Science.gov

Sample records for added mass effects

  1. Higgs mechanism and the added-mass effect

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaswami, Govind S.; Phatak, Sachin S.

    2015-01-01

    In the Higgs mechanism, mediators of the weak force acquire masses by interacting with the Higgs condensate, leading to a vector boson mass matrix. On the other hand, a rigid body accelerated through an inviscid, incompressible and irrotational fluid feels an opposing force linearly related to its acceleration, via an added-mass tensor. We uncover a striking physical analogy between the two effects and propose a dictionary relating them. The correspondence turns the gauge Lie algebra into the space of directions in which the body can move, encodes the pattern of gauge symmetry breaking in the shape of an associated body and relates symmetries of the body to those of the scalar vacuum manifold. The new viewpoint is illustrated with numerous examples, and raises interesting questions, notably on the fluid analogues of the broken symmetry and Higgs particle, and the field-theoretic analogue of the added mass of a composite body. PMID:27547077

  2. Effect of added mass on the interaction of bubbles in a low-Reynolds-number shear flow.

    PubMed

    Lavrenteva, Olga; Prakash, Jai; Nir, Avinoam

    2016-02-01

    Equal size air bubbles that are entrapped by a Taylor vortex of the secondary flow in a Couette device, thereby defying buoyancy, slowly form a stable ordered ring with equal separation distances between all neighbors. We present two models of the process dynamics based on force balance on a bubble in the presence of other bubbles positioned on the same streamline in a simple shear flow. The forces taken into account are the viscous resistance, the added mass force, and the inertia-induced repulsing force between two bubbles in a low-Reynolds-number shear flow obtained in Prakash et al. [J. Prakash et al., Phys. Rev. E 87, 043002 (2013)]. The first model of the process assumes that each bubble interacts solely with its nearest neighbors. The second model takes into account pairwise interactions among all the bubbles in the ring. The performed dynamic simulations were compared to the experimental results reported in Prakash et al. [J. Prakash et al., Phys. Rev. E 87, 043002 (2013)] and to the results of quasistationary models (ignoring the added mass effect) suggested in that paper. It is demonstrated that taking into account the effect of added mass, the models describe the major effect of the bubbles' ordering, provide good estimation of the relaxation time, and also predict nonmonotonic behavior of the separation distance between the bubbles, which exhibit over- and undershooting of equilibrium separations. The latter effects were observed in experiments, but are not predicted by the quasistationary models.

  3. Effect of added mass on the interaction of bubbles in a low-Reynolds-number shear flow.

    PubMed

    Lavrenteva, Olga; Prakash, Jai; Nir, Avinoam

    2016-02-01

    Equal size air bubbles that are entrapped by a Taylor vortex of the secondary flow in a Couette device, thereby defying buoyancy, slowly form a stable ordered ring with equal separation distances between all neighbors. We present two models of the process dynamics based on force balance on a bubble in the presence of other bubbles positioned on the same streamline in a simple shear flow. The forces taken into account are the viscous resistance, the added mass force, and the inertia-induced repulsing force between two bubbles in a low-Reynolds-number shear flow obtained in Prakash et al. [J. Prakash et al., Phys. Rev. E 87, 043002 (2013)]. The first model of the process assumes that each bubble interacts solely with its nearest neighbors. The second model takes into account pairwise interactions among all the bubbles in the ring. The performed dynamic simulations were compared to the experimental results reported in Prakash et al. [J. Prakash et al., Phys. Rev. E 87, 043002 (2013)] and to the results of quasistationary models (ignoring the added mass effect) suggested in that paper. It is demonstrated that taking into account the effect of added mass, the models describe the major effect of the bubbles' ordering, provide good estimation of the relaxation time, and also predict nonmonotonic behavior of the separation distance between the bubbles, which exhibit over- and undershooting of equilibrium separations. The latter effects were observed in experiments, but are not predicted by the quasistationary models. PMID:26986411

  4. Effect of added mass on the interaction of bubbles in a low-Reynolds-number shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrenteva, Olga; Prakash, Jai; Nir, Avinoam

    2016-02-01

    Equal size air bubbles that are entrapped by a Taylor vortex of the secondary flow in a Couette device, thereby defying buoyancy, slowly form a stable ordered ring with equal separation distances between all neighbors. We present two models of the process dynamics based on force balance on a bubble in the presence of other bubbles positioned on the same streamline in a simple shear flow. The forces taken into account are the viscous resistance, the added mass force, and the inertia-induced repulsing force between two bubbles in a low-Reynolds-number shear flow obtained in Prakash et al. [J. Prakash et al., Phys. Rev. E 87, 043002 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevE.87.043002]. The first model of the process assumes that each bubble interacts solely with its nearest neighbors. The second model takes into account pairwise interactions among all the bubbles in the ring. The performed dynamic simulations were compared to the experimental results reported in Prakash et al. [J. Prakash et al., Phys. Rev. E 87, 043002 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevE.87.043002] and to the results of quasistationary models (ignoring the added mass effect) suggested in that paper. It is demonstrated that taking into account the effect of added mass, the models describe the major effect of the bubbles' ordering, provide good estimation of the relaxation time, and also predict nonmonotonic behavior of the separation distance between the bubbles, which exhibit over- and undershooting of equilibrium separations. The latter effects were observed in experiments, but are not predicted by the quasistationary models.

  5. Influence of the added mass effect and boundary conditions on the dynamic response of submerged and confined structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentín, D.; Presas, A.; Egusquiza, E.; Valero, C.

    2014-03-01

    The dynamic response of submerged and confined disk-like structures is of interest in the flied of hydraulic machinery, especially in hydraulic turbine runners. This response is difficult to be estimated with accuracy due to the strong influence of the boundary conditions. Small radial gaps as well as short axial distances to rigid surfaces greatly modify the dynamic response because the fact of the added mass and damping effects. Moreover, the effect of the shaft coupling is also important for certain mode-shapes of the structure. In the present study, the influence of the added mass effect and boundary conditions on the dynamic behavior of a submerged disk attached to a shaft is evaluated through experimental tests and structural- acoustic coupling numerical simulations. For the experimentation, a test rig has been developed. It consists of a confined disk attached to a shaft inside a cylindrical container full of water. The disk can be fixed at different axial positions along the shaft. Piezoelectric patches are used to excite the disk and the response is measured with submersible accelerometers. For each configuration tested, the natural frequencies of the disk and the shaft are studied. Numerical results have been compared with experimental results.

  6. Magnetic mass in 4D AdS gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araneda, René; Aros, Rodrigo; Miskovic, Olivera; Olea, Rodrigo

    2016-04-01

    We provide a fully covariant expression for the diffeomorphic charge in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter gravity, when the Gauss-Bonnet and Pontryagin terms are added to the action. The couplings of these topological invariants are such that the Weyl tensor and its dual appear in the on-shell variation of the action and such that the action is stationary for asymptotic (anti-)self-dual solutions in the Weyl tensor. In analogy with Euclidean electromagnetism, whenever the self-duality condition is global, both the action and the total charge are identically vanishing. Therefore, for such configurations, the magnetic mass equals the Ashtekhar-Magnon-Das definition.

  7. Investigating the Influence of the Added Mass Effect to Marine Hydrokinetic Horizontal-Axis Turbines Using a General Dynamic Wake Wind Turbine Code: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Maniaci, D. C.; Li, Y.

    2012-04-01

    This paper describes a recent study to investigate the applicability of a horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT) structural dynamics and unsteady aerodynamics analysis program (FAST and AeroDyn respectively) to modeling the forces on marine hydrokinetic (MHK) turbines. It summarizes the added mass model that has been added to AeroDyn. The added mass model only includes flow acceleration perpendicular to the rotor disc, and ignores added mass forces caused by blade deflection. A model of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment (UAE) Phase VI wind turbine was analyzed using FAST and AeroDyn with sea water conditions and the new added mass model. The results of this analysis exhibited a 3.6% change in thrust for a rapid pitch case and a slight change in amplitude and phase of thrust for a case with 30 degrees of yaw.

  8. Investigating the Influence of the Added Mass Effect to Marine Hydrokinetic Horizontal-Axis Turbines Using a General Dynamic Wake Wind Turbine Code

    SciTech Connect

    Maniaci, D. C.; Li, Y.

    2011-10-01

    This paper describes a recent study to investigate the applicability of a horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT) structural dynamics and unsteady aerodynamics analysis program (FAST and AeroDyn respectively) to modeling the forces on marine hydrokinetic (MHK) turbines. This paper summarizes the added mass model that has been added to AeroDyn. The added mass model only includes flow acceleration perpendicular to the rotor disc, and ignores added mass forces caused by blade deflection. A model of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment (UAE) Phase VI wind turbine was analyzed using FAST and AeroDyn with sea water conditions and the new added mass model. The results of this analysis exhibited a 3.6% change in thrust for a rapid pitch case and a slight change in amplitude and phase of thrust for a case with 30{sup o} of yaw.

  9. The Effects of Added Hydrogen on Noble Gas Discharges Used as Ambient Desorption/Ionization Sources for Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Wade C.; Lewis, Charlotte R.; Openshaw, Anna P.; Farnsworth, Paul B.

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate the effectiveness of using hydrogen-doped argon as the support gas for the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) ambient desorption/ionization (ADI) source in mass spectrometry. Also, we explore the chemistry responsible for the signal enhancement observed when using both hydrogen-doped argon and hydrogen-doped helium. The hydrogen-doped argon was tested for five analytes representing different classes of molecules. Addition of hydrogen to the argon plasma gas enhanced signals for gas-phase analytes and for analytes coated onto glass slides in positive and negative ion mode. The enhancements ranged from factors of 4 to 5 for gas-phase analytes and factors of 2 to 40 for coated slides. There was no significant increase in the background. The limit of detection for caffeine was lowered by a factor of 79 using H2/Ar and 2 using H2/He. Results are shown that help explain the fundamental differences between the pure-gas discharges and those that are hydrogen-doped for both argon and helium. Experiments with different discharge geometries and grounding schemes indicate that observed signal enhancements are strongly dependent on discharge configuration.

  10. The Effects of Added Hydrogen on Noble Gas Discharges Used as Ambient Desorption/Ionization Sources for Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Wade C; Lewis, Charlotte R; Openshaw, Anna P; Farnsworth, Paul B

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate the effectiveness of using hydrogen-doped argon as the support gas for the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) ambient desorption/ionization (ADI) source in mass spectrometry. Also, we explore the chemistry responsible for the signal enhancement observed when using both hydrogen-doped argon and hydrogen-doped helium. The hydrogen-doped argon was tested for five analytes representing different classes of molecules. Addition of hydrogen to the argon plasma gas enhanced signals for gas-phase analytes and for analytes coated onto glass slides in positive and negative ion mode. The enhancements ranged from factors of 4 to 5 for gas-phase analytes and factors of 2 to 40 for coated slides. There was no significant increase in the background. The limit of detection for caffeine was lowered by a factor of 79 using H2/Ar and 2 using H2/He. Results are shown that help explain the fundamental differences between the pure-gas discharges and those that are hydrogen-doped for both argon and helium. Experiments with different discharge geometries and grounding schemes indicate that observed signal enhancements are strongly dependent on discharge configuration. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:27380389

  11. Metabolic rate of carrying added mass: a function of walking speed, carried mass and mass location.

    PubMed

    Schertzer, Eliran; Riemer, Raziel

    2014-11-01

    The effort of carrying additional mass at different body locations is important in ergonomics and in designing wearable robotics. We investigate the metabolic rate of carrying a load as a function of its mass, its location on the body and the subject's walking speed. Novel metabolic rate prediction equations for walking while carrying loads at the ankle, knees and back were developed based on experiments where subjects walked on a treadmill at 4, 5 or 6km/h bearing different amounts of added mass (up to 2kg per leg and 22kg for back). Compared to previously reported equations, ours are 7-69% more accurate. Results also show that relative cost for carrying a mass at a distal versus a proximal location changes with speed and mass. Contrary to mass carried on the back, mass attached to the leg cannot be modeled as an increase in body mass. PMID:24793822

  12. Effective Ad-Hoc Committees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, David G.

    1983-01-01

    Ad-hoc committees may be symbolic, informational, or action committees. A literature survey indicates such committees' structural components include a suprasystem and three subsystems involving linkages, production, and implementation. Other variables include size, personal factors, and timing. All the factors carry implications about ad-hoc…

  13. Thermo-mechanical phase-shift determination in Coriolis mass-flowmeters with added masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghayesh, Mergen H.; Amabili, Marco; Païdoussis, Michael P.

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop an approximate analytical solution for phase-shift (and thus mass flow) prediction along the length of the measuring tube of a Coriolis mass-flowmeter. A single, straight measuring tube is considered; added masses at the sensor and excitation locations are included in the model, and thus in the equation of motion. The measuring tube is excited harmonically by an electromagnetic driver. Taking into account thermal effects, the equation of motion is derived through use of the extended Hamilton's principle and constitutive relations. The equation of motion is discretized into a set of ordinary differential equations via Galerkin's technique. The method of multiple timescales is applied to the set of resultant equations, and the equations of order one and epsilon are obtained analytically for the system at primary resonance. The solution of the equation of motion is obtained by satisfying the solvability condition (making the solution of order epsilon free of secular terms). The flow-related phase-shift in the driver-induced tube vibration is measured at two symmetrically located points on either side of the mid-length of the tube. The analytical results for the phase-shift are compared to those obtained numerically. The effect of system parameters on the measured phase-shift is discussed. It is shown that the measured phase-shift depends on the mass flow rate, of course, but it is also affected by the magnitude of the added sensor mass and location, and the temperature change; nevertheless, the factors investigated do not induce a zero phase-shift.

  14. Proposed Framework for Determining Added Mass of Orion Drogue Parachutes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraire, Usbaldo, Jr.; Dearman, James; Morris, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) project is executing a program to qualify a parachute system for a next generation human spacecraft. Part of the qualification process involves predicting parachute riser tension during system descent with flight simulations. Human rating the CPAS hardware requires a high degree of confidence in the simulation models used to predict parachute loads. However, uncertainty exists in the heritage added mass models used for loads predictions due to a lack of supporting documentation and data. Even though CPAS anchors flight simulation loads predictions to flight tests, extrapolation of these models outside the test regime carries the risk of producing non-bounding loads. A set of equations based on empirically derived functions of skirt radius is recommended as the simplest and most viable method to test and derive an enhanced added mass model for an inflating parachute. This will increase confidence in the capability to predict parachute loads. The selected equations are based on those published in A Simplified Dynamic Model of Parachute Inflation by Dean Wolf. An Ames 80x120 wind tunnel test campaign is recommended to acquire the reefing line tension and canopy photogrammetric data needed to quantify the terms in the Wolf equations and reduce uncertainties in parachute loads predictions. Once the campaign is completed, the Wolf equations can be used to predict loads in a typical CPAS Drogue Flight test. Comprehensive descriptions of added mass test techniques from the Apollo Era to the current CPAS project are included for reference.

  15. Value-added logistics: the answer to mass customization.

    PubMed

    Verwoerd, W

    1999-11-01

    Value added logistics: A new concept or just new terminology? If you read Today and Tomorrow you will notice that Henry Ford used postponed manufacturing to save on transportation costs: On one railway-wagon he could ship either three T-Fords or the parts for seven T-Fords. This is one of the reasons he build several assembly plants in the United States and in Europe (Dagenham, UK; Koln, Germany; and Amsterdam). Although this concept has existed for more than 70 years, I found out that it is still quite unknown. Thanks to information technology, it is becoming more powerful. This opens large possibilities for mass customization.

  16. Study of micro piezoelectric vibration generator with added mass and capacitance suitable for broadband vibration

    SciTech Connect

    He, Qing Mao, Xinhua Chu, Dongliang

    2015-07-15

    This study proposes an optimized frequency adjustment method that uses a micro-cantilever beam-based piezoelectric vibration generator based on a combination of added mass and capacitance. The most important concept of the proposed method is that the frequency adjustment process is divided into two steps: the first is a rough adjustment step that changes the size of the mass added at the end of cantilever to adjust the frequency in a large-scale and discontinuous manner; the second step is a continuous but short-range frequency adjustment via the adjustable added capacitance. Experimental results show that when the initial natural frequency of a micro piezoelectric vibration generator is 69.8 Hz, then this natural frequency can be adjusted to any value in the range from 54.2 Hz to 42.1 Hz using the combination of the added mass and the capacitance. This method simply and effectively matches a piezoelectric vibration generator’s natural frequency to the vibration source frequency.

  17. Sakharov's induced gravity on the AdS background: SM scale as inverse mass parameter of the Schwinger-DeWitt expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altshuler, Boris L.

    2015-09-01

    The one-loop quantum effective action W of the scalar field "living" on the AdS background of the Randall-Sundrum (RS) model has been defined by a now-popular way which excludes bulk UV divergencies; thus, the induced Planck mass is given not by the UV regularization parameter like in Sakharov's pioneer work but by the location of the UV cut of AdS space. Resummation of the Schwinger-DeWitt expansion of the action W is performed by the novel "auxiliary mass" method. The inverse mass squared parameter of this expansion is determined by the location of the "visible" IR brane of the RS model. The obtained expression for the induced vacuum energy density coincides with the independently calculated VEV of the stress-energy tensor; the corresponding potential in four dimensions possesses a nontrivial extremum which hopefully will permit us to stabilize the IR brane and hence to fix the observed small value of the mass hierarchy in analogy with the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism. It is demonstrated that naive equating of values of the induced Planck mass and vacuum energy density to those of the RS model determines otherwise arbitrary constants of the model. A principle of quantum self-consistency generalizing this approach is proposed.

  18. Added mass matrix estimation of beams partially immersed in water using measured dynamic responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fushun; Li, Huajun; Qin, Hongde; Liang, Bingchen

    2014-09-01

    An added mass matrix estimation method for beams partially immersed in water is proposed that employs dynamic responses, which are measured when the structure is in water and in air. Discrepancies such as mass and stiffness matrices between the finite element model (FEM) and real structure could be separated from the added mass of water by a series of correction factors, which means that the mass and stiffness of the FEM and the added mass of water could be estimated simultaneously. Compared with traditional methods, the estimated added mass correction factors of our approach will not be limited to be constant when FEM or the environment of the structure changed, meaning that the proposed method could reflect the influence of changes such as water depth, current, and so on. The greatest improvement is that the proposed method could estimate added mass of water without involving any water-related assumptions because all water influences are reflected in measured dynamic responses of the structure in water. A five degrees-of-freedom (dofs) mass-spring system is used to study the performance of the proposed scheme. The numerical results indicate that mass, stiffness, and added mass correction factors could be estimated accurately when noise-free measurements are used. Even when the first two modes are measured under the 5 percent corruption level, the added mass could be estimated properly. A steel cantilever beam with a rectangular section in a water tank at Ocean University of China was also employed to study the added mass influence on modal parameter identification and to investigate the performance of the proposed method. The experimental results demonstrated that the first two modal frequencies and mode shapes of the updated model match well with the measured values by combining the estimated added mass in the initial FEM.

  19. A pendulum experiment on added mass and the principle of equivalence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neill, Douglas; Livelybrooks, Dean; Donnelly, Russell J.

    2007-03-01

    The concept of added mass in fluid mechanics has been known for many years. A familiar example is the accelerated motion of a sphere through an ideal (inviscid and irrotational) fluid, which has an added mass equal to one-half the mass of the fluid displaced. The period of oscillation of a simple pendulum in a vacuum is independent of its mass because of the equivalence of gravitational and inertial masses. In contrast, in a fluid both buoyancy and added mass affect the period. We present experimental results on simple pendula of different materials oscillating in various fluids. The results agree fairly well with the results obtained for the added mass in an ideal fluid.

