g edible oil). PMID:26483890

  7. Corn Insect Pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historically, the major corn insect pests have been corn rootworms (northern and western), European corn borer, and black cutworm. Bt-corn hybrids are effective against most of these pests. However, Bt-corn hybrids are not effective against corn leaf aphid, corn root aphid, sap beetles, corn rootwor...

  8. Corn transformed

    SciTech Connect

    Moffat, A.S.

    1990-08-10

    Researchers have produced fertile corn transformed with a foreign gene that makes the plants resistant to the herbicide bialaphos. This achievement, is the first report of fertile transgenic corn in the reviewed literature, and it is the capstone of almost a decade's efforts to genetically engineer this country's most important crop. The only other major crop to be so manipulated is rice. The ability produce transgenic corn gives biologists a valuable tool to probe the whys and hows of gene expression and regulation. It may also give plant breeders a way to develop new corn varieties with a speed and predictability that would be impossible with classical breeding techniques.

  9. Effect of co-products of enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction of soybeans on ethanol production in dry-grind corn fermentation.

    PubMed

    Sekhon, Jasreen K; Jung, Stephanie; Wang, Tong; Rosentrater, Kurt A; Johnson, Lawrence A

    2015-09-01

    Enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction processing (EAEP) is an environmentally-friendly alternative to solvent and mechanical oil extraction methods, and can achieve ∼ 97% oil recovery from soybeans. The present study utilized soy skim (protein rich) and insoluble fiber (IF; carbohydrate rich), both co-products of EAEP, in dry-grind corn fermentation. The effects of adding soy skim and untreated IF (UIF), either separately or together, and adding pretreated IF (TIF), on ethanol production were investigated. Maximum ethanol production was achieved when UIF and skim were slurried together (corn-to-UIF ratio 1:0.16; skim-to-UIF ratio 6.5:1) and when fiber-hydrolyzing enzymes were added to corn fermentation. This modification to corn fermentation increased ethanol yield by 20%, ethanol production rate by 3%, and decreased fermentation time by 38 h compared to corn-only fermentation. An attempt was also made to utilize pentoses (from soy skim and IF) in integrated corn-soy fermentation slurry by an additional Escherichia coli KO11 fermentation step. PMID:26080102

  10. Effects of reduced-oil corn distillers dried grains with solubles composition on digestible and metabolizable energy value and prediction in growing pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the DE and ME content of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (corn-DDGS) containing variable ether extract (EE) concentrations and to develop DE and ME prediction equations based on nutritional measurements. Ether extract content of corn-DDGS ranged...

  11. Effects of Adding Essential Oil to the Diet of Weaned Pigs on Performance, Nutrient Utilization, Immune Response and Intestinal Health

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pengfei; Piao, Xiangshu; Ru, Yingjun; Han, Xu; Xue, Lingfeng; Zhang, Hongyu

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding essential oils to the diet of weaned pigs on performance, nutrient utilization, immune response and intestinal health. A total of 96 weaning pigs (8.37±1.58 kg) were allotted to one of three dietary treatments. The treatments consisted of an unsupplemented basal diet (negative control, NC) or similar diets supplemented with 0.01% of an essential oil product which contained 18% thymol and cinnamaldehyde (EOD) as well as a diet supplemented with 0.19% of an antibiotic mixture which provided 150 ppm chlortetracycline, 80 ppm colistin sulfate and 50 ppm kitasamycin (positive control, PC). Each treatment was provided to eight pens of pigs with four pigs per pen. Over the entire 35 d experiment, ADG and fecal score were improved (p<0.05) for pigs fed the PC and EOD compared with the NC. Dry matter and crude protein digestibility as well as lymphocyte proliferation for pigs fed the PC and EOD diets were increased significantly compared with NC (p<0.05). IGF-I levels in plasma were significantly increased (p<0.05) in pigs fed the PC diet compared with pigs fed the NC diet. Interleukin-6 concentration was lower (p<0.05) and the tumor necrosis factor-α level was higher (p<0.05) in the plasma of pigs fed the EOD diet than the NC diet. Plasma total antioxidant capacity level increased (p<0.05) in pigs fed the EOD diet compared with pigs fed the NC. Villus height to crypt depth ratio in the jejunum was greater (p<0.05) in pigs fed the PC and EOD diets than the NC. The numbers of E. coli in the cecum, colon and rectum were reduced (p<0.05) in pigs fed the PC and EOD diets compared with the control. In the colon, the ratio of Lactobacilli to E. coli was increased (p<0.05) in pigs fed the EOD diet compared with NC diet. Total aerobe numbers in the rectum were decreased (p<0.05) in pigs fed the PC and EOD diets compared with the control. Collectively, these results indicate that blends of essential oils could be a

  12. A possible mechanism of metabolic regulation in Gibberella fujikuroi using a mixed carbon source of glucose and corn oil inferred from analysis of the kinetics data obtained in a stirrer tank bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Rios-Iribe, Erika Y; Hernández-Calderón, Oscar M; Reyes-Moreno, C; Contreras-Andrade, I; Flores-Cotera, Luis B; Escamilla-Silva, Eleazar M

    2013-01-01

    A nonstructured model was used to study the dynamics of gibberellic acid production in a stirred tank bioreactor. Experimental data were obtained from submerged batch cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi (CDBB H-984) grown in varying ratios of glucose-corn oil as the carbon source. The nitrogen depletion effect was included in mathematical model by considering the specific kinetic constants as a linear function of the normalized nitrogen consumption rate. The kinetics of biomass growth and consumption of phosphate and nitrogen were based on the logistic model. The traditional first-order kinetic model was used to describe the specific consumption of glucose and corn oil. The nitrogen effect was solely included in the phosphate and corn oil consumption and biomass growth. The model fit was satisfactory, revealing the dependence of the kinetics with respect to the nitrogen assimilation rate. Through simulations, it was possible to make diagrams of specific growth rate and specific rate of substrate consumptions, which was a powerful tool for understanding the metabolic interactions that occurred during the various stages of fermentation process. This kinetic analysis provided the proposal of a possible mechanism of regulation on growth, substrate consumptions, and production of gibberellic acid (GA3 ) in G. fujikuroi. PMID:23825106

  13. Linseed oil supplementation to dairy cows fed diets based on red clover silage or corn silage: Effects on methane production, rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, N balance, and milk production.

    PubMed

    Benchaar, C; Hassanat, F; Martineau, R; Gervais, R

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of linseed oil (LO) supplementation to red clover silage (RCS)- or corn silage (CS)-based diets on enteric CH4 emissions, ruminal fermentation characteristics, nutrient digestibility, N balance, and milk production. Twelve rumen-cannulated lactating cows were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design (35-d periods) with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Cows were fed (ad libitum) RCS- or CS-based diets [forage:concentrate ratio 60:40; dry matter (DM) basis] without or with LO (4% of DM). Supplementation of LO to the RCS-based diet reduced enteric CH4 production (-9%) and CH4 energy losses (-11%) with no adverse effects on DM intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, protozoa numbers, or milk production. The addition of LO to the CS-based diet caused a greater decrease in CH4 production (-26%) and CH4 energy losses (-23%) but was associated with a reduction in DM intake, total-tract fiber digestibility, protozoa numbers, acetate:propionate ratio, and energy-corrected milk yield. Urinary N excretion (g/d) decreased with LO supplementation to RCS- and CS-based diets, suggesting reduced potential of N2O emissions. Results from this study show that the depressive effect of LO supplementation on enteric CH4 production is more pronounced with the CS- than with the RCS-based diet. However, because of reduced digestibility with the CS-based diet, the reduction in enteric CH4 production may be offset by higher CH4 emissions from manure storage. Thus, the type of forage of the basal diet should be taken into consideration when using fat supplementation as a dietary strategy to reduce enteric CH4 production from dairy cows. PMID:26298755

  14. The ectopic expression of the wheat puroindoline genes increase germ size and seed oil content in transgenic corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant oil content and composition improvement is a major goal of plant breeding and biotechnology. The Puroindoline a and b (PINA and PINB) proteins together control whether wheat seeds are soft or hard textured and share a similar structure to that of plant non-specific lipid-transfer proteins. Her...

  15. Evaluation of corn germ meal as extender in plywood adhesive

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of corn germ meal as protein extender in plywood adhesive. Partially defatted dried corn germ, containing 2.1% (dry basis, db) crude oil and 24.7% (db) crude protein, was ground to 40-mesh particle size. The corn germ meal was then substituted (on...

  16. Corn oil supplementation to steers grazing endophyte-free tall fescue. II. Effects on longissimus muscle and subcutaneous adipose fatty acid composition and stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity and expression.

    PubMed

    Pavan, E; Duckett, S K

    2007-07-01

    Eighteen steers were used to evaluate the effect of supplemental corn oil level to steers grazing endophyte-free tall fescue on fatty acid composition of LM, stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD) activity and expression as well as cellularity in s.c. adipose. Corn oil was supplemented (g/kg of BW) at 0 (none), 0.75 (medium), and 1.5 (high). Cottonseed hulls were used as a carrier for the corn oil and were supplemented according to pasture availability (0.7 to 1% of BW). Steers were finished on a rotationally grazed, tall fescue pasture for 116 d. Fatty acid composition of LM, s.c. adipose, and diet was determined by GLC. Total linoleic acid intake increased linearly (P < 0.01) with corn oil supplementation (90.7, 265.1, and 406.7 g in none, medium, and high, respectively). Oil supplementation linearly reduced (P < 0.05) myristic, palmitic, and linolenic acid percentage in LM and s.c. adipose. Vaccenic acid (C18:1 t11; VA) percentage was 46 and 32% greater (linear, P = 0.02; quadratic, P = 0.01) for medium and high, respectively, than none, regardless of tissue. Effect of oil supplementation on CLA cis-9, trans-11 was affected by type of adipose tissue (P < 0.01). In the LM, CLA cis-9, trans-11 isomer was 25% greater for medium than for none and intermediate for high, whereas CLA cis-9, trans-11 CLA isomer was 48 and 33% greater in s.c. adipose tissue for medium and high than for none, respectively. Corn oil linearly increased (P Oil supplementation did not change (P > 0.05) the percentage of total SFA, MUFA, or PUFA but linearly increased (P = 0.03) n-6:n-3 ratio from 2.4 to 2.9 in none and high, respectively. Among tissues, total SFA and MUFA were greater in s.c. adipose than LM, whereas total PUFA, n-6, and n-3 fatty acids and the n-6:n-3 ratio were lower. Trans-10 octadecenoic acid, VA, and CLA trans-10, cis-12 were greater (P

  17. Effect of pectins on the mass transfer kinetics of monosaccharides, amino acids, and a corn oil-in-water emulsion in a Franz diffusion cell.

    PubMed

    Espinal-Ruiz, Mauricio; Restrepo-Sánchez, Luz-Patricia; Narváez-Cuenca, Carlos-Eduardo

    2016-10-15

    The effect of high (HMP) and low (LMP) methoxylated pectins (2%w/w) on the rate and extent of the mass transfer of monosaccharides, amino acids, and a corn oil-in-water emulsion across a cellulose membrane was evaluated. A sigmoidal response kinetic analysis was used to calculate both the diffusion coefficients (rate) and the amount of nutrients transferred through the membrane (extent). In all cases, except for lysine, HMP was more effective than LMP in inhibiting both the rate and extent of the mass transfer of nutrients through the membrane. LMP and HMP, e.g., reduced 1.3 and 3.0times, respectively, the mass transfer rate of glucose, as compared to control (containing no pectin), and 1.3 and 1.5times, respectively, the amount of glucose transferred through the membrane. Viscosity, molecular interactions, and flocculation were the most important parameters controlling the mass transfer of electrically neutral nutrients, electrically charged nutrients, and emulsified lipids, respectively. PMID:27173546

  18. Blisters, Calluses, and Corns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes Blisters, Calluses, and Corns KidsHealth > For Kids > Blisters, Calluses, and Corns Print ... used to all of that stress. What's a Corn? Like calluses, corns are also areas of hard, ...

  19. Corns and calluses

    MedlinePlus

    Calluses and corns ... Corns and calluses are caused by pressure or friction on skin. A corn is thickened skin on the top or side ... the bunion because it rubs against the shoe. Corns and calluses are not serious problems.

  20. Integrated Corn-Based Bio-Refinery

    SciTech Connect

    2006-04-01

    The Integrated Corn-Based Bio-Refinery (ICBR) process will use new technology to convert corn grain and stover into fermentable sugars for the parallel production of value-added chemicals such as 1,3-propanediol (PDO) and fuel ethanol.

  1. Production of ethanol and furfural from corn stover

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn stover has potential for economical production of biofuels and value-added chemicals. The conversion of corn stover to sugars involves pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. We have optimized hydrothermal, dilute H2SO4 and dilute H3PO4 pretreatments of corn stover for enzymatic saccharificati...

  2. Biorefining of by-product streams from sunflower-based biodiesel production plants for integrated synthesis of microbial oil and value-added co-products.

    PubMed

    Leiva-Candia, D E; Tsakona, S; Kopsahelis, N; García, I L; Papanikolaou, S; Dorado, M P; Koutinas, A A

    2015-08-01

    This study focuses on the valorisation of crude glycerol and sunflower meal (SFM) from conventional biodiesel production plants for the separation of value-added co-products (antioxidant-rich extracts and protein isolate) and for enhancing biodiesel production through microbial oil synthesis. Microbial oil production was evaluated using three oleaginous yeast strains (Rhodosporidium toruloides, Lipomyces starkeyi and Cryptococcus curvatus) cultivated on crude glycerol and nutrient-rich hydrolysates derived from either whole SFM or SFM fractions that remained after separation of value-added co-products. Fed-batch bioreactor cultures with R. toruloides led to the production of 37.4gL(-1) of total dry weight with a microbial oil content of 51.3% (ww(-1)) when a biorefinery concept based on SFM fractionation was employed. The estimated biodiesel properties conformed with the limits set by the EN 14214 and ASTM D 6751 standards. The estimated cold filter plugging point (7.3-8.6°C) of the lipids produced by R. toruloides is closer to that of biodiesel derived from palm oil. PMID:25930941

  3. Analysis of volatiles in porcine liver pâtés with added sage and rosemary essential oils by using SPME-GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Estévez, Mario; Ventanas, Sonia; Ramírez, Rosario; Cava, Ramón

    2004-08-11

    The effect of the addition of two natural antioxidant extracts (sage and rosemary essential oils) and one synthetic (BHT) on the generation of volatile compounds in liver pâtés from Iberian and white pigs was analyzed using SPME-GC-MS. Lipid-derived volatiles such as aldehydes [hexanal, octanal, nonanal, hept-(Z)-4-enal, oct-(E)-2-enal, non-(Z)-2-enal, dec-(E)-2-enal, deca-(E,Z)-2,4-dienal] and alcohols (pentan-1-ol, hexan-1-ol, oct-1-en-3-ol) were the most abundant compounds in the headspace of porcine liver pâtés. Pâtés from different pig breeds presented different volatiles profiles due to their different oxidation susceptibilities as a probable result of their fatty acid profiles and vitamin E content. Regardless of the origin of the pâtés, the addition of BHT successfully reduced the amount of volatiles derived from PUFA oxidation. Added essential oils showed a different effect on the generation of volatiles whether they were added in pâtés from Iberian or white pigs because they inhibited lipid oxidation in the former and enhanced oxidative instability in the latter. SPME successfully allowed the isolation and analysis of 41 volatile terpenes from pâtés with added sage and rosemary essential oils including alpha-pinene, beta-myrcene, 1-limonene, (E)-caryophyllene, linalool, camphor, and 1,8-cineole, which might contribute to the aroma characteristics of liver pâtés. PMID:15291492

  4. Isolation of corn semiochemicals attractive and repellent to western corn rootworm larvae.

    PubMed

    Hibbard, B E; Bjostad, L B

    1990-12-01

    Dichloromethane extracts of germinating corn are significantly attractive to western corn rootworm larvae in choice tests with equal levels of carbon dioxide present on both sides of the choice. Two fractions that are significantly attractive and two fractions that are significantly repellent to larvae were isolated from these extracts of germinating corn by gas chromatography and silica gel chromatography. In a separate set of experiments, Porapak N was used to collect headspace volatiles from germinating corn; significantly more larvae were attracted to aliquots of these extracts in singlechoice tests without added carbon dioxide present than to solvent controls. PMID:24263439

  5. Effects of reduced-oil corn distillers dried grains with solubles composition on digestible and metabolizable energy value and prediction in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Kerr, B J; Dozier, W A; Shurson, G C

    2013-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the DE and ME content of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (corn-DDGS) containing variable ether extract (EE) concentrations and to develop DE and ME prediction equations based on chemical composition. Ether extract content of corn-DDGS ranged from 4.88 to 10.88% (DM basis) among 4 corn-DDGS samples in Exp. 1 and from 8.56 to 13.23% (DM basis) among 11 corn-DDGS samples in Exp. 2. The difference in concentration of total dietary fiber (TDF) and NDF among the 4 corn-DDGS sources was 2.25 and 3.40 percentage units, respectively, in Exp. 1 but was greater among the 11 corn-DDGS sources evaluated in Exp. 2, where they differed by 6.46 and 15.18 percentage units, respectively. The range in CP and ash were from 28.97 to 31.19% and 5.37 to 6.14%, respectively, in Exp. 1 and from 27.69 to 32.93% and 4.32 to 5.31%, respectively, in Exp. 2. Gross energy content among corn-DDGS samples varied from 4,780 to 5,113 kcal/kg DM in Exp. 1 and from 4,897 to 5,167 kcal/kg DM in Exp. 2. In Exp. 1, the range in DE content was from 3,500 to 3,870 kcal/kg DM and ME content varied from 3,266 to 3,696 kcal/kg DM. There were no differences in ME:DE content among the 4 corn-DDGS sources in Exp. 1, but ME:GE content differed (P = 0.04) among sources (66.82 to 74.56%). In Exp. 2, the range in DE content among the 11 corn-DDGS sources was from 3,474 to 3,807 kcal/kg DM and ME content varied from 3,277 to 3,603 kcal/kg DM. However, there were no differences in DE:GE, ME:DE, or ME:GE among sources in Exp. 2. In Exp. 1, no ingredient physical or chemical measurement [bulk density (BD), particle size, GE, CP, starch, TDF, NDF, ADF, hemicellulose, EE, or ash)] was statistically significant at P ≤ 0.15 to predict DE or ME content in corn-DDGS. In Exp. 2, the best fit DE equation was DE (kcal/kg DM) = 1,601 - (54.48 × % TDF) + (0.69 × % GE) + (731.5 × BD) [R(2) = 0.91, SE = 41.25]. The best fit ME equation was ME (kcal/kg DM) = 4,558 + (52.26

  6. Corn oil versus lard: Metabolic effects of omega-3 fatty acids in mice fed obesogenic diets with different fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Pavlisova, Jana; Bardova, Kristina; Stankova, Barbora; Tvrzicka, Eva; Kopecky, Jan; Rossmeisl, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Mixed results have been obtained regarding the level of insulin resistance induced by high-fat diets rich in saturated fatty acids (SFA) when compared to those enriched by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and how metabolic effects of marine PUFA of n-3 series, i.e. docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), depend on dietary lipid background. Here we compared two high-fat diets, in which the major lipid constituent was based either on SFA in the form of pork lard (LHF diet) or PUFA of n-6 series (Omega-6) as corn oil (cHF diet). Both cHF and LHF parental diets were also supplemented with EPA+DHA (∼30 g/kg diet) to produce cHF+F and LHF+F diet, respectively. Male C57BL/6N mice were fed the experimental diets for 8 weeks. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps in mice fed LHF and cHF diets, and then metabolic effects of cHF+F and LHF+F diets were assessed focusing on the liver and epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT). Both LHF and cHF induced comparable weight gain and the level of insulin resistance, however LHF-fed mice showed increased hepatic steatosis associated with elevated activity of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1), and lower plasma triacylglycerol levels when compared to cHF. Despite lowering hepatic SCD1 activity, which was concomitant with reduced hepatic steatosis reaching the level observed in cHF+F mice, LHF+F did not decrease adiposity and the weight of eWAT, and rather further impaired insulin sensitivity relative to cHF+F, that tended to improve it. In conclusion, high-fat diets containing as much as ∼35 weight% as lipids induce similar weight gain and impairment of insulin sensitivity irrespective whether they are based on SFA or Omega-6. Although the SFA-rich diet containing EPA+DHA efficiently reduced hepatic steatosis, it did so without a corresponding improvement in insulin sensitivity and in the absence of effect on adiposity. PMID:26151346

  7. Effect of chitosan edible films added with Thymus moroderi and Thymus piperella essential oil on shelf-life of cooked cured ham.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Navajas, Y; Viuda-Martos, M; Barber, X; Sendra, E; Perez-Alvarez, J A; Fernández-López, J

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this work was to develop chitosan edible films added with essential oils obtained from two Thymus species, Thymus moroderi (TMEO) and Thymus piperella (TPEO) to determine their application for enhancing safety (antioxidant and antibacterial properties) and shelf-life of cooked cured ham (CCH) stored at 4 °C during 21 days. Addition of TMEO and TPEO into chitosan films decreased the aerobic mesophilic bacteria (AMB) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) counts in coated cooked cured ham samples as compared with uncoated samples. Both AMB and LAB showed the lowest counts in CCH samples coated with chitosan films added with TPEO at 2 %. In regard to lipid oxidation, the CCH samples coated with chitosan films added with TMEO or TPEO had lower degrees of lipid oxidation than uncoated control samples. Chitosan films added with TPEO at 2 % showed the lowest values. The addition of TPEO or TMEO in chitosan films used as coated in CCH improved their shelf life. PMID:26396394

  8. Complex polyion-surfactant ion salts in equilibrium with water: changing aggregate shape and size by adding oil.

    PubMed

    Bernardes, Juliana S; Norrman, Jens; Piculell, Lennart; Loh, Watson

    2006-11-23

    The phase behavior of ternary mixtures containing an alkyltrimethylammonium polyacrylate complex salt, water, and a nonpolar "oil" (n-decanol, p-xylene or cyclohexane) is investigated. The complex salts were prepared with short or long polyacrylates (30 or 6000 repeating units) and with hexadecyltrimethylammonium or dodecyltrimethylammonium surfactant ions. Phase diagrams and structures were determined by visual inspection and small-angle X-ray scattering analyses. Systems containing decanol display a predominance of lamellar phases, while hexagonal phases prevail in systems containing p-xylene or cyclohexane. The difference is interpreted as a result of the different locations of the oils within the surfactant aggregates. Decanol is incorporated at the aggregate interface, leading to a decrease in its curvature, which favors the appearance of lamellar structures. p-Xylene and cyclohexane, on the other hand, are mostly incorporated in the interior of the cylindrical aggregate, as reflected by its swelling as the oil content increases. The comparison of these results with those reported for similar systems with monovalent (bromide) counterions indicates a much more limited swelling of the lamellar phases with polymeric counterions by water. This limited swelling behavior is predominantly ascribed to bridging due to the polyions. PMID:17107195

  9. Effect of adding essential oils of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) and hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) on the shelf life of ground beef.

    PubMed

    Michalczyk, Magdalena; Macura, Ryszard; Tesarowicz, Iwona; Banaś, Joanna

    2012-03-01

    This study examined the effect of adding essential oils of hyssop and coriander at the highest concentration (0.02% v/w) sensorially acceptable to a panel of assessors on the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of stored ground beef. Vacuum-packed meat was stored at 0.5±0.5°C and 6±1°C for 15days. The greatest beneficial effect of both additives was in inhibiting the development of undesirable sensory changes (extending acceptability by up to 3days) and the growth of Enterobacteriaceae (by up to approximately 1-2 log cycles compared with the controls). The effect on lactic acid bacteria, total viable bacterial count and other groups of microorganisms investigated was minor (up to 1 log cycle) and similar for both oils. Neither did these additives significantly affect amino nitrogen levels, protease activity, the proportions of meat pigments, protein electropherograms and pH levels. This indicates the limited effect of these essential oils in the concentrations applied on preserving vacuum-packed minced beef. PMID:22153611

  10. Gamma-linolenic acid egg production enriched with hemp seed oil and evening primrose oil in diet of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Oh; Hwangbo, Jong; Yuh, In-Suh; Park, Byung-Sung

    2014-07-01

    This study was carried out to find out the effect of supplying gamma linolenic acid (GLA) on laying performance and egg quality. A hundred twenty of 30 weeks old hyline brown laying hens with 98% of egg production were completely randomized to 4 different treatment groups by 30 hens (the control group fed with the diet containing beef tallow, 3 treatment groups fed with the diet containing corn oil, the diet containing hemp seed oil and the diet containing evening primrose oil, respectively), and their laying performance and egg production were investigated for 5 weeks. Intake of hemp seed oil or evening primrose helped to increase the retention rate of GLA, which was transmigrated into eggs from blood. GLA was not detected in the blood samples of control group and treatment group fed diet containing corn oil, while it was significantly increased in the blood samples of the treatment groups fed with diet containing hemp seed oil and diet containing evening primrose oil, respectively. GLA retention was not observed in the eggs produced respectively by control group and treatment group fed with diet containing corn oil, whereas it was significantly increased in the eggs produced by the treatment group fed with diet containing hemp seed oil by 1.09% and the treatment group fed with diet containing evening primrose oil by 4.87%. This result suggests that GLA-reinforced functional eggs can be produced by adding hemp seed oil and evening primrose oil to the feed for laying hens and feeding them with it. It is thought that further researches and clinical trials on biochemical mechanism related to atopic dermatitis should be conducted in future. PMID:25004746

  11. Compositional effects of corn distillers dried grains with variable oil content on digestible, metabolizable, and net energy values in growing pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted in growing-finishing pigs to determine the DE and ME (Exp. 1, 96.3 kg BW) and NE (Exp. 2, 45.4 kg BW) content of corn-distillers dried grains with solubles (C-DDGS) in an effort to develop DE, ME, and NE prediction equations based on chemical composition of C-DDGS. Com...

  12. Thioether-functionalized vegetable oils: Metal-absorbing biobased ligands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils containing thioether groups have been synthesized and used to effectively remove a heavy metal ion from an aqueous solution. The use of thioether-functionalized corn oil (TF-corn oil) and thioether-functionalized canola oil (TF-canola oil) were both effective in the extraction of Ag+ ...

  13. Components responsible for the emulsification properties of corn fibre gum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An emulsion was prepared using corn fibre gum (CFG) and the resulting oil and aqueous phases were separated by centrifugation. The material adsorbed onto the surface of the oil droplets in the oil phase was desorbed using surfactant. The desorbed CFG and the non adsorbed CFG that remained present in...

  14. Renewable sugars from oil palm frond juice as an alternative novel fermentation feedstock for value-added products.

    PubMed

    Zahari, Mior Ahmad Khushairi Mohd; Zakaria, Mohd Rafein; Ariffin, Hidayah; Mokhtar, Mohd Noriznan; Salihon, Jailani; Shirai, Yoshihito; Hassan, Mohd Ali

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we report that pressed juice from oil palm frond (OPF) contained renewable sugars such as glucose, sucrose and fructose. By using a simple sugarcane press, 50% (wt/wt) of OPF juice was obtained from fresh OPF. The glucose content in the juice was 53.95±2.86g/l, which accounts for 70% of the total free sugars. We have examined the effect of various OPF juice concentrations on the production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), P(3HB) by Cupriavidus necator CCUG 52238(T). The cell dry mass in shake flask experiment reached 8.42g/l, with 32wt.% of P(3HB) at 30% (v/v) of OPF juice, comparable with using technical grade sugars. The biopolymer had a molecular mass, M(w) of 812kDa, with a low polydispersity index of 1.61. This result indicates that OPF juice can be used as an alternative renewable carbon source for P(3HB) production and has potential as a renewable carbon source. PMID:22342083

  15. Feasibility study of a cosmetic cream added with aqueous extract and oil from date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit seed using experimental design.

    PubMed

    Lecheb, Fatma; Benamara, Salem

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on the feasibility study of a cosmetic cream added with aqueous extract and oil from date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit seed using experimental design. First, the mixture design was applied to optimize the cosmetic formula. The responses (dependent variables) were the spreadability (YSp) and viscosity (YVis), the factors (independent variables) being the weight proportions of the fatty phase (X1), the aqueous date seed extract (X2), and the beeswax (X3). Second, the cosmetic stability study was conducted by applying a full factorial design. Here, three responses were considered [spreadability (Sp), viscosity (Vis), and peroxide index (PI)], the independent variables being the concentration of the date seed oil (DSO) (x1), storage temperature (x2), and storage time (x3). Results showed that in the case of mixture design, the second-order polynomial equations correctly described experimental data. Globally, results show that there is a relatively wide composition range to ensure a suitable cosmetic cream from the point of view of Sp and Vis. Regarding the cosmetic stability, the storage time was found to be the most influential factor on both Vis and PI, which are considered here as indicators of physical and chemical stability of the emulsion, respectively. Finally, the elaborated and commercial cosmetics were compared in terms of pH, Sp, and centrifugation test (Ct). PMID:27125011

  16. Corn fiber hulls as a food additive or animal feed

    DOEpatents

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Cecava, Michael J.; Doane, Perry H.

    2010-12-21

    The present invention provides a novel animal feed or food additive that may be made from thermochemically hydrolyzed, solvent-extracted corn fiber hulls. The animal feed or food additive may be made, for instance, by thermochemically treating corn fiber hulls to hydrolyze and solubilize the hemicellulose and starch present in the corn fiber hulls to oligosaccharides. The residue may be extracted with a solvent to separate the oil from the corn fiber, leaving a solid residue that may be prepared, for instance by aggolmerating, and sold as a food additive or an animal feed.

