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Sample records for added energy source

  1. How Gas-dynamic Flare Models Powered by Petschek Reconnection Differ from Those with Ad Hoc Energy Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longcope, D. W.; Klimchuk, J. A.

    2015-11-01

    Aspects of solar flare dynamics, such as chromospheric evaporation and flare light curves, have long been studied using one-dimensional models of plasma dynamics inside a static flare loop, subjected to some energy input. While extremely successful at explaining the observed characteristics of flares, all such models so far have specified energy input ad hoc, rather than deriving it self-consistently. There is broad consensus that flares are powered by magnetic energy released through reconnection. Recent work has generalized Petschek’s basic reconnection scenario, topological change followed by field line retraction and shock heating, to permit its inclusion in a one-dimensional flare loop model. Here we compare the gas dynamics driven by retraction and shocking to those from more conventional static loop models energized by ad hoc source terms. We find significant differences during the first minute, when retraction leads to larger kinetic energies and produces higher densities at the loop top, while ad hoc heating tends to rarify the loop top. The loop-top density concentration is related to the slow magnetosonic shock, characteristic of Petschek’s model, but persists beyond the retraction phase occurring in the outflow jet. This offers an explanation for observed loop-top sources of X-ray and EUV emission, with advantages over that provided by ad hoc heating scenarios. The cooling phases of the two models are, however, notably similar to one another, suggesting that observations at that stage will yield little information on the nature of energy input.

  2. HOW GAS-DYNAMIC FLARE MODELS POWERED BY PETSCHEK RECONNECTION DIFFER FROM THOSE WITH AD HOC ENERGY SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Longcope, D. W.; Klimchuk, J. A.

    2015-11-10

    Aspects of solar flare dynamics, such as chromospheric evaporation and flare light curves, have long been studied using one-dimensional models of plasma dynamics inside a static flare loop, subjected to some energy input. While extremely successful at explaining the observed characteristics of flares, all such models so far have specified energy input ad hoc, rather than deriving it self-consistently. There is broad consensus that flares are powered by magnetic energy released through reconnection. Recent work has generalized Petschek’s basic reconnection scenario, topological change followed by field line retraction and shock heating, to permit its inclusion in a one-dimensional flare loop model. Here we compare the gas dynamics driven by retraction and shocking to those from more conventional static loop models energized by ad hoc source terms. We find significant differences during the first minute, when retraction leads to larger kinetic energies and produces higher densities at the loop top, while ad hoc heating tends to rarify the loop top. The loop-top density concentration is related to the slow magnetosonic shock, characteristic of Petschek’s model, but persists beyond the retraction phase occurring in the outflow jet. This offers an explanation for observed loop-top sources of X-ray and EUV emission, with advantages over that provided by ad hoc heating scenarios. The cooling phases of the two models are, however, notably similar to one another, suggesting that observations at that stage will yield little information on the nature of energy input.

  3. Energy and time modelling of kerbside waste collection: Changes incurred when adding source separated food waste.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Joel; Othman, Maazuza; Burn, Stewart; Crossin, Enda

    2016-10-01

    The collection of source separated kerbside municipal FW (SSFW) is being incentivised in Australia, however such a collection is likely to increase the fuel and time a collection truck fleet requires. Therefore, waste managers need to determine whether the incentives outweigh the cost. With literature scarcely describing the magnitude of increase, and local parameters playing a crucial role in accurately modelling kerbside collection; this paper develops a new general mathematical model that predicts the energy and time requirements of a collection regime whilst incorporating the unique variables of different jurisdictions. The model, Municipal solid waste collect (MSW-Collect), is validated and shown to be more accurate at predicting fuel consumption and trucks required than other common collection models. When predicting changes incurred for five different SSFW collection scenarios, results show that SSFW scenarios require an increase in fuel ranging from 1.38% to 57.59%. There is also a need for additional trucks across most SSFW scenarios tested. All SSFW scenarios are ranked and analysed in regards to fuel consumption; sensitivity analysis is conducted to test key assumptions.

  4. Effects of adding polyclonal antibody preparations on ruminal fermentation patterns and digestibility of cows fed different energy sources.

    PubMed

    Marino, C T; Otero, W G; Rodrigues, P H M; Dicostanzo, A; Millen, D D; Pacheco, R L D; Dilorenzo, N; Martins, C L; Arrigoni, M D B

    2011-10-01

    Nine ruminally cannulated cows fed different energy sources were used to evaluate an avian-derived polyclonal antibody preparation (PAP-MV) against the specific ruminal bacteria Streptococcus bovis, Fusobacterium necrophorum, Clostridium aminophilum, Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, and Clostridium sticklandii and monensin (MON) on ruminal fermentation patterns and in vivo digestibility. The experimental design was three 3 × 3 Latin squares distinguished by the main energy source in the diet [dry-ground corn grain (CG), high-moisture corn silage (HMCS), or citrus pulp (CiPu)]. Inside each Latin square, animals received one of the feed additives per period [none (CON), MON, or PAP-MV]. Dry matter intake and ruminal fermentation variables such as pH, total short-chain fatty acids (tSCFA), which included acetate, propionate, and butyrate, as well as lactic acid and NH(3)-N concentration were analyzed in this trial. Total tract DM apparent digestibility and its fractions were estimated using chromic oxide as an external marker. Each experimental period lasted 21 d. Ruminal fluid sampling was carried out on the last day of the period at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 h after the morning meal. Ruminal pH was higher (P = 0.006) 4 h postfeeding in MON and PAP-MV groups when compared with CON. Acetate:propionate ratio was greater in PAP-MV compared with MON across sampling times. Polyclonal antibodies did not alter (P > 0.05) tSCFA, molar proportion of acetate and butyrate, or lactic acid and NH(3)-N concentration. Ruminal pH was higher (P = 0.01), 4 h postfeeding in CiPu diets compared with CG and HMCS. There was no interaction between feed additive and energy source (P > 0.05) for any of the digestibility coefficients analyzed. Starch digestibility was less (P = 0.008) in PAP-MV when compared with CON and MON. In relation to energy sources, NDF digestibility was greater (P = 0.007) in CG and CiPu vs. the HMCS diet. The digestibility of ADF was greater (P = 0.002) in CiPu diets

  5. Energy Sources and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with energy sources and development. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss energy sources and development related to the historical perspective, biological development, current aspects, and future expectations…

  6. Diversification of energy sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The concept of energy source diversification was introduced as a substitution conservation action. The current status and philosophy behind a diversification program is presented in the context of a national energy policy. Advantages, disadvantages (constraints), and methods of implementation for diversification are discussed. The energy source systems for diversification are listed and an example impact assessment is outlined which deals with the water requirements of the specific energy systems.

  7. Alternate Propulsion Energy Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    Fermilab in the USA. The antiprotons are generated by the collision of high energy protons with multiple arrays of thin metal targets. The high...UNCLASSIFIED AD NUMBER ADB088771 NEW LIMITATION CHANGE TO Approved for public release, distribution unlimited FROM Distribution authorized to U.S...EdwarsAFB CA 93523erne_ .... • ir cont-rac--o-S Report distribution limited to ... . .y, Critical Technology,14-Ne 4. .. 9A2 M - Other requests for this

  8. Alternative energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, R. W.

    1982-04-01

    Renewable energy sources and their potential contribution for solving energy needs are presented. Centralized supply technologies include those alternative fuels derived from biomass using solar energy, (supplying 57% of the energy supply in some countries), and those using directly collected solar energy to manufacture a fuel. Fuel utilization effects can be doubled by using combined heat and power stations, and other major sources include wind, wave, tidal, and solar. In terms of local supply technology, wood burning appliances are becoming more popular, and methane is being used for heating and to fuel spark ignition engines. Geothermal low temperature heating exists worldwide at a capacity of 7.2 GW, supplying heat, particularly in Hungary, parts of the U.S.S.R., and Iceland, and a geothermal research program has been established in the United States. Sweden has a potential hydroelectric capacity of 600 MW, and the United States has a 100 GW capacity. Many of these technologies are already cost effective.

  9. The heliospheric energy source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, E. N.

    1986-01-01

    The solar wind and the heliosphere exist as a consequence of the heat input to the corona, particularly the coronal holes. The necessary energy input to coronal holes has been estimated to be 10 to the 6th erg/sq cm sec, requiring Alfven waves with rms fluid velocities of 100 km/sec. Observational upper limits on coronal fluid velocities are of the order of 25 km/sec, which may not apply to the transparent coronal hole. Alternatively it has been suggested that coronal holes may be heated by agitation from neighboring active regions, suggesting that the vigor of a coronal hole depends upon its location. The Ulysses Mission will provide a direct comparison of the strength of the high speed wind from coronal holes at low latitude and coronal holes at high latitude, from which the nature of the presently unknown energy sources of the coronal holes and the resulting structure of the heliosphere may be better judged. The question is fundamental to the dynamics of the windspheres of all stars.

  10. Fission Energy and Other Sources of Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfven, Hannes

    1974-01-01

    Discusses different forms of energy sources and basic reasons for the opposition to the use of atomic energy. Suggests that research efforts should also be aimed toward the fission technology to make it acceptable besides major research studies conducted in the development of alternative energy sources. (CC)

  11. Energy Sources: An Historical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Constance M.

    1983-01-01

    Putting the present energy situation into an historical perspective provides meaning to today's energy concerns and demonstrates how important energy has always been to our life style. Primary energy sources of the United States from 1850 to the present are examined. (RM)

  12. Economics and energy sources.

    PubMed

    Munro, Malcolm G

    2013-01-01

    Energy-based instrumentation has not only facilitated the rapid adoption of laparoscopic surgery, but could be considered essential for the completion of abdominal and pelvic procedures under endoscopic guidance. For decades, relatively simple and generic reusable monopolar and bipolar systems were the only options available. More recently, the available options for energy-based surgical instrumentation have become more crowded with the introduction of ultrasound-based cutting and sealing instruments and proprietary, impedance monitoring radiofrequency coagulation devices. Such instrumentation is presented as being easier to use as well as providing greater safety and efficacy. However, these new instruments typically require the expenditure of capital for proprietary energy generators and are usually designed to be for single use, a circumstance that increases per case costs, a circumstance that begs the question of value. Do the additional costs expended for the more expensive devices translate into reduced complications, faster operating time, or even wider access to minimally invasive procedures because they enable more surgeons to offer the service? Herein is explored the complex economic issues associated with the use of energy-based surgical devices as they apply to minimal access surgery in general and to laparoscopic procedures specifically.

  13. VEDCO energy installations sources

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, A.

    1996-12-31

    A process for solid waste management is described. The approach combines materials recovery, recycling, and using refuse-derived fuel for cogeneration. A fluidized bed system is used for combustion. An example of the use of this system is briefly cited; it has extended landfill life up to 100 years for one county and allowed three counties to close municipal landfills. Over 50,000 tons of material are recycled each year, saving more than $100 million on waste disposal. Energy generation saves a chemical company over 3 million gallons of oil annually and allows the local utility company to save 75,000 tons of coal. Air emissions at the chemical company will also be reduced by over 50%.

  14. Optimization of accelerated charged particle beam for ADS energy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldin, A. A.; Berlev, A. I.; Paraipan, M.; Tyutyunnikov, S. I.

    2017-01-01

    A comparative analysis and optimization of energy efficiency for proton and ion beams in ADS systems is performed via simulation using a GEANT4 code with account for energy consumption for different accelerator types. It is demonstrated that for light nuclei, beginning from 7Li, with energies above 1 GeV/nucleon, ion beams are considerably (several times) more efficient than the 1-3 GeV proton beam. The possibility of achieving energy deposition equivalent to 1 GeV protons in a quasi-infinite uranium target with higher efficiency (and twice as small accelerator size) in the case of acceleration of light ions is substantiated.

  15. Energy Efficient Probabilistic Broadcasting for Mobile Ad-Hoc Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sumit; Mehfuz, Shabana

    2016-08-01

    In mobile ad-hoc network (MANETs) flooding method is used for broadcasting route request (RREQ) packet from one node to another node for route discovery. This is the simplest method of broadcasting of RREQ packets but it often results in broadcast storm problem, originating collisions and congestion of packets in the network. A probabilistic broadcasting is one of the widely used broadcasting scheme for route discovery in MANETs and provides solution for broadcasting storm problem. But it does not consider limited energy of the battery of the nodes. In this paper, a new energy efficient probabilistic broadcasting (EEPB) is proposed in which probability of broadcasting RREQs is calculated with respect to remaining energy of nodes. The analysis of simulation results clearly indicate that an EEPB route discovery scheme in ad-hoc on demand distance vector (AODV) can increase the network lifetime with a decrease in the average power consumption and RREQ packet overhead. It also decreases the number of dropped packets in the network, in comparison to other EEPB schemes like energy constraint gossip (ECG), energy aware gossip (EAG), energy based gossip (EBG) and network lifetime through energy efficient broadcast gossip (NEBG).

  16. Antimatter as an Energy Source

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Gerald P.

    2009-03-16

    Antiprotons and positrons are constantly generated in space, and periodically manufactured by humans here on Earth. Harvesting of these particles in space and forming stable antimatter atoms and molecules would create a significant energy source for power and propulsion. Though dedicated fabrication of these particles on Earth consumes much more energy than could be liberated upon annihilation, manufactured antimatter represents a high-density energy storage mechanism well suited for spacecraft power and propulsion. In this paper the creation, storage, and utilization of antimatter is introduced. Specific examples of electrical energy generation and deep-space propulsion based on antimatter are also reviewed.

  17. AdS5 solutions from M5-branes on Riemann surface and D6-branes sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bah, Ibrahima

    2015-09-01

    We describe the gravity duals of four-dimensional N=1 superconformal field theories obtained by wrapping M5-branes on a punctured Riemann surface. The internal geometry, normal to the AdS 5 factor, generically preserves two U(1)s, with generators ( J +, J -), that are fibered over the Riemann surface. The metric is governed by a single potential that satisfies a version of the Monge-Ampère equation. The spectrum of N=1 punctures is given by the set of supersymmetric sources of the potential that are localized on the Riemann surface and lead to regular metrics near a puncture. We use this system to study a class of punctures where the geometry near the sources corresponds to M-theory description of D6-branes. These carry a natural ( p, q) label associated to the circle dual to the killing vector pJ + + qJ - which shrinks near the source. In the generic case the world volume of the D6-branes is AdS 5 × S 2 and they locally preserve N=2 supersymmetry. When p = - q, the shrinking circle is dual to a flavor U(1). The metric in this case is non-degenerate only when there are co-dimension one sources obtained by smearing M5-branes that wrap the AdS 5 factor and the circle dual the superconformal R-symmetry. The D6-branes are extended along the AdS 5 and on cups that end on the co-dimension one branes. In the special case when the shrinking circle is dual to the R-symmetry, the D6-branes are extended along the AdS 5 and wrap an auxiliary Riemann surface with an arbitrary genus. When the Riemann surface is compact with constant curvature, the system is governed by a Monge-Ampère equation.

  18. Energy source for comet outbursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patashnick, H.; Schuerman, D. W.; Rupprecht, G.

    1974-01-01

    Development of a mechanism explaining the internal source of energy of comet outbursts. A mechanism is proposed which automatically provides a source of particulate matter which creates a huge surface area which contains a substantial percentage of amorphous ice, so that the phase transition of the amorphous ice to a cubic structure provides a release of energy which may be responsible for the outbursts observed in many comets. In addition, the volume into which the transition can propagate is estimated for a spherical comet with a radius of 5 km.

  19. Phase Transition of AdS Black Holes with Non Linear Source in the Holographic Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moumni, H. El

    2017-02-01

    In this work we investigate the phase transition of AdS black hole solution in the presence of a generalized Maxwell theory, namely power Maxwell invariant (PMI). This phase structure is probed by the nonlocal observables such as holographic entanglement entropy and two point correlation function. We show that the both observables exhibit a Van der Waals-like phase transition as the case of the thermal entropy. By checking the Maxwell's equal area law for different space dimension n and nonlinearity parameter s we confirm this result.

  20. Studio delle popolazioni di blazar ad alte energie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparrini, D.; Giommi, P.

    2008-10-01

    Utilizzando la grande quantita' di dati sui blazar disponibile ad oggi, e' possibile costruire una distribuzione spettrale di energia (SED) media per ciascuna classe di oggetti. Basandosi su un modello SSC, e' inoltre possibile stimare il comportamento di questi oggetti nella banda di energia dei raggi gamma partendo dalle informazioni ottenute da osservazioni in altre bande di energia quali il radio e l'X. Utilizzando le simulazioni sara` possibile prevedere un eventuale cambio di popolazione dominante ad alte energie(oltre 1GeV) rispetto a quanto avviene in banda radio dove domina la popolazione dei FSRQ rispetto ai BL Lac e cercare un'eventuale conferma dagli esperimenti AGILE e GLAST.

  1. Financial appraisal of wet mesophilic AD technology as a renewable energy and waste management technology.

    PubMed

    Dolan, T; Cook, M B; Angus, A J

    2011-06-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) has the potential to support diversion of organic waste from landfill and increase renewable energy production. However, diffusion of this technology has been uneven, with countries such as Germany and Sweden taking the lead, but limited diffusion in other countries such as the UK. In this context, this study explores the financial viability of AD in the UK to offer reasons why it has not been more widely used. This paper presents a model that calculates the Internal Rate of Return (IRR) on a twenty year investment in a 30,000 tonnes per annum wet mesophilic AD plant in the UK for the treatment of source separated organic waste, which is judged to be a suitable technology for the UK climate. The model evaluates the financial significance of the different alternative energy outputs from this AD plant and the resulting economic subsidies paid for renewable energy. Results show that renewable electricity and renewable heat sales supported by renewable electricity and renewable heat tariffs generates the greatest IRR (31.26%). All other uses of biogas generate an IRR in excess of 15%, and are judged to be a financially viable investment. Sensitivity analysis highlights the financial significance of: economic incentive payments and a waste management gate fee; and demonstrates that the fate of the digestate by-product is a source of financial uncertainty for AD investors.

  2. Ethanol: A Strategic Energy Source?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-04

    REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 04-05-2009 2. REPORT TYPE Program Research Paper 3 . DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...radical terrorists richer.” 3 This research project examines the viability of ethanol as an alternative fuel source. It will identify whether an ethanol...Japan in 1941 went to war to secure its energy supplies. The United States must 3 prepare for these shortages if we are to maintain our economic

  3. Gravitational energy sources in Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flasar, F. M.

    1973-01-01

    Gravitational sources of the intrinsic luminosity of Jupiter are examined in the context of current hydrogen-helium models. When no gravitational separation of matter occurs, the amount of heat which can be released over the remaining lifetime of the planet is necessarily limited by the size of its existing reservoir of thermal energy. This conclusion rests only on the assumption that its interior is relatively cold and degenerate. If gravitational unmixing occurs, the size of the thermal reservoir does not necessarily limit the heat output. If core formation occurs, for example, then the size of the core formed will be a limiting factor. The energy released with the formation of a helium core is computed for Jupiter. A core growth rate, averaged over several billion years, of 20 trillionths of Jupiter's mass per year is required if gravitational separation is to play a significant role in the thermal evolution.

  4. Adding tools to the open source toolbox: The Internet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porth, Tricia

    1994-01-01

    The Internet offers researchers additional sources of information not easily available from traditional sources such as print volumes or commercial data bases. Internet tools such as e-mail and file transfer protocol (ftp) speed up the way researchers communicate and transmit data. Mosaic, one of the newest additions to the Internet toolbox, allows users to combine tools such as ftp, gopher, wide area information server, and the world wide web with multimedia capabilities. Mosaic has quickly become a popular means of making information available on the Internet because it is versatile and easily customizable.

  5. Adding source positions to the IVS combination—First results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, Sabine; Thaller, Daniela

    2016-12-01

    The consistent estimation of terrestrial reference frames (TRF), celestial reference frames (CRF) and Earth orientation parameters (EOP) is still an open subject and offers a large field of investigations. Until now, source positions resulting from Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations are not routinely combined on the level of normal equations in the same way as it is a common process for station coordinates and EOPs. The combination of source positions based on VLBI observations is now integrated in the IVS combination process. We present the studies carried out to evaluate the benefit of the combination compared to individual solutions. On the level of source time series, improved statistics regarding weighted root mean square have been found for the combination in comparison with the individual contributions. In total, 67 stations and 907 sources (including 291 ICRF2 defining sources) are included in the consistently generated CRF and TRF covering 30 years of VLBI contributions. The rotation angles A_1 , A_2 and A_3 relative to ICRF2 are -12.7, 51.7 and 1.8 {μ} as, the drifts D_α and D_δ are -67.2 and 19.1 μ as/rad and the bias B_δ is 26.1 μ as. The comparison of the TRF solution with the IVS routinely combined quarterly TRF solution shows no significant impact on the TRF, when the CRF is estimated consistently with the TRF. The root mean square value of the post-fit station coordinate residuals is 0.9 cm.

  6. Consumption of added sugars among US children and adults by food purchase location and food source123

    PubMed Central

    Drewnowski, Adam; Rehm, Colin D

    2014-01-01

    Background: The proposed changes to the Nutrition Facts Label by the US Food and Drug Administration will include information on added sugars for the first time. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the sources of added sugars in the diets of a representative sample of US children and adults by food purchase location and food source (eg, food group). Design: This cross-sectional study among 31,035 children, adolescents, and adults aged ≥6 y from the 2003–2004, 2005–2006, 2007–2008, and 2009–2010 NHANES used data from a 24-h dietary recall to evaluate consumption of added sugars. Food locations of origin were identified as stores (supermarket or grocery store), quick-service restaurants/pizza (QSRs), full-service restaurants (FSRs), schools, and others (eg, vending machines or gifts). Added sugars consumption by food purchase location was evaluated by age, family income-to-poverty ratio, and race-ethnicity. Food group sources of added sugars were identified by using the National Cancer Institute food categories. Results: Added sugars accounted for ∼14.1% of total dietary energy. Between 65% and 76% of added sugars came from stores, 6% and 12% from QSRs, and 4% and 6% from FSRs, depending on age. Older adults (aged ≥51 y) obtained a significantly greater proportion of added sugars from stores than did younger adults. Lower-income adults obtained a significantly greater proportion of added sugars from stores than did higher-income adults. Intake of added sugars did not vary by family income among children/adolescents. Soda and energy and sports drinks were the largest food group sources of added sugars (34.4%), followed by grain desserts (12.7%), fruit drinks (8.0%), candy (6.7%), and dairy desserts (5.6%). Conclusions: Most added sugars came from foods obtained from stores. The proposed changes to the Nutrition Facts Label should capture the bulk of added sugars in the US food supply, which suggests that the recommended changes have the potential to

  7. Renewable Sources of Energy and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diatta, Christian Sina

    1979-01-01

    Reviewed are the status of conventional sources of energy, prospects for the development of alternative sources of energy, and the consequences of that development on countries that are in the process of industrialization. (BT)

  8. Economics of alternative energy sources.

    PubMed

    Ryle, M

    1977-05-12

    An important part of the oil and natural gas at present consumed in the UK is used for the heating of buildings, a demand which shows large diurnal, day-to-day and annual fluctuations. The replacement of this energy by nuclear-generated electricity, as at present envisaged, would require the construction of some 250 GW of additional capacity by the end of the century, a progamme which does not seem feasible. By incorporating relatively cheap, short term storage in the form of low-grade heat, the generating capacity required to fulfil peak demand could be reduced by more than 50%. As soon as such storage is provided, however, other sources of energy become viable and attractive alternatives, and the UK is well situated to make use of wind, wave, and tidal power. It seems likely that the value of North Sea oil/gas reserves as feedstock to the chemical industry will rise sufficiently to make an early reduction in their consumption as fuel of great economic importance.

  9. Alternative Sources of Energy: A Course in Energy Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Gian

    1983-01-01

    Describes a course designed to familiarize students with alternative sources of energy, with emphasis on problem-solving strategies. Includes list of major topics/subtopics addressed and list of textbooks and recommended readings on alternative energy sources. (JN)

  10. Supplementing Conservation Practices with Alternative Energy Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraetsch, Gayla A.

    1981-01-01

    Universities and colleges have two major roles: to reduce their own energy consumption and costs, and to develop and test new energy options. Alternative energy sources considered include solar energy, wind power, biomass, hydropower, ocean energy, geothermal heat, coal, and nuclear energy. (MLW)

  11. Potential of renewable and alternative energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalov, V.; Pogharnitskaya, O.; Rostovshchikova, A.; Matveenko, I.

    2015-11-01

    The article deals with application potential of clean alternative renewable energy sources. By means of system analysis the forecast for consumption of electrical energy in Tomsk Oblast as well as main energy sources of existing energy system have been studied up to 2018. Engineering potential of renewable and alternative energy sources is evaluated. Besides, ranking in the order of their efficiency descending is performed. It is concluded that Tomsk Oblast has high potential of alternative and renewable energy sources, among which the most promising development perspective is implementation of gasification stations to save fuel consumed by diesel power stations as well as building wind-power plants.

  12. Exact results for the low energy AdS 4 × 3 string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbri, Alessandro; Fioravanti, Davide; Piscaglia, Simone; Tateo, Roberto

    2013-11-01

    We derive the Thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz equations for the relativistic sigma model describing the AdS 4 × 3 string II A theory at strong coupling (i.e. in the Alday-Maldacena decoupling limit). The corresponding Y -system involves an infinite number of Y functions and is of a new type, although it shares a peculiar feature with the Y -system for AdS 4 × 3. A truncation of the equations at level p and a further generalisation to generic rank N allow us an alternative description of the theory as the N =4, p = ∞ representative in an infinite family of models corresponding to the conformal cosets ( N -1) p × U(1), perturbed by a relevant composite field ϕ ( N,p) = ϕ[( N -1) p ] × ϕ [U(1)] that couples the two independent conformal field theories. The calculation of the ultraviolet central charge confirms the conjecture by Basso and Rej and the conformal dimension of the perturbing operator, at every N and p, is obtained using the Y-system periodicity. The conformal dimension of ϕ[( N -1) p ] matches that of the field identified by Fendley while discussing integrability issues for the purely bosonic N -1 sigma model.

  13. Conservation as an alternative energy source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, D. E.

    1978-01-01

    A speech is given outlining the energy situation in the United States. It is warned that the existing energy situation cannot prevail and the time is fast running out for continued growth or even maintenance of present levels. Energy conservation measures are given as an aid to decrease U.S. energy consumption, which would allow more time to develop alternative sources of energy.

  14. Acute vertebral fracture after spinal fusion: a case report illustrating the added value of single-source dual-energy computed tomography to magnetic resonance imaging in a patient with spinal Instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, M; Putzier, M; Pumberger, M; Hermann, K G; Diekhoff, T

    2016-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is degraded by metal-implant-induced artifacts when used for the diagnostic assessment of vertebral compression fractures in patients with instrumented spinal fusion. Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) offers a promising supplementary imaging tool in these patients. This case report describes an 85-year-old woman who presented with a suspected acute vertebral fracture after long posterior lumbar interbody fusion. This is the first report of a vertebral fracture that showed bone marrow edema on DECT; however, edema was missed by an MRI STIR sequence owing to metal artifacts. Bone marrow assessment using DECT is less susceptible to metal artifacts than MRI, resulting in improved visualization of vertebral edema in the vicinity of fused vertebral bodies.

  15. Estimated intakes and sources of total and added sugars in the Canadian diet.

    PubMed

    Brisbois, Tristin D; Marsden, Sandra L; Anderson, G Harvey; Sievenpiper, John L

    2014-05-08

    National food supply data and dietary surveys are essential to estimate nutrient intakes and monitor trends, yet there are few published studies estimating added sugars consumption. The purpose of this report was to estimate and trend added sugars intakes and their contribution to total energy intake among Canadians by, first, using Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) nutrition survey data of intakes of sugars in foods and beverages, and second, using Statistics Canada availability data and adjusting these for wastage to estimate intakes. Added sugars intakes were estimated from CCHS data by categorizing the sugars content of food groups as either added or naturally occurring. Added sugars accounted for approximately half of total sugars consumed. Annual availability data were obtained from Statistics Canada CANSIM database. Estimates for added sugars were obtained by summing the availability of "sugars and syrups" with availability of "soft drinks" (proxy for high fructose corn syrup) and adjusting for waste. Analysis of both survey and availability data suggests that added sugars average 11%-13% of total energy intake. Availability data indicate that added sugars intakes have been stable or modestly declining as a percent of total energy over the past three decades. Although these are best estimates based on available data, this analysis may encourage the development of better databases to help inform public policy recommendations.

  16. Estimated Intakes and Sources of Total and Added Sugars in the Canadian Diet

    PubMed Central

    Brisbois, Tristin D.; Marsden, Sandra L.; Anderson, G. Harvey; Sievenpiper, John L.

    2014-01-01

    National food supply data and dietary surveys are essential to estimate nutrient intakes and monitor trends, yet there are few published studies estimating added sugars consumption. The purpose of this report was to estimate and trend added sugars intakes and their contribution to total energy intake among Canadians by, first, using Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) nutrition survey data of intakes of sugars in foods and beverages, and second, using Statistics Canada availability data and adjusting these for wastage to estimate intakes. Added sugars intakes were estimated from CCHS data by categorizing the sugars content of food groups as either added or naturally occurring. Added sugars accounted for approximately half of total sugars consumed. Annual availability data were obtained from Statistics Canada CANSIM database. Estimates for added sugars were obtained by summing the availability of “sugars and syrups” with availability of “soft drinks” (proxy for high fructose corn syrup) and adjusting for waste. Analysis of both survey and availability data suggests that added sugars average 11%–13% of total energy intake. Availability data indicate that added sugars intakes have been stable or modestly declining as a percent of total energy over the past three decades. Although these are best estimates based on available data, this analysis may encourage the development of better databases to help inform public policy recommendations. PMID:24815507

  17. Rotating thin shells in (2 + 1)-dimensional asymptotically AdS spacetimes: Mechanical properties, machian effects, and energy conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemos, José P. S.; Lopes, Francisco J.; Minamitsuji, Masato

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, a rotating thin shell in a (2 + 1)-dimensional asymptotically AdS spacetime is studied. The spacetime exterior to the shell is the rotating BTZ spacetime and the interior is the empty spacetime with a cosmological constant. Through the Einstein equation in (2 + 1) dimensions and the corresponding junction conditions we calculate the dynamical relevant quantities, namely, the rest energy-density, the pressure, and the angular momentum flux density. We also analyze the matter in a frame where its energy-momentum tensor has a perfect fluid form. In addition, we show that Machian effects, such as the dragging of inertial frames, also occur in rotating (2 + 1)-dimensional spacetimes. The weak and the dominant energy condition for these shells are discussed.

  18. How Energy Efficiency is Adding Jobs in St. Paul, Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Hannigan, Jim; Coleman, Chris; Oliver, LeAnn; Jambois, Louis

    2011-01-01

    Saint Paul, Minnesota is using an energy efficiency grant to provide commercial retrofits that will allow a local produce distribution company to dramatically reduce its energy costs and add dozens of new workers.

  19. How Energy Efficiency is Adding Jobs in St. Paul, Minnesota

    ScienceCinema

    Hannigan, Jim; Coleman, Chris; Oliver, LeAnn; Jambois, Louis

    2016-07-12

    Saint Paul, Minnesota is using an energy efficiency grant to provide commercial retrofits that will allow a local produce distribution company to dramatically reduce its energy costs and add dozens of new workers.

  20. Energy-Aware Multipath Routing Scheme Based on Particle Swarm Optimization in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Y. Harold; Rajaram, M.

    2015-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of autonomous mobile nodes forming an ad hoc network without fixed infrastructure. Dynamic topology property of MANET may degrade the performance of the network. However, multipath selection is a great challenging task to improve the network lifetime. We proposed an energy-aware multipath routing scheme based on particle swarm optimization (EMPSO) that uses continuous time recurrent neural network (CTRNN) to solve optimization problems. CTRNN finds the optimal loop-free paths to solve link disjoint paths in a MANET. The CTRNN is used as an optimum path selection technique that produces a set of optimal paths between source and destination. In CTRNN, particle swarm optimization (PSO) method is primly used for training the RNN. The proposed scheme uses the reliability measures such as transmission cost, energy factor, and the optimal traffic ratio between source and destination to increase routing performance. In this scheme, optimal loop-free paths can be found using PSO to seek better link quality nodes in route discovery phase. PSO optimizes a problem by iteratively trying to get a better solution with regard to a measure of quality. The proposed scheme discovers multiple loop-free paths by using PSO technique. PMID:26819966

  1. Power conditioning system for energy sources

    DOEpatents

    Mazumder, Sudip K.; Burra, Rajni K.; Acharya, Kaustuva

    2008-05-13

    Apparatus for conditioning power generated by an energy source includes an inverter for converting a DC input voltage from the energy source to a square wave AC output voltage, and a converter for converting the AC output voltage from the inverter to a sine wave AC output voltage.

  2. Delays in Tapping Energy Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abelson, Philip H.

    1975-01-01

    Summarizes factors that will create severe energy shortages by 1980. Indicates that conservation is not enough, and the quickest path toward relief is the expansion of surface mining of low-sulfur coal in the Rocky Mountain states. (GS)

  3. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Urbanization - Energy Sources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Introduction to changes in basal energy sources with urbanization, overview of terrestrial leaf litter dynamics in urban streams, overview of how urbanization can affect primary production, respiration, and dissolved organic carbon quantity and quality.

  4. Finding radiant-energy sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffer, G. J.

    1978-01-01

    Antenna is scanned in orthogonal directions to pinpoint interfering sources. Satellite system locates ground-based microwave transmitter to accuracy of about 100 miles. When data on misalinement of satellite antenna boresight are used to correct antenna pointing, accuracy is improved to better than 70 miles.

  5. Looking for alternative energy sources.

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael

    2012-02-21

    With unrest in oil-exporting countries, backlashes against biofuels and photovoltaics, and a nuclear incident in Japan, the year 2011 rattled confidence in future energy supplies. The search for alternatives is all the more urgent, but some of the solutions investigated hark back to fossil fuels that we can't afford to burn.

  6. Dietary intake and food sources of added sugar in the Australian population.

    PubMed

    Lei, Linggang; Rangan, Anna; Flood, Victoria M; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu

    2016-03-14

    Previous studies in Australian children/adolescents and adults examining added sugar (AS) intake were based on now out-of-date national surveys. We aimed to examine the AS and free sugar (FS) intakes and the main food sources of AS among Australians, using plausible dietary data collected by a multiple-pass, 24-h recall, from the 2011-12 Australian Health Survey respondents (n 8202). AS and FS intakes were estimated using a previously published method, and as defined by the WHO, respectively. Food groups contributing to the AS intake were described and compared by age group and sex by one-way ANOVA. Linear regression was used to test for trends across age groups. Usual intake of FS (as percentage energy (%EFS)) was computed using a published method and compared with the WHO cut-off of <10%EFS. The mean AS intake of the participants was 60·3 (SD 52·6) g/d. Sugar-sweetened beverages accounted for the greatest proportion of the AS intake of the Australian population (21·4 (sd 30·1)%), followed by sugar and sweet spreads (16·3 (SD 24·5)%) and cakes, biscuits, pastries and batter-based products (15·7 (sd 24·4)%). More than half of the study population exceeded the WHO's cut-off for FS, especially children and adolescents. Overall, 80-90% of the daily AS intake came from high-sugar energy-dense and/or nutrient-poor foods. To conclude, the majority of Australian adults and children exceed the WHO recommendation for FS intake. Efforts to reduce AS intake should focus on energy-dense and/or nutrient-poor foods.

  7. Sources of Information on Wind Energy (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2001-12-01

    As wind technology continues to mature and the wind industry becomes an increasingly respected member of the energy producing community, a growing number of people require more information about wind energy. Whether you are a business manager, utility engineer, scientific researcher, or an interested energy user, this brochure provides helpful information sources.

  8. Writable electrochemical energy source based on graphene oxide

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Di

    2015-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) was mainly used as raw material for various types of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as a cost effective method to make graphene like materials. However, applications of its own unique properties such as extraordinary proton conductivity and super-permeability to water were overlooked. Here GO based battery-like planar energy source was demonstrated on arbitrary insulating substrate (e.g. polymer sheet/paper) by coating PEDOT, GO ink and rGO on Ag charge collectors. Energy from such GO battery depends on its length and one unit cell with length of 0.5 cm can generate energy capacity of 30 Ah/L with voltage up to 0.7 V when room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) is added. With power density up to 0.4 W/cm3 and energy density of 4 Wh/L, GO battery was demonstrated to drive an electrochromic device. This work is the first attempt to generate decent energy using the fast transported water molecules inside GO. It provides very safe energy source that enables new applications otherwise traditional battery technology can not make including building a foldable energy source on paper and platform for futuristic wearable electronics. A disposable energy source made of GO was also written on a plastic glove to demonstrate wearability. PMID:26462557

  9. Writable electrochemical energy source based on graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Wei, Di

    2015-10-14

    Graphene oxide (GO) was mainly used as raw material for various types of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as a cost effective method to make graphene like materials. However, applications of its own unique properties such as extraordinary proton conductivity and super-permeability to water were overlooked. Here GO based battery-like planar energy source was demonstrated on arbitrary insulating substrate (e.g. polymer sheet/paper) by coating PEDOT, GO ink and rGO on Ag charge collectors. Energy from such GO battery depends on its length and one unit cell with length of 0.5 cm can generate energy capacity of 30 Ah/L with voltage up to 0.7 V when room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) is added. With power density up to 0.4 W/cm(3) and energy density of 4 Wh/L, GO battery was demonstrated to drive an electrochromic device. This work is the first attempt to generate decent energy using the fast transported water molecules inside GO. It provides very safe energy source that enables new applications otherwise traditional battery technology can not make including building a foldable energy source on paper and platform for futuristic wearable electronics. A disposable energy source made of GO was also written on a plastic glove to demonstrate wearability.

  10. The Sun: Source of the Earth's Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Barbara J.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Sun is the primary source of the Earth's energy. However, due to the complexity in the way the energy affects Earth, the various solar sources of the energy, and the variation exhibited by the Sun it is difficult to understand and predict the Earth's response to solar drivers. In addition to visible light the radiant energy of the Sun can exhibit variation in nearly all wavelengths, which can vary over nearly all timescales. Depending on the wavelength of the incident radiation the light can deposit energy in a wide variety or locations and drive processes from below Earth's surface to interplanetary space. Other sources of energy impacting Earth include energetic particles, magnetic fields, and mass and flow variations in the solar wind. Many of these variable energetic processes cannot be coupled and recent results continue to demonstrate that the complex dynamics of the Sun can have a great range of measurable impacts on Earth.

  11. Fusion as a future energy source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D. J.

    2016-11-01

    Fusion remains the main source of energy generation in the Universe and is indirectly the origin of nearly all terrestrial energy (including fossil fuels) but it is the only fundamental energy source not used directly on Earth. Here we look at the characteristics of Earth-based fusion power, how it might contribute to future energy supply and what that tells us about the future direction of the R&D programme. The focus here is Magnetic Confinement Fusion although many of the points apply equally to inertial confinement fusion.

  12. Changes in intakes of total and added sugar and their contribution to energy intake in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Chun, Ock K; Chung, Chin E; Wang, Ying; Padgitt, Andrea; Song, Won O

    2010-08-01

    This study was designed to document changes in total sugar intake and intake of added sugars, in the context of total energy intake and intake of nutrient categories, between the 1970s and the 1990s, and to identify major food sources contributing to those changes in intake. Data from the NHANES I and III were analyzed to obtain nationally representative information on food consumption for the civilian, non-institutionalized population of the U.S. from 1971 to 1994. In the past three decades, in addition to the increase in mean intakes of total energy, total sugar, added sugars, significant increases in the total intake of carbohydrates and the proportion of carbohydrates to the total energy intake were observed. The contribution of sugars to total carbohydrate intake decreased in both 1-18 y and 19+ y age subgroups, and the contribution of added sugars to the total energy intake did not change. Soft drinks/fluid milk/sugars and cakes, pastries, and pies remained the major food sources for intake of total sugar, total carbohydrates, and total energy during the past three decades. Carbonated soft drinks were the most significant sugar source across the entire three decades. Changes in sugar consumption over the past three decades may be a useful specific area of investigation in examining the effect of dietary patterns on chronic diseases.

  13. Real Time Semantic Interoperability in AD HOC Networks of Geospatial Data Sources: Challenges, Achievements and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostafavi, M. A.; Bakillah, M.

    2012-07-01

    Recent advances in geospatial technologies have made available large amount of geospatial data. Meanwhile, new developments in Internet and communication technologies created a shift from isolated geospatial databases to ad hoc networks of geospatial data sources, where data sources can join or leave the network, and form groups to share data and services. However, effective integration and sharing of geospatial data among these data sources and their users are hampered by semantic heterogeneities. These heterogeneities affect the spatial, temporal and thematic aspects of geospatial concepts. There have been many efforts to address semantic interoperability issues in the geospatial domain. These efforts were mainly focused on resolving heterogeneities caused by different and implicit representations of the concepts. However, many approaches have focused on the thematic aspects, leaving aside the explicit representation of spatial and temporal aspects. Also, most semantic interoperability approaches for networks have focused on automating the semantic mapping process. However, the ad hoc network structure is continuously modified by source addition or removal, formation of groups, etc. This dynamic aspect is often neglected in those approaches. This paper proposes a conceptual framework for real time semantic interoperability in ad hoc networks of geospatial data sources. The conceptual framework presents the fundamental elements of real time semantic interoperability through a hierarchy of interrelated semantic states and processes. Then, we use the conceptual framework to set the discussion on the achievements that have already been made, the challenges that remain to be addressed and perspectives with respect to these challenges.

  14. Added sugars drive nutrient and energy deficit in obesity: a new paradigm

    PubMed Central

    DiNicolantonio, James J; Berger, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has traditionally been thought of as a state of caloric imbalance, where the intake of calories exceeds the expenditure or ‘burning’ of calories. However, a more nuanced appreciation for the complex biochemistry and physiology of cellular energy generation suggests that obesity is a state of hormonal imbalance causing increased shunting of food energy into adipose tissue for storage, resulting in decreased satiety and ultimately leading to increased caloric intake. Adding to this hypothesis, we propose that obesity is also a state of nutrient and energy deficit, leading to decreased fatty acid mobilisation and oxidation, the result of which may be a natural disinclination towards physical activity. Added sugars (sucrose, a.k.a. table sugar and high-fructose corn syrup) may provide energy (4 kcal/g) but at current intakes they do not facilitate—and may even hinder—the production of energy. Not only do added sugars displace nutritionally superior foods in the diet, but they may also deplete nutrients from other foods that have been consumed, as well as from body stores, in order to enable their proper oxidation and liberate their calories as energy. Additionally, the consumption of added sugars damages the mitochondria and hence impairs energy generation. Moreover, overconsuming added sugars may result in a kind of ‘internal starvation’ (via leptin and insulin resistance) leading to further hunger signals in the body. Added sugars promote nutrient and energy deficit and through this novel pathway promote obesity. PMID:27547437

  15. The Advanced Energetic Pair Telescope (AdEPT}: A Future Medium-Energy Gamma-Ray Balloon (and Explorer?) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Stanley D.

    2011-01-01

    Gamma-ray astrophysics probes the highest energy, exotic phenomena in astrophysics. In the medium-energy regime, 0.1-200 MeV, many astrophysical objects exhibit unique and transitory behavior such as the transition from electron dominated to hadron dominated processes, spectral breaks, bursts, and flares. Medium-energy gamma-ray imaging however, continues to be a major challenge particularly because of high background, low effective area, and low source intensities. The sensitivity and angular resolution required to address these challenges requires a leap in technology. The Advance Energetic Pair Telescope (AdEPT) being developed at GSFC is designed to image gamma rays above 5 MeV via pair production with angular resolution of 1-10 deg. In addition AdEPT will, for the first time, provide high polarization sensitivity in this energy range. This performance is achieved by reducing the effective area in favor of enhanced angular resolution through the use of a low-density gaseous conversion medium. AdEPT is based on the Three-Dimensional Track Imager (3-DTI) technology that combines a large volume Negative Ion Time Projection Chamber (NITPC) with 2-D Micro-Well Detector (MWD) readout. I will review the major science topics addressable with medium-energy gamma-rays and discuss the current status of the AdEPT technology, a proposed balloon instrument, and the design of a future satellite mission.

  16. Energy Sources of T-Tauri Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvet, N.; Albarran, J.

    1984-06-01

    We empirically estimated the total energy loss from the atmospheric regions above the photo sphere in T Tauri stars. We have also estimated the flux input into the atmosphere by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) aves produced in the subphotospheric convection zone. Within the uncertainties of both theory and observations, this flux seems to represent the basic energy input into the atmosphere provided that a large surface coverage of magnetic regions exists. In addition to this basic energy input from the convection zone the T Tauri atmospheres must have other energy sources, originating in the stellar surfitee. Among those we can include the flux of energy carried by Alfven waves resulting from the action of surface material motions on magnetic flux tubes, as well as dissipation and annihilation of magnetic fields in flare events. The observed decrease in emission line fluxes with luminosity seems to indicate that MHD wave fluxes heat the chromosphere, while the uppermost atmospheric regions require another source of heating.

  17. Do alternative energy sources displace fossil fuels?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    York, Richard

    2012-06-01

    A fundamental, generally implicit, assumption of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change reports and many energy analysts is that each unit of energy supplied by non-fossil-fuel sources takes the place of a unit of energy supplied by fossil-fuel sources. However, owing to the complexity of economic systems and human behaviour, it is often the case that changes aimed at reducing one type of resource consumption, either through improvements in efficiency of use or by developing substitutes, do not lead to the intended outcome when net effects are considered. Here, I show that the average pattern across most nations of the world over the past fifty years is one where each unit of total national energy use from non-fossil-fuel sources displaced less than one-quarter of a unit of fossil-fuel energy use and, focusing specifically on electricity, each unit of electricity generated by non-fossil-fuel sources displaced less than one-tenth of a unit of fossil-fuel-generated electricity. These results challenge conventional thinking in that they indicate that suppressing the use of fossil fuel will require changes other than simply technical ones such as expanding non-fossil-fuel energy production.

  18. Expert Meeting Report: Key Innovations for Adding Energy Efficiency to Maintenance Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, A.; Wiehagen, J.

    2012-09-01

    This report describes an expert meeting hosted by the Building America research team NAHB Research Center, which was held on February 8, 2012, in Orlando, Florida. The topic, Key Innovations for Adding Energy Efficiency to Maintenance Projects, was intended to provide direction to more focused efforts to increase the efficiency of existing homes; in this meeting, the focus was specifically for re-roofing and the opportunities for adding energy efficiency upgrades during this major home repair activity.

  19. Controlling hazardous energy sources (lockout/tagout)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominguez, Manuel B.

    1991-01-01

    The minimum requirements as established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standard 29 CFR 1910.147 are discussed for preventing the unexpected operation of equipment or release of energy which could cause injury to personnel, damage to equipment, harm to the environment, or loss or compromise of test data. Safety requirements both for government and contractor personnel are explained for potentially hazardous energy sources during work operations at LeRC (Cleveland and Plum Brook Stations). Basic rules are presented to ensure protection against harmful exposures, and baseline implementation requirements are discussed from which detailed lockout/tagout procedures can be developed for individual equipment items. Examples of energy sources covered by this document include electrical, pneumatic, mechanical, chemical, cryogenic, thermal, spring tension/compression suspended or moving loads, and other potentially hazardous sources. Activities covered by this standard include, but are not limited to, construction, maintenance, installation, calibration, inspection, cleaning, or repair.

  20. Bamboo as a renewable energy source

    SciTech Connect

    Molini, A.E.; Irizarry, J.G.

    1982-08-01

    Our complete dependence upon imported fossil fuels forces us to make a conscientious evaluation of the other energy sources the authors have readily available. Some of the approximately 1000 species of bamboo of some 50 genera, which range from plants the size of field grass to giants 120 ft. high and one ft. in diameter, and which grow from sea level in the tropics to 10,000 ft. mountain slopes, appear to be excellent alternate renewable energy sources. This paper presents the results obtained from a recently initiated research effort on the subject.

  1. Source of the tsunami generated by the 1650 AD eruption of Kolumbo submarine volcano (Aegean Sea, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulvrova, Martina; Paris, R.; Nomikou, P.; Kelfoun, K.; Leibrandt, S.; Tappin, D. R.; McCoy, F. W.

    2016-07-01

    The 1650 AD explosive eruption of Kolumbo submarine volcano (Aegean Sea, Greece) generated a destructive tsunami. In this paper we propose a source mechanism of this poorly documented tsunami using both geological investigations and numerical simulations. Sedimentary evidence of the 1650 AD tsunami was found along the coast of Santorini Island at maximum altitudes ranging between 3.5 m a.s.l. (Perissa, southern coast) and 20 m a.s.l. (Monolithos, eastern coast), corresponding to a minimum inundation of 360 and 630 m respectively. Tsunami deposits consist of an irregular 5 to 30 cm thick layer of dark grey sand that overlies pumiceous deposits erupted during the Minoan eruption and are found at depths of 30-50 cm below the surface. Composition of the tsunami sand is similar to the composition of the present-day beach sand but differs from the pumiceous gravelly deposits on which it rests. The spatial distribution of the tsunami deposits was compared to available historical records and to the results of numerical simulations of tsunami inundation. Different source mechanisms were tested: earthquakes, underwater explosions, caldera collapse, and pyroclastic flows. The most probable source of the 1650 AD Kolumbo tsunami is a 250 m high water surface displacement generated by underwater explosion with an energy of 2 × 1016 J at water depths between 20 and 150 m. The tsunamigenic explosion(s) occurred on September 29, 1650 during the transition between submarine and subaerial phases of the eruption. Caldera subsidence is not an efficient tsunami source mechanism as short (and probably unrealistic) collapse durations (< 5 min) are needed. Pyroclastic flows cannot be discarded, but the required flux (106 to 107 m3 · s- 1) is exceptionally high compared to the magnitude of the eruption.

  2. Source of the tsunami generated by the 1650 AD eruption of Kolumbo submarine volcano (Aegean Sea, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulvrova, Martina; Paris, Raphael; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Tappin, Dave

    2016-04-01

    The 1650 AD explosive eruption of Kolumbo submarine volcano (Aegean Sea, Greece) generated a destructive tsunami. In this paper we propose a source mechanism of this poorly documented tsunami using both geological investigations and numerical simulations. Sedimentary evidences of the 1650 AD tsunami were found along the coast of Santorini Island at maximum altitudes ranging between 3.5 m a.s.l. (Perissa, southern coast) and 20 m a.s.l. (Monolithos, eastern coast), corresponding to a minimum inundation of 360 and 630 m respectively. Tsunami deposits correspond to an irregular 5 to 30 cm thick layer of dark grey sand intercalated in soil at depths between 30 and 50 cm. Composition of the tsunami sand is similar to the composition of the present-day beach and clearly differs from the pumiceous gravelly soil. Spatial distribution of the tsunami deposits was confronted to available historical records and to the results of numerical simulations of tsunami inundation. Different scenarios of source mechanism were tested: earthquakes, underwater explosions, caldera collapse, and pyroclastic flows. The most probable source of the 1650 AD Kolumbo tsunami is a 250 m high water surface displacement generated by underwater explosion with an energy of ~2 E15 J at water depths between 20 and 150 m. The tsunamigenic explosion(s) occurred on September 29, 1650 during the transition between submarine and subaerial phases. Caldera subsidence is not an efficient source of tsunami, as short (and probably unrealistic) collapse durations (< 5 minutes) are needed. Pyroclastic flows cannot be discarded, but the required flux (E6 to E7 m³.s-1) is exceptionally high compared to the magnitude of the eruption.

  3. Energy scavenging sources for biomedical sensors.

    PubMed

    Romero, E; Warrington, R O; Neuman, M R

    2009-09-01

    Energy scavenging has increasingly become an interesting option for powering electronic devices because of the almost infinite lifetime and the non-dependence on fuels for energy generation. Moreover, the rise of wireless technologies promises new applications in medical monitoring systems, but these still face limitations due to battery lifetime and size. A trade-off of these two factors has typically governed the size, useful life and capabilities of an autonomous system. Energy generation from sources such as motion, light and temperature gradients has been established as commercially viable alternatives to batteries for human-powered flashlights, solar calculators, radio receivers and thermal-powered wristwatches, among others. Research on energy harvesting from human activities has also addressed the feasibility of powering wearable or implantable systems. Biomedical sensors can take advantage of human-based activities as the energy source for energy scavengers. This review describes the state of the art of energy scavenging technologies for powering sensors and instrumentation of physiological variables. After a short description of the human power and the energy generation limits, the different transduction mechanisms, recent developments and challenges faced are reviewed and discussed.

  4. Investigating the added values of high frequency energy consumption data using data mining techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Ying; Engström, Christopher; Malyarenko, Anatoliy; Wallin, Fredrik

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we apply data-mining techniques to customer classification and clustering tasks on actual electricity consumption data from 350 Swedish households. For the classification task we classify households into different categories based on some statistical attributes of their energy consumption measurements. For the clustering task, we use average daily load diagrams to partition electricity-consuming households into distinct groups. The data contains electricity consumption measurements on each 10-minute time interval for each light source and electrical appliance. We perform the classification and clustering tasks using four variants of processed data sets corresponding to the 10-minute total electricity consumption aggregated from all electrical sources, the hourly total consumption aggregated over all 10-minute intervals during that clock hour, the total consumption over each four-hour intervals and finally the daily total consumption. The goal is to see if there are any differences in using data sets of various frequency levels. We present the comparison results and investigate the added value of the high-frequency measurements, for example 10-minute measurements, in terms of its influence on customer clustering and classification.

  5. Microbial production of energy sources from biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righelato, R. C.

    1980-02-01

    The biochemical options available for the microbial production of energy sources from biomass is reviewed and some of the technology available for microbial conversion is discussed with particular reference to present limitations and how they may be overcome. Attention is given to the chemical process of anaerobic fermentation emphasizing the chemical reaction of glucose into pyruvic acid. The capital costs and energy consumption of ethanol and methane and their production are discussed. It is concluded that anaerobic fermentation of carbohydrates and digestion of biomass-containing effluents can be used as methods for achieving greater energy availability.

  6. Alternative Energy Sources in Seismic Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tün, Muammer; Pekkan, Emrah; Mutlu, Sunay; Ecevitoğlu, Berkan

    2015-04-01

    When the suitability of a settlement area is investigated, soil-amplification, liquefaction and fault-related hazards should be defined, and the associated risks should be clarified. For this reason, soil engineering parameters and subsurface geological structure of a new settlement area should be investigated. Especially, faults covered with quaternary alluvium; thicknesses, shear-wave velocities and geometry of subsurface sediments could lead to a soil amplification during an earthquake. Likewise, changes in shear-wave velocities along the basin are also very important. Geophysical methods can be used to determine the local soil properties. In this study, use of alternative seismic energy sources when implementing seismic reflection, seismic refraction and MASW methods in the residential areas of Eskisehir/Turkey, were discussed. Our home developed seismic energy source, EAPSG (Electrically-Fired-PS-Gun), capable to shoot 2x24 magnum shotgun cartridges at once to generate P and S waves; and our home developed WD-500 (500 kg Weight Drop) seismic energy source, mounted on a truck, were developed under a scientific research project of Anadolu University. We were able to reach up to penetration depths of 1200 m for EAPSG, and 800 m for WD-500 in our seismic reflection surveys. WD-500 seismic energy source was also used to perform MASW surveys, using 24-channel, 10 m apart, 4.5 Hz vertical geophone configuration. We were able to reach 100 m of penetration depth in MASW surveys.

  7. The high energy source 3C 273

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonmontigny, Corinna

    1990-01-01

    The properties of 3C 273 are reviewed and an attempt is made to find an answer to the question why 3C 273 is the only extragalactic source so far, which was detected at energies greater than or equal to 50 MeV.

  8. A Web Based Puzzle for Energy Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Secken, Nilgun

    2006-01-01

    At present many countries in the world consume too much fossil fuels such as petroleum, natural gas and coal to meet their energy needs. These fossil fuels are not renewable; their sources are limited and reducing gradually. More importantly they have been becoming more expensive day by day and their damage to the environment has been increasing.…

  9. Reusable Energy and Power Sources: Rechargeable Batteries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiung, Steve C.; Ritz, John M.

    2007-01-01

    Rechargeable batteries are very popular within consumer electronics. If one uses a cell phone or portable electric tool, she/he understands the need to have a reliable product and the need to remember to use the recharging systems that follow a cycle of charge/discharge. Rechargeable batteries are being called "green" energy sources. They are a…

  10. Power conversion from environmentally scavenged energy sources.

    SciTech Connect

    Druxman, Lee Daniel

    2007-09-01

    As the power requirements for modern electronics continue to decrease, many devices which were once dependent on wired power are now being implemented as portable devices operating from self-contained power sources. The most prominent source of portable power is the electrochemical battery, which converts chemical energy into electricity. However, long lasting batteries require large amounts of space for chemical storage, and inevitably require replacement when the chemical reaction no longer takes place. There are many transducers and scavenging energy sources (SES) that are able to exploit their environment to generate low levels of electrical power over a long-term time period, including photovoltaic cells, thermoelectric generators, thermionic generators, and kinetic/piezoelectric power generators. This generated power is sustainable as long as specific environmental conditions exist and also does not require the large volume of a long lifetime battery. In addition to the required voltage generation, stable power conversion requires excess energy to be efficiently stored in an ultracapacitor or similar device and monitoring control algorithms to be implemented, while computer modeling and simulation can be used to complement experimental testing. However, building an efficient and stable power source scavenged from a varying input source is challenging.

  11. Biological sources of energy from the sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phlips, E. J.

    1982-02-01

    The use of marine plants and microscopic organisms as possible future energy sources is examined. Parallels are drawn between the coming depletion of fossil fuel resources and the first energy crisis on earth, when evolving cells began to use up the stores of organic molecules in the ocean, and photosynthesis, in the form of plant biomass, is considered as a possible solution to the present energy crisis. The energy potential of marine biomass, specifically the seaweeds, microscopic algae and photosynthetic bacteria, is then assessed, and experimental attempts at the culturing of such organisms, are noted. Microbial energy technologies, principally the replacement of chemical processes requiring fossil fuels with biological conversion systems and direct biomass conversion into hydrogen and methane fuels, are then examined. Possible applications of techniques involving genetic engineering and cell-free systems to future bioenergy research are indicated, and the impetus to the rapid development of solar energy posed by the problems of pollution and availability of present energy sources is emphasized.