  20. Adding a psychological dimension to mass gatherings medicine.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Nick; Reicher, Stephen

    2016-06-01

    Mass gatherings pose distinctive challenges for medicine. One neglected aspect of this is that the behaviour of people participating in such events is different from the behaviour they exhibit in their everyday lives. This paper seeks to describe a social psychological perspective on the processes shaping people's behaviour at mass gatherings and to explore how these are relevant for an understanding of the processes impacting on the transmission of infection. It is inadequate to conceptualize mass gatherings as simply an aggregate of a large number of individuals. Rather, those present may conceptualize themselves in terms of a collective with a shared group identity. Thinking of oneself and others as members of a collective changes one's behaviour. First, one behaves in terms of one's understanding of the norms associated with the group. Second, the relationships between group members become more trusting and supportive. Understanding these two behavioural changes is key to understanding how and why mass gathering participants may behave in ways that make them more or less vulnerable to infection transmission. Implications for health education interventions are discussed. PMID:26751239

  1. A Lean Neck Mass Clinic Model: Adding Value to Care

    PubMed Central

    Tillman, Brittny N.; Glazer, Tiffany A.; Ray, Amrita; Brenner, J. Chad; Spector, Matthew E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate that ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration (USFNA) with on-site cytopathologic analysis eliminates unnecessary diagnostic testing, return visits, repeat procedures and optimizes quality of care. Study Design Retrospective Cohort Methods 61 new patients (28 female; 33 male; age range 19-85) were seen in our dedicated neck mass clinic over a one-year period. All patients underwent USFNA of masses located in neck levels I-VI (40), parotid gland (20), or parapharyngeal space (1). Each patient underwent two USFNA passes followed by on-site cytopathologic analysis with additional passes if required for diagnosis. Results Diagnosis was made in 93.4% (57) of patients allowing for counseling and treatment planning at the first visit. In order to obtain a diagnosis, more than half (57.4%, 35) of our patients required additional passes which implies that they would have required an additional visit without on-site cytopathologic analysis. Treatment included: Observation in 42.6% (26) of patients, surgery in 32.8 % (20) of patients and nonsurgical treatment (chemotherapy, radiation, other) in 24.6% (15) of patients. The average time from check-in to checkout including the clinic visit, biopsy and treatment counseling was 103 minutes, and the average round trip mileage traveled per patient was 127.6 miles. Conclusion The adult neck mass is a commonly encountered scenario in otolaryngology. For the patient this can be a stressful situation in which timely and accurate diagnosis is critical. A dedicated lean neck mass clinic model with USFNA and on-site cytopathologic analysis can be both an efficient part of one's practice and a valuable addition to patient care. PMID:26256915

  2. Feasibility study of a wearable exoskeleton for children: is the gait altered by adding masses on lower limbs?

    PubMed

    Rossi, Stefano; Colazza, Alessandra; Petrarca, Maurizio; Castelli, Enrico; Cappa, Paolo; Krebs, Hermano Igo

    2013-01-01

    We are designing a pediatric exoskeletal ankle robot (pediatric Anklebot) to promote gait habilitation in children with Cerebral Palsy (CP). Few studies have evaluated how much or whether the unilateral loading of a wearable exoskeleton may have the unwanted effect of altering significantly the gait. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether adding masses up to 2.5 kg, the estimated overall added mass of the mentioned device, at the knee level alters the gait kinematics. Ten healthy children and eight children with CP, with light or mild gait impairment, walked wearing a knee brace with several masses. Gait parameters and lower-limb joint kinematics were analyzed with an optoelectronic system under six conditions: without brace (natural gait) and with masses placed at the knee level (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 kg). T-tests and repeated measures ANOVA tests were conducted in order to find noteworthy differences among the trial conditions and between loaded and unloaded legs. No statistically significant differences in gait parameters for both healthy children and children with CP were observed in the five "with added mass" conditions. We found significant differences among "natural gait" and "with added masses" conditions in knee flexion and hip extension angles for healthy children and in knee flexion angle for children with CP. This result can be interpreted as an effect of the mechanical constraint induced by the knee brace rather than the effect associated with load increase. The study demonstrates that the mechanical constraint induced by the brace has a measurable effect on the gait of healthy children and children with CP and that the added mass up to 2.5 kg does not alter the lower limb kinematics. This suggests that wearable devices weighing 25 N or less will not noticeably modify the gait patterns of the population examined here. PMID:24023822

  3. Feasibility study of a wearable exoskeleton for children: is the gait altered by adding masses on lower limbs?

    PubMed

    Rossi, Stefano; Colazza, Alessandra; Petrarca, Maurizio; Castelli, Enrico; Cappa, Paolo; Krebs, Hermano Igo

    2013-01-01

    We are designing a pediatric exoskeletal ankle robot (pediatric Anklebot) to promote gait habilitation in children with Cerebral Palsy (CP). Few studies have evaluated how much or whether the unilateral loading of a wearable exoskeleton may have the unwanted effect of altering significantly the gait. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether adding masses up to 2.5 kg, the estimated overall added mass of the mentioned device, at the knee level alters the gait kinematics. Ten healthy children and eight children with CP, with light or mild gait impairment, walked wearing a knee brace with several masses. Gait parameters and lower-limb joint kinematics were analyzed with an optoelectronic system under six conditions: without brace (natural gait) and with masses placed at the knee level (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 kg). T-tests and repeated measures ANOVA tests were conducted in order to find noteworthy differences among the trial conditions and between loaded and unloaded legs. No statistically significant differences in gait parameters for both healthy children and children with CP were observed in the five "with added mass" conditions. We found significant differences among "natural gait" and "with added masses" conditions in knee flexion and hip extension angles for healthy children and in knee flexion angle for children with CP. This result can be interpreted as an effect of the mechanical constraint induced by the knee brace rather than the effect associated with load increase. The study demonstrates that the mechanical constraint induced by the brace has a measurable effect on the gait of healthy children and children with CP and that the added mass up to 2.5 kg does not alter the lower limb kinematics. This suggests that wearable devices weighing 25 N or less will not noticeably modify the gait patterns of the population examined here.

  4. Resistive thrust production can be as crucial as added mass mechanisms for inertial undulatory swimmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piñeirua, M.; Godoy-Diana, R.; Thiria, B.

    2015-08-01

    In this Rapid Communication, we address a crucial point regarding the description of moderate to high Reynolds numbers aquatic swimmers. For decades, swimming animals have been classified in two different families of propulsive mechanisms based on the Reynolds number: the resistive swimmers, using local friction to produce the necessary thrust force for locomotion at low Reynolds number, and the reactive swimmers, lying in the high Reynolds range, and using added mass acceleration (described by perfect fluid theory). However, inertial swimmers are also systems that dissipate energy, due to their finite size, therefore involving strong resistive contributions, even for high Reynolds numbers. Using a complete model for the hydrodynamic forces, involving both reactive and resistive contributions, we revisit here the physical mechanisms responsible for the thrust production of such swimmers. We show, for instance, that the resistive part of the force balance is as crucial as added mass effects in the modeling of the thrust force, especially for elongated species. The conclusions brought by this work may have significant contributions to the understanding of complex swimming mechanisms, especially for the future design of artificial swimmers.

  5. The Use of Stereotypes in Mass Media Advertising: Blacks in Magazine, Newspaper and Television Ads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culley, James D.; Bennett, Rex

    A brief review of the literature on the use of black stereotypes in mass media advertising, and the results of a current study in this area are presented. Data were gathered by analysis of 1,536 ads in six general interest magazines and 4,371 ads in the New York Times over a one month period, and 368 television commercials on three networks over a…

  6. A note on physical mass and the thermodynamics of AdS-Kerr black holes

    SciTech Connect

    McInnes, Brett; Ong, Yen Chin E-mail: yenchin.ong@nordita.org

    2015-11-01

    As with any black hole, asymptotically anti-de Sitter Kerr black holes are described by a small number of parameters, including a ''mass parameter'' M that reduces to the AdS-Schwarzschild mass in the limit of vanishing angular momentum. In sharp contrast to the asymptotically flat case, the horizon area of such a black hole increases with the angular momentum parameter a if one fixes M; this appears to mean that the Penrose process in this case would violate the Second Law of black hole thermodynamics. We show that the correct procedure is to fix not M but rather the ''physical'' mass E=M/(1−a{sup 2}/L{sup 2}){sup 2}; this is motivated by the First Law. For then the horizon area decreases with a. We recommend that E always be used as the mass in physical processes: for example, in attempts to ''over-spin'' AdS-Kerr black holes.

  7. Thermal and mechanical analysis on the cold mass support assembly of test cryomodule for IMP ADS-injector-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, X. L.; Wang, L.; Wang, J.; Wang, S. Y.; Liu, Y. Y.; Sun, S.

    2014-01-01

    The Injector-II of ADS project will include two cryomodules, each of which consists of eight HWR cavities and nine SC solenoid magnets. A test cryomodule (TCM1) containing one HWR cavity and two SC magnets was developed for verification of related technique at the first stage. The TCM1 cryostat was designed by Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics of Chinese Academy of Sciences (SINAP, CAS). The cold mass support assembly in the test cryomodule should accommodate the unbalanced loads induced by each cold mass assembly, the deformation induced by thermal shrinkage, and the thermal stress between different materials. In order to validate the structure design, coupled thermal and mechanical analysis on the cold mass support assembly was performed. The temperature, deformation and stress of the cold mass support assembly were obtained. The results effectively provide the guideline for the design and improvement of the cold mass support assembly.

  8. Effect of adding exercise to a diet containing glucomannan.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, William J; Vingren, Jakob L; Silvestre, Ricardo; Spiering, Barry A; Hatfield, Disa L; Ho, Jen Y; Fragala, Maren S; Maresh, Carl M; Volek, Jeff S

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of adding a total-body exercise program to an 8-week diet supplemented with glucomannan on weight loss, body composition, blood parameters, and physical performance in overweight men and women. Sedentary men and women who were overweight (body mass index>25 kg m(-2)) (men: 18-57 years, 27.0+/-11.2 years, 177.5+/-7.6 cm, 102.4+/-14.9 kg; women: 18-52 years, 33.4+/-12.1 years, 160.6+/-4.6 cm, 79.9+/-9.3 kg) completed an 8-week diet with 3000 mg glucomannan combined with either no exercise (No-Ex) (10 men, 10 women) or a resistance and endurance exercise training program (Ex) (12 men, 10 women). The diet emphasized healthy food choices and portion size control. The exercise training consisted of 3 weekly sessions of approximately 1 hour of a nonlinear periodized total-body resistance exercise program followed by 30 minutes of endurance exercise. After the intervention, there were reductions (P<.05) in body mass (men, -2.7+/-1.4 and -3.0+/-4.0 kg; women, -2.2+/-1.5 and -3.3+/-1.5 kg; No-Ex and Ex, respectively), fat mass (men, -2.3+/-1.6 and -3.9+/-2.5 kg; women, -2.6+/-1.4 and -3.6+/-1.1 kg; No-Ex and Ex, respectively), total cholesterol (TC) (men, -17.9+/-21.5 and -18.8+/-19.4 mg dL(-1); women, -9.3+/-20.0 and -10.1+/-19.5 mg dL(-1); No-Ex and Ex, respectively), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Exercise significantly improved high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (No-Ex, -2.0+/-4.7 and -2.3+/-4.5 mg dL(-1) vs Ex, 4.4+/-10.8 and 1.6+/-3.6 mg dL(-1); men and women, respectively), TC/HDL-C ratio, squat and bench press 1-repetition maximum, and distance covered during a shuttle-run test. In addition, exercise appeared to augment the reduction in fat mass (by 63% and 50%; men and women, respectively) and waist circumference, but did not affect total weight loss. Addition of a resistance and endurance exercise training program to a glucomannan diet regimen significantly improved measures of body composition

  9. The effect of magnesium added at C60/Rubrene heterointerfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chiu-Ping; Lee, Cheng-Wei; Chu, Yu-Ya; Wei, Ching-Hsuan; Pi, Tun-Wen

    2013-12-01

    This study examines the effect of adding magnesium (Mg) at C60/rubrene heterointerfaces by using synchrotron-radiation photoemission spectroscopy. The heterointerface was obtained by depositing C60 on a 4-Å Mg/rubrene surface. The photoemission spectra showed that the added Mg preferentially interacts with and transfers negative charges to C60. The interfacial dipole potential was significantly enlarged, as was the separation between the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of C60 and the highest occupied molecular orbital of rubrene. The results demonstrate that the addition of Mg should be an effective method for improving the efficiency of light- and current-generating devices.

  10. A study on the characteristic behavior of mass inclusions added to a poro-elastic layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idrisi, Kamal; Johnson, Marty E.; Theurich, Daniel; Carneal, James P.

    2010-09-01

    Heterogeneous (HG) blankets consist of a layer of poro-elastic media with small embedded masses that replicate the behavior of a distributed mass-spring-damper system. The concept of an HG blanket used to control the sound transmission through an aircraft double-panel system has already been developed and cited in the present literature. However, deficiencies in methodical property control exist; therefore, the prime objective of this research is to provide a simple method to predict and control material properties of the heterogeneous blankets through alteration of mass and stiffness parameters. Mass inclusion size, shape, and placement were varied. If optimized heterogeneous (HG) blankets targeted to specific applications are to be successfully developed, control of these parameters is necessary. This research offers a detailed analysis of the behavior of the mass inclusions, highlighting controlled stiffness variation of the mass-spring-damper systems inside the HG blanket. Characteristic parameters of the HG blanket like the "footprint," "effective area," and the "mass interaction distance" are defined and confirmed through mathematical calculations and experimental results. A novel, empirical approach to predict the natural frequency of different mass shapes embedded in porous media was derived and experimentally verified for many different types of porous media, including melamine foam, polyurethane, and polyamide. A maximum error of 8% existed for all the predictions made in this document.

  11. The Effect of Increasing Mass upon Locomotion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeWitt, John; Hagan, Donald

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine if increasing body mass while maintaining bodyweight would affect ground reaction forces and joint kinetics during walking and running. It was hypothesized that performing gait with increased mass while maintaining body weight would result in greater ground reaction forces, and would affect the net joint torques and work at the ankle, knee and hip when compared to gait with normal mass and bodyweight. Vertical ground reaction force was measured for ten subjects (5M/5F) during walking (1.34 m/s) and running (3.13 m/s) on a treadmill. Subjects completed one minute of locomotion at normal mass and bodyweight and at four added mass (AM) conditions (10%, 20%, 30% and 40% of body mass) in random order. Three-dimensional joint position data were collected via videography. Walking and running were analyzed separately. The addition of mass resulted in several effects. Peak impact forces and loading rates increased during walking, but decreased during running. Peak propulsive forces decreased during walking and did not change during running. Stride time increased and hip extensor angular impulse and positive work increased as mass was added for both styles of locomotion. Work increased at a greater rate during running than walking. The adaptations to additional mass that occur during walking are different than during running. Increasing mass during exercise in microgravity may be beneficial to increasing ground reaction forces during walking and strengthening hip musculature during both walking and running. Future study in true microgravity is required to determine if the adaptations found would be similar in a weightless environment.

  12. Assumptions of Value-Added Models for Estimating School Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean F.; Raudenbush, Stephen W.

    2009-01-01

    The ability of school (or teacher) value-added models to provide unbiased estimates of school (or teacher) effects rests on a set of assumptions. In this article, we identify six assumptions that are required so that the estimands of such models are well defined and the models are able to recover the desired parameters from observable data. These…

  13. Mass-independent isotope effects.

    PubMed

    Buchachenko, Anatoly L

    2013-02-28

    Three fundamental properties of atomic nuclei-mass, spin (and related magnetic moment), and volume-are the source of isotope effects. The mostly deserved and popular, with almost hundred-year history, is the mass-dependent isotope effect. The first mass-independent isotope effect which chemically discriminates isotopes by their nuclear spins and nuclear magnetic moments rather than by their masses was detected in 1976. It was named as the magnetic isotope effect because it is controlled by magnetic interaction, i.e., electron-nuclear hyperfine coupling in the paramagnetic species, the reaction intermediates. The effect follows from the universal physical property of chemical reactions to conserve angular momentum (spin) of electrons and nuclei. It is now detected for oxygen, silicon, sulfur, germanium, tin, mercury, magnesium, calcium, zinc, and uranium in a great variety of chemical and biochemical reactions including those of medical and ecological importance. Another mass-independent isotope effect was detected in 1983 as a deviation of isotopic distribution in reaction products from that which would be expected from the mass-dependent isotope effect. On the physical basis, it is in fact a mass-dependent effect, but it surprisingly results in isotope fractionation which is incompatible with that predicted by traditional mass-dependent effects. It is supposed to be a function of dynamic parameters of reaction and energy relaxation in excited states of products. The third, nuclear volume mass-independent isotope effect is detected in the high-resolution atomic and molecular spectra and in the extraction processes, but there are no unambiguous indications of its importance as an isotope fractionation factor in chemical reactions.

  14. Added effect of heat wave on mortality in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Won Kyung; Lee, Hye Ah; Lim, Youn Hee; Park, Hyesook

    2016-05-01

    A heat wave could increase mortality owing to high temperature. However, little is known about the added (duration) effect of heat wave from the prolonged period of high temperature on mortality and different effect sizes depending on the definition of heat waves and models. A distributed lag non-linear model with a quasi-Poisson distribution was used to evaluate the added effect of heat wave on mortality after adjusting for long-term and intra-seasonal trends and apparent temperature. We evaluated the cumulative relative risk of the added wave effect on mortality on lag days 0-30. The models were constructed using nine definitions of heat wave and two relationships (cubic spline and linear threshold model) between temperature and mortality to leave out the high temperature effect. Further, we performed sensitivity analysis to evaluate the changes in the effect of heat wave on mortality according to the different degrees of freedom for time trend and cubic spline of temperature. We found that heat wave had the added effect from the prolonged period of high temperature on mortality and it was considerable in the aspect of cumulative risk because of the lagged influence. When heat wave was defined with a threshold of 98th percentile temperature and ≥2, 3, and 4 consecutive days, mortality increased by 14.8 % (7.5-22.6, 95 % confidence interval (CI)), 18.1 % (10.8-26.0, 95 % CI), 18.1 % (10.7-25.9, 95 % CI), respectively, in cubic spline model. When it came to the definitions of 90th and 95th percentile, the risk increase in mortality declined to 3.7-5.8 % and 8.6-11.3 %, respectively. This effect was robust to the flexibility of the model for temperature and time trend, while the definitions of a heat wave were critical in estimating its relationship with mortality. This finding could help deepen our understanding and quantifying of the relationship between heat wave and mortality and select an appropriate definition of heat wave and temperature model in the future

  15. Added effect of heat wave on mortality in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won Kyung; Lee, Hye Ah; Lim, Youn Hee; Park, Hyesook

    2016-05-01

    A heat wave could increase mortality owing to high temperature. However, little is known about the added (duration) effect of heat wave from the prolonged period of high temperature on mortality and different effect sizes depending on the definition of heat waves and models. A distributed lag non-linear model with a quasi-Poisson distribution was used to evaluate the added effect of heat wave on mortality after adjusting for long-term and intra-seasonal trends and apparent temperature. We evaluated the cumulative relative risk of the added wave effect on mortality on lag days 0-30. The models were constructed using nine definitions of heat wave and two relationships (cubic spline and linear threshold model) between temperature and mortality to leave out the high temperature effect. Further, we performed sensitivity analysis to evaluate the changes in the effect of heat wave on mortality according to the different degrees of freedom for time trend and cubic spline of temperature. We found that heat wave had the added effect from the prolonged period of high temperature on mortality and it was considerable in the aspect of cumulative risk because of the lagged influence. When heat wave was defined with a threshold of 98th percentile temperature and ≥2, 3, and 4 consecutive days, mortality increased by 14.8 % (7.5-22.6, 95 % confidence interval (CI)), 18.1 % (10.8-26.0, 95 % CI), 18.1 % (10.7-25.9, 95 % CI), respectively, in cubic spline model. When it came to the definitions of 90th and 95th percentile, the risk increase in mortality declined to 3.7-5.8 % and 8.6-11.3 %, respectively. This effect was robust to the flexibility of the model for temperature and time trend, while the definitions of a heat wave were critical in estimating its relationship with mortality. This finding could help deepen our understanding and quantifying of the relationship between heat wave and mortality and select an appropriate definition of heat wave and temperature model in the future

  16. Added effect of heat wave on mortality in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won Kyung; Lee, Hye Ah; Lim, Youn Hee; Park, Hyesook