  17. Novel schemes for production of biodiesel and value-added co-products from microalgal oil using heterogeneous catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Tao

    Microalgae are promising sources of biofuels primarily because of their higher potential productivity compared to terrestrial biofuel crops. However, the production of liquid fuels from microalgae suffers from a lack of viable methods of extraction, conversion and fractionation of various components of the algal biomass. In this dissertation study, a rapid method was developed to accurately evaluate the biodiesel potential of microalgae biomass. The major advantage of this method is in situ fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) preparation directly from wet fresh microalgal and yeast biomass, without prior solvent extraction or dehydration. FAMEs were prepared by a sequential alkaline hydrolysis and acidic esterification process. This method can be used even with high amount of water in the biomass and is applicable to a vast range of microalgae and yeast species. A two-step in situ process was also investigated in this study to obtain a high FAME yield from microalgae biomass that had high free fatty acids (FFA) content. This process has the potential to reduce the production cost of microalgae-derived FAME and be more environmental compatible due to the higher FAME yield with reduced catalyst consumption. A cost-effective bio-char based catalyst was tested for the two-step biodiesel production. The results indicated that the bio-char catalyst was superior to commercial Amberly-15. A scalable chlorophyll remove process was also developed as a part of the system. The research resulted in a practical and cost-effective approach for producing biodiesel from crude microalgal oil. An integrated approach was explored in the fourth part of the study to produce biodiesel and fractionate high-value polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). Zeolites were employed as the catalyst for selective esterification of fatty acids according to their chain length and degree of saturation. Low-value short chain FFA could be largely converted into FAME, while PUFA would remain unreacted due to

  18. Rotational Effects of Cuphea on Corn, Spring Wheat, and Soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural diversity is lacking in the northern Corn Belt. Adding crop diversity to rotations can give economic and environmental benefits. Cuphea (Cuphea viscosissima Jacq. x C. lanceolata W.T. Aiton; PSR23), which grows well in the northern Corn Belt, is a new oilseed crop and a source of medium...

  19. High-shear, Jet-cooking, and Alkali Treatment of Corn Distillers' Dried Grains to Obtain Products with Enhanced Protein, Oil, and Phenolic Antioxidants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distillers dried grains (DDG) have potential to be a nutritionally important source of protein, oil, and phenolic antioxidants. DDG was subjected to high-shear and jet-cooking, with or without alkaline pH adjustment and autoclaving. Soluble and insoluble fractions were analyzed for protein, oil, a...

  20. Delaying corn rootworm resistance to Bt corn.

    PubMed

    Tabashnik, Bruce E; Gould, Fred

    2012-06-01

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins for insect control have been successful, but their efficacy is reduced when pests evolve resistance. To delay pest resistance to Bt crops, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has required refuges of host plants that do not produce Bt toxins to promote survival of susceptible pests. Such refuges are expected to be most effective if the Bt plants deliver a dose of toxin high enough to kill nearly all hybrid progeny produced by matings between resistant and susceptible pests. In 2003, the EPA first registered corn, Zea mays L., producing a Bt toxin (Cry3Bb1) that kills western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, one of the most economically important crop pests in the United States. The EPA requires minimum refuges of 20% for Cry3Bb1 corn and 5% for corn producing two Bt toxins active against corn rootworms. We conclude that the current refuge requirements are not adequate, because Bt corn hybrids active against corn rootworms do not meet the high-dose standard, and western corn rootworm has rapidly evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn in the laboratory, greenhouse, and field. Accordingly, we recommend increasing the minimum refuge for Bt corn targeting corn rootworms to 50% for plants producing one toxin active against these pests and to 20% for plants producing two toxins active against these pests. Increasing the minimum refuge percentage can help to delay pest resistance, encourage integrated pest management, and promote more sustainable crop protection. PMID:22812111

  1. Non-destructive fraud detection in rosehip oil by MIR spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Santana, Felipe Bachion de; Gontijo, Lucas Caixeta; Mitsutake, Hery; Mazivila, Sarmento Júnior; Souza, Leticia Maria de; Borges Neto, Waldomiro

    2016-10-15

    Rosehip oil (Rosa eglanteria L.) is an important oil in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. However, due to its high added value, it is liable to adulteration with other cheaper or lower quality oils. With this perspective, this work provides a new simple, fast and accurate methodology using mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) as a means to discriminate authentic rosehip oil from adulterated rosehip oil containing soybean, corn and sunflower oils in different proportions. The model showed excellent sensitivity and specificity with 100% correct classification. Therefore, the developed methodology is a viable alternative for use in the laboratory and industry for standard quality analysis of rosehip oil since it is fast, accurate and non-destructive. PMID:27173556

  2. Our Mother Corn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathers, Sherry; And Others

    Developed to provide an understanding of the magnitude of the role of corn, referred to as Mother Corn in the cultures of the Seneca, Pawnee, and Hopi tribes, the student text provides information on the tribes' basic lifestyles and the way they grew and used corn in three different parts of the United States. The section on the origin of corn…

  3. Benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) metabolism and in vitro formation of B(a)P-DNA adducts by hepatic microsomes from rats fed diets containing corn and menhaden oils

    SciTech Connect

    Dharwadkar, S.; Bellow, J.; Ramanathan, R.; Wade, A.

    1986-03-01

    Dietary unsaturated fat is required for maximum induction of hepatic mixed function oxidases responsible for activating carcinogens which may bind covalently to DNA. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of dietary fat type on in vitro B(a)P metabolism and B(a)P-DNA adduct formation. Male rats were starved 2 days and refed diet devoid of fat, or containing 20% corn oil (CO) or 20% menhaden oil (MO) for 4 days. Both dietary fats increased Vmax for B(a)P hydroxylation without affecting Km. Phenobarbital (PB) administration increased Vmax in all animals but Km was increased only in rats fed the fat diets. PB resulted in decreased B(a)P metabolism when conducted at 15 =M only in rats fed the two fat diets even in the presence of increased cytochrome P-450 (P-450). This effect was due to a decrease in B(a)P metabolism at low substrate concentrations in PB treated fat-fed animals. Binding of B(a)P to calf-thymus DNA was increased in animals fed both fats which was enhanced further by PB only in rats fed the CO and MO diets. When the data are calculated as B(a)P metabolized per unit of P-450, PB seems to induce a P-450 in fat-fed animals having lower affinity and capacity for B(a)P metabolism and activation.

  4. Biodegradation of diesel oil by a novel microbial consortium: comparison between co-inoculation with biosurfactant-producing strain and exogenously added biosurfactants.

    PubMed

    Mnif, Inès; Mnif, Sami; Sahnoun, Rihab; Maktouf, Sameh; Ayedi, Younes; Ellouze-Chaabouni, Semia; Ghribi, Dhouha

    2015-10-01

    Bioremediation, involving the use of microorganisms to detoxify or remove pollutants, is the most interesting strategy for hydrocarbon remediation. In this aim, four hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria were isolated from oil-contaminated soil in Tunisia. They were identified by the 16S rDNA sequence analysis, as Lysinibacillus bronitolerans RI18 (KF964487), Bacillus thuringiensis RI16 (KM111604), Bacillus weihenstephanensis RI12 (KM094930), and Acinetobacter radioresistens RI7 (KJ829530). Moreover, a lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by Bacillus subtilis SPB1, confirmed to increase diesel solubility, was tested to increase diesel biodegradation along with co-inoculation with two biosurfactant-producing strains. Culture studies revealed the enhancement of diesel biodegradation by the selected consortium with the addition of SPB1 lipopeptide and in the cases of co-inoculation by biosurfactant-producing strain. In fact, an improvement of about 38.42 and 49.65 % of diesel degradation was registered in the presence of 0.1 % lipopeptide biosurfactant and when culturing B. subtilis SPB1 strain with the isolated consortium, respectively. Furthermore, the best improvement, evaluated to about 55.4 %, was recorded when using the consortium cultured with B. subtilis SPB1 and A. radioresistens RI7 strains. Gas chromatography analyses were correlated with the gravimetric evaluation of the residual hydrocarbons. Results suggested the potential applicability of the selected consortium along with the ex situ- and in situ-added biosurfactant for the effective bioremediation of diesel-contaminated water and soil. PMID:25994261

  5. New brine saturation technique for the extraction of light filth from rubbed sage, paprika, and corn meal: intralaboratory study.

    PubMed

    Freeman, C C

    1979-05-01

    A new and widely applicable technique for the isolation of light filth from food has been developed. It includes a simple alcohol defatting followed by a brine saturation of the product by heating and cooling and a subsequent trapping of the filth elements with olive oil and tap water. The methods circumvent the use of hazardous and expensive solvents and lengthy defatting and/or pre-treatment procedures. In an intralaboratory study, recoveries of elytral squares and rodent hair fragments added to paprika, rubbed sage, and corn meal ranged from 95.8 to 100%. PMID:479086

  6. Characterization of corn fiber gums from coarse and fine fiber and a study of their emulsifying properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The stabilities of orange oil emulsions stabilized with various concentrations of two different types of corn fiber gum (CFG-1 and 2) isolated from coarse (pericarp) and fine (endosperm) fiber from corn wet milling have been studied. CFG-1 and 2 were isolated from coarse and fine corn fiber by (a) ...

  7. Corn rootworms and Bt resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn rootworms have been a major pest of corn for many years. As their name suggests, corn rootworms damage corn plants by feeding on the roots. Western and northern corn rootworms have overcome practices farmers use to keep their population numbers down, such as insecticides and crop rotation. Cor...

  8. Fish oils lower rat plasma and hepatic, but not immune cell alpha-tocopherol concentration.

    PubMed

    Alexander, D W; McGuire, S O; Cassity, N A; Fritsche, K L

    1995-10-01

    These studies were designed to measure the impact of different fish oil sources of dietary (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid on the alpha-tocopherol content of rat immune cells. In the first experiment, rats were fed diets containing either lard, corn oil, menhaden fish oil or cod liver oil. In the second study, sardine fish oil replaced corn oil. Dietary fat source did not significantly influence body weights or the yield of immune cells in either study. In both studies, plasma and liver alpha-tocopherol concentrations were significantly lower in (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid-fed rats than in rats fed lard. In the first study, immune cell alpha-tocopherol concentrations followed those observed in the plasma and liver. These concentrations closely paralleled the amount of RRR-alpha-tocopheryl acetate added to diets and not the total vitamin E present, which was the same for all treatment groups. However, in the second study, alpha-tocopherol concentration of immune cells was not significantly different among rats fed lard, menhaden fish oil, and sardine fish oil. In that study both the amount and form of vitamin E were carefully balanced across dietary treatment groups. In conclusion, despite having similar amounts of (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids, two out of three fish oils tested did not lower immune cell alpha-tocopherol concentration even in the face of significantly reduced plasma and liver alpha-tocopherol concentrations. PMID:7562101

  9. Identifying resistance in corn to southwestern corn borer, fall armyworm, and corn earworm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella Dyar; fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith); and corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea Boddie, are major insect pests of corn, Zea mays L., in the southern United States. Corn germplasm with resistance to leaf feeding by southwestern corn borer a...

  10. Simultaneous determination of aflatoxin B₁, B₂, G₁, and G₂ in corn powder, edible oil, peanut butter, and soy sauce by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry utilizing turbulent flow chromatography.

    PubMed

    Fan, Sufang; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Cui, Xiaobin; Zhang, Dongsheng; Zhang, Yan

    2015-05-01

    A novel fully automated method based on dual column switching using turbulent flow chromatography followed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the determination of aflatoxin B1 , B2 , G1 , and G2 in corn powder, edible oil, peanut butter, and soy sauce samples. After ultrasound-assisted extraction, samples were directly injected to the chromatographic system and the analytes were concentrated into the clean-up loading column. Through purge switching, the analytes were transferred to the analytical column for subsequent detection by mass spectrometry. Different types of TurboFlow(TM) columns, transfer flow rate, transfer time were optimized. The limits of detection and quantification of this method ranged between 0.2-2.0 and 0.5-4.0 μg/kg for aflatoxins in different matrixes, respectively. Recoveries of aflatoxins were in range of 83-108.1% for all samples, matrix effects were in range of 34.1-104.7%. The developed method has been successfully applied in the analysis of aflatoxin B1 , B2 , G1 , and G2 in real samples. PMID:25683560

  11. Photochemical behavior of sethoxydim in the presence of vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Hammami, Hossein; Rashed Mohassel, Mohammad Hassan; Parsa, Mehdi; Bannayan-Aval, Mohammad; Zand, Eskandar; Hassanzadeh-Khayyat, Mohammad; Nassirli, Horiyeh

    2014-07-01

    The photodecomposition of herbicides may be affected by adding vegetable oils to the spray tank. In this study nine vegetable oils were compared to assess the photodecomposition of sethoxydim under natural light conditions. The experiment was conducted as completely randomized factorial design with three replicates at the College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in 2013. Each herbicidal solution (with and without vegetable oil) was exposed to sunshine with time intervals of 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 60, 120, and 240 min. The results revealed that the half-life value was increased by adding castor bean and cottonseed oils to 1.39- and 1.18-fold, respectively, compared to nonvegetable oil. These values for turnip, olive, corn, soybean, sunflower, canola, and sesame oils were decreased down to 4.74-, 2.38-, 1.81-, 1.75-, 1.52-, 1.28-, and 1.11-fold, respectively. A positive relationship existed between the half-life of sethoxydim in the presence of vegetable oils and their viscosity. However, a negative relationship was monitored between unsaturated/saturated fatty acids ratio and the monounsaturated value with half-life. A positive relationship also existed between saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, palmitic acid, and linoleic acid with half-life. This study revealed that the amount of fatty acids in vegetable oils is a determining factor in preventing or facilitating the photodecomposition of sethoxydim. PMID:24932839

  12. Corn residue removal impact on soil aggregates in a no-till corn/soybean rotation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many questions have surfaced regarding the removal of corn residue for use in the biofuels industry. Concerned producers are asking questions pertaining to what impacts removing residue will have on the following crop (short-term) and the effects this practice has on soil quality (long-term). To ad...

  13. Corn blight watch experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The corn blight problem is briefly described how the experiment was organized and conducted, the effect of the blight on the 1971 crop, and some conclusions that may be drawn as a result of the experiment. The information is based on preliminary reports of the Corn Blight Watch Steering Committee and incorporates much illustrative material conceived at Purdue University.

  14. PRODUCING HIGH CORN YIELDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Coll. of Agriculture.

    RESOURCE MATERIAL ON CORN PRODUCTION FOR HIGH SCHOOL VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE AND ADULT FARMER CLASSES WAS DESIGNED BY A STATE LEVEL GROUP OF SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS, TEACHER EDUCATORS, SUPERVISORS, AND TEACHERS TO HELP SOLVE PROBLEMS THAT CONFRONT CORN PRODUCERS AT PLANTING TIME. THE SUBJECT MATTER CONCERNS PLANTING TIME, DEPTH, ROW WIDTH,…

  15. Fully-Automated High-Throughput NMR System for Screening of Haploid Kernels of Maize (Corn) by Measurement of Oil Content

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaoping; Huang, Qingming; Chen, Shanshan; Yang, Peiqiang; Chen, Shaojiang; Song, Yiqiao

    2016-01-01

    One of the modern crop breeding techniques uses doubled haploid plants that contain an identical pair of chromosomes in order to accelerate the breeding process. Rapid haploid identification method is critical for large-scale selections of double haploids. The conventional methods based on the color of the endosperm and embryo seeds are slow, manual and prone to error. On the other hand, there exists a significant difference between diploid and haploid seeds generated by high oil inducer, which makes it possible to use oil content to identify the haploid. This paper describes a fully-automated high-throughput NMR screening system for maize haploid kernel identification. The system is comprised of a sampler unit to select a single kernel to feed for measurement of NMR and weight, and a kernel sorter to distribute the kernel according to the measurement result. Tests of the system show a consistent accuracy of 94% with an average screening time of 4 seconds per kernel. Field test result is described and the directions for future improvement are discussed. PMID:27454427

  16. Fully-Automated High-Throughput NMR System for Screening of Haploid Kernels of Maize (Corn) by Measurement of Oil Content.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongzhi; Liu, Jin; Xu, Xiaoping; Huang, Qingming; Chen, Shanshan; Yang, Peiqiang; Chen, Shaojiang; Song, Yiqiao

    2016-01-01

    One of the modern crop breeding techniques uses doubled haploid plants that contain an identical pair of chromosomes in order to accelerate the breeding process. Rapid haploid identification method is critical for large-scale selections of double haploids. The conventional methods based on the color of the endosperm and embryo seeds are slow, manual and prone to error. On the other hand, there exists a significant difference between diploid and haploid seeds generated by high oil inducer, which makes it possible to use oil content to identify the haploid. This paper describes a fully-automated high-throughput NMR screening system for maize haploid kernel identification. The system is comprised of a sampler unit to select a single kernel to feed for measurement of NMR and weight, and a kernel sorter to distribute the kernel according to the measurement result. Tests of the system show a consistent accuracy of 94% with an average screening time of 4 seconds per kernel. Field test result is described and the directions for future improvement are discussed. PMID:27454427

  17. Value Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UCLA IDEA, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Value added measures (VAM) uses changes in student test scores to determine how much "value" an individual teacher has "added" to student growth during the school year. Some policymakers, school districts, and educational advocates have applauded VAM as a straightforward measure of teacher effectiveness: the better a teacher, the better students…

  18. Market-oriented ethanol and corn-trade policies can reduce climate-induced US corn price volatility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Monika; Hertel, Thomas; Diffenbaugh, Noah

    2014-05-01

    Agriculture is closely affected by climate. Over the past decade, biofuels have emerged as another important factor shaping the agricultural sector. We ask whether the presence of the US ethanol sector can play a role in moderating increases in US corn price variability, projected to occur in response to near-term global warming. Our findings suggest that the answer to this question depends heavily on the underlying forces shaping the ethanol industry. If mandate-driven, there is little doubt that the presence of the corn-ethanol sector will exacerbate price volatility. However, if market-driven, then the emergence of the corn-ethanol sector can be a double-edged sword for corn price volatility, possibly cushioning the impact of increased climate driven supply volatility, but also inheriting volatility from the newly integrated energy markets via crude oil price fluctuations. We find that empirically the former effect dominates, reducing price volatility by 27%. In contrast, mandates on ethanol production increase future price volatility by 54% in under future climate after 2020. We also consider the potential for liberalized international corn trade to cushion corn price volatility in the US. Our results suggest that allowing corn to move freely internationally serves to reduce the impact of near-term climate change on US corn price volatility by 8%.

  19. Sophorolipids Production by Candida bombicola ATCC 22214 and its Potential Application in Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Elshafie, Abdulkadir E.; Joshi, Sanket J.; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M.; Al-Bemani, Ali S.; Al-Bahry, Saif N.; Al-Maqbali, Dua’a; Banat, Ibrahim M.

    2015-01-01

    Biosurfactant production using Candida bombicola ATCC 22214, its characterization and potential applications in enhancing oil recovery were studied at laboratory scale. The seed media and the production media were standardized for optimal growth and biosurfactant production. The production media were tested with different carbon sources: glucose (2%w/v) and corn oil (10%v/v) added separately or concurrently. The samples were collected at 24 h interval up to 120 h and checked for growth (OD660), and biosurfactant production [surface tension (ST) and interfacial tension (IFT)]. The medium with both glucose and corn oil gave better biosurfactant production and reduced both ST and IFT to 28.56 + 0.42mN/m and 2.13 + 0.09mN/m, respectively within 72 h. The produced biosurfactant was quite stable at 13–15% salinity, pH range of 2–12, and at temperature up to 100°C. It also produced stable emulsions (%E24) with different hydrocarbons (pentane, hexane, heptane, tridecane, tetradecane, hexadecane, 1-methylnaphthalene, 2,2,4,4,6,8-heptamethylnonane, light and heavy crude oil). The produced biosurfactant was extracted using ethyl acetate and characterized as a mixture of sophorolipids (SPLs). The potential of SPLs in enhancing oil recovery was tested using core-flooding experiments under reservoir conditions, where additional 27.27% of residual oil (Sor) was recovered. This confirmed the potential of SPLs for applications in microbial enhanced oil recovery. PMID:26635782

  20. Production of corn fiber gum under conditions that retain its functional components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn fiber gum (CFG) is a hemicellulose (arabinoxylan)-enriched fraction obtained by the extraction of corn bran/fiber using a mild alkaline hydrogen peroxide process. The unique polysaccharide, CFG, with its low solution viscosity has been proposed as a stabilizer for oil-in-water emulsions. We ha...

  1. Linking Air Land & Water to Examine the Vulnerability of Groundwater Nitrate Contamination from Increased Corn Production

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) requires oil refiners to reach a target of 15 billion gallons of corn-based ethanol by 2022. However, there are concerns that the broad-scale use of corn as a source of ethanol may lead to unintended economic and environmental consequences. Thi...

  2. The development of a new corn fiber gum isolation process that preserves its functional components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn fiber gum (CFG) is a hemicellulose (arabinoxylan)-enriched fraction obtained by the extraction of corn bran/fiber using a mild alkaline hydrogen peroxide process. The unique polysaccharide, CFG, with its low solution viscosity has been proposed as a stabilizer for oil-in-water emulsions. We ha...

  3. Grinding and cooking dry-mill germ to optimize aqueous enzymatic oil extraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The many recent dry grind plants that convert corn to ethanol are potential sources of substantial amounts of corn oil. This report describes an aqueous enzymatic extraction (AEE) method to separate oil from dry-mill corn germ (DMG). The method is an extension of AEE previously developed for wet...

  4. Kepler Corn Maze

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Dell'Osso Family Farm, located on the outskirts of Lathrop, California held the grand opening of their corn maze that was designed with a NASA theme. The maze is part of a nation-wide group of ...

  5. TQM at Corning.

    PubMed

    Houghton, J

    1992-01-01

    Houghton has been with Corning for 30 years, up through the ranks. Now, as chairman and CEO, his individual leadership stamp is TQM. It's a major turn-around story with Total Quality at its center. PMID:10117839

  6. Argentina corn yield model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate corn yields for the country of Argentina. A meteorological data set was obtained for the country by averaging data for stations within the corn-growing area. Predictor variables for the model were derived from monthly total precipitation, average monthly mean temperature, and average monthly maximum temperature. A trend variable was included for the years 1965 to 1980 since an increasing trend in yields due to technology was observed between these years.

  7. Thiol oxidation and protein cross-link formation during chill storage of pork patties added essential oil of oregano, rosemary, or garlic.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Gema; Jongberg, Sisse; Andersen, Mogens L; Skibsted, Leif H

    2013-10-01

    The effect of two levels (0.05% and 0.4%) of essential oil of rosemary, oregano, or garlic on protein oxidation in pork patties was studied during storage under modified atmosphere (MAP: 70% O2: 20% CO2: 10% N2) or under aerobic conditions (AE) at 4°C. The oxidative stability of the meat proteins was evaluated as loss of thiols for up to 9 days of storage, and as formation of myosin cross-links analyzed by SDS-PAGE after 12 days of storage. Protein thiols were lost during storage to yield myosin disulfide cross-links. Essential oils of rosemary and oregano were found to retard the loss of thiols otherwise resulting in myosin cross-links. Garlic essential oil, on the contrary, was found to promote protein oxidation, as seen by an extreme loss in thiol groups, and elevated myosin cross-link formation compared to control. PMID:23743026

  8. Separation of Corn Fiber and Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals: Pilot-Scale Operation

    SciTech Connect

    2006-04-01

    This project focuses on the development and pilot-scale testing of technologies that will enable the development of a biorefinery capable of economically deriving high-value chemicals and oils from lower value corn fiber.

  9. Adding Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsini, Larry L.; Hudack, Lawrence R.; Zekan, Donald L.

    1999-01-01

    The value-added statement (VAS), relatively unknown in the United States, is used in financial reports by many European companies. Saint Bonaventure University (New York) has adapted a VAS to make it appropriate for not-for-profit universities by identifying stakeholder groups (students, faculty, administrators/support personnel, creditors, the…

  10. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... glutelin. Corn gluten is a byproduct of the wet milling of corn for starch. The gluten fraction is washed... conversion of the starch in whole or various fractions of dry milled corn to corn syrups. (b) The...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... glutelin. Corn gluten is a byproduct of the wet milling of corn for starch. The gluten fraction is washed... conversion of the starch in whole or various fractions of dry milled corn to corn syrups. (b) The...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... glutelin. Corn gluten is a byproduct of the wet milling of corn for starch. The gluten fraction is washed... conversion of the starch in whole or various fractions of dry milled corn to corn syrups. (b) The...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... glutelin. Corn gluten is a byproduct of the wet milling of corn for starch. The gluten fraction is washed... conversion of the starch in whole or various fractions of dry milled corn to corn syrups. (b) The...

  14. DIFFERENTIAL TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR ACTIVATION AD GENE EXPRESSION PROFILES IN HUMAN VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS ON EXPOSURE TO RESIDUAL OIL FLY ASH (ROFA) AND VANADIUM

    EPA Science Inventory


    Differential transcription factor activation and gene expression profiles in human vascular endothelial cells on exposure to residual oil fly ash (ROFA) and vanadium.
    Srikanth S. Nadadur and Daniel L. Costa, US EPA, ORD, NHEERL (ETD, Pulmonary Toxicology Branch), Research ...

  15. Does Integration Help Adapt to Climate Change? Case of Increased US Corn Yield Volatility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, M.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.; Hertel, T. W.

    2012-12-01

    In absence of of new crop varieties or significant shifts in the geography of corn production, US national corn yields variation could double by the year 2040 as a result of climate change and without adaptation this could lead the variability in US corn prices to quadruple (Diffenbaugh et al. 2012). In addition to climate induced price changes, analysis of recent commodity price spikes suggests that interventionist trade policies are partly to blame. Assuming we cannot much influence the future climate outcome, what policies can we undertake to adapt better? Can we use markets to blunt this edge? Diffenbaugh et al. find that sale of corn- ethanol for use in liquid fuel, when governed by quotas such as US Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS), could make US corn prices even more variable; in contrast the same food-fuel market link (we refer to it as intersectoral link) may well dampen price volatility when the sale of corn to ethanol industry is driven by higher future oil prices. The latter however comes at the cost of exposing corn prices to the greater volatility in oil markets. Similarly intervention in corn trade can make US corn prices less or more volatile by distorting international corn price transmission. A negative US corn yield shock shows that domestic corn supply falls and domestic prices to go up irrespective of whether or not markets are integrated. How much the prices go up depends on how much demand adjusts to accommodate the supply shock. Based on the forgoing analysis, one should expect that demand would adjust more readily when markets are integrated and therefore reduce the resulting price fluctuation. Simulation results confirm this response of corn markets. In terms of relative comparisons however a policy driven intersectoral integration is least effective and prices rise much more. Similarly, a positive world oil price shock makes the US oil imports expensive and with oil being used to produce gasoline blends, it increases the price of gasoline

  16. Arepas made from ß-glucans enriched corn flour produced low metabolic responses in healthy subjects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn is one of the most important cereals for the nutrition of large groups of the Latin American population and arepa is a very popular corn-based food preparation. In order to study the arepa consumption effects on glucose and insulin response when ß-glucans were added to this preparation, three ...

  17. Microbial side-chain cleavage of phytosterols by mycobacteria in vegetable oil/aqueous two-phase system.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yang-Guang; Guan, Yi-Xin; Wang, Hai-Qing; Yao, Shan-Jing

    2014-09-01

    Microbial side-chain cleavage of natural sterols to 4-androstene-3,17-dione (AD) and 1,4-androstadiene-3,17-dione (ADD) by Mycobacteria has received much attention in pharmaceutical industry, while low yield of the reaction owing to the strong hydrophobicity of sterols is a tough problem to be solved urgently. Eight kinds of vegetable oils, i.e., sunflower, peanut, corn, olive, linseed, walnut, grape seed, and rice oil, were used to construct oil/aqueous biphasic systems in the biotransformation of phytosterols by Mycobacterium sp. MB 3683 cells. The results indicated that vegetable oils are suitable for phytosterol biotransformation. Specially, the yield of AD carried out in sunflower biphasic system (phase ratio of 1:9, oil to aqueous) was greatly increased to 84.8 % with 10 g/L feeding concentration after 120-h transformation at 30 °C and 200 rpm. Distribution coefficients of AD in different oil/aqueous systems were also determined. Because vegetable oils are of low cost and because of their eco-friendly characters, there is a great potential for the application of oil/aqueous two-phase systems in bacteria whole cell biocatalysis. PMID:25082765

  18. DIS in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albacete, Javier L.; Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Taliotis, Anastasios

    2009-03-01

    We calculate the total cross section for the scattering of a quark-anti-quark dipole on a large nucleus at high energy for a strongly coupled N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory using AdS/CFT correspondence. We model the nucleus by a metric of a shock wave in AdS5. We then calculate the expectation value of the Wilson loop (the dipole) by finding the extrema of the Nambu-Goto action for an open string attached to the quark and antiquark lines of the loop in the background of an AdS5 shock wave. We find two physically meaningful extremal string configurations. For both solutions we obtain the forward scattering amplitude N for the quark dipole-nucleus scattering. We study the onset of unitarity with increasing center-of-mass energy and transverse size of the dipole: we observe that for both solutions the saturation scale Qs is independent of energy/Bjorken-x and depends on the atomic number of the nucleus as Qs˜A1/3. Finally we observe that while one of the solutions we found corresponds to the pomeron intercept of αP = 2 found earlier in the literature, when extended to higher energy or larger dipole sizes it violates the black disk limit. The other solution we found respects the black disk limit and yields the pomeron intercept of αP = 1.5. We thus conjecture that the right pomeron intercept in gauge theories at strong coupling may be αP = 1.5.

  19. Camelina: A Potential Winter Crop for the Northern Corn Belt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Camelina (Camelina sativa L.) may offer a low-input oilseed alternative for biodiesel and other vegetable oil applications. Little is known about its agronomic potential or the winter survivability of winter cultivars in the northern Corn Belt. A study was initiated in west central Minnesota to eval...

  20. Renewable energy from corn residues by thermochemical conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Fei

    Declining fossil oil reserve, skyrocket price, unsecured supplies, and environment pollution are among the many energy problems we are facing today. It is our conviction that renewable energy is a solution to these problems. The long term goal of the proposed research is to develop commercially practical technologies to produce energy from renewable resources. The overall objective of my research is to study and develop thermochemical processes for converting bulky and low-energy-density biomass materials into bio-fuels and value-added bio-products. The rationale for the proposed research is that, once such processes are developed, processing facility can be set up on or near biomass product sites, reducing the costs associated with transport of bulky biomass which is a key technical barrier to biomass conversion. In my preliminary research, several conversion technologies including atmospheric pressure liquefaction, high pressure liquefaction, and microwave pyrolysis have been evaluated. Our data indicated that microwave pyrolysis had the potential to become a simple and economically viable biomass conversion technology. Microwave pyrolysis is an innovative process that provides efficient and uniform heating, and are robust to type, size and uniformity of feedstock and therefore suitable for almost any waste materials without needing to reduce the particle size. The proposed thesis focused on in-depth investigations of microwave pyrolysis of corn residues. My first specific aim was to examine the effects of processing parameters on product yields. The second specific research aim was to characterize the products (gases, bio-oils, and solid residues), which was critical to process optimization and product developments. Other research tasks included conducting kinetic modeling and preliminary mass and energy balance. This study demonstrated that microwave pyrolysis could be optimized to produce high value syngas, liquid fuels and pyrolytic carbons, and had a great

  1. Separation of oil-in-water emulsions by microbubble treatment and the effect of adding coagulant or cationic surfactant on removal efficiency.