  12. Compact Neutron Sources for Energy and Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uesaka, Mitsuru; Kobayashi, Hitoshi

    We choose nuclear data and nuclear material inspection for energy application, and nondestructive testing of explosive and hidden nuclear materials for security application. Low energy (~100 keV) electrostatic accelerators of deuterium are commercially available for nondestructive testing. For nuclear data measurement, electrostatic ion accelerators and L-band (1.428GHz) and S-band (2.856GHz) electron linear accelerators (linacs) are used for the neutron source. Compact or mobile X-band (9.3, 11.424GHz) electron linac neutron sources are under development. A compact proton linac neutron source is used for nondestructive testing, especially water in solids. Several efforts for more neutron intensity using proton and deuteron accelerators are also introduced.

  13. Compact Neutron Sources for Energy and Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uesaka, Mitsuru; Kobayashi, Hitoshi

    We choose nuclear data and nuclear material inspection for energy application, and nondestructive testing of explosive and hidden nuclear materials for security application. Low energy (˜100keV) electrostatic accelerators of deuterium are commercially available for nondestructive testing. For nuclear data measurement, electrostatic ion accelerators and L-band (1.428GHz) and S-band (2.856GHz) electron linear accelerators (linacs) are used for the neutron source. Compact or mobile X-band (9.3, 11.424GHz) electron linac neutron sources are under development. A compact proton linac neutron source is used for nondestructive testing, especially water in solids. Several efforts for more neutron intensity using proton and deuteron accelerators are also introduced.

  14. Kansas Energy Sources: A Geological Review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merriam, D.F.; Brady, L.L.; Newell, K.D.

    2012-01-01

    Kansas produces both conventional energy (oil, gas, and coal) and nonconventional (coalbed gas, wind, hydropower, nuclear, geothermal, solar, and biofuels) and ranks the 22nd in state energy production in the U. S. Nonrenewable conventional petroleum is the most important energy source with nonrenewable, nonconventional coalbed methane gas becoming increasingly important. Many stratigraphic units produce oil and/or gas somewhere in the state with the exception of the Salina Basin in north-central Kansas. Coalbed methane is produced from shallow wells drilled into the thin coal units in southeastern Kansas. At present, only two surface coal mines are active in southeastern Kansas. Although Kansas has been a major exporter of energy in the past (it ranked first in oil production in 1916), now, it is an energy importer. ?? 2011 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  15. Efficiency of utilization of various sources of energy for growth.

    PubMed Central

    Donato, K; Hegsted, D M

    1985-01-01

    The relative efficiency of dietary sucrose, protein sources, and fats in depositing body protein and fat (total energy) was directly estimated in young rats by feeding graded levels of each as supplements to a fixed amount of a basal diet that was presumably adequate in all essential nutrients except for energy. Under these conditions, the net gain in total body energy was a linear function of the amount of supplement added and the data fulfill the criteria of a valid slope-ratio bioassay. The available energy measured by this technique for sucrose and protein were similar, as would be expected. Dietary fat, however, was a more efficient source of energy. Compared to sucrose with 3.94 kcal/g (1 cal = 4.184 J), the average potency of dietary fat was 11.1 kcal/g, or approximately 124% of the expected value of 9 kcal/g. Fat supplements increased the deposition of body fat even when total energy intake was severely limited. The Atwater value of 9 kcal per g of fat is not appropriate under these conditions and probably not under other conditions. PMID:3860827

  16. Radiogenic metabolism: an alternative cellular energy source.

    PubMed

    Benford, M S

    2001-01-01

    The concept of 'healing energy' is commonly used in complementary and alternative medicine; however, efforts to define this concept using contemporary scientific theory, and measure it using modern scientific methods, have been limited to date. Recent experimental testing by Benford et al. observed a uniform, substantial, and consistent decrease in gamma radiation during alternative healing sessions, thus supporting a new energy-balance paradigm hypothesizing ionizing radiation as an alternative cellular energy source. This hypothesis extends the known elements of radiogenic metabolism to potentially explain a number of presumably biopositive energy-related phenomena, including fasting and radiation hormesis, as well as to demystify unexplained anomalies such as idiopathic thermogenesis, halos and auras, and incorruptibility of human corpses.

  17. Multi-source energy harvester power management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlichting, Alexander D.; Tiwari, Rashi; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2011-03-01

    Much of the work on improving energy harvesting systems currently focuses on tasks beyond geometric optimization and has shifted to using complex feedback control circuitry. While the specific technique and effectiveness of the circuits have varied, an important goal is still out of reach for many desired applications: to produce sufficient and sustained power. This is due in part to the power requirements of the control circuits themselves. One method for increasing the robustness and versatility of energy harvesting systems which has started to receive some attention would be to utilize multiple energy sources simultaneously. If some or all of the present energy sources were harvested, the amount of constant power which could be provided to the system electronics would increase dramatically. This work examines two passive circuit topologies, parallel and series, for combining multiple piezoelectric energy harvesters onto a single storage capacitor using an LTspice simulation. The issue of the relative phase between the two piezoelectric signals is explored to show that the advantages of both configurations are significantly affected by increased relative phase values.

  18. Fusion - An energy source for synthetic fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillo, J. A.; Powell, J.; Steinberg, M.

    1980-05-01

    An important first step in the synthesis of liquid and gaseous fuels is the production of hydrogen. Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of 40 to 60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high temperature electrolysis of 50 to 70% are projected for fusion reactors using high temperature blankets. Fusion/coal symbiotic systems appear economically promising for the first generation of commercial fusion synfuels plants. In the long term, there could be a gradual transition to an inexhaustible energy system based solely on fusion.

  19. Electric Power From Ambient Energy Sources

    SciTech Connect

    DeSteese, John G.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Schienbein, Lawrence A.

    2000-10-03

    This report summarizes research on opportunities to produce electric power from ambient sources as an alternative to using portable battery packs or hydrocarbon-fueled systems in remote areas. The work was an activity in the Advanced Concepts Project conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Office of Research and Development in the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nonproliferation and National Security.

  20. 10 CFR 39.53 - Energy compensation source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy compensation source. 39.53 Section 39.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.53 Energy compensation source. The licensee may use an energy compensation source (ECS) which...

  1. 10 CFR 39.53 - Energy compensation source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Energy compensation source. 39.53 Section 39.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.53 Energy compensation source. The licensee may use an energy compensation source (ECS) which...

  2. 10 CFR 39.53 - Energy compensation source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Energy compensation source. 39.53 Section 39.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.53 Energy compensation source. The licensee may use an energy compensation source (ECS) which...

  3. 10 CFR 39.53 - Energy compensation source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Energy compensation source. 39.53 Section 39.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.53 Energy compensation source. The licensee may use an energy compensation source (ECS) which...

  4. 10 CFR 39.53 - Energy compensation source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Energy compensation source. 39.53 Section 39.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.53 Energy compensation source. The licensee may use an energy compensation source (ECS) which...

  5. High energy bounds on soft mathcal{N} = 4 SYM amplitudes from AdS/CFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, M.; Peschanski, R.

    2010-05-01

    Using the AdS/CFT correspondence, we study the high-energy behavior of colorless dipole elastic scattering amplitudes in mathcal{N} = 4 SYM gauge theory through the Wilson loop correlator formalism and Euclidean to Minkowskian analytic continuation. The purely elastic behavior obtained at large impact-parameter L, through duality from disconnected AdS 5 minimal surfaces beyond the Gross-Ooguri transition point, is combined with unitarity and analyticity constraints in the central region. In this way we obtain an absolute bound on the high-energy behavior of the forward scattering amplitude due to the graviton interaction between minimal surfaces in the bulk. The dominant “Pomeron” intercept is bounded by α ≤ 11=7 using the AdS/CFT constraint of a weak gravitational field in the bulk. Assuming the elastic eikonal approximation in a larger impact-parameter range gives 4/3 ≤ α ≤ 11/7: The actual intercept becomes 4/3 if one assumes the elastic eikonal approximation within its maximally allowed range L ≳ exp Y/3; where Y is the total rapidity. Subleading AdS/CFT contributions at large impact-parameter due to the other d = 10 supergravity fields are obtained. A divergence in the real part of the tachyonic KK scalar is cured by analyticity but signals the need for a theoretical completion of the AdS/CFT scheme.

  6. Mode S and ADS-B as a Source of Clear-Air Turbulence Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopeć, Jacek; Kwiatkowski, Kamil; de Haan, Siebren; Malinowski, Szymon

    2016-04-01

    Clear-Air Turbulence (CAT) beside being the most common cause for commercial aircraft incidents in the cruise phase is a complex physical phenomenon. CAT is an effect of various underlying physical mechanisms such as different kinds of hydrodynamic instabilities or large scale forcing. In order to properly understand and correctly forecast it one needs a significant amount of observation data. Up to date the best available observations are the in-situ EDR (from eddy dissipation rate - a measure of turbulence intensity). Those observations are reported every ~1 min of flight (roughly every 15 km). Yet their availability is limited by the willingness of the airlines to cooperate in adjusting on-board software. However there is a class of data that can be accessed more freely. In this communication we present and discuss a feasibility analysis of the three methods of processing Mode S/ADS-B messages into viable turbulence measurements. The Mode S/ADS-B messages are unrestricted navigational data broadcast by most of the commercial aircraft. The unique characteristic of this data is a very high temporal resolution. This allows to employ processing which results in obtaining turbulence information characterized by spatial resolution comparable with the best available data sources. Moreover due to using Mode-S/ASS-B data, the number of aircraft that are providing observations increases significantly. The methods are either using simple positioning information available in the ADS-B or high-resolution wind information from the Mode S. The paper is largely based on the results of the methods application to the data originating from DELICAT flight campaign that took place in 2013. The flight campaign was conducted using NLR operated Cessna Citation II. The reference Mode-S/ADS-B data partly overlapping with the research flights were supplied by the KNMI. Analysis shows very significant potential of the Mode-S wind based methods. J. M. Kopeć, K. Kwiatkowski, S. de Haan, and

  7. Quantum corrections to energy of short spinning string in AdS{sub 5}

    SciTech Connect

    Tirziu, A.; Tseytlin, A. A.

    2008-09-15

    Motivated by a desire to shed light on the strong-coupling behavior of dimensions of short gauge-theory operators, we consider the famous example of folded spinning string in AdS{sub 5} in the limit of small semiclassical spin parameter S=(S/{radical}({lambda})). In this limit the string becomes short and is moving in a near-flat central region of AdS{sub 5}. Its energy scales with spin as E={radical}(2S)[a{sub 0}+a{sub 1}S+a{sub 2}S{sup 2}+...]. We explicitly compute the leading 1-loop quantum AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5} superstring correction to the short string energy and show that the coefficient a{sub 0} is not renormalized from its classical value while a{sub 1} receives a nontrivial contribution containing {zeta}(3)

  8. Cyanate as an energy source for nitrifiers.

    PubMed

    Palatinszky, Marton; Herbold, Craig; Jehmlich, Nico; Pogoda, Mario; Han, Ping; von Bergen, Martin; Lagkouvardos, Ilias; Karst, Søren M; Galushko, Alexander; Koch, Hanna; Berry, David; Daims, Holger; Wagner, Michael

    2015-08-06

    Ammonia- and nitrite-oxidizing microorganisms are collectively responsible for the aerobic oxidation of ammonia via nitrite to nitrate and have essential roles in the global biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. The physiology of nitrifiers has been intensively studied, and urea and ammonia are the only recognized energy sources that promote the aerobic growth of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea. Here we report the aerobic growth of a pure culture of the ammonia-oxidizing thaumarchaeote Nitrososphaera gargensis using cyanate as the sole source of energy and reductant; to our knowledge, the first organism known to do so. Cyanate, a potentially important source of reduced nitrogen in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, is converted to ammonium and carbon dioxide in Nitrososphaera gargensis by a cyanase enzyme that is induced upon addition of this compound. Within the cyanase gene family, this cyanase is a member of a distinct clade also containing cyanases of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria of the genus Nitrospira. We demonstrate by co-culture experiments that these nitrite oxidizers supply cyanase-lacking ammonia oxidizers with ammonium from cyanate, which is fully nitrified by this microbial consortium through reciprocal feeding. By screening a comprehensive set of more than 3,000 publically available metagenomes from environmental samples, we reveal that cyanase-encoding genes clustering with the cyanases of these nitrifiers are widespread in the environment. Our results demonstrate an unexpected metabolic versatility of nitrifying microorganisms, and suggest a previously unrecognized importance of cyanate in cycling of nitrogen compounds in the environment.

  9. Biochar As a Renewable Energy Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Richard

    2011-11-01

    Biochar is a form of charcoal prepared by heating biomass in limited air. It is porous and has high surface area, maintaining much of the morphology of the biomass. The heat for its preparation arises primarily from burning volatiles emitted upon heating. About half the chemical energy in the biomass is contained in the biochar, about 40% is used for the conversion, and about 10% may be used as a local heat source. The biochar can serve as a soil additive where it acts as a template for the growth of bacteria and fungi which then lead to improved growth of biomass by as much as several hundred percent. It remains inert in the soil for many years. Thus, it sequesters the carbon, originally coming from the carbon dioxide absorbed during the photosynthesis occurring during the growth of the biomass. Its use reduces fertilizer and water needs and to pollution arising from the run-off of fertilizer and emission of noxious vapors. Its use is best done at a local level, close to sources of biomass from farm and forest waste. The Pioneer Valley Biochar Initiative along with the Center of Agriculture of the University of Massachusetts, Amherst is promoting the use of biochar on local farms which reduces their dependence on energy arising from fossil fuel and nuclear sources.

  10. PASOTRON high-energy microwave source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goebel, Dan M.; Schumacher, Robert W.; Butler, Jennifer M.; Hyman, Jay, Jr.; Santoru, Joseph; Watkins, Ron M.; Harvey, Robin J.; Dolezal, Franklin A.; Eisenhart, Robert L.; Schneider, Authur J.

    1992-04-01

    A unique, high-energy microwave source, called PASOTRON (Plasma-Assisted Slow-wave Oscillator), has been developed. The PASOTRON utilizes a long-pulse E-gun and plasma- filled slow-wave structure (SWS) to produce high-energy pulses from a simple, lightweight device that utilizes no externally produced magnetic fields. Long pulses are obtained from a novel E-gun that employs a low-pressure glow discharge to provide a stable, high current- density electron source. The electron accelerator consists of a high-perveance, multi-aperture array. The E-beam is operated in the ion-focused regime where the plasma filling the SWS space-charge neutralizes the beam, and the self-pinch force compresses the beamlets and increases the beam current density. A scale-model PASOTRON, operating as a backward- wave oscillator in C-band with a 100-kV E-beam, has produced output powers in the 3 to 5 MW range and pulse lengths of over 100 microsecond(s) ec, corresponding to an integrated energy per pulse of up to 500 J. The E-beam to microwave-radiation power conversion efficiency is about 20%.

  11. Matter sourced anisotropic stress for dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Baorong; Lu, Jianbo; Xu, Lixin

    2014-11-01

    Usually a dark energy as a perfect fluid is characterized by the ratio of pressure to energy density (w =p /ρ ) and the ratio of their perturbations in its rest frame (cs2=δ p /δ ρ ). However, a dark energy would have other characteristics beyond its equation of state and the effective speed of sound. Here the extra property is the anisotropic stress sourced by matter as a simple extension to the perfect fluid model. At the background level, this anisotropic stress is zero with respect to the cosmological principle, but not at the first-order perturbation. We tested the viability of the existence of this kind of anisotropic stress by using the currently available cosmic observations through the geometrical and dynamical measurements. Using the Markov-chain Monte Carlo method, we found that the upper bounds on the anisotropic stress which enters into the summation of the Newtonian potentials should be of the order O (1 0-3)Δm . We did not find any strong evidence for the existence of this matter-sourced anisotropic stress, even in the 1 σ region.

  12. Expert Meeting Report. Key Innovations for Adding Energy Efficiency to Maintenance Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, A.; Wiehagen, J.

    2012-09-01

    This report describes an expert meeting hosted by the Building America research team NAHB Research Center, which was held on February 8, 2012, in Orlando, Florida. The topic focused on efforts to increase the efficiency of existing homes, specifically for re-roofing and the opportunities for adding energy efficiency upgrades during this major home repair activity.

  13. Effect of warm up on energy cost and energy sources of a ballet dance exercise.

    PubMed

    Guidetti, Laura; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Baldari, Carlo

    2007-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of warm up on energy cost and energy sources of a ballet dance exercise, 12 adolescent talented female dancers performed a ballet exercise (30 s of tours piqués en dedans on pointe) without and following a warm up. Warm up consisted in a light running followed by a period of stretching and two ballet exercises. The overall energy requirement of dance exercise (VO(2eq)) was obtained by adding the amount of VO(2) during exercise above resting (aerobic source or VO(2ex)) to the VO(2) up to the fast component of recovery (anaerobic alactic source or VO(2al)) and to the energy equivalent of peak blood lactate accumulation (anaerobic lactic source or (VO2lA) of recovery. VO(2eq) of exercise preceded by warm up amounted to 37 +/- 3 ml kg(-1). VO(2al) represented the higher fraction (50 +/- 6%) of VO(2eq), the remaining fractions were: 39 +/- 5% for VO(2ex) and 11 +/- 3% for VO2lA . VO(2eq) of exercise without warm up amounted to 38 +/- 3 ml kg(-1). This value was made up of: 26 +/- 6% by VO(2ex), 56 +/- 6% by VO(2al) and 18 +/- 3% by VO2lA. Between exercise conditions, significant differences were found in VO(2ex) (P < 0.01), VO2lA (P < 0.01), and VO(2al) (P < 0.05). The metabolic power requirement, 1.6 times higher than subject's VO2max indicates a very demanding exercise. The anaerobic alactic source was the most utilized. It can be concluded that, when dance exercise was preceded by warm up, the anaerobic sources contribution decreased whereas the aerobic energy source increased.

  14. Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Doellner, O.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report beings with a historical overview on the origin and early beginnings of Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft. The report reviews the work done in Phase I (Grant DE-FG01-82CE-15144) and then gives a discussion of Phase II (Grant DE-FG01-86CE-15301). Included is a reasonably detailed discussion of photovoltaic cells and the research and development needed in this area. The report closes with a historical perspective and summary related to situations historically encountered on projects of this nature. 15 refs.

  15. Photovoltaics as a worldwide energy source

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G.J.

    1991-12-31

    Photovoltaic energy systems have historically been treated as a bulk power generation source for the future. However, utilities and other agencies involved with electrification throughout the world are beginning to find photovoltaics a least-cost option to meet specific loads both for themselves and their customers, in both off-grid and grid-connected applications. These expanding markets offer the potential of hundreds of megawatts of sales in the coming decade, but a strategy addressing both industrial growth and user acceptance is necessary to capitalize on this opportunity. 11 refs.

  16. Energy Recovery Linacs for Light Source Applications

    SciTech Connect

    George Neil

    2011-04-01

    Energy Recovery Linacs are being considered for applications in present and future light sources. ERLs take advantage of the continuous operation of superconducting rf cavities to accelerate high average current beams with low losses. The electrons can be directed through bends, undulators, and wigglers for high brightness x ray production. They are then decelerated to low energy, recovering power so as to minimize the required rf drive and electrical draw. When this approach is coupled with advanced continuous wave injectors, very high power, ultra-short electron pulse trains of very high brightness can be achieved. This paper will review the status of worldwide programs and discuss the technology challenges to provide such beams for photon production.

  17. ENERGY SOURCES AND LIGHT CURVES OF MACRONOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Kisaka, Shota; Ioka, Kunihito; Takami, Hajime E-mail: takami@post.kek.jp

    2015-04-01

    A macronova (kilonova) was discovered with a short gamma-ray burst, GRB 130603B, which is widely believed to be powered by the radioactivity of r-process elements synthesized in the ejecta of a neutron star (NS)–binary merger. As an alternative, we propose that macronovae are energized by the central engine, i.e., a black hole or NS, and the injected energy is emitted after the adiabatic expansion of ejecta. This engine model is motivated by extended emission of short GRBs. In order to compare the theoretical models with observations, we develop analytical formulae for the light curves of macronovae. The engine model allows a wider parameter range, especially smaller ejecta mass, and a better fit to observations than the r-process model. Future observations of electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational waves should distinguish energy sources and constrain the activity of the central engine and the r-process nucleosynthesis.

  18. Fusion: an energy source for synthetic fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Fillo, J A; Powell, J; Steinberg, M

    1980-01-01

    The decreasing availability of fossil fuels emphasizes the need to develop systems which will produce synthetic fuel to substitute for and supplement the natural supply. An important first step in the synthesis of liquid and gaseous fuels is the production of hydrogen. Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approx. 40 to 60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high temperature electrolysis of approx. 50 to 70% are projected for fusion reactors using high temperature blankets. Fusion/coal symbiotic systems appear economically promising for the first generation of commercial fusion synfuels plants. Coal production requirements and the environmental effects of large-scale coal usage would be greatly reduced by a fusion/coal system. In the long term, there could be a gradual transition to an inexhaustible energy system based solely on fusion.

  19. Outlook for alternative energy sources. [aviation fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Predictions are made concerning the development of alternative energy sources in the light of the present national energy situation. Particular emphasis is given to the impact of alternative fuels development on aviation fuels. The future outlook for aircraft fuels is that for the near term, there possibly will be no major fuel changes, but minor specification changes may be possible if supplies decrease. In the midterm, a broad cut fuel may be used if current development efforts are successful. As synfuel production levels increase beyond the 1990's there may be some mixtures of petroleum-based and synfuel products with the possibility of some shale distillate and indirect coal liquefaction products near the year 2000.

  20. Spin polarized low-energy positron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, V. N.; Samarin, S. N.; Sudarshan, K.; Pravica, L.; Guagliardo, P.; Williams, J. F.

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents an investigation of spin polarization of positrons from a source based on the decay of 22Na isotopes. Positrons are moderated by transmission through a tungsten film and electrostatically focussed and transported through a 90 deg deflector to produce a slow positron beam with polarization vector normal to the linear momentum. The polarization of the beam was determined to be about 10% by comparison with polarized electron scattering asymmetries from a thin Fe film on W(110) at 10-10 Torr. Low energy electron emission from Fe layer on W(100) surfaces under positron impact is explored. It is shown that the intensity asymmetry of the electron emission as a function of the incident positron energy can be used to estimate the polarization of the positron beam. Also several materials with long mean free paths for spin relaxation are considered as possible moderators with increased polarization of the emergent positrons.

  1. Energy density of light quark jet using AdS/CFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morad, R.; Horowitz, W. A.

    2017-01-01

    We study the energy loss rate of light quarks via the AdS/CFT correspondence in both a static and an expanding plasma. Unlike heavy quarks, light quark energy loss in AdS/CFT is surprisingly dependent on both the string initial conditions and the very definition of the jet itself in the gravity theory. We aim to more closely match the string initial conditions to those expected from perturbative quantum chromodyanics (pQCD)-the theory known to describe the physics of high-momentum particles at early times in heavy ion collisions-by computing the energy-momentum tensor associated with the propagation of the classical string solution. The jet energy-momentum tensor in a strongly-coupled calculation can be found by a superposition of contributions from a collection of point particles whose paths approximate the evolution of the string world-sheet. My results show that some times after creation the pair of quark-anti quark, the energy density is not time dependent. This means that the corresponding jet does not lose energy and the associated nuclear modification factor would be one as expected. Also, the results reveal the virtuality dependency of energy density distribution over space. As expected, the energy of a more virtual jet is spread over wider angles.

  2. Cyanate as energy source for nitrifiers

    PubMed Central

    Palatinszky, Marton; Herbold, Craig; Jehmlich, Nico; Pogoda, Mario; Han, Ping; von Bergen, Martin; Lagkouvardos, Ilias; Karst, Søren M.; Galushko, Alexander; Koch, Hanna; Berry, David; Daims, Holger; Wagner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia- and nitrite-oxidizers are collectively responsible for the aerobic oxidation of ammonia via nitrite to nitrate and play essential roles for the global biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. The physiology of these nitrifying microbes has been intensively studied since the first experiments of Sergei Winogradsky more than a century ago. Urea and ammonia are the only recognized energy sources that promote the aerobic growth of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea. Here we report the aerobic growth of a pure culture of the ammonia-oxidizing thaumarchaeote Nitrososphaera gargensis1 on cyanate as the sole source of energy and reductant, the first organism known to do so. Cyanate, which is a potentially important source of reduced nitrogen in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems2, is converted to ammonium and CO2 by this archaeon using a cyanase that is induced upon addition of this compound. Within the cyanase gene family, this cyanase is a member of a distinct clade that also contains cyanases of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria of the genus Nitrospira. We demonstrate by co-culture experiments that these nitrite-oxidizers supply ammonia-oxidizers lacking cyanase with ammonium from cyanate, which is fully nitrified by this consortium through reciprocal feeding. Screening of a comprehensive set of more than 3,000 publically available metagenomes from environmental samples revealed that cyanase-encoding genes clustering with the cyanases of these nitrifiers are widespread in the environment. Our results demonstrate an unexpected metabolic versatility of nitrifying microbes and suggest a previously unrecognized importance of cyanate for N-cycling in the environment. PMID:26222031

  3. Energy Source Study Technical Report for Deployable Acoustic Projector System (DAPS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-23

    S SPARTON"- AD-A278 879 7097-0001-1192 ENERGY SOURCE STUDY TECHNICAL REPORT FOR DEPLOYABLE ACOUSTIC PROJECTOR SYSTEM (DAPS) Contract N62190-88-M...SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Energy Source Study Technical Report for Deployable C:N62190-88-q+0755 Acoustic Projector System (DAPS) 6. AUTHOR(S) 7...Rev 2-89) P~IýAIppd by ill* 164 it- IJs IL- 3 Fst’ rPAITON OWiENSE mac vrroNcS r 7097-0001-1192 ENERGY SOURCE STUDY TECHNICAL REPORT I FOR DEPLOYABLE

  4. Synthesis of nanosized ZSM-5 zeolite using extracted silica from rice husk without adding any alumina source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sari, Zahra Ghasemi Laleh Vajheh; Younesi, Habibollah; Kazemian, Hossein

    2015-08-01

    The synthesis of analcime and nanosized ZSM-5 zeolites was carried out by a hydrothermal method with silica extracted from rice husk, available as an inexpensive local biowaste, and without the use of an extra alumina source. Amorphous silica (with 88 wt% of SiO2) was extracted from rice husk ash by a suitable alkali solution. The effects of crystallization temperature, time and SiO2/Al2O3 ratio of the initial system on the properties of final products were investigated. For the characterization of the synthesized product, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray techniques, Fourier transform infrared and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method were applied. Crystallinity percentages of analcime and nanosized ZSM-5 were 95.86 and 89.56, respectively, with specific surface area of 353.5 m2 g-1 for ZSM-5. The experimental results revealed that the synthesis of analcime and nanosized ZSM-5 zeolites was more practical with using silica extracted from inexpensive raw materials, while the whole crystallization process was accomplished without adding any alumina source during.

  5. Energy conservation in ad hoc multimedia networks using traffic-shaping mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Surendar

    2003-12-01

    In this work, we explore network traffic shaping mechanisms that deliver packets at pre-determined intervals; allowing the network interface to transition to a lower power consuming sleep state. We focus our efforts on commodity devices, IEEE 802.11b ad hoc mode and popular streaming formats. We argue that factors such as the lack of scheduling clock phase synchronization among the participants and scheduling delays introduced by back ground tasks affect the potential energy savings. Increasing the periodic transmission delays to transmit data infrequently can offset some of these effects at the expense of flooding the wireless channel for longer periods of time; potentially increasing the time to acquire the channel for non-multimedia traffic. Buffering mechanisms built into media browsers can mitigate the effects of these added delays from being mis-interpreted as network congestion. We show that practical implementations of such traffic shaping mechanisms can offer significant energy savings.

  6. 46 CFR 111.10-5 - Multiple energy sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Multiple energy sources. 111.10-5 Section 111.10-5...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-5 Multiple energy sources. Failure of any single generating set energy source such as a boiler, diesel, gas turbine, or steam turbine must not cause all generating...

  7. 46 CFR 111.10-5 - Multiple energy sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Multiple energy sources. 111.10-5 Section 111.10-5...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-5 Multiple energy sources. Failure of any single generating set energy source such as a boiler, diesel, gas turbine, or steam turbine must not cause all generating...

  8. 46 CFR 111.10-5 - Multiple energy sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Multiple energy sources. 111.10-5 Section 111.10-5...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-5 Multiple energy sources. Failure of any single generating set energy source such as a boiler, diesel, gas turbine, or steam turbine must not cause all generating...

  9. 46 CFR 111.10-5 - Multiple energy sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Multiple energy sources. 111.10-5 Section 111.10-5...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-5 Multiple energy sources. Failure of any single generating set energy source such as a boiler, diesel, gas turbine, or steam turbine must not cause all generating...

  10. 46 CFR 111.10-5 - Multiple energy sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Multiple energy sources. 111.10-5 Section 111.10-5...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-5 Multiple energy sources. Failure of any single generating set energy source such as a boiler, diesel, gas turbine, or steam turbine must not cause all generating...

  11. Review of biomass as a source of energy for Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Leszczynski, S.; Brzychczyk, P.; Sekula, R.

    1997-10-01

    To the present day, biomass has not been considered as an energy source for Poland, and over 95% of energy is generated through fossil fuel combustion. However, it is necessary to search for new energy sources because of high prices of traditional energy carriers and massive environmental pollution caused by these fuels. Biomass seems to be one of the best renewable energy sources. Basic components of biomass in Poland and estimations of energetic resources of biomass are presented.

  12. Hydrothermal energy: a source of energy for alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Stiger, R.R.

    1980-01-01

    A small scale (1 gal/hr) biomass-to-alcohol still was built at the Raft River Geothermal Site to investigate difficulties in geothermal assisted biomass conversion. The unit was successfully operated, producing 95% (190 proof) ethanol from sugar beet juice. The unit was designed and built in less than eight weeks from surplus equipment using commercially available design information. This small-scale still demonstrated that 95% ethanol can be produced from sugar beet beer containing 8 to 10% alcohol using geothermal energy and present commercial technology. The geothermal resource provided both an energy source and process water. Recently, Bechtel National, Incorporated, of San Francisco, California completed a study to analyze the economic feasibility of producing ethanol from potatoes, wheat, and sugar beets using geothermal resources available in the Raft River Region of Idaho. The study concluded that a 20 million gallon per year facility can be built that will supply alcohol at $1.78 per gallon using geothermal energy. (MHR)

  13. Reliability and cost-benefits of adding alternate power sources to an independent micro-grid community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanrioven, M.

    Interest in alternative energy resources such as wind, solar energy and fuel cell (FC) has been on the increase due to improved public awareness of the high energy cost and adverse environmental impacts of conventional energy sources. Therefore, the rapid growth and potential future demand for these energy sources suggest a need to consider both reliability and cost-benefits of the supply for each case. This paper presents a simulation methodology for reliability and cost assessment of these energy sources in an independent micro-grid (IMG) system, which is a distribution system with distributed energy sources such as micro-turbine, photovoltaic and fuel cells. A systematic technique and a computer program for reliability and cost assessment of the IMG system containing FC, photovoltaic (PV) and wind energy (WE) have been developed. The adequacy of the IMG is evaluated in three steps: (i) atmospheric data is generated for PV and WE in addition to the development of a 50 kW PEM FC generation and energy conversion model, (ii) the power delivered by these energy sources is calculated, and (iii) system adequacy and energy indices are calculated based on the system load balance equation, which is the combination of generated power and system load demand. The suggested technique can then be used to help system planners to provide objective indicators for suitable installation locations, operating policies, and energy type and size selection for IMG system containing alternative energy sources.

  14. Energy-efficient algorithm for broadcasting in ad hoc wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Naixue; Huang, Xingbo; Cheng, Hongju; Wan, Zheng

    2013-04-12

    Broadcasting is a common and basic operation used to support various network protocols in wireless networks. To achieve energy-efficient broadcasting is especially important for ad hoc wireless sensor networks because sensors are generally powered by batteries with limited lifetimes. Energy consumption for broadcast operations can be reduced by minimizing the number of relay nodes based on the observation that data transmission processes consume more energy than data reception processes in the sensor nodes, and how to improve the network lifetime is always an interesting issue in sensor network research. The minimum-energy broadcast problem is then equivalent to the problem of finding the minimum Connected Dominating Set (CDS) for a connected graph that is proved NP-complete. In this paper, we introduce an Efficient Minimum CDS algorithm (EMCDS) with help of a proposed ordered sequence list. EMCDS does not concern itself with node energy and broadcast operations might fail if relay nodes are out of energy. Next we have proposed a Minimum Energy-consumption Broadcast Scheme (MEBS) with a modified version of EMCDS, and aimed at providing an efficient scheduling scheme with maximized network lifetime. The simulation results show that the proposed EMCDS algorithm can find smaller CDS compared with related works, and the MEBS can help to increase the network lifetime by efficiently balancing energy among nodes in the networks.

  15. In vitro RNA editing in plant mitochondria does not require added energy.

    PubMed

    Takenaka, Mizuki; Verbitskiy, Daniil; van der Merwe, Johannes A; Zehrmann, Anja; Plessmann, Uwe; Urlaub, Henning; Brennicke, Axel

    2007-06-12

    RNA editing in flowering plant mitochondria is investigated by in vitro assays. These cauliflower mitochondrial lysates require added NTP or dNTP. We have now resolved the reason for this requirement to be the inhibition of the RNA binding activity of the glutamate dehydrogenases (GDH). Both GDH1 and GDH2 were identified in RNA-protein cross-links. The inhibition of in vitro RNA editing by GDH is confirmed by the ability of the GDH-specific herbicide phosphinothricin to substitute for NTP. NADH and NADPH, but not NAD or NADP, can also replace NTP, suggesting that the NAD(P)H-binding-pocket configuration of the GDH contacts the RNA. RNA editing in plant mitochondria is thus intrinsically independent of added energy in the form of NTP.

  16. Hairy AdS solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anabalón, Andrés; Astefanesei, Dumitru; Choque, David

    2016-11-01

    We construct exact hairy AdS soliton solutions in Einstein-dilaton gravity theory. We examine their thermodynamic properties and discuss the role of these solutions for the existence of first order phase transitions for hairy black holes. The negative energy density associated to hairy AdS solitons can be interpreted as the Casimir energy that is generated in the dual filed theory when the fermions are antiperiodic on the compact coordinate.

  17. Alternative biomass sources for thermal energy generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steensen, Torge; Müller, Sönke; Dresen, Boris; Büscher, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    Traditionally, renewable biomass energy sources comprise forests, agriculture and other large vegetation units. With the increasing demand on those landscape elements, including conflicts of interest to nature conservation and food production, the research focus should also incorporate smaller vegetation entities. In this study, we highlight the availability of small-scale features like roadside vegetation or hedges, which are rarely featured in maps. Roadside vegetation, however, is well known and regularly trimmed to allow the passing of traffic but the cut material is rarely harvested. Here, we combine a remote-sensing-based approach to quantify the seasonal biomass harvests with a GIS-based method to outline optimal transportation routes to, and the location of, storage units and power plants. Our main data source will be ESA's upcoming Sentinel-2 optical satellite. Spatial resolution of 10 meters in the visible and near infrared requires the use of spectral unmixing to derive end member spectra of the targeted biomass objects. Additional stereo-matching and LIDAR measurements allow the accompanying height estimate to derive the biomass volume and its changes over time. GIS data bases from the target areas allow the discrimination between traditional, large features (e.g. forests and agriculture) as well as previously unaccounted for, smaller vegetation units. With the mapped biomass occurrence and additional, GIS-based infrastructure information, we can outline transport routes that take into account local restrictions like nature reserve areas, height or weight limitations as well as transport costs in relation to potential gains. This information can then be processed to outline optimal places for power plants. To simulate the upcoming Sentinel-2 data sets, we use airborne data from the AISA Eagle, spatially and spectrally down-sampled to match Sentinel 2's resolution. Our test scenario is an area in western Germany, the Kirchheller Heide, close to the city

  18. Energy cost and energy sources during a simulated firefighting activity.

    PubMed

    Perroni, Fabrizio; Tessitore, Antonio; Cortis, Cristina; Lupo, Corrado; D'artibale, Emanuele; Cignitti, Lamberto; Capranica, Laura

    2010-12-01

    This study aimed to 1) analyze the energy requirement (VO2eq) and the contribution of the aerobic (VO2ex), anaerobic alactic (VO2al), and anaerobic lactic (VO2la-) energy sources of a simulated intervention; 2) ascertain differences in mean VO2 and heart rate (HR) during firefighting tasks; and 3) verify the relationship between time of job completion and the fitness level of firefighters. Twenty Italian firefighters (age = 32 ± 6 yr, VO2peak = 43.1 ± 4.9 mL·kg·min) performed 4 consecutive tasks (i.e., child rescue; 250-m run; find an exit; 250-m run) that required a VO2eq of 406.26 ± 73.91 mL·kg (VO2ex = 86 ± 5%; VO2al = 9 ± 3%; VO2la- = 5 ± 3%). After 30 minutes, the recovery HR (108 ± 15 beats·min) and VO2 (8.86±2.67mL·kg·min) were higher (p < 0.0001) than basal values (HR = 66 ± 8 beats·min; VO2 = 4.57 ± 1.07 mL·kg·min), indicating that passive recovery is insufficient in reducing the cardiovascular and thermoregulatory strain of the previous workload. Differences (p < 0.001) between tasks emerged for mean VO2 and HR, with a lack of significant correlation between the time of job completion and the firefighters' aerobic fitness. These findings indicate that unpredictable working conditions highly challenge expert firefighters who need adequate fitness levels to meet the requirements of their work. Practically, to enhance the fitness level of firefighters, specific interval training programs should include a wide variety of tasks requiring different intensities and decision-making strategies.

  19. 47 CFR 80.1099 - Ship sources of energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ship sources of energy. 80.1099 Section 80.1099... Stations § 80.1099 Ship sources of energy. (a) There must be available at all times, while the ship is at sea, a supply of electrical energy sufficient to operate the radio installations and to charge...

  20. 47 CFR 80.1099 - Ship sources of energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship sources of energy. 80.1099 Section 80.1099... Stations § 80.1099 Ship sources of energy. (a) There must be available at all times, while the ship is at sea, a supply of electrical energy sufficient to operate the radio installations and to charge...

  1. 47 CFR 80.1099 - Ship sources of energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ship sources of energy. 80.1099 Section 80.1099... Stations § 80.1099 Ship sources of energy. (a) There must be available at all times, while the ship is at sea, a supply of electrical energy sufficient to operate the radio installations and to charge...

  2. 47 CFR 80.1099 - Ship sources of energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ship sources of energy. 80.1099 Section 80.1099... Stations § 80.1099 Ship sources of energy. (a) There must be available at all times, while the ship is at sea, a supply of electrical energy sufficient to operate the radio installations and to charge...

  3. 47 CFR 80.1099 - Ship sources of energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ship sources of energy. 80.1099 Section 80.1099... Stations § 80.1099 Ship sources of energy. (a) There must be available at all times, while the ship is at sea, a supply of electrical energy sufficient to operate the radio installations and to charge...

  4. Panchromatic spectral energy distributions of Herschel sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berta, S.; Lutz, D.; Santini, P.; Wuyts, S.; Rosario, D.; Brisbin, D.; Cooray, A.; Franceschini, A.; Gruppioni, C.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Hwang, H. S.; Le Floc'h, E.; Magnelli, B.; Nordon, R.; Oliver, S.; Page, M. J.; Popesso, P.; Pozzetti, L.; Pozzi, F.; Riguccini, L.; Rodighiero, G.; Roseboom, I.; Scott, D.; Symeonidis, M.; Valtchanov, I.; Viero, M.; Wang, L.

    2013-03-01

    Combining far-infrared Herschel photometry from the PACS Evolutionary Probe (PEP) and Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) guaranteed time programs with ancillary datasets in the GOODS-N, GOODS-S, and COSMOS fields, it is possible to sample the 8-500 μm spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of galaxies with at least 7-10 bands. Extending to the UV, optical, and near-infrared, the number of bands increases up to 43. We reproduce the distribution of galaxies in a carefully selected restframe ten colors space, based on this rich data-set, using a superposition of multivariate Gaussian modes. We use this model to classify galaxies and build median SEDs of each class, which are then fitted with a modified version of the magphys code that combines stellar light, emission from dust heated by stars and a possible warm dust contribution heated by an active galactic nucleus (AGN). The color distribution of galaxies in each of the considered fields can be well described with the combination of 6-9 classes, spanning a large range of far- to near-infrared luminosity ratios, as well as different strength of the AGN contribution to bolometric luminosities. The defined Gaussian grouping is used to identify rare or odd sources. The zoology of outliers includes Herschel-detected ellipticals, very blue z ~ 1 Ly-break galaxies, quiescent spirals, and torus-dominated AGN with star formation. Out of these groups and outliers, a new template library is assembled, consisting of 32 SEDs describing the intrinsic scatter in the restframe UV-to-submm colors of infrared galaxies. This library is tested against L(IR) estimates with and without Herschel data included, and compared to eightother popular methods often adopted in the literature. When implementing Herschel photometry, these approaches produce L(IR) values consistent with each other within a median absolute deviation of 10-20%, the scatter being dominated more by fine tuning of the codes, rather than by the choice of

  5. Effects of acute exercise on appetite hormones and ad libitum energy intake in men and women.

    PubMed

    Hagobian, Todd Alan; Yamashiro, Megan; Hinkel-Lipsker, Jake; Streder, Katherine; Evero, Nero; Hackney, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Acute exercise suppresses relative energy intake; however, it remains unclear whether this occurs in both men and women exposed to the same relative exercise treatment. Eleven healthy men (22 ± 2 years; 16% ± 6% body fat (BF); 26 ± 4 body mass index (BMI); 42.9 ± 6.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) peak oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]O(2peak))) and 10 healthy women (21 ± 2 years; 24 ± 2 BMI; 23% ± 3% BF; 39.9 ± 5.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) [Formula: see text]O(2peak)) rested for 60 min or exercised on a cycle ergometer at 70% [Formula: see text]O(2peak) until 30% of total daily energy expenditure was expended (men, expenditure = 975 ± 195 kcal in 82 ± 13 min; women, expenditure = 713 ± 86 kcal in 84 ± 17 min) in a counterbalanced, crossover fashion. Appetite hormones and appetite ratings were assessed in response to each condition. Forty minutes after both conditions, ad libitum total and relative energy intake (energy intake minus energy cost of exercise) were assessed at a buffet meal. There was no significant sex or condition effect in appetite hormones (PYY(3-36), acylated ghrelin, insulin) and appetite ratings (hunger, satisfaction, fullness). Total energy intake in men was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in exercise and rest conditions (1648 ± 950, 1216 ± 633 kcal, respectively) compared with women (591 ± 183, 590 ± 231 kcal, respectively). Relative energy intake was significantly lower (P < 0.05) after exercise compared with rest in men (672 ± 827, 1133 ± 619 kcal, respectively) and women (-121 ± 243, 530 ± 233 kcal, respectively). These data highlight the effectiveness of acute exercise to suppress relative energy intake regardless of sex.

  6. Alternative Natural Energy Sources in Building Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Albert J.; Schubert, Robert P.

    This publication provides a discussion of various energy conserving building systems and design alternatives. The information presented here covers alternative space and water heating systems, and energy conserving building designs incorporating these systems and other energy conserving techniques. Besides water, wind, solar, and bio conversion…

  7. Novel piezoelectric-based energy-harvesting power sources for gun-fired munitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastegar, J.; Murray, R.; Pereira, C.; Nguyen, H.-L.

    2007-04-01

    A novel class of piezoelectric-based energy-harvesting power sources is presented for gun-fired munitions and other similar applications that require very high G survivability. The power sources are designed to harvest energy from the firing acceleration as well as vibratory motion of munitions during the flight and convert it to electrical energy to power onboard electronics. The developed piezoelectric-based energy harvesting power sources produce enough electrical energy for applications such as fuzing. The power sources are designed to withstand firing accelerations in excess of 100,000 G. In certain applications such as fuzing, the developed power sources have the potential of completely eliminating the need for chemical batteries. In fuzing applications, the developed power sources have the added advantage of providing additional safety, since with such power sources the fuzing electronics are powered only after the munitions have exited the barrel and have traveled a safe distance from the weapon platform. The design of a number of prototypes, including their packaging for high G hardening, and the results of laboratory and air-gun testing are presented. Methods to increase the efficiency of such energy-harvesting power sources and minimize friction and damping losses are discussed.

  8. Energy accounting for solar and alternative energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devine, W. D., Jr.

    Shortcomings in energy data collection, display and accounting practices are of minor consequence in an economy of today in which most end use services are provided via fossil fuels and electricity. However, the emergence of a variety of alternative technologies that might be used to provide these services suggests that present accounting practices be reexamined and a more appropriate system devised. The paper proposes an energy accounting framework based upon the actual services provided to end users. An energy service is a measure of the service actually provided to ultimate consumers by their own use of energy, quantified, for example, using units of work or of heat at various temperatures. Fifteen categories of energy service are described and some of their characteristics are identified. The proposed energy accounting framework consists of two matrices - an energy service matrix and an energy carrier matrix. The energy service matrix displays quantities of energy carriers used to provide energy services. The energy carrier matrix displays quantities of energy carriers used to produce and distribute energy carriers to ultimate consumers.

  9. Energy Efficient Link Aware Routing with Power Control in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    PubMed Central

    Katiravan, Jeevaa; Sylvia, D.; Rao, D. Srinivasa

    2015-01-01

    In wireless ad hoc networks, the traditional routing protocols make the route selection based on minimum distance between the nodes and the minimum number of hop counts. Most of the routing decisions do not consider the condition of the network such as link quality and residual energy of the nodes. Also, when a link failure occurs, a route discovery mechanism is initiated which incurs high routing overhead. If the broadcast nature and the spatial diversity of the wireless communication are utilized efficiently it becomes possible to achieve improvement in the performance of the wireless networks. In contrast to the traditional routing scheme which makes use of a predetermined route for packet transmission, such an opportunistic routing scheme defines a predefined forwarding candidate list formed by using single network metrics. In this paper, a protocol is proposed which uses multiple metrics such as residual energy and link quality for route selection and also includes a monitoring mechanism which initiates a route discovery for a poor link, thereby reducing the overhead involved and improving the throughput of the network while maintaining network connectivity. Power control is also implemented not only to save energy but also to improve the network performance. Using simulations, we show the performance improvement attained in the network in terms of packet delivery ratio, routing overhead, and residual energy of the network. PMID:26167529

  10. Energy Efficient Link Aware Routing with Power Control in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks.

    PubMed

    Katiravan, Jeevaa; Sylvia, D; Rao, D Srinivasa

    2015-01-01

    In wireless ad hoc networks, the traditional routing protocols make the route selection based on minimum distance between the nodes and the minimum number of hop counts. Most of the routing decisions do not consider the condition of the network such as link quality and residual energy of the nodes. Also, when a link failure occurs, a route discovery mechanism is initiated which incurs high routing overhead. If the broadcast nature and the spatial diversity of the wireless communication are utilized efficiently it becomes possible to achieve improvement in the performance of the wireless networks. In contrast to the traditional routing scheme which makes use of a predetermined route for packet transmission, such an opportunistic routing scheme defines a predefined forwarding candidate list formed by using single network metrics. In this paper, a protocol is proposed which uses multiple metrics such as residual energy and link quality for route selection and also includes a monitoring mechanism which initiates a route discovery for a poor link, thereby reducing the overhead involved and improving the throughput of the network while maintaining network connectivity. Power control is also implemented not only to save energy but also to improve the network performance. Using simulations, we show the performance improvement attained in the network in terms of packet delivery ratio, routing overhead, and residual energy of the network.

  11. 76 FR 65768 - ADS Media Group, Inc., American Enterprise Development Corp., and Arcland Energy Corp.; Order of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... COMMISSION ADS Media Group, Inc., American Enterprise Development Corp., and Arcland Energy Corp.; Order of... lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of ADS Media Group, Inc. because it... securities of American Enterprise Development Corp. because it has not filed any periodic reports since...

  12. Energy Efficiency and Importance of Renewable Energy Sources in Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skapare, I.; Kreslins, A.

    2007-10-01

    The main goal of Latvian energy policy is to ensure safe and environmentally friendly long-term energy supply at cost-effective prices, contributing to enhance competitiveness, and to ensure safe energy transit. The Latvian Parliament approved an Energy Efficiency Strategy in 2000. Its objective is to decrease energy consumption per unit of GDP by 25% by 2010. Awareness raising, implementation of standards and economic incentives for self financing are the main instruments to increase energy efficiency, mentioned in the strategy. Latvia, as many other European Union member states, is dependent on the import of primary energy resources. The Latvian Renewable Energy strategy is still under development. The only recent study on RES was developed in the framework of a PHARE program in year 2000: "Renewable energy resource program", where three main objectives for a future RES strategy were proposed: 1. To increase the use of wood waste and low value wood and forest residues. 2. To improve efficiency of combustion technologies and to replace outdated plants. 3. To increase the use of renewables in Combined Heat and Power plants (CHP). Through the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership, partners will develop a set of new shared activities, and coordinate and strengthen existing efforts in this area.

  13. Alternate policies for alternate energy sources

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, F.F.

    1985-09-01

    Some ''alternates within alternates'' are studied and possible improvement of our energy policies are explored. The viability of a hydrogen fuel economy is reviewed. Methanol, ethanol or ammonia versus hydrogen is one area of interest. Others include liquid hydrogen versus jet fuels, the use of geothermal, solar, wind or water energy for production of hydrogen gas versus development of deep earth supplies of natural gas is another. Energy enhancement as opposed to energy conservation is investigated with regard to polar climate and what might be done to improve natural energy balances, particularly in the northern hemisphere. Pumping Arctic Ocean water out into the Pacific Ocean via the Bering Strait would be an energy debit as opposed to energy gains such as biomass conversion of future plant growth throughout the Siberian and Canadian tundra regions and presently very arid desert regions, improved access to northern region fuel, metal ore and mineral resources, year-round shipping and fishing fleet operations in the Arctic Ocean and development of the tremendous Greenland hydro-electric power potential.

  14. Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS): adding functionality while maintaining reliability and economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, Ward

    2011-09-01

    An overview of the activities and progress made during the US DOE Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS) solicitation, while maintaining reliability and economics is provided. The SEGIS R&D opened pathways for interconnecting PV systems to intelligent utility grids and micro-grids of the future. In addition to new capabilities are "value added" features. The new hardware designs resulted in smaller, less material-intensive products that are being viewed by utilities as enabling dispatchable generation and not just unpredictable negative loads. The technical solutions enable "advanced integrated system" concepts and "smart grid" processes to move forward in a faster and focused manner. The advanced integrated inverters/controllers can now incorporate energy management functionality, intelligent electrical grid support features and a multiplicity of communication technologies. Portals for energy flow and two-way communications have been implemented. SEGIS hardware was developed for the utility grid of today, which was designed for one-way power flow, for intermediate grid scenarios, AND for the grid of tomorrow, which will seamlessly accommodate managed two-way power flows as required by large-scale deployment of solar and other distributed generation. The SEGIS hardware and control developed for today meets existing standards and codes AND provides for future connections to a "smart grid" mode that enables utility control and optimized performance.

  15. Alternative Energy Sources. Experiments You Can Do...from Edison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benrey, Ronald M.; Schultz, Robert F.

    Eight experiments dealing with alternative energy sources are presented. Each experiment includes an introductory section which provides background information and discusses the promises and problems of the particular energy source, a list of materials needed to complete the experiment, and the procedures to be used. The experiments involve:…

  16. Effect of Carbon and Energy Source on Bacterial Chromate Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, William Aaron; Apel, William Arnold; Petersen, J. N.; Peyton, Brent Michael

    2002-07-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate carbon and energy sources suitable to support hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) reduction by a bacterial consortium enriched from dichromate-contaminated aquifer sediments. The consortium was cultured under denitrifying conditions in a minimal, synthetic groundwater medium that was amended with various individual potential carbon and energy sources. The effects of these individual carbon and energy sources on Cr(VI) reduction and growth were measured. The consortium was found to readily reduce Cr(VI) with sucrose, acetate, L-asparagine, hydrogen plus carbon dioxide, ethanol, glycerol, glycolate, propylene glycol, or D-xylose as a carbon and energy source. Minimal Cr(VI) reduction was observed when the consortium was cultured with citrate, 2-ketoglutarate, L-lactate, pyruvate, succinate, or thiosulfate plus carbon dioxide as a carbon and energy source when compared with abiotic controls. The consortium grew on all of the above carbon and energy sources, with the highest cell densities reached using D-xylose and sucrose, demonstrating that the consortium is metabolically diverse and can reduce Cr(VI) using a variety of different carbon and energy sources. The results suggest that the potential exists for the enrichment of Cr(VI)-reducing microbial populations in situ by the addition of a sucrose-containing feedstock such as molasses, which is an economical and readily available carbon and energy source.

  17. A non-marine source of variability in Adélie Penguin demography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fraser, William R.; Patterson-Fraser, Donna L.; Ribic, Christine; Schofield, Oscar; Ducklow, Hugh

    2013-01-01

    A primary research objective of the Palmer Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) program has been to identify and understand the factors that regulate the demography of Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae). In this context, our work has been focused on variability in the marine environment on which this species depends for virtually all aspects of its life history (Ainley, 2002). As we show here, however, there are patterns evident in the population dynamics of Adélie penguins that are better explained by variability in breeding habitat quality rather than by variability in the marine system. Interactions between the geomorphology of the terrestrial environment that, in turn, affect patterns of snow deposition, drive breeding habitat quality.

  18. Alterations in energy balance from an exercise intervention with ad libitum food intake.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Katarina; Renaud, Anne; Zurbuchen, Stefanie; Tschopp, Céline; Lehmann, Jan; Malatesta, Davide; Ruch, Nicole; Schutz, Yves; Kayser, Bengt; Mäder, Urs

    2016-01-01

    Better understanding is needed regarding the effects of exercise alone, without any imposed dietary regimens, as a single tool for body-weight regulation. Thus, we evaluated the effects of an 8-week increase in activity energy expenditure (AEE) on ad libitum energy intake (EI), body mass and composition in healthy participants with baseline physical activity levels (PAL) in line with international recommendations. Forty-six male adults (BMI = 19·7-29·3 kg/m(2)) participated in an intervention group, and ten (BMI = 21·0-28·4 kg/m(2)) in a control group. Anthropometric measures, cardiorespiratory fitness, EI, AEE and exercise intensity were recorded at baseline and during the 1st, 5th and 8th intervention weeks, and movement was recorded throughout. Body composition was measured at the beginning and at the end of the study, and resting energy expenditure was measured after the study. The intervention group increased PAL from 1·74 (se 0·03) to 1·93 (se 0·03) (P < 0·0001) and cardiorespiratory fitness from 41·4 (se 0·9) to 45·7 (se 1·1) ml O2/kg per min (P = 0·001) while decreasing body mass (-1·36 (se 0·2) kg; P = 0·001) through adipose tissue mass loss (ATM) (-1·61 (se 0·2) kg; P = 0·0001) compared with baseline. The control group did not show any significant changes in activity, body mass or ATM. EI was unchanged in both groups. The results indicate that in normal-weight and overweight men, increasing PAL from 1·7 to 1·9 while keeping EI ad libitum over an 8-week period produces a prolonged negative energy balance. Replication using a longer period (and/or more intense increase in PAL) is needed to investigate if and at what body composition the increase in AEE is met by an equivalent increase in EI.

  19. Analysis of Different Methods for Computing Source Energy in the Context of Zero Energy Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Torcellini, Paul A.; Bonnema, Eric; Goldwasser, David; Pless, Shanti

    2016-08-26

    Building energy consumption can only be measured at the site or at the point of utility interconnection with a building. Often, to evaluate the total energy impact, this site-based energy consumption is translated into source energy, that is, the energy at the point of fuel extraction. Consistent with this approach, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) definition of zero energy buildings uses source energy as the metric to account for energy losses from the extraction, transformation, and delivery of energy. Other organizations, as well, use source energy to characterize the energy impacts. Four methods of making the conversion from site energy to source energy were investigated in the context of the DOE definition of zero energy buildings. These methods were evaluated based on three guiding principles--improve energy efficiency, reduce and stabilize power demand, and use power from nonrenewable energy sources as efficiently as possible. This study examines relative trends between strategies as they are implemented on very low-energy buildings to achieve zero energy. A typical office building was modeled and variations to this model performed. The photovoltaic output that was required to create a zero energy building was calculated. Trends were examined with these variations to study the impacts of the calculation method on the building's ability to achieve zero energy status. The paper will highlight the different methods and give conclusions on the advantages and disadvantages of the methods studied.

  20. Active Thrusting Offshore Mount Lebanon: Source of the Tsunamigenic A.D. 551 Beirut-Tripoli Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapponnier, P.; Elias, A.; Singh, S.; King, G.; Briais, A.; Daeron, M.; Carton, H.; Sursock, A.; Jacques, E.; Jomaa, R.; Klinger, Y.

    2004-12-01

    On July 9, AD 551, a large earthquake, followed by a tsunami destroyed most of the coastal cities of Phoenicia (modern-day Lebanon). This was arguably one of the most devastating historical submarine earthquakes in the eastern Mediterranean. Geophysical data from the Shalimar survey unveils the source of this Mw=7.5 event: rupture of the offshore, hitherto unknown, 100?150 km-long, active, east-dipping Mount Lebanon Thrust (MLT). Deep-towed sonar swaths along the base of prominent bathymetric escarpments reveal fresh, west facing seismic scarps that cut the sediment-smoothed seafloor. The MLT trace comes closest (~ 8 km) to the coast between Beirut and Enfeh, where as 13 radiocarbon-calibrated ages indicate, a shoreline-fringing Vermetid bench suddenly emerged by ~ 80 cm in the 6th century AD. At Tabarja, the regular vertical separation (~ 1 m) of higher fossil benches, suggests uplift by 3 more comparable-size earthquakes since the Holocene sea-level reached a maximum ca. 7-6 ka, implying a 1500?1750 yr recurrence time. Unabated thrusting on the MLT likely orchestrated the growth of Mt. Lebanon since the late Miocene. The newly discovered MLT has been the missing piece in the Dead Sea Transform and eastern Mediterranean tectonic scheme. Identifying the source of the AD 551 event thus ends a complete reassessment of the sources of the major historical earthquakes on the various faults of the Lebanese Restraining Bend of the Levant Fault System (or Dead Sea Transform).