    2016-05-01

    A heat wave could increase mortality owing to high temperature. However, little is known about the added (duration) effect of heat wave from the prolonged period of high temperature on mortality and different effect sizes depending on the definition of heat waves and models. A distributed lag non-linear model with a quasi-Poisson distribution was used to evaluate the added effect of heat wave on mortality after adjusting for long-term and intra-seasonal trends and apparent temperature. We evaluated the cumulative relative risk of the added wave effect on mortality on lag days 0-30. The models were constructed using nine definitions of heat wave and two relationships (cubic spline and linear threshold model) between temperature and mortality to leave out the high temperature effect. Further, we performed sensitivity analysis to evaluate the changes in the effect of heat wave on mortality according to the different degrees of freedom for time trend and cubic spline of temperature. We found that heat wave had the added effect from the prolonged period of high temperature on mortality and it was considerable in the aspect of cumulative risk because of the lagged influence. When heat wave was defined with a threshold of 98th percentile temperature and ≥2, 3, and 4 consecutive days, mortality increased by 14.8 % (7.5-22.6, 95 % confidence interval (CI)), 18.1 % (10.8-26.0, 95 % CI), 18.1 % (10.7-25.9, 95 % CI), respectively, in cubic spline model. When it came to the definitions of 90th and 95th percentile, the risk increase in mortality declined to 3.7-5.8 % and 8.6-11.3 %, respectively. This effect was robust to the flexibility of the model for temperature and time trend, while the definitions of a heat wave were critical in estimating its relationship with mortality. This finding could help deepen our understanding and quantifying of the relationship between heat wave and mortality and select an appropriate definition of heat wave and temperature model in the future

  17. Higher Daily Energy Expenditure and Respiratory Quotient, Rather Than Fat-Free Mass, Independently Determine Greater ad Libitum Overeating

    PubMed Central

    Thearle, Marie S.; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Body fat-free mass (FFM), energy expenditure (EE), and respiratory quotient (RQ) are known predictors of daily food intake. Because FFM largely determines EE, it is unclear whether body composition per se or the underlying metabolism drives dietary intake. Objective: The objective of the study was to test whether 24-hour measures of EE and RQ and their components influence ad libitum food intake independently of FFM. Design and Participants: One hundred seven healthy individuals (62 males/45 females, 84 Native Americans/23 whites; age 33 ± 8 y; body mass index 33 ± 8 kg/m2; body fat 31% ± 8%) had 24-hour measures of EE in a whole-room indirect calorimeter during energy balance, followed by 3 days of ad libitum food intake using computerized vending machine systems. Body composition was estimated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Main Outcome Measures: FFM, 24-hour EE, RQ, spontaneous physical activity, sleeping EE (sleeping metabolic rate), awake and fed thermogenesis, and ad libitum food intake (INTAKE) were measured. Results: Higher 24-hour RQ (P < .001, partial R2 = 16%) and EE (P = .01, partial R2 = 7%), but not FFM (P = .65), were independent predictors of INTAKE. Mediation analysis demonstrated that 24-hour EE is responsible for 80% of the FFM effect on INTAKE (44.5 ± 16.9 kcal ingested per kilogram of FFM, P= .01), whereas the unique effect due to solely FFM was negligible (10.6 ± 23.2, P = .65). Spontaneous physical activity (r = 0.33, P = .001), but not sleeping metabolic rate (P = .71), positively predicted INTAKE, whereas higher awake and fed thermogenesis determined greater INTAKE only in subjects with a body mass index of 29 kg/m2 or less (r = 0.44, P = .01). Conclusions: EE and RQ, rather than FFM, independently determine INTAKE, suggesting that competitive energy-sensing mechanisms driven by the preferential macronutrient oxidation and total energy demands may regulate food intake. PMID:26086330

  18. Comparison between overweight due to pregnancy and due to added weight to simulate body mass distribution in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Liliana; Santos-Rocha, Rita; Vieira, Filomena; Branco, Marco; Andrade, Carlos; Veloso, António

    2015-10-01

    The assessment of biomechanical loading in the musculoskeletal system of the pregnant women is particularly interesting since they are subject to morphological, physiological and hormonal changes, which may lead to adaptations in gait. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of the increased mass in the trunk associated to pregnancy on the lower limb and pelvis, during walking, on temporal-distance parameters, joint range of motion and moments of force, by comparing a pregnant women group to a non-pregnant group, and to this group while carrying a 5 kg additional load located in the abdomen and breasts during walking, to understand which gait adaptations may be more related with the increased trunk mass, or if may be more associated with other factors such as the girth of the thigh. The subjects performed a previous 12 min training adaption to the added load. To calculate ankle, knee and hip joint angles and moments of force, a three-dimensional biomechanical model was developed. The inverse dynamics method was used to estimate net joint moments of force. The increased mass of the anterior trunk associated with second trimester of pregnancy may influence some gait variables such as the left step time, left and right stance times, double limb support time, maximum hip extension, maximum pelvic right obliquity, pelvic obliquity range of motion, maximum transversal left rotation and peak hip flexion moments of force.

  19. An added-mass partition algorithm for fluid-structure interactions of compressible fluids and nonlinear solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, J. W.; Henshaw, W. D.; Kapila, A. K.; Schwendeman, D. W.

    2016-01-01

    We describe an added-mass partitioned (AMP) algorithm for solving fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems involving inviscid compressible fluids interacting with nonlinear solids that undergo large rotations and displacements. The computational approach is a mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian scheme that makes use of deforming composite grids (DCG) to treat large changes in the geometry in an accurate, flexible, and robust manner. The current work extends the AMP algorithm developed in Banks et al. [1] for linearly elasticity to the case of nonlinear solids. To ensure stability for the case of light solids, the new AMP algorithm embeds an approximate solution of a nonlinear fluid-solid Riemann (FSR) problem into the interface treatment. The solution to the FSR problem is derived and shown to be of a similar form to that derived for linear solids: the state on the interface being fundamentally an impedance-weighted average of the fluid and solid states. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the AMP algorithm is stable even for light solids when added-mass effects are large. The accuracy and stability of the AMP scheme is verified by comparison to an exact solution using the method of analytical solutions and to a semi-analytical solution that is obtained for a rotating solid disk immersed in a fluid. The scheme is applied to the simulation of a planar shock impacting a light elliptical-shaped solid, and comparisons are made between solutions of the FSI problem for a neo-Hookean solid, a linearly elastic solid, and a rigid solid. The ability of the approach to handle large deformations is demonstrated for a problem of a high-speed flow past a light, thin, and flexible solid beam.

  20. Effect of intellectual enrichment on AD biomarker trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Lesnick, Timothy G.; Przybelski, Scott A.; Knopman, David S.; Machulda, Mary; Lowe, Val J.; Mielke, Michelle M.; Roberts, Rosebud O.; Gunter, Jeffrey L.; Senjem, Matthew L.; Geda, Yonas E.; Rocca, Walter A.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Jack, Clifford R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of age, sex, APOE4 genotype, and lifestyle enrichment (education/occupation, midlife cognitive activity, and midlife physical activity) on Alzheimer disease (AD) biomarker trajectories using longitudinal imaging data (brain β-amyloid load via Pittsburgh compound B PET and neurodegeneration via 18fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET and structural MRI) in an elderly population without dementia. Methods: In the population-based longitudinal Mayo Clinic Study of Aging, we studied 393 participants without dementia (340 clinically normal, 53 mild cognitive impairment; 70 years and older) who had cognitive and physical activity measures and at least 2 visits with imaging biomarkers. We dichotomized participants into high (≥14 years) and low (<14 years) education levels using the median. For the entire cohort and the 2 education strata, we built linear mixed models to investigate the effect of the predictors on each of the biomarker outcomes. Results: Age was associated with amyloid and neurodegeneration trajectories; APOE4 status appears to influence only the amyloid and FDG trajectories but not hippocampal volume trajectory. In the high-education stratum, high midlife cognitive activity was associated with lower amyloid deposition in APOE4 carriers. APOE4 status was associated with lower FDG uptake in the entire cohort and in participants with lower education but not the high-education cohort. Conclusions: There were minimal effects of lifestyle enrichment on AD biomarker trajectories (specifically rates). Lifetime intellectual enrichment (high education, high midlife cognitive activity) is associated with lower amyloid in APOE4 carriers. High education is protective from the APOE4 effect on FDG metabolism. Differing education levels may explain the conflicting results seen in the literature. PMID:26911640

  1. Effects of message framing and visual-fear appeals on smoker responses to antismoking ads.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jungsuk; Lin, Carolyn A

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of antismoking ads on Korean adult male smokers. An experiment was conducted to explore how message framing and visual-fear appeals embedded in antismoking ads may influence ad-evoked fear, threat appraisals, and intention to quit smoking. Results showed that (a) antismoking ad exposure increased ad-evoked fear and cessation intention; (b) optimistic bias was stronger when the visual-fear appeal was absent in antismoking ads; and

  2. Effects of message framing and visual-fear appeals on smoker responses to antismoking ads.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jungsuk; Lin, Carolyn A

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of antismoking ads on Korean adult male smokers. An experiment was conducted to explore how message framing and visual-fear appeals embedded in antismoking ads may influence ad-evoked fear, threat appraisals, and intention to quit smoking. Results showed that (a) antismoking ad exposure increased ad-evoked fear and cessation intention; (b) optimistic bias was stronger when the visual-fear appeal was absent in antismoking ads; and PMID:25868549

  3. Cost-effective advertising through TV and newspaper "banner" ads.

    PubMed

    Gombeski, William R; Taylor, Jan; Krauss, Katie; Medeiros, Clayton

    2003-01-01

    Banner ads, small strip ads in newspapers used to specifically promote an information piece, were introduced into one newspaper in the Connecticut market in 1999 by Yale-New Haven Hospital (YNHH). Based on their success, the concept was expanded to six additional newspapers in late 2000 and to TV in the summer of 2001. Between 2000-2002, even as the overall marketing/advertising budget declined 30%, switching advertising dollars from image/display ads to banner ads resulted in consumer awareness of YNHH increasing from 29% to 42%. Perception of YNHH as "the advanced medicine" hospital grew from 22% to 40% during the same period. The specific strategic and operational actions generated since the implementation of the program are detailed and the advantages and disadvantages of this banner advertising approach are discussed. Banner ads may offer an alternative approach for organizations to advertise their products and programs.

  4. Effective Masses of Vector Polarons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foell, Charles; Clougherty, Dennis

    2006-03-01

    We consider the vector polarons of a one-dimensional model of an electron in a doubly (or nearly) degenerate band that couples to two elastic distortions, as described previously by Clougherty and Foell [1]. A variational approach is used to analytically and numerically calculate effective masses of the three types of vector polarons. [1] D. P. Clougherty and C. A. Foell, Phys. Rev. B 70, 052301 (2004).

  5. Model of neutrino effective masses

    SciTech Connect

    Dinh Nguyen Dinh; Nguyen Thi Hong Van; Nguyen Anh Ky; Phi Quang Van

    2006-10-01

    It is shown that an effective (nonrenormalizable) coupling of lepton multiplets to scalar triplets in the 331 model with sterile/exotic neutrinos, can be a good way for generating neutrino masses of different types. The method is simple and avoids radiative/loop calculations which, sometimes, are long and complicated. Basing on some astrophysical arguments it is also stated that the scale of SU(3){sub L} symmetry breaking is at TeV scale, in agreement with earlier investigations. Or equivalently, starting from this symmetry breaking scale we could have sterile/exotic neutrinos with mass of a few keV's which could be used to explain several astrophysical and cosmological puzzles, such as the dark matter, the fast motion of the observed pulsars, the re-ionization of the Universe, etc.

  6. The Effective Mass of a Ball in the Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messer, J.; Pantaleone, J.

    2010-01-01

    The air surrounding a projectile affects the projectile's motion in three very different ways: the drag force, the buoyant force, and the added mass. The added mass is an increase in the projectile's inertia from the motion of the air around it. Here we experimentally measure the added mass of a spherical projectile in air. The results agree well…

  7. Effective mass of holographic Brownian particle in rotating plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atmaja, A. Nata; Kassim, H. Abu; Yusof, N.

    2015-04-01

    The dynamics of string fluctuations under a rotating Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole is studied using the method developed in Son and Teaney [J. High Energy Phys. 07 (2009) 021]. We compare our result with the one computed previously in Atmaja [J. High Energy Phys. 02 (2013) 021], using a different method as developed in de Boer et al. [J. High Energy Phys. 07 (2009) 094] for the case of a corotating string. The result supports the claim made in Atmaja [J. High Energy Phys. 02 (2013) 021] that the end of the string, which is identified as an external quark at the boundary, behaves as a Brownian particle with the mass is given by an effective mass parameter Meff equals to the zero-temperature mass of an external quark M0 times the cube of a Lorentz factor γ . Furthermore, we extend the computation to a higher dimensional rotating AdS black hole, where the metric is effectively asymptotic to AdS3 and the fluctuation is taken only along the corotating motion. It turns out that the effective mass of the external quark has a universal form of Meff=γ3M0 .

  8. Maintained total body water content and serum sodium concentrations despite body mass loss in female ultra-runners drinking ad libitum during a 100 km race.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Senn, Oliver; Imoberdorf, Reinhard; Joleska, Irena; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We investigated in 11 female ultra-runners during a 100 km ultra-run, the association between fluid intake and prevalence of exercise-associated hyponatremia in a cross-sectional study. Athletes drank ad libitum and recorded their fluid intake. They competed at 8.0 (1.0) km/h and finished within 762 (91) min. Fluid intake was 4.1 (1.3) L during the race, equal to 0.3 (0.1) L/h. Body mass decreased by 1.5 kg (p< 0.01); pre race body mass was related to speed in the race (r = -0.78, p< 0.05); and change (Delta) in body mass was not associated with speed in the race. Change in body mass was positively (r = 0.70; p< 0.05), and Delta urinary specific gravity negatively (r = -0.67; p< 0.05), correlated to Delta percent total body water. Changes in body mass were not related to fluid intake during the race. Fluid intake was not correlated to running speed and showed no association with either Delta percent total body water nor Delta [Na] in plasma. Fluid intake showed no relationship with both Delta haematocrit and Delta plasma volume. No exercise-associated hyponatremia occurred. Female ultra- runners consuming fluids ad libitum during the race experienced no fluid overload, and ad libitum drinking protects against exercise-associated hyponatremia. The reported higher incidence of exercise-associated hyponatremia in women is not really a gender effect but due to women being more prone to overdrink. PMID:20199991

  9. Rotating thin shells in (2 + 1)-dimensional asymptotically AdS spacetimes: Mechanical properties, machian effects, and energy conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemos, José P. S.; Lopes, Francisco J.; Minamitsuji, Masato

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, a rotating thin shell in a (2 + 1)-dimensional asymptotically AdS spacetime is studied. The spacetime exterior to the shell is the rotating BTZ spacetime and the interior is the empty spacetime with a cosmological constant. Through the Einstein equation in (2 + 1) dimensions and the corresponding junction conditions we calculate the dynamical relevant quantities, namely, the rest energy-density, the pressure, and the angular momentum flux density. We also analyze the matter in a frame where its energy-momentum tensor has a perfect fluid form. In addition, we show that Machian effects, such as the dragging of inertial frames, also occur in rotating (2 + 1)-dimensional spacetimes. The weak and the dominant energy condition for these shells are discussed.

  10. Spatial and temporal distribution of mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet since AD 1900.

    PubMed

    Kjeldsen, Kristian K; Korsgaard, Niels J; Bjørk, Anders A; Khan, Shfaqat A; Box, Jason E; Funder, Svend; Larsen, Nicolaj K; Bamber, Jonathan L; Colgan, William; van den Broeke, Michiel; Siggaard-Andersen, Marie-Louise; Nuth, Christopher; Schomacker, Anders; Andresen, Camilla S; Willerslev, Eske; Kjær, Kurt H

    2015-12-17

    The response of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) to changes in temperature during the twentieth century remains contentious, largely owing to difficulties in estimating the spatial and temporal distribution of ice mass changes before 1992, when Greenland-wide observations first became available. The only previous estimates of change during the twentieth century are based on empirical modelling and energy balance modelling. Consequently, no observation-based estimates of the contribution from the GIS to the global-mean sea level budget before 1990 are included in the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Here we calculate spatial ice mass loss around the entire GIS from 1900 to the present using aerial imagery from the 1980s. This allows accurate high-resolution mapping of geomorphic features related to the maximum extent of the GIS during the Little Ice Age at the end of the nineteenth century. We estimate the total ice mass loss and its spatial distribution for three periods: 1900-1983 (75.1 ± 29.4 gigatonnes per year), 1983-2003 (73.8 ± 40.5 gigatonnes per year), and 2003-2010 (186.4 ± 18.9 gigatonnes per year). Furthermore, using two surface mass balance models we partition the mass balance into a term for surface mass balance (that is, total precipitation minus total sublimation minus runoff) and a dynamic term. We find that many areas currently undergoing change are identical to those that experienced considerable thinning throughout the twentieth century. We also reveal that the surface mass balance term shows a considerable decrease since 2003, whereas the dynamic term is constant over the past 110 years. Overall, our observation-based findings show that during the twentieth century the GIS contributed at least 25.0 ± 9.4 millimetres of global-mean sea level rise. Our result will help to close the twentieth-century sea level budget, which remains crucial for evaluating the reliability of models used to

  11. Spatial and temporal distribution of mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet since AD 1900.

    PubMed

    Kjeldsen, Kristian K; Korsgaard, Niels J; Bjørk, Anders A; Khan, Shfaqat A; Box, Jason E; Funder, Svend; Larsen, Nicolaj K; Bamber, Jonathan L; Colgan, William; van den Broeke, Michiel; Siggaard-Andersen, Marie-Louise; Nuth, Christopher; Schomacker, Anders; Andresen, Camilla S; Willerslev, Eske; Kjær, Kurt H

    2015-12-17

    The response of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) to changes in temperature during the twentieth century remains contentious, largely owing to difficulties in estimating the spatial and temporal distribution of ice mass changes before 1992, when Greenland-wide observations first became available. The only previous estimates of change during the twentieth century are based on empirical modelling and energy balance modelling. Consequently, no observation-based estimates of the contribution from the GIS to the global-mean sea level budget before 1990 are included in the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Here we calculate spatial ice mass loss around the entire GIS from 1900 to the present using aerial imagery from the 1980s. This allows accurate high-resolution mapping of geomorphic features related to the maximum extent of the GIS during the Little Ice Age at the end of the nineteenth century. We estimate the total ice mass loss and its spatial distribution for three periods: 1900-1983 (75.1 ± 29.4 gigatonnes per year), 1983-2003 (73.8 ± 40.5 gigatonnes per year), and 2003-2010 (186.4 ± 18.9 gigatonnes per year). Furthermore, using two surface mass balance models we partition the mass balance into a term for surface mass balance (that is, total precipitation minus total sublimation minus runoff) and a dynamic term. We find that many areas currently undergoing change are identical to those that experienced considerable thinning throughout the twentieth century. We also reveal that the surface mass balance term shows a considerable decrease since 2003, whereas the dynamic term is constant over the past 110 years. Overall, our observation-based findings show that during the twentieth century the GIS contributed at least 25.0 ± 9.4 millimetres of global-mean sea level rise. Our result will help to close the twentieth-century sea level budget, which remains crucial for evaluating the reliability of models used to

  12. Virtual mass effect in dynamic micromechanical mass sensing in liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peiker, P.; Oesterschulze, E.

    2016-06-01

    Weighing individual micro- or nanoscale particles in solution using dynamic micromechanical sensors is quite challenging: viscous losses dramatically degrade the sensor's performance by both broadening the resonance peak and increasing the effective total mass of the resonator by the dragged liquid. While the virtual mass of the resonator was discussed frequently, little attention has been paid to the virtual mass of particles attached to the resonator's surface and its impact on the accuracy of mass sensing. By means of the in situ detection of a polystyrene microbead in water using a bridge-based microresonator, we demonstrate that the virtual mass of the bead significantly affects the observed frequency shift. In fact, 55 % of the frequency shift was caused by the virtual mass of the adsorbed bead, predicted by Stoke's theory. Based on the observed shift in the resonator's quality factor during particle adsorption, we confirm this significant effect of the virtual mass. Thus, a quantitative analysis of the mass of a single adsorbed particle is strongly diminished if dynamic micromechanical sensors are operated in a liquid environment.