    PubMed

    Van Le, Tuan; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Higuchi, Takaya; Doi, Ryosuke; Teeka, Jantima; Xiaofeng, Sun; Teerakun, Mullika

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the efficiencies of microbubble (MB) treatment, MB treatment with polyaluminium chloride (PAC) as a coagulant, and MB treatment with cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) as a cationic surfactant in the separation of emulsified oil (EO) by modified column flotation. Batch mode experiments were conducted by synthesizing emulsified palm oil (d<20 μm), and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the influent and effluent was measured to evaluate the treatment performance. MB treatment with PAC and MB treatment with CTAC were found to be more efficient in EO removal than the MB treatment alone. At an EO concentration of ∼1,000 mg L(-1) (pH 7) and under identical treatment conditions (MB generation time: 2.5 min, flotation time: 30 min), MB treatment with PAC (50 mg L(-1)) and that with CTAC (0.5 mg L(-1)) showed equally high EO removal efficiencies of 92 and 89%, respectively. This result is of significant relevance to studies focusing on the development of economical and high-efficiency flotation systems. Furthermore, the effect of pH was investigated by varying the sample pH from 3 to 8, which showed that the EO separation efficiency of MB alone increased drastically from slightly alkaline to acidic condition. PMID:22797232

  2. DIS in AdS

    SciTech Connect

    Albacete, Javier L.; Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Taliotis, Anastasios

    2009-03-23

    We calculate the total cross section for the scattering of a quark-anti-quark dipole on a large nucleus at high energy for a strongly coupled N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory using AdS/CFT correspondence. We model the nucleus by a metric of a shock wave in AdS{sub 5}. We then calculate the expectation value of the Wilson loop (the dipole) by finding the extrema of the Nambu-Goto action for an open string attached to the quark and antiquark lines of the loop in the background of an AdS{sub 5} shock wave. We find two physically meaningful extremal string configurations. For both solutions we obtain the forward scattering amplitude N for the quark dipole-nucleus scattering. We study the onset of unitarity with increasing center-of-mass energy and transverse size of the dipole: we observe that for both solutions the saturation scale Q{sub s} is independent of energy/Bjorken-x and depends on the atomic number of the nucleus as Q{sub s}{approx}A{sup 1/3}. Finally we observe that while one of the solutions we found corresponds to the pomeron intercept of {alpha}{sub P} = 2 found earlier in the literature, when extended to higher energy or larger dipole sizes it violates the black disk limit. The other solution we found respects the black disk limit and yields the pomeron intercept of {alpha}{sub P} = 1.5. We thus conjecture that the right pomeron intercept in gauge theories at strong coupling may be {alpha}{sub P} = 1.5.

  3. Oil-based paint poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Paint - oil based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

  4. Land usage attributed to corn ethanol production in the United States: sensitivity to technological advances in corn grain yield, ethanol conversion, and co-product utilization

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the system for producing yellow corn grain is well established in the US, its role among other biofeedstock alternatives to petroleum-based energy sources has to be balanced with its predominant purpose for food and feed as well as economics, land use, and environmental stewardship. We model land usage attributed to corn ethanol production in the US to evaluate the effects of anticipated technological change in corn grain production, ethanol processing, and livestock feeding through a multi-disciplinary approach. Seven scenarios are evaluated: four considering the impact of technological advances on corn grain production, two focused on improved efficiencies in ethanol processing, and one reflecting greater use of ethanol co-products (that is, distillers dried grains with solubles) in diets for dairy cattle, pigs, and poultry. For each scenario, land area attributed to corn ethanol production is estimated for three time horizons: 2011 (current), the time period at which the 15 billion gallon cap for corn ethanol as per the Renewable Fuel Standard is achieved, and 2026 (15 years out). Results Although 40.5% of corn grain was channeled to ethanol processing in 2011, only 25% of US corn acreage was attributable to ethanol when accounting for feed co-product utilization. By 2026, land area attributed to corn ethanol production is reduced to 11% to 19% depending on the corn grain yield level associated with the four corn production scenarios, considering oil replacement associated with the soybean meal substituted in livestock diets with distillers dried grains with solubles. Efficiencies in ethanol processing, although producing more ethanol per bushel of processed corn, result in less co-products and therefore less offset of corn acreage. Shifting the use of distillers dried grains with solubles in feed to dairy cattle, pigs, and poultry substantially reduces land area attributed to corn ethanol production. However, because distillers dried grains

  5. Indiana Corn Dry Mill

    SciTech Connect

    2006-09-01

    The goal of this project is to perform engineering, project design, and permitting for the creation and commercial demonstration of a corn dry mill biorefinery that will produce fuel-grade ethanol, distillers dry grain for animal feed, and carbon dioxide for industrial use.

  6. Foliar diseases of corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf blights and spots caused by fungi are some of the most destructive diseases of corn in the US and around the world. Correct identification of the disease is very important in determining the best means of control. For example, gray leaf spot of maize can be caused by one of at least two species...

  7. Bubbling AdS3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martelli, Dario; Morales, Jose F.

    2005-02-01

    In the light of the recent Lin, Lunin, Maldacena (LLM) results, we investigate 1/2-BPS geometries in minimal (and next to minimal) supergravity in D = 6 dimensions. In the case of minimal supergravity, solutions are given by fibrations of a two-torus T2 specified by two harmonic functions. For a rectangular torus the two functions are related by a non-linear equation with rare solutions: AdS3 × S3, the pp-wave and the multi-center string. ``Bubbling'', i.e. superpositions of droplets, is accommodated by allowing the complex structure of the T2 to vary over the base. The analysis is repeated in the presence of a tensor multiplet and similar conclusions are reached, with generic solutions describing D1D5 (or their dual fundamental string-momentum) systems. In this framework, the profile of the dual fundamental string-momentum system is identified with the boundaries of the droplets in a two-dimensional plane.

  8. Biodiesel from Waste Salmon Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmon oils separated from salmon processing waste and hydrolysate and their derived methyl esters were analyzed and compared with corn oil and its methyl ester. These materials were characterized for their fatty acid profiles, viscosity, volatility, thermal properties, low temperature properties, o...

  9. Bio-oil based biorefinery strategy for the production of succinic acid

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Succinic acid is one of the key platform chemicals which can be produced via biotechnology process instead of petrochemical process. Biomass derived bio-oil have been investigated intensively as an alternative of diesel and gasoline fuels. Bio-oil could be fractionized into organic phase and aqueous phase parts. The organic phase bio-oil can be easily upgraded to transport fuel. The aqueous phase bio-oil (AP-bio-oil) is of low value. There is no report for its usage or upgrading via biological methods. In this paper, the use of AP-bio-oil for the production of succinic acid was investigated. Results The transgenic E. coli strain could grow in modified M9 medium containing 20 v/v% AP-bio-oil with an increase in OD from 0.25 to 1.09. And 0.38 g/L succinic acid was produced. With the presence of 4 g/L glucose in the medium, succinic acid concentration increased from 1.4 to 2.4 g/L by addition of 20 v/v% AP-bio-oil. When enzymatic hydrolysate of corn stover was used as carbon source, 10.3 g/L succinic acid was produced. The obtained succinic acid concentration increased to 11.5 g/L when 12.5 v/v% AP-bio-oil was added. However, it decreased to 8 g/L when 50 v/v% AP-bio-oil was added. GC-MS analysis revealed that some low molecular carbon compounds in the AP-bio-oil were utilized by E. coli. Conclusions The results indicate that AP-bio-oil can be used by E. coli for cell growth and succinic acid production. PMID:23657107

  10. Glyphosate effect on shikimate, nitrate reductase activity, yield, and seed composition in corn.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Krishna N; Bellaloui, Nacer; Zablotowicz, Robert M

    2010-03-24

    When glyphosate is applied to glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops, drift to nonglyphosate-resistant (non-GR) crops may cause significant injury and reduce yields. Tools are needed to quantify injury and predict crop losses. In this study, glyphosate drift was simulated by direct application at 12.5% of the recommended label rate to non-GR corn (Zea mays L.) at 3 or 6 weeks after planting (WAP) during two field seasons in the Mississippi delta region of the southeastern USA. Visual plant injury, shikimate accumulation, nitrate reductase activity, leaf nitrogen, yield, and seed composition were evaluated. Effects were also evaluated in GR corn and GR corn with stacked glufosinate-resistant gene at the recommended label rate at 3 and 6 WAP. Glyphosate at 105 g ae/ha was applied once at 3 or 6 weeks after planting to non-GR corn. Glyphosate at 840 (lower label limit) or 1260 (upper label limit) g ae/ha was applied twice at 3 and 6 WAP to transgenic corn. Glyphosate caused injury (45-55%) and increased shikimate levels (24-86%) in non-GR compared to nontreated corn. In non-GR corn, glyphosate drift did not affect starch content but increased seed protein 8-21% while reducing leaf nitrogen reductase activity 46-64%, leaf nitrogen 7-16%, grain yield 49-54%, and seed oil 18-23%. In GR and GR stacked with glufosinate-resistant corn, glyphosate applied at label rates did not affect corn yield, leaf and seed nitrogen, or seed composition (protein, oil, and starch content). Yet, nitrate reductase activity was reduced 5-19% with glyphosate at 840 + 840 g/ha rate and 8-42% with glyphosate at 1260 + 1260 g/ha rate in both GR and GR stacked corn. These results demonstrate the potential for severe yield loss in non-GR corn exposed to glyphosate drift. PMID:20180575

  11. Analysis of fractionation in corn-to-ethanol plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Camille

    As the dry grind ethanol industry has grown, the research and technology surrounding ethanol production and co-product value has increased. Including use of back-end oil extraction and front-end fractionation. Front-end fractionation is pre-fermentation separation of the corn kernel into 3 fractions: endosperm, bran, and germ. The endosperm fraction enters the existing ethanol plant, and a high protein DDGS product remains after fermentation. High value oil is extracted out of the germ fraction. This leaves corn germ meal and bran as co-products from the other two streams. These 3 co-products have a very different composition than traditional corn DDGS. Installing this technology allows ethanol plants to increase profitability by tapping into more diverse markets, and ultimately could allow for an increase in profitability. An ethanol plant model was developed to evaluate both back-end oil extraction and front-end fractionation technology and predict the change in co-products based on technology installed. The model runs in Microsoft Excel and requires inputs of whole corn composition (proximate analysis), amino acid content, and weight to predict the co-product quantity and quality. User inputs include saccharification and fermentation efficiencies, plant capacity, and plant process specifications including front-end fractionation and backend oil extraction, if applicable. This model provides plants a way to assess and monitor variability in co-product composition due to the variation in whole corn composition. Additionally the co-products predicted in this model are entered into the US Pork Center of Excellence, National Swine Nutrition Guide feed formulation software. This allows the plant user and animal nutritionists to evaluate the value of new co-products in existing animal diets.

  12. Biodegradation of organic compounds during co-composting of olive oil mill waste and municipal solid waste with added rock phosphate.

    PubMed

    Barje, Farid; El Fels, Loubna; El Hajjouji, Houda; Winterton, Peter; Hafidi, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Liquid and solid olive oil mill waste was treated by com posting in a mixture with the organic part of municipal solid waste and rock phosphate. The transformations that occurred during the process were evaluated by physical, chemical and spectroscopic analyses. After five months of com posting, the final compost presented a C/N ratio under 20, an NH4+/NO3(-)] ratio under 1 and a pH around neutral. A high level of organic matter decomposition paralleled a notable abatement of phenols and lipids. The results show the effective dissolution of mineral elements during composting. This transformation was followed by Fourier transform infrared which showed a decrease in the absorption bands of aliphatic bonds (2925 and 2855 cm(-1)) and carbonyls of carboxylic origin (1740 cm (-1)). In addition to the increase in humic substances and the improvement of germination indices, the parameters studied confirm the stability and the maturity of the composts. The absence of phytotoxicity opens the way to agricultural spreading. PMID:24617055

  13. Energy and greenhouse gas profiles of polyhydroxybutyrates derived from corn grain: a life cycle perspective.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seungdo; Dale, Bruce E

    2008-10-15

    Polyhydroxybutyrates (PHB) are well-known biopolymers derived from sugars orvegetable oils. Cradle-to-gate environmental performance of PHB derived from corn grain is evaluated through life cycle assessment (LCA), particularly nonrenewable energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Site-specific process information on the corn wet milling and PHB fermentation and recovery processes was obtained from Telles. Most of energy used in the corn wet milling and PHB fermentation and recovery processes is generated in a cogeneration power plant in which corn stover, assumed to be representative of a variety of biomass sources that could be used, is burned to generate electricity and steam. County level agricultural information is used in estimating the environmental burdens associated with both corn grain and corn stover production. Results show that PHB derived from corn grain offers environmental advantages over petroleum-derived polymers in terms of nonrenewable energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Furthermore, PHB provides greenhouse gas credits, and thus PHB use reduces greenhouse gas emissions compared to petroleum-derived polymers. Corn cultivation is one of the environmentally sensitive areas in the PHB production system. More sustainable practices in corn cultivation (e.g., using no-tillage and winter cover crops) could reduce the environmental impacts of PHB by up to 72%. PMID:18983094

  14. 21 CFR 184.1262 - Corn silk and corn silk extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Corn silk and corn silk extract. 184.1262 Section... Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1262 Corn silk and corn silk extract. (a) Corn silk is the fresh styles and stigmas of Zea mays L. collected when the corn is in milk. The filaments are extracted with dilute ethanol...

  15. Study of lipids and lipid components in corn dried distiller's grains (DDG)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We extracted oil from corn dried distiller’s grains (DDG) with ethanol, hexane, and supercritical CO2 and found that it has a very large amount of some valuable nutraceutical phytochemicals including phytosterols, ferulate phytosterol esters (FPE), tocopherols, and tocotrienols. The oil fatty acid ...

  16. Insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis protect corn from corn rootworms.

    PubMed

    Moellenbeck, D J; Peters, M L; Bing, J W; Rouse, J R; Higgins, L S; Sims, L; Nevshemal, T; Marshall, L; Ellis, R T; Bystrak, P G; Lang, B A; Stewart, J L; Kouba, K; Sondag, V; Gustafson, V; Nour, K; Xu, D; Swenson, J; Zhang, J; Czapla, T; Schwab, G; Jayne, S; Stockhoff, B A; Narva, K; Schnepf, H E; Stelman, S J; Poutre, C; Koziel, M; Duck, N

    2001-07-01

    Field tests of corn co-expressing two new delta-endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have demonstrated protection from root damage by western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte). The level of protection exceeds that provided by chemical insecticides. In the bacterium, these proteins form crystals during the sporulation phase of the growth cycle, are encoded by a single operon, and have molecular masses of 14 kDa and 44 kDa. Corn rootworm larvae fed on corn roots expressing the proteins showed histopathological symptoms in the midgut epithelium. PMID:11433280

  17. Nanoemulsion delivery systems for oil-soluble vitamins: Influence of carrier oil type on lipid digestion and vitamin D3 bioaccessibility.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Bengu; Argin, Sanem; Ozilgen, Mustafa; McClements, David Julian

    2015-11-15

    The influence of carrier oil type on the bioaccessibility of vitamin D3 encapsulated within oil-in-water nanoemulsions prepared using a natural surfactant (quillaja saponin) was studied using a simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) model: mouth; stomach; small intestine. The rate of free fatty acid release during lipid digestion decreased in the following order: medium chain triglycerides (MCT) > corn oil ≈ fish oil > orange oil > mineral oil. Conversely, the measured bioaccessibility of vitamin D3 decreased in the following order: corn oil ≈ fish oil > orange oil > mineral oil > MCT. These results show that carrier oil type has a considerable impact on lipid digestion and vitamin bioaccessibility, which was attributed to differences in the release of bioactives from lipid droplets, and their solubilization in mixed micelles. Nanoemulsions prepared using long chain triglycerides (corn or fish oil) were most effective at increasing vitamin bioaccessibility. PMID:25977056

  18. Callosities, corns, and calluses.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, D.; Bentley, G.; Trevino, S. G.

    1996-01-01

    Inappropriate shoes, abnormal foot mechanics, and high levels of activity produce pressure and friction that lead to corns and calluses. Most lesions can be managed conservatively by proper footwear, orthoses, and, if necessary, regular paring. The lesions usually disappear when the causative mechanical forces are removed. Surgery is rarely indicated and should be specifically aimed at correcting the abnormal mechanical stresses. Images Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 6 Fig 7 PMID:8646101

  19. Evaluation of the "added value" of SIMS: A mass spectrometric and spectroscopic study of an unusual Naples yellow oil paint reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keune, Katrien; Hoogland, Frank; Boon, Jaap J.; Peggie, David; Higgitt, Catherine

    2009-07-01

    Naples yellow-containing oil paints aged under natural and artificial conditions were investigated as model systems to evaluate the potential of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) when used in combination with other mass spectrometric and spectroscopic analytical methods. Although the advantage of SIMS is the simultaneous detection of organic and inorganic components and their spatial distribution, the methodology has limitations in compound sensitivity and shows bias towards certain constituents. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) shows dicarboxylic fatty acids to be main components in the paint, but SIMS detects these compounds poorly. Electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) shows a broad range of glyceryl derivatives of mono- and dicarboxylic fatty acids (mono-, di- and triglyceride derivatives), while SIMS only detects the mono- and diglycerides of the monocarboxylic acids. Compared to SIMS, direct temperature-resolved mass spectrometry (DTMS) offers greater insight into how the various constituents are incorporated into the paint film, but SIMS data supports the information provided by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) on metal soap formation. The surface sensitivity of SIMS is an advantage for probing paint constituent distributions and was exploited to examine variations in the composition of the top and bottom of a paint film, and the spatial correlation between metal and fatty acid composition in metal soap aggregates. Disadvantages of SIMS are the low yields and matrix dependency of the organic species in the paint matrix. Application of an ultra-thin gold coating overcomes this, and enhances the organic secondary ion yields leading to more accurate spatial distribution.

  20. Effects of fish oil and starch added to a diet containing sunflower-seed oil on dairy goat performance, milk fatty acid composition and in vivo delta9-desaturation of [13C]vaccenic acid.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Laurence; Mouriot, Julien; Rouel, Jacques; Glasser, Frédéric; Capitan, Pierre; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Chardigny, Jean-Michel; Chilliard, Yves

    2010-08-01

    The potential benefits on human health have prompted an interest in developing nutritional strategies for specifically increasing rumenic acid (RA) in ruminant milk. The aims of the present study were to (i) compare two dietary treatments with lipid supplements on milk yield and composition, (ii) measure the in vivo delta9-desaturation of vaccenic acid (VA) to RA using 13C-labelled VA and (iii) determine the effect of the dietary treatments on this variable. Treatments were 90 g sunflower-seed oil (SO) per d or 60 g sunflower-seed oil and 30 g fish oil per d plus additional starch (SFO), in a grassland hay-based diet given to eight Alpine goats in a 2 x 2 cross-over design with 21 d experimental periods. Milk yield and composition were similar between treatments. Goats fed SFO had higher milk 6 : 0-16 : 0 concentration, lower milk sigmaC18 concentrations and showed no effect on milk VA and RA, compared with SO. At the end of the experiment, intravenous injection of 1.5 g [13C]VA followed by measurements of milk lipid 13C enrichment showed that in vivo 31.7 and 31.6 % of VA was delta9-desaturated into milk RA in the caprine with the SO and SFO treatments, respectively. The expression of genes encoding for delta9-desaturase (or stearoyl-CoA desaturase; SCD1, SCD5) in mammary tissues and four milk delta9-desaturation ratios were similar between treatments. In conclusion, the present study provides the first estimates of in vivo endogenous synthesis of RA (63-73 % of milk RA) from VA in goats, and shows no difference between the two lipid supplements compared. PMID:20307350

  1. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... principal protein component of corn endosperm. It consists mainly of zein and glutelin. Corn gluten is a... soluble proteins. Corn gluten is also produced as a byproduct during the conversion of the starch in...

  2. Single and blended maize volatiles as attractants for diabroticite corn rootworm beetles.

    PubMed

    Hammack, L

    2001-07-01

    Synthetic maize volatiles and analogs dispensed singly and blended were tested for attractiveness to western (WCR, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) and northern corn rootworm beetles (NCR, D. barberi) in maize fields. Newly identified attractants included syn-benzaldoxime, especially for NCR, and beta-caryophyllene for WCR females. (+/-)-Linalool was more effective than was (-)-linalool. Myrcene, (+)-beta-pinene, and (-)-beta-pinene were unattractive. Adding methyl salicylate to (+/-)-linalool, (+)-alpha-terpineol, or beta-ionone appeared to synergistically increase capture of WCR females, but dispensing the terpenes in binary blends did not. Dose-response data for methyl salicylate, (+/-)-linalool, and a blend of both compounds confirmed the synergy. beta-Caryophyllene, but not (-)-alpha-pinene, added to the latter blend produced a further synergistic increase in WCR female capture that did not vary with sesquiterpene dose from 1.0 to 100 mg. Indole addition to the same blend caused an increase in WCR female captures indicative of synergy, assuming that each did not individually lure different segments of the WCR female population. The green leaf volatiles (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol were unattractive alone and had no influence on efficacy of traps baited with 3.3 mg each of (+/-)-linalool, methyl salicylate, and beta-caryophyllene. The latter mixture captured about half as many WCR females as did 10 mg of 4-methoxycinnamaldehyde, a potent WCR attractant standard. Substituting beta-ionone for (+/-)-linalool yielded a ternary blend that captured more beetles than did the aldehyde and was unaffected by aldehyde addition. Olive oil, which has been used to sustain attractant volatilization, did not affect captures. The results show that the blending of maize volatiles has thepotential to greatly improve efficacy of lures having promising applications in corn rootworm population management. PMID:11504034

  3. Digestible energy content of corn- vs sorghum-based distiller's dried grains with solubles in finishing pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 120 finishing pigs (avg initial BW of 111 kg) was used in a 19-d experiment to determine the DE content of corn- vs sorghum-based distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The reference diet was 97.5% corn with vitamins, minerals, and amino acids added to meet or exceed all NRC sugges...

  4. Digestible energy content of corn- versus sorghum-based distiller's dried grains with solubles in finishings pigs.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 120 finishing pigs (avg initial BW of 111 kg) was used in a 19-day experiment to determine the digestible energy (DE) content of corn- vs sorghum-based distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The reference diet was 97.5% corn with vitamins, minerals, and amino acids added to meet o...

  5. Inhibition of bacterial and filamentous fungal growth in high moisture, nonsterile corn with intermittent pumping of trans-2-hexenal vapor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trans-2-hexenal (T-2-H), a plant-produced aldehyde, was intermittently pumped over a 7 d period into a small, bench top model of stored corn (non-sterile, moisture content about 23%). Naturally occurring bacteria and fungi, including added Aspergillus flavus, grew rapidly on corn not treated with T...

  6. Production of gluten and germ by ethanol fermentation of raw corn

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The Illinois ethanol fuel industry has grown to be an important part of our state's economy over the past 10 years. It provides an additional market for Illinois' abundant corn production, provides many industrial jobs, and substitutes a home-grown renewable energy resource for imported oil. More than 30 percent of all gasoline sold in Illinois contains 10 percent ethanol. The economics of producing ethanol from corn is strongly affected by the byproduct value and by the energy required in the production process. This document reports on efforts to research a new microbial process that would improve the ethanol fermentation process in both these areas. The new process allows direct fermentation of corn starch to ethanol without the usual requirement of cooking the corn. This reduces the amount of energy needed for production and recovers the protein-containing gluten and oil-containing germ with all of the original food value intact.

  7. MBI Biorefinery: Corn to Biomass, Ethanol to Biochemicals and Biomaterials

    SciTech Connect

    2006-02-17

    The project is a continuation of DOE-funded work (FY02 and FY03) that has focused on the development of the ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX) pretreatment technology, fermentation production of succinic acid and new processes and products to enhance dry mill profitability. The primary objective for work beginning in April 2004 and ending in November 2005 is focus on the key issues related to the: (1) design, costing and construction plan for a pilot AFEX pretreatment system, formation of a stakeholder development team to assist in the planning and design of a biorefinery pilot plant, continued evaluation of corn fractionation technologies, corn oil extraction, AFEX treatment of corn fiber/DDGs; (2) development of a process to fractionate AFEX-treated corn fiber and corn stover--cellulose and hemicellulose fractionation and sugar recovery; and (3) development of a scalable batch succinic acid production process at 500 L at or below $.42/lb, a laboratory scale fed-batch process for succinic acid production at or below $.40/lb, a recovery process for succinic acid that reduces the cost of succinic acid by $.02/lb and the development of an acid tolerant succinic acid production strain at lab scale (last objective not to be completed during this project time period).

  8. Aqueous enzymatic oil extraction from seeds, fruits, and other oil-rich plant materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several methods have been developed to obtain oil from corn germ, oilseeds, and other oil-rich plant materials using aqueous enzymatic methods. Unlike traditional oil extraction methods, these new processes are performed without the use of presses and without organic solvents. Beginning with olive...

  9. Migrated phthalate levels into edible oils.

    PubMed

    Sungur, Sana; Okur, Ramazan; Turgut, Faruk Hilmi; Ustun, Ihsan; Gokce, Cumali

    2015-01-01

    The determination of phthalates in edible oils (virgin olive oil, olive oil, canola oil, hazelnut oil, sunflower oil, corn oil) sold in Turkish markets was carried out using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Mean phthalate concentrations were between 0.102 and 3.863 mg L(-1) in virgin olive oil; 0.172 and 6.486 mg L(-1) in olive oil; 0.501 and 3.651 mg L(-1) in hazelnut oil; 0.457 and 3.415 mg L(-1) in canola oil; 2.227 and 6.673 mg L(-1) in sunflower oil; and 1.585 and 6.248 mg L(-1) in corn oil. Furthermore, the influence of the types of oil and container to the phthalate migration was investigated. The highest phthalate levels were measured in sunflower oil. The lowest phthalate levels were determined in virgin olive oil and hazelnut oil. The highest phthalate levels were determined in oil samples contained in polyethylene terephthalate. PMID:25896944

  10. Anaerobic digestion of corn stovers for methane production in a novel bionic reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meixia; Zhang, Guangming; Zhang, Panyue; Fan, Shiyang; Jin, Shuguang; Wu, Dan; Fang, Wei

    2014-08-01

    To improve the biogas production from corn stovers, a new bionic reactor was designed and constructed. The bionic reactor simulated the rumen digestion of ruminants. The liquid was separated from corn stovers and refluxed into corn stovers again, which simulated the undigested particles separated from completely digested materials and fed back again for further degradation in ruminant stomach. Results showed that the bionic reactor was effective for anaerobic digestion of corn stovers. The liquid amount and its reflux showed an obvious positive correlation with biogas production. The highest biogas production rate was 21.6 ml/gVS-addedd, and the total cumulative biogas production was 256.5 ml/gVS-added. The methane content in biogas ranged from 52.2% to 63.3%. The degradation of corn stovers were greatly enhanced through simulating the animal digestion mechanisms in this bionic reactor. PMID:24923659

  11. Effects of frying in various cooking oils on fatty acid content of farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our goal was to describe the effects of frying with various oils on the fatty acid content of rainbow trout. Four different oils were evaluated (peanut oil, high oleic sunflower oil, corn oil, and canola oil). Farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets were sliced into three portions and eac...

  12. Management of corn leafhopper (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) and corn stunt disease in sweet corn using reflective mulch.

    PubMed

    Summers, C G; Stapleton, J J

    2002-04-01

    Plastic reflective mulches significantly reduced populations of corn leafhopper, Dalbulus maidis (DeLong & Wolcott), adults and the incidence of corn stunt disease caused by Spiroplasma kunkelii (CSS) in late planted sweet corn (Zea mays L.). The reflective mulches were more effective than were either foliar or soil applied insecticides in managing both the leafhopper and the pathogen it transmits. Yields of marketable ears were 1.5 to 2 times greater in reflective mulch plots than from fallow plots. This was due to larger ears (individual ear weight and length) rather than an increase in the number of ears. The use of reflective mulches provides an alternative strategy to insecticides in the management of both D. maidis and corn stunt disease. Such a strategy may prove useful to growers in Latin America and to limited resource growers and organic growers in the United States who wish to grow corn without the use of insecticides. PMID:12020008

  13. Aflatoxin in corn hybrids infested at different growth stages with southwestern corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin is a potent toxin produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus. Contamination of corn, Zea mays L., with aflatoxin greatly reduces the value of corn grain and is a major impediment to profitable corn production in the South. Infestation of developing corn ears with southwestern corn borer, D...

  14. Screening for corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) resistance to transgenic Bt corn in North Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, and northern corn rootworms (NCR), D. barberi Smith & Lawrence, are major economic pests of corn in much of the U.S. Corn Belt. Western corn rootworm resistance to transgenic corn expressing Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) endotoxins has been confi...

  15. 9 CFR 319.102 - Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... beef cuts. 319.102 Section 319.102 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Meats, Unsmoked and Smoked § 319.102 Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts. In preparing “Corned Beef Round” and other corned beef cuts, except “Corned Beef Briskets,” the curing solution shall...

  16. 9 CFR 319.102 - Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... beef cuts. 319.102 Section 319.102 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Meats, Unsmoked and Smoked § 319.102 Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts. In preparing “Corned Beef Round” and other corned beef cuts, except “Corned Beef Briskets,” the curing solution shall...

  17. Diapause in northern corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diabroticite corn rootworms are prominent pests of maize and have adapted to both cultural and chemical management methods. In response to a widely used corn-soybean crop rotation in the U.S. Corn Belt over several years, northern corn rootworm (NCR) populations adapted by increasing the proportion ...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1865 - Corn syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Corn syrup. 184.1865 Section 184.1865 Food and....1865 Corn syrup. (a) Corn syrup, commonly called “glucose sirup” or “glucose syrup,” is obtained by... dehydrated form (dried glucose sirup). Depending on the degree of hydrolysis, corn syrup may contain,...

  19. Corn Culture: A Story of Intelligent Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Jude

    2008-01-01

    Scientists are not sure of how corn was created. There were two competing genetic theories about how corn came to be. One theory maintains that corn had been teased out of a wheatlike grass called teosinte (genus Zea), and the other contends that one now-extinct ancestor of corn had crossed with another grass, "Tripsacum," several millennia ago.…

  20. Characterization of Corn Grains for Ethanol Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives of this study were to understand how the composition of corn kernels and starch structure affect enzyme hydrolysis of starch in dry-grind corn and ethanol yield from yeast fermentation. Four selected corn inbred lines were used in this study. Starch in uncooked dry-grind corn samples sh...