  1. Active Thrusting Offshore Mount Lebanon: Source of the Tsunamigenic A.D. 551 Beirut-Tripoli Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapponnier, P.; Elias, A.; Singh, S.; King, G.; Briais, A.; Daeron, M.; Carton, H.; Sursock, A.; Jacques, E.; Jomaa, R.; Klinger, Y.

    2007-12-01

    On July 9, AD 551, a large earthquake, followed by a tsunami destroyed most of the coastal cities of Phoenicia (modern-day Lebanon). This was arguably one of the most devastating historical submarine earthquakes in the eastern Mediterranean. Geophysical data from the Shalimar survey unveils the source of this Mw=7.5 event: rupture of the offshore, hitherto unknown, 100?150 km-long, active, east-dipping Mount Lebanon Thrust (MLT). Deep-towed sonar swaths along the base of prominent bathymetric escarpments reveal fresh, west facing seismic scarps that cut the sediment-smoothed seafloor. The MLT trace comes closest (~ 8 km) to the coast between Beirut and Enfeh, where as 13 radiocarbon-calibrated ages indicate, a shoreline-fringing Vermetid bench suddenly emerged by ~ 80 cm in the 6th century AD. At Tabarja, the regular vertical separation (~ 1 m) of higher fossil benches, suggests uplift by 3 more comparable-size earthquakes since the Holocene sea-level reached a maximum ca. 7-6 ka, implying a 1500?1750 yr recurrence time. Unabated thrusting on the MLT likely orchestrated the growth of Mt. Lebanon since the late Miocene. The newly discovered MLT has been the missing piece in the Dead Sea Transform and eastern Mediterranean tectonic scheme. Identifying the source of the AD 551 event thus ends a complete reassessment of the sources of the major historical earthquakes on the various faults of the Lebanese Restraining Bend of the Levant Fault System (or Dead Sea Transform).

  2. Potential Energy Sources Pose Mining Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Summarizes the discussions of a Division of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry symposium on solids handling for synthetic fuels production. Included is a description of technical difficulties with the use of coal seams and deposits of oil shale and oil sand as potential sources of fuel. (CC)

  3. High energy efficient solid state laser sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of highly efficient coherent optical sources was reviewed. This work has focused on nonlinear frequency conversion of the highly coherent output of the non-planar ring laser oscillators developed earlier in the program, and includes high efficiency second harmonic generation and the operation of optical parametric oscillators for wavelength diversity and tunability.

  4. High energy efficient solid state laser sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, Robert L.

    1988-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of highly efficient coherent optical sources is reviewed. This work focusses on nonlinear frequency conversion of the highly coherent output of the Non-Planar Ring Laser Oscillators developed earlier in the program, and includes high efficiency second harmonic generation and the operation of optical parametric oscillators for wavelength diversity and tunability.

  5. HH55 and its energy source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyer, Mark H.; Graham, J. A.

    1990-01-01

    Imaging and spectroscopic observations of HH55 in the Lupus molecular cloud are presented. Cohen and Schwartz (1987) have shown that HH55 is apparently not excited by the nearby T Tau star RU Lup as once thought but rather by the coincident FIR point source 15533 - 3742 extracted from IRAS coadded images. The optical counterpart of this IR source is identified as an active, relatively unobscured M-dwarf star. The forbidden emission lines observed in the stellar spectrum exhibit slight asymmetries to blueshifted velocities. Deconvolution of the emission lines reveals a weak moderate-velocity (-100 km/sec) wind component and a stronger emission component whose velocity is very close to that of the star.

  6. HH55 and its energy source

    SciTech Connect

    Heyer, M.H.; Graham, J.A. )

    1990-02-01

    Imaging and spectroscopic observations of HH55 in the Lupus molecular cloud are presented. Cohen and Schwartz (1987) have shown that HH55 is apparently not excited by the nearby T Tau star RU Lup as once thought but rather by the coincident FIR point source 15533 - 3742 extracted from IRAS coadded images. The optical counterpart of this IR source is identified as an active, relatively unobscured M-dwarf star. The forbidden emission lines observed in the stellar spectrum exhibit slight asymmetries to blueshifted velocities. Deconvolution of the emission lines reveals a weak moderate-velocity (-100 km/sec) wind component and a stronger emission component whose velocity is very close to that of the star. 28 refs.

  7. High energy efficient solid state laser sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    Investigations continue of diode-laser-pumped solid-state laser oscillators and nonlinear processes using them as sources. Diode laser array pumped Nd:YAG and Nd:glass lasers have been demonstrated. Theoretical studies of non-planar oscillators have been advanced, producing new designs which should be more resistant to feedback and offer better frequency stability. A monolithic, singly resonant Optical Parametric Oscillator in MgO:LiNbO3 has been operated.

  8. Education and Training in New and Renewable Sources of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beresovski, T.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Identifies past and present efforts and future directions for UNESCO activities related to energy but focusing on alternative energy sources. Reports results of an international survey and analysis of programs, facilities, and needs in alternative energy education and training. Outlines curricula for policymakers, specialists, and technicians. (DC)

  9. High-energy X-ray spectra of five sources.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricker, G. R.; Mcclintock, J. E.; Gerassimenko, M.; Lewin , W. H. G.

    1973-01-01

    On October 15-16, 1970, we carried out balloon X-ray observations from Australia at energies above 15 keV. We present the high-energy X-ray spectra of three sources discovered by us, GX 301-2, GX 304-1, and GX 1 + 4. The data suggest that these high-energy sources correspond to the sources 2U 1223-62, 2U 1258-61, and 2U 1728-24 respectively. We also present the spectra for two additional sources, GX 5-1 (2U 1757-25) and GX 3 + 1 (2U 1744-26). The average intensity of the highly variable source GX 301-2 was observed to be as great as Tau X-1 in the energy range 15-50 keV.

  10. Electric Discharge Excitation and Energy Source Integration.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-06

    only one side of the machined bar connecting the mounting plate to the cathode. An electrical schematic of the PFN utilized for the discharge studies...for the initial charge voltage to be 2 VG for optimum energy transfer is still present. All arrangements of transmision lines studied showed the... side of the anode screen are used to achieve a smooth physical transition and, thereby, minimize flow-generated turbulence. With this arrangement the

  11. MeV Science with the Advanced Energetic Pair Telescope (AdEPT), a High Sensitivity Medium-Energy Gamma-Ray Polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venters, Tonia M.; Hunter, Stanley D.; De Nolfo, Georgia; Hanu, Andrei R.; Krizmanic, John F.; Stecker, Floyd W.; Timokhin, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    Many high-energy astrophysical phenomena exhibit unique, transitory behavior, such as spectral breaks, bursts, and flares below ~200 MeV. However, while significant progress in gamma-rays has been made by instruments such as Fermi and AGILE, a significant sensitivity gap remains in the medium-energy regime (0.75 - 200 MeV) that has been explored only by COMPTEL and EGRET on CGRO. Tapping into this unexplored regime requires development of a telescope with significant improvement in sensitivity. Our mission concept, covering ~5 to ~200 MeV, is the Advanced Energetic Pair Telescope (AdEPT). The AdEPT telescope will achieve angular resolution of ~0.6 deg at 70 MeV, similar to the angular resolution of Fermi/LAT at ~1 GeV that brought tremendous success in identifying new sources. AdEPT will also provide unprecedented polarization sensitivity, ~1% for a 1 Crab source. The enabling technology for AdEPT is the Three-Dimensional Track Imager (3-DTI) a low-density, large volume, gas time-projection chamber with a 2-dimensional readout. The 3-DTI provides high-resolution three-dimensional electron tracking with minimal Coulomb scattering that is essential to achieve high angular resolution and polarization sensitivity. We describe the design, fabrication, and performance of the 3-DTI detector, describe the development of a 50x50x100 cm3 AdEPT prototype, and highlight a few of the key science questions that AdEPT will address.

  12. Kerr-Newman-AdS black hole in quintessential dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhaoyi; Wang, Jiancheng

    2017-03-01

    Quintessential dark energy with pressure p and density ρ is related by equation of state p =ω ρ with the state parameter -1 <ω <-1 /3 . The cosmological dark energy influence on black hole spacetime is interesting and important. In this paper, we study the Kerr-Newman-AdS solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equation in quintessence field around a black hole by Newman-Janis algorithm and complex computations. From the horizon structure equation, we obtain the expression between quintessence parameter α and cosmological constant Λ if the black hole exists two cosmological horizon rq and rc when ω =-2 /3 , the result is different from rotational black hole in quintessence matter situation. Through analysis we find that the black hole charge cannot change the value of α . But the black hole spin and cosmological constant are opposite. The black hole spin and cosmological constant make the maximum value of α small. The existence of four horizon leads seven types of extremal black holes to constrain the parameter α . With the state parameter ω ranging from -1 to -1 /3 , the maximum value of α changes from Λ to 1. When ω →-1 , the quintessential dark energy likes cosmological constant. The singularity of the black holes is the same with that of Kerr black hole. We also discuss the rotation velocity of the black holes on the equatorial plane for ω =-2 /3 , -1 /2 and -1 /3 . For small value of α , the rotation velocity on the equatorial plane is asymptotically flat and it can explain the rotation curves in spiral galaxies.

  13. Alternative energy sources could support life on Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Irwin, Louis N.

    Energy pervades the solar system in a variety of forms, including electromagnetic and particle radiation, magnetism, heat, kinetic motion, and gravitational interactions. Life on Earth is sustained by the conversion of light and chemical energy into proton gradients across membranes that drive the phosphorylation of high-energy intermediate metabolites.The use of light and reduced chemical bonds as energy sources is not surprising on Earth, where the intensity of light is strong and an oxidizing atmosphere favors energy-yielding chemical reactions. However, any naturally occurring energy gradient that generates charge separation across boundary layers could theoretically yield the free energy needed to sustain life. Using specific, plausible examples from Jupiter's ice-covered satellite Europa, we propose that alternative energy sources could sustain life where neither light nor an oxidizing atmosphere is available.

  14. History of energy sources and their utilization in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Ogunsola, O.I. )

    1990-01-01

    Nigeria, a major oil producer, is rich in other energy sources. These include wood, coal, gas, tar sands, and hydro power. Although oil has been the most popular, some other energy sources have a longer history. This article discusses the historical trends in the production and utilization of Nigerian energy sources. Wood has the longest history. However,its utilization was limited to domestic cooking. Imported coal was first used in 1896, but it was not discovered in Nigeria until 1909 and was first produced in 1916. Although oil exploration started in 1901, it was first discovered in commercial quantity in 1956 and produced in 1958. Oil thereafter took over the energy scene from coal until 1969, when hydro energy was first produced. Energy consumption has been mainly from hydro. Tar sands account for about 55% of total proven non-renewable reserves.

  15. The energy situation. [emphasizing various energy sources, costs, and environmental effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Energy reserves from the principal energy sources other than petroleum and natural gas are summarized. It was found that energy sources are being consumed at rates which exceed the ability to replace them through new discoveries and technology improvements. The costs and implications to environment for using coal and nuclear energy are discussed. Tables are presented on energy consumption, cost of reclamation, and water power capacity.

  16. Redox Disproportionation of Glucose as a Major Biosynthetic Energy Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Arthur L.

    1996-01-01

    Previous studies have concluded that very little if any energy is required for the microbial biosynthesis of amino acids and lipids from glucose -- processes that yield almost as much ATP (adenosine triphosphate) as they consume. However, these studies did not establish the strength nor the nature of the energy source driving these biological transformations. To identify and estimate the strength of the energy source behind these processes, we calculated the free energy change due to the redox disproportionation of substrate carbon of (a) 26 redox-balanced fermentation reactions, and (b) the biosynthesis of amino acids, lipids, and nucleotides of E. coli from glucose. A plot of the negative free energy of these reactions per mmole of carbon as a function of the number of disproportionative electron transfers per mmol of carbon showed that the energy yields of these fermentations and biosyntheses were directly proportional to the degree of redox disproportionation of carbon. Since this linear relationship showed that redox disproportionation was the dominant energy source of these reactions, we were able to establish that amino acid and lipid biosynthesis obtained most of their energy from redox disproportionation (greater than 94%). In contrast nucleotide biosynthesis was not driven by redox disproportionation of carbon, and consequently depended completely on ATP for energy. This crucial and previously unrecognized role of sugars as an energy source of biosynthesis suggests that sugars were involved at the earliest stage in the origin of anabolic metabolism.

  17. SWOT analysis of the renewable energy sources in Romania - case study: solar energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupu, A. G.; Dumencu, A.; Atanasiu, M. V.; Panaite, C. E.; Dumitrașcu, Gh; Popescu, A.

    2016-08-01

    The evolution of energy sector worldwide triggered intense preoccupation on both finding alternative renewable energy sources and environmental issues. Romania is considered to have technological potential and geographical location suitable to renewable energy usage for electricity generation. But this high potential is not fully exploited in the context of policies and regulations adopted globally, and more specific, European Union (EU) environmental and energy strategies and legislation related to renewable energy sources. This SWOT analysis of solar energy source presents the state of the art, potential and future prospects for development of renewable energy in Romania. The analysis concluded that the development of solar energy sector in Romania depends largely on: viability of legislative framework on renewable energy sources, increased subsidies for solar R&D, simplified methodology of green certificates, and educating the public, investors, developers and decision-makers.

  18. Development of Electricity Generation from Renewable Energy Sources in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kentel, E.

    2011-12-01

    Electricity is mainly produced from coal, natural gas and hydropower in Turkey. However, almost all the natural gas and high quality coal are imported. Thus, increasing the shares of both hydro and other renewables in energy supply is necessary to decrease dependency of the country on foreign sources. In 2008, the total installed capacity of Turkey was around 42000 MW and 66 % of this was from thermal sources. The remaining 33 % was from hydro, which leaves only one percent for the other renewable energy sources. The share of renewable energy in the energy budget of Turkey has increased in the last two decades; however, in 2008, only 17 % of the total electricity generation was realized from renewable sources most of which was hydro. According to State Hydraulic Works (SHW) which is the primary executive state agency responsible for the planning, operating and managing of Turkey's water resources, Turkey utilizes only around 35% of its economically viable hydro potential. The current situation clearly demonstrates the need for increasing the share of renewables in the energy budget. New laws, such as the Electricity Market Law, have been enacted and the following items were identified by the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources of Turkey among primary energy policies and priorities: (i) decreasing dependency on foreign resources by prioritizing utilization of natural resources, (ii) increasing the share of renewable energy resources in the energy budget of Turkey; (iii) minimization of adverse environmental impacts of production and utilization of natural resources. The government's energy policy increased investments in renewable energy resources; however lack of a needed legal framework brought various environmental and social problems with this fast development. The development of the share of renewable resources in the energy budget, current government policy, and environmental concerns related with renewables, and ideas to improve the overall benefits of

  19. Internal energy and fragmentation of ions produced in electrospray sources.

    PubMed

    Gabelica, Valérie; De Pauw, Edwin

    2005-01-01

    This review addresses the determination of the internal energy of ions produced by electrospray ionization (ESI) sources, and the influence of the internal energy on analyte fragmentation. A control of the analyte internal energy is crucial for several applications of electrospray mass spectrometry, like structural studies, construction of reproducible and exportable spectral libraries, analysis of non-covalent complexes. Sections II and III summarize the Electrospray mechanisms and source design considerations which are relevant to the problem of internal energy, and Section IV gives an overview of the inter-relationships between ion internal energy, reaction time scale, and analyte fragmentation. In these three sections we tried to make the most important theoretical elements understandable by all ESI users, and their understanding requires a minimal background in physical chemistry. We then present the different approaches used to experimentally determine the ion internal energy, as well as various attempts in modeling the internal energy uptake in electrospray sources. Finally, a tentative comparison between electrospray and other ionization sources is made. As the reader will see, although many reports appeared on the subject, the knowledge in the field of internal energy of ions produced by soft ionization sources is still scarce, because of the complexity of the system, and this is what makes this area of research so interesting. The last section presents some perspectives for future research.

  20. Comparative studies of energy sources in gynecologic laparoscopy.

    PubMed

    Law, Kenneth S K; Lyons, Stephen D

    2013-01-01

    Energy sources incorporating "vessel sealing" capabilities are being increasingly used in gynecologic laparoscopic surgery although conventional monopolar and bipolar electrosurgery remain popular. The preference for one device over another is based on a combination of factors, including the surgeon's subjective experience, availability, and cost. Although comparative clinical studies and meta-analyses of laparoscopic energy sources have reported small but statistically significant differences in volumes of blood loss, the clinical significance of such small volumes is questionable. The overall usefulness of the various energy sources available will depend on a number of factors including vessel burst pressure and seal time, lateral thermal spread, and smoke production. Animal studies and laboratory-based trials are useful in providing a controlled environment to investigate such parameters. At present, there is insufficient evidence to support the use of one energy source over another.

  1. A power conditioning system for radioisotope thermoelectric generator energy sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis, J. A., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The use of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) as the primary source of energy in unmanned spacecraft is discussed. RTG output control, power conditioning system requirements, the electrical design, and circuit performance are also discussed.

  2. [Applications of GIS in biomass energy source research].

    PubMed

    Su, Xian-Ming; Wang, Wu-Kui; Li, Yi-Wei; Sun, Wen-Xiang; Shi, Hai; Zhang, Da-Hong

    2010-03-01

    Biomass resources have the characteristics of widespread and dispersed distribution, which have close relations to the environment, climate, soil, and land use, etc. Geographic information system (GIS) has the functions of spatial analysis and the flexibility of integrating with other application models and algorithms, being of predominance to the biomass energy source research. This paper summarized the researches on the GIS applications in biomass energy source research, with the focus in the feasibility study of bioenergy development, assessment of biomass resources amount and distribution, layout of biomass exploitation and utilization, evaluation of gaseous emission from biomass burning, and biomass energy information system. Three perspectives of GIS applications in biomass energy source research were proposed, i. e., to enrich the data source, to improve the capacity on data processing and decision-support, and to generate the online proposal.

  3. Cassava as an energy source: a selected bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, C.

    1980-01-01

    This selected bibliography includes 250 articles on cassava as a potential energy source. Factors included are things which influence cassava growth; such as weeding, fertilizer, diseases and genetic selection, as well as the conversion of cassava to ethanol. (DP)

  4. UV emissions from low energy artificial light sources.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Leona; Moseley, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Energy efficient light sources have been introduced across Europe and many other countries world wide. The most common of these is the Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL), which has been shown to emit ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) are an alternative technology that has minimal UV emissions. This brief review summarises the different energy efficient light sources available on the market and compares the UV levels and the subsequent effects on the skin of normal individuals and those who suffer from photodermatoses.

  5. Opportunities for renewable energy sources in Central Asia countries

    SciTech Connect

    Obozov, A.J.; Loscutoff, W.V.

    1998-07-01

    This report presents an overview of the state of conventional energy sources and the potential for development of renewable energy sources in the Central Asia countries of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, and Tajikistan. The region has a population of about 50 million in an area of more than four million square kilometers. The per capita gross internal product is more than $2,500, although the economy has been declining the past five years. The area has substantial coal, oil, uranium, and natural gas reserves, although they are not distributed equally among the five countries. Energy production is such that the countries do not have to rely heavily on imports. One of the problems in Central Asia is that the energy prices are substantially below the world prices. This is a factor in development of renewable energy sources. The primary renewable energy resources available are wind in Kazakhstan, solar in the entire region, biomass in Kyrgyzstan, and micro-hydropower stations in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. All of these have the potential to provide a significant amount of the required energy for the region. However, all of the countries have an abundance of various renewable energy resources. To effectively use these resources, however, a number of barriers to their development and commercialization must be overcome. These include low prices of conventional energy sources, absence of legislative support, lack of financing for new technologies, and lack of awareness of renewable energy sources by the population. A number of specific actions are proposed to overcome these barriers. These include establishment of a Central Asia coordinating council for renewable energy, development of a regional renewable energy program, and setting up a number of large demonstration projects. 16 figs.

  6. Electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources

    DOEpatents

    Dagenhart, W.K.; Stirling, W.L.

    1979-10-25

    An electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources is provided. The system, employing crossed electric and magnetic fields, separates the electrons from the ions as they are extracted from the ion source plasma generator and before the ions are accelerated to their full energy. With the electric and magnetic fields oriented 90/sup 0/ to each other, the electrons remain at approximately the electrical potential at which they were generated. The electromagnetic forces cause the ions to be accelerated to the full accelerating supply voltage energy while being deflected through an angle of less than 90/sup 0/. The electrons precess out of the accelerating field region into an electron recovery region where they are collected at a small fraction of the full accelerating supply energy. It is possible, by this method, to collect > 90% of the electrons extracted along with the negative ions from a negative ion source beam at < 4% of full energy.

  7. Sources of high-energy protons in Saturn's magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, J. F.; Simpson, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    The passage of Pioneer 11 through Saturn's magnetosphere revealed an especially intense region of high-energy particle fluxes that places unique constraints on models for sources of high-energy protons in the innermost radiation zones. Of special interest is the flux of protons with energies above 35 MeV which was measured with a fission cell in the innermost magnetosphere between the A ring and the orbit of Mimas. The negative phase space density gradients derived from the proton and electron observations in this region imply that steady-state inward diffusion from the outer magnetosphere is not an adequate source for these high-energy protons. In the present paper, the nature of the Crand source at Saturn is examined, and its significance for injection of high-energy protons into the region inside L = 4 is estimated.

  8. The importance of the different kinds of energy sources for energy future of Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Yusuf Alper; Aladağ, Canan

    2016-11-01

    Nowadays, the need of energy has been increasing day by day with the population growth and the advancements of technology. In this study, the current state of nuclear, wind and solar energy on the worldwide has been generally investigated. The general assessments have been made based on Turkey's energy potential and the evaluation situation of this potential. The current political structures of countries are generally assessed and under this policy, the last situation and the latest implemented innovations are given. Turkey's energy demand is constantly increasing and Turkey is a country that needs to energy imports. This is a need for new energy sources to meet the growing need for energy. Nuclear, wind and solar energy are the new sources of energy to the fore in our country recently. In this study is given general information on the usage of energy sources of making and some deficiencies were been emphasized by political considerations in this regard.

  9. Biogas as a source of rural energy

    SciTech Connect

    Kalia, A.K.

    2000-01-01

    The hilly state of Himachal Pradesh, with nearly 2.15 million cattle and 0.7 million buffalo, has the potential to install 0.64 million biogas plants of 1 m{sup 3} size. These plants could generate nearly 4.90 x 105 m{sup 3} of biogas, equivalent to 3.07 x 10{sup 5} L kerosene per day to meet domestic energy needs of nearly one-fourth of its rural population. During 1982--1998, only 12.8% of this potential was achieved. The percent of possible potential achieved in plant installations in 12 districts of this state, namely, Bilaspur, Chamba, Hamirpur, Kangra, Kinnaur, Kullu, Lahul-Spiti, Mandi, Shimla, Sirmour, Solan, and Una, are 35.35, 1.70, 20.96, 8.67, 1.54, 6.96, 0.00, 18.49, 3.84, 8.521, 18.29, and 13.23%, respectively. There is a need to strengthen biogas promotion, particularly in the districts of Kangra, Mandi, Solan, and Una, which range from mid-hill to low-hill terrain and which have large potential due to high concentration of bovine population. Increased costs and comparatively low rate of subsidies has resulted in a decreasing rate of plant installation annually, from 3,500 during 1987--1992 to fewer than 1,200 during 1995--1998. The percentage of functioning plants was 82% in 1987--1988 but has decreased to 63%. To ensure proper installation and functionality of plants, the authors discuss the needed improvements in the biogas promotion program.

  10. Proceedings of the conference on alternative energy sources for Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Rothman, I.N.

    1981-01-01

    Four primary areas of study for alternative energy sources for Texas are considered. These are: energy demand supply and economics; prospects for energy resources (oil, lignite, coal, nuclear, goethermal and solar) and conservation; financial and technical constraints; and future planning. The following papers are presented: US energy outlook to 1990; energy supply and demand projections; comparative economics of solar energy in the generation of big power; gas present and future prospects; prospects for enhanced recovery of oil in Texas; the outlook for coal in USA; implementation of nuclear power in Texas; future outlook - geopressured-geothermal energy for Texas; future prospects for conservation and solar energy; financing and money supply constraints; technical constraints to energy supply increase; planning for the future - the crisis that drones on. Two papers have been abstracted separately.

  11. Alternative energy sources and new energy technologies for Turkish rural areas

    SciTech Connect

    Ultanir, M.O.

    1983-12-01

    Modern agriculture is an energy consumer sector, also agriculture is an energy conversion process. In addition to biomass energy's raw materials are harvested by agriculture. The concept of energy in agriculture, energy is one of the main and outstanding factor which renders the realization of the overall development of the agriculture and rural areas. Agricultural income depends on total mechanical power in agricultural mechanization; general energy consumption of rural sector; cultural energy consumption by agricultural inputs which are fertilizer, pesticides, indirect energy in machinery, irrigation equipments, buildings and other services; direct energy consumption in agricultural mechanization which are fuel and electricity etc. In general, energy input in the rural areas is classified as direct and indirect. Direct energy input reflects demands for mechanical energy, electrical energy and heat energy. Indirect energy consists of inputs which have been produced by industrial sector and introduced into rural sector. Although conventional energy sources, especially petroleum products are used in meeting direct energy input requirements, alternative energy sources may be used as well in this respect. Especially emphasis is being given to new and renewable alternative sources for heat and electrical energy requirements.

  12. Very High-Energy Gamma-Ray Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weekes, Trevor C.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses topics related to high-energy, gamma-ray astronomy (including cosmic radiation, gamma-ray detectors, high-energy gamma-ray sources, and others). Also considers motivation for the development of this field, the principal results to date, and future prospects. (JN)

  13. [Effects of adding straw carbon source to root knot nematode diseased soil on soil microbial biomass and protozoa abundance].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Si-Hui; Lian, Jian-Hong; Cao, Zhi-Ping; Zhao, Li

    2013-06-01

    A field experiment with successive planting of tomato was conducted to study the effects of adding different amounts of winter wheat straw (2.08 g x kg(-1), 1N; 4.16 g x kg(-1), 2N; and 8.32 g x kg(-1), 4N) to the soil seriously suffered from root knot nematode disease on the soil microbial biomass and protozoa abundance. Adding straw carbon source had significant effects on the contents of soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) and the abundance of soil protozoa, which all decreased in the order of 4N > 2N > 1N > CK. The community structure of soil protozoa also changed significantly under straw addition. In the treatments with straw addition, the average proportion of fagellate, amoeba, and ciliates accounted for 36.0%, 59.5%, and 4.5% of the total protozoa, respectively. Under the same adding amounts of wheat straw, there was an increase in the soil MBC and MBN contents, MBC/MBN ratio, and protozoa abundance with increasing cultivation period.

  14. Multi-source energy harvester for wildlife tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, You; Zuo, Lei; Zhou, Wanlu; Liang, Changwei; McCabe, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Sufficient power supply to run GPS machinery and transmit data on a long-term basis remains to be the key challenge for wildlife tracking technology. Traditional way of replacing battery periodically is not only time and money consuming but also dangerous to live-trapping wild animals. In this paper, an innovative wildlife tracking device with multi-source energy harvester with advantage of high efficiency and reliability is investigated and developed. This multi-source energy harvester entails a solar energy harvester and an innovative rotational electromagnetic energy harvester is mounted on the "wildlife tracking collar" which will remarkably extend the duration of wild life tracking. A feedforward and feedback control of DC-DC converter circuit is adopted to passively realize the Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) logic for the solar energy harvester. The rotational electromagnetic energy harvester can mechanically rectify the irregular bidirectional motion into unidirectional motion has been modeled and demonstrated.

  15. Energy sources, self-organization, and the origin of life.

    PubMed

    Boiteau, Laurent; Pascal, Robert

    2011-02-01

    The emergence and early developments of life are considered from the point of view that contingent events that inevitably marked evolution were accompanied by deterministic driving forces governing the selection between different alternatives. Accordingly, potential energy sources are considered for their propensity to induce self-organization within the scope of the chemical approach to the origin of life. Requirements in terms of quality of energy locate thermal or photochemical activation in the atmosphere as highly likely processes for the formation of activated low-molecular weight organic compounds prone to induce biomolecular self-organization through their ability to deliver quanta of energy matching the needs of early biochemical pathways or the reproduction of self-replicating entities. These lines of reasoning suggest the existence of a direct connection between the free energy content of intermediates of early pathways and the quanta of energy delivered by available sources of energy.

  16. Energy Sources, Self-organization, and the Origin of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boiteau, Laurent; Pascal, Robert

    2011-02-01

    The emergence and early developments of life are considered from the point of view that contingent events that inevitably marked evolution were accompanied by deterministic driving forces governing the selection between different alternatives. Accordingly, potential energy sources are considered for their propensity to induce self-organization within the scope of the chemical approach to the origin of life. Requirements in terms of quality of energy locate thermal or photochemical activation in the atmosphere as highly likely processes for the formation of activated low-molecular weight organic compounds prone to induce biomolecular self-organization through their ability to deliver quanta of energy matching the needs of early biochemical pathways or the reproduction of self-replicating entities. These lines of reasoning suggest the existence of a direct connection between the free energy content of intermediates of early pathways and the quanta of energy delivered by available sources of energy.

  17. Methods of performing downhole operations using orbital vibrator energy sources

    DOEpatents

    Cole, Jack H.; Weinberg, David M.; Wilson, Dennis R.

    2004-02-17

    Methods of performing down hole operations in a wellbore. A vibrational source is positioned within a tubular member such that an annulus is formed between the vibrational source and an interior surface of the tubular member. A fluid medium, such as high bulk modulus drilling mud, is disposed within the annulus. The vibrational source forms a fluid coupling with the tubular member through the fluid medium to transfer vibrational energy to the tubular member. The vibrational energy may be used, for example, to free a stuck tubular, consolidate a cement slurry and/or detect voids within a cement slurry prior to the curing thereof.

  18. Thorium: An energy source for the world of tomorrow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revol, J.-P.

    2015-08-01

    To meet the tremendous world energy needs, systematic R&D has to be pursued to replace fossil fuels. Nuclear energy, which produces no green house gases and no air pollution, should be a leading candidate. How nuclear energy, based on thorium rather than uranium, could be an acceptable solution is discussed. Thorium can be used both to produce energy and to destroy nuclear waste. The thorium conference, organized by iThEC at CERN in October 2013, has shown that thorium is seriously considered by some major developing countries as a key element of their energy strategy. However, developed countries do not seem to move fast enough in that direction, while global cooperation is highly desirable in this domain. Thorium is not fissile. Various possible ways of using thorium will be reviewed. However, an elegant option is to drive an "Accelerator Driven System (ADS)" with a proton accelerator, as suggested by Nobel Prize laureate Carlo Rubbia .

  19. Low energy spread ion source with a coaxial magnetic filter

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Lee, Yung-Hee Yvette

    2000-01-01

    Multicusp ion sources are capable of producing ions with low axial energy spread which are necessary in applications such as ion projection lithography (IPL) and radioactive ion beam production. The addition of a radially extending magnetic filter consisting of a pair of permanent magnets to the multicusp source reduces the energy spread considerably due to the improvement in the uniformity of the axial plasma potential distribution in the discharge region. A coaxial multicusp ion source designed to further reduce the energy spread utilizes a cylindrical magnetic filter to achieve a more uniform axial plasma potential distribution. The coaxial magnetic filter divides the source chamber into an outer annular discharge region in which the plasma is produced and a coaxial inner ion extraction region into which the ions radially diffuse but from which ionizing electrons are excluded. The energy spread in the coaxial source has been measured to be 0.6 eV. Unlike other ion sources, the coaxial source has the capability of adjusting the radial plasma potential distribution and therefore the transverse ion temperature (or beam emittance).

  20. adLIMS: a customized open source software that allows bridging clinical and basic molecular research studies

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Many biological laboratories that deal with genomic samples are facing the problem of sample tracking, both for pure laboratory management and for efficiency. Our laboratory exploits PCR techniques and Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) methods to perform high-throughput integration site monitoring in different clinical trials and scientific projects. Because of the huge amount of samples that we process every year, which result in hundreds of millions of sequencing reads, we need to standardize data management and tracking systems, building up a scalable and flexible structure with web-based interfaces, which are usually called Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS). Methods We started collecting end-users' requirements, composed of desired functionalities of the system and Graphical User Interfaces (GUI), and then we evaluated available tools that could address our requirements, spanning from pure LIMS to Content Management Systems (CMS) up to enterprise information systems. Our analysis identified ADempiere ERP, an open source Enterprise Resource Planning written in Java J2EE, as the best software that also natively implements some highly desirable technological advances, such as the high usability and modularity that grants high use-case flexibility and software scalability for custom solutions. Results We extended and customized ADempiere ERP to fulfil LIMS requirements and we developed adLIMS. It has been validated by our end-users verifying functionalities and GUIs through test cases for PCRs samples and pre-sequencing data and it is currently in use in our laboratories. adLIMS implements authorization and authentication policies, allowing multiple users management and roles definition that enables specific permissions, operations and data views to each user. For example, adLIMS allows creating sample sheets from stored data using available exporting operations. This simplicity and process standardization may avoid manual errors and

  1. Source of the great A.D. 1257 mystery eruption unveiled, Samalas volcano, Rinjani Volcanic Complex, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavigne, Franck; Degeai, Jean-Philippe; Komorowski, Jean-Christophe; Guillet, Sébastien; Robert, Vincent; Lahitte, Pierre; Oppenheimer, Clive; Stoffel, Markus; Vidal, Céline M.; Surono; Pratomo, Indyo; Wassmer, Patrick; Hajdas, Irka; Sri Hadmoko, Danang; de Belizal, Edouard

    2013-10-01

    Polar ice core records attest to a colossal volcanic eruption that took place ca. A.D. 1257 or 1258, most probably in the tropics. Estimates based on sulfate deposition in these records suggest that it yielded the largest volcanic sulfur release to the stratosphere of the past 7,000 y. Tree rings, medieval chronicles, and computational models corroborate the expected worldwide atmospheric and climatic effects of this eruption. However, until now there has been no convincing candidate for the mid-13th century "mystery eruption." Drawing upon compelling evidence from stratigraphic and geomorphic data, physical volcanology, radiocarbon dating, tephra geochemistry, and chronicles, we argue the source of this long-sought eruption is the Samalas volcano, adjacent to Mount Rinjani on Lombok Island, Indonesia. At least 40 km3 (dense-rock equivalent) of tephra were deposited and the eruption column reached an altitude of up to 43 km. Three principal pumice fallout deposits mantle the region and thick pyroclastic flow deposits are found at the coast, 25 km from source. With an estimated magnitude of 7, this event ranks among the largest Holocene explosive eruptions. Radiocarbon dates on charcoal are consistent with a mid-13th century eruption. In addition, glass geochemistry of the associated pumice deposits matches that of shards found in both Arctic and Antarctic ice cores, providing compelling evidence to link the prominent A.D. 1258/1259 ice core sulfate spike to Samalas. We further constrain the timing of the mystery eruption based on tephra dispersal and historical records, suggesting it occurred between May and October A.D. 1257.

  2. Source of the great A.D. 1257 mystery eruption unveiled, Samalas volcano, Rinjani Volcanic Complex, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Lavigne, Franck; Degeai, Jean-Philippe; Komorowski, Jean-Christophe; Guillet, Sébastien; Robert, Vincent; Lahitte, Pierre; Oppenheimer, Clive; Stoffel, Markus; Vidal, Céline M; Surono; Pratomo, Indyo; Wassmer, Patrick; Hajdas, Irka; Hadmoko, Danang Sri; de Belizal, Edouard

    2013-10-15

    Polar ice core records attest to a colossal volcanic eruption that took place ca. A.D. 1257 or 1258, most probably in the tropics. Estimates based on sulfate deposition in these records suggest that it yielded the largest volcanic sulfur release to the stratosphere of the past 7,000 y. Tree rings, medieval chronicles, and computational models corroborate the expected worldwide atmospheric and climatic effects of this eruption. However, until now there has been no convincing candidate for the mid-13th century "mystery eruption." Drawing upon compelling evidence from stratigraphic and geomorphic data, physical volcanology, radiocarbon dating, tephra geochemistry, and chronicles, we argue the source of this long-sought eruption is the Samalas volcano, adjacent to Mount Rinjani on Lombok Island, Indonesia. At least 40 km(3) (dense-rock equivalent) of tephra were deposited and the eruption column reached an altitude of up to 43 km. Three principal pumice fallout deposits mantle the region and thick pyroclastic flow deposits are found at the coast, 25 km from source. With an estimated magnitude of 7, this event ranks among the largest Holocene explosive eruptions. Radiocarbon dates on charcoal are consistent with a mid-13th century eruption. In addition, glass geochemistry of the associated pumice deposits matches that of shards found in both Arctic and Antarctic ice cores, providing compelling evidence to link the prominent A.D. 1258/1259 ice core sulfate spike to Samalas. We further constrain the timing of the mystery eruption based on tephra dispersal and historical records, suggesting it occurred between May and October A.D. 1257.

  3. Source of the great A.D. 1257 mystery eruption unveiled, Samalas volcano, Rinjani Volcanic Complex, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Lavigne, Franck; Degeai, Jean-Philippe; Komorowski, Jean-Christophe; Guillet, Sébastien; Robert, Vincent; Lahitte, Pierre; Oppenheimer, Clive; Stoffel, Markus; Vidal, Céline M.; Surono; Pratomo, Indyo; Wassmer, Patrick; Hajdas, Irka; Hadmoko, Danang Sri; de Belizal, Edouard

    2013-01-01

    Polar ice core records attest to a colossal volcanic eruption that took place ca. A.D. 1257 or 1258, most probably in the tropics. Estimates based on sulfate deposition in these records suggest that it yielded the largest volcanic sulfur release to the stratosphere of the past 7,000 y. Tree rings, medieval chronicles, and computational models corroborate the expected worldwide atmospheric and climatic effects of this eruption. However, until now there has been no convincing candidate for the mid-13th century “mystery eruption.” Drawing upon compelling evidence from stratigraphic and geomorphic data, physical volcanology, radiocarbon dating, tephra geochemistry, and chronicles, we argue the source of this long-sought eruption is the Samalas volcano, adjacent to Mount Rinjani on Lombok Island, Indonesia. At least 40 km3 (dense-rock equivalent) of tephra were deposited and the eruption column reached an altitude of up to 43 km. Three principal pumice fallout deposits mantle the region and thick pyroclastic flow deposits are found at the coast, 25 km from source. With an estimated magnitude of 7, this event ranks among the largest Holocene explosive eruptions. Radiocarbon dates on charcoal are consistent with a mid-13th century eruption. In addition, glass geochemistry of the associated pumice deposits matches that of shards found in both Arctic and Antarctic ice cores, providing compelling evidence to link the prominent A.D. 1258/1259 ice core sulfate spike to Samalas. We further constrain the timing of the mystery eruption based on tephra dispersal and historical records, suggesting it occurred between May and October A.D. 1257. PMID:24082132

  4. Energy-Based Acoustic Source Localization Methods: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Wei; Xiao, Wendong

    2017-01-01

    Energy-based source localization is an important problem in wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which has been studied actively in the literature. Numerous localization algorithms, e.g., maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) and nonlinear-least-squares (NLS) methods, have been reported. In the literature, there are relevant review papers for localization in WSNs, e.g., for distance-based localization. However, not much work related to energy-based source localization is covered in the existing review papers. Energy-based methods are proposed and specially designed for a WSN due to its limited sensor capabilities. This paper aims to give a comprehensive review of these different algorithms for energy-based single and multiple source localization problems, their merits and demerits and to point out possible future research directions. PMID:28212281

  5. Energy-Based Acoustic Source Localization Methods: A Survey.

    PubMed

    Meng, Wei; Xiao, Wendong

    2017-02-15

    Energy-based source localization is an important problem in wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which has been studied actively in the literature. Numerous localization algorithms, e.g., maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) and nonlinear-least-squares (NLS) methods, have been reported. In the literature, there are relevant review papers for localization in WSNs, e.g., for distance-based localization. However, not much work related to energy-based source localization is covered in the existing review papers. Energy-based methods are proposed and specially designed for a WSN due to its limited sensor capabilities. This paper aims to give a comprehensive review of these different algorithms for energy-based single and multiple source localization problems, their merits and demerits and to point out possible future research directions.

  6. Polarimeter for Low Energy X-ray Astrophysical Sources (PLEXAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, Stephen S.; Pierce, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Polarimeter for Low Energy X-ray Astrophysical Sources (PLEXAS) is an astrophysics mission concept for measuring the polarization of X-ray sources at low energies below the C-K band (less than 277 eV). PLEXAS uses the concept of variations in the reflectivity of a multilayered X-ray telescope as a function of the orientation of an X-rays polarization vector with respect to the reflecting surface of the optic. By selecting an appropriate multilayer, and rotating the X-ray telescope while pointing to a source, there will be a modulation in the source intensity, as measured at the focus of the telescope, which is proportional to the degree of polarization in the source.

  7. Energy Efficiency of Biogas Produced from Different Biomass Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begum, Shahida; Nazri, A. H.

    2013-06-01

    Malaysia has different sources of biomass like palm oil waste, agricultural waste, cow dung, sewage waste and landfill sites, which can be used to produce biogas and as a source of energy. Depending on the type of biomass, the biogas produced can have different calorific value. At the same time the energy, being used to produce biogas is dependent on transportation distance, means of transportation, conversion techniques and for handling of raw materials and digested residues. An energy systems analysis approach based on literature is applied to calculate the energy efficiency of biogas produced from biomass. Basically, the methodology is comprised of collecting data, proposing locations and estimating the energy input needed to produce biogas and output obtained from the generated biogas. The study showed that palm oil and municipal solid waste is two potential sources of biomass. The energy efficiency of biogas produced from palm oil residues and municipal solid wastes is 1.70 and 3.33 respectively. Municipal solid wastes have the higher energy efficiency due to less transportation distance and electricity consumption. Despite the inherent uncertainties in the calculations, it can be concluded that the energy potential to use biomass for biogas production is a promising alternative.

  8. A compact, versatile low-energy electron beam ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Zschornack, G.; König, J.; Schmidt, M.; Thorn, A.

    2014-02-15

    A new compact Electron Beam Ion Source, the Dresden EBIT-LE, is introduced as an ion source working at low electron beam energies. The EBIT-LE operates at an electron energy ranging from 100 eV to some keV and can easily be modified to an EBIT also working at higher electron beam energies of up to 15 keV. We show that, depending on the electron beam energy, electron beam currents from a few mA in the low-energy regime up to about 40 mA in the high-energy regime are possible. Technical solutions as well as first experimental results of the EBIT-LE are presented. In ion extraction experiments, a stable production of low and intermediate charged ions at electron beam energies below 2 keV is demonstrated. Furthermore, X-ray spectroscopy measurements confirm the possibility of using the machine as a source of X-rays from ions excited at low electron energies.

  9. A compact, versatile low-energy electron beam ion source.

    PubMed

    Zschornack, G; König, J; Schmidt, M; Thorn, A

    2014-02-01

    A new compact Electron Beam Ion Source, the Dresden EBIT-LE, is introduced as an ion source working at low electron beam energies. The EBIT-LE operates at an electron energy ranging from 100 eV to some keV and can easily be modified to an EBIT also working at higher electron beam energies of up to 15 keV. We show that, depending on the electron beam energy, electron beam currents from a few mA in the low-energy regime up to about 40 mA in the high-energy regime are possible. Technical solutions as well as first experimental results of the EBIT-LE are presented. In ion extraction experiments, a stable production of low and intermediate charged ions at electron beam energies below 2 keV is demonstrated. Furthermore, X-ray spectroscopy measurements confirm the possibility of using the machine as a source of X-rays from ions excited at low electron energies.

  10. Absolute calorimetric calibration of low energy brachytherapy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stump, Kurt E.

    In the past decade there has been a dramatic increase in the use of permanent radioactive source implants in the treatment of prostate cancer. A small radioactive source encapsulated in a titanium shell is used in this type of treatment. The radioisotopes used are generally 125I or 103Pd. Both of these isotopes have relatively short half-lives, 59.4 days and 16.99 days, respectively, and have low-energy emissions and a low dose rate. These factors make these sources well suited for this application, but the calibration of these sources poses significant metrological challenges. The current standard calibration technique involves the measurement of ionization in air to determine the source air-kerma strength. While this has proved to be an improvement over previous techniques, the method has been shown to be metrologically impure and may not be the ideal means of calbrating these sources. Calorimetric methods have long been viewed to be the most fundamental means of determining source strength for a radiation source. This is because calorimetry provides a direct measurement of source energy. However, due to the low energy and low power of the sources described above, current calorimetric methods are inadequate. This thesis presents work oriented toward developing novel methods to provide direct and absolute measurements of source power for low-energy low dose rate brachytherapy sources. The method is the first use of an actively temperature-controlled radiation absorber using the electrical substitution method to determine total contained source power of these sources. The instrument described operates at cryogenic temperatures. The method employed provides a direct measurement of source power. The work presented here is focused upon building a metrological foundation upon which to establish power-based calibrations of clinical-strength sources. To that end instrument performance has been assessed for these source strengths. The intent is to establish the limits of

  11. Geothermal, an alternate energy source for power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Espinosa, H.A.

    1985-02-01

    The economic development of nations depends on an escalating use of energy sources. With each passing year the dependence increases, reaching a point where the world will require, in the next six years, a volume of energetics equal to that consumed during the last hundred years. Statistics show that in 1982 about 70% of the world's energy requirements were supplied by oil, natural gas and coal. The remaining 30% came from other sources such as nuclear energy, hydroelectricity, and geothermal. In Mexico the situation is more extreme. For the same year (1982) 85% of the total energy consumed was supplied through the use of hydrocarbons, and only 15% through power generated by the other sources of electricity. Of the 15%, 65% used hydrocarbons somewhere in the power generation system. Geothermal is an energy source that can help solve the problem, particularly in Mexico, because the geological and structural characteristics of Mexico make it one of the countries in the world with a tremendous geothermal potential. The potential of geothermal energy for supplying part of Mexico's needs is discussed.

  12. Evaluating an anaerobic digestion (AD) feedstock derived from a novel non-source segregated municipal solid waste (MSW) product.

    PubMed

    Blake, L I; Halim, F A; Gray, C; Mair, R; Manning, D A C; Sallis, P; Hutchinson, H; Gray, N D

    2017-01-01

    In many nations industrial scale AD of non-agricultural waste materials (such as MSW) has not yet reached its full potential, often constrained by the lack of secure, inexpensive, high quality AD feedstocks, and markets for the resulting digestate material. We tested the output material of a high throughput novel industrial process to define its potential as an AD feedstock (based on quality and consistency). This process, designed to circumvent the constraints of source segregation while still generating segregated waste streams, resulted in the production of a temporally homogenous fibrous material with: an average moisture content of 44.2 (±2.33)%; C:N ratio of ∼32.9:1 (±3.46:1), C:P ratio of ∼228:1 and gross calorific value of 17.4 (±0.29)MJ/kg(DM). This material provided a CH4 yield of between 201 and 297m(3) CH4/tonne(DM) (271-401m(3)CH4/tonne(vs)) comparable to commonly used AD feedstocks. Material contaminant levels were temporally consistent (P>0.05), (average values being Cd 0.63 (±0.19), Cu 56.3 (±7.45), Cr(tot) 51.4 (±4.41), Hg<0.3, Ni 28.9 (±5.17), Pb 79.2 (±23.71), Zn 202 (±44.5), total polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) 2.2 (±0.3), and total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) (<0.2)mg/kg(DM)). Calculated digestate contaminant levels were below the median contaminant threshold limits for anaerobic digestates of all countries within the European Union i.e. of Cd 3.35, Cu 535, Cr(tot) 535, Hg 8.15, Ni 185, Pb 397.5, Zn 2100mg/kg(DM). We suggest that novel high throughput processes that produce high quality AD feedstocks, may have a place in further diversion of waste from landfill.

  13. Acute effects of mustard, horseradish, black pepper and ginger on energy expenditure, appetite, ad libitum energy intake and energy balance in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Gregersen, N T; Belza, A; Jensen, M G; Ritz, C; Bitz, C; Hels, O; Frandsen, E; Mela, D J; Astrup, A

    2013-02-14

    Chilli peppers have been shown to enhance diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) and reduce energy intake (EI) in some studies, but there are few data on other pungent spices. The primary aim of the present study was to test the acute effects of black pepper (pepper), ginger, horseradish and mustard in a meal on 4 h postprandial DIT. The secondary aim was to examine the effects on subjective appetite measures, ad libitum EI and energy balance. In a five-way placebo-controlled, single-blind, cross-over trial, twenty-two young (age 24·9 (SD 4·6) years), normal-weight (BMI 21·8 (SD 2·1) kg/m²) males were randomly assigned to receive a brunch meal with either pepper (1·3 g), ginger (20 g), horseradish (8·3 g), mustard (21 g) or no spices (placebo). The amounts of spices were chosen from pre-testing to make the meal spicy but palatable. No significant treatment effects were observed on DIT, but mustard produced DIT, which tended to be larger than that of placebo (14 %, 59 (SE 3) v. 52 (SE 2) kJ/h, respectively, P=0·08). No other spice induced thermogenic effects approaching statistical significance. Subjective measures of appetite (P>0·85), ad libitum EI (P=0·63) and energy balance (P=0·67) also did not differ between the treatments. Finally, horseradish decreased heart rate (P=0·048) and increased diastolic blood pressure (P= 0·049) compared with placebo. In conclusion, no reliable treatment effects on appetite, EI or energy balance were observed, although mustard tended to be thermogenic at this dose. Further studies should explore the possible strength and mechanisms of the potential thermogenic effect of mustard actives, and potential enhancement by, for example, combinations with other food components.

  14. Analysis of energy sources for Mycoplasma penetrans gliding motility.

    PubMed

    Jurkovic, Dominika A; Hughes, Michael R; Balish, Mitchell F

    2013-01-01

    Mycoplasma penetrans, a potential human pathogen found mainly in HIV-infected individuals, uses a tip structure for both adherence and gliding motility. To improve our understanding of the molecular mechanism of M. penetrans gliding motility, we used chemical inhibitors of energy sources associated with motility of other organisms to determine which of these is used by M. penetrans and also tested whether gliding speed responded to temperature and pH. Mycoplasma penetrans gliding motility was not eliminated in the presence of a proton motive force inhibitor, a sodium motive force inhibitor, or an agent that depletes cellular ATP. At near-neutral pH, gliding speed increased as temperature increased. The absence of a clear chemical energy source for gliding motility and a positive correlation between speed and temperature suggest that energy derived from heat provides the major source of power for the gliding motor of M. penetrans.

  15. Note: Localization based on estimated source energy homogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turkaya, Semih; Toussaint, Renaud; Eriksen, Fredrik Kvalheim; Lengliné, Olivier; Daniel, Guillaume; Flekkøy, Eirik G.; Mâløy, Knut Jørgen

    2016-09-01

    Acoustic signal localization is a complex problem with a wide range of industrial and academic applications. Herein, we propose a localization method based on energy attenuation and inverted source amplitude comparison (termed estimated source energy homogeneity, or ESEH). This inversion is tested on both synthetic (numerical) data using a Lamb wave propagation model and experimental 2D plate data (recorded with 4 accelerometers sensitive up to 26 kHz). We compare the performance of this technique with classic source localization algorithms: arrival time localization, time reversal localization, and localization based on energy amplitude. Our technique is highly versatile and out-performs the conventional techniques in terms of error minimization and cost (both computational and financial).

  16. Sources of ground movement at Vesuvius before the AD 79 eruption: Evidence from contemporary accounts and archaeological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marturano, Aldo

    2008-11-01

    Historical sources have recorded earthquake shocks, their effects and difficulties that local inhabitants experienced before the AD 79 Pompeii eruption. Archaeological studies pointed out the effects of such seismicity, and have also evidenced that several water crises were occurring at Pompeii in that period. Indeed numerous sources show that, at the time of eruption, and probably some time before, the civic aqueduct, having ceased to be supplied by the regional one, was out of order and that a new one was being built. Since Roman aqueducts were usually built with a recommended minimum mean slope of 20 cm/km and Pompeii's aqueduct sloped from the nearby Apennines toward the town, this slope could have been easily cancelled by uplift that occurred in the area even if this was only moderate. For the crustal deformations a volcanic origin is proposed and a point source model is used to explain the observations. Simple analysis of the available data suggests that the ground deformations were caused by a < 2 km 3 volumetric change at a depth of ˜ 8 km that happened over the course of several decades.

  17. Understanding and accepting fusion as an alternative energy source

    SciTech Connect

    Goerz, D.A.

    1987-12-10

    Fusion, the process that powers our sun, has long promised to be a virtually inexhaustible source of energy for mankind. No other alternative energy source holds such bright promise, and none has ever presentd such formidable scientific and engineering challenges. Serious research efforts have continued for over 30 years in an attempt to harness and control fusion here on earth. Scientists have made considerable progress in the last decade toward achieving the conditions required for fusion power, and recent experimental results and technological progress have made the scientific feasibility of fusion a virtual certainty. With this knowledge and confidence, the emphasis can now shift toward developing power plants that are practical and economical. Although the necessary technology is not in hand today, the extension to an energy producing system in 20 years is just as attainable as was putting a man on the moon. In the next few decades, the world's population will likely double while the demand for energy will nearly quadruple. Realistic projections show that within the next generation a significant fraction of our electric power must come from alternative energy sources. Increasing environmental concerns may further accelerate this timetable in which new energy sources must be introduced. The continued development of fusion systems to help meet the energy needs of the future will require greater public understanding and support of this technology. The fusion community must do more to make the public aware of the fact that energy is a critical international issue and that fusion is a viable and necessary energy technology that will be safe and economical. 12 refs., 8 figs.

  18. Understanding and accepting fusion as an alternative energy source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goerz, D. A.

    1987-12-01

    Fusion, the process that powers our Sun, has long promised to be a virtually inexhaustible source of energy for mankind. No other alternative energy source holds such bright promise, and none has ever presentd such formidable scientific and engineering challenges. Serious research efforts have continued for over 30 years in an attempt to harness and control fusion here on Earth. Scientists have made considerable progress in the last decade toward achieving the conditions required for fusion power, and recent experimental results and technological progress have made the scientific feasibility of fusion a virtual certainty. With this knowledge and confidence, the emphasis can now shift toward developing power plants that are practical and economical. Although the necessary technology is not in hand today, the extension to an energy producing system in 20 years is just as attainable as was putting a man on the Moon. In the next few decades, the world's population will likely double while the demand for energy will nearly quadruple. Realistic projections show that within the next generation a significant fraction of our electric power must come from alternative energy sources. Increasing environmental concerns may further accelerate this timetable in which new energy sources must be introduced. The continued development of fusion systems to help meet the energy needs of the future will require greater public understanding and support of this technology. The fusion community must do more to make the public aware of the fact that energy is a critical international issue and that fusion is a viable and necessary energy technology that will be safe and economical.

  19. Energy cost and energy sources of a ballet dance exercise in female adolescents with different technical ability.

    PubMed

    Guidetti, Laura; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Da Silva, Sergio Gregorio; Baldari, Carlo

    2008-06-01

    This study evaluated energy cost and energy sources of a ballet exercise (grand adage) in young female dancers with different technical ability, and then related the energy sources to the subject's VO(2max) and anaerobic threshold (IAT). Twenty-five dancers (13-16 years) were divided into two different technical ability groups: low-level (n = 13) and high-level (n = 12). The overall energy requirement of dance exercise (VO(2eq)) was obtained by adding the amount of VO(2) during exercise above resting (aerobic source or VO(2ex)) to the VO(2) up to the fast component of recovery (anaerobic alactic source or VO(2al)) and to the energy equivalent of peak blood lactate accumulation (anaerobic lactic source or VO(2la) of recovery. VO(2eq) of exercise amounted to 81 +/- 10 and 94 +/- 9 ml kg(-1) in low-level and high-level groups, respectively. VO(2ex) represented the higher fraction (65 +/- 4% and 77 +/- 5%) in low-level and high-level groups, respectively, of VO(2eq )in both the groups. In the low-level group the remaining fractions were: 23 +/- 2 % for VO(2al) and 12 +/- 1% for VO(2la). In high-level group the remaining fractions were: 18 +/- 2 % for VO(2al) and 4 +/- 1% for VO(2la). Between two groups, significant differences were found in VO(2ex )(P < 0.01), VO(2al) (P < 0.01), and VO(2al )(P < 0.05). IAT was 55 and 60% of VO(2max) for low-level and high-level dancers, respectively. Low-level dancers performed more exercise above IAT than high-level. For these reasons, it should be better to define exercise intensity according to the IAT parameter and not only to VO(2max).

  20. Negative ions as a source of low energy neutral beams

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Little consideration has been given to the impact of recent developments in negative ion source technology on the design of low energy neutral beam injectors. However, negative ion sources of improved operating efficiency, higher gas efficiency, and smaller beam divergence will lead to neutral deuterium injectors, operating at less than 100 keV, with better operating efficiencies and more compact layouts than can be obtained from positive ion systems.

  1. Development of a continuous broad-energy-spectrum electron source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamo, R. C.; Nanevicz, J. E.

    1985-01-01

    The development of a practical prototype, large-area, continuous-spectrum, multienergy electron source to simulate the lower energy (approx = 1 to 30 keV) portion of the geosynchronous orbit electron environment was investigated. The results of future materials-charging tests using this multienergy source should significantly improve the understanding of actual in-orbit charging processes and should help to resolve some of the descrepancies between predicted and observed spacecraft materials performance.