  13. The effect of added dimensionality on perceived image value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnand, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Texture is an important element of the world around us. It can convey information about the object at hand. Although embossing has been used in a limited way, to enhance the appearance of greeting cards and book covers for example, texture is something that printed material traditionally lacks. Recently, techniques have been developed that allow the incorporation of texture in printed material. Prints made using such processes are similar to traditional 2D prints but have added texture such that a reproduction of an oil painting can have the texture of oil paint on canvas or a picture of a lizard can actually have the texture of lizard skin. It seems intuitive that the added dimensionality would add to the perceived quality of the image, but to what degree? To examine the question of the impact of a third dimension on the perceived quality of printed images, a survey was conducted asking participants to determine the relative worth of sets of print products. Pairs of print products were created, where one print of each pair was 2D and the other was the same image with added texture. Using these print pairs, thirty people from the Rochester Institute of Technology community were surveyed. The participants were shown seven pairs of print products and asked to rate the relative value of each pair by apportioning a specified amount of money between the two items according to their perception of what each item was worth. The results indicated that the addition of a third dimension or texture to the printed images gave a clear boost to the perceived worth of the printed products. The rating results were 50% higher for the 3D products than the 2D products, with the participants apportioning approximately 60% of each dollar to the 3D product and 40% to the 2D product. About 80% of the time participants felt that the 3D items had at least some added value over their 2D counterparts, about 15% of the time, they felt the products were essentially equivalent in value and 4% of

  14. Effective Theories of Neutrino Masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavela, M. B.

    2013-02-01

    The importance of improving the bounds on those effective non-standard neutrino interactions (NSI) which are a signal of all fermionic-mediated Seesaws is stressed: they are revealed as non-unitarity of the leptonic mixing matrix, and at experimental reach for seesaw scales ⩽ O(TeV). Some recent activity in the literature on other - theoretically not well motivated - ill-constrained NSI are also summarized. Furthermore, the status of the simplest Seesaw scenario with only two heavy neutrinos is reviewed. This model happens to be a explicit realization of the effective Minimal Flavour Violation approach. We derive the scalar potential for the fields whose background values are the Yukawa couplings of that model, and explore its minima. The Majorana character plays a distinctive role: the minimum of the potential allows for large mixing angles - in contrast to the simplest quark case - and predicts a maximal Majorana phase. This points in turn to a strong correlation between neutrino mass hierarchy and mixing pattern.

  15. Quark mass effect on axial charge dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Er-dong; Lin, Shu

    2016-05-01

    We studied the effect of finite quark mass on the dynamics of the axial charge using the D3/D7 model in holography. The mass term in the axial anomaly equation affects both the fluctuation (generation) and dissipation of the axial charge. We studied the dependence of the effect on quark mass and an external magnetic field. For axial charge generation, we calculated the mass diffusion rate, which characterizes the helicity flipping rate. The rate is a nonmonotonous function of mass and can be significantly enhanced by the magnetic field. The diffusive behavior is also related to a divergent susceptibility of the axial charge. For axial charge dissipation, we found that in the long time limit, the mass term dissipates all the charge effectively generated by parallel electric and magnetic fields. The result is consistent with a relaxation time approximation. The rate of dissipation through mass term is a monotonous increasing function of both quark mass and a magnetic field.

  16. Evaluation of the added mass for a spheroid-type unmanned underwater vehicle by vertical planar motion mechanism test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seong-Keon; Joung, Tae-Hwan; Cheon, Se-Jong; Jang, Taek-Soo; Lee, Jeong-Hee

    2011-09-01

    This paper shows added mass and inertia can be acquired from the pure heaving motion and pure pitching motion respectively. A Vertical Planar Motion Mechanism (VPMM) test for the spheroid-type Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (UUV) was compared with a theoretical calculation and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis in this paper. The VPMM test has been carried out at a towing tank with specially manufactured equipment. The linear equations of motion on the vertical plane were considered for theoretical calculation, and CFD results were obtained by commercial CFD package. The VPMM test results show good agreement with theoretical calculations and the CFD results, so that the applicability of the VPMM equipment for an underwater vehicle can be verified with a sufficient accuracy.

  17. The effect of nanoparticles added to heated micropolar fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nering, Konrad; Rup, Kazimierz

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents an analysis of momentum, angular momentum and heat transfer during the unsteady natural convection in micropolar nanofluids. Presented phenomena are modelled in the vicinity of a vertical plate and heat flux which rises suddenly at a given moment, using the boundary layer concept. Differential equations of angular momentum conservation are used according to the theory of micropolar fluids developed by Eringen. Finite difference method is used to solve the equations for conservation of mass, energy, momentum and angular momentum. Selected nanofluids treated as single phase fluids contain small particles with diameter size d = 10 nm and d = 38.4 nm. In particular, two ethylene glycol based nanofluids and one water-based nanofluid are analysed. Volume fraction of these solutions is 6%. First ethylene glycol solution contain Al2 O3 nanoparticles (d = 38.4 nm), and the second ethylene glycol solution contained Cu nanoparticles (d = 10 nm). Water based nanofluid contain Al2 O3 nanoparticles (d = 38.4 nm). As a result of solving conservation equations, unsteady velocity field (U, V), temperature (T), microrotation component normal to (x, y) plane (N), velocity gradient ∂U/∂Y and temperature gradient ∂T/∂Y are obtained. These results are compared to theoretical and experimental results presented in literature. At the end of this paper, heat transfer enhancement for analysed nanofluids is estimated.

  18. Mass Fractionation Laws, Mass-Independent Effects, and Isotopic Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauphas, Nicolas; Schauble, Edwin A.

    2016-06-01

    Isotopic variations usually follow mass-dependent fractionation, meaning that the relative variations in isotopic ratios scale with the difference in mass of the isotopes involved (e.g., δ17O ≈ 0.5×δ18O). In detail, however, the mass dependence of isotopic variations is not always the same, and different natural processes can define distinct slopes in three-isotope diagrams. These variations are subtle, but improvements in analytical capabilities now allow precise measurement of these effects and make it possible to draw inferences about the natural processes that caused them (e.g., reaction kinetics versus equilibrium isotope exchange). Some elements, in some sample types, do not conform to the regularities of mass-dependent fractionation. Oxygen and sulfur display a rich phenomenology of mass-independent fractionation, documented in the laboratory, in the rock record, and in the modern atmosphere. Oxygen in meteorites shows isotopic variations that follow a slope-one line (δ17O ≈ δ18O) whose origin may be associated with CO photodissociation. Sulfur mass-independent fractionation in ancient sediments provides the tightest constraint on the oxygen partial pressure in the Archean and the timing of Earth's surface oxygenation. Heavier elements also show departures from mass fractionation that can be ascribed to exotic effects associated with chemical reactions such as magnetic effects (e.g., Hg) or the nuclear field shift effect (e.g., U or Tl). Some isotopic variations in meteorites and their constituents cannot be related to the terrestrial composition by any known process, including radiogenic, nucleogenic, and cosmogenic effects. Those variations have a nucleosynthetic origin, reflecting the fact that the products of stellar nucleosynthesis were not fully homogenized when the Solar System formed. Those anomalies are found at all scales, from nanometer-sized presolar grains to bulk terrestrial planets. They can be used to learn about stellar

  19. Effects of Adding Nanoparticles on Boiling and Condensing Heat Transfer inside a horizontal round tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikholeslami, Mohsen; Sadoughi, Mohammadkazem; Shariatmadar, Hamed; Akhavan-Behabadi, Mohammad Ali

    2015-11-01

    An experimental investigation is performed on heat transfer evaluation of a nano-refrigerant flow during condensation and evaporation inside a horizontal round tube. Experiments are carried out for three working fluid types including: i) pure refrigerant (R600a); ii) refrigerant/lubricant (R600a/oil); and iii) nano-refrigerant: refrigerant/lubricant/nanoparticles (R600a/oil/CuO). Nanoparticles are added to the lubricant and their mixture is mixed with pure refrigerant. Therefore, nano-refrigerants (R600a/oil/CuO) are prepared by dispersing CuO nanoparticles with different fractions of 0.5%, 1% and 1.5% in the baseline mixture (R600a/oil). Effects of different factors including vapor quality, mass flux, and nanoparticles on the heat transfer coefficient are examined for both of condensation and evaporation flows, separately. The results shows that maximum heat transfer augmentation of 79% and 83% are achieved by using the refrigerant/lubricant/nanoparticles mixture, in comparison with the pure refrigerant case in condensation and evaporation, respectively which are occurred for nano-refrigerant with 1.5% mass fraction in both of them.

  20. Effects of added polyacrylamide on changes in water states during the composting of kitchen waste.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu-Qiang; Chen, Zhuo-Xian; Zhang, Xue-Qing; Hu, Li-Fang; Shen, Dong-Sheng; Long, Yu-Yang

    2015-02-01

    The effects of adding polyacrylamide (PAM), to attempt to delay the loss of capillary water and achieve a better level of organic matter humification, in the composting of kitchen waste were evaluated. Four treatments, with initial moisture content of 60 % were used: 0.1 % PAM added before the start of composting (R1), 0.1 % PAM added when the thermophilic phase of composting became stable (at >50 °C) (R2), 0.1 % PAM added when the moisture content significantly decreased (R3), and no PAM added (R4). The introduction of PAM in R1 and R2 significantly increased the capillary force and delayed the loss of moisture content and capillary water. The introduction of PAM in R2 and R3 improved the composting process, in terms of the degradation of biochemical fractions and the humification degree. These results show that the optimal time for adding PAM was the initial stage of the thermophilic phase.

  1. Evaluating Special Educator Effectiveness: Addressing Issues Inherent to Value-Added Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinbrecher, Trisha D.; Selig, James P.; Cosbey, Joanna; Thorstensen, Beata I.

    2014-01-01

    States are increasingly using value-added approaches to evaluate teacher effectiveness. There is much debate regarding whether these methods should be employed and, if employed, what role such methods should play in comprehensive teacher evaluation systems. In this article, we consider the use of value-added modeling (VAM) to evaluate special…

  2. The Reliability, Impact, and Cost-Effectiveness of Value-Added Teacher Assessment Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Stuart S.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews evidence regarding the intertemporal reliability of teacher rankings based on value-added methods. Value-added methods exhibit low reliability, yet are broadly supported by prominent educational researchers and are increasingly being used to evaluate and fire teachers. The article then presents a cost-effectiveness analysis…

  3. Test Score or Student Progress? A Value-Added Evaluation of School Effectiveness in Urban China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peng, Pai; Hochweber, Jan; Klieme, Eckhard

    2013-01-01

    Outcome-oriented evaluation of school effectiveness is often based on student test scores in certain critical examinations. This study provides another method of evaluation--value-added--which is based on student achievement progress. This paper introduces the method of estimating the value-added score of schools in multi-level models. Based on…

  4. The Added Value of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Interventions to Mass Drug Administration for Reducing the Prevalence of Trachoma: A Systematic Review Examining

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Stephanie L.

    2013-01-01

    Trachoma is the leading cause of infectious blindness worldwide. The SAFE strategy, the World Health Organization-recommended method to eliminate blinding trachoma, combines developments in water, sanitation, surgery, and antibiotic treatment. Current literature does not focus on the comprehensive effect these components have on one another. The present systematic review analyzes the added benefit of water, sanitation, and hygiene education interventions to preventive mass drug administration of azithromycin for trachoma. Trials were identified from the PubMed database using a series of search terms. Three studies met the complete criteria for inclusion. Though all studies found a significant change in reduction of active trachoma prevalence, the research is still too limited to suggest the impact of the “F” and “E” components on trachoma prevalence and ultimately its effects on blindness. PMID:23990843

  5. Effect of massing on larval growth rate.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Aidan P; Wallman, James F

    2014-08-01

    Estimation of minimum postmortem interval commonly relies on predicting the age of blowfly larvae based on their size and an estimate of the temperatures to which they have been exposed throughout their development. The majority of larval growth rate data have been developed using small larval masses in order to avoid excess heat generation. The current study collected growth rate data for larvae at different mass volumes, and assessed the temperature production of these masses, for two forensically important blow fly species, Chrysomya rufifacies and Calliphora vicina. The growth rate of larvae in a small mass, exposed to the higher temperatures equivalent to those experienced by large masses, was also assessed to determine if observed differences were due to the known temperature effects of maggot masses. The results showed that temperature production increased with increasing mass volume, with temperature increases of 11 °C observed in the large Ch. rufifacies masses and increases of 5 °C in the large C. vicina masses. Similarly, the growth rate of the larvae was affected by mass size. The larvae from small masses grown at the higher temperatures experienced by large masses displayed an initial delay in growth, but then grew at a similar rate to those larvae at a constant 23 °C. Since these larvae from masses of equivalent sizes displayed similar patterns of growth rate, despite differing temperatures, and these growth rates differed from larger masses exposed to the same temperatures, it can be concluded that larval growth rate within a mass may be affected by additional factors other than temperature. Overall, this study highlights the importance of understanding the role of massing in larval development and provides initial developmental data for mass sizes of two forensically important blowfly species commonly encountered in Australian forensic casework.

  6. Effective Mass of an Oscillating Spring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Eduardo E.; Gesnouin, Gabriel A.

    2007-01-01

    We present an experimental method to obtain the effective mass of an unloaded oscillating spring. We measure the period "T"("n") of the partial springs that result when hanging "n" of the total "N" coils of a given spring. Data are correlated with the expectation of a simple model for "T"("n") that takes into account the effective mass of the…

  7. Sleep duration modifies effects of free ad libitum school meals on adiposity and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Hjorth, Mads F; Sjödin, Anders; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Michaelsen, Kim F; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Andersen, Rikke; Ritz, Christian; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Astrup, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient sleep can potentially affect both energy intake and energy expenditure, resulting in obesity and reduced cardiometabolic health. The objective of the study was to investigate if habitual sleep duration of 8- to 11-year-olds modifies the effect of free ad libitum school meals on cardiometabolic markers, body composition, dietary intake, and physical activity. For 2 consecutive 3-month periods, this cluster-randomized, controlled, cross-over trial provided 530 children with school meals or usual lunch brought from home. Dietary intake, activity, and sleep were measured simultaneously for 7 consecutive days using dietary records and accelerometers. Short- and long-sleeping children were defined as lower and upper tertile of sleep duration. Body composition, blood pressure, blood lipids, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMAIR) were measured/calculated. Overall, school meals compared with lunch from home had positive effects on physical activity and blood pressure in long-sleeping children and negative effects on body fat in short-sleeping children. Short-sleeping children increased fat mass compared with long-sleeping children by 0.21 (95% confidence interval 0.03-0.38) kg, android fat mass by 0.02 (0.001-0.04) kg, waist circumference by 0.73 (0.23-1.24) cm, blood pressure by 1.5 (0.4-2.6) mm Hg, fat intake by 1.1 (0.2-2.0) percentage of energy, and decreased total physical activity by 7.2 (1.6-12.7) % (all P ≤ 0.04), while HOMAIR and blood lipids were not modified by sleep duration (all P ≥ 0.32). In conclusion, the susceptibility to increase abdominal adiposity and blood pressure when exposed to dietary changes can potentially be explained by too little sleep, which results in increased caloric intake and reduced physical activity. PMID:26647154

  8. Sleep duration modifies effects of free ad libitum school meals on adiposity and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Hjorth, Mads F; Sjödin, Anders; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Michaelsen, Kim F; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Andersen, Rikke; Ritz, Christian; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Astrup, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient sleep can potentially affect both energy intake and energy expenditure, resulting in obesity and reduced cardiometabolic health. The objective of the study was to investigate if habitual sleep duration of 8- to 11-year-olds modifies the effect of free ad libitum school meals on cardiometabolic markers, body composition, dietary intake, and physical activity. For 2 consecutive 3-month periods, this cluster-randomized, controlled, cross-over trial provided 530 children with school meals or usual lunch brought from home. Dietary intake, activity, and sleep were measured simultaneously for 7 consecutive days using dietary records and accelerometers. Short- and long-sleeping children were defined as lower and upper tertile of sleep duration. Body composition, blood pressure, blood lipids, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMAIR) were measured/calculated. Overall, school meals compared with lunch from home had positive effects on physical activity and blood pressure in long-sleeping children and negative effects on body fat in short-sleeping children. Short-sleeping children increased fat mass compared with long-sleeping children by 0.21 (95% confidence interval 0.03-0.38) kg, android fat mass by 0.02 (0.001-0.04) kg, waist circumference by 0.73 (0.23-1.24) cm, blood pressure by 1.5 (0.4-2.6) mm Hg, fat intake by 1.1 (0.2-2.0) percentage of energy, and decreased total physical activity by 7.2 (1.6-12.7) % (all P ≤ 0.04), while HOMAIR and blood lipids were not modified by sleep duration (all P ≥ 0.32). In conclusion, the susceptibility to increase abdominal adiposity and blood pressure when exposed to dietary changes can potentially be explained by too little sleep, which results in increased caloric intake and reduced physical activity.

  9. Effect of the transverse parasitic mode on beam performance for the ADS driver linac in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Peng; Pei, Shi-Lun; Wang, Jiu-Qing; Li, Zhi-Hui

    2015-05-01

    The ADS (Accelerator Driven subcritical System) driver linac in China is designed to run in CW (Continuous Wave) mode with 10 mA designed beam current. In this scenario, the beam-induced parasitic modes in the ADS driver linac may make the beam unstable or deteriorate the beam performance. To evaluate the parasitic mode effect on the beam dynamics systematically, simulation studies using the ROOT-based numerical code SMD have been conducted. The longitudinal beam instability induced by the HOMs (High Order Modes) and SOMs (Same Order Modes) has little effect on the longitudinal beam performance for the current ADS driver linac design based on the 10 MeV/325 MHz injector I from previous studies. Here the transverse parasitic mode (i.e., dipole HOM) effect on the transverse beam performance at the ADS driver linac exit is investigated. To more reasonably quantify the dipole mode effect, the multi-bunch effective emittance is introduced in this paper.

  10. Mass movement deposit and Tsunami in Lake Geneva (Switzerland-France) caused by a rockslide in 563 AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremer, K.; Simpson, G.; Girardclos, S.

    2012-04-01

    Steep continental margins are known to collapse, producing submarine landslides that can generate Tsunamis. At smaller scale, the same can happen in lake basins. Lake sediments are excellent archives of such events. The study of mass movement deposits in lake sediments allows a better knowledge of past natural hazards in intracontinental regions at historic and prehistoric timescales. In Lake Geneva (Switzerland-France), more than 100 km of high resolution seismic reflection profiles reveal two distinct sequences in the lakes' late Holocene sedimentation history. The first sequence consists mainly of a succession of five large lens-shaped seismic units (A to E), characterized by transparent/chaotic seismic facies with irregular lower boundaries, interpreted as mass-movement deposits. These units are interbedded with parallel, continuous and strong amplitude reflections, interpreted as the 'background' lake sediment. The largest and most recent unit (E) is 5 m thick, covers an area of 50 km2 and has an estimated minimum volume of 0.25 km3, making it the largest sub-lacustrine mass-movement unit in Switzerland. The second sediment sequence consists of 5 m of 'background' seismic facies with parallel geometry, varying at small scale between chaotic/transparent and continuous, high amplitude reflections, which is interpreted as alternating turbidite and hemipelagic layers, respectively. Four 10 m long sediment cores confirm the seismic interpretation and show that the 5 m thick deposit can be described as a co-genetic debrite turbidite (Talling et al., 2004). Radiocarbon dating of plant macro-remains reveals that the unit E deposit may be linked to the Tauredunum rockslide of 563 AD in Rhone delta area. The induced sediment failure in the Rhone delta triggered a tsunami wave destroying parts of the Geneva Burgudian city and other villages at the lake borders as described in historical records. Numerical simulations, based on the shallow water equations, performed here

  11. Value Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UCLA IDEA, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Value added measures (VAM) uses changes in student test scores to determine how much "value" an individual teacher has "added" to student growth during the school year. Some policymakers, school districts, and educational advocates have applauded VAM as a straightforward measure of teacher effectiveness: the better a teacher, the better students…

  12. The effect of marijuana scenes in anti-marijuana public service announcements on adolescents' evaluation of ad effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yahui; Cappella, Joseph N; Fishbein, Martin

    2009-09-01

    This study explored the possible negative impact of a specific ad feature-marijuana scenes-on adolescents' perceptions of ad effectiveness. A secondary data analysis was conducted on adolescents' evaluations of 60 anti-marijuana public service announcements that were a part of national and state anti-drug campaigns directed at adolescents. The major finding of the study was that marijuana scenes in anti-marijuana public service announcements negatively affected ad liking and thought valence toward the ads among adolescents who were at higher levels of risk for marijuana use. This negative impact was not reversed in the presence of strong anti-marijuana arguments. The results may be used to partially explain the lack of effectiveness of the anti-drug media campaign. It may also help researchers design more effective anti-marijuana ads by isolating adverse elements in the ads that may elicit boomerang effects in the target population. PMID:19735026

  13. [Effect of adding amendments on preserving nitrogen during chicken manure and saw composting].