  1. Analysis of archaeological triacylglycerols by high resolution nanoESI, FT-ICR MS and IRMPD MS/MS: Application to 5th century BC-4th century AD oil lamps from Olbia (Ukraine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnier, Nicolas; Rolando, Christian; Høtje, Jakob Munk; Tokarski, Caroline

    2009-07-01

    This work presents the precise identification of triacylglycerols (TAGs) extracted from archaeological samples using a methodology based on nanoelectrospray and Fourier transform mass spectrometry. The archaeological TAG identification needs adapted sample preparation protocols to trace samples in advanced degradation state. More precisely, the proposed preparation procedure includes extraction of the lipid components from finely grinded ceramic using dichloromethane/methanol mixture with additional ultrasonication treatment, and TAG purification by solid phase extraction on a diol cartridge. Focusing on the analytical approach, the implementation of "in-house" species-dependent TAG database was investigated using MS and InfraRed Multiphoton Dissociation (IRMPD) MS/MS spectra; several vegetal oils, dairy products and animal fats were studied. The high mass accuracy of the Fourier transform analyzer ([Delta]m below 2.5 ppm) provides easier data interpretation, and allows distinction between products of different origins. In details, the IRMPD spectra of the lithiated TAGs reveal fragmentation reactions including loss of free neutral fatty acid and loss of fatty acid as [alpha],[beta]-unsaturated moieties. Based on the developed preparation procedure and on the constituted database, TAG extracts from 5th century BC to 4th century AD Olbia lamps were analyzed. The structural information obtained succeeds in identifying that bovine/ovine fats were used as fuel used in these archaeological Olbia lamps.

  2. Effects of Pyramided Bt Corn and Blended Refuges on Western Corn Rootworm and Northern Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Keweshan, Ryan S; Head, Graham P; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2015-04-01

    The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, and the northern corn rootworm, Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), are major pests of corn (Zea mays L). Several transgenic corn events producing insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) kill corn rootworm larvae and reduce injury to corn roots. However, planting of Bt corn imposes selection on rootworm populations to evolve Bt resistance. The refuge strategy and pyramiding of multiple Bt toxins can delay resistance to Bt crops. In this study, we assessed the impact of four treatments--1) non-Bt corn, 2) Cry3Bb1 corn, 3) corn pyramided with Cry3Bb1 and Cry34/35Ab1, and 4) pyramided corn with a blended refuge--on survival, time of adult emergence, and size of western and northern corn rootworm. All treatments with Bt corn led to significant reductions in the number of adults that emerged per plot. However, at one location, we identified Cry3Bb1-resistant western corn rootworm. In some cases Bt treatments reduced size of adults and delayed time of adult emergence, with effects most pronounced for pyramided corn. For both species, the number of adults that emerged from pyramided corn with a blended refuge was significantly lower than expected, based solely on emergence from pure stands of pyramided corn and non-Bt corn. The results of this study indicate that pyramided corn with a blended refuge substantially reduces survival of both western and northern corn rootworm, and as such, should be a useful tool within the context of a broader integrated pest management strategy. PMID:26470183

  3. Update of distillers grains displacement ratios for corn ethanol life-cycle analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Arora, S.; Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Energy Systems

    2011-02-01

    Production of corn-based ethanol (either by wet milling or by dry milling) yields the following coproducts: distillers grains with solubles (DGS), corn gluten meal (CGM), corn gluten feed (CGF), and corn oil. Of these coproducts, all except corn oil can replace conventional animal feeds, such as corn, soybean meal, and urea. Displacement ratios of corn-ethanol coproducts including DGS, CGM, and CGF were last updated in 1998 at a workshop at Argonne National Laboratory on the basis of input from a group of experts on animal feeds, including Prof. Klopfenstein (University of Nebraska, Lincoln), Prof. Berger (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign), Mr. Madson (Rapheal Katzen International Associates, Inc.), and Prof. Trenkle (Iowa State University) (Wang 1999). Table 1 presents current dry milling coproduct displacement ratios being used in the GREET model. The current effort focuses on updating displacement ratios of dry milling corn-ethanol coproducts used in the animal feed industry. Because of the increased availability and use of these coproducts as animal feeds, more information is available on how these coproducts replace conventional animal feeds. To glean this information, it is also important to understand how industry selects feed. Because of the wide variety of available feeds, animal nutritionists use commercial software (such as Brill Formulation{trademark}) for feed formulation. The software recommends feed for the animal on the basis of the nutritional characteristics, availability, and price of various animal feeds, as well as on the nutritional requirements of the animal (Corn Refiners Association 2006). Therefore, feed formulation considers both the economic and the nutritional characteristics of feed products.

  4. Ethanol extraction of phytosterols from corn fiber

    DOEpatents

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Binder, Thomas P.; Rammelsberg, Anne M.

    2010-11-16

    The present invention provides a process for extracting sterols from a high solids, thermochemically hydrolyzed corn fiber using ethanol as the extractant. The process includes obtaining a corn fiber slurry having a moisture content from about 20 weight percent to about 50 weight percent solids (high solids content), thermochemically processing the corn fiber slurry having high solids content of 20 to 50% to produce a hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry, dewatering the hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, washing the residual corn fiber, dewatering the washed, hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, and extracting the residual corn fiber with ethanol and separating at least one sterol.

  5. Effect of Deep-Fat Frying on Phytosterol Content in Oils with Differing Fatty Acid Composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the fate of phytosterols in vegetable oils with varying fatty acid composition used for frying. High oleic sunflower (HOSun), corn (Corn), hydrogenated soybean (HSBO), expeller pressed soybean (ESBO), and expeller pressed low-linolenic acid soybean oil (...

  6. Polarised black holes in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Miguel S.; Greenspan, Lauren; Oliveira, Miguel; Penedones, João; Santos, Jorge E.

    2016-06-01

    We consider solutions in Einstein-Maxwell theory with a negative cosmological constant that asymptote to global AdS 4 with conformal boundary {S}2× {{{R}}}t. At the sphere at infinity we turn on a space-dependent electrostatic potential, which does not destroy the asymptotic AdS behaviour. For simplicity we focus on the case of a dipolar electrostatic potential. We find two new geometries: (i) an AdS soliton that includes the full backreaction of the electric field on the AdS geometry; (ii) a polarised neutral black hole that is deformed by the electric field, accumulating opposite charges in each hemisphere. For both geometries we study boundary data such as the charge density and the stress tensor. For the black hole we also study the horizon charge density and area, and further verify a Smarr formula. Then we consider this system at finite temperature and compute the Gibbs free energy for both AdS soliton and black hole phases. The corresponding phase diagram generalizes the Hawking-Page phase transition. The AdS soliton dominates the low temperature phase and the black hole the high temperature phase, with a critical temperature that decreases as the external electric field increases. Finally, we consider the simple case of a free charged scalar field on {S}2× {{{R}}}t with conformal coupling. For a field in the SU(N ) adjoint representation we compare the phase diagram with the above gravitational system.

  7. Value-added products from vegetable oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxygenated fatty acids are useful as specialty chemicals, plasticizers, and biomedicals. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to new comp...

  8. Diagravitropism in corn roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leopold, A. C.; Wettlaufer, S. H.

    1988-01-01

    The diagravitropic behavior of Merit corn (Zea mays L.) roots grown in darkness provides an opportunity for comparison of two qualitatively different gravitropic systems. As with positive gravitropism, diagravitropism is shown to require the presence of the root cap, have a similar time course for the onset of curvature, and a similar presentation time. In contrast with positive gravitropism, diagravitropism appears to have a more limited requirement for calcium, for it is insensitive to the elution of calcium by EGTA and insensitive to the subsequent addition of a calcium/EGTA complex. These results are interpreted as indicating that whereas the same sensing system is shared by the two types of gravitropism, separate transductive systems are involved, one for diagravitropism, which is relatively independent of calcium, and one for positive gravitropism, which is markedly dependent on calcium.

  9. Changes in composition and amino acid profile during dry grind ethanol processing from corn and estimation of yeast contribution toward DDGS proteins.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three sets of ground corn, yeast, intermediate masses and DDGS were collected from three commercial ethanol plants in Iowa. Samples were freeze-dried before chemical analysis. Compared to ground corn, there was slight increase in contents of protein, oil, ash, and amino acids (AA) before fermentati...

  10. An enzyme complex increases in vitro dry matter digestibility of corn and wheat in pigs.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyu Ree; Park, Chan Sol; Kim, Beob Gyun

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of enzyme complex on in vitro dry matter (DM) digestibility for feed ingredients. The objective of experiment 1 was to screen feed ingredients that can be effective substrates for an enzyme complex, mainly consisted of β-pentosanase, β-glucanase and α-amylase, using in vitro digestibility methods. In experiment 1, the test ingredients were three grain sources (barley, corn and wheat) and six protein supplements (canola meal, copra expellers, cottonseed meal, distillers dried grains with solubles, palm kernel expellers and soybean meal). In vitro ileal and total tract digestibility (IVID and IVTTD, respectively) of DM for test ingredients were determined. In vitro digestibility methods consisted of two- or three-step procedure simulating in vivo digestion in the pig gastrointestinal tracts with or without enzyme complex. As the enzyme complex added, the IVID of DM for corn and wheat increased (p < 0.05) by 5.0 and 2.6 percentage unit, respectively. The IVTTD of DM for corn increased (p < 0.05) by 3.1 percentage unit with enzyme complex addition. As the effect of enzyme complex was the greatest in corn digestibility, corn grains were selected to determine the in vitro digestibility of the fractions (starch, germ, hull and gluten) that maximally respond to the enzyme complex in experiment 2. The IVID of DM for corn starch, germ and hull increased (p < 0.05) by 16.0, 2.8 and 1.2 percentage unit, respectively. The IVTTD of DM for corn starch and hull also increased (p < 0.05) by 8.6 and 0.9 percentage unit, respectively, with enzyme complex addition. In conclusion, the enzyme complex increases in vitro DM digestibility of corn and wheat, and the digestibility increments of corn are mainly attributed to the increased digestibility of corn starch. PMID:27247894

  11. Biobased oil structure on amphiphilic and tribological properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biobased oils are those derived from farm-based renewable raw materials. Most are vegetable oils (such as soybean, canola, corn, etc.) or chemical modifications of vegetable oils. They have a number of interesting structural features that impact their amphiphilic and lubrication properties. The basi...

  12. Thermoluminescence properties of irradiated chickpea and corn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Necmeddin Yazici, A.; Bedir, Metin; Bozkurt, Halil; Bozkurt, Hüseyin

    2008-02-01

    A study was carried out to establish a detection method for irradiated chickpea and corn by thermoluminescence (TL) method. The leguminous were packed in polyethylene bags and then the packets were irradiated at room temperature at different doses by 60Co gamma source at 1, 4, 8 and 10 kGy. Minerals extracted from the leguminous were deposited onto a clean aluminum disc and TL intensities of the minerals were measured by TL. It was observed that the extracted samples from both leguminous exhibit good TL Intensity and the TL intensity of glow curves of them increased proportionally to irradiation doses. The TL glow curve of both irradiated leguminous presents a single broad peak below 400 °C. The TL trapping parameters glow peaks were estimated by the additive dose (AD), Tm(Ea)-Tstop and computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD) methods. The fading characteristics of glow curves were also recorded up to 6 months.

  13. Smeared antibranes polarise in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautason, Fridrik Freyr; Truijen, Brecht; Van Riet, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    In the recent literature it has been questioned whether the local backreaction of antibranes in flux throats can induce a perturbative brane-flux decay. Most evidence for this can be gathered for D6 branes and D p branes smeared over 6 - p compact directions, in line with the absence of finite temperature solutions for these cases. The solutions in the literature have flat worldvolume geometries and non-compact transversal spaces. In this paper we consider what happens when the worldvolume is AdS and the transversal space is compact. We show that in these circumstances brane polarisation smoothens out the flux singularity, which is an indication that brane-flux decay is prevented. This is consistent with the fact that the cosmological constant would be less negative after brane-flux decay. Our results extend recent results on AdS7 solutions from D6 branes to AdS p+1 solutions from D p branes. We show that supersymmetry of the AdS solutions depend on p non-trivially.

  14. Thermal edible oil evaluation by UV-Vis spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Rhayanna P; Março, Paulo H; Valderrama, Patrícia

    2014-11-15

    Edible oils such as colza, corn, sunflower, soybean and olive were analysed by UV-Vis spectroscopy and Multivariate Curve Resolution with Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS). When vegetable oils were heated at high temperatures (frying), oxidation products were formed which were harmful to human health in addition to degrading the antioxidants present, and this study aimed to evaluate tocopherol (one antioxidant present in oils) and the behaviour of oxidation products in edible oils. The MCR-ALS results showed that the degradation started at 110°C and 85°C, respectively, for sunflower and colza oils, while tocopherol concentration decreased and oxidation products increased starting at 70°C in olive oil. In soybean and corn oils, tocopherol concentration started to decrease and oxidation products increased at 50°C. The results suggested that sunflower, colza and olive oils offered more resistance to increasing temperatures, while soybean and corn oils were less resistant. PMID:24912699

  15. AdS orbifolds and Penrose limits

    SciTech Connect

    Alishahiha, Mohsen; Sheikh-Jabbari, Mohammad M.; Tatar, Radu

    2002-12-09

    In this paper we study the Penrose limit of AdS{sub 5} orbifolds. The orbifold can be either in the pure spatial directions or space and time directions. For the AdS{sub 5}/{Lambda} x S{sup 5} spatial orbifold we observe that after the Penrose limit we obtain the same result as the Penrose limit of AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5}/{Lambda}. We identify the corresponding BMN operators in terms of operators of the gauge theory on R x S{sup 3}/{Lambda}. The semi-classical description of rotating strings in these backgrounds have also been studied. For the spatial AdS orbifold we show that in the quadratic order the obtained action for the fluctuations is the same as that in S{sup 5} orbifold, however, the higher loop correction can distinguish between two cases.

  16. 21 CFR 155.131 - Canned field corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Canned field corn. 155.131 Section 155.131 Food... Canned field corn. (a) Identity. (1) Canned field corn conforms to the definition and standard of... corn by § 155.130(a), except that the corn ingredient consists of succulent field corn or a mixture...

  17. 21 CFR 155.131 - Canned field corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned field corn. 155.131 Section 155.131 Food... Canned field corn. (a) Identity. (1) Canned field corn conforms to the definition and standard of... corn by § 155.130(a), except that the corn ingredient consists of succulent field corn or a mixture...

  18. 21 CFR 155.131 - Canned field corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Canned field corn. 155.131 Section 155.131 Food... Canned field corn. (a) Identity. (1) Canned field corn conforms to the definition and standard of... corn by § 155.130(a), except that the corn ingredient consists of succulent field corn or a mixture...

  19. 21 CFR 155.131 - Canned field corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned field corn. 155.131 Section 155.131 Food... Canned field corn. (a) Identity. (1) Canned field corn conforms to the definition and standard of... corn by § 155.130(a), except that the corn ingredient consists of succulent field corn or a mixture...

  20. 21 CFR 155.131 - Canned field corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Canned field corn. 155.131 Section 155.131 Food... Canned field corn. (a) Identity. (1) Canned field corn conforms to the definition and standard of... corn by § 155.130(a), except that the corn ingredient consists of succulent field corn or a mixture...

  1. Field-based assessment of resistance to Bt Corn by Western Corn Rootworm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is a serious pest of corn and is managed with Bt corn that produce insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Beginning in 2009, severe injury to Bt corn producing Cry3Bb1 was observed in some cornfields ...

  2. Utilisation of Corn (Zea mays) Bran and Corn Fiber in the Production of Food Components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past decade, the demand for ethanol has increased dramatically. Demand for other products of corn milling, such as starches and sweeteners, is also expected to increase. With the increase in demand for industrial and food use of corn, the production of byproducts, such as corn fiber, corn...

  3. 77 FR 10617 - Wellsboro & Corning Railroad, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Wellsboro & Corning...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Wellsboro & Corning Railroad, LLC--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Wellsboro & Corning Railroad Company Wellsboro & Corning Railroad, LLC (WCLLC), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from Wellsboro & Corning Railroad Company...

  4. Resistance to Bt corn by western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in the U.S. corn belt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic Bt corn hybrids that produce insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner have become the standard insect management tactic across the United States Corn Belt. Widespread planting of Bt corn creates intense selection pressure for target insects to develop resis...

  5. SOIL FUMIGATION WITHIN MONOCULTURE AND ROTATIONS: RESPONSE OF CORN AND MYCORRHIZAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The causative factors for corn (Zea mays L.) response to methyl bromide (CH,Br) fumigation, in the absence of known specific pathogens, are unknown. his study was conducted to determine if deleterious nonspecific rhizosphere microorganism are the causative agents. oil fumigation ...

  6. Biodiesel from corn distillers dried grains with solubles: preparation, evaluation and properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn distillers’ dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is a co-product of dry-grind ethanol fermentation and represents a low-cost feedstock with potential to improve process economics and logistics of biodiesel manufacture through integration of biodiesel and ethanol production. Oil extracted from DDGS...

  7. Angiotensin I Converting enzyme inhibitory peptides from commercial wet- and dry-milled corn germ

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioprocesses were developed to enhance the value of proteins from de-oiled corn germ. Proteins were hydrolyzed with trypsin, GC106, Flavourzyme or thermolysin in order to free the bioactive peptide sequences. Protein hydrolysis, at an enzyme to substrate ratio of 1:250, was greater for wet- than d...

  8. Corn-in-chip: Mesofluidic Device for Corn Root

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreis, Kevin; Ryu, Sangjin

    2015-03-01

    Plants have a collection of beneficial microorganisms in a region surrounding their roots called the rhizosphere. Although rhizosphere management could increase crop yield, little is known about the interaction between plant roots and their associated microorganisms. Thus we aim to simulate the rhizosphere and monitor root-microbe interactions in the lab environment, and have chosen corn as a model plant because of its economic significance. Here we present our preliminary study to develop a transparent mesofluidic device accommodating the root of corn seedlings into its channel and allowing further growth of the root.

  9. Fuel and lubricant additives from acid treated mixtures of vegetable oil derived amides and esters

    SciTech Connect

    Bonazza, B.R.; Devault, A.N.

    1981-05-26

    Vegetable oils such as corn oil, peanut oil, and soy oil are reacted with polyamines to form a mixture containing amides, imides, half esters, and glycerol with subsequent treatment with a strong acid such as sulfonic acid to produce a product mix that has good detergent properties in fuels and lubricants.

  10. Oxidative and Flavor Stability of Tortilla Chips Fried in Expeller Pressed Low Linolenic Acid Soybean Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Continuous pilot plant frying studies were conducted for potato chips using five oils: expeller pressed soybean oil (SBO); low linolenic acid expeller pressed SBO (EPLLSBO); high oleic sunflower oil (HOSUN); corn oil and hydrogenated SBO (HSBO) for 9 h of frying. The chips were aged at 25 deg C. A...

  11. Osage orange (Maclura pomifera L) seed oil poly-(-a-hydroxy dibutylamine) triglycerides: Synthesis and characterization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In exploring alternative vegetable oils for non-food industrial applications, especially in temperate climates, tree seed oils that are not commonly seen as competitors to soybean, peanut, and corn oils can become valuable sources of new oils. Many trees produce edible fruits and seeds while others ...

  12. Sedimentation and deformation of an aqueous sodium hydroxide drop in vegetable oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Andrew; Hyacinthe, Hyaquino; Ward, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    The addition of water droplets in fuels is known to provide benefits such as decreased Nitrous Oxide NOx emissions. Unfortunately the shelf life of a water-fuel emulsion is limited by the sedimentation rate of the water droplets. It is well known that adding surfactants can significantly slow the sedimentation rate due to the introduction of Marangoni stresses. In the case of a vegetable oil fuel, adding sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to the water droplets will produce surfactants through saponification in the form of sodium-carboxylate salts. Pendant drops of aqueous NaOH solutions with pH between 11 and 13 will be suspended in several oils such as corn, olive, canola and soybean oil in order to measure the interfacial tension. The change in interfacial tension with time will be used to estimate the surfactant concentration and the saponification rate. Then individual drops will be placed in the oils to observe the settling velocity and drop deformation. NSF CBET.

  13. The 1971 corn blight watch experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clifton, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The successful fulfillment of the objectives for the 1971 corn blight watch experiment is reported. The objectives were: (1) detect the development and spread of corn blight during the growing season across the Corn Belt; (2) assess different levels of infection in the Corn Belt; (3) amplify data acquired by ground observations to better appraise current blight status and the probable impact on crop production; and (4) estimate through extrapolation the applicability of these techniques to similar situations occurring in the future.

  14. 21 CFR 184.1865 - Corn syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Corn syrup. 184.1865 Section 184.1865 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1865 Corn syrup. (a) Corn syrup, commonly called “glucose sirup” or “glucose syrup,” is obtained by partial hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1865 - Corn syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Corn syrup. 184.1865 Section 184.1865 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1865 Corn syrup. (a) Corn syrup, commonly called “glucose sirup” or “glucose syrup,” is obtained by partial hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or...

  16. Effects of various roughage levels with whole flint corn grain on performance of finishing cattle.

    PubMed

    Marques, R S; Chagas, L J; Owens, F N; Santos, F A P

    2016-01-01

    Performance responses to steam flaking flint corn as well as to the addition of roughage to finishing diets composed of whole flint corn were evaluated. Ninety-six Nellore bulls were stratified by initial BW (373 ± 11 kg) and randomly allotted to 16 feedlot pens (6 bulls/pen) in a randomized complete block design with 4 replicates/treatment. Dietary treatments for the 86-d feeding trial consisted of (DM basis) 1) 78.8% steam-flaked flint corn with 6% sugarcane bagasse and 0.20% urea, 2) 85% whole flint corn without sugarcane bagasse, 3) 81.9% whole flint corn with 3% sugarcane bagasse and 0.10% urea, and 4) 78.8% whole flint corn with 6% sugarcane bagasse and 0.20% urea. All diets contained 15% (DM basis) of a pelleted protein, mineral, and vitamin supplement. Compared with whole flint corn grain, flaking of flint grain decreased ( < 0.01) DMI but did not alter ADG ( = 0.86), so G:F was increased ( = 0.02). Although steam flaking did not alter final BW and carcass characteristics ( > 0.47), it increased energy content of the diet ( < 0.03) and total tract starch digestibility ( < 0.01). In addition, flaking increased ( < 0.01) NEg of flint corn when compared with whole corn. Increasing the roughage content of WC-based diets resulted in quadratic ( < 0.02) responses in DMI, NEm and NEg intakes, ADG, and final BW but had no effect ( > 0.47) on G:F or on observed energy content of the diet. In summary, steam flaking of flint corn when fed in diets containing 6% sugarcane bagasse decreased DMI by 17% but increased G:F by 20% and NEg of corn calculated from feedlot performance by 23%; these responses markedly exceed those typically observed with dent corn grain. Moreover, adding 3% sugarcane bagasse to a flint whole corn grain diet optimized feedlot performance of Nellore bulls. PMID:26812339

  17. Effect of fatty acid profile in vegetable oils and antioxidant supplementation on dairy cattle performance and milk fat depression.

    PubMed

    He, M; Armentano, L E

    2011-05-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of unprotected vegetable oils differing in fatty acid profiles with or without a commercial antioxidant (Agrado Plus, Novus International, St. Charles, MO) on dairy cattle performance, milk fatty acid profiles, and milk fat depression. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows were blocked by production (high and low) and assigned to Agrado Plus or no Agrado Plus diets as the main plot in this experiment. The 6 cows in each of the fixed effect groups (high with and without Agrado, low with and without Agrado) were then assigned to a 6 × 6 Latin square as a split plot with 21-d periods. The 6 dietary treatments in the split-plot Latin square were no added oil (control), or 5% DM as oil from palm (PO), high-oleic safflower (OSAF), high-linoleic safflower (LSAF), linseed (LNSD), or corn (CO). Added oil replaced corn starch in the total mixed ration. Diets were formulated to have similar crude protein and neutral detergent fiber, and consisted of 41.2% alfalfa silage, 18.3% corn silage, and 40.5% concentrate mix (dry matter basis). Feeding Agrado Plus did not affect milk, milk fat, or milk protein production or milk fatty acid composition in this study. No significant differences were found between oil feeding versus control for dry matter intake, milk yield, and milk protein yield, but oils other than PO significantly decreased milk fat concentration and proportion and yield of milk short- and medium-chain fatty acids (C(<16)). Feeding PO effectively maintained milk fat yield (1.18 kg/d) and concentration (3.44%), whereas the oils rich in linoleic acid (CO and LSAF) significantly decreased milk fat yield (0.98 and 0.86 vs. 1.14 kg/d) and concentration (3.05 and 2.83 vs. 3.41%) compared with control. Similar lactation performance between OSAF and LNSD suggests that oleic and linolenic acids are roughly equal in potency of milk fat depression. PMID:21524540

  18. "King Corn": Teaching the Food Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinehart, Tim

    2012-01-01

    "King Corn" is in so many ways the story of how government food policy has entirely remade the food landscape in the United States over the last 40 years. From the massive expansion of the number of acres of corn grown across the country, to the ever-increasing ways that corn is incorporated into the food production process, to the industrial…

  19. 9 CFR 319.100 - Corned beef.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... permitting that use in this subchapter or 9 CFR Chapter III, Subchapter E, or in 21 CFR Chapter I, Subchapter... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef. 319.100 Section 319.100... Corned beef. “Corned Beef” shall be prepared from beef briskets, navels, clods, middle ribs,...

  20. Geographic information systems in corn rootworm management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn rootworms (Diabrotica spp. Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are serious pests of corn (Zea mays) in the United States and Europe. Control measures for corn rootworms (CRW) were historically based upon chemical pesticides and crop rotation. Pesticide use created environmental and economic concerns. In...

  1. Does Bt Corn Really Produce Tougher Residues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bt corn hybrids produce insecticidal proteins that are derived from a bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis. There have been concerns that Bt corn hybrids produce residues that are relatively resistant to decomposition. We conducted four experiments that examined the decomposition of corn residues und...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1865 - Corn syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1865 Corn syrup. (a) Corn syrup, commonly called “glucose sirup” or “glucose syrup,” is obtained by partial hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or enzymes. It may also occur in the dehydrated form (dried glucose sirup). Depending on the degree of...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1865 - Corn syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1865 Corn syrup. (a) Corn syrup, commonly called “glucose sirup” or “glucose syrup,” is obtained by partial hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or enzymes. It may also occur in the dehydrated form (dried glucose sirup). Depending on the degree of...

  4. Alfalfa: A Companion Crop with Corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn grain-based ethanol is the major form of biofuel production in the USA. Corn is an attractive biofuel crop because it is easy to manage, process, and ship; is high yielding; and has significant industry support and research. However, there are concerns about growing corn in rotation with soyb...

  5. Experimental co-digestion of corn stalk and vermicompost to improve biogas production

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Guangyin; Zheng Zheng; Yang Shiguan; Fang Caixia; Zou Xingxing; Luo Yan

    2010-10-15

    Anaerobic co-digestion of corn stalk and vermicompost (VC) as well as mono-digestion of corn stalk were investigated. Batch mono-digestion experiments were performed at 35 {+-} 1 {sup o}C and initial total solid loading (TSL) ranged from 1.2% to 6.0%. Batch co-digestion experiments were performed at 35 {+-} 1 {sup o}C and initial TSL of 6% with VC proportions ranged from 20% to 80% of total solid (TS). For mono-digestion of corn stalk, a maximum methane yield of 217.60 {+-} 13.87 mL/g TS{sub added} was obtained at initial TSL of 4.8%, and acidification was found at initial TSL of 6.0% with the lowest pH value of 5.10 on day 4. Co-digestion improved the methane yields by 4.42-58.61% via enhancing volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentration and pH value compared with mono-digestion of corn stalk. The maximum biogas yield of 410.30 {+-} 11.01 mL/g TS{sub added} and methane yield of 259.35 {+-} 13.85 mL/g TS{sub added} were obtained for 40% VC addition. Structure analysis by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) showed that the lowest crystallinity of 35.04 of digested corn stalk was obtained from co-digestion with 40% VC, which decreased 29.4% compared to 49.6 obtained from un-treated corn stalk. It is concluded that co-digestion with VC is beneficial for improving biodigestibility and methane yield from corn stalk.

  6. Effects of replacing conventional corn silage with BMR corn silage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research has shown that the (lignin reducing) brown mid-rib mutation in corn silage, which increases in vitro fiber digestibility, does not always improve fiber digestibility when fed as part of a TMR; however, feed intake and milk production are increased. The objectives of this experiment...

  7. Real-time near-infrared spectroscopic inspection system for adulterated sesame oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Sukwon; Lee, Kang-jin; Son, Jaeryong; Kim, Moon S.

    2010-04-01

    Sesame seed oil is popular and expensive in Korea and has been often mixed with other less expensive vegetable oils. The objective of this research is to develop an economical and rapid adulteration determination system for sesame seed oil mixed with other vegetable oils. A recently developed inspection system consists of a light source, a measuring unit, a spectrophotometer, fiber optics, and a data acquisition module. A near-infrared transmittance spectroscopic method was used to develop the prediction model using Partial Least Square (PLS). Sesame seed oil mixed with a range of concentrations of corn, or perilla, or soybean oil was measured in 8 mm diameter glass tubes. For the model development, a correlation coefficient value of 0.98 was observed for corn, perilla, and soybean oil mixtures with standard errors of correlation of 6.32%, 6.16%, and 5.67%, respectively. From the prediction model, the correlation coefficients of corn oil, perilla oil, and soybean oil were 0.98, 0.97 and 0.98, respectively. The Standard Error of Prediction (SEP) for corn oil, perilla oil, and soybean oil were 6.52%, 6.89% and 5.88%, respectively. The results indicated that this system can potentially be used as a rapid non-destructive adulteration analysis tool for sesame seed oil mixed with other vegetable oils.

  8. Time resolved thermal lens in edible oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albuquerque, T. A. S.; Pedreira, P. R. B.; Medina, A. N.; Pereira, J. R. D.; Bento, A. C.; Baesso, M. L.