  2. Microstructural development in Al/MgAl2O4in situ metal matrix composite using value-added silica sources.

    PubMed

    Madathil Sreekumar, Vadakke; Marimuthu Pillai, Raman; Chandrasekhara Pai, Bellampettu; Chakraborty, Madhusudhan

    2008-01-01

    Al/MgAl2O4in situ metal matrix composites have been synthesized using value-added silica sources (microsilica and rice husk ash) containing ∼97% SiO2 in Al-5 wt.% Mg alloy. The thermodynamics and kinetics of MgAl2O4 formation are discussed in detail. The MgO and MgAl2O4 phases were found to dominate in microsilica (MS) and rice husk ash (RHA) value-added composites, respectively, during the initial stage of holding the composites at 750 °C. A transition phase between MgO and MgAl2O4 was detected by the scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) analysis of the particles extracted from the composite using 25% NaOH solution. This confirms that MgO is gradually transformed to MgAl2O4 by the reaction 3SiO2(s)+2MgO(s)+4Al(l)→2MgAl2O4(s)+3Si(l). The stoichiometry of MgAl2O4, n, computed by a new methodology is between 0.79 and 1.18. The reaction between the silica sources and the molten metal stopped after 55% of the silica source was consumed. A gradual increase in mean MgAl2O4 crystallite size, D, from 24 to 36 nm was observed in the samples held for 10 h.

  3. Microstructural development in Al/MgAl2O4 in situ metal matrix composite using value-added silica sources

    PubMed Central

    Madathil Sreekumar, Vadakke; Marimuthu Pillai, Raman; Chandrasekhara Pai, Bellampettu; Chakraborty, Madhusudhan

    2008-01-01

    Al/MgAl2O4 in situ metal matrix composites have been synthesized using value-added silica sources (microsilica and rice husk ash) containing ∼97% SiO2 in Al-5 wt.% Mg alloy. The thermodynamics and kinetics of MgAl2O4 formation are discussed in detail. The MgO and MgAl2O4 phases were found to dominate in microsilica (MS) and rice husk ash (RHA) value-added composites, respectively, during the initial stage of holding the composites at 750 °C. A transition phase between MgO and MgAl2O4 was detected by the scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM–EDS) analysis of the particles extracted from the composite using 25% NaOH solution. This confirms that MgO is gradually transformed to MgAl2O4 by the reaction 3SiO2(s)+2MgO(s)+4Al(l)→2MgAl2O4(s)+3Si(l). The stoichiometry of MgAl2O4, n, computed by a new methodology is between 0.79 and 1.18. The reaction between the silica sources and the molten metal stopped after 55% of the silica source was consumed. A gradual increase in mean MgAl2O4 crystallite size, D, from 24 to 36 nm was observed in the samples held for 10 h. PMID:27877941

  4. Energy sources in gamma-ray burst models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taam, Ronald E.

    1987-01-01

    The current status of energy sources in models of gamma-ray bursts is examined. Special emphasis is placed on the thermonuclear flash model which has been the most developed model to date. Although there is no generally accepted model, if the site for the gamma-ray burst is on a strongly magnetized neutron star, the thermonuclear model can qualitatively explain the energetics of some, but probably not all burst events. The critical issues that may differentiate between the possible sources of energy for gamma-ray bursts are listed and briefly discussed.

  5. The source of multi spectral energy of solar energetic electron

    SciTech Connect

    Herdiwijaya, Dhani

    2015-04-16

    We study the solar energetic electron distribution obtained from ACE and GOES satellites which have different altitudes and electron spectral energy during the year 1997 to 2011. The electron spectral energies were 0.038–0.315 MeV from EPAM instrument onboard ACE satellite and >2 MeV from GOES satellite. We found that the low electron energy has no correlation with high energy. In spite of we have corrected to the altitude differences. It implied that they originated from time dependent events with different sources and physical processes at the solar atmosphere. The sources of multi spectral energetic electron were related to flare and CME phenomena. However, we also found that high energetic electron comes from coronal hole.

  6. The use of hydrazine as an alternate source of energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carvalho, J. A., Jr.; Bressan, C.; Ferreira, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    The potentials of using hydrazine as an alternative source of energy was studied. Three chemical reactions are considered: oxidation with air, oxidation with hydrogen peroxide, and thermocatalytic decomposition. Performance data of gasoline, ethylic alcohol, and propane are compared. An item about the NO(x) emissions by the various investigated reactions is included. Promising results are shown, mainly those regarding the available energy per unit volume of unburned gases (vaporized fuel and oxidizer).

  7. Renewable energy sources for sustainable tourism in the Carpathian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandryk, O. M.; Arkhypova, L. M.; Pobigun, O. V.; Maniuk, O. R.

    2016-08-01

    The use of renewable energy in sustainable tourism development of the region is grounded in the paper. There are three stages of selecting areas for projects of renewable energy sources: selection of potentially suitable area; consideration of exclusion criteria, detailed assessment of potential sites or areas. The factors of impact on spatial constraints and opportunities for building wind, solar and small hydro power plants on the parameters of sustainable tourism development in the Carpathian region were determined.

  8. Energy: Sources and Issues. Science Syllabus for Middle and Junior High Schools. Block I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappiello, Jane E.; O'Neil, Karen E.

    This syllabus provides a list of concepts and understandings related to four areas of energy. They are: (1) the nature of energy (an energy definition, basic categories of energy, forms of energy, laws of energy conversion, and measuring energy); (2) energy sources of the past and present (history of energy use and present major sources of…

  9. Testing Special Relativity at High Energies with Astrophysical Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    2007-01-01

    Since the group of Lorentz boosts is unbounded, there is a question as to whether Lorentz invariance (LI) holds to infinitely short distances. However, special and general relativity may break down at the Planck scale. Various quantum gravity scenarios such as loop quantum gravity, as well as some forms of string theory and extra dimension models may imply Lorentz violation (LV) at ultrahigh energies. The Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), to be launched in mid-December, will measure the spectra of distant extragalactic sources of high energy gamma-rays, particularly active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts. GLAST can look for energy-dependent gamma-ray propagation effects from such sources as a signal of Lorentz invariance violation. These sources may also exhibit the high energy cutoffs predicted to be the result of intergalactic annihilation interactions with low energy photons having a flux level as determined by various astronomical observations. With LV the threshold for such interactions can be significantly raised, changing the predicted absorption turnover in the observed spectrum of the sources. Stecker and Glashow have shown that the existence such absorption features in the spectra of extragalactic sources puts constraints on LV. Such constraints have important implications for some quantum gravity and large extra dimension models. Future spaceborne detectors dedicated to measuring gamma-ray polarization can look for birefringence effects as a possible signal of loop quantum gravity. A very small LV may also result in the modification or elimination of the GZK effect, thus modifying the spectrum of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays. This possibility can be explored with ground-based arrays such as Auger or with a space based detector system such as the proposed OWL satellite mission.

  10. 3D Printers Can Provide an Added Dimension for Teaching Structure-Energy Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blauch, David N.; Carroll, Felix A.

    2014-01-01

    A 3D printer is used to prepare a variety of models representing potential energy as a function of two geometric coordinates. These models facilitate the teaching of structure-energy relationships in molecular conformations and in chemical reactions.

  11. Energy sources of the high latitude upper atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, P. M.

    1981-01-01

    Electrodynamic (Joule) dissipation and plasma wave heating are reviewed as sources of energy for the upper atmosphere at high latitudes. Electrodynamic heating in the thermosphere is described by a generalized energy balance equation taking into account a variety of inelastic processes and energy losses, and the use of height-integrated values of the Joule heating rate to estimate the importance of electrodynamic heating at high latitudes is discussed. Observations of electrons between 95 and 115 km altitude that are up to 1000 K hotter than the neutral atmosphere is presented as evidence for atmospheric heating due to unstable plasma waves arising from the Farley-Buneman modified two-stream instability.

  12. In Theory: Dark Energy as a Power Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemiroff, Robert J.; Russell, David; Tangmatitham, Matipon

    2017-01-01

    In theory, it is possible to use the dark energy of the universe as a power source. In practice, the amount of energy that could be liberated in a local setting is many orders of magnitude too small to be useful or even detectable. Nevertheless, in the interests of education and amusement, simple machines that could, in theory, extract local power from the gravitationally repulsive cosmological constant are discussed. The gravitational neutral buoyancy distance -- the distance where local Newtonian gravity balances cosmological dark energy in a concordance cosmology -- is computed between two point objects of low mass.

  13. Detection of a flaring low-energy gamma-ray source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharya, Dipen; Owens, Alan

    1994-01-01

    We report the detection of a flaring gamma-ray source by the University of New Hampshire (UNH) balloon-borne coded aperture gamma-ray telescope (DGT) on 1984 October 2. The source was detected at the significance level of 7.2 sigma over the energy range 160-2000 keV. The intensity in the range (160-200) keV was 1.1 Crab. The best-fit position of the source is given by R.A. = 3h 25.8m and Decl. = 67 deg 653 min and is located in the constellation of Camelopardia. The source was visible within the Field of View (FOV) of the telescope for approximately = 2 hr and exhibited signs of flaring. The derived photon spectrum can be equally fitted by an optically thin bremsstrahlung distribution of kT approximately = 52 keV or a power law of the form, dN(E)/dE = 3.7 x 10(exp -6) (E/400)(exp -4.5) photons/sq cm/keV. We compare its spectral characteristics ad energy output to various types of fast X-ray transients. No measurable flux could be detected from CG 135+1, the COS B source which was in the FOV and therefore, we present 2 sigma upper flux limits on its spectral emission over the energy range 160 keV to 9.3 MeV.

  14. Energy allowances for solid fats and added sugars in nutritionally adequate U.S. diets estimated at 17-33% by a linear programming model.

    PubMed

    Maillot, Matthieu; Drewnowski, Adam

    2011-02-01

    The 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee has recommended that no more than 5-15% of total dietary energy should be derived from solid fats and added sugars (SoFAS). The guideline was based on USDA food pattern modeling analyses that met the Dietary Reference Intake recommendations and Dietary Guidelines and followed typical American eating habits. This study recreated food intake patterns for 6 of the same gender-age groups by using USDA data sources and a mathematical optimization technique known as linear programming. The analytic process identified food consumption patterns based on 128 food categories that met the nutritional goals for 9 vitamins, 9 minerals, 8 macronutrients, and dietary fiber and minimized deviation from typical American eating habits. Linear programming Model 1 created gender- and age-specific food patterns that corresponded to energy needs for each group. Model 2 created food patterns that were iso-caloric with diets observed for that group in the 2001-2002 NHANES. The optimized food patterns were evaluated with respect to MyPyramid servings goals, energy density [kcal/g (1 kcal = 4.18 kJ)], and energy cost (US$/2000 kcal). The optimized food patterns had more servings of vegetables and fruit, lower energy density, and higher cost compared with the observed diets. All nutrient goals were met. In contrast to the much lower USDA estimates, the 2 models placed SoFAS allowances at between 17 and 33% of total energy, depending on energy needs.

  15. Using Alternate Energy Sources. The Illinois Plan for Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Univ., Normal.

    This guide, which is one in the "Exploration" series of curriculum guides intended to assist junior high and middle school industrial educators in helping their students explore diverse industrial situations and technologies used in industry, deals with using alternate energy sources. The following topics are covered in the individual lessons:…

  16. A Directory of Federal Sources of Information on Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dierker, Janet

    This directory lists federal solar energy programs and sources of information. Each listing gives a brief description of the nature of the program or type of information that is available. In addition, names, addresses, and phone numbers of contact personnel are given. The listings are grouped by agency or branch of the government. (BB)

  17. High energy pulsewidth tunable CPA free picosecond source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouysegur, Julien; Guichard, Florent; Zaouter, Yoann; Hanna, Marc; Druon, Frédéric; Hönninger, Clemens; Mottay, Eric; Georges, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    A hybrid ytterbium-doped fiber - bulk laser source generating up to 116MW peak power for 3ps pulse duration at 50kHz repetition rate and 1030nm wavelength is presented. Tunability of the pulse duration is made by spectral compression occurring into the seeder. Divided Pulse Amplification scheme is investigated to study energy capabilities of the setup.

  18. EnergyPlus Air Source Integrated Heat Pump Model

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Bo; Adams, Mark B.; New, Joshua Ryan

    2016-03-30

    This report summarizes the development of the EnergyPlus air-source integrated heat pump model. It introduces its physics, sub-models, working modes, and control logic. In addition, inputs and outputs of the new model are described, and input data file (IDF) examples are given.

  19. Compact, energy EFFICIENT neutron source: enabling technology for various applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hershcovitch, A.; Roser, T.

    2009-12-01

    A novel neutron source comprising of a deuterium beam (energy of about 100 KeV) injected into a tube filled with tritium gas and/or tritium plasma that generates D-T fusion reactions, whose products are 14.06 MeV neutrons and 3.52 MeV alpha particles, is described. At the opposite end of the tube, the energy of deuterium ions that did not interact is recovered. Beryllium walls of proper thickness can be utilized to absorb 14 MeV neutrons and release 2-3 low energy neutrons. Each ion source and tube forms a module. Larger systems can be formed from multiple units. Unlike currently proposed methods, where accelerator-based neutron sources are very expensive, large, and require large amounts of power for operation, this neutron source is compact, inexpensive, easy to test and to scale up. Among possible applications for this neutron source concept are sub-critical nuclear breeder reactors and transmutation of radioactive waste.

  20. Cassava: a basic energy source in the tropics

    SciTech Connect

    Cock, J.H.

    1982-11-19

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is the fourth most important source of food energy in the tropics. More than two-thirds of the total production of this crop is used as food for humans, with lesser amounts being used for animal feed and industrial purposes. The ingestion of high levels of cassava has been associated with chronic cyanide toxicity in parts of Africa, but this appears to be related to inadequate processing of the root and poor overall nutrition. Although cassava is not a complete food it is important as a cheap source of calories. The crop has a high yield potential under good conditions, and compared to other crops it excels under suboptimal conditions, thus offering the possibility of using marginal land to increase total agricultural production. Breeding programs that bring together germ plasm from different regions coupled with improved agronomic practices can markedly increase yields. The future demand for fresh cassava may depend on improved storage methods. The markets for cassava as a substitute for cereal flours in bakery products and as an energy source in animal feed rations are likely to expand. The use of cassava as a source of ethanol for fuel depends on finding an efficient source of energy for distillation or an improved method of separating ethanol from water. 7 figures, 8 tables.

  1. Energy Efficiency: Information Sources for New and Emerging Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Steven A.

    2007-12-31

    The purpose of this article is to share a list of useful organizations that provide reliable information on new and emerging energy-efficient technologies based on research and experience. Experienced energy managers may use the information provided by these organizations to enhance their knowledge and understanding, thereby improving their energy management programs. The scope is limited to publicly-available and open-membership organizations that deal with new and emerging, energy-efficient technologies, strategies, and products. The sources identified should not be considered exhaustive but rather a first step “go to” list suggested by the author when searching for useful information on new and emerging energy-efficient technologies.

  2. Optical arc sensor using energy harvesting power source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kyoo Nam; Rho, Hee Hyuk

    2016-06-01

    Wireless sensors without external power supply gained considerable attention due to convenience both in installation and operation. Optical arc detecting sensor equipping with self sustaining power supply using energy harvesting method was investigated. Continuous energy harvesting method was attempted using thermoelectric generator to supply standby power in micro ampere scale and operating power in mA scale. Peltier module with heat-sink was used for high efficiency electricity generator. Optical arc detecting sensor with hybrid filter showed insensitivity to fluorescent and incandescent lamps under simulated distribution panel condition. Signal processing using integrating function showed selective arc discharge detection capability to different arc energy levels, with a resolution below 17J energy difference, unaffected by bursting arc waveform. The sensor showed possibility for application to arc discharge detecting sensor in power distribution panel. Also experiment with proposed continuous energy harvesting method using thermoelectric power showed possibility as a self sustainable power source of remote sensor.

  3. Preserving Source Location Privacy for Energy Harvesting WSNs.

    PubMed

    Huang, Changqin; Ma, Ming; Liu, Yuxin; Liu, Anfeng

    2017-03-30

    Fog (From cOre to edGe) computing employs a huge number of wireless embedded devices to enable end users with anywhere-anytime-to-anything connectivity. Due to their operating nature, wireless sensor nodes often work unattended, and hence are exposed to a variety of attacks. Preserving source-location privacy plays a key role in some wireless sensor network (WSN) applications. In this paper, a redundancy branch convergence-based preserved source location privacy scheme (RBCPSLP) is proposed for energy harvesting sensor networks, with the following advantages: numerous routing branches are created in non-hotspot areas with abundant energy, and those routing branches can merge into a few routing paths before they reach the hotspot areas. The generation time, the duration of routing, and the number of routing branches are then decided independently based on the amount of energy obtained, so as to maximize network energy utilization, greatly enhance privacy protection, and provide long network lifetimes. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the RBCPSLP scheme allows a several-fold improvement of the network energy utilization as well as the source location privacy preservation, while maximizing network lifetimes.

  4. Exotic X-ray Sources from Intermediate Energy Electron Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Chouffani, K.; Wells, D.; Harmon, F.; Jones, J.L.; Lancaster, G.

    2003-08-26

    High intensity x-ray beams are used in a wide variety of applications in solid-state physics, medicine, biology and material sciences. Synchrotron radiation (SR) is currently the primary, high-quality x-ray source that satisfies both brilliance and tunability. The high cost, large size and low x-ray energies of SR facilities, however, are serious limitations. Alternatively, 'novel' x-ray sources are now possible due to new small linear accelerator (LINAC) technology, such as improved beam emittance, low background, sub-Picosecond beam pulses, high beam stability and higher repetition rate. These sources all stem from processes that produce Radiation from relativistic Electron beams in (crystalline) Periodic Structures (REPS), or the periodic 'structure' of laser light. REPS x-ray sources are serious candidates for bright, compact, portable, monochromatic, and tunable x-ray sources with varying degrees of polarization and coherence. Despite the discovery and early research into these sources over the past 25 years, these sources are still in their infancy. Experimental and theoretical research are still urgently needed to answer fundamental questions about the practical and ultimate limits of their brightness, mono-chromaticity etc. We present experimental results and theoretical comparisons for three exotic REPS sources. These are Laser-Compton Scattering (LCS), Channeling Radiation (CR) and Parametric X-Radiation (PXR)

  5. Eddy energy sources and flux in the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Peng; Subramanian, Aneesh C.; Kartadikaria, Aditya R.; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    In the Red Sea, eddies are reported to be one of the key features of hydrodynamics in the basin. They play a significant role in converting the energy among the large-scale circulation, the available potential energy (APE) and the eddy kinetic energy (EKE). Not only do eddies affect the horizontal circulation, deep-water formation and overturning circulation in the basin, but they also have a strong impact on the marine ecosystem by efficiently transporting heat, nutrients and carbon across the basin and by pumping the nutrient-enriched subsurface water to sustain the primary production. Previous observations and modeling work suggest that the Red Sea is rich of eddy activities. In this study, the eddy energy sources and sinks have been studied based on a high-resolution MITgcm. We have also investigated the possible mechanisms of eddy generation in the Red Sea. Eddies with high EKE are found more likely to appear in the central and northern Red Sea, with a significant seasonal variability. They are more inclined to occur during winter when they acquire their energy mainly from the conversion of APE. In winter, the central and especially the northern Red Sea are subject to important heat loss and extensive evaporation. The resultant densified upper-layer water tends to sink and release the APE through baroclinic instability, which is about one order larger than the barotropic instability contribution and is the largest source term for the EKE in the Red Sea. As a consequence, the eddy energy is confined to the upper layer but with a slope deepening from south to north. In summer, the positive surface heat flux helps maintain the stratification and impedes the gain of APE. The EKE is, therefore, much lower than that in winter despite a higher wind power input. Unlike many other seas, the wind energy is not the main source of energy to the eddies in the Red Sea.

  6. A quest for sources of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotera, Kumiko

    2012-03-01

    The origin of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays (UHECRs, particles arriving on the Earth with energy 10^17- 10^21 eV) is still a mystery. I will review the experimental and theoretical efforts that are being deployed by the community to solve this long-standing enigma, including the recent results from the Auger Observatory. I will discuss the observable signatures that help narrow down the list of possible candidate sources, namely the distribution of the arrival directions of UHECRs in the sky, their energy spectrum, their chemical composition, and their multi-messenger signatures (in neutrinos, gamma-rays and gravitational waves). I will focus in particular on one candidate source that has been little discussed in the literature: young rotation-powered pulsars. The production of UHECRs in these objects could give a picture that is surprisingly consistent with the latest data measured with the Auger Observatory.

  7. Constraining high-energy cosmic neutrino sources: Implications and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murase, Kohta; Waxman, Eli

    2016-11-01

    We consider limits on the local (z =0 ) density (n0) of extragalactic neutrino sources set by the nondetection of steady high-energy neutrino sources producing ≳50 TeV muon multiplets in the present IceCube data, taking into account the redshift evolution, luminosity function, and neutrino spectrum of the sources. We show that the lower limit depends moderately on source spectra and strongly on redshift evolution. We find n0≳10-8- 10-7 Mpc-3 for standard candle sources evolving rapidly, ns∝(1+z ) 3 , and n0≳10-6- 10-5 Mpc-3 for nonevolving sources. The corresponding upper limits on their neutrino luminosity are Lνμ eff≲1 042- 1 043 erg s-1 and Lνμ eff≲1 041- 1 042 erg s-1 , respectively. Applying these results to a wide range of classes of potential sources, we show that powerful "blazar" jets associated with active galactic nuclei are unlikely to be the dominant sources. For almost all other steady candidate source classes (including starbursts, radio galaxies, and galaxy clusters and groups), an order of magnitude increase in the detector sensitivity at ˜0.1 - 1 PeV will enable a detection (as point sources) of the few brightest objects. Such an increase, which may be provided by next-generation detectors like IceCube-Gen2 and an upgraded KM3NET, can improve the limit on n0 by more than 2 orders of magnitude. Future gamma-ray observations (by Fermi, the High-Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory, and the Cherenkov Telescope Array) will play a key role in confirming the association of the neutrinos with their sources.

  8. Multiwavelength observations of unidentified high energy gamma-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, Jules P.

    1995-01-01

    As was the case for COS B, the majority of high-energy (greater than 100 MeV) gamma-ray sources detected by the EGRET instrument on GRO are not immediately identifiable with catalogued objects at other wavelengths. These persistent gamma-ray sources are, next to the gamma-ray bursts, the least understood objects in the universe. This two year investigation is intended to support the analysis, correlation, and theoretical interpretation of data that we are obtaining at x-ray, optical, and radio wavelengths in order to render the gamma-ray data interpretable. This second year was devoted to studies of unidentified gamma-ray sources from the first EGRET catalog, similar to previous observations. Efforts have concentrated on the sources at low and intermediate Galactic latitudes, which are the most plausible pulsar candidates.

  9. Correlates of dietary energy sources with cardiovascular disease risk markers in Mexican school-age children.

    PubMed

    Perichart-Perera, Otilia; Balas-Nakash, Margie; Rodríguez-Cano, Ameyalli; Muñoz-Manrique, Cinthya; Monge-Urrea, Adriana; Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe

    2010-02-01

    Dietary and lifestyle changes in Mexico have been linked to an increase in chronic diseases such as obesity and cardiovascular disease. Important dietary changes such as an increase in the consumption of energy-dense foods (high in oils, animal or processed fats, and sugars) have been recently reported. The objective of this study was to identify how key dietary energy sources correlated with other indexes of cardiovascular disease in a Mexican school-age population. From 2004 to 2006, a convenience sample (n=228) of 9- to 13-year-olds, 48.2% girls and 51.8% boys, from three public urban schools were included. Anthropometric, blood pressure, and dietary assessment (two multiple pass 24-hour recalls) were done. More than half of children did not meet the fruit and vegetable recommended intake. High-fat dairy foods (14% of total energy intake), refined carbohydrates (13.5%), red/processed meat (8.5%), added sugars/desserts (7%), corn tortilla (6.5%), and soft drinks/sweetened beverages (5%) were the highest dietary energy sources consumed. In a subgroup of children (n=185), a fasting blood sample was collected for biochemical analysis. A positive association was observed between glucose and diastolic blood pressure with the intake of soft drinks/sweetened beverages, insulin concentrations and the intake of white bread, and triglyceride concentrations with the intake of added fats. Unhealthful dietary energy sources are frequently consumed by these children. Culturally competent nutrition counseling should be offered to Mexican-American children and their families with a significant risk of cardiovascular disease. Efforts should be made to design and implement nutrition education and health promotion strategies in schools.

  10. Radioactivity as a significant energy source in prebiotic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Garzón, L; Garzón, M L

    2001-01-01

    Radioactivity in the continental crust (due mainly to the isotopes 238U, 235U, 232Th and 40K), as a energy source for chemical evolution in the early Archean (between 3.5 and approximately 4 Ga bp), is reviewed. The most important radioactive source in the continental crust is due to the production and accumulation of radioactive gases within the crust voids (porosity). The study of such mechanism has allowed us to reach a deeper understanding about the nature of the radioactive source and to describe its behavior, particularly with regard to prebiotic chemical evolution. An effective total energy of 3 x 10(18) Ja-1 has been obtained for a depth of 1 km, 4 Ga ago. If a depth of 30 km is taken, the obtained value is almost equal to the UV solar energy radiation (lambda < 150 nm). Within the voids the radioactive source of the continental crust played a relevant role in prebiotic synthesis. In uranium deposits of the same age, the role of radioactivity must have been even more relevant in favoring chemical evolution.

  11. Energy sources for triton's geyser-like plumes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, R.H.; Kirk, R.L.; Johnson, T.V.; Soderblom, L.A.

    1990-01-01

    Four geyser-like plumes were discovered near Triton's south pole in areas now in permanent sunlight. Because Triton's southern hemisphere is nearing a maximum summer solstice, insolation as a driver or a trigger for Triton's geyser-like plumes is an attractive hypothesis. Trapping of solar radiation in a translucent, low-conductivity surface layer (in a solid-state greenhouse), which is subsequently released in the form of latent heat of sublimation, could provide the required energy. Both the classical solid-state greenhouse consisting of exponentially absorbed insolation in a gray, translucent layer of solid nitrogen, and the "super" greenhouse consisting of a relatively transparent solid-nitrogen layer over an opaque, absorbing layer are plausible candidates. Geothermal heat may also play a part if assisted by the added energy input of seasonal cycles of insolation.

  12. Energy sources for Triton's geyser-like plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. H.; Johnson, T. V.; Kirk, R. L.; Soderblom, L. A.

    1990-01-01

    Four geyser-like plumes were discovered near Triton's south pole in areas now in permanent sunlight. Because Triton's southern hemisphere is nearing a maximum summer solstice, insolation as a driver or a trigger for Triton's geyser-like plumes is an attractive hypothesis. Trapping of solar radiation in a translucent, low-conductivity surface layer (in a solid-state greenhouse), which is subsequently released in the form of latent heat of sublimation, could provide the required energy. Both the classical solid-state greenhouse consisting of exponentially absorbed insolation in a gray, translucent layer of solid nitrogen, and the 'super' greenhouse consisting of a relatively transparent solid-nitrogen layer over an opaque, absorbing layer are plausible candidates. Geothermal heat may also play a part if assisted by the added energy input of seasonal cycles of insolation.

  13. Energy Sources for Triton's Geyser-Like Plumes.

    PubMed

    Brown, R H; Kirk, R L; Johnson, T V; Soderblom, L A

    1990-10-19

    Four geyser-like plumes were discovered near Triton's south pole in areas now in permanent sunlight. Because Triton's southern hemisphere is nearing a maximum summer solstice, insolation as a driver or a trigger for Triton's geyser-like plumes is an attractive hypothesis. Trapping of solar radiation in a translucent, low-conductivity surface layer (in a solid-state greenhouse), which is subsequently released in the form of latent heat of sublimation, could provide the required energy. Both the classical solid-state greenhouse consisting of exponentially absorbed insolation in a gray, translucent layer of solid nitrogen, and the "super" greenhouse consisting of a relatively transparent solid-nitrogen layer over an opaque, absorbing layer are plausible candidates. Geothermal heat may also play a part if assisted by the added energy input of seasonal cycles of insolation.

  14. XI Multifrequency Behaviour of High Energy Cosmic Sources Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This was the eleventh edition of the series of Frascati Workshops on "Multifrequency Behaviour of High Energy Cosmic Sources" undoubtedly a largely accepted biennial meeting in which an updated experimental and theoretical panorama is depicted. This edition took place on the 31st anniversary of the first historical "multifrequency" workshop about "Multifrequency Behaviour of Galactic Accreting Sources", held in Vulcano in September 1984. This surely renders the Frascati Workshop Series the oldest among the many devoted to "Multifrequency Studies of Cosmic Sources". The study of the physics governing the cosmic sources was the main goal of the workshop. A session devoted to the ongoing and next generation ground- and space-based experiments gave the actual prospects for the first decades of this millennium. The following items have been reviewed: Cosmology: Cosmic Background, Clusters of Galaxies Extragalactic Sources: Active Galaxies, Normal Galaxies Gamma-Rays Burst: Experiments versus Theories Galactic Sources: Pre-Main-Sequence and Main-Sequence Stars, Cataclysmic Variables and Novae, Supernovae and SNRs, X-Ray Binary Systems, Pulsars, Black Holes, Gamma-Ray Sources,Nucleosynthesis. The Astrophysics with the Ongoing and Future Experiments: Space-Based Experiments, Ground-Based Experiments. The workshop included a few 30-minute general review talks to introduce the current problems, and typically 20-minute talks discussing new experimental and theoretical results. A series of 20-minute talks discussed the ongoing and planned ground- and space-based experiments. The cadence of the workshop is biennial. The participation is only by invitation.

  15. Influence of a high-protein diet on energy balance in obese cats allowed ad libitum access to food.

    PubMed

    Wei, A; Fascetti, A J; Liu, K J; Villaverde, C; Green, A S; Manzanilla, E G; Havel, P J; Ramsey, J J

    2011-06-01

    The influence of a high-protein [HP, 47% of metabolizable energy (ME)] diet on energy balance was evaluated in obese cats allowed ad libitum access to food. Energy intake, body weight, body composition, energy expenditure, and concentrations of hormones and metabolites associated with carbohydrate and lipid metabolism (glucose, insulin, free fatty acids, triglycerides and leptin) were measured in cats after consuming either a moderate protein (MP, 27% of ME) or HP diet for 4 months. Indirect respiration calorimetry showed that resting and total energy expenditure (kJ/day) adjusted for either body weight or lean body mass was increased in cats consuming the HP in relation to MP diets. However, voluntary energy intake also was increased in the HP treatment and, thus, there was no difference in body weight between animals consuming the two diets. Body composition measurements using deuterium oxide dilution showed that dietary protein content did not alter amounts of either lean body mass or fat mass. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed between the two treatment groups for blood glucose, free fatty acid or leptin concentrations, although there was a trend (p = 0.054) towards an increase of serum insulin concentrations in the cats eating the HP diet. This study showed that short-term ad libitum feeding of an HP diet did not reduce food intake or promote weight loss in obese cats. However, energy expenditure was increased in the HP diet group and it is possible that this effect of HP might help promote weight loss when energy intake is restricted.

  16. Effect of supplementary choline on the performance of broiler breeders fed on different energy sources.

    PubMed

    Rama Rao, S V; Sunder, G S; Reddy, M R; Praharaj, N K; Raju, M V; Panda, A K

    2001-07-01

    1. Laying performance, egg quality, fertility and hatchability, and fat deposition in liver and abdomen were recorded in broiler breeders (29 to 48 weeks of age) fed on diets containing perarl millet (Pennisetum typhoides) (PM), broken rice (BR) or yellow maize (YM) (600 g/kg diet). Constant ratios of metabolisable energy (ME) to other nutrients were maintained in all the diets. Food grade choline chloride (50%) was added to the diets at 3 concentrations (0, 760 and 1,520 mg/kg). Each diet was offered to 3 replicate groups of 15 birds (12 hens and 3 cockerels), maintained in deep litter pens, to provide 1.46 MJ ME/bird/d. 2. Neither the source of energy nor dietary choline content had any influence on hen-d egg production, fertility or hatchability. Food efficiency and egg weight were significantly reduced in BR-fed groups compared to those fed on the other energy sources. 3. The efficiency of energy and protein utilisation increased and liver fat content was decreased significantly by dietary choline supplementation. 4. Haugh unit score, egg shell weight, liver weight and intestinal weight were not influenced by either supplementary choline or the source of energy. However, the yolk colour index was significantly reduced in PM- or BR-fed groups compared to those fed on the maize-based diet. 5. Deposition of abdominal fat was significantly greater in BR-fed birds compared to those fed on the YM-based diet, while liver fat content was significantly greater in the birds fed on the PM-or BR-based diets than those based on YM. Although supplementation of the diet with choline had no influence on abdominal fat deposition, liver fat content was significantly reduced in birds given diet containing 760 mg supplemental choline/kg diet. 6. The present study indicates that PM or BR can be used as principal energy sources in place of YM in broiler breeder diets without affecting egg production, fertility or hatchability. Liver fat content can be reduced by adding choline at

  17. A study of an advanced confined linear energy source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, M. C.; Heidemann, W. B.

    1971-01-01

    A literature survey and a test program to develop and evaluate an advanced confined linear energy source were conducted. The advanced confined linear energy source is an explosive or pyrotechnic X-Cord (mild detonating fuse) supported inside a confining tube capable of being hermetically sealed and retaining all products of combustion. The energy released by initiation of the X-Cord is transmitted through the support material to the walls of the confining tube causing an appreciable change in cross sectional configuration and expansion of the tube. When located in an assembly that can accept and use the energy of the tube expansion, useful work is accomplished through fracture of a structure, movement of a load, reposition of a pin, release of a restraint, or similar action. The tube assembly imparts that energy without release of debris or gases from the device itself. This facet of the function is important to the protection of men or equipment located in close proximity to the system during the time of function.

  18. Dust Obscured Blazars as sources of high-energy neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggi, G.; de Vries, K. D.; van Eijndhoven, N.

    2016-08-01

    Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are believed to be among the most promising sources of the ultra-high-energy cosmic ray flux. A hadronic component which is accelerated in the high energy environment of an AGN immediately implies the production of high-energy neutrinos. Nevertheless, no clear correlation between AGN and the high-energy cosmic-neutrino flux obtained by IceCube has been found so-far, putting strong limits on the neutrino production at AGN. We discuss a specific type of AGN for which an enhanced neutrino production is expected. This specific sub-set is given by AGN with their high-energy jet directed toward Earth, which is obscured by surrounding dust or gas, defining Dust Obscured Blazars. This type of AGN is predicted to have an enhanced neutrino emission due to the interaction of a possible hadronic component inside the AGN-jet with the surrounding matter. From two different galaxy catalogs, we have selected a sample of nearby sources with the characteristics of Dust Obscured Blazars. This selection is based on observations in the X-ray and radio bands. The data is consequently used to investigate the column density of the surrounding matter, providing an estimate for the neutrino production enhancement due to the nucleon-matter interactions in a beam dump scenario for various dust or gas compositions.

  19. Probabilistic monitoring in intrusion detection module for energy efficiency in mobile ad hoc networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Rango, Floriano; Lupia, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    MANETs allow mobile nodes communicating to each other using the wireless medium. A key aspect of these kind of networks is the security, because their setup is done without an infrastructure, so external nodes could interfere in the communication. Mobile nodes could be compromised, misbehaving during the multi-hop transmission of data, or they could have a selfish behavior to save energy, which is another important constraint in MANETs. The detection of these behaviors need a framework that takes into account the latest interactions among nodes, so malicious or selfish nodes could be detected also if their behavior is changed over time. The monitoring activity increases the energy consumption, so our proposal takes into account this issue reducing the energy required by the monitoring system, keeping the effectiveness of the intrusion detection system. The results show an improvement in the saved energy, improving the detection performance too.

  20. Energy Efficient Hybrid Vapor Stripping-Vapor Permeation Process for Ethanol Recovery ad Dehydration

    EPA Science Inventory

    Distillation combined with molecular sieve dehydration is the current state of the art for fuel grade ethanol production from fermentation broths. To improve the sustainability of bioethanol production, energy efficient separation alternatives are needed, particularly for lower f...

  1. Selling Health to the Distracted: Consumer Responses to Source Credibility and Ad Appeal Type in a Direct-to-Consumer Advertisement.

    PubMed

    Lemanski, Jennifer L; Villegas, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Since 1997, when the U.S. Food and Drug Administration first allowed prescription drug companies to release ads directly targeting the public, direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising has become an integral part of the pharmaceutical industry marketing toolkit, reaching over $4 billion in 2005. In an experiment where cognitive load, a task that requires the investment of a subject's memory in an unrelated task; source credibility; and advertising appeal type (affective or cognitive) were manipulated, attitude toward the ad was measured for a print DTC meningitis vaccine ad. Main effect results for source credibility and advertising appeal type on attitude toward the ad were found, and interactions between manipulated variables were apparent when the individual difference variables related to a specific illness (vaccination history, living in a dorm, family members or friends who had suffered the illness) were taken into account.

  2. Remediation of nitrate-contaminated wastewater using denitrification biofilters with straws of ornamental flowers added as carbon source.

    PubMed

    Chang, Junjun; Ma, Luyao; Zhou, Yuanyang; Zhang, Shenghua; Wang, Weilu

    Straws of four ornamental flowers (carnation, rose, lily, and violet) were added into denitrification biofilters using gravel as matrix through vertically installed perforated polyvinylchloride pipes to provide organic carbon for the treatment of nitrate-contaminated wastewater operating in batch mode. Removal efficiencies of nitrate and phosphate, as well as temporal variations of nitrogen and carbon during batches 10 and 19, were investigated and assessed. Nitrate removal was efficiently enhanced by the addition of flower straws, but decreased gradually as the organic substances were consumed. Phosphate removal was also improved, although this very limited. High nitrate removal rates were achieved during the initial 12 h in the two batches each lasting for 3 days, along with the depletion of influent dissolved oxygen due to aerobic degradation of the organic compounds. NO2(-)-N of 0.01-2.83 mg/L and NH4(+)-N of 0.02-1.69 mg/L were formed and both positively correlated to the nitrate reduced. Inorganic carbon (IC) concentrations increased during the batches and varied conversely with the nitrate contents, and could be indicative of nitrate removal due to the highly significant positive correlation between NO3(-)-N removed and IC concentration (r(2) = 0.881, p < 0.0001). It is feasible and economical to use the denitrification biofilter to treat nitrate-contaminated wastewater, although further optimization of carbon source addition is still required.

  3. A probabilistic dynamic energy model for ad-hoc wireless sensors network with varying topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Husseini, Amal

    In this dissertation we investigate the behavior of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) from the degree distribution and evolution perspective. In specific, we focus on implementation of a scale-free degree distribution topology for energy efficient WSNs. WSNs is an emerging technology that finds its applications in different areas such as environment monitoring, agricultural crop monitoring, forest fire monitoring, and hazardous chemical monitoring in war zones. This technology allows us to collect data without human presence or intervention. Energy conservation/efficiency is one of the major issues in prolonging the active life WSNs. Recently, many energy aware and fault tolerant topology control algorithms have been presented, but there is dearth of research focused on energy conservation/efficiency of WSNs. Therefore, we study energy efficiency and fault-tolerance in WSNs from the degree distribution and evolution perspective. Self-organization observed in natural and biological systems has been directly linked to their degree distribution. It is widely known that scale-free distribution bestows robustness, fault-tolerance, and access efficiency to system. Fascinated by these properties, we propose two complex network theoretic self-organizing models for adaptive WSNs. In particular, we focus on adopting the Barabasi and Albert scale-free model to fit into the constraints and limitations of WSNs. We developed simulation models to conduct numerical experiments and network analysis. The main objective of studying these models is to find ways to reducing energy usage of each node and balancing the overall network energy disrupted by faulty communication among nodes. The first model constructs the wireless sensor network relative to the degree (connectivity) and remaining energy of every individual node. We observed that it results in a scale-free network structure which has good fault tolerance properties in face of random node failures. The second model considers

  4. Energy efficiency of growing ram lambs fed concentrate-based diets with different roughage sources.

    PubMed

    Galvani, D B; Pires, A V; Susin, I; Gouvêa, V N; Berndt, A; Chagas, L J; Dórea, J R R; Abdalla, A L; Tedeschi, L O

    2014-01-01

    Poor-quality roughages are widely used as fiber sources in concentrate-based diets for ruminants. Because roughage quality is associated with the efficiency of energy use in forage-based diets, the objective of this study was to determine whether differing the roughage source in concentrate-based diets could change the energy requirements of growing lambs. Eighty-four 1/2 Dorper × 1/2 Santa Inês ram lambs (18.0 ± 3.3 kg BW) were individually penned and divided into 2 groups according to primary source of dietary roughage: low-quality roughage (LQR; sugarcane bagasse) or medium-quality roughage (MQR; coastcross hay). Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (2.6% N) and to meet 20% of physically effective NDF. After a 10-d ad libitum adaptation period, 7 lambs from each group were randomly selected and slaughtered (baseline). Twenty-one lambs in each diet group were fed ad libitum and slaughtered at 25, 35, or 45 kg BW. The remaining 28 lambs (14 from each diet group) were submitted to 1 of 2 levels of feed restriction: 70% or 50% of the ad libitum intake. Retentions of body fat, N, and energy were determined. Additionally, 6 ram lambs (44.3 ± 5.6 kg BW) were kept in metabolic cages and used in a 6 × 6 Latin square experiment designed to establish the ME content of the 2 diets at the 3 levels of DM intake. There was no effect of intake level on diet ME content, but it was greater in the diet with LQR than in the diet with MQR (3.18 vs. 2.94 Mcal/kg, respectively; P < 0.01). Lambs fed the diet with LQR had greater body fat (g/kg of empty BW) and energy concentrations (kcal/kg of empty BW) because of a larger visceral fat deposition (P < 0.05). Using a low-quality roughage as a primary source of forage in a concentrate-based diet for growing lambs did not change NEm and the efficiency of ME use for maintenance, which averaged 71.6 kcal/kg(0.75) of shrunk BW and 0.63, respectively. On the other hand, the greater nonfibrous carbohydrate content of the diet with

  5. Development of the Advanced Energetic Pair Telescope (AdEPT) for Medium-Energy Gamma-Ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Stanley D.; Bloser, Peter F.; Dion, Michael P.; McConnell, Mark L.; deNolfo, Georgia A.; Son, Seunghee; Ryan, James M.; Stecker, Floyd W.

    2011-01-01

    Progress in high-energy gamma-ray science has been dramatic since the launch of INTEGRAL, AGILE and FERMI. These instruments, however, are not optimized for observations in the medium-energy (approx.0.3< E(sub gamma)< approx.200 MeV) regime where many astrophysical objects exhibit unique, transitory behavior, such as spectral breaks, bursts, and flares. We outline some of the major science goals of a medium-energy mission. These science goals are best achieved with a combination of two telescopes, a Compton telescope and a pair telescope, optimized to provide significant improvements in angular resolution and sensitivity. In this paper we describe the design of the Advanced Energetic Pair Telescope (AdEPT) based on the Three-Dimensional Track Imager (3-DTI) detector. This technology achieves excellent, medium-energy sensitivity, angular resolution near the kinematic limit, and gamma-ray polarization sensitivity, by high resolution 3-D electron tracking. We describe the performance of a 30x30x30 cm3 prototype of the AdEPT instrument.

  6. Meeting China's electricity needs through clean energy sources: A 2030 low-carbon energy roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zheng

    China is undergoing rapid economic development that generates significant increase in energy demand, primarily for electricity. Energy supply in China is heavily relying on coal, which leads to high carbon emissions. This dissertation explores opportunities for meeting China's growing power demand through clean energy sources. The utilization of China's clean energy sources as well as demand-side management is still at the initial phase. Therefore, development of clean energy sources would require substantial government support in order to be competitive in the market. One of the widely used means to consider clean energy in power sector supplying is Integrated Resource Strategic Planning, which aims to minimize the long term electricity costs while screening various power supply options for the power supply and demand analysis. The IRSP tool tackles the energy problem from the perspective of power sector regulators, and provides different policy scenarios to quantify the impacts of combined incentives. Through three scenario studies, Business as Usual, High Renewable, and Renewable and Demand Side Management, this dissertation identifies the optimized scenario for China to achieve the clean energy target of 2030. The scenarios are assessed through energy, economics, environment, and equity dimensions.

  7. High-energy gamma radiation from extragalactic radio sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dermer, C. D.; Schlickeiser, R.; Mastichiadis, A.

    1992-01-01

    We propose that the important relationship between 3C 273 and 3C 279, the first two extragalactic sources detected at over 100 MeV energies, is their superluminal nature. In support of this conjecture, we propose a kinematic focusing mechanism, based on Compton scattering of accretion-disk photons by relativistic nonthermal electrons in the jet, that preferentially emits gamma rays in the superluminal direction.

  8. Energy sources for detritivorous fishes in the Amazon.

    PubMed

    Araujo-Lima, C A; Forsberg, B R; Victoria, R; Martinelli, L

    1986-12-05

    Detritivorous fishes form an important part of the ichthyomass in the Amazon basin. Most of these fishes are contained in the orders Characiformes and Siluriformes (catfishes). The Characiformes constitute more than 30% of the total fish yield in the Amazon basin, whereas the catfishes are of minor importance. Stable isotope data indicate that Characiformes species receive most of their carbon through food chains originating with phytoplankton, while the Siluriformes receive a significant part of their energy from other plant sources.

  9. Directory of financing sources for foreign energy projects

    SciTech Connect

    La Ferla, L.

    1995-09-01

    The Office of National Security Policy has produced this Directory of Financing Sources for Foreign Energy Projects. The Directory reviews programs that offer financing from US government agencies, multilateral organizations, public, private, and quasi-private investment funds, and local commercial and state development banks. The main US government agencies covered are the US Agency for International Development (USAID), the Export-Import Bank of the US (EXIM Bank), Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC), US Department of Energy, US Department of Defense, and the US Trade and Development Agency (TDA). Other US Government Sources includes market funds that have been in part capitalized using US government agency funds. Multilateral organizations include the World Bank, International Finance Corporation (IFC), Asian Development Bank (ADB), European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), and various organizations of the United Nations. The Directory lists available public, private, and quasi-private sources of financing in key emerging markets in the Newly Independent States and other developing countries of strategic interest to the US Department of Energy. The sources of financing listed in this directory should be considered indicative rather than inclusive of all potential sources of financing. Initial focus is on the Russian Federation, Ukraine, india, China, and Pakistan. Separate self-contained sections have been developed for each of the countries to enable the user to readily access market-specific information and to support country-specific Departmental initiatives. For each country, the directory is organized to follow the project life cycle--from prefeasibility, feasibility, project finance, cofinancing, and trade finance, through to technical assistance and training. Programs on investment and export insurance are excluded.

  10. Surgical Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation Using Energy Sources.

    PubMed

    Brick, Alexandre Visconti; Braile, Domingo Marcolino

    2015-01-01

    Surgical ablation, concomitant with other operations, is an option for treatment in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation. The aim of this study is to present a literature review on surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing cardiac surgery, considering energy sources and return to sinus rhythm. A comprehensive survey was performed in the literature on surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation considering energy sources, sample size, study type, outcome (early and late), and return to sinus rhythm. Analyzing studies with immediate results (n=5), the percentage of return to sinus rhythm ranged from 73% to 96%, while those with long-term results (n=20) (from 12 months on) ranged from 62% to 97.7%. In both of them, there was subsequent clinical improvement of patients who underwent ablation, regardless of the energy source used. Surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation is essential for the treatment of this arrhythmia. With current technology, it may be minimally invasive, making it mandatory to perform a procedure in an attempt to revert to sinus rhythm in patients requiring heart surgery.

  11. Surgical Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation Using Energy Sources

    PubMed Central

    Brick, Alexandre Visconti; Braile, Domingo Marcolino

    2015-01-01

    Surgical ablation, concomitant with other operations, is an option for treatment in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation. The aim of this study is to present a literature review on surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing cardiac surgery, considering energy sources and return to sinus rhythm. A comprehensive survey was performed in the literature on surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation considering energy sources, sample size, study type, outcome (early and late), and return to sinus rhythm. Analyzing studies with immediate results (n=5), the percentage of return to sinus rhythm ranged from 73% to 96%, while those with long-term results (n=20) (from 12 months on) ranged from 62% to 97.7%. In both of them, there was subsequent clinical improvement of patients who underwent ablation, regardless of the energy source used. Surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation is essential for the treatment of this arrhythmia. With current technology, it may be minimally invasive, making it mandatory to perform a procedure in an attempt to revert to sinus rhythm in patients requiring heart surgery. PMID:26934404

  12. ION SOURCES FOR ENERGY EXTREMES OF ION IMPLANTATION.

    SciTech Connect

    HERSCHCOVITCH,A.; JOHNSON, B.M.; BATALIN, V.A.; KROPACHEV, G.N.; KUIBEDA, R.P.; KULEVOY, T.V.; KOLOMIETS, A.A.; PERSHIN, V.I.; PETRENKO, S.V.; RUDSKOY, I.; SELEZNEV, D.N.; BUGAEV, A.S.; GUSHENETS, V.I.; LITOVKO, I.V.; OKS, E.M.; YUSHKOV, G. YU.; MASEUNOV, E.S.; POLOZOV, S.M.; POOLE, H.J.; STOROZHENKO, P.A.; SVAROVSKI, YA.

    2007-08-26

    For the past four years a joint research and development effort designed to develop steady state, intense ion sources has been in progress with the ultimate goal to develop ion sources and techniques, which meet the two energy extreme range needs of mega-electron-volt and 100's of electron-volt ion implanters. This endeavor has already resulted in record steady state output currents of high charge state of Antimony and Phosphorous ions: P{sup 2+} (8.6 pmA), P{sup 3+} (1.9 pmA), and P{sup 4+} (0.12 pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2 pmA of Sb{sup 3+} Sb{sup 4+}, Sb{sup 5+}, and Sb{sup 6+} respectively. For low energy ion implantation our efforts involve molecular ions and a novel plasmaless/gasless deceleration method. To date, 1 emA of positive Decaborane ions were extracted at 10 keV and smaller currents of negative Decaborane ions were also extracted. Additionally, Boron current fraction of over 70% was extracted from a Bemas-Calutron ion source, which represents a factor of 3.5 improvement over currently employed ion sources.

  13. Dietary sources of energy and macronutrient intakes among Flemish preschoolers.

    PubMed

    De Keyzer, Willem; Lin, Yi; Vereecken, Carine; Maes, Lea; Van Oyen, Herman; Vanhauwaert, Erika; De Backer, Guy; De Henauw, Stefaan; Huybrechts, Inge

    2011-11-01

    This study aims to identify major food sources of energy and macronutrients among Flemish preschoolers as a basis for evaluating dietary guidelines. Three-day estimated diet records were collected from a representative sample of 696 Flemish preschoolers (2.5-6.5 years old; participation response rate: 50%). For 11 dietary constituents, the contribution of 57 food groups was computed by summing the amount provided by the food group for all individuals divided by the total intake of the respective nutrient for all individuals. Bread (12%), sweet snacks (12%), milk (6%), flavoured milk drinks (9%), and meat products (6%) were the top five energy contributors. Sweet snacks were among the top contributors to energy, total fat, all fatty acids, cholesterol, and complex and simple carbohydrates. Fruit juices and flavoured milk drinks are the main contributors to simple carbohydrates (respectively 14% and 18%). All principal food groups like water, bread and cereals, vegetables, fruit, milk and spreadable fats were under-consumed by more than 30% of the population, while the food groups that were over-consumed consisted only of low nutritious and high energy dense foods (sweet snacks, sugared drinks, fried potatoes, sauces and sweet spreads). From the major food sources and gaps in nutrient and food intakes, some recommendations to pursue the nutritional goals could be drawn: the intake of sweet snacks and sugar-rich drinks (incl. fruit juices) should be discouraged, while consumption of fruits, vegetables, water, bread and margarine on bread should be encouraged.

  14. Alternate Energy Sources for Thermalplastic Binding Agent Consolidation

    SciTech Connect

    Frame, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate microwave and electron beam technologies as alternate energy sources to consolidate fiber coated with a thermoplastic binding agent into preforms for composite molding applications. Bench experiments showed that both microwave and electron beam energy can produce heat sufficient to melt and consolidate a thermoplastic binding agent applied to fiberglass mat, and several two- and three-dimensional fiberglass preforms were produced with each method. In both cases, it is postulated that the heating was accomplished by the effective interaction of the microwave or electron beam energy with the combination of the mat preform and the tooling used to shape the preform. Both methods contrast with conventional thermal energy applied via infrared heaters or from a heated tool in which the heat to melt the thermoplastic binding agent must diffuse over time from the outer surface of the preform toward its center under a thermal gradient. For these reasons, the microwave and electron beam energy techniques have the potential to rapidly consolidate thick fiber preforms more efficiently than the thermal process. With further development, both technologies have the potential to make preform production more cost effective by decreasing cycle time in the preform tool, reducing energy costs, and by enabling the use of less expensive tooling materials. Descriptions of the microwave and electron beam consolidation experiments and a summary of the results are presented in this report.

  15. The Potential of Renewable Energy Sources in Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakipova, S.; Jakovics, A.; Gendelis, S.

    2016-02-01

    The article discusses some aspects of the use of renewable energy sources in the climatic conditions prevailing in most of the territory of Latvia, with relatively low wind speeds and a small number of sunny days a year. The paper gives a brief description of the measurement equipment and technology to determine the parameters of the outer air; the results of the measurements are also analysed. On the basis of the data obtained during the last two years at the meteorological station at the Botanical Garden of the University of Latvia, the energy potential of solar radiation and wind was estimated. The values of the possible and the actual amount of produced energy were determined.

  16. Evaluating the sustainability of an energy supply system using renewable energy sources: An energy demand assessment of South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Cedric Fitzgerald

    Sustainable energy is defined as a dynamic harmony between the equitable availability of energy-intensive goods and services to all people and the preservation of the earth for future generations. Sustainable energy development continues to be a major focus within the government and regulatory governing bodies in the electric utility industry. This is as a result of continued demand for electricity and the impact of greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generating plants on the environment by way of the greenhouse effect. A culmination of increasing concerns about climate change, the nuclear incident in Fukushima four years ago, and discussions on energy security in a world with growing energy demand have led to a movement for increasing the share of power generation from renewable energy sources. This work studies demand for electricity from primarily residential, commercial, agricultural, and industrial customers in South Carolina (SC) and its effect on the environment from coal-fired electricity generating plants. Moreover, this work studies sustainable renewable energy source-options based on the renewable resources available in the state of SC, as viable options to supplement generation from coal-fired electricity generating plants. In addition, greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants from primarily coal-fired plants will be defined and quantified. Fundamental renewable energy source options will be defined and quantified based on availability and sustainability of SC's natural resources. This work studies the environmental, economic, and technical aspects of each renewable energy source as a sustainable energy option to replace power generation from coal-fired plants. Additionally, social aspect implications will be incorporated into each of the three aspects listed above, as these aspects are explored during the research and analysis. Electricity demand data and alternative energy source-supply data in SC are carried out and are used to develop and

  17. Improved Energy Management System for Low-Voltage, Low-Power Energy Harvesting Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newell, D.; Duffy, M.

    2016-11-01

    This paper focuses on improving the energy conversion process for low-voltage energy harvester powered wireless sensors by optimising the conversion stages for pulsed sensor operation. The proposed circuit has been designed to operate efficiently with both a low-voltage low-power energy harvester source and a low-power pulsed load. This ensures that continuous conversion losses are kept to a minimum and power is only delivered to the sensor when required. This has shown an increase in energy delivered to a sensor of up to 10% versus that of the best existing solution.

  18. Development and commercialization strategy for piezoelectric energy-harvesting power sources for gun-fired munitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastegar, J.; Murray, R.

    2010-04-01

    A novel class of piezoelectric-based energy-harvesting power sources has been developed for gun-fired munitions and similar high-G applications. The power sources are designed to harvest energy primarily from the firing acceleration, but from in-flight vibratory motions as well. During the firing, a spring-mass element reacts to the axial acceleration, deforming and storing mechanical potential energy. After the projectile has exited the muzzle, the spring-mass element is free to vibrate, and the energy of the vibration is harvested using piezoelectric materials. These piezoelectric-based devices have been shown to produce enough electrical energy for many applications such as fuzing, and are able to eliminate the need for chemical batteries in many applications. When employed in fuzing applications, the developed power sources have the added advantage of providing augmented safety, since the fuzing electronics are powered only after the projectile has exited the muzzle and traveled a safe distance from the weapon platform. An overview of the development of these novel power sources is provided, especially designing and packaging for the high-G environment. Extensive laboratory and field testing has been performed on various prototypes; the methods and results of these experiments are presented. In addition to presenting the development and validation of this technology, methods for integrating the generators into different classes of projectiles are discussed along with strategies for manufacturing. This technology is currently validated to the extent that prototype devices have been successfully fired on-board actual gun-fired projectiles, demonstrating survivability and indicating performance. Strategies for designing the devices for a particular round and transitioning to commercialization are also discussed.

  19. Coronal Dynamics and Complete Flare Energy Budget for the M Dwarf AD Leo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Alexander; Sonneborn, Georgwe (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    This grant supported the observing and data analysis for FUSE Cycle 3 project C114 to observe the flare star AD Leo for 50 ksec coordinated with HST (Hubble Space Telescope) STIS ultraviolet spectroscopy and Chandra X-ray spectroscopy. Unfortunately, it was impossible to obtain the planned FUSE observations because AD Leo is a low declination target (delta approximately 20 degrees) and was rendered unobservable by restrictions in the sky coverage for FUSE observations. In April 2002 another M dwarf star, EV Lac, which is at significantly higher declination, was substituted for this project. EV Lac was observed by FUSE for a cumulative exposure of 35 ksec on 2002 July 1. The observation used the large LWRS aperture and collected data in time-tagged mode. The LWRS aperture is large enough that the target should remain within the aperture despite the normal level of pointing jitter and target drift experienced during FUSE observing. Our examination of the stellar signal showed that the target was well within the aperture throughout the observation. The data were split into night-time and day-time data so that the effects of airglow emission were recognizable. No obvious flaring, the primary science objective, was detected during the observation. The only stellar lines detected are 0 VI 1031.9, 1037.6 Angstrom, and the C III 1175 Angstrom, UV multiplet and the 977 Angstrom, resonance line. A comparison of the day-time and night-time spectra show that the 0 VI lines and the C III intersystem multiplet are unaffected by airglow features. The day-time data 977 Angstrom profile shows the presence of significant scattered solar C III photons, which should not be present in the night time spectrum. Emission fluxes for these lines were measured by direct summation of the emission lines. No continuum signal was detected in the region of these lines. The cleanest emission line profiles are for the O VI lines and we performed Gaussian fitting for these profiles. Both lines are

  20. Orientifolded locally AdS3 geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loran, F.; Sheikh-Jabbari, M. M.

    2011-01-01

    Continuing the analysis of [Loran F and Sheikh-Jabbari M M 2010 Phys. Lett. B 693 184-7], we classify all locally AdS3 stationary axi-symmetric unorientable solutions to AdS3 Einstein gravity and show that they are obtained by applying certain orientifold projection on AdS3, BTZ or AdS3 self-dual orbifold, respectively, O-AdS3, O-BTZ and O-SDO geometries. Depending on the orientifold fixed surface, the O-surface, which is either a space-like 2D plane or a cylinder, or a light-like 2D plane or a cylinder, one can distinguish four distinct cases. For the space-like orientifold plane or cylinder cases, these geometries solve AdS3 Einstein equations and are hence locally AdS3 everywhere except at the O-surface, where there is a delta-function source. For the light-like cases, the geometry is a solution to Einstein equations even at the O-surface. We discuss the causal structure for static, extremal and general rotating O-BTZ and O-SDO cases as well as the geodesic motion on these geometries. We also discuss orientifolding Poincaré patch AdS3 and AdS2 geometries as a way to geodesic completion of these spaces and comment on the 2D CFT dual to the O-geometries.