    PubMed

    Huang, Yimei; Qu, Dong; Li, Guoxue

    2003-03-01

    In the automatic aerobic compost device, experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of four amendments on inhibition of nitrogen losses during the chicken manure and saw composting. The changes of chemical parameters, temperature, pH, water soluble ammonium and organic nitrogen, total nitrogen and organic carbon with time during the aerobic composting process were investigated. The results suggested that adding four amendments have certain effect on preserve nitrogen and chemical parameters. Treatments added different amendments all decreased the nitrogen losses and increased the decomposition of organic carbon for 40 days-composting. The effect extent of four amendments was adding peat and superphosphate together > adding peat > adding superphosphate > adding zeolite. Especially adding peat and superphosphate together prolonged the high temperature stage 5 days, decreased the pH 0.89 pH unit in the initial stage and 0.44 pH unit in the high temperature stage during composting, and it decreased the nitrogen losses about 65.1% during the composting. PMID:12800680

  14. Effects of the Mass Media of Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Walter

    The mass media are considered to be television, radio, movies, and newspapers. They may generate changes in cognition and comprehension. They do effect emotional arousal, sex and behavior identification, and changes in allocation of time, consumer purchase, and voting behavior. The only data which show a clear relationship between the mass media…

  15. Finite temperature effect in infrared-improved AdS/QCD model with back reaction of bulk vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Ling-Xiao; Fang, Zhen; Wu, Yue-Liang

    2016-06-01

    Based on an IR-improved soft-wall AdS/QCD model for mesons, which provides a consistent prediction for the mass spectra of resonance scalar, pseudoscalar, vector and axial-vector mesons, we investigate its finite temperature effect. By analyzing the spectral function of mesons and fitting it with a Breit-Wigner form, we perform an analysis for the critical temperature of mesons. The back-reaction effects of bulk vacuum are considered and the thermal mass spectral function of resonance mesons is calculated based on the back-reaction improved action. A reasonable melting temperature is found to be T c ≈ 150 ± 7 MeV, which is consistent with the recent results from lattice QCD simulations. Supported by National Nature Science Foundation of China (NSFC)(10975170, 10905084, 10821504), and Project of Knowledge Innovation Program (PKIP) of Chinese Academy of Science

  16. The effectiveness of coaching for children and teens with AD/HD.

    PubMed

    Sleeper-Triplett, Jodi

    2008-01-01

    Specialized AD/HD coaching can be a helpful service for families and children. Coaching can help children and teens with numerous important yet challenging tasks, such as improving focus, staying on task, managing time, developing organizational skills, strengthening motivation, building self-awareness and confidence, and developing structures and routines to promote success. Readiness for AD/HD coaching is individual and depends on understanding cause and effect. AD/HD coaches work with parents of very young children, with parents and children in the pre-teen years, and directly with teen clients. AD/HD coaching for children and teens can lead to improved family life, better success in school, and optimum readiness for adult life.

  17. Effective vortex mass from microscopic theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jung Hoon; Kim, June Seo; Kim, Min Jae; Ao, Ping

    2005-03-01

    We calculate the effective mass of a single quantized vortex in the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer superconductor at finite temperature. Based on effective action approach, we arrive at the effective mass of a vortex as integral of the spectral function J(ω) divided by ω3 over frequency. The spectral function is given in terms of the quantum-mechanical transition elements of the gradient of the Hamiltonian between two Bogoliubov-deGennes (BdG) eigenstates. Based on self-consistent numerical diagonalization of the BdG equation we find that the effective mass per unit length of vortex at zero temperature is of order m(kfξ0)2 ( kf=Fermi momentum, ξ0=coherence length), essentially equaling the electron mass displaced within the coherence length from the vortex core. Transitions between the core states are responsible for most of the mass. The mass reaches a maximum value at T≈0.5Tc and decreases continuously to zero at Tc .

  18. Mass partitioning effects in diffusion transport.

    PubMed

    Kojic, Milos; Milosevic, Miljan; Wu, Suhong; Blanco, Elvin; Ferrari, Mauro; Ziemys, Arturas

    2015-08-28

    Frequent mass exchange takes place in a heterogeneous environment among several phases, where mass partitioning may occur at the interface of phases. Analytical and computational methods for diffusion do not usually incorporate molecule partitioning masking the true picture of mass transport. Here we present a computational finite element methodology to calculate diffusion mass transport with a partitioning phenomenon included and the analysis of the effects of partitioning. Our numerical results showed that partitioning controls equilibrated mass distribution as expected from analytical solutions. The experimental validation of mass release from drug-loaded nanoparticles showed that partitioning might even dominate in some cases with respect to diffusion itself. The analysis of diffusion kinetics in the parameter space of partitioning and diffusivity showed that partitioning is an extremely important parameter in systems, where mass diffusivity is fast and that the concentration of nanoparticles can control payload retention inside nanoparticles. The computational and experimental results suggest that partitioning and physiochemical properties of phases play an important, if not crucial, role in diffusion transport and should be included in the studies of mass transport processes.

  19. Mass partitioning effects in diffusion transport.

    PubMed

    Kojic, Milos; Milosevic, Miljan; Wu, Suhong; Blanco, Elvin; Ferrari, Mauro; Ziemys, Arturas

    2015-08-28

    Frequent mass exchange takes place in a heterogeneous environment among several phases, where mass partitioning may occur at the interface of phases. Analytical and computational methods for diffusion do not usually incorporate molecule partitioning masking the true picture of mass transport. Here we present a computational finite element methodology to calculate diffusion mass transport with a partitioning phenomenon included and the analysis of the effects of partitioning. Our numerical results showed that partitioning controls equilibrated mass distribution as expected from analytical solutions. The experimental validation of mass release from drug-loaded nanoparticles showed that partitioning might even dominate in some cases with respect to diffusion itself. The analysis of diffusion kinetics in the parameter space of partitioning and diffusivity showed that partitioning is an extremely important parameter in systems, where mass diffusivity is fast and that the concentration of nanoparticles can control payload retention inside nanoparticles. The computational and experimental results suggest that partitioning and physiochemical properties of phases play an important, if not crucial, role in diffusion transport and should be included in the studies of mass transport processes. PMID:26204522

  20. Cobalt concentration effect in Pt 1- xCo x on the reversible potential for forming OH ads from H 2O ads in acid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roques, Jérôme; Anderson, Alfred B.

    2005-05-01

    We present results of a periodic spin-density-functional theory study of the effect of the cobalt concentration in Pt x-1 Co x surfaces on the reversible potential for forming OH(ads) from H 2O(ads). Adsorbed OH is recognized as a poison to oxygen cathodes that contributes to the high O 2 reduction overpotential. Five surface compositions with a cobalt concentration of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% were studied, and these surfaces were covered with a monolayer Pt skin. The OH(ads) formation potential was found to depend significantly on the sub-surface composition. Alloying platinum with cobalt atoms led to an increasingly positive shift of the reversible potential for forming OH(ads), as the amount of cobalt is increased. Beyond 75% cobalt concentration the effect levels off. Experimentally, the Pt 3Co alloy has been well studied and is believed to be covered by a Pt skin and the potential for OH(ads) formation on it, from water oxidation, is shifted positive. The present theoretical results suggest that if Pt skins form on alloys more concentrated in Co than Pt 3Co, the positive shift in the potential for OH(ads) formation will be greater and, on an oxygen cathode in a fuel cell, the overpotential for O 2 reduction will be even less.

  1. Effects of acute exercise on appetite hormones and ad libitum energy intake in men and women.

    PubMed

    Hagobian, Todd Alan; Yamashiro, Megan; Hinkel-Lipsker, Jake; Streder, Katherine; Evero, Nero; Hackney, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Acute exercise suppresses relative energy intake; however, it remains unclear whether this occurs in both men and women exposed to the same relative exercise treatment. Eleven healthy men (22 ± 2 years; 16% ± 6% body fat (BF); 26 ± 4 body mass index (BMI); 42.9 ± 6.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) peak oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]O(2peak))) and 10 healthy women (21 ± 2 years; 24 ± 2 BMI; 23% ± 3% BF; 39.9 ± 5.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) [Formula: see text]O(2peak)) rested for 60 min or exercised on a cycle ergometer at 70% [Formula: see text]O(2peak) until 30% of total daily energy expenditure was expended (men, expenditure = 975 ± 195 kcal in 82 ± 13 min; women, expenditure = 713 ± 86 kcal in 84 ± 17 min) in a counterbalanced, crossover fashion. Appetite hormones and appetite ratings were assessed in response to each condition. Forty minutes after both conditions, ad libitum total and relative energy intake (energy intake minus energy cost of exercise) were assessed at a buffet meal. There was no significant sex or condition effect in appetite hormones (PYY(3-36), acylated ghrelin, insulin) and appetite ratings (hunger, satisfaction, fullness). Total energy intake in men was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in exercise and rest conditions (1648 ± 950, 1216 ± 633 kcal, respectively) compared with women (591 ± 183, 590 ± 231 kcal, respectively). Relative energy intake was significantly lower (P < 0.05) after exercise compared with rest in men (672 ± 827, 1133 ± 619 kcal, respectively) and women (-121 ± 243, 530 ± 233 kcal, respectively). These data highlight the effectiveness of acute exercise to suppress relative energy intake regardless of sex.

  2. Elevated corticosterone levels decrease reproductive output of chick-rearing Adélie penguins but do not affect chick mass at fledging

    PubMed Central

    Thierry, Anne-Mathilde; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Raclot, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Study of physiological mechanisms can help us to understand how animals respond to changing environmental conditions. In particular, stress hormones (i.e. glucocorticoids, such as corticosterone) are described as mediating resource allocation, allowing animals to adjust their physiology and behaviour to predictable and unpredictable changes in the environment. In this study, we investigated the effects of an experimental increase in baseline corticosterone levels on the breeding effort and the reproductive output of chick-rearing male Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae). The number of chicks per nest, their body mass, and their size were monitored throughout the study. Direct observations allowed measurement of the time spent foraging at sea and caring for the young on the nest. At the end of the treatment, blood samples were collected for isotope analysis. Although all birds raised at least one chick, reproductive output was decreased by 42% in corticosterone-treated birds compared with control birds. The increase in corticosterone levels during the guard stage did not affect the mass of surviving chicks or the brood mass at fledging. Corticosterone-treated males spent on average 21% more time at the nest than control birds. However, the duration of foraging trips was similar between both groups. In addition, the similarity of isotopic signatures suggests that both groups foraged at similar locations and ingested the same prey species. The detailed on-land behaviour of birds should be examined in further studies to clarify the possible links between corticosterone levels, brooding time, and reproductive output. Understanding the relationships between glucocorticoids, fitness, and ultimately population dynamics is fundamental to enabling conservation physiology as a discipline to be successful in helping to manage species of conservation concern. PMID:27293591

  3. Orexin receptors exert a neuroprotective effect in Alzheimer's disease (AD) via heterodimerization with GPR103.

    PubMed

    Davies, Julie; Chen, Jing; Pink, Ryan; Carter, David; Saunders, Nigel; Sotiriadis, Georgios; Bai, Bo; Pan, Yanyou; Howlett, David; Payne, Annette; Randeva, Harpal; Karteris, Emmanouil

    2015-01-01

    Orexins are neuropeptides that regulate the sleep-wake cycle and feeding behaviour. QRFP is a newly discovered neuropeptide which exerts similar orexigenic activity, thus playing an important role in energy homeostasis and regulation of appetite. The exact expression and signalling characteristics and physiological actions of QRFP and its receptor GPR103 are poorly understood. Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients experience increased nocturnal activity, excessive daytime sleepiness, and weight loss. We hypothesised therefore that orexins and QRFP might be implicated in the pathophysiology of AD. We report that the down-regulation of hippocampal orexin receptors (OXRs) and GPR103 particularly in the cornu ammonis (CA) subfield from AD patients suffering from early onset familial AD (EOFAD) and late onset familial AD (LOAD). Using an in vitro model we demonstrate that this downregulation is due to to Aβ-plaque formation and tau hyper-phosphorylation. Transcriptomics revealed a neuroprotective role for both orexins and QRFP. Finally we provide conclusive evidence using BRET and FRET that OXRs and GPR103 form functional hetero-dimers to exert their effects involving activation of ERK1/2. Pharmacological intervention directed at the orexigenic system may prove to be an attractive avenue towards the discovery of novel therapeutics for diseases such as AD and improving neuroprotective signalling pathways. PMID:26223541

  4. Dynamical equation of the effective gluon mass

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar, A. C.; Binosi, D.; Papavassiliou, J.

    2011-10-15

    In this article, we derive the integral equation that controls the momentum dependence of the effective gluon mass in the Landau gauge. This is accomplished by means of a well-defined separation of the corresponding ''one-loop dressed'' Schwinger-Dyson equation into two distinct contributions, one associated with the mass and one with the standard kinetic part of the gluon. The entire construction relies on the existence of a longitudinally coupled vertex of nonperturbative origin, which enforces gauge invariance in the presence of a dynamical mass. The specific structure of the resulting mass equation, supplemented by the additional requirement of a positive-definite gluon mass, imposes a rather stringent constraint on the derivative of the gluonic dressing function, which is comfortably satisfied by the large-volume lattice data for the gluon propagator, both for SU(2) and SU(3). The numerical treatment of the mass equation, under some simplifying assumptions, is presented for the aforementioned gauge groups, giving rise to a gluon mass that is a nonmonotonic function of the momentum. Various theoretical improvements and possible future directions are briefly discussed.

  5. Observational effects of a running Planck mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhiqi

    2016-02-01

    We consider observational effects of a running effective Planck mass in the scalar-tensor gravity theory. At the background level, an increasing effective Planck mass allows a larger Hubble constant H0, which is more compatible with the local direct measurements. At the perturbative level, for cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies, an increasing effective Planck mass (i) suppresses the unlensed CMB power at ℓ≲30 via the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect and (ii) enhances CMB lensing power. Both effects slightly relax the tension between the current CMB data from the Planck satellite and the standard Λ CDM model predictions. However, these impacts on the CMB secondary anisotropies are subdominant, and the overall constraints are driven by the background measurements. Combining CMB data from the Planck satellite and an H0 prior from Riess et al., we find a ˜2 σ hint of a positive running of the effective Planck mass. However, the hint goes away when we add other low-redshift observational data including type Ia supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillations, and an estimation of the age of the Universe using the old stars.

  6. Effect of processing and storage on the stability of flaxseed lignan added to dairy products.

    PubMed

    Hyvärinen, Helena K; Pihlava, Juha-Matti; Hiidenhovi, Jaakko A; Hietaniemi, Veli; Korhonen, Hannu J T; Ryhänen, Eeva-Liisa

    2006-11-15

    This study investigated the effects of processing and storage on the stability of purified, flaxseed-derived secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) added to milk prior to the manufacture of different dairy products. We analyzed the effect of high-temperature pasteurization, fermentation, and milk renneting as well as storage on the stability of SDG added to milk, yogurt, and cheese. Also, the stability of SDG in whey-based drinks was studied. Added SDG was found to withstand the studied processes well. In edam cheese manufacture, most of the added SDG was retained in the whey fraction and 6% was found in the cheese curd. SDG was also relatively stable in edam cheese during ripening of 6 weeks at 9 degrees C and in yogurt during storage of 21 days at 4 degrees C. Up to 25% of added SDG was lost in whey-based drinks during storage of 6 months at 8 degrees C. We conclude that SDG can be successfully supplemented in dairy-based products.

  7. A Value-Added Study of Teacher Spillover Effects across Four Core Subjects in Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Kun

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the existence, magnitude, and impact of teacher spillover effects (TSEs) across teachers of four subject areas (i.e., mathematics, English language arts [ELA], science, and social studies) on student achievement in each of the four subjects at the middle school level. The author conducted a series of value-added (VA) analyses,…

  8. Comparing the Effects of Four Instructional Treatments on EFL Students' Achievement in Writing Classified Ads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khodabandeh, Farzaneh

    2016-01-01

    The current study set out to compare the effect of traditional and non-traditional instructional treatments; i.e. explicit, implicit, task-based and no-instruction approaches on students' abilities to learn how to write classified ads. 72 junior students who have all taken a course in Reading Journalistic Texts at the Payame-Noor University…

  9. Measuring Teacher Effectiveness Using Value-Added Models of High School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gawade, Nandita G.; Meyer, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    This article uses empirical data to consider the consequences of particular characteristics of instruction and testing in high school for the modeling and estimation of value-added measures of school or teacher effectiveness. Unlike Mathematics and Reading for most elementary and middle school grades, there is a lack of annual testing of students…

  10. Measuring Value Added Effects across Schools: Should Schools Be Compared in Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeves, John P.; Hungi, Njora; Afrassa, Tilahun

    2005-01-01

    This article traces the evolution of a quest for solving the problems involved in the analysis of multilevel data and the estimation of the value added effects of schools in influencing educational outcomes. The authors report the findings of two studies that followed several cohorts of students that were tested at two grade levels (Grade 3 and…

  11. The Promise and Peril of Using Value-Added Modeling to Measure Teacher Effectiveness. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RAND Corporation, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Value-added modeling offers the possibility of estimating the effects of teachers and schools on student performance, a potentially important contribution in the current environment of concern for accountability in education. These techniques, however, are susceptible to a number of sources of bias, depending on decisions about how the modeling is…

  12. In Search of Value Added in the Case of Complex School Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmermans, Anneke C.; Snijders, Tom A. B.; Bosker, Roel J.

    2013-01-01

    In traditional studies on value-added indicators of educational effectiveness, students are usually treated as belonging to those schools where they took their final examination. However, in practice, students sometimes attend multiple schools and therefore it is questionable whether this assumption of belonging to the last school they attended…

  13. Reaction Rate Constants of CH4(ads) ⇌ CH3(ads) + H(ads) on Ni(111): The Effect of Lattice Motion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenji; Zhao, Yi

    2015-12-31

    Methane dissociation on metal surfaces is of great commercial importance. The dissociation and recombination rate constants of CH4 on Ni(111) are calculated using the quantum instanton approach with the path integral Monte Carlo method. The Ni(111) lattice is treated rigidly, classically, and quantum mechanically to reveal the effects of lattice motion and quantum tunneling. For the dissociation of CH4, the rates have the smallest value on the rigid lattice, while they possess the largest value on the quantum lattice. For instance, at 300 K, the rates on the classical and quantum lattices are 5 and 12 times larger than that on the rigid lattice, respectively. The curve of the Arrhenius plot for the dissociation rates on the rigid lattice demonstrates that the quantum tunneling effect of the ruptured H atom is remarkable, while the nearly invariable dissociation rates at low temperatures on the quantum lattice confirm that the thermally assisted tunneling should be dominant at low temperatures. For the recombination of CH4, the quantum lattice still has rates that are much larger than that of the rigid lattice. For instance, the ratio of the recombination rates on the quantum and rigid lattices is 12 at 300 K. The quantum tunneling effect seems to play a minor role in the recombination rates on the rigid lattice; however, the thermally assisted tunneling is still very significant for the recombination process.