    2003-01-01

    In this work time resolved thermal lens spectrometry is applied to investigate the optical properties of the following edible oils: soya, sunflower, canola, and corn oils. The experiments were performed at room temperature using the mode mismatched thermal lens configuration. The results showed that when the time resolved procedure is adopted the technique can be applied to investigate the photosensitivity of edible oils. Soya oil presented a stronger photochemical reaction as compared to the other investigated samples. This observation may be relevant for future studies evaluating edible oils storage conditions and also may contribute to a better understanding of the physical and chemical properties of this important foodstuff.

  9. Effect of Malting and Nixtamalization Processes on the Physicochemical Properties of Instant Extruded Corn Flour and Tortilla Quality.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Nicolás Alberto; Salazar-García, María Guadalupe; Ramírez-Wong, Benjamín; Islas-Rubio, Alma Rosa; Platt-Lucero, Luis Carlos; Morales-Rosas, Ignacio; Marquez-Melendez, Rubén; Martínez-Bustos, Fernando

    2015-09-01

    This research aimed to prepare instant flour from malted and raw (un-malted) corn flours nixtamalized by the extrusion process and evaluate the effect on the physicochemical properties of tortillas prepared using these flours. White maize was malted for 24 h, dried at 50 ± 1 °C, and ground. Subsequently, 0.3 % lime and 25 or 30 % water were added to ground malted or un-malted corn, and the mixture was refrigerated (4 °C) for 12 h. These samples were nixtamalized by an extrusion process in a single screw extruder at two temperature profiles within four heating zones, TP1 (60, 60, 70, and 80 °C) and TP2 (60, 70, 80, and 90 °C), to obtain corn flour. Water was added to the extruded corn flours to make a dough, or masa, and the masa was then molded and baked to obtain tortillas. The corn flours were characterized according to their ability to absorb water and viscosity profile (RVA). The firmness and rollability after 2 and 24 h of storage were determined, and a sensory evaluation was conducted. The malted corn flour extruded with a 25 % moisture content and TP2 temperature profile yielded tortillas with the best firmness and rollability. In conclusion, the changes during the malting of corn grain and the nixtamalization by the extrusion process improved the water absorption capacity of flours and textural properties of the tortilla and produced a product with acceptable sensory properties. PMID:26059113

  10. Dispersal behavior of neonate European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on Bt corn.

    PubMed

    Razze, J M; Mason, C E

    2012-08-01

    European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), has historically been a significant economically important insect pest of corn (Zea mays L.) in the United States and Canada. The development in the 1990s of genetically modified corn expressing genes derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that encodes insecticidal crystalline (Cry) proteins has proven to be effective in controlling this insect as well as other corn pests. The purpose of this study was to assess the movement and dispersal behavior of neonate European corn borer on Bt corn. We examined differences in neonate European corn borer dispersal behavior for the first 4 h after eclosion in the field among a stacked pyramid (Cry1F X Cry1Ab X Cry34/35Ab1) Bt corn, a Cry1F Bt corn, and a non-Bt sweet corn; and in the laboratory among a Bt corn hybrid containing Cry1F, a hybrid containing Cry1Ab, a pyramid combining these two hybrids (Cry1F X Cry1Ab), and a non-Bt near isoline corn. In field experiments, we found that dispersal was significantly higher on Bt corn compared with sweet corn. In laboratory experiments, dispersal was significantly higher on Cry1Ab Bt corn and Cry1F X Cry1Ab Bt corn than on non-Bt near isoline corn. Results indicated that neonate dispersal may be significantly greater in Bt cornfields compared with non-Bt cornfields. The findings on dispersal behavior in this study will be useful in evaluating the efficacy of a blended seed refuge system for managing European corn borer resistance in Bt corn. PMID:22928300

  11. Calcium absorption from corn tortilla is relatively high and is dependent upon calcium content and liming in Mexican women.

    PubMed

    Rosado, Jorge L; Díaz, Margarita; Rosas, Angélica; Griffit, Ian; García, Olga P

    2005-11-01

    Corn tortillas are the staple food of Mexico. During their preparation, calcium is added to the tortillas; therefore, tortillas are the main source of calcium for a large proportion of the population. The bioavailability of calcium from lime-treated tortillas in humans is not known. The objectives of the present study were to determine calcium absorption from corn tortilla, to determine the effect of lime treatment on calcium absorption from corn tortilla, and to compare calcium absorption from tortilla prepared with a commercial corn flour and tortillas prepared with the traditional lime treatment at home. Nonpregnant, nonlactating women (n = 9) were administered 3 different treatments: 1) 180 g of corn tortilla prepared from corn flour with no lime treatment (CF), 2) 180 g of corn tortilla prepared from lime-treated commercial corn flour (LTCCF), or 3) 180 g of corn tortillas prepared from lime-treated home-prepared corn flour (LTHCF). Calcium absorption was measured using an established dual-tracer stable isotope technique. Calcium absorption of CF, LTCCF, and LTHCF was (mean +/- SD): 44 +/- 3.2, 32 +/- 4.4, and 30 +/- 2.4%, respectively; the fractional calcium absorption from CF differed from that of either LTCCF or LTHCF (P < 0.01). The total amount of calcium absorbed per treatment was higher in LTHCF (98.10 mg +/- 21.7) than in LTCCF (59.9 mg +/- 23.7, P < 0.001) and CF (3.78 mg +/- 0.9, P < 0.0.001). In conclusion, calcium absorption from corn tortillas is high and dependent on calcium concentration. The addition of calcium during lime treatment increases calcium concentration and total calcium absorption. PMID:16251614

  12. [Enrichment of precooked white corn flour (Zea mays) with amaranth seed flour (Amaranthus sp.)].

    PubMed

    Pacheco de Delahaye, E; Portillo, M

    1990-09-01

    Three mixtures of precooked white corn flour with 10, 20 and 30% amaranth flour were prepared. The sedimentation and consistency of the mixtures differed from those of the white corn flour, but without altering the capacity of dough formation to prepare arepas. The protein, fiber, and ash contents were higher than those of the precooked white corn flour. The functional properties of water and oil absorption increased in 20 and 10%, respectively. During the three-month storage, the protein and fat contents were not altered. Acceptability tests of the arepas were carried out and results indicated that those mixtures prepared with 10% and 20% substitution levels were acceptable from the sensory point of view. The protein quality was analyzed in terms of protein efficiency ratio (PER), which proved to be higher than that of the commercial white corn flour (PER 1.93), and the apparent digestibility was 92%. As far as lysine is concerned, results showed that arepas prepared with the mixture containing 10% amaranth (1.6 g lysine/100 g protein) and 20% (2.0 g lysine/100 g protein) also proved to be higher than the commercial white corn flour arepas (0.7 g lysine/100 g protein). Based on the above findings, enrichment of commercial white corn flour with grain amaranth flour, prior to the preparation of arepas, a product of high consumption in Venezuela as part of the habitual diet, is recommended. PMID:2134139

  13. Compatibility with corn: N credits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Productive and efficient short rotations of alfalfa and corn are needed to reduce energy inputs, produce food, feed, and energy, and yield the environmental quality benefits from the perennial legume. After decades of research, however, farmers and their advisors still question how much fertility ...

  14. Sustainable Corn Stover Harvest Strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn stover has been identified as an important initial source of biomass for conversion to ethanol and other biofuels. This poster presentation outlines on-going cooperative research being conducted near Ames, IA. Our university partner is responsible for developing the one-pass harvester and our I...

  15. Corn gluten meal application equipment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research has determined that corn gluten meal (CGM) produces an inhibitory effect and reduces root formation in several weed species. One limitation to further evaluation of CGM in field vegetable production is the difficulty in achieving a uniform application to the soil surface. The use o...

  16. Improved corn protein based articles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developing higher value uses for zein (corn protein), a potential major co-product of the bio-ethanol industry, will improve the economics of this business. Historically, zein was predominantly used in the textile fiber industry. Unfortunately the techniques used at that time to modify the zein cann...

  17. Our Mother Corn. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathers, Sherry; And Others

    Designed to accompany the preceding student text (which deals with the role of corn in the Seneca, Pawnee, and Hopi tribes), the teaching guide contains a suggested sequence of activities and needed supplementary information along with an indication of the student text they follow. Sections include: farming notes; basic needs activities; house…

  18. Alfalfa N credits to second-year corn larger than expected

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa can provide substantial amounts of nitrogen (N) to the first crop that follows it. Recent field research on first-year corn confirms that it is highly likely that grain yields will not improve with added fertilizer N, except on very sandy and very clayey soils. It is less clear how much fert...

  19. Production of extruded barley, cassava, corn and quinoa enriched with whey proteins and cashew pulp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Well-formulated snacks can play a positive role in enhancing health by providing essential nutrients, such as increased protein and fiber, that mitigate metabolic syndrome associated with obesity. Adding whey protein concentrate (WPC80) and cashew pulp (CP) to corn meal, a major ingredient in extru...

  20. Extrusion cooking using a twin-screw apparatus reduces toxicity of fumonisin-contaminated corn grits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extrusion cooking using a single screw configuration reduced fumonisin concentrations of corn grits in an earlier study. Adding glucose before cooking enhanced reductions and, in one of three trials, partially reversed in vivo toxicity. To determine the effectiveness of extrusion using the more effi...

  1. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of lignin from residue of corn stover to ethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To improve the economic viability of the biofuel production from biomass resource, a value-added lignin byproduct from this process is increasingly interested. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of lignin extracted from residue of corn stover to ethanol production were investigated. The lignin...

  2. Influence of Corn (Zea mays L.) Cultivar Development on Residue Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The amount and composition of crop residues added to soil in agricultural systems can influence decomposition processes and soil organic matter levels. This study aimed to evaluate residues (quantity and quality) of different corn cultivars commonly used in Brazilian cropping systems. The experiment...

  3. Greenhouse-gas Consequences of US Corn-based Ethanol in a Flat World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, E. A.; Coe, M. T.; Nepstad, D. C.; Donner, S. D.; Bustamante, M. M.; Neill, C.

    2008-12-01

    Competition for arable land is now occurring among food, fiber, and fuel production sectors. In the USA, increased corn production for ethanol has come primarily at the expense of reduced soybean production. Only a few countries, mainly Brazil, have appropriate soils, climate, and infrastructure needed for large absolute increases in cropped area in the next decade that could make up the lost US soybean production. Our objective is to improve estimates of the potential net greenhouse gas (GHG) consequences, both domestically and in Brazil, of meeting the new goals established by the US Congress for expansion of corn- based ethanol in the USA. To meet this goal of 57 billion liters per year of corn-based ethanol production, an additional 1-7 million hectares will need to be planted in corn, depending upon assumptions regarding future increases in corn yield. Net GHG emissions saved in the USA by substituting ethanol for gasoline are estimated at 14 Tg CO2-equivalents once the production goal of 57 million L/yr is reached. If reduced US soybean production caused by this increase in US corn planting results in a compensatory increase in Brazilian production of soybeans in the Cerrado and Amazon regions, we estimate a potential net release of 1800 to 9100 Tg CO2-equivalents of GHG emissions due to land-use change. Many opportunities exist for agricultural intensification that would minimize new land clearing and its environmental impacts, but if Brazilian deforestation is held to only 15% of the area estimated here to compensate lost US soybean production, the GHG mitigation of US corn-based ethanol production during the next 15 years would be more than offset by emissions from Brazilian land-use change. Other motivations for advancing corn-based ethanol production in the USA, such as reduced reliance on foreign oil and increased prosperity for farming communities, must be considered separately, but the greenhouse-gas-mitigation rationale is clearly unsupportable.

  4. The AdS particle [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Subir

    2005-09-01

    In this Letter we have considered a relativistic Nambu-Goto model for a particle in AdS metric. With appropriate gauge choice to fix the reparameterization invariance, we recover the previously discussed [S. Ghosh, P. Pal, Phys. Lett. B 618 (2005) 243, arxiv:hep-th/0502192] "exotic oscillator". The Snyder algebra and subsequently the κ-Minkowski spacetime are also derived. Lastly we comment on the impossibility of constructing a non-commutative spacetime in the context of open string where only a curved target space is introduced.

  5. New brine saturation for extraction of light filth from corn meal: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Freeman, C C

    1981-01-01

    An improved method has been developed for extracting light filth from corn meal. The proposed method uses only tap water, salt, olive oil, and alcohol, eliminating the need for costly and toxic solvents for the separation. Reports from 8 collaborators showed that recovery was 95.8% for insect fragments and 84.3% for rodent hairs by the proposed method, as compared with 90.6 and 88.6%, respectively, by the official method. The proposed method has been adopted as official first action to replace official method 44.042 for corn meal only. PMID:7204300

  6. Proportion of corn silage in diets of feedlot steers fed to achieve stepwise increases in growth.

    PubMed

    Rossi, J E; Loerch, S C

    2001-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of proportion of dietary corn silage during periods of feed restriction on performance of steers. In Exp. 1, Simmental x Angus steer calves (n = 107; initial BW = 273 +/- 3.8 kg) were allotted to 12 pens with eight or nine steers/pen and four pens/treatment. Periods of growth were 273 to 366 kg BW (Period 1), 367 to 501 kg BW (Period 2), and 502 to 564 kg BW (Period 3). In two of the dietary regimens, steers were given ad libitum access to feed throughout the experiment and were fed either a 15% corn silage diet in each period or an 85, 50, and 15% corn silage diet in Periods 1, 2, and 3; respectively. In the third feeding regimen, a programmed intake feeding regimen was used. Steers were fed a 15% corn silage diet in each period. However, feed intake was restricted to achieve a predicted gain of 1.13 kg/d in Period 1 and 1.36 kg/d in Period 2, and feed was offered for ad libitum consumption in Period 3. For the entire experiment, ADG was similar (P = 0.41) among treatments and feed efficiency was lower (P < 0.10) for steers in the corn silage regimen than for steers in the programmed intake and ad libitum regimens. In Exp. 2, Simmental x Angus steer calves (n = 106; initial BW = 233 +/- 2 kg) were allotted by BW to 12 pens (three pens/treatment) and fed in three periods similar to those described in Exp. 1. Four feeding regimens were investigated: 1) AL; steers were offered a 15% corn silage diet for ad libitum consumption in all three periods; 2) PI; DMI was programmed to achieve gains as described in Exp. 1; 3) CS-HLL; programmed intake as described above except diets contained 85, 15, and 15% corn silage in Periods 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and 4) CS-HIL; same feeding regimens as CS-HLL, except diets contained 85, 50, and 15% corn silage in Periods 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Steers were given ad libitum access to feed in Period 3. Overall ADG was lower (P < 0.05) for steers in the CS-HLL and CS

  7. The effects of physical and chemical preprocessing on the flowability of corn stover

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Nathan C.; Nagle, Nick; Sievers, David A.; Stickel, Jonathan J.

    2015-12-20

    Continuous and reliable feeding of biomass is essential for successful biofuel production. However, the challenges associated with biomass solids handling are commonly overlooked. In this study, we examine the effects of preprocessing (particle size reduction, moisture content, chemical additives, etc.) on the flow properties of corn stover. Compressibility, flow properties (interparticle friction, cohesion, unconfined yield stress, etc.), and wall friction were examined for five corn stover samples: ground, milled (dry and wet), acid impregnated, and deacetylated. The ground corn stover was found to be the least compressible and most flowable material. The water and acid impregnated stovers had similar compressibilities. Yet, the wet corn stover was less flowable than the acid impregnated sample, which displayed a flow index equivalent to the dry, milled corn stover. The deacetylated stover, on the other hand, was the most compressible and least flowable examined material. However, all of the tested stover samples had internal friction angles >30°, which could present additional feeding and handling challenges. All of the ''wetted'' materials (water, acid, and deacetylated) displayed reduced flowabilities (excluding the acid impregnated sample), and enhanced compressibilities and wall friction angles, indicating the potential for added handling issues; which was corroborated via theoretical hopper design calculations. All of the ''wetted'' corn stovers require larger theoretical hopper outlet diameters and steeper hopper walls than the examined ''dry'' stovers.

  8. The effects of physical and chemical preprocessing on the flowability of corn stover

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Crawford, Nathan C.; Nagle, Nick; Sievers, David A.; Stickel, Jonathan J.

    2015-12-20

    Continuous and reliable feeding of biomass is essential for successful biofuel production. However, the challenges associated with biomass solids handling are commonly overlooked. In this study, we examine the effects of preprocessing (particle size reduction, moisture content, chemical additives, etc.) on the flow properties of corn stover. Compressibility, flow properties (interparticle friction, cohesion, unconfined yield stress, etc.), and wall friction were examined for five corn stover samples: ground, milled (dry and wet), acid impregnated, and deacetylated. The ground corn stover was found to be the least compressible and most flowable material. The water and acid impregnated stovers had similar compressibilities.more » Yet, the wet corn stover was less flowable than the acid impregnated sample, which displayed a flow index equivalent to the dry, milled corn stover. The deacetylated stover, on the other hand, was the most compressible and least flowable examined material. However, all of the tested stover samples had internal friction angles >30°, which could present additional feeding and handling challenges. All of the ''wetted'' materials (water, acid, and deacetylated) displayed reduced flowabilities (excluding the acid impregnated sample), and enhanced compressibilities and wall friction angles, indicating the potential for added handling issues; which was corroborated via theoretical hopper design calculations. All of the ''wetted'' corn stovers require larger theoretical hopper outlet diameters and steeper hopper walls than the examined ''dry'' stovers.« less

  9. Probing crunching AdS cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S. Prem; Vaganov, Vladislav

    2016-02-01

    Holographic gravity duals of deformations of CFTs formulated on de Sitter spacetime contain FRW geometries behind a horizon, with cosmological big crunch singularities. Using a specific analytically tractable solution within a particular single scalar truncation of {N}=8 supergravity on AdS4, we first probe such crunching cosmologies with spacelike radial geodesics that compute spatially antipodal correlators of large dimension boundary operators. At late times, the geodesics lie on the FRW slice of maximal expansion behind the horizon. The late time two-point functions factorise, and when transformed to the Einstein static universe, they exhibit a temporal non-analyticity determined by the maximal value of the scale factor ã max. Radial geodesics connecting antipodal points necessarily have de Sitter energy Ɛ ≲ ã max, while geodesics with Ɛ > ã max terminate at the crunch, the two categories of geodesics being separated by the maximal expansion slice. The spacelike crunch singularity is curved "outward" in the Penrose diagram for the deformed AdS backgrounds, and thus geodesic limits of the antipodal correlators do not directly probe the crunch. Beyond the geodesic limit, we point out that the scalar wave equation, analytically continued into the FRW patch, has a potential which is singular at the crunch along with complex WKB turning points in the vicinity of the FRW crunch. We then argue that the frequency space Green's function has a branch point determined by ã max which corresponds to the lowest quasinormal frequency.

  10. Enhancing in vitro degradation of alfalfa hay and corn silage using feed enzymes.

    PubMed

    Eun, J-S; Beauchemin, K A

    2007-06-01

    A series of in vitro fermentation experiments was performed to assess the effects of 4 feed enzyme products (FE) that varied in enzymatic activities on the degradation of alfalfa hay and corn silage. The FE contained a range of endoglucanase, exoglucanase, xylanase, and protease activities, and a range of dose rates (DR) was used. The objective of the study was to identify effective formulations and optimum DR, and to establish if combining FE would further improve fiber degradation. For alfalfa hay, quadratic increases in gas production and degradation of dry matter (DM) and fiber were observed for all FE, with maximum responses at low to medium DR. For corn silage, none of the FE increased gas production or DM degradation, but all FE increased NDF degradation, with optimum DR in the low to medium range. The proteolytic enzyme papain improved fiber degradation of alfalfa hay and corn silage in a manner similar to that observed for polysaccharidase FE. Among the polysaccharidase FE, added activities of endoglucanase and exoglucanase were positively correlated with improvement in neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradability of corn silage, whereas only added endoglucanase activity tended to be correlated with improvement in NDF degradability of alfalfa hay. Combining effective polysaccharidase FE further improved fiber degradation of both forages, with greater improvements for corn silage. Combining polysaccharidase and proteolytic FE further improved NDF degradation of corn silage, but not alfalfa hay. Combination treatments generally resulted in additive effects with increases in fiber degradation equal to the sum of the improvements for the individual enzyme components. Improved fiber degradation of corn silage was associated with decreased acetate to propionate ratios. Enzyme products that improve in vitro degradation of forages may have the potential to improve lactational performance of dairy cows. PMID:17517724

  11. Precision placement of separated dairy sludge improves early phosphorus nutrition and growth in corn ( L.).

    PubMed

    Bittman, S; Liu, A; Hunt, D E; Forge, T A; Kowalenko, C G; Chantigny, M H; Buckley, K

    2012-01-01

    Efficient use of manure nutrients by crops is necessary to minimize losses to the environment. This field study examined the possibility of replacing side-banded mineral P with precision-placed high-P sludge (6.2-11.0% dry matter) obtained after settling dairy manure slurry. The sludge was injected at about 30 kg P ha (36.0-51.2 m ha) into the soil at corn row spacing, and the corn was planted 5, 10, and 15 cm beside the injection furrow. Controls included no added P and side-banded commercial P fertilizer. The treatments were tested on corn with low and high root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM). The study showed that sludge did not impede AM root colonization, corn germination, or seedling growth. Corn plants with both high and low levels of AM colonization responded to the sludge from the three-leaf stage and showed the greatest benefit at the six-leaf stage. Corn responded more to sludge placed at 5 than at 15 cm from the corn rows, whereas the response at the 10-cm spacing was intermediate. There was little difference in seedling growth or final harvest parameters between the side-banded fertilizer P and the 5-cm sludge treatment. The results show a new way to use manure nutrients, namely precision-placement sludge for corn. This may obviate the need for chemical fertilizers for improving farm nutrient balances. Other anticipated benefits are less energy use for hauling and injection of the sludge fraction and reduced risk of nutrient loss by runoff and volatilization (ammonia) and nuisance odors due to injection. PMID:22370420

  12. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is...

  13. 7 CFR 810.401 - Definition of corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of corn. 810.401 Section 810.401... GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Terms Defined § 810.401 Definition of corn. Grain that consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of shelled dent corn and/or shelled flint corn (Zea mays...

  14. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead...

  15. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead...

  16. 21 CFR 137.265 - Degerminated white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Degerminated white corn meal. 137.265 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.265 Degerminated white corn meal. (a) Degerminated white corn meal, degermed white corn meal, is the food prepared by grinding cleaned white corn and removing...

  17. 7 CFR 810.401 - Definition of corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definition of corn. 810.401 Section 810.401... GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Terms Defined § 810.401 Definition of corn. Grain that consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of shelled dent corn and/or shelled flint corn (Zea mays...

  18. 21 CFR 137.265 - Degerminated white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Degerminated white corn meal. 137.265 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.265 Degerminated white corn meal. (a) Degerminated white corn meal, degermed white corn meal, is the food prepared by grinding cleaned white corn and removing...

  19. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is...

  20. 7 CFR 810.401 - Definition of corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definition of corn. 810.401 Section 810.401... GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Terms Defined § 810.401 Definition of corn. Grain that consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of shelled dent corn and/or shelled flint corn (Zea mays...

  1. 21 CFR 137.265 - Degerminated white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Degerminated white corn meal. 137.265 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.265 Degerminated white corn meal. (a) Degerminated white corn meal, degermed white corn meal, is the food prepared by grinding cleaned white corn and removing...

  2. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead...

  3. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is...

  4. 21 CFR 137.265 - Degerminated white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Degerminated white corn meal. 137.265 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.265 Degerminated white corn meal. (a) Degerminated white corn meal, degermed white corn meal, is the food prepared by grinding cleaned white corn and removing...

  5. 7 CFR 810.401 - Definition of corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definition of corn. 810.401 Section 810.401... GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Terms Defined § 810.401 Definition of corn. Grain that consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of shelled dent corn and/or shelled flint corn (Zea mays...

  6. 21 CFR 137.265 - Degerminated white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Degerminated white corn meal. 137.265 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.265 Degerminated white corn meal. (a) Degerminated white corn meal, degermed white corn meal, is the food prepared by grinding cleaned white corn and removing...

  7. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is...

  8. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead...

  9. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is...

  10. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead...

  11. 7 CFR 810.401 - Definition of corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definition of corn. 810.401 Section 810.401... GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Terms Defined § 810.401 Definition of corn. Grain that consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of shelled dent corn and/or shelled flint corn (Zea mays...

  12. Pest Control in Corn and Soybeans: Weeds - Insects - Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doersch, R. E.; And Others

    This document gives the characteristics and application rates for herbicides used to control annual weeds in corn, annual and perennial broadleaf weeds in corn, quackgrass and yellow nutsedge in corn, and annual weeds in soybeans. It also gives insecticide use information for corn and soybeans. A brief discussion of disease control in corn and…

  13. 75 FR 48321 - Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Application August 4, 2010. Take notice that on July 26, 2010, Corning Natural Gas Corporation (Corning), 330 W. William Street, Corning... Natural Gas Act (NGA) requesting the determination of a service area with which Corning may,...

  14. Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid by etiolated and green corn tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Reinecke, D. )

    1989-04-01

    Etiolated corn tissues oxidase indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to oxindole-3-acetic acid (OxIAA). This oxidation results in loss of auxin activity and may plant a role in regulating IAA-stimulated growth. The enzyme has been partially purified and characterized and shown to require O{sub 2}, and a heat-stable lipid-soluble corn factor which can be replaced by linolenic or linoleic acids in the oxidation of IAA. Corn oil was tested as a cofactor in the IAA oxidation reaction. Corn oil stimulated enzyme activity by 30% while trilinolein was inactive. The capacity of green tissue to oxidize IAA was examined by incubating leaf sections from 2 week old light-grown corn seedlings with {sup 14}C-IAA. OxIAA and IAA were separated from other IAA metabolites on a 3 ml anion exchange column. Of the IAA taken up by the sections, 13% was oxidized to OxIAA. This is the first evidence that green tissue of corn may also regulate IAA levels by oxidizing IAA to OxIAA.

  15. Establishment of an oil and gas database for increased recovery and characterization of oil and gas carbonate reservoir heterogeneity. [Jurassic Smackover Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Kopaska-Merkel, D.C.; Moore, H.E. Jr.; Mann, S.D.; Hall, D.R.

    1992-06-01

    This volume contains maps, well logging, structural cross section, graph of production history, porosity vs. natural log permeability plots, detailed core log, paragenetic sequence, and reservoir characterization sheet for the following fields in southwest Alabama: North Smiths Church oil field; North Wallers Creek oil field; Northeast Barnett oil field; Northwest Range oil field; Pace Creek oil field; Palmers Crossroads oil field; Perdido oil field; Puss Cuss Creek oil field; Red Creek gas condensate field; Robinson Creek oil field; Silas oil field; Sizemore Creek gas condensate field; Smiths Church gas condensate field; South Burnt Corn Creek oil field; South Cold Creek oil field; South Vocation oil field; South Wild Fork Creek gas condensate field; South Womack Hill oil field; Southeast Chatom gas condensate field; Southwest Barrytown oil field; and Souwilpa Creek gas condensate field.

  16. Establishment of an oil and gas database for increased recovery and characterization of oil and gas carbonate reservoir heterogeneity. Appendix 1, Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Kopaska-Merkel, D.C.; Moore, H.E. Jr.; Mann, S.D.; Hall, D.R.

    1992-06-01

    This volume contains maps, well logging, structural cross section, graph of production history, porosity vs. natural log permeability plots, detailed core log, paragenetic sequence, and reservoir characterization sheet for the following fields in southwest Alabama: North Smiths Church oil field; North Wallers Creek oil field; Northeast Barnett oil field; Northwest Range oil field; Pace Creek oil field; Palmers Crossroads oil field; Perdido oil field; Puss Cuss Creek oil field; Red Creek gas condensate field; Robinson Creek oil field; Silas oil field; Sizemore Creek gas condensate field; Smiths Church gas condensate field; South Burnt Corn Creek oil field; South Cold Creek oil field; South Vocation oil field; South Wild Fork Creek gas condensate field; South Womack Hill oil field; Southeast Chatom gas condensate field; Southwest Barrytown oil field; and Souwilpa Creek gas condensate field.

  17. Flint corn grain processing and citrus pulp level in finishing diets for feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Gouvêa, V N; Batistel, F; Souza, J; Chagas, L J; Sitta, C; Campanili, P R B; Galvani, D B; Pires, A V; Owens, F N; Santos, F A P

    2016-02-01

    Four trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of flint corn processing and the replacement of corn with citrus pulp (CiP) in diets for Nellore feedlot cattle. In a 103-d finishing trial, 216 Nellore bulls (350 ± 24 kg initial BW) were used in a randomized complete block design with a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement of treatments. Factors included 2 processing methods, either ground corn (GC) or steam-flaked corn (FC), with CiP replacing each corn type at 4 levels (0, 25, 50, and 75% of DM). All diets contained 12% sugarcane bagasse and 88% concentrate (DM basis). Treatments were also evaluated in metabolism trials, in which 10 ruminally cannulated Nellore steers (389 ± 37 kg) were assigned to 2 independent but simultaneous 5 × 5 Latin squares, each using 1 method of corn processing (GC and FC). Interactions ( < 0.05) between corn processing and CiP inclusion level were observed for final BW, DMI, ADG, G:F, and HCW. With FC-based diets, added CiP linearly decreased final BW ( = 0.04), whereas with GC-based diets, added CiP quadratically increased final BW ( = 0.002). With FC-based diets, the inclusion of CiP linearly increased DMI ( = 0.03) and linearly decreased ADG ( = 0.03) and G:F ( = 0.001). Increasing CiP in GC-based diets quadratically increased DMI ( = 0.001), ADG ( = 0.005), and HCW ( = 0.003). In FC-based diets, CiP inclusion had no effect on HCW ( = 0.21). Dressing percent, LM area, and 12th-rib fat were not affected by diet ( ≥ 0.05). For steers fed GC diets, CiP inclusion in the diet quadratically decreased the molar proportion of isovalerate ( = 0.001) but linearly increased ruminal butyrate ( = 0.006). No differences ( ≥ 0.16) were observed for total VFA concentrations, acetate:propionate ratio, and ruminal NH-N as CiP replaced GC. For steers fed FC diets, the molar proportion of acetate linearly increased ( = 0.002) whereas the proportion of propionate was linearly decreased ( < 0.001), resulting in a linear increase ( = 0.001) in the

  18. Current and potential U.S. Corn Stover Supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Robin Lambert; Nelson, R; Perlack, Robert D; Sheehan, J.; Wright, Lynn L

    2007-01-01

    Agricultural residues such as corn (Zea mays L.) stover are a potential feedstock for bioenergy and bio-based products that could reduceU.S. dependence on foreign oil. Collection of such residues must take into account concerns that residue removal could increase erosion, reduce crop productivity, and deplete soil carbon and nutrients. This article estimates where and how much corn stover can be collected sustainably in the USA using existing commercial equipment and estimates costs of that collection. Erosion constraints to collection were considered explicitly, and crop productivity and soil nutrient constraints were considered implicitly, by recognizing the value of residues for maintaining soil moisture and including the cost of fertilizer to replace nutrients removed. Possible soil carbon loss was not considered in the analysis. With an annual production of 196 million Mg of corn grain (about9.2 billion bushels), the USA produces 196 million Mg of stover. Under current rotation and tillage practices, about 30% of this stover could be collected for less than $33 per Mg, taking into consideration erosion and soil moisture concerns and nutrient replacement costs. Wind erosion is a major constraint to stover collection. Analysis suggests three regions of the country (central Illinois, northern Iowa/southern Minnesota, and along the Platte River in Nebraska) produce sufficient stover to support large biorefineries with one million Mg per year feedstock demands and that if farmers converted to universal no-till production of corn, then over 100 million Mg of stover could be collected annually without causing erosion to exceed the tolerable soil loss.