  1. Multi-port power electronic interface for renewable energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wei

    Energy intensive products and services are penetrating people's daily life as well as different sectors of industry during recent decades. Further effort to improve efficiency, reduce green house gas and hazardous particle emission lead to the emergence of the "more electric" concept in several industries including transportation. This trend, however, burdens the aging power system and existing local power networks. To offer a remedy to the problem and a smooth transition to a more reliable, more diverse, and more efficient power grid of the future, the concept of Multi-port Power Electronic Interface (MPEI) for localized power processing is introduced in this dissertation, which interfaces and manages various sources, loads and storages. Different means of integrating multiple sources and storages into the existing power system are studied and evaluated; the six phase-leg structure is chosen to interface five sources/loads: fuel cell, wind turbine, solar cell, battery and utility grid. Partitioning of source-interface and load-interface on a system level as well as analysis and modeling on small signal level are performed. A novel control structure for source-interface is proposed in the design, which forms Controlled Quasi Current Source (CQCS) during the load sharing operation and offers several salient advantages: • Inherent average current-mode control. • Easy share of steady state current/power. • Share of load dynamics for better source protection. Local control loops for various input ports are designed based on linearized system model; controller performance is tuned to accommodate the characteristics of different sources. To maintain a sustainable operation, different modes of operation are defined for MPEI; detailed state-transition with associated events are also defined in each operation mode. Prototype of MPEI is built and control system is implemented digitally in a digital signal processor; steady state and transient performance of MPEI is

  2. Energy-Environment Source Book. Volume 1: Energy, Society, and the Environment. Volume 2: Energy, Its Extraction, Conversion and Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, John W.

    This source book, one part of a three-part NSTA series on energy-environment, is written for teachers who wish to incorporate material on the complex subject of energy into their teaching. This work is divided into two volumes, each with numerous tables and figures, along with appendices containing a glossary, mathematics primer, heat engine…

  3. Cyanate - An overlooked energy and nitrogen source in soils?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooshammer, Maria; Palatinszky, Márton; Herbold, Craig; Han, Ping; Daims, Holger; Richter, Andreas; Wagner, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Cyanate (NCO-) is a reduced nitrogen compound that is toxic to organisms due to its reactivity with nucleophilic groups in proteins. To lower cyanate concentrations within cells, a wide range of microorganisms possess a cyanase, which catalyzes the conversion of cyanate to ammonium and carbon dioxide. However, cyanate can also be useful for microbes by serving as a nitrogen source for cyanase-encoding microorganism, such as marine cyanobacteria (Kamennaya et al., 2008). Unexpectedly, we could recently demonstrate that at least one ammonia-oxidizing thaumarchaeote as well as nitrite-oxidizers thriving in consortia with ammonia-oxidizers can grow aerobically on cyanate as only energy and nitrogen source (Palatinszky et al., 2015). Furthermore, published metagenomes revealed that cyanase-encoding genes closely related to those of nitrifiers (ammonia- and nitrite-oxidizers) are widespread in the environment and encompass also cyanases affiliated with anammox organisms. Therefore, cyanate presumably presents an alternative nitrogen and also energy source for many microorganisms in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Surprisingly, cyanate concentrations and fluxes in natural environments are largely unknown, and environmental cyanate concentrations have only been studied in seawater so far, where it occurs in the nanomolar-range (Widner et al. 2013). No information about the importance of cyanate in soils is available, although urea that spontaneously decomposes to cyanate is the most used agricultural fertilizer on a global scale. Cyanate can have many fates in soils - it can be (1) used as nitrogen and/or energy source by cyanase-encoding microorganisms, (2) abiotically hydrolysed to ammonium and carbon dioxide, (3) adsorbed to soil particles, or (4) complexed with other compounds. Here we present the first measurements of cyanate concentrations in natural soils and results of experiments designed to differentiate between biotic and abiotic degradation of cyanate in

  4. Biologically Produced Methane as a Renewable Energy Source.

    PubMed

    Holmes, D E; Smith, J A

    2016-01-01

    Methanogens are a unique group of strictly anaerobic archaea that are more metabolically diverse than previously thought. Traditionally, it was thought that methanogens could only generate methane by coupling the oxidation of products formed by fermentative bacteria with the reduction of CO2. However, it has recently been observed that many methanogens can also use electrons extruded from metal-respiring bacteria, biocathodes, or insoluble electron shuttles as energy sources. Methanogens are found in both human-made and natural environments and are responsible for the production of ∼71% of the global atmospheric methane. Their habitats range from the human digestive tract to hydrothermal vents. Although biologically produced methane can negatively impact the environment if released into the atmosphere, when captured, it can serve as a potent fuel source. The anaerobic digestion of wastes such as animal manure, human sewage, or food waste produces biogas which is composed of ∼60% methane. Methane from biogas can be cleaned to yield purified methane (biomethane) that can be readily incorporated into natural gas pipelines making it a promising renewable energy source. Conventional anaerobic digestion is limited by long retention times, low organics removal efficiencies, and low biogas production rates. Therefore, many studies are being conducted to improve the anaerobic digestion process. Researchers have found that addition of conductive materials and/or electrically active cathodes to anaerobic digesters can stimulate the digestion process and increase methane content of biogas. It is hoped that optimization of anaerobic digesters will make biogas more readily accessible to the average person.

  5. A low-energy linear oxygen plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre; Yushkov, Georgy Yu.

    2007-01-08

    A new version of a Constricted Plasma Source is described,characterized by all metal-ceramic construction, a linear slit exit of180 mm length, and cw-operation (typically 50 kHz) at an average power of1.5 kW. The plasma source is here operated with oxygen gas, producingstreaming plasma that contains mainly positive molecular and atomic ions,and to a much lesser degree, negative ions. The maximum total ion currentobtained was about 0.5 A. The fraction of atomic ions reached more than10 percent of all ions when the flow rate was less then 10 sccm O2,corresponding to a chamber pressure of about 0.5 Pa for the selectedpumping speed. The energy distribution functions of the different ionspecies were measured with a combinedmass spectrometer and energyanalyzer. The time-averaged distribution functions were broad and rangedfrom about 30eV to 90 eV at 200 kHz and higher frequencies, while theywere only several eV broad at 50 kHz and lower frequencies, with themaximum located at about 40 eV for the grounded anode case. This maximumwas shifted down to about 7 eV when the anode was floating, indicatingthe important role of the plasma potential for the ion energy for a givensubstrate potential. The source could be scaled to greater length and maybe useful for functionalization of surfaces and plasma-assisteddeposition of compound films.

  6. Electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources

    DOEpatents

    Dagenhart, William K.; Stirling, William L.

    1982-01-01

    An electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources is provided. The system, employs crossed electric and magnetic fields to separate the electrons from ions as they are extracted from a negative ion source plasma generator and before the ions are accelerated to their full kinetic energy. With the electric and magnetic fields oriented 90.degree. to each other, the electrons are separated from the plasma and remain at approximately the electrical potential of the generator in which they were generated. The electrons migrate from the ion beam path in a precessing motion out of the ion accelerating field region into an electron recovery region provided by a specially designed electron collector electrode. The electron collector electrode is uniformly spaced from a surface of the ion generator which is transverse to the direction of migration of the electrons and the two surfaces are contoured in a matching relationship which departs from a planar configuration to provide an electric field component in the recovery region which is parallel to the magnetic field thereby forcing the electrons to be directed into and collected by the electron collector electrode. The collector electrode is maintained at a potential slightly positive with respect to the ion generator so that the electrons are collected at a small fraction of the full accelerating supply voltage energy.

  7. Multiwavelength observations of unidentified high energy gamma ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, Jules P.

    1993-01-01

    As was the case for COS B, the majority of high-energy (greater than 100 MeV) gamma-ray sources detected by the EGRET instrument on GRO are not immediately identifiable with cataloged objects at other wavelengths. These persistent gamma-ray sources are, next to the gamma-ray bursts, the least understood objects in the universe. Even a rudimentary understanding of their nature awaits identifications and follow-up work at other wavelengths to tell us what they are. The as yet unidentified sources are potentially the most interesting, since they may represent unrecognized new classes of astronomical objects, such as radio-quiet pulsars or new types of active galactic nuclei (AGN's). This two-year investigation is intended to support the analysis, correlation, and theoretical interpretation of data that we are obtaining at x ray, optical, and radio wavelengths in order to render the gamma-ray data interpretable. According to plan, in the first year concentration was on the identification and study of Geminga. The second year will be devoted to studies of similar unidentified gamma-ray sources which will become available in the first EGRET catalogs. The results obtained so far are presented in the two papers which are reproduced in the Appendix. In these papers, we discuss the pulse profiles of Geminga, the geometry and efficiency of the magnetospheric accelerator, the distance to Geminga, the implications for theories of polar cap heating, the effect of the magnetic field on the surface emission and environment of the neutron star, and possible interpretations of a radio-quiet Geminga. The implications of the other gamma-ray pulsars which were discovered to have high gamma-ray efficiency are also discussed, and the remaining unidentified COS B sources are attributed to a population of efficient gamma-ray sources, some of which may be radio quiet.

  8. Radioistopes to Solar to High Energy Accelerators - Chip-Scale Energy Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, Amit

    2013-12-01

    This talk will present MEMS based power sources that utilize radioisotopes, solar energy, and potentially nuclear energy through advancements in integration of new structures and materials within MEMS. Micro power harvesters can harness power from vibration, radioisotopes, light, sound, and biology may provide pathways to minimize or even eliminate batteries in sensor nodes. In this talk work on radioisotope thin films for MEMS will be include the self-reciprocating cantilever, betavoltaic cells, and high DC voltages. The self-reciprocating cantilever energy harvester allows small commercially viable amounts of radioisotopes to generate mW to Watts of power so that very reliable power sources that last 100s of years are possible. The tradeoffs between reliability and potential stigma with radioisotopes allow one to span a useful design space with reliability as a key parameter. These power sources provide pulsed power at three different time scales using mechanical, RF, and static extraction of energy from collected charge. Multi-use capability, both harvesting radioisotope power and local vibration energy extends the reliability of micro-power sources further.

  9. Molecular ion sources for low energy semiconductor ion implantation (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hershcovitch, A.; Gushenets, V. I.; Seleznev, D. N.; Bugaev, A. S.; Dugin, S.; Oks, E. M.; Kulevoy, T. V.; Alexeyenko, O.; Kozlov, A.; Kropachev, G. N.; Kuibeda, R. P.; Minaev, S.; Vizir, A.; Yushkov, G. Yu.

    2016-02-01

    Smaller semiconductors require shallow, low energy ion implantation, resulting space charge effects, which reduced beam currents and production rates. To increase production rates, molecular ions are used. Boron and phosphorous (or arsenic) implantation is needed for P-type and N-type semiconductors, respectively. Carborane, which is the most stable molecular boron ion leaves unacceptable carbon residue on extraction grids. A self-cleaning carborane acid compound (C4H12B10O4) was synthesized and utilized in the ITEP Bernas ion source resulting in large carborane ion output, without carbon residue. Pure gaseous processes are desired to enable rapid switch among ion species. Molecular phosphorous was generated by introducing phosphine in dissociators via 4PH3 = P4 + 6H2; generated molecular phosphorous in a pure gaseous process was then injected into the HCEI Calutron-Bernas ion source, from which P4+ ion beams were extracted. Results from devices and some additional concepts are described.

  10. Carbon and Energy Sources for the Nitrifying Autotroph Nitrobacter

    PubMed Central

    Delwiche, C. C.; Finstein, M. S.

    1965-01-01

    Delwiche, C. C. (University of California, Davis), and M. S. Finstein. Carbon and energy sources for the nitrifying autotroph Nitrobacter. J. Bacteriol. 90:102–107. 1965.—The effect of various organic compounds on the growth and metabolism of the obligatively autotrophic nitrifying organism Nitrobacter was studied. A slight stimulation of both nitrification and growth was obtainable with a number of organic amendments, including yeast extract, Vitamin Free Casamino Acids, and some amino acids. Depending upon culture conditions, a strong stimulation of growth was obtained with acetate as an amendment to the culture solution. Several compounds, including valine, hydroxyproline, and threonine, were inhibitory at concentrations of 10−3m. The incorporation of carbon from isotopically labeled organic compounds was demonstrated. Acetate and glycine were particularly strong contributors to cell carbons. These could not substitute for carbon dioxide as a sole carbon source for growth, however, nor could any other of the carbon compounds that were tried. PMID:16562002

  11. Molecular ion sources for low energy semiconductor ion implantation (invited).

    PubMed

    Hershcovitch, A; Gushenets, V I; Seleznev, D N; Bugaev, A S; Dugin, S; Oks, E M; Kulevoy, T V; Alexeyenko, O; Kozlov, A; Kropachev, G N; Kuibeda, R P; Minaev, S; Vizir, A; Yushkov, G Yu

    2016-02-01

    Smaller semiconductors require shallow, low energy ion implantation, resulting space charge effects, which reduced beam currents and production rates. To increase production rates, molecular ions are used. Boron and phosphorous (or arsenic) implantation is needed for P-type and N-type semiconductors, respectively. Carborane, which is the most stable molecular boron ion leaves unacceptable carbon residue on extraction grids. A self-cleaning carborane acid compound (C4H12B10O4) was synthesized and utilized in the ITEP Bernas ion source resulting in large carborane ion output, without carbon residue. Pure gaseous processes are desired to enable rapid switch among ion species. Molecular phosphorous was generated by introducing phosphine in dissociators via 4PH3 = P4 + 6H2; generated molecular phosphorous in a pure gaseous process was then injected into the HCEI Calutron-Bernas ion source, from which P4(+) ion beams were extracted. Results from devices and some additional concepts are described.

  12. ULTRA-LOW-ENERGY HIGH-CURRENT ION SOURCE

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre; Yushkov, Georgy Yu.; Baldwin, David A.

    2009-11-20

    The technical objective of the project was to develop an ultra-low-energy, high-intensity ion source (ULEHIIS) for materials processing in high-technology fields including semiconductors, micro-magnetics and optics/opto-electronics. In its primary application, this ion source can be incorporated into the 4Wave thin-film deposition technique called biased target ion-beam deposition (BTIBD), which is a deposition technique based on sputtering (without magnetic field, i.e., not the typical magnetron sputtering). It is a technological challenge because the laws of space charge limited current (Child-Langmuir) set strict limits of how much current can be extracted from a reservoir of ions, such as a suitable discharge plasma. The solution to the problem was an innovative dual-discharge system without the use of extraction grids.

  13. Status report on the Low Energy Neutron Source for 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, D. V.; Rinckel, T.

    2016-11-01

    The Low Energy Neutron Source at Indiana University first produced cold neutrons in April of 2005. Ten years after first reaching this milestone, the facility has three instruments in operation on its cold target station, and a second target station is devoted to thermal and fast neutron physics offers capabilities in radiation effects research (single-event effects in electronics) and radiography. Key elements in our success over these last ten years have been the diversity of activities we have been able maintain (which often involves using each of our instruments for multiple different activities), the close relationship we have developed with a number of major sources, and the focus we have had on innovation in neutron instrumentation. In this presentation, we will introduce some of the highlights from our most recent activities, provide an update on some of our technical challenges, and describe some of our ideas for the future.

  14. Energy Efficient and Stable Weight Based Clustering for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouk, Safdar H.; Sasase, Iwao

    Recently several weighted clustering algorithms have been proposed, however, to the best of our knowledge; there is none that propagates weights to other nodes without weight message for leader election, normalizes node parameters and considers neighboring node parameters to calculate node weights. In this paper, we propose an Energy Efficient and Stable Weight Based Clustering (EE-SWBC) algorithm that elects cluster heads without sending any additional weight message. It propagates node parameters to its neighbors through neighbor discovery message (HELLO Message) and stores these parameters in neighborhood list. Each node normalizes parameters and efficiently calculates its own weight and the weights of neighboring nodes from that neighborhood table using Grey Decision Method (GDM). GDM finds the ideal solution (best node parameters in neighborhood list) and calculates node weights in comparison to the ideal solution. The node(s) with maximum weight (parameters closer to the ideal solution) are elected as cluster heads. In result, EE-SWBC fairly selects potential nodes with parameters closer to ideal solution with less overhead. Different performance metrics of EE-SWBC and Distributed Weighted Clustering Algorithm (DWCA) are compared through simulations. The simulation results show that EE-SWBC maintains fewer average numbers of stable clusters with minimum overhead, less energy consumption and fewer changes in cluster structure within network compared to DWCA.

  15. Higher Daily Energy Expenditure and Respiratory Quotient, Rather Than Fat-Free Mass, Independently Determine Greater ad Libitum Overeating

    PubMed Central

    Thearle, Marie S.; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Body fat-free mass (FFM), energy expenditure (EE), and respiratory quotient (RQ) are known predictors of daily food intake. Because FFM largely determines EE, it is unclear whether body composition per se or the underlying metabolism drives dietary intake. Objective: The objective of the study was to test whether 24-hour measures of EE and RQ and their components influence ad libitum food intake independently of FFM. Design and Participants: One hundred seven healthy individuals (62 males/45 females, 84 Native Americans/23 whites; age 33 ± 8 y; body mass index 33 ± 8 kg/m2; body fat 31% ± 8%) had 24-hour measures of EE in a whole-room indirect calorimeter during energy balance, followed by 3 days of ad libitum food intake using computerized vending machine systems. Body composition was estimated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Main Outcome Measures: FFM, 24-hour EE, RQ, spontaneous physical activity, sleeping EE (sleeping metabolic rate), awake and fed thermogenesis, and ad libitum food intake (INTAKE) were measured. Results: Higher 24-hour RQ (P < .001, partial R2 = 16%) and EE (P = .01, partial R2 = 7%), but not FFM (P = .65), were independent predictors of INTAKE. Mediation analysis demonstrated that 24-hour EE is responsible for 80% of the FFM effect on INTAKE (44.5 ± 16.9 kcal ingested per kilogram of FFM, P= .01), whereas the unique effect due to solely FFM was negligible (10.6 ± 23.2, P = .65). Spontaneous physical activity (r = 0.33, P = .001), but not sleeping metabolic rate (P = .71), positively predicted INTAKE, whereas higher awake and fed thermogenesis determined greater INTAKE only in subjects with a body mass index of 29 kg/m2 or less (r = 0.44, P = .01). Conclusions: EE and RQ, rather than FFM, independently determine INTAKE, suggesting that competitive energy-sensing mechanisms driven by the preferential macronutrient oxidation and total energy demands may regulate food intake. PMID:26086330

  16. Thermospheric Density Model Including High-Latitude Energy Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moe, O. K.; Moe, M. M.

    2006-12-01

    As was predicted long ago by Sydney Chapman, there is a major contribution to thermospheric energy from the magnetosphere at all times. The contribution of this magnetospheric energy source produces a neutral density bulge at high latitudes even during geomagnetically quiet times. We present an analytical, semi- empirical model of the global neutral density at such quiet times. The total density is expressed as the sum of two terms: The first term describes the combined effects of the solar ultra-violet heating and various other contributions like the semi-annual variation; the second term gives the contribution to the density associated with particle precipitation and joule heating coming from magnetospheric sources during times of low geomagnetic activity. The region of density enhancement at high latitudes is associated with the locations of the dayside cusps. Therefore the model produces a density distribution which depends on universal time as well as on altitude, latitude, local time, and the usual solar UV energy source. The numerical values of the parameters in the empirical model were originally determined 30 years ago from density data collected by the Bell-MESA accelerometer on the LOGACS satellite and the pressure gauge on the SPADES satellite. As an example of the model output, we show a Mercator projection of the global density distribution at 400 km altitude at 12 hours GMT in late May at a time of moderate solar activity and low geomagnetic activity. The parameters in the model can now be substantially improved by using recent advances like the latest description of the semi-annual variation and by incorporating the precise density measurements made by the accelerometers on board the CHAMP and GRACE satellites. In the original model, density values at times of high geomagnetic activity were included in the second density term. The parameters in that term can also be improved as accurate storm-time densities become available.

  17. Designing and Testing Energy Harvesters Suitable for Renewable Power Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Synkiewicz, B.; Guzdek, P.; Piekarski, J.; Zaraska, K.

    2016-01-01

    Energy harvesters convert waste power (heat, light and vibration) directly to electric power . Fast progress in their technology, design and areas of application (e.g. “Internet of Things”) has been observed recently. Their effectiveness is steadily growing which makes their application to powering sensor networks with wireless data transfer reasonable. The main advantage is the independence from wired power sources, which is especially important for monitoring state of environmental parameters. In this paper we describe the design and realization of a gas sensor monitoring CO level (powered by TEG) and two, designed an constructed in ITE, autonomous power supply modules powered by modern photovoltaic cells.

  18. Prospects for inertial fusion as an energy source

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, W.J.

    1989-06-26

    Progress in the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program has been very rapid in the last few years. Target physics experiments with laboratory lasers and in underground nuclear tests have shown that the drive conditions necessary to achieve high gain can be achieved in the laboratory with a pulse-shaped driver of about 10 MJ. Requirements and designs for a Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF) have been formulated. Research on driver technology necessary for an ICF reactor is making progress. Prospects for ICF as an energy source are very promising. 11 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Stochastic Optimal Scheduling of Residential Appliances with Renewable Energy Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Hongyu; Pratt, Annabelle; Chakraborty, Sudipta

    2015-07-03

    This paper proposes a stochastic, multi-objective optimization model within a Model Predictive Control (MPC) framework, to determine the optimal operational schedules of residential appliances operating in the presence of renewable energy source (RES). The objective function minimizes the weighted sum of discomfort, energy cost, total and peak electricity consumption, and carbon footprint. A heuristic method is developed for combining different objective components. The proposed stochastic model utilizes Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) for representing uncertainties in electricity price, outdoor temperature, RES generation, water usage, and non-controllable loads. The proposed model is solved using a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) solver and numerical results show the validity of the model. Case studies show the benefit of using the proposed optimization model.

  20. A low energy ion source for electron capture spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tusche, C; Kirschner, J

    2014-06-01

    We report on the design of an ion source for the production of single and double charged Helium ions with kinetic energies in the range from 300 eV down to 5 eV. The construction is based on a commercial sputter ion gun equipped with a Wien-filter for mass/charge separation. Retardation of the ions from the ionizer potential (2 keV) takes place completely within the lens system of the sputter gun, without modification of original parts. For 15 eV He(+) ions, the design allows for beam currents up to 30 nA, limited by the space charge repulsion in the beam. For He(2 +) operation, we obtain a beam current of 320 pA at 30 eV, and 46 pA at 5 eV beam energy, respectively. In addition, operating parameters can be optimized for a significant contribution of metastable He*(+) (2s) ions.

  1. Conceptual Architecture of Building Energy Management Open Source Software (BEMOSS)

    SciTech Connect

    Khamphanchai, Warodom; Saha, Avijit; Rathinavel, Kruthika; Kuzlu, Murat; Pipattanasomporn, Manisa; Rahman, Saifur; Akyol, Bora A.; Haack, Jereme N.

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a conceptual architecture of a Building Energy Management Open Source Software (BEMOSS) platform. The proposed BEMOSS platform is expected to improve sensing and control of equipment in small- and medium-sized buildings, reduce energy consumption and help implement demand response (DR). It aims to offer: scalability, robustness, plug and play, open protocol, interoperability, cost-effectiveness, as well as local and remote monitoring. In this paper, four essential layers of BEMOSS software architecture -- namely User Interface, Application and Data Management, Operating System and Framework, and Connectivity layers -- are presented. A laboratory test bed to demonstrate the functionality of BEMOSS located at the Advanced Research Institute of Virginia Tech is also briefly described.

  2. Electrochemical Energy Storage and Power Sources for NASA Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Richard S.

    2007-01-01

    An overview of NASA s electrochemical energy storage programs for NASA Exploration missions is being presented at the 10th Electrochemical Power Sources R&D Symposium, which is being held in Williamsburg, VA on August 20-23, 2007. This public domain venue, which is sponsored by the U.S. Navy and held every two years, serves as a forum for the dissemination of research and development results related to electrochemical energy storage technology programs that are currently being supported and managed within governmental agencies. Technology areas of primary interest include batteries, fuel cells, and both overview and focused presentations on such are given by both governmental and contractual researchers. The forum also provides an opportunity to assess technology areas of mutual interest with respect to establishing collaborative and/or complementary programmatic interactions.

  3. Oil, gas dominant sources of energy in U. S

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanhoe, L.F. )

    1991-09-30

    This paper reports on the U.S. oil and gas industry which has a major problem in how to communicate with the general public about the importance of oil and gas to the economy. Oil is the country's basic fuel, so ubiquitous that it is taken for granted like water. Discussions of energy problems should accordingly begin with the global supply and price of crude rather than with the merits of solar or wind power. Petroleum geologists have done such a good job of finding oil and gas that it looks as easy as growing crops, and engineers deliver the petroleum products like clockwork. Novel alternate energy sources of only token significance to the national economy get equal or greater media coverage than the giant but unglamorous and routine petroleum operations until a spill or other accident occurs.

  4. Consequences of different dietary energy sources during follicular development on subsequent fertility of cyclic gilts.

    PubMed

    Almeida, F R C L; Machado, G S; Borges, A L C C; Rosa, B O; Fontes, D O

    2014-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary-induced insulin enhancement during the late luteal phase on subsequent fertility of gilts. Fifty-two littermate cyclic gilts were subjected to dietary treatments where two energy sources were tested: corn starch (T1) and soybean oil (T2). The experimental diets were supposed to provide similar amounts of dietary energy, but from different sources. Gilts were fed ad libitum, starting day 8 of the estrous cycle, until the next standing heat. Blood sampling was performed in a subgroup of 20 gilts on days 14 and 21 of the cycle for analyses of glucose and insulin, and after ovulation detection until 18 h after ovulation for progesterone. All gilts were slaughtered on day 28 of pregnancy and the reproductive tracts recovered for further analysis. T1 gilts showed higher postprandial insulin peak on days 14 and 21 and lower glucose levels 4 h after feeding on day 14 (P<0.05), however, there were no treatment effects on plasma progesterone concentrations. Dietary energy sources did not affect average daily feed intake, body weight and backfat on day 28 of pregnancy. Estrous cycle length, estrus duration and time of ovulation were not affected by previous nutritional treatments either. T1 gilts showed higher ovulation rates, number of embryos, embryo weight and placental weight (P<0.05). There were no treatment effects on pregnancy rate, embryo survival rate and volume of amniotic fluid. A positive correlation between progesterone concentration 18 h after ovulation and ovulation rate was observed (r=0.75; P<0.01). These results suggest that it is possible to manipulate dietary insulin response in cyclic gilts and, thus, improve reproductive efficiency when feeding starch as the main energy source during the late luteal and follicular phases of the cycle.

  5. Energy scaling of terahertz-wave parametric sources.

    PubMed

    Tang, Guanqi; Cong, Zhenhua; Qin, Zengguang; Zhang, Xingyu; Wang, Weitao; Wu, Dong; Li, Ning; Fu, Qiang; Lu, Qingming; Zhang, Shaojun

    2015-02-23

    Terahertz-wave parametric oscillators (TPOs) have advantages of room temperature operation, wide tunable range, narrow line-width, good coherence. They have also disadvantage of small pulse energy. In this paper, several factors preventing TPOs from generating high-energy THz pulses and the corresponding solutions are analyzed. A scheme to generate high-energy THz pulses by using the combination of a TPO and a Stokes-pulse-injected terahertz-wave parametric generator (spi-TPG) is proposed and demonstrated. A TPO is used as a source to generate a seed pulse for the surface-emitted spi-TPG. The time delay between the pump and Stokes pulses is adjusted to guarantee they have good temporal overlap. The pump pulses have a large pulse energy and a large beam size. The Stokes beam is enlarged to make its size be larger than the pump beam size to have a large effective interaction volume. The experimental results show that the generated THz pulse energy from the spi-TPG is 1.8 times as large as that obtained from the TPO for the same pumping pulse energy density of 0.90 J/cm(2) and the same pumping beam size of 3.0 mm. When the pumping beam sizes are 5.0 and 7.0 mm, the enhancement times are 3.7 and 7.5, respectively. The spi-TPG here is similar to a difference frequency generator; it can also be used as a Stokes pulse amplifier.

  6. Determination of biogas generation potential as a renewable energy source from supermarket wastes.

    PubMed

    Alkanok, Gizem; Demirel, Burak; Onay, Turgut T

    2014-01-01

    Fruit, vegetable, flower waste (FVFW), dairy products waste (DPW), meat waste (MW) and sugar waste (SW) obtained from a supermarket chain were anaerobically digested, in order to recover methane as a source of renewable energy. Batch mesophilic anaerobic reactors were run at total solids (TS) ratios of 5%, 8% and 10%. The highest methane yield of 0.44 L CH4/g VS(added) was obtained from anaerobic digestion of wastes (FVFW+DPW+MW+SW) at 10% TS, with 66.4% of methane (CH4) composition in biogas. Anaerobic digestion of mixed wastes at 5% and 8% TS provided slightly lower methane yields of 0.41 and 0.40 L CH4/g VS(added), respectively. When the wastes were digested alone without co-substrate addition, the highest methane yield of 0.40 L CH4/g VS(added) was obtained from FVFW at 5% TS. Generally, although the volatile solids (VS) conversion percentages seemed low during the experiments, higher methane yields could be obtained from anaerobic digestion of supermarket wastes. A suitable carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio, proper adjustment of the buffering capacity and the addition of essential trace nutrients (such as Ni) could improve VS conversion and biogas production yields significantly.

  7. Portable radiation detection system for pulsed high energy photon sources

    SciTech Connect

    Harker, Y.D.; Lawrence, R.S.; Yoon, W.Y.

    1994-12-31

    Portable, battery-operated, radiation detection systems for measuring the intensity and energy characteristics of intense, pulsed photon sources (either high energy X-ray or gamma) have been developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. These field-deployable, suitcase-sized detection units are designed to measure and record the characteristics of a single radiation burst or multiple bursts from a pulsed ionizing radiation source. The recorded information can then be analyzed on a simple laptop computer at a location remote from the detection system and completely independent of the ongoing data acquisition process. Two detection unit designs are described. The first, called the MARK-1, has eight bismuth germanate (BGO) radiation detectors. Four of which are unshielded and have different thicknesses (diameters). The remaining four are the same size as the largest unshielded detector but have different thicknesses of lead shielding surrounding each detector. The second unit design, called the MARK-1 A, utilizes the same detection methodology as the MARK-1 but has ten BGO detectors instead of eight and utilizes a different method of amplifying detector signals enabling reduced overall size and weight of the detection unit. Both the detection system designs have sensitivity ranges from 3 x 10{sup {minus}9} cGy to 9 x 10{sup {minus}5} cGy per radiation burst. Experimental detection results will be presented and discussed along the systems` potential for commercial applications.

  8. Deep coal seams as a greener energy source: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranathunga, A. S.; Perera, M. S. A.; Ranjith, P. G.

    2014-12-01

    Today, coal and oil are the main energy sources used in the world. However, these sources will last for only a few decades. Hence, the investigation of possible energy sources to meet this crisis has become a crucial task. Coal bed methane (CBM) is a potential energy source which can be used to fulfil the energy demand. Since the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted to the atmosphere from the use of CBM is comparatively very low compared to conventional energy sources, it is also a potential mitigation option for global warming. This paper reviews CBM recovery techniques with particular emphasis on CO2-enhanced coal bed methane (CO2-ECBM) recovery. The paper reviews (1) conventional CBM recovery techniques and problems associated with them, (2) CBM production-enhancement methods, including hydro-fracturing and enhanced CBM recovery techniques, such as N2-ECBM and CO2-ECBM, (3) the importance of the CO2-ECBM technique compared to other methods and problems with it, (4) the effect of CO2 injection during the CO2-ECBM process on coal seam permeability and strength and (5) current CO2-ECBM field projects and their progress. Although conventional CBM recovery methods are simple (basically related to the drawdown of the reservoir pressure to release methane from it), they are inefficient for the recovery of a commercially viable amount of methane from coal seams. Therefore, to enhance methane production, several methods are used, such as hydro-fracturing and ECBM (N2-ECBM and CO2-ECBM). The CO2-ECBM process has a number of advantages compared to other methane recovery techniques, as it contributes to the mitigation of the atmospheric CO2 level, is safer and more economical. However, as a result of CO2 injection into the coal seam during the CO2-ECBM process, coal mass permeability and strength may be crucially changed, due to the coal matrix swelling associated with CO2 adsorption into the coal matrix. Both injecting CO2 properties (gas type, CO2 phase and pressure

  9. Postprandial appetite ratings are reproducible and moderately related to total day energy intakes, but not ad libitum lunch energy intakes, in healthy young women.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Amy J; Heap, Sarah; Ingram, Jessica; Law, Marron; Wright, Amanda J

    2016-04-01

    Reproducibility and validity testing of appetite ratings and energy intakes are needed in experimental and natural settings. Eighteen healthy young women ate a standardized breakfast for 8 days. Days 1 and 8, they rated their appetite (Hunger, Fullness, Desire to Eat, Prospective Food Consumption (PFC)) over a 3.5 h period using visual analogue scales, consumed an ad libitum lunch, left the research center and recorded food intake for the remainder of the day. Days 2-7, participants rated their at-home Hunger at 0 and 30 min post-breakfast and recorded food intake for the day. Total area under the curve (AUC) over the 180 min period before lunch, and energy intakes were calculated. Reproducibility of satiety measures between days was evaluated using coefficients of repeatability (CR), coefficients of variation (CV) and intra-class coefficients (ri). Correlation analysis was used to examine validity between satiety measures. AUCs for Hunger, Desire to Eat and PFC (ri = 0.73-0.78), ad libitum energy intakes (ri = 0.81) and total day energy intakes (ri​ = 0.48) were reproducible; fasted ratings were not. Average AUCs for Hunger, Desire to Eat and PFC, Desire to Eat at nadir and PFC at fasting, nadir and 180 min were correlated to total day energy intakes (r = 0.50-0.77, P < 0.05), but no ratings were correlated to lunch consumption. At-home Hunger ratings were weakly reproducible but not correlated to reported total energy intakes. Satiety ratings did not concur with next meal intake but PFC ratings may be useful predictors of intake. Overall, this study adds to the limited satiety research on women and challenges the accepted measures of satiety in an experimental setting.

  10. An evaluation of alternate energy sources for the Guyana energy crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankies, M.

    Hydropower, tidal power, and Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) are evaluated as energy sources for the economic development of Guyana. The realization of a 3000 MW hydropower scheme is expected to promote industries such as an aluminum smelting plant and an ammonium nitrate plant in the hinterland. A proposal is made for a tidal power plant on the Saint John River with a million kW capacity. Although Guyana's geological location and atmospheric conditions make it a favorable site for solar seapower, OTEC cannot be considered as a current alternative. It is concluded that hydropower will play an important role as an inexpensive source of energy for industry, and that tidal power will supply coastal areas and function as part of the sea-defense system.

  11. An Indian scenario on renewable and sustainable energy sources with emphasis on algae.

    PubMed

    Hemaiswarya, S; Raja, Rathinam; Carvalho, Isabel S; Ravikumar, R; Zambare, Vasudeo; Barh, Debmalya

    2012-12-01

    India is the fifth largest primary energy consumer and fourth largest petroleum consumer after USA, China, and Japan. Despite the global economic crisis, India's economy is expected to grow at 6 to 8 %/year. There is an extreme dependence on petroleum products with considerable risks and environmental issues. Petroleum-derived transport fuels are of limited availability and contribute to global warming, making renewable biofuel as the best alternative. The focus on biogas and biomass-based energy, such as bioethanol and biohydrogen, will enhance cost-effectiveness and provide an opportunity for the rural community. Among all energy sources, microalgae have received, so far, more attention due to their facile adaptability to grow in the photobioreactors or open ponds, high yields, and multiple applications. Microalgae can produce a substantial amount of triacylglycerols as a storage lipid under photooxidative stress or other adverse environmental conditions. In addition to renewable biofuels, they can provide different types of high-value bioproducts added to their advantages, such as higher photosynthetic efficiency, higher biomass production, and faster growth compared to any other energy crops. The viability of first-generation biofuels production is, however, questionable because of the conflict with food supply. In the future, biofuels should ideally create the environmental, economic, and social benefits to the communities and reflect energy efficiency so as to plan a road map for the industry to produce third-generation biofuels.

  12. Accounting Methodology for Source Energy of Non-Combustible Renewable Electricity Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Donohoo-Vallett, Paul

    2016-10-01

    As non-combustible sources of renewable power (wind, solar, hydro, and geothermal) do not consume fuel, the “source” (or “primary”) energy from these sources cannot be accounted for in the same manner as it is for fossil fuel sources. The methodology chosen for these technologies is important as it affects the perception of the relative size of renewable source energy to fossil energy, affects estimates of source-based building energy use, and overall source energy based metrics such as energy productivity. This memo reviews the methodological choices, outlines implications of each choice, summarizes responses to a request for information on this topic, and presents guiding principles for the U.S. Department of Energy, (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) to use to determine where modifying the current renewable source energy accounting method used in EERE products and analyses would be appropriate to address the issues raised above.

  13. Low energy ion beam dynamics of NANOGAN ECR ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sarvesh; Mandal, A.

    2016-04-01

    A new low energy ion beam facility (LEIBF) has been developed for providing the mass analyzed highly charged intense ion beams of energy ranging from a few tens of keV to a few MeV for atomic, molecular and materials sciences research. The new facility consists of an all permanent magnet 10 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source (NANOGAN) installed on a high voltage platform (400 kV) which provides large currents of multiply charged ion beams. Higher emittance at low energy of intense ion beam puts a tremendous challenge to the beam optical design of this facility. The beam line consists of mainly the electrostatic quadrupoles, an accelerating section, analyzing cum switching magnet and suitable beam diagnostics including vacuum components. The accelerated ion beam is analyzed for a particular mass to charge (m/q) ratio as well as guided to three different lines along 75°, 90° and 105° using a large acceptance analyzing cum switching magnet. The details of transverse beam optics to all the beam lines with TRANSPORT and GICOSY beam optics codes are being described. Field computation code, OPERA 3D has been utilized to design the magnets and electrostatic quadrupoles. A theoretical estimation of emittance for optimized geometry of ion source is given so as to form the basis of beam optics calculations. The method of quadrupole scan of the beam is used to characterize the emittance of the final beam on the target. The measured beam emittance increases with m/q ratios of various ion beams similar to the trend observed theoretically.

  14. Trimode Power Converter optimizes PV, diesel and battery energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osullivan, George; Bonn, Russell; Bower, Ward

    1994-12-01

    Conservatively, there are 100,000 localities in the world waiting for the benefits that electricity can provide, and many of these are in climates where sunshine is plentiful. With these locations in mind a prototype 30 kW hybrid system has been assembled at Sandia to prove the reliability and economics of photovoltaic, diesel and battery energy sources managed by an autonomous power converter. In the Trimode Power Converter the same power parts, four IGBT's with an isolation transformer and filter components, serve as rectifier and charger to charge the battery from the diesel; as a stand-alone inverter to convert PV and battery energy to AC; and, as a parallel inverter with the diesel-generator to accommodate loads larger than the rating of the diesel. Whenever the diesel is supplying the load, an algorithm assures that the diesel is running at maximum efficiency by regulating the battery charger operating point. Given the profile of anticipated solar energy, the cost of transporting diesel fuel to a remote location and a five year projection of load demand, a method to size the PV array, battery and diesel for least cost is developed.

  15. Non-ionic PAG behavior under high energy exposure sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Richard A.; Noga, David E.; Tolbert, Laren M.; Henderson, Clifford L.

    2009-03-01

    A series of non-ionic PAGs were synthesized and their acid generation efficiency measured under deep ultraviolet and electron beam exposures. The acid generation efficiency was determined with an on-wafer method that uses spectroscopic ellipsometry to measure the absorbance of an acid sensitive dye (Coumarin 6). Under DUV exposures, common ionic onium salt PAGs showed excellent photoacid generation efficiency, superior to most non-ionic PAGS tested in this work. In contrast, under 100 keV high energy e-beam exposures, almost all of the non-ionic PAGs showed significantly better acid generation performance than the ionic onium salt PAGs tested. In particular, one non-ionic PAG showed almost an order of magnitude improvement in the Dill C acid generation rate constant as compared to a triarylsulfonium PAG. The high energy acid generation efficiency was found to correlate well with the electron affinity of the PAGs, suggesting that improvements in PAG design can be predicted. Non-ionic PAGs merit further investigation as a means for producing higher sensitivity resists under high energy exposure sources.

  16. Don't forget alternate energy sources: biomass, geothermal, wind

    SciTech Connect

    Miskell, J.T.

    1981-01-01

    The United States is probably the most fortunate country in the world in terms of potential energy resources, and that is part of the problem in developing alternate sources. Which ones should be given preference, and which ones will give the quickest, most economic return on investment. The exploration of converting potential plant life to energy is already underway. One such plant is the milkweed. The milky latex substance of the weed contains 30% hydrocarbon and 70% water. About 7% to 10% of the plant weight is extractable crude oil. The unused plant residue can be processed to produce alcohol. In Utah, a milkweed project yielded 2.5 pounds of oil from 35 lbs. of milkweed. The California Commission is looking into the possibility of using two million tons of rice straw, now left in the fields to be burned. The basic thrust of geothermal activity is still the dry steam plants in the Geyser field in California, but the movement to develop more prevalent hot water persists. Binary production and the use of moderate hot water are gaining in acceptance. The government's goal for wind for the year 2000 is 2% of total energy usage. Both utility and consumer participation will be required to meet that goal. Utilities will have to install 20,000 to 30,000 large-scale machines and nearly 1 million would have to be installed by consumers for homes and farms. Movement is already underway.

  17. Improved design of proton source and low energy beam transport line for European Spallation Source

    SciTech Connect

    Neri, L. Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Ciavola, G.; Torrisi, G.; Cheymol, B.; Ponton, A.; Galatà, A.; Patti, G.; Gozzo, A.; Lega, L.

    2014-02-15

    The design update of the European Spallation Source (ESS) accelerator is almost complete and the construction of the prototype of the microwave discharge ion source able to provide a proton beam current larger than 70 mA to the 3.6 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) started. The source named PS-ESS (Proton Source for ESS) was designed with a flexible magnetic system and an extraction system able to merge conservative solutions with significant advances. The ESS injector has taken advantage of recent theoretical updates and new plasma diagnostics tools developed at INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). The design strategy considers the PS-ESS and the low energy beam transport line as a whole, where the proton beam behaves like an almost neutralized non-thermalized plasma. Innovative solutions have been used as hereinafter described. Thermo-mechanical optimization has been performed to withstand the chopped beam and the misaligned focused beam over the RFQ input collimator; the results are reported here.

  18. Improved design of proton source and low energy beam transport line for European Spallation Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neri, L.; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Torrisi, G.; Cheymol, B.; Ponton, A.; Galatà, A.; Patti, G.; Gozzo, A.; Lega, L.; Ciavola, G.

    2014-02-01

    The design update of the European Spallation Source (ESS) accelerator is almost complete and the construction of the prototype of the microwave discharge ion source able to provide a proton beam current larger than 70 mA to the 3.6 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) started. The source named PS-ESS (Proton Source for ESS) was designed with a flexible magnetic system and an extraction system able to merge conservative solutions with significant advances. The ESS injector has taken advantage of recent theoretical updates and new plasma diagnostics tools developed at INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). The design strategy considers the PS-ESS and the low energy beam transport line as a whole, where the proton beam behaves like an almost neutralized non-thermalized plasma. Innovative solutions have been used as hereinafter described. Thermo-mechanical optimization has been performed to withstand the chopped beam and the misaligned focused beam over the RFQ input collimator; the results are reported here.

  19. High-energy sources at low radio frequency: the Murchison Widefield Array view of Fermi blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giroletti, M.; Massaro, F.; D'Abrusco, R.; Lico, R.; Burlon, D.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Morgan, J.; Pavlidou, V.; Bell, M.; Bernardi, G.; Bhat, R.; Bowman, J. D.; Briggs, F.; Cappallo, R. J.; Corey, B. E.; Deshpande, A. A.; Ewall-Rice, A.; Emrich, D.; Gaensler, B. M.; Goeke, R.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hazelton, B. J.; Hindson, L.; Kaplan, D. L.; Kasper, J. C.; Kratzenberg, E.; Feng, L.; Jacobs, D.; Kudryavtseva, N.; Lenc, E.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Lynch, M. J.; McKinley, B.; McWhirter, S. R.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morales, M. F.; Morgan, E.; Oberoi, D.; Offringa, A. R.; Ord, S. M.; Pindor, B.; Prabu, T.; Procopio, P.; Riding, J.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Roshi, A.; Udaya Shankar, N.; Srivani, K. S.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Tingay, S. J.; Waterson, M.; Wayth, R. B.; Webster, R. L.; Whitney, A. R.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Low-frequency radio arrays are opening a new window for the study of the sky, both to study new phenomena and to better characterize known source classes. Being flat-spectrum sources, blazars are so far poorly studied at low radio frequencies. Aims: We characterize the spectral properties of the blazar population at low radio frequency, compare the radio and high-energy properties of the gamma-ray blazar population, and search for radio counterparts of unidentified gamma-ray sources. Methods: We cross-correlated the 6100 deg2 Murchison Widefield Array Commissioning Survey catalogue with the Roma blazar catalogue, the third catalogue of active galactic nuclei detected by Fermi-LAT, and the unidentified members of the entire third catalogue of gamma-ray sources detected by Fermi-LAT. When available, we also added high-frequency radio data from the Australia Telescope 20 GHz catalogue. Results: We find low-frequency counterparts for 186 out of 517 (36%) blazars, 79 out of 174 (45%) gamma-ray blazars, and 8 out of 73 (11%) gamma-ray blazar candidates. The mean low-frequency (120-180 MHz) blazar spectral index is ⟨αlow⟩ = 0.57 ± 0.02: blazar spectra are flatter than the rest of the population of low-frequency sources, but are steeper than at ~GHz frequencies. Low-frequency radio flux density and gamma-ray energy flux display a mildly significant and broadly scattered correlation. Ten unidentified gamma-ray sources have a (probably fortuitous) positional match with low radio frequency sources. Conclusions: Low-frequency radio astronomy provides important information about sources with a flat radio spectrum and high energy. However, the relatively low sensitivity of the present surveys still misses a significant fraction of these objects. Upcoming deeper surveys, such as the GaLactic and Extragalactic All-Sky MWA (GLEAM) survey, will provide further insight into this population. Tables 5-7 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http

  20. 77 FR 41873 - In the Matter of Alternative Energy Sources, Inc., Arlington Hospitality, Inc., Consolidated Oil...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION In the Matter of Alternative Energy Sources, Inc., Arlington Hospitality, Inc., Consolidated Oil... current and accurate information concerning the securities of Alternative Energy Sources, Inc. because...

  1. Sources of Mass and Energy Observed in Saturn's Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riofrio, L. M.

    2005-12-01

    EVIDENCE from the laboratory of Saturn's Rings solves riddles of planet formation. Observations by Cassini and other spacecraft show conditions similiar to the birth of our Solar System. These observations lead to new theories of small-body accretion. Applications have benefits for physics and energy on Earth. There have been several open questions regarding the planets. Most puzzling is the formation of mountain-sized planetesimals from protostellar dust, for these objects could not form naturally. Power source of the "dynamo" generating planetary magnetic fields was also unknown. Internal heat generated by planets and even small moons is an additional mystery. These riddles may be explained by presence of primordial singularities in the Solar System's formation. Saturn's Rings are a field of ice in which the tracks of these objects may be seen. The Cassini spacecraft has returned many fascinating images of the Rings. We now know them to be home to massive unseen objects. Satellite objects glimpsed in the Encke and Keeler gaps show behaviour unlike moons of rock or ice. Discrete trails of dirt and molecular oxygen indicate radiation discharge emanating from these objects. Similiar trails photographed in Cassini's Division indicate massive objects where no large object has been sighted visually. We must consider whether the Rings could be a home to singularities. It is generally agreed the primordial singularities were created shortly after the Big Bang, and exist in unknown numbers today. Presence of these objects in the Solar System's formation would have seeded formation of planetesimals and larger bodies. Their hidden presence would explain both planetary magnetic fields and internal heat sources. They would also explain the Ring's presence and longetivity. The most convincing evidence for singularities would be radiation discharge. Observation of a polar "hot spot" on Enceladus can not be explained by old theories of radioactive decay. The only feasible source

  2. High Energy Density Science at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R W

    2007-10-19

    High energy density science (HEDS), as a discipline that has developed in the United States from National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA)-sponsored laboratory research programs, is, and will remain, a major component of the NNSA science and technology strategy. Its scientific borders are not restricted to NNSA. 'Frontiers in High Energy Density Physics: The X-Games of Contemporary Science' identified numerous exciting scientific opportunities in this field, while pointing to the need for a overarching interagency plan for its evolution. Meanwhile, construction of the first x-ray free-electron laser, the Office-of-Science-funded Linear Coherent Light Source-LCLS: the world's first free electron x-ray laser, with 100-fsec time resolution, tunable x-ray energies, a high rep rate, and a 10 order-of-magnitude increase in brightness over any other x-ray source--led to the realization that the scientific needs of NNSA and the broader scientific community could be well served by an LCLS HEDS endstation employing both short-pulse and high-energy optical lasers. Development of this concept has been well received in the community. NNSA requested a workshop on the applicability of LCLS to its needs. 'High Energy Density Science at the LCLS: NNSA Defense Programs Mission Need' was held in December 2006. The workshop provided strong support for the relevance of the endstation to NNSA strategic requirements. The range of science that was addressed covered a wide swath of the vast HEDS phase space. The unique possibilities provided by the LCLS in areas of intense interest to NNSA Defense Programs were discussed. The areas of focus included warm dense matter and equations of state, hot dense matter, and behavior of high-pressure materials under conditions of high strain-rate and extreme dynamic loading. Development of new and advanced diagnostic techniques was also addressed. This report lays out the relevant science, as brief summaries (Ch. II), expanded descriptions (Ch. V), and a

  3. Organic Acids as Hetrotrophic Energy Sources in Hydrothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windman, T. O.; Zolotova, N.; Shock, E.

    2004-12-01

    minerals, sulfide, carbon monoxide or methane in Yellowstone hot springs. This difference suggests that small organic compounds in hydrothermal fluids can be major sources of metabolic energy for microbes, and may explain why so many heterotrophs are found in themophilic microbial culture experiments.

  4. HIGH INTENSITY LOW-ENERGY POSITRON SOURCE AT JEFFERSON

    SciTech Connect

    Serkan Golge, Bogdan Wojtsekhowski, Branislav Vlahovic

    2012-07-01

    We present a novel concept of a low-energy e{sup +} source with projected intensity on the order of 10{sup 10} slow e{sup +}/s. The key components of this concept are a continuous wave e{sup -} beam, a rotating positron-production target, a synchronized raster/anti-raster, a transport channel, and extraction of e{sup +} into a field-free area through a magnetic plug for moderation in a cryogenic solid. Components were designed in the framework of GEANT4-based (G4beamline) Monte Carlo simulation and TOSCA magnetic field calculation codes. Experimental data to demonstrate the effectiveness of the magnetic plug is presented.

  5. Influence of coal as an energy source on environmental pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Balat, M.

    2007-07-01

    This article considers the influence of coal energy on environmental pollution. Coal is undoubtedly part of the greenhouse problem. The main emissions from coal combustion are sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulates, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and mercury (Hg). Since 1980, despite a 36% increase in electricity generation and more than a 50% increase in coal use, electric utility SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions have declined significantly. Globally, the largest source of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is CO{sub 2} from the combustion of fossil fuels - around 75% of total GHG emissions covered under the Kyoto Protocol. At the present time, coal is responsible for 30-40% of world CO{sub 2} emission from fossil fuels.

  6. Hybrid Design of Electric Power Generation Systems Including Renewable Sources of Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lingfeng; Singh, Chanan

    2008-01-01

    With the stricter environmental regulations and diminishing fossil-fuel reserves, there is now higher emphasis on exploiting various renewable sources of energy. These alternative sources of energy are usually environmentally friendly and emit no pollutants. However, the capital investments for those renewable sources of energy are normally high,…

  7. Axion-Like particles from extragalactic High Energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, J.; Meyer, M.; Montanino, D.

    2016-05-01

    Background radiation fields (such as Extragalactic Background Light, EBL, or Cosmic Microwave Background, CMB) pervade the Universe. Above a certain energy any gamma ray flux emitted by an extragalactic source should be attenuated by the process γ+ γ(bgk) → e + + e - pair production. We have considered a scenario in which the photons are partly converted into light Axion Like Particles (ALPs) in the local magnetic field of an (extragalactic) source. Then, while the unconverted fraction of photons undergo absorption, the ALP component travel to our galaxy where is converted back to photons by the galactic magnetic field resulting in a sort of cosmic light shining through wall effect. In particular, we have considered two scenarios: 1) conversion in the turbulent magnetic field inside a galaxy cluster; and 2) conversion of photons in the coherent magnetic field at parsec scales in a Blazar jet. Afterwards, we have also analyzed mock data coming from a hypothetical Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescopes (IACT) array with characteristics similar to the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) and we have investigated the dependence of the sensitivity to detect a gamma ray excess on the magnetic field parameters.

  8. Molecular ion sources for low energy semiconductor ion implantation (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Hershcovitch, A.; Gushenets, V. I.; Bugaev, A. S.; Oks, E. M.; Vizir, A.; Yushkov, G. Yu.; Seleznev, D. N.; Kulevoy, T. V.; Kozlov, A.; Kropachev, G. N.; Kuibeda, R. P.; Minaev, S.; Dugin, S.; Alexeyenko, O.

    2016-02-15

    Smaller semiconductors require shallow, low energy ion implantation, resulting space charge effects, which reduced beam currents and production rates. To increase production rates, molecular ions are used. Boron and phosphorous (or arsenic) implantation is needed for P-type and N-type semiconductors, respectively. Carborane, which is the most stable molecular boron ion leaves unacceptable carbon residue on extraction grids. A self-cleaning carborane acid compound (C{sub 4}H{sub 12}B{sub 10}O{sub 4}) was synthesized and utilized in the ITEP Bernas ion source resulting in large carborane ion output, without carbon residue. Pure gaseous processes are desired to enable rapid switch among ion species. Molecular phosphorous was generated by introducing phosphine in dissociators via 4PH{sub 3} = P{sub 4} + 6H{sub 2}; generated molecular phosphorous in a pure gaseous process was then injected into the HCEI Calutron-Bernas ion source, from which P{sub 4}{sup +} ion beams were extracted. Results from devices and some additional concepts are described.

  9. Energy spectrum of extragalactic gamma-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Protheroe, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    The result of Monte Carlo electron photon cascade calculations for propagation of gamma rays through regions of extragalactic space containing no magnetic field are given. These calculations then provide upper limits to the expected flux from extragalactic sources. Since gamma rays in the 10 to the 14th power eV to 10 to the 17th power eV energy range are of interest, interactions of electrons and photons with the 3 K microwave background radiation are considered. To obtain an upper limit to the expected gamma ray flux from sources, the intergalactic field is assumed to be so low that it can be ignored. Interactions with photons of the near-infrared background radiation are not considered here although these will have important implications for gamma rays below 10 to the 14th power eV if the near infrared background radiation is universal. Interaction lengths of electrons and photons in the microwave background radiation at a temperature of 2.96 K were calculated and are given.

  10. Hydrogen in rocks: an energy source for deep microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Freund, Friedemann; Dickinson, J Thomas; Cash, Michele

    2002-01-01

    To survive in deep subsurface environments, lithotrophic microbial communities require a sustainable energy source such as hydrogen. Though H2 can be produced when water reacts with fresh mineral surfaces and oxidizes ferrous iron, this reaction is unreliable since it depends upon the exposure of fresh rock surfaces via the episodic opening of cracks and fissures. A more reliable and potentially more voluminous H2 source exists in nominally anhydrous minerals of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Our experimental results indicate that H2 molecules can be derived from small amounts of H2O dissolved in minerals in the form of hydroxyl, OH- or O3Si-OH, whenever such minerals crystallized in an H2O-laden environment. Two types of experiments were conducted. Single crystal fracture experiments indicated that hydroxyl pairs undergo an in situ redox conversion to H2 molecules plus peroxy links, O3Si/OO\\SiO3. While the peroxy links become part of the mineral structure, the H2 molecules diffused out of the freshly fractured mineral surfaces. If such a mechanism occurred in natural settings, the entire rock column would become a volume source of H2. Crushing experiments to facilitate the outdiffusion of H2 were conducted with common crustal igneous rocks such as granite, andesite, and labradorite. At least 70 nmol of H2/g diffused out of coarsely crushed andesite, equivalent at standard pressure and temperature to 5,000 cm3 of H2/m3 of rock. In the water-saturated, biologically relevant upper portion of the rock column, the diffusion of H2 out of the minerals will be buffered by H2 saturation of the intergranular water film.