  14. Effect of adding rubber powder to poplar particles on composite properties.

    PubMed

    Xu, Min; Li, Jian

    2012-08-01

    The effect of adding rubber powder derived from waste tires to poplar wood particles on mechanical and water-resistant properties of particleboards was examined. Sixty panels were made with rubber contents of 0-40% at hot-pressing temperatures of 140-180 °C, methylene diphenyl diisocyanate resin contents of 2-6% and panel densities of 0.6 to 1 g cm(-3). Although the modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE), internal bond (IB) strength were reduced by adding rubber powder, the thickness swelling (TS) was reduced by 7.3-61% when 10-40% rubber powder was added. Four regression equations (rubber content, pressing temperature, resin content and target panel density as functions of MOR, MOE, IB and TS) were developed and a nonlinear programing model was derived with operation research theory to obtain the most desirable panel properties under some production constraints.

  15. Effect of adding rubber powder to poplar particles on composite properties.

    PubMed

    Xu, Min; Li, Jian

    2012-08-01

    The effect of adding rubber powder derived from waste tires to poplar wood particles on mechanical and water-resistant properties of particleboards was examined. Sixty panels were made with rubber contents of 0-40% at hot-pressing temperatures of 140-180 °C, methylene diphenyl diisocyanate resin contents of 2-6% and panel densities of 0.6 to 1 g cm(-3). Although the modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE), internal bond (IB) strength were reduced by adding rubber powder, the thickness swelling (TS) was reduced by 7.3-61% when 10-40% rubber powder was added. Four regression equations (rubber content, pressing temperature, resin content and target panel density as functions of MOR, MOE, IB and TS) were developed and a nonlinear programing model was derived with operation research theory to obtain the most desirable panel properties under some production constraints. PMID:22705506

  16. Value-Added Teacher Estimates as Part of Teacher Evaluations: Exploring the Effects of Data and Model Specifications on the Stability of Teacher Value-Added Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kersting, Nicole B.; Chen, Mei-kuang; Stigler, James W.

    2013-01-01

    If teacher value-added estimates (VAEs) are to be used as indicators of individual teacher performance in teacher evaluation and accountability systems, it is important to understand how much VAEs are affected by the data and model specifications used to estimate them. In this study we explored the effects of three conditions on the stability of…

  17. Mass transfer effects in a gasification riser

    SciTech Connect

    Breault, Ronald W; Li, Tingwen; Nicoletti, Phillip

    2013-01-01

    In the development of multiphase reacting computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes, a number of simplifications were incorporated into the codes and models. One of these simplifications was the use of a simplistic mass transfer correlation for the faster reactions and omission of mass transfer effects completely on the moderate speed and slow speed reactions such as those in a fluidized bed gasifier. Another problem that has propagated is that the mass transfer correlation used in the codes is not universal and is being used far from its developed bubbling fluidized bed regime when applied to circulating fluidized bed (CFB) riser reactors. These problems are true for the major CFD codes. To alleviate this problem, a mechanistic based mass transfer coefficient algorithm has been developed based upon an earlier work by Breault et al. This fundamental approach uses the local hydrodynamics to predict a local, time varying mass transfer coefficient. The predicted mass transfer coefficients and the corresponding Sherwood numbers agree well with literature data and are typically about an order of magnitude lower than the correlation noted above. The incorporation of the new mass transfer model gives the expected behavior for all the gasification reactions evaluated in the paper. At the expected and typical design values for the solid flow rate in a CFB riser gasifier an ANOVA analysis has shown the predictions from the new code to be significantly different from the original code predictions. The new algorithm should be used such that the conversions are not over predicted. Additionally, its behaviors with changes in solid flow rate are consistent with the changes in the hydrodynamics.

  18. Improving Biomethane Production and Mass Bioconversion of Corn Stover Anaerobic Digestion by Adding NaOH Pretreatment and Trace Elements.

    PubMed

    Liu, ChunMei; Yuan, HaiRong; Zou, DeXun; Liu, YanPing; Zhu, BaoNing; Li, XiuJin

    2015-01-01

    This research applied sodium hydroxide (NaOH) pretreatment and trace elements to improve biomethane production when using corn stover for anaerobic digestion. Full-factor experimental tests identified the best combination of trace elements with the NaOH pretreatment, indicating that the best combination was with 1.0, 0.4, and 0.4 mg·L(-1)·d(-1) of elements Fe, Co, and Ni, respectively. The cumulative biomethane production adding NaOH pretreatment and trace elements was 11,367 mL; total solid bioconversion rate was 55.7%, which was 41.8%-62.2% higher than with NaOH-pretreatment alone and 22.2%-56.3% higher than with untreated corn stover. The best combination was obtained 5-9 days shorter than T90 and maintained good system operation stability. Only a fraction of the trace elements in the best combination was present in the resulting solution; more than 85% of the total amounts added were transferred into the solid fraction. Adding 0.897 g of Fe, 0.389 g of Co, and 0.349 g of Ni satisfied anaerobic digestion needs and enhanced biological activity at the beginning of the operation. The results showed that NaOH pretreatment and adding trace elements improve corn stover biodegradability and enhance biomethane production.

  19. Improving Biomethane Production and Mass Bioconversion of Corn Stover Anaerobic Digestion by Adding NaOH Pretreatment and Trace Elements

    PubMed Central

    Liu, ChunMei; Yuan, HaiRong; Zou, DeXun; Liu, YanPing; Zhu, BaoNing; Li, XiuJin

    2015-01-01

    This research applied sodium hydroxide (NaOH) pretreatment and trace elements to improve biomethane production when using corn stover for anaerobic digestion. Full-factor experimental tests identified the best combination of trace elements with the NaOH pretreatment, indicating that the best combination was with 1.0, 0.4, and 0.4 mg·L−1·d−1 of elements Fe, Co, and Ni, respectively. The cumulative biomethane production adding NaOH pretreatment and trace elements was 11,367 mL; total solid bioconversion rate was 55.7%, which was 41.8%–62.2% higher than with NaOH-pretreatment alone and 22.2%–56.3% higher than with untreated corn stover. The best combination was obtained 5–9 days shorter than T90 and maintained good system operation stability. Only a fraction of the trace elements in the best combination was present in the resulting solution; more than 85% of the total amounts added were transferred into the solid fraction. Adding 0.897 g of Fe, 0.389 g of Co, and 0.349 g of Ni satisfied anaerobic digestion needs and enhanced biological activity at the beginning of the operation. The results showed that NaOH pretreatment and adding trace elements improve corn stover biodegradability and enhance biomethane production. PMID:26137469

  20. AdS{sub 3} backgrounds from 10D effective action of heterotic string theory

    SciTech Connect

    Dominis Prester, Predrag

    2010-02-15

    We present a method for calculating solutions and corresponding central charges for backgrounds with AdS{sub 3} and S{sup k} factors in {alpha}{sup '}-exact fashion from the full tree-level low-energy effective action of heterotic string theory. Three examples are explicitly presented: AdS{sub 3}xS{sup 3}xT{sup 4}, AdS{sub 3}xS{sup 2}xS{sup 1}xT{sup 4}, and AdS{sub 3}xS{sup 3}xS{sup 3}xS{sup 1}. Crucial property which enabled our analysis is vanishing of the Riemann tensor calculated from connection with ''{sigma}-model torsion.'' We show the following: (i) Chern-Simons terms are the only source of {alpha}{sup '} corrections not only in BPS, but also in non-BPS cases, suggesting a possible extension of general method of Kraus and Larsen, (ii) our results are in agreement with some conjectures on the form of the part of tree-level Lagrangian not connected to a mixed Chern-Simons term by supersymmetry (and present in all supersymmetric string theories), (iii) new {alpha}{sup '}-exact result for central charges in AdS{sub 3}xS{sup 3}xS{sup 3}xS{sup 1} geometry. As a tool we used our generalization of Sen's E-function formalism to AdS{sub p} with p>2, and paid special attention to proper definition of asymptotic charges.

  1. From the Komar Mass and Entropic Force Scenarios to the Einstein Field Equations on the Ads Brane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradpour, H.; Sheykhi, A.

    2016-02-01

    By bearing the Komar's definition for the mass, together with the entropic origin of gravity in mind, we find the Einstein field equations in ( n + 1)-dimensional spacetime. Then, by reflecting the (4 + 1)-dimensional Einstein equations on the (3 + 1)-hypersurface, we get the Einstein equations onto the 3-brane. The corresponding energy conditions are also addressed. Since the higher dimensional considerations modify the Einstein field equations in the (3 + 1)-dimensions and thus the energy-momentum tensor, we get a relation for the Komar mass on the brane. In addition, the strongness of this relation compared with existing definition for the Komar mass on the brane is addressed.

  2. The Effect of QBO on the Total Mass Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saǧır, Selçuk; Atıcı, Ramazan

    2016-07-01

    The relationship between Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) measured at 10 hPa altitude and total mass density (TMD) values obtained from NRLMSIS-00 model for 90 km altitude of ionosphere known as Mesosphere-Lower Thermosphere (MLT) region is statistically investigated. For this study, multiple-regression model is used. To see the effect on TMD of QBO directions, Dummy variables are also added to model. In the result of calculations, it is observed that QBO is effected on TMD. It is determined that 69% of variations at TMD can be explainable by QBO. It is determined that the explainable ratio is at the rate of 5%. Also, it is seen that an increase/a decrease of 1 meter per second at QBO give rise to an increase/a decrease of 7,2x10-4 g/cm3 at TMD.

  3. Effects of added organic matter and water on soil carbon sequestration in an arid region.

    PubMed

    Lai, Liming; Li, Yufei; Tian, Yuan; Jiang, Lianhe; Zhao, Xuechun; Zhu, Linhai; Chen, Xi; Gao, Yong; Wang, Shaoming; Zheng, Yuanrun; Rimmington, Glyn M

    2013-01-01

    It is generally predicted that global warming will stimulate primary production and lead to more carbon (C) inputs to soil. However, many studies have found that soil C does not necessarily increase with increased plant litter input. Precipitation has increased in arid central Asia, and is predicted to increase more, so we tested the effects of adding fresh organic matter (FOM) and water on soil C sequestration in an arid region in northwest China. The results suggested that added FOM quickly decomposed and had minor effects on the soil organic carbon (SOC) pool to a depth of 30 cm. Both FOM and water addition had significant effects on the soil microbial biomass. The soil microbial biomass increased with added FOM, reached a maximum, and then declined as the FOM decomposed. The FOM had a more significant stimulating effect on microbial biomass with water addition. Under the soil moisture ranges used in this experiment (21.0%-29.7%), FOM input was more important than water addition in the soil C mineralization process. We concluded that short-term FOM input into the belowground soil and water addition do not affect the SOC pool in shrubland in an arid region.

  4. Effects of Added Organic Matter and Water on Soil Carbon Sequestration in an Arid Region

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yuan; Jiang, Lianhe; Zhao, Xuechun; Zhu, Linhai; Chen, Xi; Gao, Yong; Wang, Shaoming; Zheng, Yuanrun; Rimmington, Glyn M.

    2013-01-01

    It is generally predicted that global warming will stimulate primary production and lead to more carbon (C) inputs to soil. However, many studies have found that soil C does not necessarily increase with increased plant litter input. Precipitation has increased in arid central Asia, and is predicted to increase more, so we tested the effects of adding fresh organic matter (FOM) and water on soil C sequestration in an arid region in northwest China. The results suggested that added FOM quickly decomposed and had minor effects on the soil organic carbon (SOC) pool to a depth of 30 cm. Both FOM and water addition had significant effects on the soil microbial biomass. The soil microbial biomass increased with added FOM, reached a maximum, and then declined as the FOM decomposed. The FOM had a more significant stimulating effect on microbial biomass with water addition. Under the soil moisture ranges used in this experiment (21.0%–29.7%), FOM input was more important than water addition in the soil C mineralization process. We concluded that short-term FOM input into the belowground soil and water addition do not affect the SOC pool in shrubland in an arid region. PMID:23875022

  5. Time Rate Gradient Effects and Negative Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miksch, Edmond

    2008-03-01

    The Harvard tower Experiment and tests with accurate atomic clocks show that a clock at a high elevation indicates more elapsed time than a clock at a low elevation, both clocks properly measuring time at their locations. This fact mandates that Newton's first law of motion be rewritten to cite impulse balance rather than force balance. Time rate gradient effects explain how the weight of a precisely vertical and precisely uniform electric field or a precisely vertical and precisely uniform magnetic field is supported in a precisely unidirectional gravitational field. Time rate gradient effects also explain how the weight of a unidirectional gravitational field is reacted. It is confirmed that the mass density of the gravitational field is negative. http://www.TimeRateGradient.com; http://www.Negative-Mass.com; http://www.EinsteinsElevator.com

  6. Surfactant recovery from water using foam fractionation: Effect of temperature and added salt

    SciTech Connect

    Kumpabooth, K.; Osuwan, S.; Scamehorn, J.F.; Harwell, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of foam fractionation to recover surfactant present at low concentrations in aqueous streams. A simple continuous mode foam fractionation was used, and three surfactants were chosen for this study: sodium dodecyl sulfate, cetylpyridinium chloride, and sodium n-hexadecyl diphenyloxide disulfonate. In a previous study the effects of surfactant concentration, air flow rate, liquid- and vapor-phase heights, and sparger type were investigated for these surfactants. Here, the effects of temperature and added salt are studied. It is found that the foam flow rate and enrichment ratio increase whereas the foam wetness and the rate of surfactant recovery decrease with increasing temperature. Increasing the concentration of added salt decreases the CMC of the surfactants. The foam flow rate, foam wetness, and the rate of surfactant recovery increase, while the enrichment ratio decreases with increasing concentration of salt.

  7. REBOUNDx: A library for adding additional effects to N-body simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamayo, Daniel; Rein, Hanno; Shi, Pengshuai

    2016-05-01

    Many astrophysical applications involve additional perturbations beyond point-source gravity. We have recently developed REBOUNDx, a library for adding such effects in numerical simulations with the open-source N-body package REBOUND. Various implementations have different numerical properties that in general depend on the underlying integrator employed. In particular, I will discuss adding velocity-dependent/dissipative effects to widely used symplectic integrators, and how one can estimate the introduced numerical errors using the operator-splitting formalism traditionally applied to symplectic integrators. Finally, I will demonstrate how to use the code, and how the Python wrapper we have developed for REBOUND/REBOUNDx makes it easy to interactively leverage powerful analysis, visualization and parallelization libraries.

  8. The effect of magnesium added at C{sub 60}/Rubrene heterointerfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Chiu-Ping; Lee, Cheng-Wei; Chu, Yu-Ya; Wei, Ching-Hsuan; Pi, Tun-Wen

    2013-12-28

    This study examines the effect of adding magnesium (Mg) at C{sub 60}/rubrene heterointerfaces by using synchrotron-radiation photoemission spectroscopy. The heterointerface was obtained by depositing C{sub 60} on a 4-Å Mg/rubrene surface. The photoemission spectra showed that the added Mg preferentially interacts with and transfers negative charges to C{sub 60}. The interfacial dipole potential was significantly enlarged, as was the separation between the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of C{sub 60} and the highest occupied molecular orbital of rubrene. The results demonstrate that the addition of Mg should be an effective method for improving the efficiency of light- and current-generating devices.

  9. Effects of a plyometric training program with and without added load on jumping ability in basketball players.

    PubMed

    Khlifa, Riadh; Aouadi, Ridha; Hermassi, Souhail; Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel; Jlid, Mohamed Chedly; Hbacha, Hamdi; Castagna, Carlo

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of a standard plyometric training protocol with or without added load in improving vertical jumping ability in male basketball players. Twenty-seven players were randomly assigned to 3 groups: a control group (no plyometric training), plyometric training group (PG), and loaded plyometric group (LPG, weighted vests 10-11% body mass). Before and after the 10-week training program, all the players were tested for the 5-jump test (5JT), the squat jump (SJ), and the countermovement jump (CMJ). The PG and LPG groups performed 2 and 3 training sessions per week, during the first 3 and the last 7 weeks, respectively. The results showed that SJ, CMJ, and 5JT were significantly improved only in the PG and LPG groups. The best effects for jumps were observed in LPG (p < 0.01), which showed significantly higher gains than the PG (p < 0.05). In conclusion, it appears that loads added to standard plyometric training program may result in greater vertical and horizontal-jump performances in basketball players.

  10. The effects of involvement and ad type on attitudes toward direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs.

    PubMed

    Limbu, Yam; Torres, Ivonne M

    2009-01-01

    This article examines consumers' attitudes toward Direct-to-Consumer (DTC) advertising of prescription drugs that are influenced by the use different types of DTC ads and product involvement. Our findings suggest that product involvement and the type of DTC ad are significant predictors of consumers' attitudinal responses toward DTC advertising. High involvement consumers have more favorable attitudes toward the drug's price, DTC ad and brand name, and a higher intention to ask a doctor about the advertised drug than low involvement consumers. In contrast to Informational and Reminder DTC ads, Persuasive ads have more favorable effects on consumers' reactions to DTC prescription drug advertising.

  11. a European Global Navigation Satellite System — the German Market and Value Adding Chain Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollerthun, A.; Wieser, M.

    2002-03-01

    Since Europe is considering to establish a "market-driven" European Global Navigation Satellite System, the German Center of Aerospace initiated a market research to justify a German investment in such a European project. The market research performed included the following market segments: aviation, railway, road traffic, shipping, surveying, farming, military, space applications, leisure, and sport. In these market segments, the forementioned inputs were determined for satellite navigation hardware (receivers) as well as satellite navigation services. The forecast period was from year 2007 to 2017. For the considered period, the market amounts to a total of DM 83.0 billion (approx. US $50 billion), whereas the satellite navigation equipment market makes up DM 39.8 billion, and charges for value-added-services amount to DM 43.2 billion. On closer examination road traffic can be identified as the dominant market share, both in the receiver-market and service-market. With a share of 96% for receivers and 73% for services the significance of the road traffic segment becomes obvious. The second part of this paper investigates the effects the market potential has on the Value-Adding-Chain. Therefore, all participants in the Value-Adding-Chain are identified, using industrial cost structure models the employment effect is analyzed, and possible tax revenues for the state are examined.

  12. Orienting response reinstatement and dishabituation: effects of substituting, adding, and deleting components of nonsignificant stimuli.

    PubMed

    Ben-Shakhar, G; Gati, I; Ben-Bassat, N; Sniper, G

    2000-01-01

    The prediction that orienting response (OR) reinstatement is negatively related to the measure of common features, shared by the stimulus input and representations of preceding events, and positively related to the measure of their distinctive features, was examined. A nonsignificant test stimulus (TS) was presented after nine repetitions of a standard stimulus (SS), followed by two additional repetitions of SS. TS was created by either substituting 0, 1, or 2 components of SS (Experiment 1), or by either adding or deleting 0, 1, or 2 components of SS (Experiment 2). Skin conductance changes to TS (OR reinstatement) and the subsequent SS (dishabituation) were used as dependent measures. The results of Experiment 1 supported the prediction that substituting components of neutral stimuli affects OR reinstatement, with a larger effect for between-categories than within-categories substitution. Experiment 2 demonstrated that adding and deleting components similarly affects OR reinstatement.