  19. Assessment of remaining recoverable oil in selected major oil fields of the San Joaquin Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Klett, Timothy R.; Verma, Mahendra K.; Ryder, Robert T.; Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.; Le, Phoung A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an estimate of volumes of technically recoverable, conventional oil that could eventually be added to reserves in nine selected major oil fields in the San Joaquin Basin in central California. The mean total volume of potential oil reserves that might be added in the nine fields using improved oil-recovery technologies was estimated to be about 6.5 billion barrels of oil.

  20. Oil degradation in soil.

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, R L; Hudson, J O; Jamison, V W

    1976-01-01

    The environmental effects of adding certain selected petroleum products to field soils at widely separated geographical locations under optimum conditions for biodegradation were studied. The locations selected for study of soil biodegradation of six oils (used crankcase oil from cars, used crankcase oil from trucks, an Arabian Heavy crude oil, a Coastal Mix crude oil, a home heating oil no. 2, and a residual fuel oil no. 6) were Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania, Tulsa, Oklahoma, and Corpus Christi, Texas. The investigative process, covering a period of 1 year at each location, was conducted in 14 fields plots (1.7 by 3.0 m) to which the oils were added in a single application at a rate of 11.9 m3/4 X 10(3) m2. One-half of the plots at each location were fertilized, and the incorporation of the oils and fertilizers was accomplished with rototillers to a depth of 10 to 15 cm. Concentrations of all oils decreased significantly at all locations. The average reduction ranged from 48.5 to 90.0% depending upon the type of oil and location. Rates of degradation did not exceed 2.4 m3/4 X 10(3) m2 per month. Compositional changes in the oil with time were investigated using silica gel fractionation, gas chromatography, and ultraviolet absorbance. With the possible exception of the two fuel oils, the compositional changes were generally in the same direction for all of the oils. The silica gel fractionation and gravimetric data on residual oils show that all classes of compounds were degraded, but the more polar type degrade more slowly. Analysis of runoff water, leachate, and soils indicated that at the concentration applied no oil less was observed from these plots via water movement. No significant movement of lead compounds added to the soils in the used crankcase oils was observed. Significant increases in hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms were demonstrated in all treated plots using either the pure hydrocarbon, n-hexadecane, or the applied oils as the growth substrate

  1. Fuel ethanol from raw corn

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, C.L.; Rodda, E.D.; Steinberg, M.P.

    1983-06-01

    Crude amylase preparations were produced by growing Aspergillus awamori and A. niger on raw ground whole corn. These Koji preparations were used to hydrolyze the starch of raw ground whole corn to sugars during simultaneous fermentation of the sugars to ethanol by distillers active dry yeast. Ethanol concentrations of the fermentation beers were determined with gas-chromatography. These fermentations yielded an average of 89.6% theoretical ethanol compared to control, conventional, fermentations that had an average of 89.8%. Carbon dioxide evolutions were determined with use of Alwood valves. Both the Koji and conventional fermentations produced an average of 0.48 gram of carbon dioxide per gram of dry substrate starch within 72 hours. However, initially the conventional fermentation rate was greater. Koji dehydrated at 41/sup 0/C had no apparent detrimental effects on theoretical ethanol yield.

  2. Fuel ethanol from raw corn

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, C.L.; Rodda, E.D.; Steinberg, M.P.

    1983-06-01

    Crude amylase preparations were produced by growing Aspergillus awamori and A. niger on raw ground whole corn. These Koji preparations were used to hydrolyze the starch of raw ground whole corn to sugars during simultaneous fermentation of the sugars to ethanol by distillers active dry yeast. Ethanol concentrations of the fermentation beers were determined with gas-chromatography. These fermentations yielded an average of 89.6% theoretical ethanol compared to control, conventional, fermentations that had an average of 89.8%. Carbon dioxide evolutions were determined with use of Alwood valves. Both the Koji and conventional fermentations produced an average of 0.48 gram of carbon dioxide per gram of dry substrate starch within 72 hours. However, initially the conventional fermentation rate was greater. Koji dehydrated at 41 degrees C had no apparent detrimental effects on theoretical ethanol yield.

  3. Effect of transgenic corn hybrids and a soil insecticide on corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) beetle emergence in North Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Northern, Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence, and western corn rootworms, D. virgifera virgifera LeConte, are economic pests of corn, Zea mays L. (Poaceae) in North Dakota. Many area corn growers rely on transgenic Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) corn hybrids to manage corn rootworms. Our objective was...

  4. AdS3: the NHEK generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bena, Iosif; Heurtier, Lucien; Puhm, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    It was argued in [1] that the five-dimensional near-horizon extremal Kerr (NHEK) geometry can be embedded in String Theory as the infrared region of an infinite family of non-supersymmetric geometries that have D1, D5, momentum and KK monopole charges. We show that there exists a method to embed these geometries into asymptotically- {AdS}_3× {S}^3/{{Z}}_N solutions, and hence to obtain infinite families of flows whose infrared is NHEK. This indicates that the CFT dual to the NHEK geometry is the IR fixed point of a Renormalization Group flow from a known local UV CFT and opens the door to its explicit construction.

  5. Sources of Corn for Ethanol Production in the United States: A Review and Decomposition Analysis of the Empirical Data

    SciTech Connect

    Oladosu, Gbadebo A; Kline, Keith L; Uria Martinez, Rocio; Eaton, Laurence M

    2011-01-01

    The use of corn for ethanol production in the United States quintupled between 2001 and 2009, generating concerns that this could lead to the conversion of forests and grasslands around the globe, known as indirect land-use change (iLUC). Estimates of iLUC and related food versus fuel concerns rest on the assumption that the corn used for ethanol production in the United States would come primarily from displacing corn exports and land previously used for other crops. A number of modeling efforts based on these assumptions have projected significant iLUC from the increases in the use of corn for ethanol production. The current study tests the veracity of these assumptions through a systematic decomposition analysis of the empirical data from 2001 to 2009. The logarithmic mean divisia index decomposition method (Type I) was used to estimate contributions of different factors to meeting the corn demand for ethanol production. Results show that about 79% of the change in corn used for ethanol production can be attributed to changes in the distribution of domestic corn consumption among different uses. Increases in the domestic consumption share of corn supply contributed only about 5%. The remaining contributions were 19% from added corn production, and 2% from stock changes. Yield change accounted for about two-thirds of the contributions from production changes. Thus, the results of this study provide little support for large land-use changes or diversion of corn exports because of ethanol production in the United States during the past decade.

  6. Shadows, currents, and AdS fields

    SciTech Connect

    Metsaev, R. R.

    2008-11-15

    Conformal totally symmetric arbitrary spin currents and shadow fields in flat space-time of dimension greater than or equal to four are studied. A gauge invariant formulation for such currents and shadow fields is developed. Gauge symmetries are realized by involving the Stueckelberg fields. A realization of global conformal boost symmetries is obtained. Gauge invariant differential constraints for currents and shadow fields are obtained. AdS/CFT correspondence for currents and shadow fields and the respective normalizable and non-normalizable solutions of massless totally symmetric arbitrary spin AdS fields are studied. The bulk fields are considered in a modified de Donder gauge that leads to decoupled equations of motion. We demonstrate that leftover on shell gauge symmetries of bulk fields correspond to gauge symmetries of boundary currents and shadow fields, while the modified de Donder gauge conditions for bulk fields correspond to differential constraints for boundary conformal currents and shadow fields. Breaking conformal symmetries, we find interrelations between the gauge invariant formulation of the currents and shadow fields, and the gauge invariant formulation of massive fields.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of sulfide modified vegetable oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Butanethiol was used in ultraviolet-initiated thiol-ene reaction with canola and corn oils to produce sulfide-modified vegetable oils (SMVO). The crude SMVO product was successfully purified by solvent extraction, vacuum evaporation, and silica gel chromatography. The SMVO products were characterize...

  8. Free Radical Addition of Butanethiol to Vegetable Oil Double Bonds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Butanethiol was used in ultraviolet-initiated thiol-ene reaction with canola and corn oils to produce sulfide modified vegetable oils (SMVO). The crude SMVO product was successfully purified by solvent extraction, vacuum evaporation and silica gel chromatography. The SMVO products were characteriz...

  9. Production and analysis of citrinin in corn.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, L K; Ciegler, A

    1978-01-01

    A convenient method for the production and analysis of citrinin in corn is described. Up to 2.964 g of citrinin can be produced by Penicillium citrinum per kg of corn by harvesting on day 21 or later. The analysis method has a lower detection limit of 0.25 ppm. Heating citrinin-contaminated corn destroys citrinin but may produce another toxin instead. PMID:727774

  10. Prevalence of a gene conferring sensitivity to nicosulfuron and mesotrione in sweet corn and field corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In previous research, a single gene in a herbicide-sensitive sweet corn inbred, Cr1, conditioned sensitivity to nicosulfuron, mesotrione and other postemergence herbicides. Many other sweet corn hybrids and inbreds and certain field corn inbreds also have been noted as being sensitive to certain po...

  11. Exploring Management Options for Increasing Corn Land on NY Farms Affected by Rising Corn Prices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New York dairy farms use their most fertile land to produce corn silage, an important component of their production system. Increasing demand for corn by ethanol producers is driving up corn grain prices. This is introducing a major shift into the NY dairy farm system by prompting farmers to place m...

  12. Potential Harvestable Corn Cob Biomass in Several Production Systems in the Western Corn Belt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The proposed use of corn residues for biofuel production has increased interest in how much and what components of residue should/can be removed. One component of corn residue that is already being handled (corn cobs) might be an easily harvestable product that could be used for biofuel production. ...

  13. EFFECT OF SAMPLE PROCESSING PROCEDURES ON MEASUREMENT OF STARCH IN CORN SILAGE AND CORN GRAIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods for processing feedstuffs before analysis can affect analytical results. The effects of drying temperature and grinding method on starch analysis of corn silage and of grinding method on corn grain were evaluated. Corn silage samples dried at 55°C or 105°C and grain samples dried at 55°C w...

  14. Understanding successful resistance management: The European corn borer and Bt corn in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) has been a major pest of corn and other crops in North America since its accidental introduction nearly a hundred years ago. Wide adoption of transgenic corn that expresses toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis, referred to as Bt c...

  15. Proteins induced in corn (Zea mays) in response to the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinia nubilalis) is a major pest of corn. ECB begin by feeding in the whorl tissue and then eventually tunnel into the stalk of the corn where they cause most of the damage. Tunneling can disrupt the transport of water and nutrients in the plant and it provides sites...

  16. Localized Search Cues in Corn Roots for Western Corn Rootworm Larvae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Host-recognition cues that elicit a unique “tight-turning” behavior by larvae of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, were extracted from living corn roots with acetone. In behavioral bioassays, an acetone extract of corn roots had activity in the tight-turning bioassa...

  17. Evaluation of Elevated Dietary Corn Fiber from Corn Germ Meal in Growing Female Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the effects of high dietary corn fiber on growth and metabolic measures, female pigs (n= 48; initial body weight of 30.8 kg) were fed diets containing 0 to 38.6% solvent-extracted corn germ meal for 28 days. Increasing the level of dietary corn fiber had no impact on average daily gain o...

  18. Impact of corn variety on potential predators of larval corn rootworms (Coleoptera: Diabrotica spp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn rootworms (Coleoptera: Diabrotica spp.) are serious pests of maize around the world. Larvae feed on corn roots, which reduces uptake of water and nutrients and lowers plant yield. Current control practices rely on soil insecticides or genetically modified corn varieties. Although some researche...

  19. 3. Interior view of corn crib showing heavytimber framing, railed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Interior view of corn crib showing heavy-timber framing, railed trackway and corn car at upper level. - Laurel Valley Sugar Plantation, Corn Crib, 2 miles South of Thibodaux on State Route 308, Thibodaux, Lafourche Parish, LA

  20. Crude oil desalting process

    SciTech Connect

    Naeger, D.P.; Perugini, J.J.

    1992-05-19

    This patent describes a method for removing chlorides from crude oil during processing in a petroleum refinery desalter wash water operation. It comprises adding to the wash water or the crude oil upstream of the desalter a sufficient amount for the purpose of a composition comprising an organic amine with a pKb of from 2 to 6 and in which 1 to 18 carbon atoms are present per nitrogen atom and potassium hydroxide, the composition being mixed with the crude oil in the desalter to remove the chlorides from the crude oil at the desalter.

  1. Energy and nutrient utilization of broiler chickens fed corn-soybean meal and corn-based diets supplemented with xylanase.

    PubMed

    Stefanello, C; Vieira, S L; Carvalho, P S; Sorbara, J O B; Cowieson, A J

    2016-08-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of increased levels of a β-xylanase on energy and nutrient utilization of broiler chickens fed corn-soy diets. A total of 480 slow feathering Cobb × Cobb 500 male broilers were randomly distributed to 10 treatments having 8 replicates of 6 birds each. Birds were fed a common starter diet to d 14 post hatch (3,050 kcal/kg AMEn, 21.7% CP, 1.05% Ca, and 0.53% nPP). The experimental diets were provided afterwards until 25 d. Two experimental diets, a conventional corn/soy-based basal diet (CS) and the basal diet in which 40% of the diet was displaced by corn (CN), were fed as-is or supplemented with 50, 100, 150, or 200 fungal β-xylanase units (FXU)/kg. Dietary treatments were distributed factorially as a 2 × 5 arrangement. Samples of feed, excreta, and ileal digesta were analyzed for determination of ileal digestible energy (IDE), metabolizable energy, and total tract retention of protein and lipid. No interactions between diet and xylanase were observed. The CS diets had higher (P < 0.05) energy utilization and nutrient digestibility when compared to the CN diets. AMEn and IDE were improved (P < 0.05) by 192 and 145 kcal/kg, respectively, when diets were supplemented with 100 FXU/kg xylanase. The xylanase added to the CN diet led to quadratic increases (P < 0.05) in IDE (Y = - 0.014x(2) + 2.570x + 3,155; r(2) = 0.60) and in AMEn (Y = - 0.016x(2) + 3.982x + 3,155; r(2) = 0.68). Crude protein digestibility and AMEn were linearly increased (P < 0.05) when xylanase was added to the CN diet. In conclusion, energy utilization and digestibility of crude protein and dry matter increased with xylanase supplementation in corn/soy-based diets. When xylanase was tested in the CS diet, 92 and 124 FXU/kg maximized the energy release effect; however, the maximum energy response in the CN diet or corn was not achieved until 200 FXU/kg. PMID:26976897

  2. 33 CFR 157.35 - Ballast added to cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ballast added to cargo tanks. 157.35 Section 157.35 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... OIL IN BULK Vessel Operation § 157.35 Ballast added to cargo tanks. The master of a tank vessel...

  3. Effects of feeding silage and grain from glyphosate-tolerant or insect-protected corn hybrids on feed intake, ruminal digestion, and milk production in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Donkin, S S; Velez, J C; Totten, A K; Stanisiewski, E P; Hartnell, G F

    2003-05-01

    Lactating dairy cows were used to determine effects of feeding glyphosate-tolerant or insect-protected corn hybrids on feed intake, milk production, milk composition, and ruminal digestibility. Corn resistant to European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) infestation (Bt-MON810), or its nontransgenic control (Bt-CON), were planted in alternating fields during two successive years. One-half of each strip was harvested for whole plant corn silage and the remainder was allowed to mature and harvested as grain. Effects of feeding diets containing either Bt-MON810 or Bt-CON grain and silage were determined in two experiments (1 and 2) conducted during successive years. In experiment 3, glyphosate-tolerant Roundup Ready corn (RR-GA21) or its nontransgenic control (RR-CON) corn were grown in alternating fields during one cropping season. Diets contained 42 to 60% corn silage and 20 to 34% corn grain from Bt-MON810, RR-GA21, or the appropriate nontransgenic counterpart; treatments were applied using a switchback design. Cows were fed ad libitum and milked twice daily. There were no differences for nutrient composition between silage sources or between grain sources within an experiment. Data for experiments 1 and 2 indicated similar dry matter intake (DMI), 4% fat-corrected milk (FCM) production, and milk composition between Bt-MON810 and Bt-CON diets. There were no differences for DMI, 4% FCM production, and milk composition between RR-GA21 and RR-CON diets. There was no difference in ruminal degradability, determined separately for corn silage and corn grain, for RR-GA21 or Bt-MON810-hybrids compared with their respective controls. These data demonstrate equivalence of nutritional value and production efficiency for corn containing Bt-MON810 compared with its control and for RR-GA21 corn compared with its control. PMID:12778588

  4. Synchrotron X-ray Scattering Analysis of the Interaction Between Corn Starch and an Exogenous Lipid During Hydrothermal Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    E Hernandez-Hernandez; C Avila-Orta; B Hsiao; j Castro-Rosas; J Gallegos-Infante; J Morales-Castro; L Ochoa-Martinez; C Gomez-Aldapa

    2011-12-31

    Lipids have an important effect on starch physicochemical properties. There exist few reports about the effect of exogenous lipids on native corn starch structural properties. In this work, a study of the morphological, structural and thermal properties of native corn starch with L-alpha-lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC, the main phospholipid in corn) was performed under an excess of water. Synchrotron radiation, in the form of real-time small and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS), was used in order to track structural changes in corn starch, in the presence of LPC during a heating process from 30 to 85 C. When adding LCP, water absorption decreased within starch granule amorphous regions during gelatinization. This is explained by crystallization of the amylose-LPC inclusion complex during gelatinization, which promotes starch granule thermal stability at up to 95 C. Finally, a conceptual model is proposed for explaining the formation mechanism of the starch-LPC complex.

  5. Corn silage from corn treated with foliar fungicide and performance of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Haerr, K J; Lopes, N M; Pereira, M N; Fellows, G M; Cardoso, F C

    2015-12-01

    Foliar fungicide application to corn plants is used in corn aimed for corn silage in the dairy industry, but questions regarding frequency of application and its effect on corn silage quality and feed conversion when fed to dairy cows remain prevalent. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of various foliar fungicide applications to corn on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, and milk composition when fed to dairy cows. Sixty-four Holstein cows with parity 2.5±1.5, 653±80kg of body weight, and 161±51d in milk were blocked and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 corn silage treatments (total mixed ration with 35% of the dry matter as corn silage). Treatments were as follows: control (CON), corn silage with no applications of foliar fungicide; treatment 1 (1X), corn silage from corn that received 1 application of pyraclostrobin (PYR) foliar fungicide (Headline; BASF Corp.) at corn vegetative stage 5; treatment 2 (2X), corn silage from corn that received the same application as 1X plus another application of a mixture of PYR and metconazole (Headline AMP; BASF Corp.) at corn reproductive stage 1 ("silking"); and treatment 3 (3X), corn silage from corn that received the same applications as 2X as well as a third application of PYR and metconazole at reproductive stage 3 ("milky kernel"). Corn was harvested at about 32% dry matter and 3/4 milk line stage of kernel development and ensiled for 200d. Treatments were fed to cows for 5wk, with the last week being used for statistical inferences. Week -1 was used as a covariate in the statistical analysis. Dry matter intake tended to be lower for cows fed corn silage treated with fungicide than CON (23.8, 23.0, 19.5, and 21.3kg for CON, 1X, 2X, and 3X, respectively). A linear treatment effect for DMI was observed, with DMI decreasing as foliar fungicide applications increased. Treatments CON, 1X, 2X, and 3X did not differ for milk yield (34.5, 34.5, 34.2, and 34.4kg/d, respectively); however, a trend for

  6. Behavioral responses of western corn rootworm larvae to volatile semiochemicals from corn seedlings.

    PubMed

    Hibbard, B E; Bjostad, L B

    1988-06-01

    Corn seedling volatiles collected cryogenically are highly attractive to western corn rootworm larvae,Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), in a laboratory bioassay. Carbon dioxide is known as an attractant for western corn rootworm larvae, and the amount of carbon dioxide in the cryogenic collections was measured with an infrared gas analyzer. In a choice test between a source containing carbon dioxide alone and a source containing corn seedling volatiles with an equal amount of carbon dioxide (verified by infrared gas analysis), western corn rootworm larvae chose the corn volatile source significantly more often than the side with carbon dioxide alone. This indicates that carbon dioxide is only one of the volatiles from corn seedlings that is behaviorally important and that other compounds of behavioral importance are present as well. PMID:24276403

  7. Use of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes to enhance in vitro fermentation of alfalfa hay and corn silage.

    PubMed

    Eun, J-S; Beauchemin, K A; Schulze, H

    2007-03-01

    Two in vitro experiments were performed to identify promising exogenous fibrolytic enzyme products (EFE) and optimum dose rates (DR) for improving the degradation of alfalfa hay and corn silage. The relationship between enzymatic activity and fermentation responses was examined to identify optimum formulations. In experiment 1, 5 EFE containing mainly endoglucanase and xylanase activities, with different ratios between the 2 activities, were assessed at a DR of 0.7, 1.4, and 2.1 mg/g of DM forage. Milled alfalfa hay or corn silage was incubated in an in vitro batch culture with buffer, ruminal fluid, and EFE. Gas production (GP) was measured during 24 h of incubation, and degradabilities of DM and fiber were measured after terminating the incubation at 24 h. Two (E1 and E3) EFE substantially improved GP and degradation of alfalfa hay and corn silage fiber. The optimum DR of these EFE was 1.4 mg/g of DM for both forages with improvements in NDF degradability up to 20.6% for alfalfa hay and up to 60.3% for corn silage. Whereas added activities of endoglucanase and exoglucanase were positively correlated with improvement in NDF degradability for alfalfa hay and corn silage, there was no relationship between added xylanase activity and NDF degradability. The 2 most promising EFE from experiment 1 were reevaluated in experiment 2, alone and in combination with a high xylanase EFE, to determine whether their effectiveness could be enhanced by decreasing the endoglucanase to xylanase ratio. The 2 EFE improved GP and fiber degradation in a manner similar to that observed in experiment 1, but the combination treatments resulted in no further beneficial effects. Exogenous fibrolytic enzyme products can greatly improve forage utilization, but DR and the activities supplied are critical for achieving this response. Products used with alfalfa hay and corn silage should contain high endoglucanase activity, with an ideal ratio of endoglucanse to xylanase. PMID:17297117

  8. ADS pilot program Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clauson, J.; Heuser, J.

    1981-01-01

    The Applications Data Service (ADS) is a system based on an electronic data communications network which will permit scientists to share the data stored in data bases at universities and at government and private installations. It is designed to allow users to readily locate and access high quality, timely data from multiple sources. The ADS Pilot program objectives and the current plans for accomplishing those objectives are described.

  9. An agricultural drought risk-assessment model for corn and soybeans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hong; Hubbard, Kenneth G.; Wilhite, Donald A.

    2004-05-01

    An agricultural drought risk-assessment model was developed for Nebraska, USA, for corn and soybeans on the basis of variables derived from the standardized precipitation index and crop-specific drought index using multivariate techniques. This model can be used to assess real-time agricultural drought risk for specific crops at critical times before and during the growing season by retaining previous, and adding current, weather information as the crops pass through the various development stages. This model will be helpful to decision makers, ranging from agricultural producers to policy makers and from local to national levels.The results of the model validation using three different datasets show that the risk-assessment accuracy improves as the crop develops. At the end of April, before corn is planted, the average assessment accuracy rate of drought risks on final yield is 60%. At the beginning of July, when corn is at the vegetative stage, the average assessment accuracy rate reaches 76%. In late July, when corn is at the ovule stage, the rate increases to 85%. The rates are 89% in the second half of August and the end of September, when corn is at the reproduction and ripening stages respectively. The model assessment accuracy for soybeans is lower than that for corn at the same growth stages because weather has less impact on soybeans than on corn. A reliable assessment, with 80% assessment accuracy rate, begins at mid-August, when soybeans are at pod formation stage. In early September and October, when soybeans are at pod fill and ripening stages respectively, the model is able to assess risks on soybean yield with 83% and 81% accuracy rates respectively.

  10. Influence of prepelleting inclusion of whole corn on performance, nutrient utilization, digestive tract measurements, and cecal microbiota of young broilers.

    PubMed

    Singh, Y; Ravindran, V; Wester, T J; Molan, A L; Ravindran, G

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of prepelleting inclusion of graded levels of whole corn on performance, digestive tract measurements, nutrient utilization, and cecal microbiota in broiler starters. Five diets, containing 600 g/kg of ground corn or 150, 300, 450, and 600 g/kg of whole corn replacing (wt/wt) ground corn, were formulated and cold-pelleted at 65°C. Each diet was offered ad libitum to 6 replicates (8 birds per replicate cage) from d 1 to 21 posthatch. The proportion of coarse particles (>1 mm) increased with increasing prepelleting inclusion of whole corn. Pellet quality, measured as pellet durability index, increased (quadratic effect, P < 0.001) with the inclusion of whole corn to 450 g/kg and then plateaued. Weight gain and feed intake decreased (linear effect, P < 0.001) with increasing prepelleting inclusion of whole corn. Feed per gain (quadratic effect, P < 0.05) increased as the inclusion level of whole corn increased to 300 g/kg and then plateaued with further inclusions. Relative gizzard weight (quadratic effect, P < 0.05) increased with increasing inclusion of whole corn up to 300 g/kg and then levelled off. The AME (quadratic effect, P < 0.05) increased up to 300 g/kg of whole corn inclusion and then decreased with further inclusion. Apparent ileal digestibility of DM (P < 0.001), N (linear effect, P = 0.07), and starch (linear effect, P < 0.001) increased with increasing inclusion levels of whole corn. Based on the fluorescence in situ hybridization method, a linear (P < 0.05) effect was determined for cecal microbiota numbers. Lactobacillus spp. counts increased and counts of Clostridium spp., Campylobacterium spp., and Bacteroides spp. decreased with increasing inclusion levels of whole corn. The present data showed that, despite increased gizzard weight and nutrient utilization, weight gain of broilers was poorer with prepelleting inclusion of whole corn due to reductions in the feed intake. PMID:25306459

  11. Starlink corn: a risk analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Bucchini, Luca; Goldman, Lynn R

    2002-01-01

    Modern biotechnology has dramatically increased our ability to alter the agronomic traits of plants. Among the novel traits that biotechnology has made available, an important group includes Bacillus thuringiensis-derived insect resistance. This technology has been applied to potatoes, cotton, and corn. Benefits of Bt crops, and biotechnology generally, can be realized only if risks are assessed and managed properly. The case of Starlink corn, a plant modified with a gene that encodes the Bt protein Cry9c, was a severe test of U.S. regulatory agencies. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency had restricted its use to animal feed due to concern about the potential for allergenicity. However, Starlink corn was later found throughout the human food supply, resulting in food recalls by the Food and Drug Administration and significant disruption of the food supply. Here we examine the regulatory history of Starlink, the assessment framework employed by the U.S. government, assumptions and information gaps, and the key elements of government efforts to manage the product. We explore the impacts on regulations, science, and society and conclude that only significant advances in our understanding of food allergies and improvements in monitoring and enforcement will avoid similar events in the future. Specifically, we need to develop a stronger fundamental basis for predicting allergic sensitization and reactions if novel proteins are to be introduced in this fashion. Mechanisms are needed to assure that worker and community aeroallergen risks are considered. Requirements are needed for the development of valid assays so that enforcement and post market surveillance activities can be conducted. PMID:11781159

  12. Tea tree oil.

    PubMed

    Larson, David; Jacob, Sharon E

    2012-01-01

    Tea tree oil is an increasingly popular ingredient in a variety of household and cosmetic products, including shampoos, massage oils, skin and nail creams, and laundry detergents. Known for its potential antiseptic properties, it has been shown to be active against a variety of bacteria, fungi, viruses, and mites. The oil is extracted from the leaves of the tea tree via steam distillation. This essential oil possesses a sharp camphoraceous odor followed by a menthol-like cooling sensation. Most commonly an ingredient in topical products, it is used at a concentration of 5% to 10%. Even at this concentration, it has been reported to induce contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis reactions. In 1999, tea tree oil was added to the North American Contact Dermatitis Group screening panel. The latest prevalence rates suggest that 1.4% of patients referred for patch testing had a positive reaction to tea tree oil. PMID:22653070

  13. Climate forecasts for corn producer decision making

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn is the most widely grown crop in the Americas, with annual production in the United States of approximately 332 million metric tons. Improved climate forecasts, together with climate-related decision tools for corn producers based on these improved forecasts, could substantially reduce uncertai...

  14. Corn fiber utilization for production of Schizophyllan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn fiber is an abundant coproduct of the corn wet milling process, primarily composed of the seed pericarp and adherent starch. Schizophyllan is a biopolymer composed entirely of glucose, with a ß-1,3-linked backbone and single ß-1,6-linked glucose side chains at every third residue, produced by t...

  15. Sweet Corn Hybrid Disease Nursery - 2009

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report summarizes the reactions of 387 sweet corn hybrids to Stewart’s wilt, common rust, maize dwarf mosaic virus, Southern leaf blight, and Northern leaf blight based on their performance in the University of Illinois sweet corn disease nursery in 2009. The reactions of these hybrids to three...

  16. INTACT OR UNIT-KERNEL SWEET CORN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report evaluates process and product modifications in canned and frozen sweet corn manufacture with the objective of reducing the total effluent produced in processing. In particular it evaluates the proposed replacement of process steps that yield cut or whole kernel corn w...

  17. The corn blight problem: 1970 and 1971

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E.