  11. Hydrogen in rocks: an energy source for deep microbial communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, Friedemann; Dickinson, J. Thomas; Cash, Michele

    2002-01-01

    To survive in deep subsurface environments, lithotrophic microbial communities require a sustainable energy source such as hydrogen. Though H2 can be produced when water reacts with fresh mineral surfaces and oxidizes ferrous iron, this reaction is unreliable since it depends upon the exposure of fresh rock surfaces via the episodic opening of cracks and fissures. A more reliable and potentially more voluminous H2 source exists in nominally anhydrous minerals of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Our experimental results indicate that H2 molecules can be derived from small amounts of H2O dissolved in minerals in the form of hydroxyl, OH- or O3Si-OH, whenever such minerals crystallized in an H2O-laden environment. Two types of experiments were conducted. Single crystal fracture experiments indicated that hydroxyl pairs undergo an in situ redox conversion to H2 molecules plus peroxy links, O3Si/OO\\SiO3. While the peroxy links become part of the mineral structure, the H2 molecules diffused out of the freshly fractured mineral surfaces. If such a mechanism occurred in natural settings, the entire rock column would become a volume source of H2. Crushing experiments to facilitate the outdiffusion of H2 were conducted with common crustal igneous rocks such as granite, andesite, and labradorite. At least 70 nmol of H2/g diffused out of coarsely crushed andesite, equivalent at standard pressure and temperature to 5,000 cm3 of H2/m3 of rock. In the water-saturated, biologically relevant upper portion of the rock column, the diffusion of H2 out of the minerals will be buffered by H2 saturation of the intergranular water film.

  12. Energy Sources for Yotta-TeV Iceberg Showers

    SciTech Connect

    MacAyeal, Douglas

    2013-05-01

    In late February of 2002, warming climate along the Antarctic Peninsula triggered a macroscopic particle acceleration event that smashed a 350 Gkg floating ice shelf, called the Larsen B. The particle shower released by the acceleration involved on the order of >10^6 iceberg particles accelerated to an aggregate total kinetic energy of ~10^17 J (100 Mt TNT equivalent). The explosion was so extreme that it caught glaciological science by surprise (an injury to the egos of glaciologists worldwide) and caused glaciers of the Antarctic Peninsula formerly buttressed by the missing ice shelf to surge (yielding a small increment to sea level rise). In this presentation, I shall describe research, both experimental and field oriented, that has revealed the energy source for this explosive event. I shall also describe how climate warming has the capacity to trigger this type of ice-shelf collapse. A review of the geologic record of ice-rafted debris on the ocean floor suggests that extreme, explosive ice-shelf collapse may be a ubiquitous catastrophe that has happened regularly in the past as part of glacial/interglacial climate cycles.

  13. Prepartum dietary energy source fed to beef cows: I. Effects on pre- and postpartum cow performance.

    PubMed

    Radunz, A E; Fluharty, F L; Day, M L; Zerby, H N; Loerch, S C

    2010-08-01

    Mature Angus-cross beef cows (n = 144) were used to determine effects of late gestation dietary energy source on pre- and postpartum cow performance in a complete randomized block design experiment. Cows were adapted to diets starting at 167 +/- 9 d of gestation and fed until 1 wk before expected calving date. Cows were fed 1 of 3 dietary energy sources: grass hay (HY), corn (CN), or dried distillers grains (DDGS). Cows allotted to HY were allowed ad libitum access to round-bale grass hay, and average hay disappearance was 12.4 kg/d. Limit-fed corn and DDGS diets contained 5.3 kg of whole-shelled corn or 4.1 kg of DDGS, respectively, plus 2.1 kg of hay, and 1.0 kg of supplement to meet cow nutritional needs during late gestation and to allow for an energy intake similar to HY. Every 21 d, BW, BCS, and ultrasound measurement of backfat between the 12th and 13th ribs were collected. At 210 d in gestation, jugular blood samples were collected from cows at 0, 3, 6, and 9 h postfeeding and were analyzed for glucose, insulin, NEFA, and blood urea N (BUN) concentrations. After parturition, cows were fed a common diet and managed similarly. Milk production was determined by weigh-suckle-weigh procedure on d 31, 100, and 176 postpartum. Cows fed DDGS during late gestation gained more (P = 0.04) BW than cows fed HY or CN; however, no difference in BCS change was detected (P = 0.28) among treatments. Plasma glucose concentrations were similar among treatments (P = 0.64), whereas insulin concentrations at 3 h postfeeding were greater (P = 0.002) for cows fed DDGS than those fed HY or CN. Plasma BUN concentrations were greater (P < or = 0.02) for cows fed DDGS vs. CN or HY up to 6 h postfeeding. Birth weight was greater (P < 0.001) for calves from cows fed CN and DDGS than for those fed HY, but this did not result in any differences in frequency of dystocia (P = 0.21). Prepartum energy source did not affect conception rates (P = 0.79), milk production (P > or = 0.51), or milk

  14. Information systems and technology transfer programs on geothermal energy and other renewable sources of energy

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M.J.; Antunez, E.

    1996-01-01

    In order to remain competitive, it is necessary to stay informed and use the most advanced technologies available. Recent developments in communication, like the Internet and the World Wide Web, enormously facilitate worldwide data and technology transfer. A compilation of the most important sources of data on renewable energies, especially geothermal, as well as lists of relevant technology transfer programs are presented. Information on how to gain access to, and learn more about them, is also given.

  15. Information systems and technology transfer programs on geothermal energy and other renewable sources of energy

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, Marcelo J.; Antunez, Emilio u.

    1996-01-24

    In order to remain competitive it is necessary to stay informed and use the most advanced technologies available. Recent developments in communication, like the Internet and the World Wide Web, enormously facilitate worldwide data and technology transfer. A compilation of the most important sources of data on renewable energies, especially geothermal, as well as lists of relevant technology transfer programs are presented. Information on how to gain access to, and learn more about them is also given.

  16. Alternative Energy Sources for Heating the Stratospheres of Hot Jupiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marley, Mark S.; Zahnle, K.; Freedman, R.; Lodders, K.; Fortney, J.

    2009-09-01

    Spitzer Space Telescope observations have constrained the atmospheric thermal structure of many transiting extrasolar giant planets. Many of these planets, like their solar system cousins, apparently have hot stratospheres. It has been suggested that absorption in the optical by gaseous TiO and VO provides the necessary energy source to power their thermal emission. While this mechanism is certainly plausible in the hottest Jupiters, temperature inversions have also been observed in cooler planets in which TiO and VO should be condensed into grains. Motivated by the importance of photochemistry in producing important atmospheric absorbers in the solar system, we have explored the role of atmospheric sulfur photochemistry in hot Jupiter atmospheres. Our photochemical kinetics code was previously used to study various problems in solar system, including the aftermath of the S/L-9 impacts into Jupiter. We find that the optically active gases S2 and HS (mercapto) are generated photochemically and thermochemically at T > 1200 K from H2S with peak abundances between 1 and 10 mbar. S2 absorbs UV between 240 and 340 nm and is optically thick for metallicities higher than solar. HS is generally more abundant than S2 and absorbs between 300 and 460 nm. Together these species play an important role in the stratospheric energy budget of hot Jupiters and may provide a mechanism for producing temperature inversions under conditions where gaseous TiO and VO are not present. At lower temperatures, below 1200 K, we find that the atmospheric chemistry enters a different domain where the production of soots may be favored. Such soots may be responsible for the haze detected in the atmosphere of HD189733 and may also play a role in the stratospheric energy budgets of cooler planets.

  17. By-products: oil sorbents as a potential energy source.

    PubMed

    Karakasi, Olga K; Moutsatsou, Angeliki

    2013-04-01

    The present study investigated the utilization of an industrial by-product, lignite fly ash, in oil pollution treatment, with the further potential profit of energy production. The properties of lignite fly ash, such as fine particle size, porosity, hydrophobic character, combined with the properties, such as high porosity and low specific gravity, of an agricultural by-product, namely sawdust, resulted in an effective oil-sorbent material. The materials were mixed either in the dry state or in aqueous solution. The oil sorption behaviour of the fly ash-sawdust mixtures was investigated in both marine and dry environments. Mixtures containing fly ash and 15-25% w/w sawdust performed better than each material alone when added to oil spills in a marine environment, as they formed a cohesive semi-solid phase, adsorbing almost no water, floating on the water surface and allowing total oil removal. For the clean-up of an oil spill 0.5 mm thick with surface area 1000 m(2), 225-255 kg of lignite fly ash can be utilized with the addition of 15-25% w/w sawdust. Fly ash-sawdust mixtures have also proved efficient for oil spill clean-up on land, since their oil sorption capacity in dry conditions was at least 0.6-1.4 g oil g(-1) mixture. The higher calorific value of the resultant oil-fly ash-sawdust mixtures increased up to that of bituminous coal and oil and exceeded that of lignite, thereby encouraging their utilization as alternative fuels especially in the cement industry, suggesting that the remaining ash can contribute in clinker production.

  18. An investigation into active vibration isolation based on predictive control: Part I: Energy source control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, H. Z.; Zheng, G. T.; Liu, Z. G.

    2006-09-01

    We report the results of a recent study for the active vibration isolation with whole-spacecraft vibration isolation as an application background into which three parts are divided: (i) energy source control, (ii) nonlinearity and time delay, (iii) implementation and experiment. This paper is the first in this three-part series report, which presents theoretical and experimental investigations into pressure tracking system for energy source control of the isolator. Considering the special environment of the rocket and expected characteristics of actuators, where the isolator will be arranged between the rocket and the spacecraft, pneumatic actuator is proposed to realize the active isolation control. In order to improve the dynamic characteristics of the pneumatic isolator, a cascade control algorithm with double loop structure and predictive control algorithm for pressure tracking control of the inner loop are proposed. In the current paper, a pressure tracking control system using model predictive control (MPC) is studied first. A pneumatic model around pressure work point is built firstly by simplifying the flow equation of valve's orifices and pressure differential equation of the chambers. With this model, an MPC algorithm in the state space is developed, and problems including control parameter choice and command horizon generator are discussed in detail. In addition, by adding model error correction loop and velocity compensation feedback, effects of model uncertainty and volume variation of chambers are reduced greatly. Thus with this design, the real-time pressure tracking can be guaranteed, and so that the active control system can work at higher frequency range.

  19. A medium-chain fatty acid as an alternative energy source in mouse preimplantation development.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Mitsutoshi; Takanashi, Kazumi; Hamatani, Toshio; Hirayama, Akiyoshi; Akutsu, Hidenori; Fukunaga, Tomoko; Ogawa, Seiji; Sugawara, Kana; Shinoda, Kosaku; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Umezawa, Akihiro; Kuji, Naoaki; Yoshimura, Yasunori; Tomita, Masaru

    2012-01-01

    To further optimize the culturing of preimplantation embryos, we undertook metabolomic analysis of relevant culture media using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOFMS). We detected 28 metabolites: 23 embryo-excreted metabolites including 16 amino acids and 5 media-derived metabolites (e.g., octanoate, a medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA)). Due to the lack of information on MCFAs in mammalian preimplantation development, this study examined octanoate as a potential alternative energy source for preimplantation embryo cultures. No embryos survived in culture media lacking FAs, pyruvate, and glucose, but supplementation of octanoate rescued the embryonic development. Immunoblotting showed significant expression of acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, important enzymes for ß-oxidation of MCFAs, in preimplantation embryo. Furthermore, CE-TOFMS traced [1-(13)C(8)] octanoate added to the culture media into intermediate metabolites of the TCA cycle via ß-oxidation in mitochondria. These results are the first demonstration that octanoate could provide an efficient alternative energy source throughout preimplantation development.

  20. Spatiotemporal Modeling for Assessing Complementarity of Renewable Energy Sources in Distributed Energy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez Camargo, L.; Zink, R.; Dorner, W.

    2015-07-01

    Spatial assessments of the potential of renewable energy sources (RES) have become a valuable information basis for policy and decision-making. These studies, however, do not explicitly consider the variability in time of RES such as solar energy or wind. Until now, the focus is usually given to economic profitability based on yearly balances, which do not allow a comprehensive examination of RES-technologies complementarity. Incrementing temporal resolution of energy output estimation will permit to plan the aggregation of a diverse pool of RES plants i.e., to conceive a system as a virtual power plant (VPP). This paper presents a spatiotemporal analysis methodology to estimate RES potential of municipalities. The methodology relies on a combination of open source geographic information systems (GIS) processing tools and the in-memory array processing environment of Python and NumPy. Beyond the typical identification of suitable locations to build power plants, it is possible to define which of them are the best for a balanced local energy supply. A case study of a municipality, using spatial data with one square meter resolution and one hour temporal resolution, shows strong complementarity of photovoltaic and wind power. Furthermore, it is shown that a detailed deployment strategy of potential suitable locations for RES, calculated with modest computational requirements, can support municipalities to develop VPPs and improve security of supply.

  1. High fidelity nuclear energy system optimization towards an environmentally benign, sustainable, and secure energy source.

    SciTech Connect

    Tsvetkov, Pavel Valeryevich; Rodriguez, Salvador B.; Ames, David E., II; Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2009-09-01

    The impact associated with energy generation and utilization is immeasurable due to the immense, widespread, and myriad effects it has on the world and its inhabitants. The polar extremes are demonstrated on the one hand, by the high quality of life enjoyed by individuals with access to abundant reliable energy sources, and on the other hand by the global-scale environmental degradation attributed to the affects of energy production and use. Thus, nations strive to increase their energy generation, but are faced with the challenge of doing so with a minimal impact on the environment and in a manner that is self-reliant. Consequently, a revival of interest in nuclear energy has followed, with much focus placed on technologies for transmuting nuclear spent fuel. The performed research investigates nuclear energy systems that optimize the destruction of nuclear waste. In the context of this effort, nuclear energy system is defined as a configuration of nuclear reactors and corresponding fuel cycle components. The proposed system has unique characteristics that set it apart from other systems. Most notably the dedicated High-Energy External Source Transmuter (HEST), which is envisioned as an advanced incinerator used in combination with thermal reactors. The system is configured for examining environmentally benign fuel cycle options by focusing on minimization or elimination of high level waste inventories. Detailed high-fidelity exact-geometry models were developed for representative reactor configurations. They were used in preliminary calculations with Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtented (MCNPX) and Standardized Computer Analysis for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) code systems. The reactor models have been benchmarked against existing experimental data and design data. Simulink{reg_sign}, an extension of MATLAB{reg_sign}, is envisioned as the interface environment for constructing the nuclear energy system model by linking the individual reactor and fuel component sub

  2. 3rd Miami international conference on alternative energy sources

    SciTech Connect

    Nejat Veziroglu, T.

    1980-01-01

    The conference includes sessions on solar energy, ocean thermal energy, wind energy, hydro power, nuclear breeders and nuclear fusion, synthetic fuels from coal or wastes, hydrogen production and uses, formulation of workable policies on energy use and energy conservation, heat and energy storage, and energy education. The volume of the proceedings presents the papers and lectures in condensed format grouped by subject under forty-two sessions for 319 presentations.

  3. Design and commissioning of an aberration-corrected ultrafast spin-polarized low energy electron microscope with multiple electron sources.

    PubMed

    Wan, Weishi; Yu, Lei; Zhu, Lin; Yang, Xiaodong; Wei, Zheng; Liu, Jefferson Zhe; Feng, Jun; Kunze, Kai; Schaff, Oliver; Tromp, Ruud; Tang, Wen-Xin

    2016-12-27

    We describe the design and commissioning of a novel aberration-corrected low energy electron microscope (AC-LEEM). A third magnetic prism array (MPA) is added to the standard AC-LEEM with two prism arrays, allowing the incorporation of an ultrafast spin-polarized electron source alongside the standard cold field emission electron source, without degrading spatial resolution. The high degree of symmetries of the AC-LEEM are utilized while we design the electron optics of the ultrafast spin-polarized electron source, so as to minimize the deleterious effect of time broadening, while maintaining full control of electron spin. A spatial resolution of 2nm and temporal resolution of 10ps (ps) are expected in the future time resolved aberration-corrected spin-polarized LEEM (TR-AC-SPLEEM). The commissioning of the three-prism AC-LEEM has been successfully finished with the cold field emission source, with a spatial resolution below 2nm.

  4. Chemical Disequilibria and Sources of Gibbs Free Energy Inside Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolotov, M. Y.

    2010-12-01

    Non-photosynthetic organisms use chemical disequilibria in the environment to gain metabolic energy from enzyme catalyzed oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions. The presence of carbon dioxide, ammonia, formaldehyde, methanol, methane and other hydrocarbons in the eruptive plume of Enceladus [1] implies diverse redox disequilibria in the interior. In the history of the moon, redox disequilibria could have been activated through melting of a volatile-rich ice and following water-rock-organic interactions. Previous and/or present aqueous processes are consistent with the detection of NaCl and Na2CO3/NaHCO3-bearing grains emitted from Enceladus [2]. A low K/Na ratio in the grains [2] and a low upper limit for N2 in the plume [3] indicate low temperature (possibly < 273 K) of aqueous processes. Although many of the energetically favorable redox reactions are sluggish at low temperature, they could be catalyzed by enzymes if organisms were (are) present. The redox conditions in aqueous systems and amounts of available Gibbs free energy should have been affected by the production, consumption and escape of hydrogen. Aqueous oxidation of minerals (Fe-Ni metal, Fe-Ni phosphides, etc.) accreted on Enceladus should have led to H2 production, which is consistent with H2 detection in the plume [1]. Numerical evaluations based on concentrations of plume gases [1] reveal sufficient energy sources available to support metabolically diverse life at a wide range of activities (a) of dissolved H2 (log aH2 from 0 to -10). Formaldehyde, carbon dioxide [c.f. 4], HCN (if it is present), methanol, acetylene and other hydrocarbons have the potential to react with H2 to form methane. Aqueous hydrogenations of acetylene, HCN and formaldehyde to produce methanol are energetically favorable as well. Both favorable hydrogenation and hydration of HCN lead to formation of ammonia. Condensed organic species could also participate in redox reactions. Methane and ammonia are the final products of

  5. Chronology of Vesuvius' activity from A.D. 79 to 1631 based on archeomagnetism of lavas and historical sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Principe, Claudia; Tanguy, Jean Claude; Arrighi, Simone; Paiotti, Anna; Goff, Maxime Le; Zoppi, Ugo

    2004-12-01

    The activity of Vesuvius between A.D. 79 and 1631 has been investigated by means of precise archaeomagnetic dating of primary volcanic deposits and taking into account the stratigraphy of lavas and tephra, historical written accounts, archaeological evidence related to the developing urbanisation, and radiocarbon ages. We found that the historical records are highly useful in constraining the timing of the main events, even if the data are often too scarce and imprecise for ascertaining the details of all phases of activity, especially their magnitude and emplacement of all the deposit types. In addition, some eruptions that took place in the 9th and 10th centuries appear to be unnoticed by historians. The archaeomagnetic study involved 26 sites of different lavas and 2 pyroclastic deposits. It shows that within the 15 centuries which elapsed between A.D. 79 and 1631, the effusive activity of Vesuvius clustered in the relatively short period of time between A.D. 787 and 1139 and was followed by a 5-century-long repose period. During this time Vesuvius prepared itself for the violent explosive eruption of 1631. The huge lavas shaping the morphology of the coast occurred largely through parasitic vents located outside the Mount Somma caldera. One of these parasitic vents is located at low elevation, very close to the densely inhabited town of Torre Annunziata. Among the various investigated lavas, a number of which were previously attributed to the 1631 eruption, none is actually younger than the 12th century. Therefore it is definitively concluded that the destructive 1631 event was exclusively explosive.

  6. Solar-hydrogen energy as an alternative energy source for mobile robots and the new-age car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulaiman, A.; Inambao, F.; Bright, G.

    2014-07-01

    The disastrous effects of climate change as witnessed in recent violent storms, and the stark reality that fossil fuels are not going to last forever, is certain to create renewed demands for alternative energy sources. One such alternative source, namely solar energy, although unreliable because of its dependence on available sunlight, can nevertheless be utilised to generate a secondary source of energy, namely hydrogen, which can be stored and thereby provide a constant and reliable source of energy. The only draw-back with hydrogen, though, is finding efficient means for its storage. This study demonstrates how this problem can be overcome by the use of metal hydrides which offers a very compact and safe way of storing hydrogen. It also provides a case study of how solar and hydrogen energy can be combined in an energy system to provide an efficient source of energy that can be applied for modern technologies such as a mobile robot. Hydrogen energy holds out the most promise amongst the various alternative energy sources, so much so that it is proving to be the energy source of choice for automobile manufacturers in their quest for alternative fuels to power their cars of the future.

  7. Determination of biogas generation potential as a renewable energy source from supermarket wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Alkanok, Gizem; Demirel, Burak Onay, Turgut T.

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Disposal of supermarket wastes in landfills may contribute to environmental pollution. • High methane yields can be obtained from supermarket wastes by anaerobic co-digestion. • Fruit and vegetable wastes or dairy products wastes could individually be handled by a two-stage anaerobic process. • Buffering capacity, trace metal and C/N ratio are essential for digestion of supermarket wastes. - Abstract: Fruit, vegetable, flower waste (FVFW), dairy products waste (DPW), meat waste (MW) and sugar waste (SW) obtained from a supermarket chain were anaerobically digested, in order to recover methane as a source of renewable energy. Batch mesophilic anaerobic reactors were run at total solids (TS) ratios of 5%, 8% and 10%. The highest methane yield of 0.44 L CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added} was obtained from anaerobic digestion of wastes (FVFW + DPW + MW + SW) at 10% TS, with 66.4% of methane (CH{sub 4}) composition in biogas. Anaerobic digestion of mixed wastes at 5% and 8% TS provided slightly lower methane yields of 0.41 and 0.40 L CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added}, respectively. When the wastes were digested alone without co-substrate addition, the highest methane yield of 0.40 L CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added} was obtained from FVFW at 5% TS. Generally, although the volatile solids (VS) conversion percentages seemed low during the experiments, higher methane yields could be obtained from anaerobic digestion of supermarket wastes. A suitable carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio, proper adjustment of the buffering capacity and the addition of essential trace nutrients (such as Ni) could improve VS conversion and biogas production yields significantly.

  8. Space-time dependence between energy sources and climate related energy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engeland, Kolbjorn; Borga, Marco; Creutin, Jean-Dominique; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Tøfte, Lena; Warland, Geir

    2014-05-01

    The European Renewable Energy Directive adopted in 2009 focuses on achieving a 20% share of renewable energy in the EU overall energy mix by 2020. A major part of renewable energy production is related to climate, called "climate related energy" (CRE) production. CRE production systems (wind, solar, and hydropower) are characterized by a large degree of intermittency and variability on both short and long time scales due to the natural variability of climate variables. The main strategies to handle the variability of CRE production include energy-storage, -transport, -diversity and -information (smart grids). The three first strategies aim to smooth out the intermittency and variability of CRE production in time and space whereas the last strategy aims to provide a more optimal interaction between energy production and demand, i.e. to smooth out the residual load (the difference between demand and production). In order to increase the CRE share in the electricity system, it is essential to understand the space-time co-variability between the weather variables and CRE production under both current and future climates. This study presents a review of the literature that searches to tackle these problems. It reveals that the majority of studies deals with either a single CRE source or with the combination of two CREs, mostly wind and solar. This may be due to the fact that the most advanced countries in terms of wind equipment have also very little hydropower potential (Denmark, Ireland or UK, for instance). Hydropower is characterized by both a large storage capacity and flexibility in electricity production, and has therefore a large potential for both balancing and storing energy from wind- and solar-power. Several studies look at how to better connect regions with large share of hydropower (e.g., Scandinavia and the Alps) to regions with high shares of wind- and solar-power (e.g., green battery North-Sea net). Considering time scales, various studies consider wind

  9. Potential Ambient Energy-Harvesting Sources and Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildiz, Faruk

    2009-01-01

    Ambient energy harvesting is also known as energy scavenging or power harvesting, and it is the process where energy is obtained from the environment. A variety of techniques are available for energy scavenging, including solar and wind powers, ocean waves, piezoelectricity, thermoelectricity, and physical motions. For example, some systems…

  10. Surface and nutraceutical properties of edible films made from starchy sources with and without added blackberry pulp.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Tomy J

    2017-06-01

    The surface and nutraceutical properties have been poorly studied on edible films. The aim of this study was to investigate the surface properties and potential health effects in terms of in vitro digestibility and anti-inflammatory activity. The materials were developed from native plantain starch and pre-gelatinized plantain flour with and without added blackberry pulp using casting methodology. Thermogravimetric analysis, contact angle, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, resistant starch, in vitro digestibility, cell viability, reactive oxygen species, anti-inflammatory activity and sensory evaluation were the tests carried out in this study. Films containing blackberry pulp had more compact and smooth morphologies, which were related to the lower in vitro digestibility rate and the higher resistant starch content. In addition, these materials had higher anti-inflammatory activity, higher cell viability, and better acceptance by the panelists, thus suggesting potential health effects of consumers with special feeding regimes such as obese, diabetics and celiacs.

  11. Comparison of energy efficiency between variable refrigerant flow systems and ground source heat pump systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Tainzhen; Liu, Xaiobing

    2009-11-01

    With the current movement toward net zero energy buildings, many technologies are promoted with emphasis on their superior energy efficiency. The variable refrigerant flow (VRF) and ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems are probably the most competitive technologies among these. However, there are few studies reporting the energy efficiency of VRF systems compared with GSHP systems. In this article, a preliminary comparison of energy efficiency between the air-source VRF and GSHP systems is presented. The computer simulation results show that GSHP system is more energy efficient than the air-source VRF system for conditioning a small office building in two selected US climates. In general, GSHP system is more energy efficient than the air-source VRV system, especially when the building has significant heating loads. For buildings with less heating loads, the GSHP system could still perform better than the air-source VRF system in terms of energy efficiency, but the resulting energy savings may be marginal.

  12. 16 CFR Table 4 to Part 1512 - Relative Energy Distribution of Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Relative Energy Distribution of Sources 4... SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Pt. 1512, Table 4 Table 4 to Part 1512—Relative Energy Distribution of Sources Wave length (nanometers) Relative energy 380 9.79 390 12.09 400 14.71 410 17.68 420...

  13. 16 CFR Table 4 to Part 1512 - Relative Energy Distribution of Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relative Energy Distribution of Sources 4... SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Pt. 1512, Table 4 Table 4 to Part 1512—Relative Energy Distribution of Sources Wave length (nanometers) Relative energy 380 9.79 390 12.09 400 14.71 410 17.68 420...

  14. 16 CFR Table 4 to Part 1512 - Relative Energy Distribution of Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Relative Energy Distribution of Sources 4... SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Pt. 1512, Table 4 Table 4 to Part 1512—Relative Energy Distribution of Sources Wave length (nanometers) Relative energy 380 9.79 390 12.09 400 14.71 410 17.68 420...

  15. 16 CFR Table 4 to Part 1512 - Relative Energy Distribution of Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Relative Energy Distribution of Sources 4... SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Pt. 1512, Table 4 Table 4 to Part 1512—Relative Energy Distribution of Sources Wave length (nanometers) Relative energy 380 9.79 390 12.09 400 14.71 410 17.68 420...

  16. 16 CFR Table 4 to Part 1512 - Relative Energy Distribution of Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Relative Energy Distribution of Sources 4... SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Pt. 1512, Table 4 Table 4 to Part 1512—Relative Energy Distribution of Sources Wave length (nanometers) Relative energy 380 9.79 390 12.09 400 14.71 410 17.68 420...

  17. Opportunities of energy supply of farm holdings on the basis of small-scale renewable energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efendiev, A. M.; Nikolaev, Yu. E.; Evstaf'ev, D. P.

    2016-02-01

    One of the major national economic problems of Russia is raising of agricultural production, which will provide strategic security and sustainable supply of the population with provisions. Creation of subsidiary small holdings, farm holdings, and peasant farm holdings will require addressing issues of energy supply. At considerable distance of small farms from centralized energy systems (by fuel, electricity and thermal energy) it is proposed to create a system of local energy networks on the basis of low-powered power plants using renewable energy sources (RES). There is economic unreasonableness of use of imported components of small power plants. Creation of new combined small power plants on renewable energy sources produced by domestic manufacturers is recommended. Schemes of arrangements of small power plants based on renewable energy sources are proposed, variants and characteristics of a basic source are provided—biogas plants developed by the authors. Calculations revealed that heat and power supply of self-contained farms distant from small power plants based on renewable energy sources is 2.5-2.6 times cheaper than from centralized networks. Production of biogas through anaerobic fermentation of organic waste of cattle complexes is considered as the basis. The analysis of biowaste output in various cattle farms is carried out, and the volume of biogas is determined to meet the requirements of these farms in electrical and thermal energy. The objective of the present article is to study the possibility of creating small combined power plants in Russia based on renewable sources of energy for independent consumers.

  18. Reprint of : Thermoelectricity without absorbing energy from the heat sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, Robert S.; Sánchez, Rafael; Haupt, Federica; Splettstoesser, Janine

    2016-08-01

    We analyze the power output of a quantum dot machine coupled to two electronic reservoirs via thermoelectric contacts, and to two thermal reservoirs - one hot and one cold. This machine is a nanoscale analogue of a conventional thermocouple heat-engine, in which the active region being heated is unavoidably also exchanging heat with its cold environment. Heat exchange between the dot and the thermal reservoirs is treated as a capacitive coupling to electronic fluctuations in localized levels, modeled as two additional quantum dots. The resulting multiple-dot setup is described using a master equation approach. We observe an "exotic" power generation, which remains finite even when the heat absorbed from the thermal reservoirs is zero (in other words the heat coming from the hot reservoir all escapes into the cold environment). This effect can be understood in terms of a non-local effect in which the heat flow from heat source to the cold environment generates power via a mechanism which we refer to as Coulomb heat drag. It relies on the fact that there is no relaxation in the quantum dot system, so electrons within it have a non-thermal energy distribution. More poetically, one can say that we find a spatial separation of the first-law of thermodynamics (heat to work conversion) from the second-law of thermodynamics (generation of entropy). We present circumstances in which this non-thermal system can generate more power than any conventional macroscopic thermocouple (with local thermalization), even when the latter works with Carnot efficiency.

  19. Alternate Funding Sources for the International Atomic Energy Agency

    SciTech Connect

    Toomey, Christopher; Wyse, Evan T.; Kurzrok, Andrew J.; Swarthout, Jordan M.

    2012-09-04

    Since 1957, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has worked to ensure the safe and responsible promotion of nuclear technology throughout the world. The IAEA operates at the intersection of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty’s (NPT) fourth and third articles, which guarantee Parties to the Treaty the right to peaceful uses of nuclear technology, provided those activities are placed under safeguards verified by the IAEA. However, while the IAEA has enjoyed substantial success and prestige in the international community, there is a concern that its resources are being stretched to a point where it may no longer be possible to execute its multifaceted mission in its entirety. As noted by the Director General (DG) in 2008, demographics suggest that every aspect of the IAEA’s operations will be in higher demand due to increasing reliance on non-carbon-based energy and the concomitant nonproliferation, safety, and security risks that growth entails. In addition to these nuclear energy concerns, the demand for technical developmental assistance in the fields of food security, resource conservation, and human health is also predicted to increase as the rest of the world develops. Even with a 100% value-for-money rating by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and being described as an “extraordinary bargain” by the United Nations Secretary-General’s High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change, real budget growth at the Agency has been limited to zero-real growth for a better part of the last two decades. Although the 2012 regular budget (RB) received a small increase for most programs, the 2013 RB has been set at zero-real growth. As a result, the IAEA has had to defer infrastructure investments, which has hindered its ability to provide the public goods its Members seek, decreased global security and development opportunities, and functionally transformed the IAEA into a charity, dependent on extrabudgetary (EB) contributions to sustain

  20. High-energy sources before INTEGRAL. INTEGRAL reference catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebisawa, K.; Bourban, G.; Bodaghee, A.; Mowlavi, N.; Courvoisier, T. J.-L.

    2003-11-01

    We describe the INTEGRAL reference catalog which classifies previously known bright X-ray and gamma-ray sources before the launch of INTEGRAL. These sources are, or have been at least once, brighter than ~ 1 mCrab above 3 keV, and are expected to be detected by INTEGRAL. This catalog is being used in the INTEGRAL Quick Look Analysis to discover new sources or significantly variable sources. We compiled several published X-ray and gamma-ray catalogs, and surveyed recent publications for new sources. Consequently, there are 1122 sources in our INTEGRAL reference catalog. In addition to the source positions, we show an approximate spectral model and expected flux for each source, based on which we derive expected INTEGRAL counting rates. Assuming the default instrument performances and at least ~ 105 s exposure time for any part of the sky, we expect that INTEGRAL will detect at least ~ 700 sources below 10 keV and ~ 400 sources above 20 keV over the mission life. The Catalog is available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?/A+A/411/L59

  1. Economic efficiency of power stations using renewable energy sources

    SciTech Connect

    Voronkin, A.F.; Lisochkina, T.V.; Malinina, T.V.

    1995-12-01

    This article examines the viability of power stations using the renewable resources of wind energy, tidal energy, and geothermal energy. General pros and cons of renewable resources are discussed, and the socioeconomic impacts and environmental impacts of these resources are listed and compared to those of traditional thermal and hydroelectric power plants.

  2. High fidelity nuclear energy system optimization towards an environmentally benign, sustainable, and secure energy source.

    SciTech Connect

    Tsvetkov, Pavel Valeryevich; Rodriguez, Salvador B.; Ames, David E., II; Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2010-10-01

    A new high-fidelity integrated system method and analysis approach was developed and implemented for consistent and comprehensive evaluations of advanced fuel cycles leading to minimized Transuranic (TRU) inventories. The method has been implemented in a developed code system integrating capabilities of Monte Carlo N - Particle Extended (MCNPX) for high-fidelity fuel cycle component simulations. In this report, a Nuclear Energy System (NES) configuration was developed to take advantage of used fuel recycling and transmutation capabilities in waste management scenarios leading to minimized TRU waste inventories, long-term activities, and radiotoxicities. The reactor systems and fuel cycle components that make up the NES were selected for their ability to perform in tandem to produce clean, safe, and dependable energy in an environmentally conscious manner. The diversity in performance and spectral characteristics were used to enhance TRU waste elimination while efficiently utilizing uranium resources and providing an abundant energy source. A computational modeling approach was developed for integrating the individual models of the NES. A general approach was utilized allowing for the Integrated System Model (ISM) to be modified in order to provide simulation for other systems with similar attributes. By utilizing this approach, the ISM is capable of performing system evaluations under many different design parameter options. Additionally, the predictive capabilities of the ISM and its computational time efficiency allow for system sensitivity/uncertainty analysis and the implementation of optimization techniques.

  3. Anaerobic treatment as a core technology for energy, nutrients and water recovery from source-separated domestic waste(water).

    PubMed

    Zeeman, Grietje; Kujawa, Katarzyna; de Mes, Titia; Hernandez, Lucia; de Graaff, Marthe; Abu-Ghunmi, Lina; Mels, Adriaan; Meulman, Brendo; Temmink, Hardy; Buisman, Cees; van Lier, Jules; Lettinga, Gatze

    2008-01-01

    Based on results of pilot scale research with source-separated black water (BW) and grey water (GW), a new sanitation concept is proposed. BW and GW are both treated in a UASB (-septic tank) for recovery of CH4 gas. Kitchen waste is added to the anaerobic BW treatment for doubling the biogas production. Post-treatment of the effluent is providing recovery of phosphorus and removal of remaining COD and nitrogen. The total energy saving of the new sanitation concept amounts to 200 MJ/year in comparison with conventional sanitation, moreover 0.14 kg P/p/year and 90 litres of potential reusable water are produced.

  4. Dual energy with dual source CT and kVp switching with single source CT: a comparison of dual energy performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasruck, M.; Kappler, S.; Reinwand, M.; Stierstorfer, K.

    2009-02-01

    Stimulated by the introduction of clinical dual source CT, the interest in dual energy methods has been increasing in the past years. Whereas the potential of material decomposition by dual energy methods is known since the early 1980ies, the realization of dual energy methods is a wide field of today's research. Energy separation can be achieved with energy selective detectors or by varying X-ray source spectra. This paper focuses on dual energy techniques with varying X-ray spectra. These can be provided by dual source CT devices, operated with different kVp settings on each tube. Excellent spectral separation is the key property for use in clinical routine. The drawback of higher cost for two tubes and two detectors leads to an alternative realization, where a single source CT yields different spectra by fast kVp switching from reading to reading. This provides access to dual-energy methods in single source CT. However, this technique comes with some intrinsic limitations. The maximum X-ray flux is reduced in comparison to the dual source system. The kVp rise and fall time between each reading reduces the spectral separation. In comparison to dual source CT, for a constant number of projections per energy spectrum the temporal resolution is reduced; a reasonable trade of between reduced numbers of projection and limited temporal resolution has to be found. The overall dual energy performance is the guiding line for our investigations. We present simulations and measurements which benchmark both solutions in terms of spectral behavior, especially of spectral separation.

  5. The effects of added hydrogen on a helium atmospheric-pressure plasma jet ambient desorption/ionization source.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jonathan P; Heywood, Matthew S; Thurston, Glen K; Farnsworth, Paul B

    2013-03-01

    We present mass spectrometric data demonstrating the effect that hydrogen has on a helium-based dielectric-barrier discharge (DBD) atmospheric-pressure plasma jet used as an ambient desorption/ionization (ADI) source. The addition of 0.9 % hydrogen to the helium support gas in a 35-W plasma jet increased signals for a range of test analytes, with enhancement factors of up to 68, without proportional increases in background levels. The changes in signal levels result from a combination of changes in the desorption kinetics from the surface and increased ion production in the gas phase. The enhancement in ADI-MS performance despite the quenching of key plasma species reported in earlier studies suggests that ionization with a H2/He plasma jet is the result of an alternate mechanism involving the direct generation of ionized hydrogen.

  6. MEASUREMENT OF THE HIGH ENERGY COMPONENT OF THE X-RAY SPECTRA INTHE VENUS ECR ION SOURCE

    SciTech Connect

    Leitner, Daniela; Benitez, Janilee Y.; Lyneis, Claude M.; Todd,Damon S.; Ropponen,Tommi; Ropponen,Janne; Koivisto, Hannu; Gammino, Santo

    2007-11-15

    High performance electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources, such as VENUS (Versatile ECR for Nuclear Science), produce large amounts of x-rays. By studying their energy spectra, conclusions can be drawn about the electron heating process and the electron confinement. In addition, the bremsstrahlung from the plasma chamber is partly absorbed by the cold mass of the superconducting magnet adding an extra heat load to the cryostat. Germanium or NaI detectors are generally used for x-ray measurements. Due to the high x-ray flux from the source, the experimental set-up to measure bremsstrahlung spectra from ECR ion sources is somewhat different than for the traditional nuclear physics measurements these detectors are generally used for. In particular the collimation and background shielding can be problematic. In this paper we will discuss the experimental set-up for such a measurement, the energy calibration and background reduction, the correction for detector efficiency, the shielding of the detector and collimation of the x-ray flux. We will present x-ray energy spectra and cryostat heating rates in dependence of various ion source parameters such as confinement fields, minimum B-field, rf power and heating frequency.

  7. Measurement of the high energy component of the x-ray spectra in the VENUS electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Leitner, D.; Benitez, J. Y.; Lyneis, C. M.; Todd, D. S.; Ropponen, T.; Ropponen, J.; Koivisto, H.; Gammino, S.

    2008-03-15

    High performance electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources, such as VENUS (Versatile ECR for NUclear Science), produce large amounts of x-rays. By studying their energy spectra, conclusions can be drawn about the electron heating process and the electron confinement. In addition, the bremsstrahlung from the plasma chamber is partly absorbed by the cold mass of the superconducting magnet, adding an extra heat load to the cryostat. Germanium or NaI detectors are generally used for x-ray measurements. Due to the high x-ray flux from the source, the experimental setup to measure bremsstrahlung spectra from ECR ion sources is somewhat different from that for the traditional nuclear physics measurements these detectors are generally used for. In particular, the collimation and background shielding can be problematic. In this paper, we will discuss the experimental setup for such a measurement, the energy calibration and background reduction, the shielding of the detector, and collimation of the x-ray flux. We will present x-ray energy spectra and cryostat heating rates depending on various ion source parameters, such as confinement fields, minimum B-field, rf power, and heating frequency.

  8. Biological Systems, Energy Sources, and Biology Teaching. Biology and Human Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tribe, Michael; Pritchard, Alan J.

    This five-chapter document (part of a series on biology and human welfare) focuses on biological systems as energy sources and on the teaching of this subject area. Chapter 1 discusses various topics related to energy and ecology, including biomass, photosynthesis and world energy balances, energy flow through ecosystems, and others. Chapter 2…

  9. ModObs: Atmospheric modelling for wind energy, climate and environment applications : exploring added value from new observation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sempreviva, A. M.

    2009-04-01

    The EC FP6 Marie Curie Training Network "ModObs" http://www.modobs.windeng.net addresses the improvement of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) models to investigate the interplay of processes at different temporal and spatial scales, and to explore the added value from new observation techniques. The overall goal is to bring young scientists to work together with experienced researchers in developing a better interaction amongst scientific communities of modelers and experimentalists, using a comprehensive approach to "Climate Change", "Clean Energy assessment" and "Environmental Policies", issues. This poster describes the work in progress of ten students, funded by the network, under the supervision of a team of scientists within atmospheric physics, engineering and satellite remote sensing and end-users such as companies in the private sector, all with the appropriate expertise to integrate the most advanced research methods and techniques in the following topics. MODELING: GLOBAL-TO-MESO SCALE: Analytical and process oriented numerical models will be used to study the interaction between the atmosphere and the ocean on a regional scale. Initial results indicate an interaction between the intensity of polar lows and the subsurface warm core often present in the Nordic Seas (11). The presence of waves, mainly swell, influence the MABL fluxes and turbulence structure. The regional and global wave effect on the atmosphere will be also studied and quantified (7) MESO-SCALE: Applicability of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) parametrizations in the meso-scale WRF model to marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) over the North Sea is investigated. The most suitable existing PBL parametrization will be additionally improved and used for downscaling North Sea past and future climates (2). Application of the meso-scale model (MM5 and WRF) for the wind energy in off-shore and coastal area. Set-up of the meso-scale model, post-processing and verification of the data from

  10. An overview of energy sources in clinical use for the ablation of atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Comas, George M; Imren, Yildirim; Williams, Mathew R

    2007-01-01

    Recent years have seen many developments in the field of alternative energy sources for arrhythmia surgery. The impetus behind these advances is to replace the traditional, "cut-and-sew" Cox maze III procedure with lesion sets that are simpler, shorter, and safer but just as effective. There is demand for technology to make continuous, linear, transmural ablations reliably with a versatile energy source via an epicardial approach. This would make minimally invasive endoscopic surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) without cardiopulmonary bypass and with a closed chest feasible. These advances would shorten cardio-pulmonary bypass and improve outcomes in patients having surgical ablation and concomitant cardiac surgery. This review summarizes the technology behind alternative energy sources used to treat AF. Alternative energy sources include hypothermic sources (cryoablation) and hyperthermic sources (radiofrequency, microwave, laser, ultrasound). For each source, the biophysical background, mode of tissue injury, factors affecting lesion size, and advantages and complications are discussed.

  11. The Effects of Added Hydrogen on Noble Gas Discharges Used as Ambient Desorption/Ionization Sources for Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Wade C; Lewis, Charlotte R; Openshaw, Anna P; Farnsworth, Paul B

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate the effectiveness of using hydrogen-doped argon as the support gas for the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) ambient desorption/ionization (ADI) source in mass spectrometry. Also, we explore the chemistry responsible for the signal enhancement observed when using both hydrogen-doped argon and hydrogen-doped helium. The hydrogen-doped argon was tested for five analytes representing different classes of molecules. Addition of hydrogen to the argon plasma gas enhanced signals for gas-phase analytes and for analytes coated onto glass slides in positive and negative ion mode. The enhancements ranged from factors of 4 to 5 for gas-phase analytes and factors of 2 to 40 for coated slides. There was no significant increase in the background. The limit of detection for caffeine was lowered by a factor of 79 using H2/Ar and 2 using H2/He. Results are shown that help explain the fundamental differences between the pure-gas discharges and those that are hydrogen-doped for both argon and helium. Experiments with different discharge geometries and grounding schemes indicate that observed signal enhancements are strongly dependent on discharge configuration. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  12. The Effects of Added Hydrogen on Noble Gas Discharges Used as Ambient Desorption/Ionization Sources for Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Wade C.; Lewis, Charlotte R.; Openshaw, Anna P.; Farnsworth, Paul B.

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate the effectiveness of using hydrogen-doped argon as the support gas for the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) ambient desorption/ionization (ADI) source in mass spectrometry. Also, we explore the chemistry responsible for the signal enhancement observed when using both hydrogen-doped argon and hydrogen-doped helium. The hydrogen-doped argon was tested for five analytes representing different classes of molecules. Addition of hydrogen to the argon plasma gas enhanced signals for gas-phase analytes and for analytes coated onto glass slides in positive and negative ion mode. The enhancements ranged from factors of 4 to 5 for gas-phase analytes and factors of 2 to 40 for coated slides. There was no significant increase in the background. The limit of detection for caffeine was lowered by a factor of 79 using H2/Ar and 2 using H2/He. Results are shown that help explain the fundamental differences between the pure-gas discharges and those that are hydrogen-doped for both argon and helium. Experiments with different discharge geometries and grounding schemes indicate that observed signal enhancements are strongly dependent on discharge configuration.

  13. No difference in ad libitum energy intake in healthy men and women consuming beverages sweetened with fructose, glucose, or high-fructose corn syrup: a randomized trial1

    PubMed Central

    Kuzma, Jessica N; Cromer, Gail; Hagman, Derek K; Breymeyer, Kara L; Roth, Christian L; Foster-Schubert, Karen E; Holte, Sarah E; Callahan, Holly S; Weigle, David S; Kratz, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Background: Increased energy intake is consistently observed in individuals consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), likely mainly because of an inadequate satiety response to liquid calories. However, SSBs have a high content of fructose, the consumption of which acutely fails to trigger responses in key signals involved in energy homeostasis. It is unclear whether the fructose content of SSBs contributes to the increased energy intake in individuals drinking SSBs. Objective: We investigated whether the relative amounts of fructose and glucose in SSBs modifies ad libitum energy intake over 8 d in healthy adults without fructose malabsorption. Design: We conducted 2 randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover studies to compare the effects of consuming 4 servings/d of a fructose-, glucose-, or aspartame-sweetened beverage (study A; n = 9) or a fructose-, glucose-, or high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS)–sweetened beverage (study B; n = 24) for 8 d on overall energy intake. SSBs were provided at 25% of estimated energy requirement, or an equivalent volume of the aspartame-sweetened beverage, and consumption was mandatory. All solid foods were provided at 125% of estimated energy requirements and were consumed ad libitum. Results: In study A, ad libitum energy intake was 120% ± 10%, 117% ± 12%, and 102% ± 15% of estimated energy requirements when subjects consumed the fructose-, glucose-, and aspartame-sweetened beverages. Energy intake was significantly higher in the fructose and glucose phases than in the aspartame phase (P < 0.003 for each), with no difference between the fructose and glucose phases (P = 0.462). In study B, total energy intake during the fructose, HFCS, and glucose phases was 116% ± 14%, 116% ± 16%, and 116% ± 16% of the subject’s estimated total energy requirements (P = 0.880). Conclusions: In healthy adults, total 8-d ad libitum energy intake was increased in individuals consuming SSBs compared with aspartame-sweetened beverages. The

  14. Gravitational potential as a source of earthquake energy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barrows, L.; Langer, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    Some degree of tectonic stress within the earth originates from gravity acting upon density structures. The work performed by this "gravitational tectonics stress" must have formerly existed as gravitational potential energy contained in the stress-causing density structure. According to the elastic rebound theory (Reid, 1910), the energy of earthquakes comes from an elastic strain field built up by fairly continuous elastic deformation in the period between events. For earthquakes resulting from gravitational tectonic stress, the elastic rebound theory requires the transfer of energy from the gravitational potential of the density structures into an elastic strain field prior to the event. An alternate theory involves partial gravitational collapse of the stress-causing density structures. The earthquake energy comes directly from a net decrease in gravitational potential energy. The gravitational potential energy released at the time of the earthquake is split between the energy released by the earthquake, including work done in the fault zone and an increase in stored elastic strain energy. The stress associated with this elastic strain field should oppose further fault slip. ?? 1981.

  15. Alternate energy source usage for in situ heat treatment processes

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Jr., Francis Marion; Goodwin, Charles R; Richard, Jr., James

    2011-03-22

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one system for providing power to one or more subsurface heaters is described herein. The system may include an intermittent power source; a transformer coupled to the intermittent power source, and a tap controller coupled to the transformer. The transformer may be configured to transform power from the intermittent power source to power with appropriate operating parameters for the heaters. The tap controller may be configured to monitor and control the transformer so that a constant voltage is provided to the heaters from the transformer regardless of the load of the heaters and the power output provided by the intermittent power source.

  16. Bright Copper Plating Using Photovoltaic as an Energy Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiala, Jozef; Michalíková, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with utilization possibilities of solar energy (photovoltaic systems) and with transformation of this energy to chemical energy as well as its utilization in the surface treatment of metals by electrochemical processes. Surface treatments significantly contribute to the resulting quality of technical equipment. Surface treatments affect lifetime, serviceability, usability, availability and maintenance of equipment. This technology can be widely applied in machine industry in the future due to cheap electrical energy generation. Next advantage of this electrical energy generation is the decrease of negative environmental impact. The whole system is now usable for bright copper plating, but owing to the low capacity, we can use it only for the objects of small areas, around 1.10 dm2, 4.39 dm2 in ideal conditions.

  17. Impact of novel energy sources: OTEC, wind, goethermal, biomass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, A. S., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Alternate energy conversion methods such as ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), wind power, geothermal wells and biomass conversion are being explored, and re-examined in some cases, for commercial viability. At a time when United States fossil fuel and uranium resources are found to be insufficient to supply national needs into the twenty-first century, it is essential to broaden the base of feasible energy conversion technologies. The motivations for development of these four alternative energy forms are established. Primary technical aspects of OTEC, wind, geothermal and biomass energy conversion systems are described along with a discussion of relative advantages and disadvantages of the concepts. Finally, the sentiment is voiced that each of the four systems should be developed to the prototype stage and employed in the region of the country and in the sector of economy which is complimentary to the form of system output.

  18. Assessment of dynamic energy conversion systems for radioisotope heat sources

    SciTech Connect

    Thayer, G.R.; Mangeng, C.A.

    1985-06-01

    The use of dynamic conversion systems to convert the heat generated in a 7500 W(t) 90 Sr radioisotopic heat source to electricity is examined. The systems studies were Stirling; Brayton Cycle; three organic Rankines (ORCs) (Barber-Nichols/ORMAT, Sundstrand, and TRW); and an organic Rankine plus thermoelectrics. The systems were ranked for a North Warning System mission using a Los Alamos Multiattribute Decision Theory code. Three different heat source designs were used: case I with a beginning of life (BOL) source temperature of 640 C, case II with a BOL source temperature of 745/sup 0/C, and case III with a BOL source temperature of 945/sup 0/C. The Stirling engine system was the top-ranked system of cases I and II, closely followed by the ORC systems in case I and ORC plus thermoelectrics in case II. The Brayton cycle system was top-ranked for case III, with the Stirling engine system a close second. The use of /sup 238/Pu in heat source sizes of 7500 W(t) was examined and found to be questionable because of cost and material availability and because of additional requirements for analysis of safeguards and critical mass.

  19. Clean Energy Innovation: Sources of Technical and Commercial Breakthroughs

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, T. D., IV; Miller, M.; Fleming, L.; Younge, K.; Newcomb, J.

    2011-03-01

    Low-carbon energy innovation is essential to combat climate change, promote economic competitiveness, and achieve energy security. Using U.S. patent data and additional patent-relevant data collected from the Internet, we map the landscape of low-carbon energy innovation in the United States since 1975. We isolate 10,603 renewable and 10,442 traditional energy patents and develop a database that characterizes proxy measures for technical and commercial impact, as measured by patent citations and Web presence, respectively. Regression models and multivariate simulations are used to compare the social, institutional, and geographic drivers of breakthrough clean energy innovation. Results indicate statistically significant effects of social, institutional, and geographic variables on technical and commercial impacts of patents and unique innovation trends between different energy technologies. We observe important differences between patent citations and Web presence of licensed and unlicensed patents, indicating the potential utility of using screened Web hits as a measure of commercial importance. We offer hypotheses for these revealed differences and suggest a research agenda with which to test these hypotheses. These preliminary findings indicate that leveraging empirical insights to better target research expenditures would augment the speed and scale of innovation and deployment of clean energy technologies.

  20. Hydro-Piezoelectricity: A Renewable Energy Source for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-09-30

    Hydro-Piezoelectricity: A Renewable Energy Source For Autonomous Underwater Vehicles Dr. George W. Taylor Ocean Power Technologies, Inc. 1590 Reed...00-00-1999 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Hydro-Piezoelectricity: A Renewable Energy Source For Autonomous Underwater Vehicles 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  1. 76 FR 71082 - Strata Energy, Inc., Ross Uranium Recovery Project; New Source Material License Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... COMMISSION Strata Energy, Inc., Ross Uranium Recovery Project; New Source Material License Application...: Strata Energy, Inc. (Strata) submitted an application for a new source material license for the Ross... Ross Uranium Recovery Project, as required by Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR)...

  2. 48 CFR 217.174 - Multiyear contracts for electricity from renewable energy sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... electricity from renewable energy sources. 217.174 Section 217.174 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Mulityear Contracting 217.174 Multiyear contracts for electricity from... not to exceed 10 years for the purchase of electricity from sources of renewable energy, as that...

  3. 48 CFR 217.174 - Multiyear contracts for electricity from renewable energy sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... electricity from renewable energy sources. 217.174 Section 217.174 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Mulityear Contracting 217.174 Multiyear contracts for electricity from... not to exceed 10 years for the purchase of electricity from sources of renewable energy, as that...

  4. 48 CFR 217.175 - Multiyear contracts for electricity from renewable energy sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... electricity from renewable energy sources. 217.175 Section 217.175 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Mulityear Contracting 217.175 Multiyear contracts for electricity from... not to exceed 10 years for the purchase of electricity from sources of renewable energy, as that...

  5. 48 CFR 217.174 - Multiyear contracts for electricity from renewable energy sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... electricity from renewable energy sources. 217.174 Section 217.174 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Mulityear Contracting 217.174 Multiyear contracts for electricity from... not to exceed 10 years for the purchase of electricity from sources of renewable energy, as that...

  6. 48 CFR 217.174 - Multiyear contracts for electricity from renewable energy sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... electricity from renewable energy sources. 217.174 Section 217.174 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Mulityear Contracting 217.174 Multiyear contracts for electricity from... not to exceed 10 years for the purchase of electricity from sources of renewable energy, as that...

  7. Food sources of energy and nutrients among adults in the US: NHANES 2003-2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identification of current food sources of energy and nutrients among US adults is needed to help with public health efforts to implement feasible and appropriate dietary recommendations. To determine the food sources of energy and 26 nutrients consumed by US adults the 2003–2006 National Health and ...

  8. Higgs seesaw mechanism as a source for dark energy.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Lawrence M; Dent, James B

    2013-08-09

    Motivated by the seesaw mechanism for neutrinos which naturally generates small neutrino masses, we explore how a small grand-unified-theory-scale mixing between the standard model Higgs boson and an otherwise massless hidden sector scalar can naturally generate a small mass and vacuum expectation value for the new scalar which produces a false vacuum energy density contribution comparable to that of the observed dark energy dominating the current expansion of the Universe. This provides a simple and natural mechanism for producing the correct scale for dark energy, even if it does not address the long-standing question of why much larger dark energy contributions are not produced from the visible sector. The new scalar produces no discernible signatures in existing terrestrial experiments so that one may have to rely on other cosmological tests of this idea.

  9. Higgs Seesaw Mechanism as a Source for Dark Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauss, Lawrence M.; Dent, James B.

    2013-08-01

    Motivated by the seesaw mechanism for neutrinos which naturally generates small neutrino masses, we explore how a small grand-unified-theory-scale mixing between the standard model Higgs boson and an otherwise massless hidden sector scalar can naturally generate a small mass and vacuum expectation value for the new scalar which produces a false vacuum energy density contribution comparable to that of the observed dark energy dominating the current expansion of the Universe. This provides a simple and natural mechanism for producing the correct scale for dark energy, even if it does not address the long-standing question of why much larger dark energy contributions are not produced from the visible sector. The new scalar produces no discernible signatures in existing terrestrial experiments so that one may have to rely on other cosmological tests of this idea.

  10. Animals as an energy source in third world agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, G.M.; Sutherland, T.M.; Sutherland, J.M.

    1980-05-09

    Agricultural development programs have so far been largely unable to meet the food needs of the world's poorest. Increased food production can be achieved only from more intensive agriculture, which requires greater energy inputs per farm worker. Problems of technological infrastructure and escalating oil prices appear to preclude the spread of mechanization to Third World agriculture at this time. Efficient utilization of grazing animals in specific integrated farming systems could not only increase energy inputs through draft and transportation but also increase the yield of high-grade products and by-products from the renewable energy of biomass. An approach to development based on animal agriculture systems is suggested that might initiate a self-sustaining, more productive agriculture requireing only small inputs of fossil-fuel energy.

  11. Solar: A Clean Energy Source for Utilities (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-09-01

    The fact sheet summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts with utilities to remove the technical, regulatory, and market challenges they face in deploying solar technologies.

  12. Alternative Energy Sources for United States Air Force Installations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-08-01

    planetary system will have to be faced. As Jay W. Forrester (ref. 3) states: "it is not a question of whether growth will cease, but rather whether...known energy storage concept. This is primarily due to the fact that the wind turbine energy can be transmitted directly to the flywheel through gears ...and shafting at very high efficiency. The flywheel can then be connected directly to the AC generator without the need for gearing . 7. W!NO TURBINES

  13. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry based metabolomics study of cloned versus normal pigs fed either restricted or ad libitum high-energy diets.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Kirstine L; Hedemann, Mette S; Jørgensen, Henry; Stagsted, Jan; Knudsen, Knud Erik B

    2012-07-06

    Genetically identical cloned pigs should in principle eliminate biological variation and provide more pronounced effects when subjected to, e.g., dietary interventions, but little is known about how phenotype and phenotypic variation is affected by cloning. Therefore, an investigation of the metabolome of cloned pigs compared to normal control pigs was performed to elucidate the variation and possible differences in the metabolic phenotypes during a dietary intervention. A total of 19 control pigs and 17 cloned pigs were given the same high-energy dense diet either ad libitum or in a restricted manner (60% of ad libitum) for ∼6 months, and plasma was subjected to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry nontargeted metabolomics and biochemical analyses. Low systemic levels of IGF-1 could indicate altered growth conditions and energy metabolism in cloned pigs. In response to ad libitum feeding, clones had a decreased energy intake and lower weight gain compared to controls, and plasma lipid profiles were changed accordingly. Elevated lactate and decreased creatine levels implied an increased anaerobic metabolism in ad libitum fed clones. Less interindividual variation between cloned pigs was however not established, suggesting a strong role for epigenetics and/or the gut microbiota to develop variation.