  13. Suspensions of polymer-grafted nanoparticles with added polymers-Structure and effective pair-interactions.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Sivasurender; Saw, Shibu; Kandar, A K; Dasgupta, C; Sprung, M; Basu, J K

    2015-08-28

    We present the results of combined experimental and theoretical (molecular dynamics simulations and integral equation theory) studies of the structure and effective interactions of suspensions of polymer grafted nanoparticles (PGNPs) in the presence of linear polymers. Due to the absence of systematic experimental and theoretical studies of PGNPs, it is widely believed that the structure and effective interactions in such binary mixtures would be very similar to those of an analogous soft colloidal material-star polymers. In our study, polystyrene-grafted gold nanoparticles with functionality f = 70 were mixed with linear polystyrene (PS) of two different molecular weights for obtaining two PGNP:PS size ratios, ξ = 0.14 and 2.76 (where, ξ = Mg/Mm, Mg and Mm being the molecular weights of grafting and matrix polymers, respectively). The experimental structure factor of PGNPs could be modeled with an effective potential (Model-X), which has been found to be widely applicable for star polymers. Similarly, the structure factor of the blends with ξ = 0.14 could be modeled reasonably well, while the structure of blends with ξ = 2.76 could not be captured, especially for high density of added polymers. A model (Model-Y) for effective interactions between PGNPs in a melt of matrix polymers also failed to provide good agreement with the experimental data for samples with ξ = 2.76 and high density of added polymers. We tentatively attribute this anomaly in modeling the structure factor of blends with ξ = 2.76 to the questionable assumption of Model-X in describing the added polymers as star polymers with functionality 2, which gets manifested in both polymer-polymer and polymer-PGNP interactions especially at higher fractions of added polymers. The failure of Model-Y may be due to the neglect of possible many-body interactions among PGNPs mediated by matrix polymers when the fraction of added polymers is high. These observations point to the need for a new framework to

  14. The effect of added fullness and ventilation holes in T-shirt design on thermal comfort.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chupo; Fan, Jintu; Newton, Edward; Au, Raymond

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports on an experimental investigation on the effect of added fullness and ventilation holes in T-shirt design on clothing comfort measured in terms of thermal insulation and moisture vapour resistance. Four T-shirts in four different sizes (S, M, L, XL) were cut under the traditional sizing method while another (F-1) was cut with specially added fullness to create a 'flared' drape. A thermal manikin 'Walter' was used to measure the thermal insulation and moisture vapour resistance of the T-shirts in a chamber with controlled temperature, relative humidity and air velocity. The tests included four conditions: manikin standing still in the no-wind and windy conditions and walking in the no-wind and windy condition. It was found that adding fullness in the T-shirt design (F-1) to create the 'flared' drape can significantly reduce the T-shirt's thermal insulation and moisture vapour resistance under walking or windy conditions. Heat and moisture transmission through the T-shirt can be further enhanced by creating small apertures on the front and back of the T-shirt with specially added fullness. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The thermal comfort of the human body is one of the key issues in the study of ergonomics. When doing exercise, a human body will generate heat, which will eventually result in sweating. If heat and moisture are not released effectively from the body, heat stress may occur and the person's performance will be negatively affected. Therefore, contemporary athletic T-shirts are designed to improve the heat and moisture transfer from the wearer. Through special cutting, such athletic T-shirts can be designed to improve the ventilation of the wearer.

  15. [Rapid screening and quantitative detection of 11 illegally added antidiabetics in health care products by ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/electrostatic field orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Du, Yanshan; Li, Qiang; Wu, Chunmin; Zhang, Yan

    2015-04-01

    A method for rapid screening and quantification of 11 antidiabetics (nateglinide, pioglitazone hydrochloride, gliquidone, gliclazide, glipizide, glibenclamide, metformin hydrochloride, repaglinide, phenformin hydrochloride, rosiglitazone hydrochloride, glimepiride) illegally added in health care products by ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-quadrupole/ electrostatic field orbitrap mass spectrometry was established. The samples were extracted with methanol, and separated on an Agilent Poroshell 120 SB-C18 column (100 mm x 4.6 mm, 2.7 µm) with acetonitrile-10 mmol/L ammonium acetate solution as mobile phases by gradient elution. The positive mode was used in the MS detection. The resolution of the precursor mass was 70,000, while the resolution of the product mass was 17,500. The results indicated that the linearity of all the 11 antidiabetics ranged from 0.005 mg/L to 0.5 mg/L with the correlation coefficients greater than 0.99. The limits of detection were confirmed by spiked samples, and were between 2.7 and 5.1 µg/kg for the 11 antidiabetics. The recoveries were in the range of 87.3% to 98.3%, with the relative standard deviations in the range of 2.18%-5.21%. This method is accurate, simple and rapid, and can be used in rapid screening and quantitative analysis of the 11 illegally added antidiabetics in health care products. PMID:26292406

  16. Mass relocation through soil exhaustion: Transformation of habitation patterns in the southern Netherlands (1000 BC-500 AD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluiving, Sjoerd; Bekkema, Marijke; Roymans, Nico; van Mourik, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Long-term archaeological data gathering in the southern Netherlands may deliver an unprecedented regional comparison that could be exemplary for the Pleistocene sand areas of the Northwest European Plain. On a micro-scale level, it has become clear that Bronze Age (2000-800 BC) and Iron Age (800-12 BC) farmers intensively used the landscape, resulting in a relatively dense distribution pattern of settlements all over the ridges and planes of the cover sand landscape. However, this agricultural use of the landscape related to the "celtic field" system led to a process of soil degradation by increased acidification during which Umbric Podzols gradually transformed into Carbic Podzols that could no longer be used as farmland. According to established "models," this process of "secondary podzolization" particularly affected those sections of the landscape that were dominated by dry sandy soils with a low loam content (loam = clay and silt, between c. 10% and 20%). In the Late Iron Age (250-12 BC), the changing soil conditions resulted in a dramatic shift in the habitation pattern that clearly manifests itself in the Roman period (12 BC-410 AD); on the local scale, the habitation moved from the degenerated soils to nearby areas with better soil conditions (higher loam content), which became more densely inhabited now than in the Bronze Age/Early Iron Age (2000-500 BC). The introduction of new land management (in the later Iron Age, and also by Romans) could also have been important for soil degradation. The areas where the Roman period settlements concentrated became also the areas where we can find the early medieval habitation (447-751 AD) and where the Plaggic Anthrosols started to develop in the late medieval period (1270-1500 AD). This poster is based on the analysis of soil properties. Measured loam values of soil samples (n=181) in Veldhoven, southern Netherlands, are in agreement with the described model that the plaggen cover is located on soils containing high

  17. Effects of distracting ads and cognitive control on the processing of online news stories with stereotype-related information.

    PubMed

    Kononova, Anastasia G

    2013-05-01

    An experiment (N=123) examined how individuals cognitively process online news stories depicting African-American characters with stereotype-consistent and -inconsistent attributes and whether distracting online ads interfere with story processing. Two cognitive control functions, updating and inhibition, were predicted to moderate the effects of distracting ads. Recall of characters' attributes and overall characters' description were included in the study as dependent measures. Findings indicated that distracting online ads hinder recall of information about and descriptions of story characters. Inhibition and updating affect dependent measures and moderate the effects of distracting online ads on characters' descriptions.

  18. Plasmonic Effect in Au-Added TiO2-Based Solar Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Hong, Le; Cat, Do Tran; Chi, Le Ha; Thuy, Nguyen Thi; Van Hung, Tran; Tai, Ly Ngoc; Long, Pham Duy

    2016-06-01

    TiO2 nano thin films have been fabricated on fluoride tin oxide (FTO) film electrodes by hydrothermal synthesis at temperatures of 80°C, 120°C, 150°C, and 200°C for different synthesis times of 1 h, 2 h, and 3 h in 2.5 mol, 5 mol, and 7.5 mol NaOH solution. X-ray diffraction patterns and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images were recorded for all the film samples, and the results confirmed that TiO2 anatase phase was generally formed in nanowire form. The influence of synthesis temperature, processing time, and NaOH content on the structure and morphology of the TiO2 material was studied. Au nanoparticles with size of around 2 × 10-8 m were added into the TiO2 thin films by thermal evaporation in vacuum combined with thermal annealing. Based on photocurrent-voltage (I-V) characteristics measured under irradiation with visible light, the short-circuit current, open-circuit voltage, and efficiency of solar cells with FTO/Au-added TiO2/(I-/I2-) electrolyte/Pt configuration were evaluated. The short-circuit current and efficiency of the Au-added solar cell were greatly improved, which is supposed to be related to a contribution of the surface plasmon resonance effect.

  19. Plasmonic Effect in Au-Added TiO2-Based Solar Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Hong, Le; Cat, Do Tran; Chi, Le Ha; Thuy, Nguyen Thi; Van Hung, Tran; Tai, Ly Ngoc; Long, Pham Duy

    2016-10-01

    TiO2 nano thin films have been fabricated on fluoride tin oxide (FTO) film electrodes by hydrothermal synthesis at temperatures of 80°C, 120°C, 150°C, and 200°C for different synthesis times of 1 h, 2 h, and 3 h in 2.5 mol, 5 mol, and 7.5 mol NaOH solution. X-ray diffraction patterns and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images were recorded for all the film samples, and the results confirmed that TiO2 anatase phase was generally formed in nanowire form. The influence of synthesis temperature, processing time, and NaOH content on the structure and morphology of the TiO2 material was studied. Au nanoparticles with size of around 2 × 10-8 m were added into the TiO2 thin films by thermal evaporation in vacuum combined with thermal annealing. Based on photocurrent-voltage ( I- V) characteristics measured under irradiation with visible light, the short-circuit current, open-circuit voltage, and efficiency of solar cells with FTO/Au-added TiO2/(I-/I2-) electrolyte/Pt configuration were evaluated. The short-circuit current and efficiency of the Au-added solar cell were greatly improved, which is supposed to be related to a contribution of the surface plasmon resonance effect.

  20. Effects of added elastic tubes on open-chain knee extensor strength training.

    PubMed

    Melo, Mónica de Oliveira; Brodt, Guilherme Auler; Gomes, Lara Elena; Candotti, Cláudia Tarragô; La Torre, Marcelo; Loss, Jefferson Fagundes

    2013-06-01

    Attaching elastic tubes (ETs) to resistance training machines can affect the exercise load profile. The purpose of this study was to assess the training effects of added ETs, which were strategically attached to provide additional loads only during the deceleration phase of the knee extension exercise. Twenty-two healthy participants, assigned to either an experimental group (with ETs) or a control group (without ETs), participated in a 12-week strength-training program using a knee extension exercise machine. The acceleration effects were quantified and a method of attaching the ETs to the knee extension machine was developed. The effects of the added ETs were analysed by testing dynamic and isometric maximum contractions at four knee flexion angles (10 degrees, 30 degrees, 50 degrees, and 80 degrees). Analyses of covariance with the initial values as the covariate were used to examine the ETeffects. A greater increase in isometric maximum strength was found in the experimental group than in the control group at knee flexion angles of 10 degrees [effect size (ES) = 2.25] and 30 degrees (ES = 1.18). No significant difference in the dynamic maximum strength was found between the groups. The use of ETs increased strength at smaller knee flexion angles with quadriceps that were relatively short. PMID:23898691

  1. Effects of added inertia and body weight support on lateral balance control during walking.

    PubMed

    Pennycott, Andrew; Wyss, Dario; Vallery, Heike; Riener, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A robot-driven gait orthosis which allows balance training during gait would further enhance the capabilities of robotic treadmill training in gait rehabilitation. In this paper, additional mass is attached to walking able-bodied subjects to simulate the effects of additional inertia and body weight support on the lateral balance task. The combination of additional inertia and body weight support led to reduced step widths, suggesting a stabilising effect which may reduce the challenge of the lateral balance task. PMID:22275618

  2. Effect of added surfactant on temperature-induced gelation of emulsions.

    PubMed

    Alava, Cristina; Saunders, Brian R

    2004-04-13

    This paper involves an investigation of the effect of added ionic surfactant on the temperature-induced gelation of oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions stabilized by a responsive copolymer. The oil phase used in this study is 1-bromohexadecane. The copolymer is poly(NIPAM-co-PEGMa) (NIPAM and PEGMa are N-isopropylacrylamide and poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate, respectively). The lower critical solution temperature for the copolymer was 39.5 degrees C. The ionic surfactant used in this work was sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (NaDBS). The critical association concentration for NaDBS and poly(NIPAM-co-PEGMa) was measured at 0.30 mM using fluorescence measurements (pyrene was the probe molecule). Gelation temperatures were measured for the O/W emulsions to establish the effect of added NaDBS and copolymer concentration (Cp) on the gelation temperature (Tgel). The strength of the gels was measured using dynamic oscillatory measurements. These measurements allowed the shear modulus of the gel at Tgel to be estimated as 100 Pa. A theoretical model based on transient network theory was developed that predicts the dependence of Tgel on Cp. The study revealed that NaDBS has two effects on the overall cross-link density of the emulsion gels: it contributes a source of cross-linking via micellar cross-links and also decreases the proportion of transient cross-links due to electrostatic repulsion.

  3. Effect of Citalopram on Agitation in Alzheimer's Disease – The CitAD Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Porsteinsson, Anton P.; Drye, Lea T.; Pollock, Bruce G.; Devanand, D.P.; Frangakis, Constantine; Ismail, Zahinoor; Marano, Christopher; Meinert, Curtis L.; Mintzer, Jacobo E.; Munro, Cynthia A.; Pelton, Gregory; Rabins, Peter V.; Rosenberg, Paul B.; Schneider, Lon S.; Shade, David M.; Weintraub, Daniel; Yesavage, Jerome; Lyketsos, Constantine G.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Agitation is common, persistent, and associated with adverse consequences for patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Pharmacological treatment options, including antipsychotics are not satisfactory. Objective The primary objective was to evaluate the efficacy of citalopram for agitation in patients with AD. Key secondary objectives examined effects of citalopram on function, caregiver distress, safety, cognitive safety, and tolerability. Design, Setting and Participants The Citalopram for Agitation in Alzheimer's Disease Study (CitAD) was a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group trial that enrolled 186 patients with probable AD and clinically significant agitation from eight academic centers in the US and Canada from August 2009 to January 2013. Interventions Participants (n=186) were randomized to receive a psychosocial intervention plus either citalopram (n=94) or placebo (n=92) for 9 weeks. Dose began at 10 mg/d with planned titration to 30 mg/d over 3 weeks based on response and tolerability. Main Outcomes and Measures Primary outcome measures were the Neurobehavioral Rating Scale, agitation subscale (NBRS-A) and the modified Alzheimer Disease Cooperative Study-Clinical Global Impression of Change (mADCS-CGIC) Other outcomes were the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI), Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), activities of daily living (ADLs), caregiver distress, cognitive safety (MMSE), and adverse events. Results Participants on citalopram showed significant improvement compared to placebo on both primary outcome measures. NBRS-A estimated treatment difference at week 9 (citalopram minus placebo) was −0.93 [95% CI: −1.80 to −0.06], p = 0.036. mADCS-CGIC results showed 40% of citalopram participants having moderate or marked improvement from baseline compared to 26% on placebo, with estimated treatment effect (odds ratio of being at or better than a given CGIC category) of 2.13 [95% CI 1.23 to 3.69], p = 0

  4. DIS in AdS

    SciTech Connect

    Albacete, Javier L.; Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Taliotis, Anastasios

    2009-03-23

    We calculate the total cross section for the scattering of a quark-anti-quark dipole on a large nucleus at high energy for a strongly coupled N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory using AdS/CFT correspondence. We model the nucleus by a metric of a shock wave in AdS{sub 5}. We then calculate the expectation value of the Wilson loop (the dipole) by finding the extrema of the Nambu-Goto action for an open string attached to the quark and antiquark lines of the loop in the background of an AdS{sub 5} shock wave. We find two physically meaningful extremal string configurations. For both solutions we obtain the forward scattering amplitude N for the quark dipole-nucleus scattering. We study the onset of unitarity with increasing center-of-mass energy and transverse size of the dipole: we observe that for both solutions the saturation scale Q{sub s} is independent of energy/Bjorken-x and depends on the atomic number of the nucleus as Q{sub s}{approx}A{sup 1/3}. Finally we observe that while one of the solutions we found corresponds to the pomeron intercept of {alpha}{sub P} = 2 found earlier in the literature, when extended to higher energy or larger dipole sizes it violates the black disk limit. The other solution we found respects the black disk limit and yields the pomeron intercept of {alpha}{sub P} = 1.5. We thus conjecture that the right pomeron intercept in gauge theories at strong coupling may be {alpha}{sub P} = 1.5.

  5. Supercarrier effective mass isotope effect by interband scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Kristoffel, N.; Oerd, T.

    1999-11-01

    Supercarrier effective mass isotope effect (exponent {beta}) is investigated using a two-band model with interband pair scattering. The corresponding repulsive interaction incorporates besides the dominating electronic (Coulomb) part an electron-phonon contribution inversely proportional to the ionic mass factor. Calculations illustrating the behavior of {Tc}, its isotope exponent {alpha}, and {beta} with doping in La{sub 2{minus}x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} type underdoped system reflect the observed tendencies. Both {alpha} and {beta} diminish with doping, the sign of {beta} is opposite to {alpha}. A typical estimation gives {vert{underscore}bar}{beta}{vert{underscore}bar} {approximately} 0.2{alpha}.

  6. Effect of exercise on cigarette cravings and ad libitum smoking following concurrent stressors.

    PubMed

    Fong, Angela J; De Jesus, Stefanie; Bray, Steven R; Prapavessis, Harry

    2014-10-01

    The health consequences of smoking are well documented, yet quit rates are modest. While exercise has supported decreased cravings and withdrawal symptoms in temporarily abstinent smokers, it has yet to be applied when smokers are experiencing concurrent stressors. This study examined the effect of an acute bout of moderate intensity exercise on cravings (primary outcome) and ad libitum smoking (secondary outcome) following concurrent stressors (i.e., temporary abstinence and environmental manipulation-Stroop cognitive task+cue-elicited smoking stimuli). Twenty-five smokers (>10cig/day; Mean age=37.4years) were randomized into either exercise (n=12) or passive sitting conditions. A repeated measure (RM) ANOVA showed that psychological withdrawal symptoms (a measure of distress) were significantly exacerbated after temporary abstinence and then again after the environmental manipulation for all participants (p<.0001, η(2)=.50). Furthermore, a treatment by time RM ANOVA revealed decreases in psychological withdrawal symptoms for only the exercise condition (p<.001, η(2)=.42). A treatment by time RM ANOVA also revealed craving reductions for only the exercise condition (p<.0001, η(2)=.82). Exercise had no effect on ad libitum smoking. This is the first study to use a lab-based scenario with high ecological validity to show that an acute bout of exercise can reduce cravings following concurrent stressors. Future work is now needed where momentary assessment is used in people's natural environment to examine changes in cigarette cravings following acute bouts of exercise. PMID:24971700

  7. Effect of exercise on cigarette cravings and ad libitum smoking following concurrent stressors.

    PubMed

    Fong, Angela J; De Jesus, Stefanie; Bray, Steven R; Prapavessis, Harry

    2014-10-01

    The health consequences of smoking are well documented, yet quit rates are modest. While exercise has supported decreased cravings and withdrawal symptoms in temporarily abstinent smokers, it has yet to be applied when smokers are experiencing concurrent stressors. This study examined the effect of an acute bout of moderate intensity exercise on cravings (primary outcome) and ad libitum smoking (secondary outcome) following concurrent stressors (i.e., temporary abstinence and environmental manipulation-Stroop cognitive task+cue-elicited smoking stimuli). Twenty-five smokers (>10cig/day; Mean age=37.4years) were randomized into either exercise (n=12) or passive sitting conditions. A repeated measure (RM) ANOVA showed that psychological withdrawal symptoms (a measure of distress) were significantly exacerbated after temporary abstinence and then again after the environmental manipulation for all participants (p<.0001, η(2)=.50). Furthermore, a treatment by time RM ANOVA revealed decreases in psychological withdrawal symptoms for only the exercise condition (p<.001, η(2)=.42). A treatment by time RM ANOVA also revealed craving reductions for only the exercise condition (p<.0001, η(2)=.82). Exercise had no effect on ad libitum smoking. This is the first study to use a lab-based scenario with high ecological validity to show that an acute bout of exercise can reduce cravings following concurrent stressors. Future work is now needed where momentary assessment is used in people's natural environment to examine changes in cigarette cravings following acute bouts of exercise.