    1972-01-01

    Southern corn leaf blight is caused by the fungus, Helminthosporium maydis. Race T of H maydis adapted itself to the Texas male sterile cytoplasm corn. The problems caused by this variety of the blight in 1970 and 1971 are discussed, as well as the symptoms and development of the disease.

  18. Critical Precipitation Period for Dryland Corn Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain yields for dryland corn (Zea mays L.) production in the semi-arid Great Plains of the United States can be very unpredictable because of the erratic nature of growing season precipitation. Because inputs costs for corn production can be very high, farmers need to have a tool that will help the...

  19. Corn production with Spray, LEPA, and SDI

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn, a major irrigated crop in the U.S. Great Plains, has a large irrigation requirement making efficient, effective irrigation technology important. The objective of this paper was to compare corn productivity for different irrigation methods and irrigation rates in 2009 and 2010 at Bushland, Texa...

  20. Active sensor assessment of corn nitrogen status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of active sensor measurements of in-season corn (Zea mays L.) nitrogen (N) status for directing spatially-variable N applications has been advocated to improve N use efficiency. However, first it is necessary to confirm that active sensors can reliably assess corn N status. Our research goals we...

  1. CONVERSION OF CORN FIBROUS MATERIAL INTO ETHANOL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 1.7 billion gallons of fuel ethanol were produced in the U.S. (2001), over 90% of which was produced from corn. Corn is prepared for ethanol fermentation by either wet milling or dry grinding in approximately equal volumes. In both processes, the fibrous components of the kernel are folded in...

  2. Sweet Corn Hybrid Disease Nursery - 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report summarizes the reactions of 439 sweet corn hybrids to Stewart’s wilt, common rust, maize dwarf mosaic virus, Southern leaf blight, and Northern leaf blight based on their performance in the University of Illinois sweet corn disease nursery in 2010. The reactions of these hybrids to two h...

  3. Erraticity of sprinkler irrigated corn in 2011

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sprinkler non-uniformity effects on corn are accentuated in a drought. The lack of rainfall during the 2011 corn growing season in Colby, Kansas illustrated many fields irrigated by center pivot sprinklers that had poor crops due to non-uniform irrigation. Many of these effects were due to use of ...

  4. Repellent effect of plant essential oils against Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Pin; Ma, Yajun

    2005-12-01

    Six essential oils: asteraceae oil, rutaceae oil, mentha piperta oil, carvacryl oil, citronella oil, and eucalyptus oil were tested for evaluation of their repellent effects against Aedes albopictus mosquitoes under laboratory conditions. Only citronella oil and eucalyptus oil were tested with human beings. There was considerable protection for mice. Carvacryl oil (7%) provided 100% protection for mice after 7 h. Eucalyptus oil (15%) gave protection to humans for least 3 h; the protection time was prolonged to 5 h after adding 5% vanillin. The mixture could be developed into a practical product after the field evaluation. PMID:16599157

  5. Corn plant locating by image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Jiancheng; Krutz, Gary W.; Gibson, Harry W.

    1991-02-01

    The feasibility investigation of using machine vision technology to locate corn plants is an important issue for field production automation in the agricultural industry. This paper presents an approach which was developed to locate the center of a corn plant using image processing techniques. Corn plants were first identified using a main vein detection algorithm by detecting a local feature of corn leaves leaf main veins based on the spectral difference between mains and leaves then the center of the plant could be located using a center locating algorithm by tracing and extending each detected vein line and evaluating the center of the plant from intersection points of those lines. The experimental results show the usefulness of the algorithm for machine vision applications related to corn plant identification. Such a technique can be used for pre. cisc spraying of pesticides or biotech chemicals. 1.

  6. Enzymatically hydrolysed, acetylated and dually modified corn starch: physico-chemical, rheological and nutritional properties and effects on cake quality.

    PubMed

    Sahnoun, Mouna; Ismail, Nouha; Kammoun, Radhouane

    2016-01-01

    Corn starch was treated by enzymatic hydrolysis with Aspergillus oryzae S2 α-amylase, acetylation with vinyl acetate, and dual modification. The dual modified starch displayed a higher substitution degree than the acetylated starch and lower reducing sugar content than the hydrolysed starch. The results revealed that the cooling viscosity and amylose content of those products decrease (P < 0.05). An increase in moisture, water, and oil absorption capacity was observed for the acetylated starch and, which was less pronounced for the enzymatically hydrolysed starch but more pronounced for the enzymatically hydrolysed acetylated product. The latter product underwent an increase in resistant starch content, which is induced by a rise in hydrolysis time to attain about 67 % after 1 h of reaction. The modified starch samples were added to cake formulations at 5 and 10 % concentrations on a wheat flour basis and compared to native starch. The results revealed that when applied at 5 % concentrations, the modified starches reduced the hardness, cohesion, adhesion and chewiness of baked cakes and enhanced their elasticity, volume, height, crust color, and appearance as compared to native starch. These effects were more pronounced for the cake incorporating the dually modified starch. PMID:26787967

  7. Assessment of remaining recoverable oil in selected major oil fields of the Permian Basin, Texas and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Klett, Timothy R.; Verma, Mahendra K.; Ryder, Robert T.; Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.; Le, Phoung A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an estimate of technically recoverable, conventional oil in selected oil fields in the Permian Basin in west Texas and southeastern New Mexico. The mean total volume of potential additional oil resources that might be added using improved oil-recovery technologies was estimated to be about 2.7 billion barrels of oil.

  8. Value Added Products from Hemicellulose Utilization in Dry Mill Ethanol Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Rodney Williamson, ICPB; John Magnuson, PNNL; David Reed, INL; Marco Baez, Dyadic; Marion Bradford, ICPB

    2007-03-30

    The Iowa Corn Promotion Board is the principal contracting entity for this grant funded by the US Department of Agriculture and managed by the US Department of Energy. The Iowa Corn Promotion Board subcontracted with New Jersey Institute of Technology, KiwiChem, Pacific Northwest National Lab and Idaho National Lab to conduct research for this project. KiwiChem conducted the economic engineering assessment of a dry-mill ethanol plant. New Jersey Institute of Technology conducted work on incorporating the organic acids into polymers. Pacific Northwest National Lab conducted work in hydrolysis of hemicellulose, fermentation and chemical catalysis of sugars to value-added chemicals. Idaho National Lab engineered an organism to ferment a specific organic acid. Dyadic, an enzme company, was a collaborator which provided in-kind support for the project. The Iowa Corn Promotion Board collaborated with the Ohio Corn Marketing Board and the Minnesota Corn Merchandising Council in providing cost share for the project. The purpose of this diverse collaboration was to integrate the hydrolysis, the conversion and the polymer applications into one project and increase the likelihood of success. This project had two primary goals: (1) to hydrolyze the hemicellulose fraction of the distillers grain (DG) coproduct coming from the dry-mill ethanol plants and (2) convert the sugars derived from the hemicellulose into value-added co-products via fermentation and chemical catalysis.

  9. Response to commentary on a trial comparing krill oil versus fish oil.

    PubMed

    Ramprasath, Vanu R; Eyal, Inbal; Zchut, Sigalit; Jones, Peter J H

    2014-01-01

    Nichols et al. (Lipids Health Dis13:2, 2014) raised concern about the higher n-6 concentration in fish oil used in our recent study which is different from typical commercial fish oils (Ramprasath et al. Lipids Health Dis12:178, 2013). The aim of our study was to compare the effect of consumption of similar amount of n-3 PUFA from krill and fish oil with placebo on plasma and RBC fatty acids. As the concentration of n-3 PUFA in the fish oil utilised was higher than that in krill oil, we deemed it important to keep consistent the concentration of n-3 PUFA and volumes to be administered to participants between krill versus fish oils. As such, the fish oil used in the study was diluted with corn oil. Although the n-6 PUFA concentration in fish oil was higher compared to traditionally used fish oil, consumption of the fish oil used in our study actually reduced the total n-6 PUFA in plasma and RBC to a similar extent as did krill oil. Overall, our conclusion was that the increases in plasma and RBC concentrations of EPA and DHA along with improvement in the omega-3 index observed with consumption of krill oil compared with fish oil are due to differences in absorption and bioavailability based on the structural difference of the two oils rather than their n-6 PUFA content. PMID:24447440

  10. Pilot process for decolorizing/deodorizing commercial corn zein products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn zein is the major protein component of ground corn, and co-products of the corn ethanol industry which includes distiller’s dried grains and corn gluten meal. Zein products generated from those materials all possess some degree of yellow color and off-odor that deters their usage in food syste...

  11. On-Farm Validation of Alfalfa N Credits to Corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rotating alfalfa with corn is useful for reducing soil erosion, enhancing soil tilth and carbon storage, reducing weed seedbanks, disrupting the life cycles of disease and insect pests of corn, and supplying nitrogen (N) to the subsequent corn crop. To adjust N fertilizer rates for corn following al...

  12. 21 CFR 137.255 - Bolted white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bolted white corn meal. 137.255 Section 137.255... Flours and Related Products § 137.255 Bolted white corn meal. (a) Bolted white corn meal is the food prepared by so grinding and sifting cleaned white corn that: (1) Its crude fiber content is less than...

  13. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265...

  14. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that...

  15. 21 CFR 137.255 - Bolted white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bolted white corn meal. 137.255 Section 137.255... Flours and Related Products § 137.255 Bolted white corn meal. (a) Bolted white corn meal is the food prepared by so grinding and sifting cleaned white corn that: (1) Its crude fiber content is less than...

  16. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265...

  17. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that...

  18. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that...

  19. 21 CFR 137.211 - White corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false White corn flour. 137.211 Section 137.211 Food and... Related Products § 137.211 White corn flour. (a) White corn flour is the food prepared by so grinding and bolting cleaned white corn that when tested by the method prescribed in paragraph (b)(2) of this...

  20. 21 CFR 137.255 - Bolted white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bolted white corn meal. 137.255 Section 137.255... Flours and Related Products § 137.255 Bolted white corn meal. (a) Bolted white corn meal is the food prepared by so grinding and sifting cleaned white corn that: (1) Its crude fiber content is less than...

  1. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265...

  2. 21 CFR 137.211 - White corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false White corn flour. 137.211 Section 137.211 Food and... Related Products § 137.211 White corn flour. (a) White corn flour is the food prepared by so grinding and bolting cleaned white corn that when tested by the method prescribed in paragraph (b)(2) of this...

  3. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265...

  4. 21 CFR 137.211 - White corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false White corn flour. 137.211 Section 137.211 Food and... Related Products § 137.211 White corn flour. (a) White corn flour is the food prepared by so grinding and bolting cleaned white corn that when tested by the method prescribed in paragraph (b)(2) of this...

  5. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that...

  6. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265...

  7. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that...

  8. 21 CFR 137.255 - Bolted white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bolted white corn meal. 137.255 Section 137.255... Flours and Related Products § 137.255 Bolted white corn meal. (a) Bolted white corn meal is the food prepared by so grinding and sifting cleaned white corn that: (1) Its crude fiber content is less than...

  9. Nitrogen Fertilizer Applications for Corn Based on Sufficiency Index Calculations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn was grown in both continuous corn and corn/soybean cropping systems under irrigation in the Platte Valley of Nebraska. The objective of the study was to determine whether in-season N stress measured by using chlorophyll meters could be used to determine N fertilizer applications. Four corn hyb...

  10. Multipass rotary shear comminution process to produce corn stover particles

    DOEpatents

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2015-04-14

    A process of comminution of corn stover having a grain direction to produce a mixture of corn stover, by feeding the corn stover in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction one or more times through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of corn stover travel.

  11. Native Resistance of Maize to Western Corn Rootworm Larval Feeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The western corn rootworm (WCR) is a major insect pest in continuous corn production. By feeding on corn roots, WCR causes economic losses due to plant lodging and decreased nutrient uptake. Currently, insecticides and transgenic corn are only available options for its control under continuous cor...

  12. Possible causes of dry pea synergy to corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry pea improves corn yield and tolerance to weed interference compared with soybean, spring wheat, or canola as preceding crops. To understand this synergy between dry pea and corn, we examined growth and nutrient concentration of corn following dry pea or soybean in sequence. Each corn plot was ...

  13. Studies of Corn Stover Decomposition Using the Litter Bag Technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Decomposition rates of residue from three genetically-modified corn hybrids expressing one or more Bt endotoxins were compared to that of residue from a near isogenic, unmodified hybrid. The corn hybrids were (i) DKC60-16 (Yieldguard Corn Borer), (ii) DKC60-12 (Yieldguard Corn Rootworm), (iii) DKC60...

  14. 34. Credit JTL. Second floor, view of Monarch Co. Corn ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Credit JTL. Second floor, view of Monarch Co. Corn cracking machine, by Sprout, Waldron and Co., (Muncy, PA), which cut and diced corn to a uniform size, then separated it into three grades of cracked corn and corn meal and removed chaff. - Bunker Hill Mill, County Route 26, Bunker Hill, Berkeley County, WV

  15. Integration of GC/MS Instrumentation into the Undergraduate Laboratory: Separation and Identification of Fatty Acids in Commercial Fats and Oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubinson, Judith F.; Neyer-Hilvert, Jennifer

    1997-09-01

    A laboratory experiment using a gas chromatography/mass selective detection method has been developed for the isolation, identification, and quantitation of fatty acid content of commercial fats and oils. Results for corn, nutmeg, peanut, and safflower oils are compared with literature values, and the results for corn oil are compared for two different trials of the experiment. In addition, a number of variations on the experiment are suggested including possible extension of the experiment for use in an instrumental analysis course.

  16. Behavior of Escherichia coli bacteria in whey protein and corn meal during twin screw extrusion processing at different temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many studies on the development of new and/ or value added nutritional meal corn and whey protein isolates for US consumers have been reported. However, information on the effect of treatment parameters on microbial safety of foods extruded below 100 deg C is limited. In this study, we investigated ...

  17. Nitrous Oxide Emissions in Medium and Coarse Textured Soils from Corn Production Under Conventional and Alternative Fertilizer Treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen (N) fertilizers applied in corn production cause soil-to-atmosphere direct emission of nitrous oxide (N2O), a major greenhouse gas. Some of the added N that leaches into groundwater as nitrate (NO3-) can subsequently be transformed to N2O, which represents an indirect source of N2O emission...

  18. ASSESSING INTRA- AND INTER-FIELD VARIABILITY OF CORN NITROGEN FERTILIZER NEED USING GROUND-BASED REFLECTANCE SENSORS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since soil types within and between corn (Zea mays L.) fields can be highly variable, the amount of nitrogen (N) provided by those different soil types to support production can also be highly variable. Ideally, the amount of N fertilizer added during a given growing season should be both climate-se...

  19. Low phytate corn feed reduces swine slurry P content without affecting crop P availability in slurry applied soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditional corn feed contains phosphorus (P) in a form that monogastric animals such as swine and poultry can not use efficiently. Poor use efficiency of feed P requires P supplements be added to the diet and results in manure having a high P content. Land application of this manure, at rates to me...

  20. Identification of carcinogens in cooking oil fumes.

    PubMed

    Chiang, T A; Wu, P F; Ko, Y C

    1999-07-01

    According to earlier studies, fumes from cooking oils were found to be genotoxic in several short-term tests such as the Ames test, sister chromatid exchange, and SOS chromotest. Fume samples from six different commercial cooking oils (safflower, olive, coconut, mustard, vegetable, and corn) frequently used in Taiwan were collected. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were extracted from the air samples and identified by high-performance liquid chromatography and confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Extracts of fumes from safflower oil, vegetable oil, and corn oil contained benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), dibenz[a,h]anthracene (DBahA), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbFA), and benzo[a]anthracene (BaA). Concentrations of BaP, DbahA, BbFA, and BaA were 2.1, 2.8, 1.8, and 2.5 microg/m3 in fumes from safflower oil; 2.7, 3.2, 2.6, and 2.1 microg/m3 in vegetable oil; and 2.6, 2.4, 2.0, and 1.9 microg/m3 in corn oil, respectively. The authors constructed models to study the efficacy of table-edged fume extractors used commonly by Taiwanese restaurants. Concentrations of BaP were significantly decreased when the fume extractor was working (P<0.05) and the average reduction in percentage was 75%. The other identified PAHs were undetected. These results indicated that exposure to cooking oil fumes could possibly increase exposure to PAHs, which may be linked to an increased risk of lung cancer. The potential carcinogenic exposure could be reduced by placing table-edged fume extractors near cooking pots. PMID:10361022

  1. Innovations Without Added Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cereghino, Edward

    1974-01-01

    There is no question that we are in a tight money market, and schools are among the first institutions to feel the squeeze. Therefore, when a plan is offered that provides for innovations without added costs, its something worth noting. (Editor)

  2. What Value "Value Added"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Two quantitative measures of school performance are currently used, the average points score (APS) at Key Stage 2 and value-added (VA), which measures the rate of academic improvement between Key Stage 1 and 2. These figures are used by parents and the Office for Standards in Education to make judgements and comparisons. However, simple…

  3. Deposition of insecticides on corn silks applied at high and low spray rates for control of corn earworm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn earworm is a major pest of sweet corn, especially when grown organically. Aerial application of insecticides is important for both conventionally- and organically-grown sweet corn production as sweet corn is frequently irrigated to assure return on investment given the high production costs. ...

  4. Effects of amylose, corn protein and corn fiber contents on production of ethanol from starch-rich media

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of amylose: amylopectin ratio, and protein and fiber contents on ethanol yields were evaluated by using artificially formulated media made from commercial corn starches with different contents of amylose, corn protein, and corn fiber, as well as different cereal sources, including corn, ...

  5. Introducing ADS Labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Henneken, E.; Grant, C. S.; Kurtz, M. J.; Di Milia, G.; Luker, J.; Thompson, D. M.; Bohlen, E.; Murray, S. S.

    2011-05-01

    ADS Labs is a platform that ADS is introducing in order to test and receive feedback from the community on new technologies and prototype services. Currently, ADS Labs features a new interface for abstract searches, faceted filtering of results, visualization of co-authorship networks, article-level recommendations, and a full-text search service. The streamlined abstract search interface provides a simple, one-box search with options for ranking results based on a paper relevancy, freshness, number of citations, and downloads. In addition, it provides advanced rankings based on collaborative filtering techniques. The faceted filtering interface allows users to narrow search results based on a particular property or set of properties ("facets"), allowing users to manage large lists and explore the relationship between them. For any set or sub-set of records, the co-authorship network can be visualized in an interactive way, offering a view of the distribution of contributors and their inter-relationships. This provides an immediate way to detect groups and collaborations involved in a particular research field. For a majority of papers in Astronomy, our new interface will provide a list of related articles of potential interest. The recommendations are based on a number of factors, including text similarity, citations, and co-readership information. The new full-text search interface allows users to find all instances of particular words or phrases in the body of the articles in our full-text archive. This includes all of the scanned literature in ADS as well as a select portion of the current astronomical literature, including ApJ, ApJS, AJ, MNRAS, PASP, A&A, and soon additional content from Springer journals. Fulltext search results include a list of the matching papers as well as a list of "snippets" of text highlighting the context in which the search terms were found. ADS Labs is available at http://adslabs.org

  6. Rheological properties of heavy oils and heavy oil emulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, M.R.

    1996-06-01

    In this study, the author investigated the effects of a number of process variables such as shear rate, measurement temperature, pressure, the influence of pretreatment, and the role of various amounts of added water on the rheology of the resulting heavy oil or the emulsion. Rheological properties of heavy oils and the corresponding emulsions are important from transportation and processing standpoints.

  7. Effects of Pomegranate Seed Oil on the Fertilization Potency of Rat’s Sperm

    PubMed Central

    Nikseresht, Mohsen; Fallahzadeh, Ali Reza; Toori, Mehdi Akbartabar

    2015-01-01

    Background Pomegranate has been taken great scientific attention in recent years due to its health benefits. Pomegranate seed oil is a rich source of 9-cis, and 11-trans conjugate linolenic acid. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary pomegranate seed oil on the fertilization potency of rat’s sperm. Materials and Methods Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into four groups. The first group, which served as the control group, received 1 mL of corn oil for seven weeks. Groups II, III, IV served as the experimental groups received 200, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of pomegranate seed oil, for the same period of time respectively. After seven weeks, all of the rats were sacrificed, and their epididymis sperm was collected and added to IVF medium (T6) containing metaphase II oocytes. Almost 21 oocytes had been removed from every female rat oviduct. In this medium, oocyte fertilization, cleavage rates, and embryo development into blastocysts, were evaluated by inverted microscopy. Results Levels of LD50 in the oral route in male rats were more than 5000 mg/kg body weight. Our data showed that the rates of fertilization, cleavage and embryo development into blastocysts were higher in the groups that had received 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight of pomegranate seed oil. Conclusion This study demonstrated that pomegranate seed oil had a positive effect on the fertilization potency of male rats. These beneficial effects may be useful in assisted reproductive technology. PMID:26816914

  8. Rubidium marking technique for the European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in corn

    SciTech Connect

    Legg, D.E.; Chiang, H.C.

    1984-04-01

    Laboratory and greenhouse experiments conducted in 1980 showed that rubidium (Rb) could be used to mark corn plants and emergent European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis (Huebner), moths. Rb had no adverse effects on pre-adult mortality, moth deformity, or fecundity. The best application method for marking ECB moths was an over-the-top + directed foliar spray to the corn plants. 14 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  9. Influence on functional parameters of intestinal tract induced by short-term exposure to fumonisins contaminated corn chyme samples.

    PubMed

    Minervini, F; Debellis, L; Garbetta, A; De Girolamo, A; Schena, R; Portincasa, P; Visconti, A

    2014-04-01

    The gut is a possible target toward mycotoxin fumonisins (FBs) exposure. The study aims to investigate the effects induced by FBs contaminated-corn chyme samples on functional parameters of human and rat intestine by using Ussing chamber. Fumonisins-contaminated corn and processed corn samples were undergone to in vitro digestion process and then added to luminal side. A reduction (about 90%) of short circuit current (Isc μA/cm(2)) during exposure of human colon tissues to fumonisins-free corn chyme samples was observed, probably related to increased chyme osmolality. This hyperosmotic stress could drain water towards the luminal compartment, modifying Na(+) and Cl(-) transports. The presence of FBs in corn chyme samples, independently to their concentration, did not affect significantly the Isc, probably related to their interference towards epithelial Na(+) transport, as assessed by using a specific inhibitor (Amiloride). The rat colon tract represents a more accessible model to study FBs toxicity showing a similar functional response to human. In the rat small intestine a significant reduction (about 15%) of Isc parameter during exposure to uncontaminated or FBs contaminated corn chyme samples was observed; therefore such model was not suitable to assess the FBs toxicity, probably because the prevalent glucose and amino acids electrogenic absorption overwhelmed the FBs influence on ionic transport. PMID:24480040

  10. 21 CFR 73.315 - Corn endosperm oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., and carotenoid pigments obtained by isopropyl alcohol and hexane extraction from the gluten fraction... xanthophyll and associated carotenoids so as to accomplish the intended effect described in paragraph...

  11. 21 CFR 73.315 - Corn endosperm oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., and carotenoid pigments obtained by isopropyl alcohol and hexane extraction from the gluten fraction... xanthophyll and associated carotenoids so as to accomplish the intended effect described in paragraph...

  12. Palm Oil

    MedlinePlus

    Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...

  13. Diesel oil

    MedlinePlus

    Oil ... Diesel oil ... Diesel oil poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of ... most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to inhaling the fumes. NERVOUS ...

  14. Effects of supplemental Bermuda grass hay or corn on intake, digestion and performance of cattle consuming endophyte-infected fescue.

    PubMed

    Stokes, S R; Goetsch, A L; Nejad, H H; Murphy, G; Jones, A L; Mashburn, S; Beers, K W; Johnson, Z B; Piper, E L

    1988-01-01

    Effects of supplemental Bermuda grass hay (BG) or ground corn on intake, digestion and performance of cattle consuming endophyte-infected fescue (I) were studied. In Exp. 1, a Latin square study, five growing Holstein steers (158.1 kg) consumed I ad libitum and were offered 0, .3, .6, .9 or 1.2% body weight (BW) of BG daily. Total dry matter (DM) intake rose linearly (P less than .05) with increasing BG, although intake was numerically similar with .6, .9 and 1.2% BW of BG. Digestibility was constant with diet (P greater than .10). Six growing Holstein steers used in Exp. 2, a Latin square with a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments, ingested I or noninfected (NI) fescue hay ad libitum with 0, .5 or 1.0% BW of ground corn. Total DM intake increased linearly as the level of corn rose (P less than .05). Total intake with I increased more with the first than with the second addition of corn, and the opposite occurred with NI (interaction between fescue infection and the quadratic effect of corn level, P less than .10). Organic matter digested (g/d) was greater for NI than for I and rose linearly with increasing corn ingestion (P less than .05). Ninety-six crossbred beef heifers and steers (184.2 kg avg initial live weight) were used in a 77-d fall grazing experiment (Exp. 3) with a 2 x 3 factorial treatment arrangement. Cattle grazed I or NI paddocks and were given no supplement or .34% BW of BG or .65% BW of ground corn on a daily basis (DM).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3366707

  15. Fusaric acid and pathogenic interactions of corn and non-corn isolates of Fusarium moniliforme, a nonobligate pathogen of corn.

    PubMed

    Bacon, C W; Hinton, D M

    1996-01-01

    Fusarium moniliform is a nonobligate parasite of corn, which exists as a complex of closely related fungi from different mating population or biological species. Strains of this fungus isolated from corn, have been determined to belong to mating populations A, although other populations have been isolated from corn. The ultrastructural association of the fungus with corn during growth, and the effects of the host on suppression of disease suppression are reviewed. This fungus enters a relationship with corn cultivars that is not always pathogenic. Pathogenesis is delayed, if it ever occurs. F. moniliforme can exist entirely as an endophyte, systemically colonizing kernels, remaining there until germination upon which the fungus infects the emerging seedlings. The symptomless association persists during the growth cycle of corn, and the resulting endophytic hyphae may be the source of mycotoxin production. The host's ability to suppress the fungus appears to be related to one class of compounds, the cyclic hydroxamic acids and their decomposition products, which can be catabolized by the fungi of mating population A but not C. PMID:8850616

  16. Treatment of vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Bessler, T.R.

    1986-05-13

    A process is described for preparing an injectable vegetable oil selected from the group consisting of soybean oil and sunflower oil and mixtures thereof which comprise: (a) first treating the vegetable oil at a temperature of 80/sup 0/C to about 130/sup 0/C with an acid clay; (b) deodorizing the vegetable oil with steam at a temperature of 220/sup 0/C to about 280/sup 0/C and applying a vacuum to remove volatilized components; (c) treating the deodorized vegetable oil, at a temperature of from about 10/sup 0/C to about 60/sup 0/C, with an acid clay to reduce the content of a member selected from the group consisting of diglycerides, tocopherol components, and trilinolenin and mixtures thereof, wherein the acid clay is added in a weight ratio to the deoderized vegetable oil of from about 1:99 to about 1:1; and (d) thereafter conducting a particulate filtration to remove a substantial portion of the acid clay from the vegetable oil, wherein the filtration is accomplished with filters having a pore size of from about 0.1 to 0.45 microns, thereby obtaining the injectable oil.

  17. Specific energy requirement for compacting corn stover.

    PubMed

    Mani, Sudhagar; Tabil, Lope G; Sokhansanj, Shahab

    2006-08-01

    Corn stover is a major crop residue for biomass conversion to produce chemicals and fuels. One of the problems associated with the supply of corn stover to conversion plants is the delivery of feedstock at a low cost. Corn stover has low bulk density and it is difficult to handle. In this study, chopped corn stover samples were compacted in a piston cylinder under three pressure levels (5, 10, 15 MPa) and at three moisture content levels (5%, 10%, 15% (wb)) to produce briquettes. The total energy requirement to compress and extrude briquette ranged from 12 to 30 MJ/t. The briquette density ranged from 650 to 950 kg/m3 increasing with pressure. Moisture content had also a significant effect on briquette density, durability and stability. Low moisture stover (5-10%) resulted in denser, more stable and more durable briquettes than high moisture stover (15%). PMID:16139500

  18. Pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of corn fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Grohmann, K.; Bothast, R.J.

    1996-10-01

    Corn fiber is a co-product of the corn wet milling industry which is usually marketed as a low value animal feed ingredient. Approximately 1.2 x 10{sup 6} dry tons of this material are produced annually in the United States. The fiber is composed of kernel cell wall fractions and a residual starch which can all be potentially hydrolyzed to a mixture of glucose, xylose, arabinose and galactose. We have investigated a sequential saccharification of polysaccharides in corn fiber by a treatment with dilute sulfuric acid at 100 to 160{degrees}C followed by partial neutralization and enzymatic hydrolysis with mixed cellulose and amyloglucosidase enzymes at 45{degrees}C. The sequential treatment achieved a high (approximately 85%) conversion of all polysaccharides in the corn fiber to monomeric sugars, which were in most cases fermentable to ethanol by the recombinant bacterium Escherichia coli KOll.