  14. Possibilities of utilizing alternative energy sources for combined heat supply systems in the Baltic

    SciTech Connect

    Shipkovs, P.; Grislis, V.; Zebergs, V. )

    1991-01-01

    The problem of alternative energy sources is an issue of major importance for the Baltic republics because of the limited supply of conventional energy resources. One of the ways to solve this problem could be the introduction of combined heat supply systems (CHSS). The combined heat supply systems are such systems where various energy sources in different regimes are made use of to ensure the optimum temperature on residential and industrial premises. The influence of climatic conditions on the selection of heat supply systems has been studied at large. In the present paper the use of alternative energy sources (AES) in combined heat supply systems (CHSS) is described.

  15. The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) Earth Occultation Catalog of Low-Energy Gamma-Ray Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, B. A.; Wilson, C. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Connaughton, V.; Henze, W.; Paciesas, W. S.; Finger, M. H.; McCollough, M. L.; Sahi, M.; Peterson, B.

    2004-01-01

    The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), aboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO), provided a record of the low-energy gamma-ray sky (approx. 20-1000 keV) between 1991 April and 2000 May (9.1 yr). BATSE monitored the high-energy sky using the Earth occultation technique (EOT) for point sources whose emission extended for times on the order of the CGRO orbital period (approx. 92 min) or greater. Using the EOT to extract flux information, a catalog of sources using data from the BATSE Large Area Detectors has been prepared. The first part of the catalog consists of results from the all-sky monitoring of 58 sources, mostly Galactic, with intrinsic variability on timescales of hours to years. For these sources, we have included tables of flux and spectral data, and outburst times for transients. Light curves (or flux histories) have been placed on the World Wide Web. We then performed a deep sampling of these 58 objects, plus a selection of 121 more objects, combining data from the entire 9.1 yr BATSE data set. Source types considered were primarily accreting binaries, but a small number of representative active galaxies, X-ray-emitting stars, and supernova remnants were also included. The sample represents a compilation of sources monitored and/or discovered with BATSE and other high-energy instruments between 1991 and 2000, known sources taken from the HEAO 1 A-4 and Macomb & Gehrels catalogs. The deep sample results include definite detections of 83 objects and possible detections of 36 additional objects. The definite detections spanned three classes of sources: accreting black hole and neutron star binaries, active galaxies, and Supernova remnants. The average fluxes measured for the fourth class, the X-ray emitting stars, were below the confidence limit for definite detection.

  16. Mono-Energy Coronary Angiography with a Compact Synchrotron Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggl, Elena; Mechlem, Korbinian; Braig, Eva; Kulpe, Stephanie; Dierolf, Martin; Günther, Benedikt; Achterhold, Klaus; Herzen, Julia; Gleich, Bernhard; Rummeny, Ernst; Noёl, Peter B.; Pfeiffer, Franz; Muenzel, Daniela

    2017-02-01

    X-ray coronary angiography is an invaluable tool for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. However, the use of iodine-based contrast media can be contraindicated for patients who present with chronic renal insufficiency or with severe iodine allergy. These patients could benefit from a reduced contrast agent concentration, possibly achieved through application of a mono-energetic x-ray beam. While large-scale synchrotrons are impractical for daily clinical use, the technology of compact synchrotron sources strongly advanced during the last decade. Here we present a quantitative analysis of the benefits a compact synchrotron source can offer in coronary angiography. Simulated projection data from quasi-mono-energetic and conventional x-ray tube spectra is used for a CNR comparison. Results show that compact synchrotron spectra would allow for a significant reduction of contrast media. Experimentally, we demonstrate the feasibility of coronary angiography at the Munich Compact Light Source, the first commercial installation of a compact synchrotron source.

  17. Mono-Energy Coronary Angiography with a Compact Synchrotron Source

    PubMed Central

    Eggl, Elena; Mechlem, Korbinian; Braig, Eva; Kulpe, Stephanie; Dierolf, Martin; Günther, Benedikt; Achterhold, Klaus; Herzen, Julia; Gleich, Bernhard; Rummeny, Ernst; Noёl, Peter B.; Pfeiffer, Franz; Muenzel, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    X-ray coronary angiography is an invaluable tool for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. However, the use of iodine-based contrast media can be contraindicated for patients who present with chronic renal insufficiency or with severe iodine allergy. These patients could benefit from a reduced contrast agent concentration, possibly achieved through application of a mono-energetic x-ray beam. While large-scale synchrotrons are impractical for daily clinical use, the technology of compact synchrotron sources strongly advanced during the last decade. Here we present a quantitative analysis of the benefits a compact synchrotron source can offer in coronary angiography. Simulated projection data from quasi-mono-energetic and conventional x-ray tube spectra is used for a CNR comparison. Results show that compact synchrotron spectra would allow for a significant reduction of contrast media. Experimentally, we demonstrate the feasibility of coronary angiography at the Munich Compact Light Source, the first commercial installation of a compact synchrotron source. PMID:28181544

  18. Major models and data sources for residential and commercial sector energy conservation analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    Major models and data sources are reviewed that can be used for energy-conservation analysis in the residential and commercial sectors to provide an introduction to the information that can or is available to DOE in order to further its efforts in analyzing and quantifying their policy and program requirements. Models and data sources examined in the residential sector are: ORNL Residential Energy Model; BECOM; NEPOOL; MATH/CHRDS; NIECS; Energy Consumption Data Base: Household Sector; Patterns of Energy Use by Electrical Appliances Data Base; Annual Housing Survey; 1970 Census of Housing; AIA Research Corporation Data Base; RECS; Solar Market Development Model; and ORNL Buildings Energy Use Data Book. Models and data sources examined in the commercial sector are: ORNL Commercial Sector Model of Energy Demand; BECOM; NEPOOL; Energy Consumption Data Base: Commercial Sector; F.W. Dodge Data Base; NFIB Energy Report for Small Businesses; ADL Commercial Sector Energy Use Data Base; AIA Research Corporation Data Base; Nonresidential Buildings Surveys of Energy Consumption; General Electric Co: Commercial Sector Data Base; The BOMA Commercial Sector Data Base; The Tishman-Syska and Hennessy Data Base; The NEMA Commercial Sector Data Base; ORNL Buildings Energy Use Data Book; and Solar Market Development Model. Purpose; basis for model structure; policy variables and parameters; level of regional, sectoral, and fuels detail; outputs; input requirements; sources of data; computer accessibility and requirements; and a bibliography are provided for each model and data source.

  19. Metastable Frenkel Pair Defect in Graphite: Source of Wigner Energy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewels, C. P.; Telling, R. H.; El-Barbary, A. A.; Heggie, M. I.; Briddon, P. R.

    2003-07-01

    The atomic processes associated with energy storage and release in irradiated graphite have long been subject to untested speculation. We examine structures and recombination routes for interstitial-vacancy (I-V) pairs in graphite. Interaction results in the formation of a new metastable defect (an intimate I-V pair) or a Stone-Wales defect. The intimate I-V pair, although 2.9eV more stable than its isolated constituents, still has a formation energy of 10.8eV. The barrier to recombination to perfect graphite is calculated to be 1.3eV, consistent with the experimental first Wigner energy release peak at 1.38eV. We expect similar defects to form in carbon nanostructures such as nanotubes, nested fullerenes, and onions under irradiation.

  20. Energy Sources (Energy/Power). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Allen; And Others

    This course guide for an energy sources course is one of four developed for the energy/power area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--graphic communications and production.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

  1. A Multiagent Energy Management System for a Small Microgrid Equipped with Power Sources and Energy Storage Units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radziszewska, Weronika; Nahorski, Zbigniew

    An Energy Management System (EMS) for a small microgrid is presented, with both demand and production side management. The microgrid is equipped with renewable and controllable power sources (like a micro gas turbine), energy storage units (batteries and flywheels). Energy load is partially scheduled to avoid extreme peaks of power demand and to possibly match forecasted energy supply from the renewable power sources. To balance the energy in the network on line, a multiagent system is used. Intelligent agents of each device are proactively acting towards balancing the energy in the network, and at the same time optimizing the cost of operation of the whole system. A semi-market mechanism is used to match a demand and a production of the energy. Simulations show that the time of reaching a balanced state does not exceed 1 s, which is fast enough to let execute proper balancing actions, e.g. change an operating point of a controllable energy source. Simulators of sources and consumption devices were implemented in order to carry out exhaustive tests.

  2. Apparent metabolizable energy of crude glycerin originating from different sources in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Dozier, W A; Kerr, B J; Branton, S L

    2011-11-01

    An energy balance experiment was conducted to determine the AME(n) of various crude glycerin samples, and to generate an equation to predict AME(n) of crude glycerin based on its chemical composition. Dietary treatments consisted of a corn-soybean meal basal diet with no added glycerin and a basal diet supplemented with 6% glycerin. Crude glycerin samples were obtained from biodiesel production facilities throughout the United States, which use a variety of lipid products as their initial feedstock. Two identical energy balance trials were conducted. In each trial, 864 male broilers (Ross × Ross 708) were fed a common starter diet until 17 d of age when they were switched to 1 of 12 experimental diets (6 replicates per treatment) from 17 to 22 d of age, with a 48-h collection period on d 21 and 22. Nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy values of crude glycerin samples were estimated by difference, whereby AME(n) of the basal diet was subtracted from the complete diet containing the test ingredient. The AME(n) of the basal diet and US Pharmacopeia-grade glycerin were determined to be 3,085 and 3,662 kcal/kg, respectively, whereas the AME(n) of the 10 crude glycerin samples ranged from 3,254 to 4,134 kcal/kg. Two crude glycerin samples had high levels of fatty acids compared with the other samples (24 and 35% vs. <0.30%), and even though their AME(n) was higher than that of the other glycerin samples (3,806 vs. 3,611 kcal/kg, P < 0.01, respectively), their AME(n) as a percentage of gross energy (GE) was lower than that of the other samples (65.5% vs. 97.4%, respectively; P < 0.01). Including all of the glycerin samples, the stepwise regression equation to predict AME(n) was determined to be: [AME(n) (kcal/kg) = 1,605 - (19.13 × % methanol) + (39.06 × % fatty acid) + (23.47 × % glycerin)]; (R(2) = 0.25; SE = 379; P ≤ 0.01). These data indicate that glycerin is a good source of energy for broilers, and the AME(n) of glycerin is dependent on fatty acid

  3. Method for enhancing low frequency output of impulsive type seismic energy sources and its application to a seismic energy source for use while drilling

    DOEpatents

    Radtke, Robert P; Stokes, Robert H; Glowka, David A

    2014-12-02

    A method for operating an impulsive type seismic energy source in a firing sequence having at least two actuations for each seismic impulse to be generated by the source. The actuations have a time delay between them related to a selected energy frequency peak of the source output. One example of the method is used for generating seismic signals in a wellbore and includes discharging electric current through a spark gap disposed in the wellbore in at least one firing sequence. The sequence includes at least two actuations of the spark gap separated by an amount of time selected to cause acoustic energy resulting from the actuations to have peak amplitude at a selected frequency.

  4. Polyphosphate - an ancient energy source and active metabolic regulator

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    There are a several molecules on Earth that effectively store energy within their covalent bonds, and one of these energy-rich molecules is polyphosphate. In microbial cells, polyphosphate granules are synthesised for both energy and phosphate storage and are degraded to produce nucleotide triphosphate or phosphate. Energy released from these energetic carriers is used by the cell for production of all vital molecules such as amino acids, nucleobases, sugars and lipids. Polyphosphate chains directly regulate some processes in the cell and are used as phosphate donors in gene regulation. These two processes, energetic metabolism and regulation, are orchestrated by polyphosphate kinases. Polyphosphate kinases (PPKs) can currently be categorized into three groups (PPK1, PPK2 and PPK3) according their functionality; they can also be divided into three groups according their homology (EcPPK1, PaPPK2 and ScVTC). This review discusses historical information, similarities and differences, biochemical characteristics, roles in stress response regulation and possible applications in the biotechnology industry of these enzymes. At the end of the review, a hypothesis is discussed in view of synthetic biology applications that states polyphosphate and calcium-rich organelles have endosymbiotic origins from ancient protocells that metabolized polyphosphate. PMID:21816086

  5. Photovoltaics as a terrestrial energy source. Volume 3: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) systems were evaluated in terms of their potential for terrestrial application A comprehensive overview of important issues which bear on photovoltaic (PV) systems development is presented. Studies of PV system costs, the societal implications of PV system development, and strategies in PV research and development in relationship to current energy policies are summarized.

  6. Photovoltaics as a terrestrial energy source. Volume 3: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. L.

    1980-10-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) systems were evaluated in terms of their potential for terrestrial application A comprehensive overview of important issues which bear on photovoltaic (PV) systems development is presented. Studies of PV system costs, the societal implications of PV system development, and strategies in PV research and development in relationship to current energy policies are summarized.

  7. Potential of cattails as an energy source. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, D.C.; Bonnewell, V.; Andrews, N.J.; Kim, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Research on the feasibility of growing cattails as an energy crop is described. The following topics are included: productivity in natural strands, germination requirements for seed, establishing stands by seeding, rhizome dormancy and development, harvesting and stand establishment, and analysis of canopy structure and radiation profiles in a natural community. (MHR)

  8. Inverter for interfacing advanced energy sources to a utility grid

    DOEpatents

    Steigerwald, Robert L.

    1984-01-01

    A transistor is operated in the PWM mode such that a hlaf sine wave of current is delivered first to one-half of a distribution transformer and then the other as determined by steering thyristors operated at the fundamental sinusoidal frequency. Power to the transistor is supplied by a dc source such as a solar array and the power is converted such that a sinusoidal current is injected into a utility at near unity power factor.

  9. The Decline of the Atom and the Rise of the Sun as Future Energy Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockris, J. O'M.

    1973-01-01

    Examines the various energy sources likely to be developed in the near future, and suggests that the only satisfactory solution lies in the development of solar energy and an associated non-polluting "hydrogen economy." Concludes that Australia has ideal conditions and the technical expertise to lead in solar energy research. (JR)

  10. Survey of the information system in Nepal relating to new and renewable sources of energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    This report explores the role of information in Nepal in supporting energy development and use. Separate chapters are devoted to: Characteristics and activities of energy organizations and their staff; energy information needs of users; information sources used; and information dissemination and exchange.

  11. Renewable energy sources and the realities of setting an energy agenda.

    PubMed

    Potocnik, Janez

    2007-02-09

    The European Commission has been devoting considerable attention to energy issues. This Perspective describes recent progress in Europe toward achieving goals for renewable energy use, and the role that technology can play, as well as the new Strategic Energy Package.

  12. Dose heterogeneity correction for low-energy brachytherapy sources using dual-energy CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashouf, S.; Lechtman, E.; Lai, P.; Keller, B. M.; Karotki, A.; Beachey, D. J.; Pignol, J. P.

    2014-09-01

    Permanent seed implant brachytherapy is currently used for adjuvant radiotherapy of early stage prostate and breast cancer patients. The current standard for calculation of dose around brachytherapy sources is based on the AAPM TG-43 formalism, which generates the dose in a homogeneous water medium. Recently, AAPM TG-186 emphasized the importance of accounting for tissue heterogeneities. We have previously reported on a methodology where the absorbed dose in tissue can be obtained by multiplying the dose, calculated by the TG-43 formalism, by an inhomogeneity correction factor (ICF). In this work we make use of dual energy CT (DECT) images to extract ICF parameters. The advantage of DECT over conventional CT is that it eliminates the need for tissue segmentation as well as assignment of population based atomic compositions. DECT images of a heterogeneous phantom were acquired and the dose was calculated using both TG-43 and TG-43 × \\text{ICF} formalisms. The results were compared to experimental measurements using Gafchromic films in the mid-plane of the phantom. For a seed implant configuration of 8 seeds spaced 1.5 cm apart in a cubic structure, the gamma passing score for 2%/2 mm criteria improved from 40.8% to 90.5% when ICF was applied to TG-43 dose distributions.

  13. Dose heterogeneity correction for low-energy brachytherapy sources using dual-energy CT images.

    PubMed

    Mashouf, S; Lechtman, E; Lai, P; Keller, B M; Karotki, A; Beachey, D J; Pignol, J P

    2014-09-21

    Permanent seed implant brachytherapy is currently used for adjuvant radiotherapy of early stage prostate and breast cancer patients. The current standard for calculation of dose around brachytherapy sources is based on the AAPM TG-43 formalism, which generates the dose in a homogeneous water medium. Recently, AAPM TG-186 emphasized the importance of accounting for tissue heterogeneities. We have previously reported on a methodology where the absorbed dose in tissue can be obtained by multiplying the dose, calculated by the TG-43 formalism, by an inhomogeneity correction factor (ICF). In this work we make use of dual energy CT (DECT) images to extract ICF parameters. The advantage of DECT over conventional CT is that it eliminates the need for tissue segmentation as well as assignment of population based atomic compositions. DECT images of a heterogeneous phantom were acquired and the dose was calculated using both TG-43 and TG-43 [Formula: see text] formalisms. The results were compared to experimental measurements using Gafchromic films in the mid-plane of the phantom. For a seed implant configuration of 8 seeds spaced 1.5 cm apart in a cubic structure, the gamma passing score for 2%/2 mm criteria improved from 40.8% to 90.5% when ICF was applied to TG-43 dose distributions.

  14. Added Sugars

    MedlinePlus

    ... need sugar to function properly. Added sugars contribute zero nutrients but many added calories that can lead to extra pounds or even obesity, thereby reducing heart health. If you think of your daily calorie needs as a budget, you want to “spend” ...

  15. Value Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UCLA IDEA, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Value added measures (VAM) uses changes in student test scores to determine how much "value" an individual teacher has "added" to student growth during the school year. Some policymakers, school districts, and educational advocates have applauded VAM as a straightforward measure of teacher effectiveness: the better a teacher,…

  16. Electrical energy sources for organic synthesis on the early earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chyba, Christopher; Sagan, Carl

    1991-01-01

    It is pointed out that much of the contemporary origin-of-life research uses the original estimates of Miller and Urey (1959) for terrestrial energy dissipation by lightning and coronal discharges being equal to 2 x 10 to the 19th J/yr and 6 x 10 to the 19th J/yr, respectively. However, data from experiments that provide analogues to naturally-occurring lightning and coronal discharges indicate that lightning energy yields for organic synthesis (nmole/J) are about one order of magnitude higher than the coronal discharge yields. This suggests that, on early earth, organic production by lightning may have dominated that due to coronal emission. New values are recommended for lightning and coronal discharge dissipation rates on the early earth, 1 x 10 to the 18th J/yr and 5 x 10 to the 17th J/yr, respectively.

  17. Cactus (Opuntia dillenii Grahm) stem: a new source of energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, V. K.; Joshi, A. M.

    An electrochemical cell has been fabricated using cactus stem as an electrlolyte. A study of the discharge characteristics reveals that, at a current drain of 100 φA, the cell gives an optimum energy density of 175 mWh kg-1. The power generated by these cells is sufficient to run piezoelectric buzzer and a LCD calculator for a few hours. This work opens up a new interdisciplinary area for physicists, botanists and electro-chemists.

  18. Strings on AdS wormholes and nonsingular black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, H.; Vázquez-Poritz, Justin F.; Zhang, Zhibai

    2015-01-01

    Certain AdS black holes in the STU model can be conformally scaled to wormhole and black hole backgrounds which have two asymptotically AdS regions and are completely free of curvature singularities. While there is a delta-function source for the dilaton, classical string probes are not sensitive to this singularity. According to the AdS/CFT correspondence, the dual field theory lives on the union of the disjoint boundaries. For the wormhole background, causal contact exists between the two boundaries and the structure of certain correlation functions is indicative of an interacting phase for which there is a coupling between the degrees of freedom living at each boundary. The nonsingular black hole describes an entangled state in two non-interacting identical conformal field theories. By studying the behavior of open strings on these backgrounds, we extract a number of features of the ‘quarks’ and ‘anti-quarks’ that live in the field theories. In the interacting phase, we find that there is a maximum speed with which the quarks can move without losing energy, beyond which energy is transferred from a quark in one field theory to a quark in the other. We also compute the rate at which moving quarks within entangled states lose energy to the two surrounding plasmas. While a quark-antiquark pair within a single field theory exhibits Coulomb interaction for small separation, a quark in one field theory exhibits spring-like confinement with an anti-quark in the other field theory. For the entangled states, we study how the quark-antiquark screening length depends on temperature and chemical potential.

  19. Photovoltaics as a terrestrial energy source. Volume 1: An introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) systems were examined their potential for terrestrial application and future development. Photovoltaic technology, existing and potential photovoltaic applications, and the National Photovoltaics Program are reviewed. The competitive environment for this electrical source, affected by the presence or absence of utility supplied power is evaluated in term of systems prices. The roles of technological breakthroughs, directed research and technology development, learning curves, and commercial demonstrations in the National Program are discussed. The potential for photovoltaics to displace oil consumption is examined, as are the potential benefits of employing PV in either central-station or non-utility owned, small, distributed systems.

  20. Greater Caribbean Energy and Environment Future. Ad hoc working group report, Key Biscayne, Florida, October 26-28, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Thorhaug, A.

    1980-01-01

    This report of Workshop I (presented in outline form) by the Greater Caribbean Energy and Environment Foundation begin an intensive focus on the energy problems of the Caribbean. The process by which environmental assessments by tropical experts can be successfully integrated into energy decisions is by: (1) international loan institutions requiring or strongly recommending excellent assessments; (2) engineering awareness of total effects of energy projects; (3) governmental environmental consciousness-raising with regard to natural resource value and potential inadvertent and unnecessary resource losses during energy development; and (4) media participation. Section headings in the outline are: preamble; introduction; research tasks: today and twenty years hence; needed research, demonstration and information dissemination projects to get knowledge about Caribbean energy-environment used; summary; recommendations; generalized conclusions; and background literature. (JGB)

  1. Quasilocal energy for three-dimensional massive gravity solutions with chiral deformations of AdS{sub 3} boundary conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Garbarz, Alan; Giribet, Gaston E-mail: af.goya-at@df.uba.ar; Goya, Andrés E-mail: af.goya-at@df.uba.ar; Leston, Mauricio

    2015-03-26

    We consider critical gravity in three dimensions; that is, the New Massive Gravity theory formulated about Anti-de Sitter (AdS) space with the specific value of the graviton mass for which it results dual to a two-dimensional conformai field theory with vanishing central charge. As it happens with Kerr black holes in four-dimensional critical gravity, in three-dimensional critical gravity the Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes have vanishing mass and vanishing angular momentum. However, provided suitable asymptotic conditions are chosen, the theory may also admit solutions carrying non-vanishing charges. Here, we give simple examples of exact solutions that exhibit falling-off conditions that are even weaker than those of the so-called Log-gravity. For such solutions, we define the quasilocal stress-tensor and use it to compute conserved charges. Despite the drastic deformation of AdS{sub 3} asymptotic, these solutions have finite mass and angular momentum, which are shown to be non-zero.

  2. Hawaii Integrated Energy Assessment. Volume V. Rules, regulations, permits and policies affecting the development of alternate energy sources in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive presentaton of the major permits, regulations, rules, and controls which are likely to affect the development of alternate energy sources in Hawaii is presented. An overview of the permit process, showing the major categories and types of permits and controls for energy alternatives is presented. This is followed by a brief resume of current and projected changes designed to streamline the permit process. The permits, laws, regulations, and controls that are applicable to the development of energy alternatives in Hawaii are described. The alternate energy technologies affected, a description of the permit or control, and the requirements for conformance are presented for each applicable permit. Federal, state, and county permits and controls are covered. The individual energy technologies being considered as alternatives to the State's present dependence on imported fossil fuels are emphasized. The alternate energy sources covered are bioconversion, geothermal, ocean thermal, wind, solar (direct), and solid waste. For each energy alternative, the significant permits are summarized with a brief explanation of why they may be necessary. The framework of policy development at each of the levels of government with respect to the alternate energy sources is covered.

  3. Contribution from individual nearby sources to the spectrum of high-energy cosmic-ray electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedrati, R.; Attallah, R.

    2014-04-01

    In the last few years, very important data on high-energy cosmic-ray electrons and positrons from high-precision space-born and ground-based experiments have attracted a great deal of interest. These particles represent a unique probe for studying local comic-ray accelerators because they lose energy very rapidly. These energy losses reduce the lifetime so drastically that high-energy cosmic-ray electrons can attain the Earth only from rather local astrophysical sources. This work aims at calculating, by means of Monte Carlo simulation, the contribution from some known nearby astrophysical sources to the cosmic-ray electron/positron spectra at high energy (≥ 10 GeV). The background to the electron energy spectrum from distant sources is determined with the help of the GALPROP code. The obtained numerical results are compared with a set of experimental data.

  4. Missile impacts as sources of seismic energy on the moon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Latham, G.V.; McDonald, W.G.; Moore, H.J.

    1970-01-01

    Seismic signals recorded from impacts of missiles at the White Sands Missile Range are radically different from the signal recorded from the Apollo 12 lunar module impact. This implies that lunar structure to depths of at least 10 to 20 kilometers is quite different from the typical structure of the earth's crust. Results obtained from this study can be used to predict seismic wave amplitudes from future man-made lunar impacts. Seismic energy and crater dimensions from impacts are compared with measurements from chemical explosions.

  5. Wind Power: A Renewable Energy Source for Mars Transit Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael; Kohout, Lisa; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The Martian environment presents significant design challenges for the development of power generation systems. Nuclear-based systems may not be available due to political and safety concerns. The output of photovoltaics are limited by a solar intensity of 580 W/sqm as compared to 1353 W/sqm on Earth. The presence of dust particles in the Mars atmosphere will further reduce the photovoltaic output. Also, energy storage for a 12-hour night period must be provided. In this challenging environment, wind power generation capabilities may provide a viable option as a Martian power generation system. This paper provides an analysis of the feasibility of such a system.

  6. Draught animal power as a source of renewable energy

    SciTech Connect

    Ramaswamy, N.S.

    1981-01-01

    The state of the art of Draught Animal Power (DAP) system is surveyed. Specific proposals are presented to modernize the whole DAP system by way of improvements to: animal breeds and raising programmes; feed and pasture development; health and veterinary services; agricultural implements and equipment; vehicles and carrying methods; harnesses and hitching devices; biogas generation; credit and cooperatives; slaughter methods; recovery of by-products; and organization and management of RandD. When implemented, these will help the development of this massive renewable energy for increased food production and small scale transportation.

  7. Solar-driven chemical energy source for a Martian biota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B. C.

    1979-01-01

    Microorganisms deep in the Martian soil could derive energy indirectly from the sun via chemical reactions involving atmospheric photolysis products of the solar ultraviolet flux. The Viking discovery of a chemically uniform regolith which, though poor in organics, is rich in sulfur-containing compounds suggests reaction sequences in which sulfur is recycled through reduced and oxidized states by biologically catalyzed reactions with photochemically-produced atmospheric constituents. One candidate reaction, reduction of soil sulfate minerals by molecular hydrogen, is already exploited on earth by bacteria of the ubiquitous and tenacious Desulfovibrio genus.

  8. Space and man. [planetary exploration and energy sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolman, E.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of man's entry into space on changes in economics and technology, politics and law, science, philosophy, and art are considered. A single world economy, extracting from the natural resources of the moon and other cosmic bodies raw materials and energy, will avoid terrestrial limitations and improve society by eliminating the inequalities of economic and social status. However, a spacecraft for interplanetary travel require thermonuclear engines that achieve an escape velocity of 0.1 times the speed of light in order to allow an astronaut stellar expedition corresponding to the active life of a single generation.

  9. Turbulence generation through intense localized sources of energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maqui, Agustin; Donzis, Diego

    2015-11-01

    Mechanisms to generate turbulence in controlled conditions have been studied for nearly a century. Most common methods include passive and active grids with a focus on incompressible turbulence. However, little attention has been given to compressible flows, and even less to hypersonic flows, where phenomena such as thermal non-equilibrium can be present. Using intense energy from lasers, extreme molecule velocities can be generated from photo-dissociation. This creates strong localized changes in both the hydrodynamics and thermodynamics of the flow, which may perturb the flow in a way similar to an active grid to generate turbulence in hypersonic flows. A large database of direct numerical simulations (DNS) are used to study the feasibility of such an approach. An extensive analysis of single and two point statistics, as well as spectral dynamics is used to characterize the evolution of the flow towards realistic turbulence. Local measures of enstrophy and dissipation are studied to diagnose the main mechanisms for energy exchange. As commonly done in compressible flows, dilatational and solenoidal components are separated to understand the effect of acoustics on the development of turbulence. Further results for cases that assimilate laboratory conditions will be discussed. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of AFOSR.

  10. Alternative energy sources for non-highway transportation. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    A planning study was made for DOE on alternate fuels for non-highway transportation (aircraft, rail, marine, and pipeline). The study provides DOE with a recommendation of what alternate fuels may be of interest to non-highway transportation users from now through 2025 and recommends R and D needed to allow non-petroleum derived fuels to be used in non-highway transportation. Volume III contains all of the references for the data used in the preliminary screening and is presented in 4 subvolumes. Volume IIIA covers the background information on the various prime movers used in the non-highway transportation area, the physical property data, the fuel-prime mover interaction and a review of some alternate energy forms. Volume IIIB covers the economics of producing, tranporting, and distributing the various fuels. Volume IIIC is concerned with the environment issues in production and use of the fuels, the energy efficiency in use and production, the fuel logistics considerations, and the overall ratings and selection of the fuels and prime movers for the detailed evaluation. Volume IIID covers the demand-related issues.

  11. Indirect solar wind geothermal: Alternative energy sources 4, volume 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veziroglu, T. N.

    The utilities are obliged to provide electricity in a reliable and cost effective manner. Some unique problems posed by large scale wind turbines as an electricity source have to be considered. A value model is presented which is based upon the fuel displacement capability and the capacity displacement capability of wind turbines. The amount of fossil fuels which is saved by wind turbines depends on the forecasted wind power output, the actual power output fluctuations of the wind turbines and on system operation. The highly controversial capacity credit of wind turbines is discussed under the aspect of system reliability. It is shown that calculations of the capacity credit should be based upon detailed investigations with regard to the time dependence of the hourly wind power output.

  12. Discretized energy minimization in a wave guide with point sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Propst, G.

    1994-01-01

    An anti-noise problem on a finite time interval is solved by minimization of a quadratic functional on the Hilbert space of square integrable controls. To this end, the one-dimensional wave equation with point sources and pointwise reflecting boundary conditions is decomposed into a system for the two propagating components of waves. Wellposedness of this system is proved for a class of data that includes piecewise linear initial conditions and piecewise constant forcing functions. It is shown that for such data the optimal piecewise constant control is the solution of a sparse linear system. Methods for its computational treatment are presented as well as examples of their applicability. The convergence of discrete approximations to the general optimization problem is demonstrated by finite element methods.

  13. A comparison study on various low energy sources in interstitial prostate brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Bakhshabadi, Mahdi; Ghorbani, Mahdi; Knaup, Courtney; Meigooni, Ali S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Low energy sources are routinely used in prostate brachytherapy. 125I is one of the most commonly used sources. Low energy 131Cs source was introduced recently as a brachytherapy source. The aim of this study is to compare dose distributions of 125I, 103Pd, and 131Cs sources in interstitial brachytherapy of prostate. Material and methods ProstaSeed 125I brachytherapy source was simulated using MCNPX Monte Carlo code. Additionally, two hypothetical sources of 103Pd and 131Cs were simulated with the same geometry as the ProstaSeed 125I source, while having their specific emitted gamma spectra. These brachytherapy sources were simulated with distribution of forty-eight seeds in a phantom including prostate. The prostate was considered as a sphere with radius of 1.5 cm. Absolute and relative dose rates were obtained in various distances from the source along the transverse and longitudinal axes inside and outside the tumor. Furthermore, isodose curves were plotted around the sources. Results Analyzing the initial dose profiles for various sources indicated that with the same time duration and air kerma strength, 131Cs delivers higher dose to tumor. However, relative dose rate inside the tumor is higher and outside the tumor is lower for the 103Pd source. Conclusions The higher initial absolute dose in cGy/(h.U) of 131Cs brachytherapy source is an advantage of this source over the others. The higher relative dose inside the tumor and lower relative dose outside the tumor for the 103Pd source are advantages of this later brachytherapy source. Based on the total dose the 125I source has advantage over the others due to its longer half-life. PMID:26985200

  14. Misconceptions and biases in German students' perception of multiple energy sources: implications for science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Roh Pin

    2016-04-01

    Misconceptions and biases in energy perception could influence people's support for developments integral to the success of restructuring a nation's energy system. Science education, in equipping young adults with the cognitive skills and knowledge necessary to navigate in the confusing energy environment, could play a key role in paving the way for informed decision-making. This study examined German students' knowledge of the contribution of diverse energy sources to their nation's energy mix as well as their affective energy responses so as to identify implications for science education. Specifically, the study investigated whether and to what extent students hold mistaken beliefs about the role of multiple energy sources in their nation's energy mix, and assessed how misconceptions could act as self-generated reference points to underpin support/resistance of proposed developments. An in-depth analysis of spontaneous affective associations with five key energy sources also enabled the identification of underlying concerns driving people's energy responses and facilitated an examination of how affective perception, in acting as a heuristic, could lead to biases in energy judgment and decision-making. Finally, subgroup analysis differentiated by education and gender supported insights into a 'two culture' effect on energy perception and the challenge it poses to science education.

  15. Consumption of Less Than 10% of Total Energy From Added Sugars is Associated With Increasing HDL in Females During Adolescence: A Longitudinal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Alexandra K.; Binongo, José Nilo G.; Chowdhury, Ritam; Stein, Aryeh D.; Gazmararian, Julie A.; Vos, Miriam B.; Welsh, Jean A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Atherosclerotic changes associated with dyslipidemia and increased cardiovascular disease risk are believed to begin in childhood. While previous studies have linked added sugars consumption to low high‐density lipoprotein (HDL), little is known about the long‐term impact of this consumption. This study aims to assess the association between added sugars intake and HDL cholesterol levels during adolescence, and whether this association is modified by obesity. Methods and Results We used data from the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute's Growth and Health Study, a 10‐year cohort study of non‐Hispanic Caucasian and African‐American girls (N=2379) aged 9 and 10 years at baseline recruited from 3 sites in 1987‐1988 with biennial plasma lipid measurement and annual assessment of diet using a 3‐day food record. Added sugars consumption was dichotomized into low (0% to <10% of total energy) and high (≥10% of total energy). In a mixed model controlling for obesity, race, physical activity, smoking, maturation stage, age, and nutritional factors, low compared with high added sugar consumption was associated with a 0.26 mg/dL greater annual increase in HDL levels (95% CI 0.48 to 0.04; P=0.02). Over the 10‐year study period, the model predicted a mean increase of 2.2 mg/dL (95% CI 0.09 to 4.32; P=0.04) among low consumers, and a 0.4 mg/dL decrease (95% CI −1.32 to 0.52; P=0.4) among high consumers. Weight category did not modify this association (P=0.45). Conclusion Low added sugars consumption is associated with increasing HDL cholesterol levels throughout adolescence. PMID:24572253

  16. Spent coffee grounds as a versatile source of green energy.

    PubMed

    Kondamudi, Narasimharao; Mohapatra, Susanta K; Misra, Mano

    2008-12-24

    The production of energy from renewable and waste materials is an attractive alternative to the conventional agricultural feed stocks such as corn and soybean. This paper describes an approach to extract oil from spent coffee grounds and to further transesterify the processed oil to convert it into biodiesel. This process yields 10-15% oil depending on the coffee species (Arabica or Robusta). The biodiesel derived from the coffee grounds (100% conversion of oil to biodiesel) was found to be stable for more than 1 month under ambient conditions. It is projected that 340 million gallons of biodiesel can be produced from the waste coffee grounds around the world. The coffee grounds after oil extraction are ideal materials for garden fertilizer, feedstock for ethanol, and as fuel pellets.

  17. Photovoltaics as a terrestrial energy source. Volume 2: System value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. L.

    1980-10-01

    Assumptions and techniques employed by the electric utility industry and other electricity planners to make estimates of the future value of photovoltaic (PV) systems interconnected with U.S. electric utilities were examined. Existing estimates of PV value and their interpretation and limitations are discussed. PV value is defined as the marginal private savings accruing to potential PV owners. For utility-owned PV systems, these values are shown to be the after-tax savings in conventional fuel and capacity displaced by the PV output. For non-utility-owned (distributed) systems, the utility's savings in fuel and capacity must first be translated through the electric rate structure (prices) to the potential PV system owner. Base-case estimates of the average value of PV systems to U.S. utilities are presented. The relationship of these results to the PV Program price goals and current energy policy is discussed; the usefulness of PV output quantity goals is also reviewed.

  18. Photovoltaics as a terrestrial energy source. Volume 2: System value

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    Assumptions and techniques employed by the electric utility industry and other electricity planners to make estimates of the future value of photovoltaic (PV) systems interconnected with U.S. electric utilities were examined. Existing estimates of PV value and their interpretation and limitations are discussed. PV value is defined as the marginal private savings accruing to potential PV owners. For utility-owned PV systems, these values are shown to be the after-tax savings in conventional fuel and capacity displaced by the PV output. For non-utility-owned (distributed) systems, the utility's savings in fuel and capacity must first be translated through the electric rate structure (prices) to the potential PV system owner. Base-case estimates of the average value of PV systems to U.S. utilities are presented. The relationship of these results to the PV Program price goals and current energy policy is discussed; the usefulness of PV output quantity goals is also reviewed.

  19. Source of vacuum electromagnetic zero-point energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puthoff, H. E.

    1989-11-01

    Nature provides two alternatives for the origin of electromagnetic zero-point energy (ZPE): existence by fiat as part of the boundary conditions of the universe, or generation by the (quantum-fluctuation) motion of charged particles that constitute matter. A straightforward calculation of the latter possibility has been carried out in which it is assumed that the ZPE spectrum (field distribution) drives particle motion, and that the particle motion in turn generates the ZPE spectrum, in the form of a self-regenerating cosmological feedback cycle. The result is the appropriate frequency-cubed spectral distribution of the correct order of magnitude, thus indicating a dynamic-generation process for the ZPE fields.

  20. Acute effects of protein composition and fibre enrichment of yogurt consumed as snacks on appetite sensations and subsequent ad libitum energy intake in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Doyon, Caroline Y; Tremblay, Angelo; Rioux, Laurie-Eve; Rhéaume, Caroline; Cianflone, Katherine; Poursharifi, Pegah; Turgeon, Sylvie L

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the impact of protein composition and/or fibre enrichment of yogurt on appetite sensations and subsequent energy intake. In this double-blind crossover study, 20 healthy men (aged 32.4 ± 9.1 years) were submitted to 5 randomized testing sessions, during which they had to consume 5 isocaloric and isonproteinemic yogurt snacks (120-g servings, ∼230 kJ, ∼4.5 g protein) differing by their casein-to-whey protein ratio (C:W) or dietary fibre content: (i) control C:W = 2.8:1; (ii) high whey (HW) C:W = 1.5:1, and fibre-enriched formulations using control; (iii) 2.4 g of inulin; (iv) 1.9 g of inulin and 0.5 g of β-glucan (+IN-βG); and (v) 0.5 g of β-glucan. Appetite sensations were assessed using 150-mm visual analog scales. Plasma variables (glucose, insulin, ghrelin) were measured at 30-min intervals post-yogurt consumption for 2 h. Finally, energy intakes during ad libitum lunches offered 2 h after yogurt snacks were recorded. None of the yogurts impacted appetite sensations. Ad libitum energy intake was significantly different only between HW and control yogurts (-812 kJ; p = 0.03). Regarding post-yogurt plasma variables, a significant difference was found only between ghrelin area under the curve of the +IN-βG and the HW yogurts (-15 510 pmol/L per 120 min, p = 0.04). In conclusion, although appetite sensations were not influenced by variations in yogurts' protein compositions, a reduced energy intake was observed during the ad libitum lunch after the HW yogurt that may be attributable to its lower C:W. Surprisingly, the fibre enrichments studied did not exert effect on appetite sensations and energy intake.

  1. Modeling and Analysis of Energy Conservation Scheme Based on Duty Cycling in Wireless Ad Hoc Sensor Network

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Yun Won; Hwang, Ho Young

    2010-01-01

    In sensor network, energy conservation is one of the most critical issues since sensor nodes should perform a sensing task for a long time (e.g., lasting a few years) but the battery of them cannot be replaced in most practical situations. For this purpose, numerous energy conservation schemes have been proposed and duty cycling scheme is considered the most suitable power conservation technique, where sensor nodes alternate between states having different levels of power consumption. In order to analyze the energy consumption of energy conservation scheme based on duty cycling, it is essential to obtain the probability of each state. In this paper, we analytically derive steady state probability of sensor node states, i.e., sleep, listen, and active states, based on traffic characteristics and timer values, i.e., sleep timer, listen timer, and active timer. The effect of traffic characteristics and timer values on the steady state probability and energy consumption is analyzed in detail. Our work can provide sensor network operators guideline for selecting appropriate timer values for efficient energy conservation. The analytical methodology developed in this paper can be extended to other energy conservation schemes based on duty cycling with different sensor node states, without much difficulty. PMID:22219676

  2. Modeling and analysis of energy conservation scheme based on duty cycling in wireless ad hoc sensor network.

    PubMed

    Chung, Yun Won; Hwang, Ho Young

    2010-01-01

    In sensor network, energy conservation is one of the most critical issues since sensor nodes should perform a sensing task for a long time (e.g., lasting a few years) but the battery of them cannot be replaced in most practical situations. For this purpose, numerous energy conservation schemes have been proposed and duty cycling scheme is considered the most suitable power conservation technique, where sensor nodes alternate between states having different levels of power consumption. In order to analyze the energy consumption of energy conservation scheme based on duty cycling, it is essential to obtain the probability of each state. In this paper, we analytically derive steady state probability of sensor node states, i.e., sleep, listen, and active states, based on traffic characteristics and timer values, i.e., sleep timer, listen timer, and active timer. The effect of traffic characteristics and timer values on the steady state probability and energy consumption is analyzed in detail. Our work can provide sensor network operators guideline for selecting appropriate timer values for efficient energy conservation. The analytical methodology developed in this paper can be extended to other energy conservation schemes based on duty cycling with different sensor node states, without much difficulty.

  3. Summary of Energy Assessment Requirements under the Area Source Boiler Rule

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document provides an overview of the energy assessment requirements for the national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for area sources: industrial, commercial and Institutional boilers, 40 CFR Part 63, Subpart JJJJJJ.

  4. A search for cosmic sources of high energy neutrinos with small underground detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berezinsky, V. S.; Castagnoli, C.; Galeotti, P.

    1985-01-01

    On the basis of standard source calculations of high energy neutrino fluxes, some models of astrophysical object (single stars and binary systems) are discussed from which a detectable muon flux is expected in small underground detectors.

  5. Indications of negative evolution for the sources of the highest energy cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Andrew M.; Ahlers, Markus; Hooper, Dan

    2015-09-14

    Using recent measurements of the spectrum and chemical composition of the highest energy cosmic rays, we consider the sources of these particles. We find that these data strongly prefer models in which the sources of the ultra-high-energy cosmic rays inject predominantly intermediate mass nuclei, with comparatively few protons or heavy nuclei, such as iron or silicon. If the number density of sources per comoving volume does not evolve with redshift, the injected spectrum must be very hard (α≃1) in order to fit the spectrum observed from Earth. Such a hard spectral index would be surprising and difficult to accommodate theoretically. In contrast, much softer spectral indices, consistent with the predictions of Fermi acceleration (α≃2), are favored in models with negative source evolution. Furthermore with this theoretical bias, these observations thus favor models in which the sources of the highest energy cosmic rays are preferentially located within the low-redshift universe.

  6. Alternative energy sources for non-highway transportation: technical section

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Eighteen different alternative fuels were considered in the preliminary screening, from three basic resource bases. Coal can be used to provide 13 of the fuels; oil shale was the source for three of the fuels; and biomass provided the resource base for two fuels not provided from coal. In the case of biomass, six different fuels were considered. Nuclear power and direct solar radiation were also considered. The eight prime movers that were considered in the preliminary screening are boiler/steam turbine; open and closed cycle gas turbines; low and medium speed diesels; spark ignited and stratified charge Otto cycles; electric motor; Stirling engine; free piston; and fuel cell/electric motor. Modes of transport considered are pipeline, marine, railroad, and aircraft. Section 2 gives the overall summary and conclusions, the future outlook for each mode of transportation, and the R and D suggestions by mode of transportation. Section 3 covers the preliminary screening phase and includes a summary of the data base used. Section 4 presents the methodology used to select the fuels and prime movers for the detailed study. Sections 5 through 8 cover the detailed evaluation of the pipeline, marine, railroad, and aircraft modes of transportation. Section 9 covers the demand related issues.

  7. Low-energy dc ion source for low operating pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Oks, Efim; Shandrikov, Maxim; Brown, Ian

    2014-08-15

    We report on an experimental study of an ion source based on a Penning discharge with a cold hollow cathode in crossed electric and magnetic fields. The minimum vacuum chamber operating pressure was 3 × 10{sup −5} Torr for argon and 5 × 10{sup −5} Torr for hydrogen. The use of a hollow cathode allowed decreasing the discharge operating voltage down to 350 V at a discharge current of ∼100 mA. At a discharge current of 100 mA and beam accelerating voltage of 2 kV, the ion current was 2.5 mA for argon and 8 mA for hydrogen, and the ion beam on-axis current density 170 and 450 μA/cm{sup 2}, respectively. The current-voltage characteristics of the discharge and the radial ion beam current density distribution were measured. The influence of pressure on the discharge parameters and their time stability was investigated.

  8. Direct Reacting Anolyte-Catholyte Fuel Cell for Hybrid Energy Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-11

    401-832-5293. 20050719 026 Attorney Docket No. 82872 Customer No. 23523 DIRECT REACTING ANOLYTE -CATHOLYTE FUEL CELL FOR HYBRID ENERGY SOURCES TO ALL...PAUL A. NASSER, Esq. Reg. No. 53372 1 Attorney Docket No. 82872 2 3 DIRECT REACTING ANOLYTE -CATHOLYTE FUEL CELL 4 FOR HYBRID ENERGY SOURCES 5 6...14 The present invention relates generally to a fuel cell, and 15 more particularly to a fuel cell wherein both the anolyte and 16 the catholyte are

  9. Waste utilization as an energy source: Biomass. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the processing of agricultural and forest product wastes for use as energy sources. Articles discuss the utilization of crop residues, sawdust, lumber wastes, and other biomass materials as energy sources. Citations address conversion to both liquid and gaseous synthetic fuels, and the direct combustion of these waste materials for heat production. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Integral Fast Reactor: A future source of nuclear energy

    SciTech Connect

    Southon, R.

    1993-09-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is developing a reactor concept that would be an important part of the worlds energy future. This report discusses the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept which provides significant improvements over current generation reactors in reactor safety, plant complexity, nuclear proliferation, and waste generation. Two major facilities, a reactor and a fuel cycle facility, make up the IFR concept. The reactor uses fast neutrons and metal fuel in a sodium coolant at atmospheric pressure that relies on laws of physics to keep it safe. The fuel cycle facility is a hot cell using remote handling techniques for fabricating reactor fuel. The fuel feed stock includes spent fuel from the reactor, and potentially, spent light water reactor fuel and plutonium from weapons. This paper discusses the unique features of the IFR concept and the differences the quality assurance program has from current commercial practices. The IFR concept provides an opportunity to design a quality assurance program that makes use of the best contemporary ideas on management and quality.

  11. Localization, time histories, and energy spectra of a new type of recurrent high-energy transient source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atteia, J.-L.; Boer, M.; Hurley, K.; Niel, M.; Vedrenne, G.; Fenimore, E. E.; Klebesadel, R. W.; Laros, J. G.; Kuznetsov, A. V.; Kouveliotou, C.

    1987-01-01

    The detection of a recurrent high-energy transient source which is neither a classical X-ray nor a gamma-ray burster, but whose properties are intermediate between the two, is reported. The energy spectra of 12 recurrent events are found to be soft, characterized by kT's of 34-56 keV. The time histories are short with rise and fall times as fast as about 10 ms. The source location is a 0.12 sq deg region about 10 deg from the Galactic center.

  12. Development, Integration and Utilization of Surface Nuclear Energy Sources for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Schmidt, George R.; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon; Hickman, Robert; Hissam, Andy; Houston, Vance; Martin, Jim; Mireles, Omar; Reid, Bob; Schneider, Todd

    2005-01-01

    Throughout the past five decades numerous studies have identified nuclear energy as an enhancing or enabling technology for human surface exploration missions. Nuclear energy sources were used to provide electricity on Apollo missions 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17, and on the Mars Viking landers. Nuclear energy sources were used to provide heat on the Pathfinder; Spirit, and Discovery rovers. Scenarios have been proposed that utilize -1 kWe radioisotope systems for early missions, followed by fission systems in the 10 - 30 kWe range when energy requirements increase. A fission energy source unit size of approximately 150 kWt has been proposed based on previous lunar and Mars base architecture studies. Such a unit could support both early and advanced bases through a building block approach.

  13. An Analysis of the Use of Energy Audits, Solar Panels, and Wind Turbines to Reduce Energy Consumption from Non Renewable Energy Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-15

    system which are old and very inefficient with geothermal ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems which is significantly more energy efficient than...conduct energy audits on buildings located on the campus of FVSU and at the Museum of Aviation. Systems included are lighting, heating , ventilation, air...source heat pump system . Water conservation studies showed that by installing faucets and shower heads with a reduced gallon per minute flow rate and a

  14. X-ray Sources by Energy Recovered Linacs and Their Needed R&D

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, Stephen; Douglas, David; Dowell, David; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Kayran, D; Krafft, Geoffrey; Legg, Robert; Moog, E; Obina, T; Rimmer, Robert; Yakimenko, V

    2011-05-01

    In this paper we review the current state of research on energy recovered linacs as drivers for future X-ray sources. For many types of user experiments, such sources may have substantial advantages compared to the workhorse sources of the present: high energy storage rings. Energy recovered linacs need to be improved beyond present experience in both energy and average current to support this application. To build an energy recovered linac based X-ray user facility presents many interesting challenges. We present summaries on the Research and Development (R&D) topics needed for full development of such a source, including the discussion at the Future Light Sources Workshop held in Gaithersburg, Maryland on September 15- 17, 2009. A rst iteration of an R&D plan is presented that is founded on the notion of building a set of succeedingly larger test accelerators exploring cathode physics, high average current injector physics, and beam recirculation and beam energy recovery at high average current. Our basic conclusion is that a reviewable design of such a source can be developed after an R&D period of ve to ten years.

  15. RADIUS CONSTRAINTS AND MINIMAL EQUIPARTITION ENERGY OF RELATIVISTICALLY MOVING SYNCHROTRON SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Barniol Duran, Rodolfo; Piran, Tsvi; Nakar, Ehud E-mail: tsvi.piran@mail.huji.ac.il

    2013-07-20

    A measurement of the synchrotron self-absorption flux and frequency provides tight constraints on the physical size of the source and a robust lower limit on its energy. This lower limit is also a good estimate of the magnetic field and electrons' energy, if the two components are at equipartition. This well-known method was used for decades to study numerous astrophysical sources moving at non-relativistic (Newtonian) speeds. Here, we generalize the Newtonian equipartition theory to sources moving at relativistic speeds including the effect of deviation from spherical symmetry expected in such sources. As in the Newtonian case, minimization of the energy provides an excellent estimate of the emission radius and yields a useful lower limit on the energy. We find that the application of the Newtonian formalism to a relativistic source would yield a smaller emission radius, and would generally yield a larger lower limit on the energy (within the observed region). For sources where the synchrotron-self-Compton component can be identified, the minimization of the total energy is not necessary and we present an unambiguous solution for the parameters of the system.

  16. Analysis of renewable energy sources and electric vehicle penetration into energy systems predominantly based on lignite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedinec, A.; Jovanovski, B.; Gajduk, A.; Markovska, N.; Kocarev, L.

    2016-05-01

    We consider an integration of renewable energy into transport and electricity sectors through vehicle to grid (V2G) technologies for an energy system that is predominantly based on lignite. The national energy system of Macedonia is modeled using EnergyPLAN which integrates energy for electricity, transport and heat, and includes hourly fluctuations in human needs and the environment. We show that electric-vehicles can provide the necessary storage enabling a fully renewable energy profile for Macedonia that can match the country's growing demand for energy. Furthermore, a large penetration of electric vehicles leads to a dramatic reduction of 47% of small particles and other air pollutants generated by car traffic in 2050.

  17. Wholegrain vs. refined wheat bread and pasta. Effect on postprandial glycemia, appetite, and subsequent ad libitum energy intake in young healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Mette; Jensen, Morten G; Riboldi, Giancarlo; Petronio, Michela; Bügel, Susanne; Toubro, Søren; Tetens, Inge; Astrup, Arne

    2010-02-01

    Wholegrain foods have received much attention in recent years, and have been proposed to play a role in energy regulation through lowering of postprandial glycemia and appetite. This randomized crossover single meal study in 16 young adults was conducted to test the effect of iso-caloric meals based on wholemeal wheat breads and pasta in comparison to similar refined wheat products on postprandial glycemia, appetite and ad libitum energy intake (EI). Test meals (50 g carbohydrates; 2MJ) consisted of refined wheat bread (RWB), wholegrain wheat bread (WWB), refined wheat pasta (RWP) and wholegrain wheat pasta (WWP) and were served after an overnight fast. Appetite ratings and blood glucose were assessed for 180 min after which an ad libitum lunch meal was served and EI measured. The 180 min glucose responses were similar for wholemeal and refined products, but pasta meals gave significantly lower glucose responses. Only RWP had a lower glycemic index compared to RWB. WWB, but not WWP, resulted in increased satiety and reduced hunger compared to RWB. Ad libitum EI did not differ. In conclusion, the results show that wholemeal breads increased satiety measures compared to their refined counterparts; however no significant effect on subsequent EI was observed.

  18. Current Research on Molasses as an Alternative Energy Source for Organic Dairy Herds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As organic grain prices have increased and organic milk prices have decreased, dairy farmers are seeking lower-cost supplementation strategies. Sugarcane molasses, a rich source of sucrose, seems to be a viable option as a source of energy. Molasses frequently costs less per pound of dry matter than...

  19. Alternative Sources of Energy - An Introduction to Fuel Cells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merewether, E.A.

    2003-01-01

    Fuel cells are important future sources of electrical power and could contribute to a reduction in the amount of petroleum imported by the United States. They are electrochemical devices similar to a battery and consist of a container, an anode, a cathode, catalysts, an intervening electrolyte, and an attached electrical circuit. In most fuel cell systems, hydrogen is supplied to the anode and oxygen to the cathode which results in the production of electricity, water, and heat. Fuel cells are comparatively efficient and reliable, have no moving parts, operate without combustion, and are modular and scale-able. Their size and shape are flexible and adaptable. In operation, they are nearly silent, are relatively safe, and generally do not pollute the environment. During recent years, scientists and engineers have developed and refined technologies relevant to a variety of fuel cells. Types of fuel cells are commonly identified by the composition of their electrolyte, which could be either phosphoric acid, an alkaline solution, a molten carbonate, a solid metal oxide, or a solid polymer membrane. The electrolyte in stationary power plants could be phosphoric acid, molten carbonates, or solid metal oxides. For vehicles and smaller devices, the electrolyte could be an alkaline solution or a solid polymer membrane. For most fuel cell systems, the fuel is hydrogen, which can be extracted by several procedures from many hydrogen-bearing substances, including alcohols, natural gas (mainly methane), gasoline, and water. There are important and perhaps unresolved technical problems associated with using fuel cells to power vehicles. The catalysts required in several systems are expensive metals of the platinum group. Moreover, fuel cells can freeze and not work in cold weather and can be damaged by impacts. Storage tanks for the fuels, particularly hydrogen, must be safe, inexpensive, of a reasonable size, and contain a supply sufficient for a trip of several hundred miles

  20. Green Power Grids: How Energy from Renewable Sources Affects Networks and Markets.

    PubMed

    Mureddu, Mario; Caldarelli, Guido; Chessa, Alessandro; Scala, Antonio; Damiano, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The increasing attention to environmental issues is forcing the implementation of novel energy models based on renewable sources. This is fundamentally changing the configuration of energy management and is introducing new problems that are only partly understood. In particular, renewable energies introduce fluctuations which cause an increased request for conventional energy sources to balance energy requests at short notice. In order to develop an effective usage of low-carbon sources, such fluctuations must be understood and tamed. In this paper we present a microscopic model for the description and for the forecast of short time fluctuations related to renewable sources in order to estimate their effects on the electricity market. To account for the inter-dependencies in the energy market and the physical power dispatch network, we use a statistical mechanics approach to sample stochastic perturbations in the power system and an agent based approach for the prediction of the market players' behavior. Our model is data-driven; it builds on one-day-ahead real market transactions in order to train agents' behaviour and allows us to deduce the market share of different energy sources. We benchmarked our approach on the Italian market, finding a good accordance with real data.