  19. Method for Establishing a Bacterial Inoculum on Corn Roots

    PubMed Central

    Mendez-Castro, Francisco A.; Alexander, Martin

    1983-01-01

    Few bacteria from the corn rhizosphere grew in media with 50 μg of mancozeb per ml. A mancozeb-resistant Pseudomonas strain from the rhizosphere was serially subcultured in media containing mancozeb and spectinomycin until it was resistant to 175 μg of mancozeb and 850 μg of spectinomycin per ml. The population of the pseudomonad added to soil fell to low numbers in 6 days in unamended or glucose-amended soil, but its numbers exceeded 105/g for at least 12 days if the soil was supplemented with mancozeb. The numbers of this organism remained small on corn roots derived from untreated, inoculated seeds, but the population was two or more orders of magnitude greater on roots derived from mancozeb-coated seeds. The abundance of the inoculum strain on the 3-cm portion of roots nearest the stem declined markedly after about 1 week, but applying urea to the foliage reduced or prevented the decline. The numbers of the pseudomonad on segments of roots 3- to 6- and 6- to 9-cm from the stem were higher on plants derived from the mancozeb-coated seeds. Applying spectinomycin to the foliage did not promote growth of the bacterium. This method is proposed as a means to establish an introduced bacterium on plant roots. PMID:16346169

  20. Legislative frameworks for corn flour and maize meal fortification.

    PubMed

    Makhumula, Phillip; Dary, Omar; Guamuch, Monica; Tom, Carol; Afidra, Ronald; Rambeloson, Zo

    2014-04-01

    Corn flour and maize meal fortification can benefit the consumer when the added nutrient contents are in amounts appropriate to address nutrient gaps. Legislative instruments (standards and regulations) are needed to provide guidance to the producers and food control authorities. We reviewed a number of national standards and regulations of fortified corn flour and maize meal and identified constraints; contrary to current belief, the practice of using minimum contents or ranges of nutrients has caused confusion, misinterpretation, and conflict, and should therefore be abandoned. On the basis of the findings, a model of fortification legislation is proposed, in which the additional content and the expected average nutrient content in a final product are recommended as the main parameters for quality control and enforcement. For labeling, the average content, or one adjusted to the expected content of the product at the market, can be applied. Variation in micronutrient contents should still be checked to ensure homogeneity but with adherence to clear procedures of sampling and testing, which should be part of the standards and regulations. PMID:24521440

  1. Corn contact urticaria in a nurse.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wendy; Nixon, Rosemary L

    2007-05-01

    A 33-year-old nurse presented with persistent hand dermatitis. Radioallergosorbent tests showed moderate to strong reactions to latex, avocado and banana. Despite avoidance of latex gloves, she failed to improve. Patch testing was negative. Prick testing showed a negative reaction to latex, but a strong reaction to corn, with relevance to cornstarch powder present in many medical examination gloves. She was diagnosed with corn contact urticaria, irritant contact dermatitis and type I hypersensitivity to latex fruits. PMID:17535205

  2. Springback and diagravitropism in Merit corn roots.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, M O; Leopold, A C

    1992-01-01

    Dark-treated Merit corn (Zea mays L.) roots are diagravitropic and lose curvature upon withdrawal of the gravity stimulus (springback). Springback was not detected in a variety of corn that is orthogravitropic in the dark, nor in Merit roots in which tropistic response was enhanced either with red light or with abscisic acid. A possible interpretation is that springback may be associated with a weak growth response of diagravitropic roots. PMID:11537884

  3. Springback and diagravitropism in Merit corn roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, M. O.; Leopold, A. C.

    1992-01-01

    Dark-treated Merit corn (Zea mays L.) roots are diagravitropic and lose curvature upon withdrawal of the gravity stimulus (springback). Springback was not detected in a variety of corn that is orthogravitropic in the dark, nor in Merit roots in which tropistic response was enhanced either with red light or with abscisic acid. A possible interpretation is that springback may be associated with a weak growth response of diagravitropic roots.

  4. Springback and diagravitropism in Merit corn roots.

    PubMed

    Kelly, M O; Leopold, A C

    1992-06-01

    Dark-treated Merit corn (Zea mays L.) roots are diagravitropic and lose curvature upon withdrawal of the gravity stimulus (springback). Springback was not detected in a variety of corn that is orthogravitropic in the dark, nor in Merit roots in which tropistic response was enhanced either with red light or with abscisic acid. A possible interpretation is that springback may be associated with a weak growth response of diagravitropic roots. PMID:11537884

  5. Co-processing of carbonaceous solids and petroleum oil

    DOEpatents

    Gupta, Avinash; Greene, Marvin I.

    1992-01-01

    In a process for producing distillates from coal by a first stage thermal liquefaction followed by a catalytic hydrogenation, liquefaction solvent is added at points spaced over the length of the thermal liquefaction heater. Coal may be co-processed with petroleum oil by adding pre-hydrogenated oil to the first stage or unhydrogenated oil to the second stage.

  6. Two Virasoro symmetries in stringy warped AdS3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compère, Geoffrey; Guica, Monica; Rodriguez, Maria J.

    2014-12-01

    We study three-dimensional consistent truncations of type IIB supergravity which admit warped AdS3 solutions. These theories contain subsectors that have no bulk dynamics. We show that the symplectic form for these theories, when restricted to the non-dynamical subsectors, equals the symplectic form for pure Einstein gravity in AdS3. Consequently, for each consistent choice of boundary conditions in AdS3, we can define a consistent phase space in warped AdS3 with identical conserved charges. This way, we easily obtain a Virasoro × Virasoro asymptotic symmetry algebra in warped AdS3; two different types of Virasoro × Kač-Moody symmetries are also consistent alternatives.

  7. Improving enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover pretreated by ethylene glycol-perchloric acid-water mixture.

    PubMed

    He, Yu-Cai; Liu, Feng; Gong, Lei; Lu, Ting; Ding, Yun; Zhang, Dan-Ping; Qing, Qing; Zhang, Yue

    2015-02-01

    To improve the enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass, a mixture of ethylene glycol-HClO4-water (88.8:1.2:10, w/w/w) was used for pretreating corn stover in this study. After the optimization in oil-bath system, the optimum pretreatment temperature and time were 130 °C and 30 min, respectively. After the saccharification of 10 g/L pretreated corn stover for 48 h, the saccharification rate was obtained in the yield of 77.4 %. To decrease pretreatment temperature and shorten pretreatment time, ethylene glycol-HClO4-water (88.8:1.2:10, w/w/w) media under microwave irradiation was employed to pretreat corn stover effectively at 100 °C and 200 W for 5 min. Finally, the recovered hydrolyzates containing glucose obtained from the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated corn stovers could be fermented into ethanol efficiently. These results would be helpful for developing a cost-effective pretreatment combined with enzymatic saccharification of cellulosic materials for the production of lignocellulosic ethanol. PMID:25384544

  8. Influence of dietary menhaden oil on 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene induced mammary tumorigenesis in rats

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, T.P.; Peterson, F.; Campbell, T.C.

    1986-03-05

    The effect of dietary menhaden oil on 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) induced mammary tumorigenesis was examined in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were obtained at age 28 days and acclimated until age 50 days when they received a single i.g. dose of 5 mg DMBA dissolved in 1 ml corn oil. Rats were then randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups with 25 rats per group. One group was fed a diet based on fish protein (freeze-dried cod) and corn oil (F/C). The second group received a diet based on fish protein and menhaden oil (F/M). The third group received a casein based diet with corn oil as the lipid source (C/C). The fourth group was fed a casein based diet with menhaden oil as the lipid source (C/M). Both the protein and lipid sources were fed at a level of 20% by weight of the diets. Rats were palpated weekly to check for mammary tumor development and the experiment was terminated 24 weeks after DMBA administration. Rats fed menhaden oil as a lipid source (F/M and C/M groups) developed significantly fewer mammary tumors than animals on the corn oil based diets (F/C and C/C groups, respectively). Thus, menhaden oil, rich in omega-3 fatty acids, significantly inhibited the development of DMBA induced mammary tumors in this experiment.

  9. Flow properties of Utah shale oils

    SciTech Connect

    Seitzer, W.H.; Lovell, P.F.

    1981-12-01

    In a concentric cylinder viscometer, Utah shale oils have different characteristics, both at equilibrium flow and during start-up from rest, depending on whether the wax has crystallized as needles or spherulites. Compared with waxy crude oils, which are thixotropic, shale oil has the added rheological property of being antithixotropic. 7 refs.

  10. Bubbles, Bubbles, Tremors & Trouble: The Bayou Corne Sinkhole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    In May 2012, thermogenic methane bubbles were first observed in Bayou Corne in Assumption Parish, Louisiana. As of July 2013, ninety one bubbling sites have been identified. Gas was also found in the top of the Mississippi River Alluvial Aquifer (MRAA) about 125 ft below the surface. Vent wells drilled into the MRAA have flared more 16 million SCF of gas. Trace amounts of hydrogen sulfide also have been detected. Bayou Corne flows above the Napoleonville salt dome which has been an active area for oil and gas exploration since the 1920s. The dome is also a site of dissolution salt mining which has produced large caverns with diameters of up to 300 ft and heights of 2000 ft. Some caverns are used for storage of natural gas. Microseismic activity was confirmed by an Earthscope seismic station in White Castle, LA in July 2012. An array of microseismic stations set up in the area recorded more than 60 microseismic events in late July and early August, 2012. These microseismic events were located on the western side of the dome. Estimated focal depths are just above the top of salt. In August 2012, a sinkhole developed overnight just to the northwest of a plugged and abandoned brine filled cavern (see figure below). The sinkhole continues to grow in area to more than 20 acres and has consumed a pipeline right of way. The sinkhole is more than 750 ft deep at its center. Microseismic activity was reduced for several months following the formation of the sinkhole. Microseismic events have reoccurred episodically since then with periods of frequent events preceding slumping of material into the sinkhole or a 'burp' where fluid levels in the sinkhole drop and then rebound followed by a decrease in microseismic activity. Some gas and/or oil may appear at the surface of the sinkhole following a 'burp'. Very long period events also have been observed which are believed to be related to subsurface fluid movement. A relief well drilled into the abandoned brine cavern found that

  11. Interactions between oil substrates and glucose on pure cultures of ruminal lipase-producing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Edwards, H D; Anderson, R C; Taylor, T M; Miller, R K; Hardin, M D; Nisbet, D J; Krueger, N A; Smith, S B

    2013-07-01

    The hydrolysis of free fatty acids from lipids is a prerequisite for biohydrogenation, a process that effectively saturates free fatty acids. Anaerovibrio lipolyticus 5s and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens have long been thought to be the major contributors to ruminal lipolysis; however, Propionibacterium avidum and acnes recently have been identified as contributing lipase activity in the rumen. In order to further characterize the lipase activity of these bacterial populations, each was grown with three different lipid substrates, olive oil, corn oil, and flaxseed oil (3 %). Because different finishing rations contain varying levels of glycogen (a source of free glucose) this study also documented the effects of glucose on lipolysis. P. avidum and A. lipolyticus 5s demonstrated the most rapid rates (P < 0.05) of lipolysis for cultures grown with olive oil and flaxseed oil, respectively. A. lipolyticus, B. fibrisolvens, and P. avidum more effectively hydrolyzed flaxseed oil than olive oil or corn oil, especially in the presence of 0.02 % glucose. Conversely, P. acnes hydrolyzed corn oil more readily than olive oil or flaxseed oil and glucose had no effect on lipolytic rate. Thus, these bacterial species demonstrated different specificities for oil substrates and different sensitivities to glucose. PMID:23609414

  12. Comparing production practices and costs for continuous corn and corn-soybean cropping systems: A National Survey of 2005 corn-for-grain producers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forecasts for increased corn acreage will likely lead to an increase in continuous corn cropping systems which may require producers to adjust their production practices compared to the more widely practiced corn-soybean rotation system. Using 2005 field-level data from a probability-based national...

  13. Benzo(a)pyrene in Brazilian vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Pupin, A M; Toledo, M C

    1996-01-01

    Samples of vegetable oils on the Brazilian market including rape seed, corn, soybean, sunflower, rice, palm and garlic were analysed for benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P). The analytical method involved liquid-liquid extraction, clean-up on silica gel column and determination by high performance liquid chromatography using fluorescence detection. The limit of detection was 0.5 microgram/kg. Benzo(a)pyrene was detected in almost all samples, at levels up to 58.9 micrograms/kg. The mean levels of B(a)P in rice, sunflower, soybean, corn and palm oils were 1.8, 0.2, 2.2, 10.8 and 2.1 micrograms/kg respectively. No B(a)P was detected in garlic and rape seed oils. The data indicate that the levels of B(a)P found in Brazilian corn oils are relatively higher than those published in the literature for European corn oils. PMID:8871121

  14. Susceptibility of Nebraska Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Populations to Bt Corn Events

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic plants have been widely adopted by growers to manage the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, in field corn. Because of reduced efficacy in some Nebraska fields after repeated use of Cry3Bb1 expressing hybrids, single plant bioassays were conducted in 2012 and 20...

  15. COMPARISON OF FEEDING CORN SILAGES FROM LEAFY OR CONVENTIONAL CORN HYBRIDS TO LACTATING DAIRY COWS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three corn hybrids (Pioneer 36F30, Mycogen TMF2450, and Mycogen TMF2404) were compared for yield, plant components, nutrient composition, in vitro digestibility, apparent digestibility, and lactation performance by Holstein cows. The three corn silages were harvested at a target of 33 to 35% dry mat...

  16. Resistance Management Monitoring for the US Corn Crop to the Illinois Corn Growers Association

    EPA Science Inventory

    Significant increases in genetically modified corn planting are expected for future planted acreages approaching 80% of total corn plantings anticipated by 2009. As demand increases, incidence of farmer non-compliance with mandated non-genetically modified refuge is likely to in...

  17. Use of Spectral Vegetation Indices for Detection of European Corn Borer Infestation in Iowa Corn Plots

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, corn grown for grain in the United States has increased from 28 million ha in 2006 to more than 35 million ha in 2007 with a production value of over $52 billion dollars. Transgenic corn expressing the plant incorporated protectant Bacillus thuringiensis toxin represen...

  18. Open-Pollinated Corn Varietal Hybrids: Diverse Germplasm for Corn Improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is some renewed interest in open-pollinated varieties (OPVs) and open-pollinated varietal hybrids (OPVhs) of corn, especially among organic and low-input farmers, due to their stable yield and broad adaptation as compared with hybrid corn. In addition, open-pollinated varietal hybrids may have...

  19. Rye-corn silage double-cropping reduces corn yield but improves environmental impacts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent proliferation of large dairies has prompted concern regarding the environmental impacts of associated corn silage production and high rate manure application. Our objectives were to compare forage production and environmental impacts of corn (Zea mays L.) silage and rye (Secale cereal L.)-cor...

  20. Increased Survival of Western Corn Rootworm on Transgenic Corn Within Three Generations of Onplant Greenhouse Selection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The agricultural industry has adopted a high dose/refuge strategy as a means of delaying the onset of insect resistance to transgenic crops. Recently, Bt corn products developed for control of western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, have been introduced with less than high-dose...

  1. Corn Snake Genetics: Students Learn about the Fundamentals of Mendelism by Studying Corn Snakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kristin

    2004-01-01

    In an attempt to generate student enthusiasm on the subject of genetics, the author developed a Punnett square activity centered on the genetics of corn snakes to teach students about Mendelism and genetic diversity. As they began the activity, however, some unexpected twists occurred that allowed for investigation into corn snake anatomy and…

  2. Distribution of structural carbohydrates in corn plants as influenced by corn residue management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of the Sun Grant Regional Partnership corn stover project, continuous corn (Zea mays L.) field studies incorporating stover removal management practices (0 and 100% removal) were established in both Alabama and South Carolina. Plots in both states were representative of major soil types in t...

  3. AgRISTARS: Supporting research. Classification of corn: Badhwar profile similarity technique. [us corn belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, W. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The same software programs used to classify spring wheat are applied to the classification of corn in 26 segments in the corn belt. Numerical results of the acreage estimation are given. Potential problem areas defined in an earlier application are examined.

  4. Corn stover removal impacts on soil greenhouse gas emissions in irrigated continuous corn systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Harvesting corn stover for livestock feed or for cellulosic biofuel production may impact the greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potential of high-yield irrigated corn. Soil emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) were measured over the 2011 growing season at two irri...

  5. Leading Change, Adding Value.

    PubMed

    Evans, Nick

    2016-09-12

    Essential facts Leading Change, Adding Value is NHS England's new nursing and midwifery framework. It is designed to build on Compassion in Practice (CiP), which was published 3 years ago and set out the 6Cs: compassion, care, commitment, courage, competence and communication. CiP established the values at the heart of nursing and midwifery, while the new framework sets out how staff can help transform the health and care sectors to meet the aims of the NHS England's Five Year Forward View. PMID:27615573

  6. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in fast food: signatures of corn and confinement.

    PubMed

    Jahren, A Hope; Kraft, Rebecca A

    2008-11-18

    Americans spend >100 billion dollars on restaurant fast food each year; fast food meals comprise a disproportionate amount of both meat and calories within the U.S. diet. We used carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes to infer the source of feed to meat animals, the source of fat within fries, and the extent of fertilization and confinement inherent to production. We sampled food from McDonald's, Burger King, and Wendy's chains, purchasing >480 servings of hamburgers, chicken sandwiches and fries within geographically distributed U.S. cities: Los Angeles, San Francisco, Denver, Detroit, Boston, and Baltimore. From the entire sample set of beef and chicken, only 12 servings of beef had delta(13)C < -21 per thousand; for these animals only was a food source other than corn possible. We observed remarkably invariant values of delta(15)N in both beef and chicken, reflecting uniform confinement and exposure to heavily fertilized feed for all animals. The delta(13)C value of fries differed significantly among restaurants indicating that the chains used different protocols for deep-frying: Wendy's clearly used only corn oil, whereas McDonald's and Burger King favored other vegetable oils; this differed from ingredient reports. Our results highlighted the overwhelming importance of corn agriculture within virtually every aspect of fast food manufacture. PMID:19001276

  7. Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotopes in Fastfood: Signatures of Corn and Confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahren, H.; Kraft, R.

    2008-12-01

    Americans spend more than one hundred billion dollars on restaurant fastfood each year; fastfood meals comprise a disproportionate amount of both meat and calories within the U.S. diet. Frustrated by futile attempts to gain information about the origin and production of fastfood from the companies themselves, we used carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes to infer the source of feed to meat animals, the source of fat within fries, and the extent of fertilization and confinement inherent to production. We sampled food from McDonald's, Burger King and Wendy's chains, purchasing more than 480 servings of hamburgers, chicken sandwiches and fries within geographically-distributed U.S. cities: Los Angeles, San Francisco, Denver, Detroit, Boston and Baltimore. From the entire sample set of beef and chicken, only 12 servings of beef had δ13C < -21 ‰; for these animals only was a food source other than corn possible. We observed remarkably invariant values of δ15N in both beef and chicken, reflecting uniform confinement and exposure to heavily fertilized feed for all animals. The δ13C value of fries differed significantly among restaurants indicating that the chains employed different protocols for deep- frying: Wendy's clearly employed only corn oil, while McDonald's and Burger King favored other vegetable oils; this differed from ingredient reports. Our results highlighted the overwhelming importance of corn agriculture within virtually every aspect of fastfood manufacture.

  8. Simulated acid-rain effects on yield response of two corn cultivars

    SciTech Connect

    Banwart, W.L.; Porter, P.M.; Hasset, J.J.; Walker, W.M.

    1988-01-01

    Acid rain is a documented phenomenon over much of the eastern and midwestern United States, including major portions of the Corn Belt. However, few studies report the effect of acid rain on yield of corn (Zea mays L.). Field experiments were conducted in 1983 and 1984 on a Flanagan silt loam (fine, montmorillonitic, mesic Aquic Argiudoll) soil at Urbana, IL. Two corn cultivars (Pioneer 3377 and B73 X Mo17) were protected from ambient rain by two automated movable rain exclusion shelters and were exposed to one of six simulated rain acidities ranging from pH 5.6 to 3.0. Analysis of the effect of rainfall pH on grain yield showed no significant linear or quadratic trend (alpha = 0.10) for either cultivar in individual years or with both years combined. Comparisons among treatments for both cultivars showed rain simulants with no added acid (pH 5.6) resulted in grain yields that were not significantly different from the average grain yields of the other five pH treatments. These results imply that under normal environmental conditions and agronomic practices, rainfall at its present levels of acidity has little if any effect on corn yields.

  9. Process integration for recovery of recombinant collagen type I α1 from corn seed.

    PubMed

    Setina, Christopher M; Haase, Jason P; Glatz, Charles E

    2016-01-01

    Because of safety concerns and product consistency issues with the use of animal-derived collagen, several recombinant protein expression hosts have been considered for recombinant collagen corn seed. Full length, triple-helical, recombinant collagen (rCIα1) is expressed as a fusion with a foldon domain, which must later be removed. Here we have examined integration of purification and foldon removal by comparing advantages of removal before or after purification, using salt precipitation as the main purification step. Because expression levels in available maize lines are low, Pichia-produced recombinant collagens, both with and without foldon, were added to corn seed germ at the extraction step. Salt precipitation of an acidic corn seed extract yielded 100% of the collagen without foldon at >70% purity without the pepsin pretreatment. With pepsin pretreatment, yield was 94.0% with purity of 76.5%. Analysis of the protein molecular weight distribution of the pre- and post-treatment extracts showed that the corn proteins are largely resistant to pepsin proteolysis, explaining why little benefit was obtained by pepsin treatment. In the absence of pepsin treatment, the recovery of rCIα1 with foldon was still above 90% but the purity was only 44%. This still represented at about 13-fold purification with a 2.7-fold volume reduction which would reduce the pepsin requirement for post-recovery foldon cleavage. PMID:26518757

  10. Dirac operator on fuzzy AdS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhri, Hossein; Imaanpur, Ali

    2003-03-01

    In this article we construct the chirality and Dirac operators on noncommutative AdS2. We also derive the discrete spectrum of the Dirac operator which is important in the study of the spectral triple associated to AdS2. It is shown that the degeneracy of the spectrum present in the commutative AdS2 is lifted in the noncommutative case. The way we construct the chirality operator is suggestive of how to introduce the projector operators of the corresponding projective modules on this space.

  11. An xp model on AdS2 spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Vilaplana, Javier; Sierra, Germán

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we formulate the xp model on the AdS2 spacetime. We find that the spectrum of the Hamiltonian has positive and negative eigenvalues, whose absolute values are given by a harmonic oscillator spectrum, which in turn coincides with that of a massive Dirac fermion in AdS2. We extend this result to generic xp models which are shown to be equivalent to a massive Dirac fermion on spacetimes whose metric depend of the xp Hamiltonian. Finally, we construct the generators of the isometry group SO(2,1) of the AdS2 spacetime, and discuss the relation with conformal quantum mechanics.

  12. Corn yield prediction using climatology

    SciTech Connect

    Duchon, C.E.

    1986-05-01

    A method is developed to predict corn yield during the growing season using a plant process model (CERES-Maize), current weather data and climatological data. The procedure is to place the current year's daily weather (temperature and precipitation) into the model up to the time the yield prediction is to be made and sequences of historical data (one sequence per year) after that time until the end of the growing season to produce yield estimates. The mean of the distribution of yield estimates is taken as the prediction. The variance associated with a prediction is relatively constant until the time of tassel initiation and then decreases toward zero as the season progresses. As a consequence, perfect weather forecasts reach their peak value between the beginning of ear growth and the beginning of grain fill. The change in the predicted yield in response to weather as the growing season progresses is discussed for 1983 and 1976 at Peoria, Illinois. Results are given of an attempt to incorporate 30-day Climate Analytic Center outlooks into the predictive scheme. 21 references, 14 figures, 1 table.

  13. Interfacial action of natural surfactants in oil/water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ogino, K.; Onishi, M.

    1981-09-01

    This paper concerns the tendency of a few natural surfactants at the oil/water interface to induce spontaneous emulsification. N-paraffin (n-dodecane), liquid triglycerides (oleic safflower oil and corn oil), and liquid fatty acids (oleic acid and linoleic acid) were used as the oil phase and distilled water was used as the water phase. Natural surfactants such as cholesterol, lecithin, and oleic acid were applied to the systems as the oil-soluble additives. Lecithin was the most strongly effective in reducing the interfacial tension of the oil/water systems, and cholesterol was effective at the second strength. The oil/water interface of the systems containing the oil-soluble additives changed in various ways as observed by microscopy and the unaided eye. The most remarkable change was found in the system of glycerides containing cholesterol in contact with water, in which crystals of cholesterol were formed at the interface. 13 references.

  14. Assessment Of Product In Corn And Soybean Intercropping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi, Mohammad Mehdi; Yadegari, Mehrab

    2008-01-01

    This experiment was conducted in research station of Fars in 2004, in a piece of Land with a clay texture. In order to evaluate the different ratios of CORN and SOYBEAN intercropping, in comparison to pure culture, a randomized complete block design with 4 replications was adapted. Treatments consist of: p1 = pure corn, p2 = pure soybean, p3 = 50% corn+50% soybean, p4 = %75 corn+%25 soybean, p5 = %75 soybean+%25 corn. This Experiment was conducted by using replacement system. Evaluated factors are as the following Soybean and corn seed yield in pure culture and intercropping, Land Equivalent Ratio, Relative corn yield, Relative soybean yield, aggressively. Results showed that the treatment with %75 SOYBEAN+%25 CORN with LER = 1.19 and also the treatment with %50 soybean+%50 corn with LER—1.11 have preference %19 and %11 respectively higher yield compared to pure culture. Also in relation to the aggressively in treatment with %50corn+%50 soybean and also with %75corn+%25soybean, corn was dominant. Finally the best treatment was %75 soybean+%25corn with %19 efficiency compared to pure culture.

  15. Effect of Arachidonic Acid-enriched Oil Diet Supplementation on the Taste of Broiler Meat

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, H.; Rikimaru, K.; Kiyohara, R.; Yamaguchi, S.

    2012-01-01

    To elucidate the relationship between the arachidonic acid (AA) content and the taste of broiler meat, the effects of AA-enriched oil (AAO) supplements on the fatty acid content and sensory perceptions of thigh meat were evaluated. Four types of oil, including corn oil (CO), a 1:1 mixture of AAO and palm oil (PO) (1/2 AAO), a 1:3 mixture of AAO and PO (1/4 AAO), and a 1:7 mixture of AAO and PO (1/8 AAO) were prepared. Each type of oil was mixed with silicate at a ratio of 7:3, and added to the diet at a final proportion of 5% of fresh matter. Broiler chickens were fed these diets for 1 wk before slaughter. In thigh meat, the AA content of the 1/2 and 1/4 AAO groups was significantly higher than that of the CO group. The AA content in thigh meat (y, mg/g) increased linearly with increasing dietary AAO content (x, g/100 g of diet), according to the equation y = 0.5674+0.4596× (r2 = 0.8454). The content of other fatty acids was not significantly different among the 4 diet groups. Sensory evaluation showed that the flavor intensity, umami (L-glutamate taste), kokumi (continuity, mouthfulness, and thickness), and aftertaste of the 1/2 and 1/4 AAO groups were significantly higher than that of the CO group. There were significant positive correlations between AA content in thigh meat and the flavor intensity, total taste intensity, umami, and aftertaste. These data suggest that the taste of broiler meat can be improved by the amount of dietary AA supplementation. PMID:25049636

  16. Layered double hydroxide catalyst for the conversion of crude vegetable oils to a sustainable biofuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollaeian, Keyvan

    Over the last two decades, the U.S. has developed the production of biodiesel, a mixture of fatty acid methyl esters, using chiefly vegetable oils as feedstocks. However, there is much concern about the availability of high-quality vegetable oils for longterm biodiesel production. Problems have also risen due to the production of glycerol, an unwanted byproduct, as well as the need for process wash water. Therefore, this study was initiated to produce not only fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) but also fatty acid glycerol carbonates (FAGCs) by replacing methanol with dimethyl carbonate (DMC). The process would have no unnecessary byproducts and would be a simplified process compared to traditional biodiesel. In addition, this altering of the methylating agent could convert triglycerides, free fatty acids, and phospholipids to a sustainable biofuel. In this project, Mg-Al Layered Double Hydroxide (LDH) was optimized by calcination in different temperature varied from 250°C to 450°C. The gallery between layers was increased by intercalating sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS). During catalyst preparation, the pH was controlled ~10. In our experiment, triazabicyclodecene (TBD) was attached with trimethoxysilane (3GPS) as a coupling agent, and N-cetyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was added to remove SDS from the catalyst. The catalyst was characterized by XRD, FTIR, and Raman spectroscopy. The effect of the heterogeneous catalyst on the conversion of canola oil, corn oil, and free fatty acids was investigated. To analyze the conversion of lipid oils to biofuel an in situ Raman spectroscopic method was developed. Catalyst synthesis methods and a proposed mechanism for converting triglycerides and free fatty acids to biofuel will be presented.

  17. Characterization of various fast pyrolysis bio-oils by NMR spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    NMR spectroscopy, including 1H, 13 C and DEPT spectra were used to characterize fast pyrolysis oil from numerous energy crops and other agricultural feedstocks. The bio-oils studied were produced from swithchgrass, alfalfa stems, corn stover, guayule (whole plant and latex extracted bagasse) and ch...

  18. What stages in the phenology of corn are the most correlated with rainfed corn yields in the Corn Belt using remote sensing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Zachary Lee

    Two weekly and freely available remotely sensed vegetation indices, Vegetation Condition Index (VCI) and Temperature Condition Index (TCI), were assessed for state level corn yield correlation in the Corn Belt region of the United States for the years of 2007-2013. VCI and TCI were 16-km pixels which are derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). Corn pixels were identified by downloading yearly USDA Cropscape pixels for corn in each state. Irrigated corn pixels were removed by using the 2007 Irrigated Agriculture Dataset developed by Pervez and Brown (2010) as a mask. Corn pixels were then resampled to 16-km in ArcGIS 10.1, with only pixels with greater than 50% corn coverage being drawn. These corn pixels were then used to identify VCI and TCI corn pixels for each state. Weekly VCI and TCI corn pixel values were then averaged for each state and correlated with yield from the National Agriculture Statistics Service (NASS). For the Corn Belt as a whole, VCI had high positive correlation in Week 34 and TCI has high positive correlation in Week 28. The highest correlating VCI and TCI weeks for each state were then used for regression with yield. Seven of the 12 states had R2 values greater than 0.7, meaning at least 70 percent of the variation in yield for seven of the states can be explained by VCI and TCI.

  19. ADS Development in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Kenji

    2010-06-01

    Accelerator driven nuclear transmutation system has been pursued to have a clue to the solution of high-level radioactive waste management. The concept consists of super conducting linac, sub-critical reactor and the beam window. Reference model is set up to 800MW thermal power by using 1.5GeV proton beams with considerations multi-factors such as core criticality. Materials damage is simulated by high-energy particle transport codes and so on. Recent achievement on irradiation materials experiment is stated and the differences are pointed out if core burn-up is considered or not. Heat balance in tank-type ADS indicates the temperature conditions of steam generator, the beam widow and cladding materials. Lead-bismuth eutectics demonstration has been conducted. Corrosion depth rate was shown by experiments.

  20. Supersymmetric warped AdS in extended topologically massive supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deger, N. S.; Kaya, A.; Samtleben, H.; Sezgin, E.

    2014-07-01

    We determine the most general form of off-shell N=(1,1) supergravity field configurations in three dimensions by requiring that at least one off-shell Killing spinor exists. We then impose the field equations of the topologically massive off-shell supergravity and find a class of solutions whose properties crucially depend on the norm of the auxiliary vector field. These are spacelike-squashed and timelike-stretched AdS3 for the spacelike and timelike norms, respectively. At the transition point where the norm vanishes, the solution is null warped AdS3. This occurs when the coefficient of the Lorentz-Chern-Simons term is related to the AdS radius by μℓ=2. We find that the spacelike-squashed AdS3 can be modded out by a suitable discrete subgroup of the isometry group, yielding an extremal black hole solution which avoids closed timelike curves.