  1. Green Power Grids: How Energy from Renewable Sources Affects Networks and Markets

    PubMed Central

    Mureddu, Mario; Caldarelli, Guido; Chessa, Alessandro; Scala, Antonio; Damiano, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The increasing attention to environmental issues is forcing the implementation of novel energy models based on renewable sources. This is fundamentally changing the configuration of energy management and is introducing new problems that are only partly understood. In particular, renewable energies introduce fluctuations which cause an increased request for conventional energy sources to balance energy requests at short notice. In order to develop an effective usage of low-carbon sources, such fluctuations must be understood and tamed. In this paper we present a microscopic model for the description and for the forecast of short time fluctuations related to renewable sources in order to estimate their effects on the electricity market. To account for the inter-dependencies in the energy market and the physical power dispatch network, we use a statistical mechanics approach to sample stochastic perturbations in the power system and an agent based approach for the prediction of the market players’ behavior. Our model is data-driven; it builds on one-day-ahead real market transactions in order to train agents’ behaviour and allows us to deduce the market share of different energy sources. We benchmarked our approach on the Italian market, finding a good accordance with real data. PMID:26335705

  2. High energy supercontinuum sources using tapered photonic crystal fibers for multispectral photoacoustic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bondu, Magalie; Brooks, Christopher; Jakobsen, Christian; Oakes, Keith; Moselund, Peter Morten; Leick, Lasse; Bang, Ole; Podoleanu, Adrian

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate a record bandwidth high energy supercontinuum source suitable for multispectral photoacoustic microscopy. The source has more than 150  nJ/10  nm bandwidth over a spectral range of 500 to 1600 nm. This performance is achieved using a carefully designed fiber taper with large-core input for improved power handling and small-core output that provides the desired spectral range of the supercontinuum source.

  3. Conserved charges in timelike warped AdS3 spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnay, L.; Fernández-Melgarejo, J. J.; Giribet, G.; Goya, A.; Lavia, E.

    2015-06-01

    We consider the timelike version of warped anti-de Sitter space (WAdS), which corresponds to the three-dimensional section of the Gödel solution of four-dimensional cosmological Einstein equations. This geometry presents closed timelike curves (CTCs), which are inherited from its four-dimensional embedding. In three dimensions, this type of solution can be supported without matter provided the graviton acquires mass. Here, among the different ways to consistently give mass to the graviton in three dimensions, we consider the parity-even model known as new massive gravity (NMG). In the bulk of timelike WAdS3 space, we introduce defects that, from the three-dimensional point of view, represent spinning massive particlelike objects. For this type of source, we investigate the definition of quasilocal gravitational energy as seen from infinity, far beyond the region where the CTCs appear. We also consider the covariant formalism applied to NMG to compute the mass and the angular momentum of spinning particlelike defects and compare the result with the one obtained by means of the quasilocal stress tensor. We apply these methods to special limits in which the WAdS3 solutions coincide with locally AdS3 and locally AdS2×R spaces. Finally, we make some comments about the asymptotic symmetry algebra of asymptotically WAdS3 spaces in NMG.

  4. Adding high time resolution to charge-state-specific ion energy measurements for pulsed copper vacuum arc plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Koichi; Han, Liang; Zhou, Xue; Anders, André

    2015-08-01

    Charge-state-resolved ion energy-time distributions of pulsed Cu arc plasma were obtained by using direct (time-dependent) acquisition of the ion detection signal from a commercial ion mass-per-charge and energy-per-charge analyzer. We find a shift of energies of Cu2+, Cu3+ and Cu4+ ions to lower values during the first few hundred microseconds after arc ignition, which is evidence for particle collisions in the plasma. The generation of Cu+ ions in the later part of the pulse, measured by the increase of Cu+ signal intensity and an associated slight reduction of the mean charge state, points to charge exchange reactions between ions and neutrals. At the very beginning of the pulse, when the plasma expands into vacuum and the plasma potential strongly fluctuates, ions with much higher energy (over 200 eV) are observed. Early in the pulse, the ion energies observed are approximately proportional to the ion charge state, and we conclude that the acceleration mechanism is primarily based on acceleration in an electric field. This field is directed away from the cathode, indicative of a potential hump. Measurements by a floating probe suggest that potential structures travel, and ions moving in the traveling field can gain high energies up to a few hundred electron-volts. Later in the pulse, the approximate proportionality is lost, which is related to increased smearing out of different energies due to collisions with neutrals, and/or to a change of the acceleration character from electrostatic to ‘gas-dynamic’, i.e. dominated by pressure gradient.

  5. High-temperature pyrolysis of blended animal manures for producing renewable energy and value-added biochar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we used a commercial pilot-scale, skid-mounted pyrolysis reactor system to produce combustible gas and biochar at 620ºC from three sources (chicken litter, swine solids, mixture of swine solids with rye grass). Pyrolysis of swine solids produced gas with the greatest higher heating va...

  6. High-temperature pyrolysis of blended animal manures for producing renewable energy and value-added biochar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we used a commercial pilot-scale pyrolysis reactor system to produce combustible gas and biochar at 620 degrees Celsium from three sources (chicken litter, swine solids, mixture of swine solids with rye grass). Pyrolysis of swine solids produced gas with the greatest higher heating va...

  7. Location of energy source for coronal heating on the photosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Zhen-Xiang; Yang, Xu; Wang, Ya; Ji, Kai-Fan; Ji, Hai-Sheng; Cao, Wen-Da

    2017-02-01

    It is reported that ultra-fine dynamic ejections along magnetic loops of an active region originate from intergranular lanes and they are associated with subsequent heating in the corona. As continuing work, we analyze the same set of data but focus on a quiet region and the overlying EUV/UV emission as observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). We find that there appear to be dark patches scattered across the quiet region and the dark patches always stay along intergranular lanes. Over the dark patches, the average UV/EUV emission at 131, 171, 304 and 1600 Å (middle temperature) is more intense than that of other regions and EUV brightness is negatively correlated with 10830 Å intensity, though, such a trend does not exist for high temperature lines at 94, 193, 211 and 335 Å. For the same quiet region, where both TiO 7057 Å broad band images and 10830 Å filtergrams are available, contours for the darkest lane areas on TiO images and dark patches on 10830 Å filtergrams frequently differ in space. The results suggest that the dark patches do not simply reflect the areas with the darkest lanes but are associated with a kind of enhanced absorption (EA) at 10830 Å. A strict definition for EA with narrow band 10830 Å filtergrams is found to be difficult. In this paper, we define enhanced absorption patches (EAPs) of a quiet region as the areas where emission is less than ∼90% of the mean intensity of the region. The value is equivalent to the average intensity along thin dark loops connecting two moss regions of the active region. A more strict definition for EAPs, say 88%, gives even more intense UV/EUV emission over those in the middle temperature range. The results provide further observational evidence that energy for heating the upper solar atmosphere comes from the intergranular lane area where the magnetic field is constantly brought in by convection motion in granules.

  8. Fish mucus versus parasitic gnathiid isopods as sources of energy and sunscreens for a cleaner fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckes, Maxi; Dove, Sophie; Siebeck, Ulrike E.; Grutter, Alexandra S.

    2015-09-01

    The cleaning behaviour of the bluestreak cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus is extensively used as a model system for understanding cooperation. It feeds mainly on blood-sucking gnathiid isopods and also on the epidermal mucus of client fish; the nutritional quality of these foods, however, is unknown. The epidermal mucus of reef fish contains ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing compounds (mycosporine-like amino acids, MAAs), which are only obtained via the diet; nevertheless, while La. dimidiatus has high amounts of MAAs in its mucus, their source is unknown. Therefore, the energetic value (calories and protein estimated using carbon and nitrogen) and MAA level in gnathiids and mucus from several clients [parrotfishes, wrasses (Labridae), and a snapper (Lutjanidae)] were determined. The energetic value of mucus and gnathiids varied among fishes. Overall, carbon, nitrogen, calories, and protein per dry weight were higher in the mucus of most client species compared to gnathiids. Thus, depending on the client species, mucus may be energetically more advantageous for cleaner wrasse to feed on than gnathiids. UV absorbance, a confirmed proxy for MAA levels, indicated high MAA levels in mucus, whereas gnathiids had no detectable MAAs. This suggests that La. dimidiatus obtain MAAs from mucus but not from gnathiids. Hence, in addition to energy, the mucus of some clients also provides La. dimidiatus with the added bonus of UV-absorbing compounds. This may explain why cleaner fish prefer to feed on mucus over gnathiid isopods. The likely costs and benefits to clients of the removal of UV protecting mucus and parasitic gnathiids, respectively, and the variation in benefits gained by cleaner fish from feeding on these foods may explain some variation in cooperation levels in cleaning interactions.

  9. Report of Ad Hoc Committee on Energy Efficiency in Transportation to the Interdepartmental Fuel and Energy Committee of the State of New York. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Interdepartmental Fuel and Energy Committee, Albany.

    After presenting the background of the availability of fuel for transportation and the increasing per capita energy consumption, the report examines the State's role in energy conservation. Five proposals are outlined: (1) a coordinated education program designed to increase public awareness of the current energy situation; (2) a pilot program of…

  10. Micro-mechanical and Structural Properties and Activation Energy Calculation of Nd2O3 Added Bi2Sr2Ca1Cu2Oy Superconducting System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozturk, Ozgur; Asikuzun, Elif; Coskunyurek, Murat; Kaya, Seydanur; Yilmazlar, Mustafa; Yildirim, Gurcan; Terzioglu, Cabir

    2013-03-01

    Nd added Bi-2212 superconducting samples with x =0, 0.001, 0.005, 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 were prepared by conventional solid state reaction method and annealed at 840°C for 72 h. For the comparison, an undoped sample was produced to the same conditions. The effects of Nd addition on structural and micromechanical properties were systematically investigated. The volume fraction, lattice parameters, crystal structure and grain size of the samples were characterized using the X-ray diffractometer and Scanning Electron Microscope. In addition, this study includes determination of the activation energy of Nd in the Bi-2212 system using the magnetoresistivity measurements. And also, we were investigated the mechanical properties for all samples using the Vickers microhardness measurements. Microhardness values of the samples decrease with increasing adding and applied load. The Vickers hardness of the samples studied, exhibits the typical indentation size effect (ISE).

  11. Identifying Energy Sources Supporting Coastal Fish; Spatial Differences Revealed by Stable Isotope Ratios

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of our research is to identify energy inputs that support production of young fishes in coastal wetland ecosystem food webs using stable isotopes. The data demonstrate that strong spatial heterogeneity exists in this food web, implying that the energy sources supporting...

  12. The Environmental Risks of Using Combustion as a Source of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Dana M.

    Burning things like wood, fossil fuels, and gasoline are the easy way of capturing energy in today's society. In this paper, the risks of using combustion as an energy source are discussed and acid rain, air pollution, and greenhouse effects are described. Additional student activities and resources are included. In addition to being informative,…

  13. Biomass as a Sustainable Energy Source: An Illustration of Chemical Engineering Thermodynamic Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohan, Marguerite A.; May, Nicole; Assaf-Anid, Nada M.; Castaldi, Marco J.

    2006-01-01

    The ever-increasing global demand for energy has sparked renewed interest within the engineering community in the study of sustainable alternative energy sources. This paper discusses a power generation system which uses biomass as "fuel" to illustrate the concepts taught to students taking a graduate level chemical engineering process…

  14. Biomass: An Alternative Source of Energy for Eighth or Ninth Grade Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyward, Lillie; Murff, Marye

    This teaching unit develops the possibility of using biomass as an alternative source of energy. The concept of biomass is explained and the processes associated with its conversion to energy are stated. Suggestions for development of biomass technology in different geographic areas are indicated. Lessons for 6 days are presented for use with…

  15. Energy Sources, Costs and Availability. Technical Report No. 1 of a Study of School Calendars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Div. of Research.

    The first in a series of reports consolidates data about energy sources and extrapolates that information to the problems and expenses that New York has and will experience in heating public schools. A presentation of national energy consumption is followed by an examination of the availability of potential alternatives to petroleum and natural…

  16. Energy conservation in ethanol production from renewable resources and non-petroleum energy sources

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    The dry milling process for the conversion of grain to fuel ethanol is reviewed for the application of energy conservation technology, which will reduce the energy consumption to 70,000 Btu per gallon, a reduction of 42% from a distilled spirits process. Specific energy conservation technology applications are outlined and guidelines for the owner/engineer for fuel ethanol plants to consider in the selection on the basis of energy conservation economics of processing steps and equipment are provided. The process was divided into 5 sections and the energy consumed in each step was determined based on 3 sets of conditions; a conventional distilled spirits process; a modern process incorporating commercially proven energy conservation; and a second generation process incorporating advanced conservation technologies which have not yet been proven. Steps discussed are mash preparation and cooking, fermentation, distillation, and distillers dried grains processing. The economics of cogeneration of electricity on fuel ethanol plants is also studied. (MCW)

  17. Randomised comparison of diets for maintaining obese subjects' weight after major weight loss: ad lib, low fat, high carbohydrate diet v fixed energy intake.

    PubMed Central

    Toubro, S.; Astrup, A.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare importance of rate of initial weight loss for long term outcome in obese patients and to compare efficacy of two different weight maintenance programmes. DESIGN: Subjects were randomised to either rapid or slow initial weight loss. Completing patients were re-randomised to one year weight maintenance programme of ad lib diet or fixed energy intake diet. Patients were followed up one year later. SETTING: University research department in Copenhagen, Denmark. SUBJECTS: 43 (41 women) obese adults (body mass index 27-40) who were otherwise healthy living in or around Copenhagen. INTERVENTIONS: 8 weeks of low energy diet (2 MJ/day) or 17 weeks of conventional diet (5 MJ/day), both supported by an anorectic compound (ephedrine 20 mg and caffeine 200 mg thrice daily); one year weight maintenance programme of ad lib, low fat, high carbohydrate diet or fixed energy intake diet (< or = 7.8 MJ/day), both with reinforcement sessions 2-3 times monthly. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean initial weight loss and proportion of patients maintaining a weight loss of > 5 kg at follow up. RESULTS: Mean initial weight loss was 12.6 kg (95% confidence interval 10.9 to 14.3 kg) in rapid weight loss group and 12.6 (9.9 to 15.3) kg in conventional diet group. Rate of initial weight loss had no effect on weight maintenance after 6 or 12 months of weight maintenance or at follow up. After weight maintenance programme, the ad lib group had maintained 13.2 (8.1 to 18.3) kg of the initial weight loss of 13.5 (11.4 to 15.5) kg, and the fixed energy intake group had maintained 9.7 (6.1 to 13.3) kg of the initial 13.8 (11.8 to 15.7) kg weight loss (group difference 3.5 (-2.4 to 9.3) kg). Regained weight at follow up was greater in fixed energy intake group than in ad lib group (11.3 (7.1 to 15.5) kg v 5.4 (2.3 to 8.6) kg, group difference 5.9 (0.7 to 11.1) kg, P < 0.03). At follow up, 65% of ad lib group and 40% of fixed energy intake group had maintained a weight loss of > 5 kg (P

  18. ADS pilot program Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clauson, J.; Heuser, J.

    1981-01-01

    The Applications Data Service (ADS) is a system based on an electronic data communications network which will permit scientists to share the data stored in data bases at universities and at government and private installations. It is designed to allow users to readily locate and access high quality, timely data from multiple sources. The ADS Pilot program objectives and the current plans for accomplishing those objectives are described.

  19. Energy from waste: a possible alternative energy source for large size municipalities.

    PubMed

    Eleftheriou, Polyvios

    2007-10-01

    The net calorific values and weight composition of solid waste from all the major municipalities of the island of Cyprus were measured. Representative waste samples were collected, processed and tested for energy generation over a complete year. The energy values appear to vary from city to city depending on the season. The total energy that could be recovered from the waste amounted to approximately 8.5% of the total electricity generation of the island of Cyprus.

  20. A Stochastic Power Network Calculus for Integrating Renewable Energy Sources into the Power Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, K; Ciucu, F; Lin, C; Low, SH

    2012-07-01

    Renewable energy such as solar and wind generation will constitute an important part of the future grid. As the availability of renewable sources may not match the load, energy storage is essential for grid stability. In this paper we investigate the feasibility of integrating solar photovoltaic (PV) panels and wind turbines into the grid by also accounting for energy storage. To deal with the fluctuation in both the power supply and demand, we extend and apply stochastic network calculus to analyze the power supply reliability with various renewable energy configurations. To illustrate the validity of the model, we conduct a case study for the integration of renewable energy sources into the power system of an island off the coast of Southern California. In particular, we asses the power supply reliability in terms of the average Fraction of Time that energy is Not-Served (FTNS).

  1. Search for ultra high energy gamma-rays from various sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dzikowski, T.; Gawin, J.; Grochalska, B.; Korejwo, J.; Wdowczyk, J.

    1985-01-01

    The hypothesis that there exists an excess of showers from the Galactic plane on the level 1 to 2% at energies just above 10 to the 16th power eV is explored. The excess shower from the Galactic plane seems to be very similar in properties to excess showers from the point sources/flat spectrum, deficit of low energy muons. Those facts suggest that the excess from the Galactic plane are probably due to summing up of the contribution from individual point sources. That in turn suggest that those sources are rather numerous.

  2. Source and magmatic evolution inferred from geochemical and Sr-O-isotope data on hybrid lavas of Arso, the last eruption at Ischia island (Italy; 1302 AD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iovine, Raffaella Silvia; Mazzeo, Fabio Carmine; Arienzo, Ilenia; D'Antonio, Massimo; Wörner, Gerhard; Civetta, Lucia; Pastore, Zeudia; Orsi, Giovanni

    2017-02-01

    Geochemical and isotopic (87Sr/86Sr and 18O/16O) data have been acquired on whole rock and separated mineral samples from volcanic products of the 1302 AD Arso eruption, Ischia volcanic island (Gulf of Naples, Southern Italy), to investigate magmatic processes. Our results highlight petrographic and isotopic disequilibria between phenocrysts and their host rocks. Similar disequilibria are observed also for more mafic volcanic rocks from Ischia and in the Phlegraean Volcanic District in general. Moreover, 87Sr/86Sr and 18O/16O values suggest mixing between chemically and isotopically distinct batches of magma, and crystals cargo from an earlier magmatic phase. The radiogenic Sr isotope composition suggests that the mantle source was enriched by subduction-derived sediments. Furthermore, magmas extruded during the Arso eruption were affected by crustal contamination as suggested by high oxygen isotope ratios. Assimilation and fractional crystallization modelling of the Sr-O isotope compositions indicates that not more than 7% of granodioritic rocks from the continental crust have been assimilated by a mantle-derived mafic magma. Hence the recent volcanic activity of Ischia has been fed by distinct batches of magma, variably contaminated by continental crust, that mixed during their ascent towards the surface and remobilized phenocrysts left from earlier magmatic phases.

  3. Analysis The Potential Implementation And Use Of The Renewable Energy Sources In The Murmansk Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chekardovskiy, S. M.; Zakirzakov, A. G.; Gordievskaya, E. F.

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the analysis of the geographical location of the Murmansk region and possibilities of using different renewable energy sources. Present the results of the analysis of using and practicality wind power to wind turbines to generate electricity. The paper presents of average annual consumption of electricity settlements in the Murmansk region, options for replacing the use of diesel fuel by wind energy and recommendations for possible areas of utilization of wind energy.

  4. The Value of Adding Ambient Energy Feedback to Conservation Tips and Goal-Setting in a Dormitory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Abigail; McCauley, Michelle; Byrne, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The majority of research on energy feedback has been conducted in residential households; in this study, the authors aim to examine the effectiveness of similar initiatives in a college environment. The our goal was to see how much additional electricity savings could be induced using feedback beyond average savings achieved by…

  5. 40 CFR 74.47 - Transfer of allowances from the replacement of thermal energy-combustion sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... replacement of thermal energy-combustion sources. 74.47 Section 74.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...—combustion sources. (a) Thermal energy plan—(1) General provisions. The designated representative of an opt... quarter the replacement unit(s) will replace thermal energy of the opt-in source; (ii) The...

  6. 40 CFR 74.47 - Transfer of allowances from the replacement of thermal energy-combustion sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... replacement of thermal energy-combustion sources. 74.47 Section 74.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...—combustion sources. (a) Thermal energy plan—(1) General provisions. The designated representative of an opt... quarter the replacement unit(s) will replace thermal energy of the opt-in source; (ii) The...

  7. 40 CFR 74.47 - Transfer of allowances from the replacement of thermal energy-combustion sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... replacement of thermal energy-combustion sources. 74.47 Section 74.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...—combustion sources. (a) Thermal energy plan—(1) General provisions. The designated representative of an opt... quarter the replacement unit(s) will replace thermal energy of the opt-in source; (ii) The...

  8. 18 CFR 2.400 - Statement of interpretation of waste concerning natural gas as the primary energy source for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... interpretation of waste concerning natural gas as the primary energy source for qualifying small power production... concerning natural gas as the primary energy source for qualifying small power production facilities. For purposes of deciding whether natural gas may be considered as waste as the primary energy source...

  9. 18 CFR 2.400 - Statement of interpretation of waste concerning natural gas as the primary energy source for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... interpretation of waste concerning natural gas as the primary energy source for qualifying small power production... concerning natural gas as the primary energy source for qualifying small power production facilities. For purposes of deciding whether natural gas may be considered as waste as the primary energy source...

  10. 18 CFR 2.400 - Statement of interpretation of waste concerning natural gas as the primary energy source for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... interpretation of waste concerning natural gas as the primary energy source for qualifying small power production... concerning natural gas as the primary energy source for qualifying small power production facilities. For purposes of deciding whether natural gas may be considered as waste as the primary energy source...

  11. A new population of very high energy gamma-ray sources in the Milky Way.

    PubMed

    Aharonian, F; Akhperjanian, A G; Aye, K-M; Bazer-Bachi, A R; Beilicke, M; Benbow, W; Berge, D; Berghaus, P; Bernlöhr, K; Boisson, C; Bolz, O; Borgmeier, C; Braun, I; Breitling, F; Brown, A M; Gordo, J Bussons; Chadwick, P M; Chounet, L-M; Cornils, R; Costamante, L; Degrange, B; Djannati-Ataï, A; Drury, L O'C; Dubus, G; Ergin, T; Espigat, P; Feinstein, F; Fleury, P; Fontaine, G; Funk, S; Gallant, Y A; Giebels, B; Gillessen, S; Goret, P; Hadjichristidis, C; Hauser, M; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hinton, J A; Hofmann, W; Holleran, M; Horns, D; de Jager, O C; Jung, I; Khélifi, B; Komin, Nu; Konopelko, A; Latham, I J; Le Gallou, R; Lemière, A; Lemoine, M; Leroy, N; Lohse, T; Marcowith, A; Masterson, C; McComb, T J L; de Naurois, M; Nolan, S J; Noutsos, A; Orford, K J; Osborne, J L; Ouchrif, M; Panter, M; Pelletier, G; Pita, S; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Raubenheimer, B C; Raue, M; Raux, J; Rayner, S M; Redondo, I; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Ripken, J; Rob, L; Rolland, L; Rowell, G; Sahakian, V; Saugé, L; Schlenker, S; Schlickeiser, R; Schuster, C; Schwanke, U; Siewert, M; Sol, H; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Tavernet, J-P; Terrier, R; Théoret, C G; Tluczykont, M; van der Walt, D J; Vasileiadis, G; Venter, C; Vincent, P; Visser, B; Völk, H J; Wagner, S J

    2005-03-25

    Very high energy gamma-rays probe the long-standing mystery of the origin of cosmic rays. Produced in the interactions of accelerated particles in astrophysical objects, they can be used to image cosmic particle accelerators. A first sensitive survey of the inner part of the Milky Way with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS) reveals a population of eight previously unknown firmly detected sources of very high energy gamma-rays. At least two have no known radio or x-ray counterpart and may be representative of a new class of "dark" nucleonic cosmic ray sources.

  12. Energy transmission and power sources for mechanical circulatory support devices to achieve total implantability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jake X; Smith, Joshua R; Bonde, Pramod

    2014-04-01

    Left ventricular assist device therapy has radically improved congestive heart failure survival with smaller rotary pumps. The driveline used to power today's left ventricular assist devices, however, continues to be a source of infection, traumatic damage, and rehospitalization. Previous attempts to wirelessly power left ventricular assist devices using transcutaneous energy transfer systems have been limited by restrictions on separation distance and alignment between the transmit and receive coils. Resonant electrical energy transfer allows power delivery at larger distances without compromising safety and efficiency. This review covers the efforts to wirelessly power mechanical circulatory assist devices and the progress made in enhancing their energy sources.

  13. Effect of photon energy spectrum on dosimetric parameters of brachytherapy sources

    PubMed Central

    Ghorbani, Mahdi; Davenport, David

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aim The aim of this study is to quantify the influence of the photon energy spectrum of brachytherapy sources on task group No. 43 (TG-43) dosimetric parameters. Background Different photon spectra are used for a specific radionuclide in Monte Carlo simulations of brachytherapy sources. Materials and methods MCNPX code was used to simulate 125I, 103Pd, 169Yb, and 192Ir brachytherapy sources. Air kerma strength per activity, dose rate constant, radial dose function, and two dimensional (2D) anisotropy functions were calculated and isodose curves were plotted for three different photon energy spectra. The references for photon energy spectra were: published papers, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC). The data calculated by these photon energy spectra were compared. Results Dose rate constant values showed a maximum difference of 24.07% for 103Pd source with different photon energy spectra. Radial dose function values based on different spectra were relatively the same. 2D anisotropy function values showed minor differences in most of distances and angles. There was not any detectable difference between the isodose contours. Conclusions Dosimetric parameters obtained with different photon spectra were relatively the same, however it is suggested that more accurate and updated photon energy spectra be used in Monte Carlo simulations. This would allow for calculation of reliable dosimetric data for source modeling and calculation in brachytherapy treatment planning systems. PMID:27247558

  14. Food sources of energy and nutrients among adults in the US: NHANES 2003–2006.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Carol E; Keast, Debra R; Fulgoni, Victor L; Nicklas, Theresa A

    2012-12-19

    Identification of current food sources of energy and nutrients among US adults is needed to help with public health efforts to implement feasible and appropriate dietary recommendations. To determine the food sources of energy and 26 nutrients consumed by US adults the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 24-h recall (Day 1) dietary intake data from a nationally representative sample of adults 19+ years of age (y) (n = 9490) were analyzed. An updated USDA Dietary Source Nutrient Database was developed for NHANES 2003-2006 using current food composition databases. Food grouping included ingredients from disaggregated mixtures. Mean energy and nutrient intakes from food sources were sample-weighted. Percentages of total dietary intake contributed from food sources were ranked. The highest ranked sources of energy and nutrients among adults more than 19 years old were: energy - yeast bread/rolls (7.2%) and cake/cookies/quick bread/pastry/pie (7.2%); protein-poultry (14.4%) and beef (14.0%); total fat - other fats and oils (9.8%); saturated fatty acids - cheese (16.5%) and beef (9.1%); carbohydrate - soft drinks/soda (11.4%) and yeast breads/rolls (10.9%); dietary fiber - yeast breads/rolls (10.9%) and fruit (10.2%); calcium - milk (22.5%) and cheese (21.6%); vitamin D - milk (45.1%) and fish/shellfish (14.4%); and potassium - milk (9.6%) and coffee/tea/other non-alcoholic beverages (8.4%). Knowledge of primary food sources of energy and nutrients can help health professionals design effective strategies to reduce excess energy consumed by US adults and increase the nutrient adequacy of their diets.

  15. Adding Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsini, Larry L.; Hudack, Lawrence R.; Zekan, Donald L.

    1999-01-01

    The value-added statement (VAS), relatively unknown in the United States, is used in financial reports by many European companies. Saint Bonaventure University (New York) has adapted a VAS to make it appropriate for not-for-profit universities by identifying stakeholder groups (students, faculty, administrators/support personnel, creditors, the…

  16. Powering embedded electronics for wind turbine monitoring using multi-source energy harvesting techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anton, S. R.; Taylor, S. G.; Raby, E. Y.; Farinholt, K. M.

    2013-03-01

    With a global interest in the development of clean, renewable energy, wind energy has seen steady growth over the past several years. Advances in wind turbine technology bring larger, more complex turbines and wind farms. An important issue in the development of these complex systems is the ability to monitor the state of each turbine in an effort to improve the efficiency and power generation. Wireless sensor nodes can be used to interrogate the current state and health of wind turbine structures; however, a drawback of most current wireless sensor technology is their reliance on batteries for power. Energy harvesting solutions present the ability to create autonomous power sources for small, low-power electronics through the scavenging of ambient energy; however, most conventional energy harvesting systems employ a single mode of energy conversion, and thus are highly susceptible to variations in the ambient energy. In this work, a multi-source energy harvesting system is developed to power embedded electronics for wind turbine applications in which energy can be scavenged simultaneously from several ambient energy sources. Field testing is performed on a full-size, residential scale wind turbine where both vibration and solar energy harvesting systems are utilized to power wireless sensing systems. Two wireless sensors are investigated, including the wireless impedance device (WID) sensor node, developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and an ultra-low power RF system-on-chip board that is the basis for an embedded wireless accelerometer node currently under development at LANL. Results indicate the ability of the multi-source harvester to successfully power both sensors.

  17. 75 FR 41854 - SGE Energy Sourcing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission SGE Energy Sourcing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of SGE Energy Sourcing, LLC's application for market-based...

  18. Report of Ad Hoc Committee on Energy Efficiency in Large Buildings to the Interdepartmental Fuel and Energy Committee of the State of New York.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Interdepartmental Fuel and Energy Committee, Albany.

    Unwarranted amounts of energy are wasted each year in providing major public and privately owned buildings and the desired environment within them. Improved design, construction, and maintenance and operation can save significant amounts of energy without impairment of these processes throughout the life cycle of these buildings, arbitrarily…

  19. The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power transmission systems

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, P.R.; Dykas, W.P.; Kirby, B.J.; Purucker, S.L.; Lawler, J.S.

    1995-07-01

    Renewable energy technologies such as photovoltaics, solar thermal power plants, and wind turbines are nonconventional, environmentally attractive sources of energy that can be considered for electric power generation. Many of the areas with abundant renewable energy resources (very sunny or windy areas) are far removed from major load centers. Although electrical power can be transmitted over long distances of many hundreds of miles through high-voltage transmission lines, power transmission systems often operate near their limits with little excess capacity for new generation sources. This study assesses the available capacity of transmission systems in designated abundant renewable energy resource regions and identifies the requirements for high-capacity plant integration in selected cases. In general, about 50 MW of power from renewable sources can be integrated into existing transmission systems to supply local loads without transmission upgrades beyond the construction of a substation to connect to the grid. Except in the Southwest, significant investment to strengthen transmission systems will be required to support the development of high-capacity renewable sources of 1000 MW or greater in areas remote from major load centers. Cost estimates for new transmission facilities to integrate and dispatch some of these high-capacity renewable sources ranged from several million dollars to approximately one billion dollars, with the latter figure an increase in total investment of 35%, assuming that the renewable source is the only user of the transmission facility.

  20. Dense Plasma Focus - From Alternative Fusion Source to Versatile High Energy Density Plasma Source for Plasma Nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawat, R. S.

    2015-03-01

    The dense plasma focus (DPF), a coaxial plasma gun, utilizes pulsed high current electrical discharge to heat and compress the plasma to very high density and temperature with energy densities in the range of 1-10 × 1010 J/m3. The DPF device has always been in the company of several alternative magnetic fusion devices as it produces intense fusion neutrons. Several experiments conducted on many different DPF devices ranging over several order of storage energy have demonstrated that at higher storage energy the neutron production does not follow I4 scaling laws and deteriorate significantly raising concern about the device's capability and relevance for fusion energy. On the other hand, the high energy density pinch plasma in DPF device makes it a multiple radiation source of ions, electron, soft and hard x-rays, and neutrons, making it useful for several applications in many different fields such as lithography, radiography, imaging, activation analysis, radioisotopes production etc. Being a source of hot dense plasma, strong shockwave, intense energetic beams and radiation, etc, the DPF device, additionally, shows tremendous potential for applications in plasma nanoscience and plasma nanotechnology. In the present paper, the key features of plasma focus device are critically discussed to understand the novelties and opportunities that this device offers in processing and synthesis of nanophase materials using, both, the top-down and bottom-up approach. The results of recent key experimental investigations performed on (i) the processing and modification of bulk target substrates for phase change, surface reconstruction and nanostructurization, (ii) the nanostructurization of PLD grown magnetic thin films, and (iii) direct synthesis of nanostructured (nanowire, nanosheets and nanoflowers) materials using anode target material ablation, ablated plasma and background reactive gas based synthesis and purely gas phase synthesis of various different types of

  1. Source energy spectra from demodulation of solar particle data by interplanetary and coronal transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Peraza, J.; Alvarez-Madrigal, M.; Rivero, F.; Miroshnichenko, L. I.

    1985-01-01

    The data on source energy spectra of solar cosmic rays (SCR), i.e. the data on the spectrum form and on the absolute SCR are of interest for three reasons: (1) the SCR contain the energy comparable to the total energy of electromagnetic flare radiation (less than or equal to 10 to the 32nd power ergs); (2) the source spectrum form indicates a possible acceleration mechanism (or mechanism); and (3) the accelerated particles are efficiently involved in nuclear electromagnetic and plasma processes in the solar atmosphere. Therefore, the data on SCR source spectra are necessary for a theoretical description of the processes mentioned and for the formulation of the consistent flare model. Below it is attempted to sound solar particle sources by means of SCR energy spectrum obtained near the Sun, at the level of the roots of the interplanetary field lines in the upper solar corona. Data from approx. 60 solar proton events (SPE) between 1956-1981. These data were obtained mainly by the interplanetary demodulation of observed fluxes near the Earth. Further, a model of coronal azimuthal transport is used to demodulate those spectra, and to obtain the source energy spectra.

  2. Food Sources of Energy and Nutrients among Adults in the US: NHANES 2003–2006

    PubMed Central

    O’Neil, Carol E.; Keast, Debra R.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Nicklas, Theresa A.

    2012-01-01

    Identification of current food sources of energy and nutrients among US adults is needed to help with public health efforts to implement feasible and appropriate dietary recommendations. To determine the food sources of energy and 26 nutrients consumed by US adults the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 24-h recall (Day 1) dietary intake data from a nationally representative sample of adults 19+ years of age (y) (n = 9490) were analyzed. An updated USDA Dietary Source Nutrient Database was developed for NHANES 2003–2006 using current food composition databases. Food grouping included ingredients from disaggregated mixtures. Mean energy and nutrient intakes from food sources were sample-weighted. Percentages of total dietary intake contributed from food sources were ranked. The highest ranked sources of energy and nutrients among adults more than 19 years old were: energy—yeast bread/rolls (7.2%) and cake/cookies/quick bread/pastry/pie (7.2%); protein—poultry (14.4%) and beef (14.0%); total fat—other fats and oils (9.8%); saturated fatty acids—cheese (16.5%) and beef (9.1%); carbohydrate—soft drinks/soda (11.4%) and yeast breads/rolls (10.9%); dietary fiber—yeast breads/rolls (10.9%) and fruit (10.2%); calcium—milk (22.5%) and cheese (21.6%); vitamin D—milk (45.1%) and fish/shellfish (14.4%); and potassium—milk (9.6%) and coffee/tea/other non-alcoholic beverages (8.4%). Knowledge of primary food sources of energy and nutrients can help health professionals design effective strategies to reduce excess energy consumed by US adults and increase the nutrient adequacy of their diets. PMID:23363999

  3. Angular correlation of cosmic neutrinos with ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays and implications for their sources

    SciTech Connect

    Moharana, Reetanjali; Razzaque, Soebur E-mail: srazzaque@uj.ac.za

    2015-08-01

    Cosmic neutrino events detected by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory with energy 0∼> 3 TeV have poor angular resolutions to reveal their origin. Ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs), with better angular resolutions at 0>6 EeV energies, can be used to check if the same astrophysical sources are responsible for producing both neutrinos and UHECRs. We test this hypothesis, with statistical methods which emphasize invariant quantities, by using data from the Pierre Auger Observatory, Telescope Array and past cosmic-ray experiments. We find that the arrival directions of the cosmic neutrinos are correlated with 0≥ 10 EeV UHECR arrival directions at confidence level ≈ 90%. The strength of the correlation decreases with decreasing UHECR energy and no correlation exists at energy 0∼ 6 EeV . A search in astrophysical databases within 3{sup o} of the arrival directions of UHECRs with energy 0≥ 10 EeV, that are correlated with the IceCube cosmic neutrinos, resulted in 18 sources from the Swift-BAT X-ray catalog with redshift z≤ 0.06. We also found 3 objects in the Kühr catalog of radio sources using the same criteria. The sources are dominantly Seyfert galaxies with Cygnus A being the most prominent member. We calculate the required neutrino and UHECR fluxes to produce the observed correlated events, and estimate the corresponding neutrino luminosity (25 TeV–2.2 PeV) and cosmic-ray luminosity (500 TeV–180 EeV), assuming the sources are the ones we found in the Swift-BAT and Kühr catalogs. We compare these luminosities with the X-ray luminosity of the corresponding sources and discuss possibilities of accelerating protons to 0∼> 10 EeV and produce neutrinos in these sources.

  4. Angular correlation between IceCube high-energy starting events and starburst sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moharana, Reetanjali; Razzaque, Soebur

    2016-12-01

    Starburst galaxies and star-forming regions in the Milkyway, with high rate of supernova activities, are candidate sources of high-energy neutrinos. Using a gamma-ray selected sample of these sources we perform statistical analysis of their angular correlation with the four-year sample of high-energy starting events (HESE), detected by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory. We find that the two samples (starburst galaxies and local star-forming regions) are correlated with cosmic neutrinos at ~ (2-3)σ (pre-trial) significance level, when the full HESE sample with deposited energy gtrsim 20 TeV is considered. However when we consider the HESE sample with deposited energy gtrsim 60 TeV, which is almost free of atmospheric neutrino and muon backgrounds, the significance of correlation decreased drastically. We perform a similar study for Galactic sources in the 2nd Catalog of Hard Fermi-LAT Sources (2FHL, >50 GeV) catalog as well, obtaining ~ (2-3)σ (pre-trial) correlation, however the significance of correlation increases with higher cutoff energy in the HESE sample for this case. We also fit available gamma-ray data from these sources using a pp interaction model and calculate expected neutrino fluxes. We find that the expected neutrino fluxes for most of the sources are at least an order of magnitude lower than the fluxes required to produce the HESE neutrinos from these sources. This puts the starburst sources being the origin of the IceCube HESE neutrinos in question.

  5. Lowering IceCube's Energy Threshold for Point Source Searches in the Southern Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Abraham, K.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Andeen, K.; Anderson, T.; Ansseau, I.; Anton, G.; Archinger, M.; Arguelles, C.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; BenZvi, S.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blot, S.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Börner, M.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Burgman, A.; Buzinsky, N.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Coenders, S.; Collin, G. H.; Conrad, J. M.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; del Pino Rosendo, E.; Dembinski, H.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de Wasseige, G.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; di Lorenzo, V.; Dujmovic, H.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fahey, S.; Fazely, A. R.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Flis, S.; Fösig, C.-C.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gaior, R.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Ghorbani, K.; Gladstone, L.; Glagla, M.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Griffith, Z.; Ha, C.; Haack, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hansen, E.; Hansmann, B.; Hansmann, T.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hignight, J.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Holzapfel, K.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huber, M.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hultqvist, K.; In, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jeong, M.; Jero, K.; Jones, B. J. P.; Jurkovic, M.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Katz, U.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, J.; Kheirandish, A.; Kim, M.; Kintscher, T.; Kiryluk, J.; Klein, S. R.; Kohnen, G.; Koirala, R.; Kolanoski, H.; Konietz, R.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, M.; Krückl, G.; Krüger, C.; Kunnen, J.; Kunwar, S.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larson, M. J.; Lennarz, D.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Leuner, J.; Lu, L.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Mancina, S.; Mandelartz, M.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meier, M.; Meli, A.; Menne, T.; Merino, G.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Neer, G.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke Pollmann, A.; Olivas, A.; Omairat, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Pandya, H.; Pankova, D. V.; Penek, Ö.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Quinnan, M.; Raab, C.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Reimann, R.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sabbatini, L.; Sandrock, A.; Sandroos, J.; Sarkar, S.; Satalecka, K.; Schimp, M.; Schlunder, P.; Schmidt, T.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönwald, A.; Schumacher, L.; Seckel, D.; Seunarine, S.; Soldin, D.; Song, M.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stahlberg, M.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stasik, A.; Steuer, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sutherland, M.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tatar, J.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Turcati, A.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vallecorsa, S.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vanheule, S.; van Rossem, M.; van Santen, J.; Veenkamp, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallace, A.; Wallraff, M.; Wandkowsky, N.; Weaver, Ch.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Whitehorn, N.; Wickmann, S.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wille, L.; Williams, D. R.; Wills, L.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zoll, M.; IceCube Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    Observation of a point source of astrophysical neutrinos would be a “smoking gun” signature of a cosmic-ray accelerator. While IceCube has recently discovered a diffuse flux of astrophysical neutrinos, no localized point source has been observed. Previous IceCube searches for point sources in the southern sky were restricted by either an energy threshold above a few hundred TeV or poor neutrino angular resolution. Here we present a search for southern sky point sources with greatly improved sensitivities to neutrinos with energies below 100 TeV. By selecting charged-current ν μ interacting inside the detector, we reduce the atmospheric background while retaining efficiency for astrophysical neutrino-induced events reconstructed with sub-degree angular resolution. The new event sample covers three years of detector data and leads to a factor of 10 improvement in sensitivity to point sources emitting below 100 TeV in the southern sky. No statistically significant evidence of point sources was found, and upper limits are set on neutrino emission from individual sources. A posteriori analysis of the highest-energy (˜100 TeV) starting event in the sample found that this event alone represents a 2.8σ deviation from the hypothesis that the data consists only of atmospheric background.

  6. Time evolution of endpoint energy of Bremsstrahlung spectra and ion production from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Tarvainen, Ollie; Ropponen, Tommi; Jones, Peter; Kalvas, Taneli

    2008-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) are used to produce high charge state heavy ion beams for the use of nuclear and materials science, for instance. The most powerful ECR ion sources today are superconducting. One of the problems with superconducting ECR ion sources is the use of high radio frequency (RF) power which results in bremsstrahlung radiation adding an extra heat load to the cryostat. In order to understand the electron heating process and timescales in the ECR plasma, time evolution measurement of ECR bremsstrahlung was carried out. In the measurements JYFL 14 GHz ECRIS was operated in a pulsed mode and bremsstrahlung data from several hundred RF pulses was recorded. Time evolution of ion production was also studied and compared to one of the electron heating theories. To analyze the measurement data at C++ program was developed. Endpoint energies of the bremsstrahlung spectra as a function of axial magnetic field strength, pressure and RF power are presented and ion production timescales obtained from the measurements are compared to bremsstrahlung emission timescales and one of the stochastic heating theories.

  7. Multi-source energy harvester to power sensing hardware on rotating structures

    SciTech Connect

    Schlichting, Alezander D; Ouellette, Scott; Carlson, Clinton P; Farinholt, Kevin M; Park, Gyuhae; Farrar, Charles

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to meet 20% of the nation's energy needs through wind power by the year 2030. To accomplish this goal, the industry will need to produce larger (> 100m diameter) turbines to increase efficiency and maximize energy production. It will be imperative to instrument the large composite structures with onboard sensing to provide structural health monitoring capabilities to understand the global response and integrity of these systems as they age. A critical component in the deployment of such a system will be a robust power source that can operate for the lifespan of the wind turbine. In this paper we consider the use of discrete, localized power sources that derive energy from the ambient (solar, thermal) or operational (kinetic) environment. This approach will rely on a multi-source configuration that scavenges energy from photovoltaic and piezoelectric transducers. Each harvester is first characterized individually in the laboratory and then they are combined through a multi-source power conditioner that is designed to combine the output of each harvester in series to power a small wireless sensor node that has active-sensing capabilities. The advantages/disadvantages of each approach are discussed, along with the proposed design for a field ready energy harvester that will be deployed on a small-scale 19.8m diameter wind turbine.

  8. Membrane-based energy efficient dewatering of microalgae in biofuels production and recovery of value added co-products.

    PubMed

    Bhave, Ramesh; Kuritz, Tanya; Powell, Lawrence; Adcock, Dale

    2012-05-15

    The objective of this paper is to describe the use of membranes for energy efficient biomass harvesting and dewatering. The dewatering of Nannochloropsis sp. was evaluated with polymeric hollow fiber and tubular inorganic membranes to demonstrate the capabilities of a membrane-based system to achieve microalgal biomass of >150 g/L (dry wt.) and ∼99% volume reduction through dewatering. The particle free filtrate containing the growth media is suitable for recycle and reuse. For cost-effective processing, hollow fiber membranes can be utilized to recover 90-95% media for recycle. Tubular membranes can provide additional media and water recovery to achieve target final concentrations. Based on the operating conditions used in this study and taking into scale-up considerations, an integrated hollow fiber-tubular membrane system can process microalgal biomass with at least 80% lower energy requirement compared to traditional processes. Backpulsing was found to be an effective flux maintenance strategy to minimize flux decline at high biomass concentration. An effective chemical cleaning protocol was developed for regeneration of fouled membranes.

  9. Membrane-Based Energy Efficient Dewatering of Microalgae in Biofuels Production and Recovery of Value Added Co-Products

    SciTech Connect

    Bhave, Ramesh R; Kuritz, Tanya; Powell, Lawrence E; Adcock, Kenneth Dale

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the use of membranes for energy efficient biomass harvesting and dewatering. We have evaluated the dewatering of Nannochloropsis sp. with polymeric hollow fiber and tubular inorganic membranes to demonstrate the capabilities of a membrane-based system to achieve microalgal biomass of >150 g/L (dry wt.) and ~99% volume reduction through dewatering. The particle free filtrate containing the growth media is suitable for recycle and reuse. For cost-effective processing, hollow fiber membranes can be utilized to recover 90-95% media for recycle. Tubular membranes can provide additional media and water recovery to achieve target final concentrations. Based on the operating conditions used in this study and taking into scale-up considerations, it can be shown that an integrated hollow fiber-tubular membrane system can process microalgal biomass with at least 80% lower energy requirement compared to traditional processes. Backpulsing was found to be an effective flux maintenance strategy to minimize flux decline at high biomass concentration. An effective chemical cleaning protocol was developed for regeneration of fouled membranes.

  10. Energy intakes of US children and adults by food purchase location and by specific food source

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To our knowledge, no studies have examined energy intakes by food purchase location and food source using a representative sample of US children, adolescents and adults. Evaluations of purchase location and food sources of energy may inform public health policy. Methods Analyses were based on the first day of 24-hour recall for 22,852 persons in the 2003-4, 2005-6, and 2007-8 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). The most common food purchase locations were stores (grocery store, supermarket, convenience store, or specialty store), quick-service restaurants/pizza (QSR), full-service restaurants (FSR), school cafeterias, or food from someone else/gifts. Specific food sources of energy were identified using the National Cancer Institute aggregation scheme. Separate analyses were conducted for children ages 6-11y, adolescents ages 12-19y, and adults aged 20-50y and ≥51y. Results Stores (grocery, convenience, and specialty) were the food purchase locations for between 63.3% and 70.3% of dietary energy in the US diet. Restaurants provided between 16.9% and 26.3% of total energy. Depending on the respondents’ age, QSR provided between 12.5% and 17.5% of energy, whereas FSR provided between 4.7% and 10.4% of energy. School meals provided 9.8% of energy for children and 5.5% for adolescents. Vending machines provided <1% of energy. Pizza from QSR, the top food away from home (FAFH) item, provided 2.2% of energy in the diets of children and 3.4% in the diets of adolescents. Soda, energy, and sports drinks from QSR provided approximately 1.2% of dietary energy. Conclusions Refining dietary surveillance approaches by incorporating food purchase location may help inform public health policy. Characterizing the important sources of energy, in terms of both purchase location and source may be useful in anticipating the population-level impacts of proposed policy or educational interventions. These data show that stores provide a majority of

  11. Optimization of energy level for coronary angiography with dual-energy and dual-source computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Okayama, Satoshi; Seno, Ayako; Soeda, Tsunenari; Takami, Yasuhiro; Kawakami, Rika; Somekawa, Satoshi; Ishigami, Ken-Ichi; Takeda, Yukiji; Kawata, Hiroyuki; Horii, Manabu; Uemura, Shiro; Saito, Yoshihiko

    2012-04-01

    Dual-energy computed tomography (DE-CT) uses polyenergetic X-rays at 100- and 140-kVp tube energy, and generates 120-kVp composite images that are referred to as polyenergetic images (PEIs). Moreover, DE-CT can produce monoenergetic images (MEIs) at any effective energy level. We evaluated whether the image quality of coronary angiography is improved by optimizing the energy levels of DE-CT. We retrospectively evaluated data sets obtained from 24 consecutive patients using cardiac DE-CT at 100- and 140-kVp tube energy with a dual-source scanner. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) were evaluated in the left ascending coronary artery in PEIs, and in MEIs reconstructed at 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 130, 160 and 190 keV. Energy levels of 100, 120 and 140 kVp generated the highest SNRs in PEIs from 10, 12 and 2 patients, respectively, at 60, 70 and 80 keV in MEIs from 2, 10 and 10 patients, respectively, and at 90 and 100 keV in those from one patient each. Optimization of the energy level for each patient increased the SNR by 16.6% in PEIs (P < 0.0001) and by 18.2% in MEIs (P < 0.05), compared with 120-kVp composite images. The image quality of coronary angiography using DE-CT can be improved by optimizing the energy level for individual patients.

  12. Exploring green catalysts for production of biofuels and value added chemicals for renewable and sustainable energy future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budhi, Sridhar

    Porous silica have attracted significant attention in the past few decades due to their unique textural properties. They were extensively investigated for applications in catalysis, separation, environmental remediation and drug delivery. We have investigated the porous metal incorporated silica in the synthetic as well as catalytic perspectives. The synthesis of metal incorporated mesoporous silica via co-condensation such as SBA-15, KIT-5 are still challenging as it involves acidic synthetic route. Synthesis in high acidity conditions affects the incorporation of metal in silica due to high dissolution of metal precursors and breaking of metal oxygen and silica bond. The research presented here demonstrates an efficient way to incorporate metals by addition of diammonium hydrogen phosphate along with metal precursor during the synthesis. The incorporation efficiency has increased 2-3 times with this approach. Catalytic studies were performed to support our hypothesis. Such synthesized molybdenum incorporated mesoporous silica were investigated as catalyst for fast pyrolysis. When molydenum incorporated in silica was used as catalyst for fast pyrolysis of pine, it selectively produced furans (furan, methylfuran and dimethylfuran). Furans are considered value-added chemicals and can be used as a blendstock for diesel/jet grade fuel. The catalyst was very stable to harsh pyrolysis conditions and had a longer life before deactivation when compared with traditional zeolites. Further, this catalyst did not produce aromatic hydrocarbons in significant yields unlike zeolites. The origin of the furans was determined to be biopolymer cellulose and the selectivity for furans are attributed to low catalyst acidity. The effect of silica to alumina ratio (SAR) of beta-zeolite was investigated ranging to elucidate the relationship between the of number of acid sites on product speciation and catalyst deactivation on catalysts supplied by Johnson Matthey. The catalyst with low

  13. The ˜AD 1250 effusive eruption of El Metate shield volcano (Michoacán, Mexico): magma source, crustal storage, eruptive dynamics, and lava rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevrel, Magdalena Oryaëlle; Guilbaud, Marie-Noëlle; Siebe, Claus

    2016-04-01

    Medium-sized volcanoes, also known as Mexican shields due to their andesitic composition and slightly higher slope angles in comparison to Icelandic shields, occur across the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt and represent nearly one third of all volcanic edifices in the Michoacán-Guanajuato Volcanic Field (MGVF). Many questions about their origin and eruptive dynamics remain unanswered. Here, we focus on El Metate, the youngest (˜AD 1250) monogenetic shield volcano of the MGVF and the most voluminous (˜9.2 km3 dense rock equivalent) Holocene eruption in Mexico. Its eruptive history was reconstructed through detailed mapping, geochemical analysis (major and trace elements, Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data), and rheological study of its thick andesitic flows. Early and late flow units have distinct morphologies, chemical and mineralogical compositions, and isotopic signatures which show that these lavas were fed by two separate magma batches that originated from a heterogeneous mantle source and followed distinct differentiation paths during their ascent. Thermobarometry calculations constraining the conditions of crystallization indicate a temporary storage of the last erupted magma batch at a depth of ˜7-10 km. Lava rheology was estimated using petrographic characteristics, geochemical data, and flow dimensions. The magma viscosity increased from 102-103 Pa s prior to eruption through 106-108 Pa s during ascent, to 109-1011 Pa s during lava emplacement. Though magma viscosity was quite high, the eruption was purely effusive. The explosive eruption of such a large magma volume was probably avoided due to efficient open system degassing (outgassing) of the magma as it ascended through the uppermost crust and erupted at the surface.

  14. Power quality enhancement of renewable energy source power network using SMES system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, H. R.; Kim, A. R.; Park, M.; Yu, I. K.

    2011-11-01

    This paper deals with power quality enhancement of renewable energy source power network using SMES system and describes the operation characteristics of HTS SMES system using real-toroidal-type SMES coil for smoothening the fluctuation of large-scale renewable energy source such as photovoltaic (PV) power generation system. It generates maximum power of PV array under various weather conditions. SMES unit charges and discharges the HTS coil to mitigate the fluctuation of PV system output power. The SMES unit is controlled according to the PV array output and the utility power quality conditions. The grid connected PV and SMES system has been modeled and simulated using power-hard-in-the-loop simulation (PHILS). The PHILS results demonstrated the effectiveness of the SMES system for enhancing power quality in power network including large-scale renewable energy source, especially PV power generation system.

  15. What is the nature of the high energy X-ray sources in the galaxy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuturilo, Sophie; Tomsick, John; Clavel, Maica; Lansbury, George B.

    2017-01-01

    Finding sources of high energy “hard” X-rays allow us to probe the most extreme conditions in the Universe. Such sources include accreting black holes and neutron stars, where we find the strongest gravitational and magnetic fields, as well as pulsars and supernova remnants, where particles are accelerated to produce the hard X-rays. Over the past decade, the INTEGRAL satellite ahs been discovering new high energy sources, and this has allowed us to understand the population of bright hard X-ray sources. Over the past few years, the NuSTAR satellite, with much better sensitivity than INTEGRAL, has been allowing us to find even more hard X-ray sources, and we will present results from studies of sources discovered in the NuSTAR serendipitous source survey. We analyzed seven different potential sources looking for counterparts using NuSTAR, Chandra and ground based optical/NIR observations. Of the seven, two have confirmed counterparts and five need either an optical/NIR detection or further spectroscopy.

  16. The Highest-energy Cosmic Rays Cannot Be Dominantly Protons from Steady Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Ke; Kotera, Kumiko

    2016-11-01

    The bulk of observed ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays could be light or heavier elements and originate from an either steady or transient population of sources. This leaves us with four general categories of sources. Energetic requirements set a lower limit on single-source luminosities, while the distribution of particle arrival directions in the sky sets a lower limit on the source number density. The latter constraint depends on the angular smearing in the skymap due to the magnetic deflections of the charged particles during their propagation from the source to the Earth. We contrast these limits with the luminosity functions from surveys of existing luminous steady objects in the nearby universe and strongly constrain one of the four categories of source models, namely, steady proton sources. The possibility that cosmic rays with energy >8 × 1019 eV are dominantly pure protons coming from steady sources is excluded at 95% confidence level, under the safe assumption that protons experience less than 30° magnetic deflection on flight.

  17. Municipal solid waste (MSW) as a renewable source of energy: current and future practices in China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hefa; Hu, Yuanan

    2010-06-01

    With rapid economic growth and massive urbanization, China faces the problem of municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal and the pressing need for development of alternative energy. Waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration, which recovers energy from discarded MSW and produces electricity and/or steam for heating, is recognized as a renewable source of energy and is playing an increasingly important role in MSW management in China. This article provides an overview of the WTE industry, discusses the major challenges in expanding WTE incineration in China, namely, high capital and operational costs, equipment corrosion, air pollutant emissions, and fly ash disposal. A perspective on MSW as a renewable energy source in China is also presented. Currently, only approximately 13% of MSW generated in China is disposed in WTE facilities. With the significant benefits of environmental quality, the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and government policies and financial incentives as a renewable energy source, WTE incineration industry is expected to experience significant growth in the coming decade and make greater contribution to supplying renewable energy in China.

  18. Evaluation of the beta energy spectrum from a distributed uranium mill tailings source

    SciTech Connect

    Reif, R.H.; Martz, D.E.; Carlson, D.S.; Turner, J.B. )

    1993-10-01

    The beta energy spectra from uranium mill tailings, 90Sr with different absorber thicknesses, and a uranium metal slab were measured and compared to select an appropriate beta source for calibrating a personal dosimeter to measure shallow dose equivalent when exposed to uranium mill tailings. The measured beta energy spectrum from the 90Sr source, with a 111 mg cm-2 cover thickness, was selected as a possible calibration source for a personnel dosimeter. The dose equivalent rate to the skin at 1 cm from a distributed tailings source of infinite thickness, with a 226Ra activity of 56 Bq g-1 (1.5 x 10(3) pCi g-1), was measured to be 0.024 mSv h-1 (2.4 mrem h-1).

  19. Evaluation of the beta energy spectrum from a distributed uranium mill tailings source.

    PubMed

    Reif, R H; Martz, D E; Carlson, D S; Turner, J B

    1993-10-01

    The beta energy spectra from uranium mill tailings, 90Sr with different absorber thicknesses, and a uranium metal slab were measured and compared to select an appropriate beta source for calibrating a personal dosimeter to measure shallow dose equivalent when exposed to uranium mill tailings. The measured beta energy spectrum from the 90Sr source, with a 111 mg cm-2 cover thickness, was selected as a possible calibration source for a personnel dosimeter. The dose equivalent rate to the skin at 1 cm from a distributed tailings source of infinite thickness, with a 226Ra activity of 56 Bq g-1 (1.5 x 10(3) pCi g-1), was measured to be 0.024 mSv h-1 (2.4 mrem h-1).

  20. The very high energy source catalog at the ASI Science Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carosi, Alessandro; Lucarelli, Fabrizio; Antonelli, Lucio A.; Giommi, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    The increasing number of Very High Energy (VHE) sources discovered by the current generation of Cherenkov telescopes made particularly relevant the creation of a dedicated source catalogs as well as the cross-correlation of VHE and lower energy bands data in a multi-wavelength framework. The "TeGeV Catalog" hosted at the ASI Science Data Center (ASDC) is a catalog of VHE sources detected by ground-based Cherenkov detectors. The TeGeVcat collects all the relevant information publicly available about the observed GeV/TeV sources. The catalog contains also information about public light curves while the available spectral data are included in the ASDC SED Builder tool directly accessible from the TeGeV catalogue web page. In this contribution we will report a comprehensive description of the catalog and the related tools.