  8. How Effective Are Active Videogames Among the Young and the Old? Adding Meta-analyses to Two Recent Systematic Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Crutzen, Rik; Lu, Amy Shirong

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Two recent systematic reviews have surveyed the existing evidence for the effectiveness of active videogames in children/adolescents and in elderly people. In the present study, effect sizes were added to these systematic reviews, and meta-analyses were performed. Materials and Methods: All reviewed studies were considered for inclusion in the meta-analyses, but only studies were included that investigated the effectiveness of active videogames, used an experimental design, and used actual health outcomes as the outcome measures (body mass index for children/adolescents [k=5] and functional balance for the elderly [k=6]). Results: The average effect of active videogames in children and adolescents was small and nonsignificant: Hedges' g=0.20 (95 percent confidence interval, −0.08 to 0.48). Limited heterogeneity was observed, and no moderator analyses were performed. For the effect of active videogames on functional balance in the elderly, the analyses revealed a medium-sized and significant effect of g=0.68 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.13–1.24). For the elderly studies, substantial heterogeneity was observed. Moderator analyses showed that there were no significant effects of using a no-treatment control group versus an alternative treatment control group or of using games that were especially created for health-promotion purposes versus off-the-shelf games. Also, intervention duration and frequency, sample size, study quality, and dropout did not significantly moderate the effect of active videogames. Conclusions: The results of these meta-analyses provide preliminary evidence that active videogames can have positive effects on relevant outcome measures in children/adolescents and elderly individuals. PMID:26192486

  9. Matrix Effects in Biological Mass Spectrometry Imaging: Identification and Compensation

    SciTech Connect

    Lanekoff, Ingela T.; Stevens, Susan; Stenzel-Poore, Mary; Laskin, Julia

    2014-07-21

    Matrix effects in mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) may affect the observed molecular distribution in chemical and biological systems. In this study, we introduce an experimental approach that efficiently compensates for matrix effects in nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) MSI without introducing any complexity into the experimental protocol. We demonstrate compensation for matrix effects in nano-DESI MSI of phosphatidylcholine (PC) in normal and ischemic mouse brain tissue by doping the nano-DESI solvent with PC standards. Specifically, we use mouse brain tissue of a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) stroke model with an ischemic region localized to one hemisphere of the brain. Due to similar suppression in ionization of endogenous PC molecules extracted from the tissue and PC standards added to the solvent, matrix effects are eliminated by normalizing the intensity of the sodium and potassium adducts of endogenous PC to the intensity of the corresponding adduct of the PC standard. This approach efficiently compensates for signal variations resulting from differences in the local concentrations of sodium and potassium in tissue sections and from the complexity of the extracted analyte mixture derived from local variations in molecular composition.

  10. Exploring the effect of regulatory focus on ad attitudes: the moderating roles of message sidedness and argument quality.

    PubMed

    Kao, Danny Tengti

    2012-01-01

    This research explores the interaction effects of message sidedness and argument quality of ads on how either promotion-focused or prevention-focused individuals engender their ad attitudes. Two hundred and forty undergraduates were randomly assigned to a 2 (regulatory focus: prevention-focus/promotion-focus) × 2 (message sidedness: one-sided messages/two-sided messages) × 2 (argument quality (AQ): weak/strong) between-subjects design. Results indicate that promotion-focused individuals tend to engender more favourable attitudes to weak AQ ads than strong AQ ads, whereas prevention-focused individuals tend to engender more favourable attitudes to strong AQ ads than weak AQ ads. In addition, results indicate more favourable attitudes for one-sided messages over two-sided messages for promotion-focused individuals, as well as more favourable attitudes for two-sided messages over one-sided messages for prevention-focused individuals. Furthermore, one-sided messages result in more favourable ad attitudes when linked with weak AQ for promotion-focused individuals; in contrast, two-sided messages elicit more favourable ad attitudes when linked with strong AQ for prevention-focused individuals. Results suggest that message sidedness and argument quality are closely related to regulatory focus, which has a direct impact on ad attitudes. Practical implications, theoretical contributions, limitations and directions for future research are discussed.

  11. Nucleon Effective Mass and the A Dependence of Structure Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canal, C. A.; Santangelo, E. M.; Vucetich, H.

    1984-10-01

    The nucleon effective mass was successfully used, as the only free parameter, to adjust the ratio R (A) of structure functions measured in a nucleus of mass number A and in the deuteron, for each A value in the SLAC set of experimental data. The resulting A dependence of the effective mass, being linear in A-13, is consistent with the behavior expected from nuclear structure considerations. The extrapolated value of the effective mass for nuclear matter agrees with previous estimations.

  12. Public Health Effects of Restricting Retail Tobacco Product Displays and Ads

    PubMed Central

    Levy, David T.; Lindblom, Eric N.; Fleischer, Nancy L.; Thrasher, James; Mohlman, Mary Kate; Zhang, Yian; Monshouwer, Karin; Nagelhout, Gera E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the public health impact from restricting US retail point-of-sale (POS) tobacco product displays and advertising. Methods Based on existing research, this paper estimates the effects on initiation and cessation rates from restricting POS tobacco product displays and ads in the US and uses the SimSmoke simulation model to project related smoking declines and health benefits. Results New comprehensive POS restrictions are projected to reduce smoking prevalence by approximately 16% [range=3%–31%] relative to the status quo by 2065, preventing about 630,000 smoking-attributable deaths [range=108,000–1,225,000], 215,000 low birth weight births [range=33,000–421,000], 140,000 preterm births [range=22,000–271,000], and 1900 infant deaths from SIDSs [range=300–3800]. Conclusions Federal, state, or local action to restrict POS tobacco product displays and ads would contribute to a substantial reduction in smoking-attributed death and disease. PMID:26191538

  13. Effects of Experimental Negative Affect Manipulations on Ad Lib Smoking: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, Bryan W.; Carpenter, Mathew J.; Correa, John B.; Wray, Jennifer M.; Saladin, Michael E.; Froeliger, Brett; Drobes, David J.; Brandon, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To quantify the effect of negative affect (NA), when manipulated experimentally, upon smoking as measured within laboratory paradigms. Quantitative meta-analyses tested the effects of NA vs. neutral conditions on 1) latency to smoke and 2) number of puffs taken. Methods Twelve experimental studies tested the influence of NA induction, relative to a neutral control condition (N = 1,190; range = 24–235). Those providing relevant data contributed to separate random effects meta-analyses to examine the effects of NA on two primary smoking measures: 1) latency to smoke (nine studies) and 2) number of puffs taken during ad lib smoking (eleven studies). Hedge’s g was calculated for all studies through the use of post-NA cue responses relative to post-neutral cue responses. This effect size estimate is similar to Cohen’s d, but corrects for small sample size bias. Results NA reliably decreased latency to smoke (g = −.14; CI = −.23 to −.04; p = .007) and increased number of puffs taken (g = .14; CI = .02 to .25; p = .02). There was considerable variability across studies for both outcomes (I2 = 51% and 65% for latency and consumption, respectively). Potential publication bias was indicated for both outcomes, and adjusted effect sizes were smaller and no longer statistically significant. Conclusions In experimental laboratory studies of smokers, negative affect appears to reduce latency to smoking and increase number of puffs taken but this could be due to publication bias. PMID:25641624

  14. Effects of trace elements and pesticides on dephosphorylation of RNA and DNA added to soils

    SciTech Connect

    Frankenberger, W.T. Jr.; Johanson, J.B.; Lund L.J.

    1986-01-01

    This study was carried out to assess the effects of 14 trace elements, 12 herbicides, and two fungicides on dephosphorylation of yeast ribonucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) added to soils (Xerollic Calciorthids and Typic Haploxeralfs). The cumulative amount of ortho phosphate (Pi) released from nucleic acids increased linearly with time of incubation (up to 72 h), decreased with profile depth, and was highly influenced by soil pH. When trace elements were applied and compared by using 2.5 mmol kg/sup -1/ of soil, the average inhibition in dephosphorylation of RNA and DNA in two soils ranged from 17% with Co(II) to 52% with Cu(II). The most effective inhibitors of nucleic acid dephosphorylation were Ag(I), Cu(I), Cd(II), Cu(II), Mn(II), Ni(II), and Pb(II) (avg inhibition greater than or equal to 35%). Other elements that inhibited dephosphorylation of RNA and DNA added to soils included Ba(II), Co(II), Hg(II), Zn(II), Ti(IV), V(IV), and W(VI). When the pesticides were compared by using 5 mg of active ingredient kg/sup -1/ of soil, the average inhibition in nucleic acid dephosphorylation ranged from 14% with butylate to 39% with chloramben. The most effective inhibitors (> 25%) were atrazine, naptalam, chloramben, dicamba, trifluralin, and maneb. Other pesticides that inhibited RNA and DNA dephosphorylation in soils included cyanazine, 2,4-D, dinitroamine, EPTC plus R-25788, alachlor, paraquat, butylate, and captan.

  15. AdS duals of matrix strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Jose F.; Samtleben, Henning

    2003-06-01

    We review recent work on the holographic duals of type II and heterotic matrix string theories described by warped AdS3 supergravities. In particular, we compute the spectra of Kaluza-Klein primaries for type I, II supergravities on warped AdS3 × S7 and match them with the primary operators in the dual two-dimensional gauge theories. The presence of non-trivial warp factors and dilaton profiles requires a modification of the familiar dictionary between masses and 'scaling' dimensions of fields and operators. We present these modifications for the general case of domain wall/QFT correspondences between supergravities on warped AdSd+1 × Sq geometries and super Yang-Mills theories with 16 supercharges.

  16. Can Teachers Be Evaluated by Their Students' Test Scores? Should They Be? The Use of Value-Added Measures of Teacher Effectiveness in Policy and Practice. Education Policy for Action Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Sean P.

    2010-01-01

    Value-added measures of teacher effectiveness are the centerpiece of a national movement to evaluate, promote, compensate, and dismiss teachers based in part on their students' test results. Federal, state, and local policy-makers have adopted these methods en masse in recent years in an attempt to objectively quantify teaching effectiveness and…

  17. Effective route maintenance and restoration schemes in mobile ad hoc networks.

    PubMed

    Kang, Byung-Seok; Ko, In-Young

    2010-01-01

    This study proposes a location-based hybrid routing protocol to improve data packet delivery and to reduce control message overhead in mobile ad hoc networks. In mobile environments, where nodes move continuously at a high speed, it is generally difficult to maintain and restore route paths. Therefore, this study suggests a new flooding mechanism to control route paths. The essence of the proposed scheme is its effective tracking of the destination's location based on the beacon messages of the main route nodes. Through experiments based on an NS-2 simulator, the proposed scheme shows improvements in the data packet delivery ratio and reduces the amount of routing control message overhead compared with existing routing protocols such as AODV, LAR, ZRP and AODV-DFR.

  18. Effective Route Maintenance and Restoration Schemes in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Byung-Seok; Ko, In-Young

    2010-01-01

    This study proposes a location-based hybrid routing protocol to improve data packet delivery and to reduce control message overhead in mobile ad hoc networks. In mobile environments, where nodes move continuously at a high speed, it is generally difficult to maintain and restore route paths. Therefore, this study suggests a new flooding mechanism to control route paths. The essence of the proposed scheme is its effective tracking of the destination’s location based on the beacon messages of the main route nodes. Through experiments based on an NS-2 simulator, the proposed scheme shows improvements in the data packet delivery ratio and reduces the amount of routing control message overhead compared with existing routing protocols such as AODV, LAR, ZRP and AODV-DFR. PMID:22315570

  19. Mass and Isospin Effects in Multifragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sfienti, C.; Adrich, P.; Aumann, T.; Bacri, C. O.; Barczyk, T.; Bassini, R.; Boiano, C.; Botvina, A. S.; Boudard, A.; Brzychczyk, J.; Chbihi, A.; Cibor, J.; Czech, B.; De Napoli, M.; Ducret, J.-E.; Emling, H.; Frankland, J.; Hellström, M.; Henzlova, D.; Kezzar, K.; Immé, G.; Iori, I.; Johansson, H.; Lafriakh, A.; Le Fèvre, A.; Le Gentil, E.; Leifels, Y.; Lynch, W. G.; Lühning, J.; Łukasik, J.; Lynen, U.; Majka, Z.; Mocko, M.; Müller, W. F. J.; Mykulyak, A.; Orth, H.; Otte, A. N.; Palit, R.; Pullia, A.; Raciti, G.; Rapisarda, E.; Sann, H.; Schwarz, C.; Simon, H.; Sokolov, A.; Sümmerer, K.; Trautmann, W.; Tsang, M. B.; Verde, G.; Volant, C.; Wallace, M.; Weick, H.; Wiechula, J.; Wieloch, A.; Zwieglinski, B.

    2005-03-01

    A systematic study of isospin effects in the breakup of projectile spectators at relativistic energies has been performed with the ALADiN spectrometer at the GSI laboratory (Darmstadt). Four different projectiles 197Au, 124La, 124Sn and 107Sn, all with an incident energy of 600 AMeV, have been used, thus allowing a study of various combinations of masses and N/Z ratios in the entrance channel. The measurement of the momentum vector and of the charge of all projectile fragments with Z > 1 entering the acceptance of the ALADiN magnet has been performed with the high efficiency and resolution achieved with the TP-MUSIC IV detector. The Rise and Fall behavior of the mean multiplicity of IMFs as a function of Zbound and its dependence on the isotopic composition has been determined for the studied systems. Other observables investigated so far include mean N/Z values of the emitted light fragments and neutron multiplicities. Qualitative agreement has been obtained between the observed gross properties and the predictions of the Statistical Multifragmentation Model.

  20. Hairy AdS solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anabalón, Andrés; Astefanesei, Dumitru; Choque, David

    2016-11-01

    We construct exact hairy AdS soliton solutions in Einstein-dilaton gravity theory. We examine their thermodynamic properties and discuss the role of these solutions for the existence of first order phase transitions for hairy black holes. The negative energy density associated to hairy AdS solitons can be interpreted as the Casimir energy that is generated in the dual filed theory when the fermions are antiperiodic on the compact coordinate.

  1. Aharonov-Bohm effect on AdS{sub 2} and nonlinear supersymmetry of reflectionless Poeschl-Teller system

    SciTech Connect

    Correa, Francisco Jakubsky, Vit Plyushchay, Mikhail S.

    2009-05-15

    We explain the origin and the nature of a special nonlinear supersymmetry of a reflectionless Poeschl-Teller system by the Aharonov-Bohm effect for a non-relativistic particle on the AdS{sub 2}. A key role in the supersymmetric structure appearing after reduction by a compact generator of the AdS{sub 2} isometry is shown to be played by the discrete symmetries related to the space and time reflections in the ambient Minkowski space. We also observe that a correspondence between the two quantum non-relativistic systems is somewhat of the AdS/CFT holography nature.

  2. Assessing the effect of adding interactive modeling to the geoscience curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, A.; Marshall, J.; Cardenas, M.

    2013-12-01

    Technology and computer models enhance the learning experience when appropriately utilized. Moreover, learning is significantly improved when effective visualization is combined with models of processes allowing for inquiry-based problem solving. Still, hands-on experiences in real scenarios result in better contextualization of related problems compared to virtual laboratories. Therefore, the role of scientific visualization, technology, and computer modeling is to enhance, not displace, the learning experience by supplementing real-world problem solving and experiences, although in some circumstances, they can adequately serve to take the place of reality. The key to improving scientific education is to embrace an inquiry-based approach that favorably uses technology. This study will attempt to evaluate the effect of adding interactive modeling to the geological sciences curriculum. An assessment tool, designed to assess student understanding of physical hydrology, was used to evaluate a curriculum intervention based on student learning with a data- and modeling-driven approach using COMSOL Multiphysics software. This intervention was implemented in an upper division and graduate physical hydrology course in fall 2012. Students enrolled in the course in fall 2011 served as the control group. Interactive modeling was added to the curriculum in fall 2012 to replace the analogous mathematical modeling done by hand in fall 2011. Pre- and post-test results were used to assess and report its effectiveness. Student interviews were also used to probe student reactions to both the experimental and control curricula. The pre- and post-tests asked students to describe the significant processes in the hydrological cycle and describe the laws governing these processes. Their ability to apply their knowledge in a real-world problem was also assessed. Since the pre- and post-test data failed to meet the assumption of normality, a non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test was run to

  3. Effects of adding silica particles on certain properties of resin-modified glass-ionomer cement

    PubMed Central

    Felemban, Nayef H.; Ebrahim, Mohamed I.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of incorporation of silica particles with different concentrations on some properties of resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC): Microleakage, compressive strength, tensile strength, water sorption, and solubility. Materials and Methods: Silica particle was incorporated into RMGIC powder to study its effects, one type of RMGIC (Type II visible light-cured) and three concentrations of silica particles (0.06, 0.08, and 0.1% weight) were used. One hundred and twenty specimens were fabricated for measuring microleakage, compressive strength, tensile strength, water sorption, and solubility. Statistical Analysis: One-way analysis of variance and Tukey's tests were used for measuring significance between means where P ≤ 0.05. Results: RMGIC specimens without any additives showed significantly highest microleakage and lowest compressive and tensile strengths. Conclusion: Silica particles added to RMGIC have the potential as a reliable restorative material with increased compressive strength, tensile strength, and water sorption but decreased microleakage and water solubility. PMID:27095901

  4. Cholesterol Lowering Effect of Plant Stanol Ester Yoghurt Drinks with Added Camelina Oil

    PubMed Central

    Salo, Pia; Kuusisto, Päivi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of yoghurt minidrinks containing two doses of plant stanol ester either with or without added camelina oil on the serum cholesterol levels in moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. In this randomised, double-blind, parallel group study, 143 subjects consumed a 65 mL minidrink together with a meal daily for four weeks. The minidrink contained 1.6 or 2.0 grams of plant stanols with or without 2 grams of alpha-linolenic acid-rich camelina oil. The placebo minidrink did not contain plant stanols or camelina oil. All plant stanol treated groups showed statistically significant total, LDL, and non-HDL cholesterol lowering relative to baseline and relative to placebo. Compared to placebo, LDL cholesterol was lowered by 9.4% (p < 0.01) and 8.1% (p < 0.01) with 1.6 g and 2 g plant stanols, respectively. With addition of Camelina oil, 1.6 g plant stanols resulted in 11.0% (p < 0.01) and 2 g plant stanols in 8.4% (p < 0.01) reduction in LDL cholesterol compared to placebo. In conclusion, yoghurt minidrinks with plant stanol ester reduced serum LDL cholesterol significantly and addition of a small amount of camelina oil did not significantly enhance the cholesterol lowering effect. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02628990. PMID:26998355

  5. The Cost-Effectiveness of Replacing the Bottom Quartile of Novice Teachers through Value-Added Teacher Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Stuart S.; Ritter, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted of Gordon, Kane, and Staiger's (2006) proposal to raise student achievement by identifying and replacing the bottom quartile of novice teachers, using value-added assessment of teacher performance. The cost effectiveness of this proposal was compared to the cost effectiveness of voucher programs, charter…

  6. Pump Effects in Planetary Mass Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahaffy, Paul; Harpold, Dan

    1999-01-01

    Mass spectrometers provide a useful tool in solar system exploration since fundamental questions of Solar System formation and evolution may be constrained by models based on the chemical and isotopic data provided by these instruments. For example, comparison of such data between the atmospheres of the terrestrial planets enables an understanding of mechanisms of atmospheric loss to space and production sources such as from planetary outgassing and from infall from objects such as comets. Over the past 25 years, mass spectrometers have been sent to Mars, Venus, Comet Halley, and Jupiter and are presently in transit to the Saturnian system to sample the atmosphere of Saturn's moon Titan. The quality of data derived from a very small, lightweight, and rugged instrument is constrained not only by the mass analyzer itself, but also by the performance of its gas sampling and pumping systems. A comparison of several planetary mass spectrometer experiments is provided with a focus on the demands placed on the gas processing and pumping systems. For example, the figure below is a mass spectrum from deep in the atmosphere of Jupiter obtained from a quadrupole mass spectrometer developed in the early 1980's for the Galileo Probe (Niemann et al., Space Sci. Rev., 60, 111-142 (1992)). Measurements of Jovian noble gases and other species with this system is described.

  7. Effects of long-term treatment with pioglitazone on cognition and glucose metabolism of PS1-KI, 3xTg-AD, and wild-type mice.

    PubMed

    Masciopinto, F; Di Pietro, N; Corona, C; Bomba, M; Pipino, C; Curcio, M; Di Castelnuovo, A; Ciavardelli, D; Silvestri, E; Canzoniero, L M T; Sekler, I; Pandolfi, A; Sensi, S L

    2012-12-20

    In this study, we investigated the effects of long-term (9-month) treatment with pioglitazone (PIO; 20 mg/kg/d) in two animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related neural dysfunction and pathology: the PS1-KI(M146V) (human presenilin-1 (M146V) knock-in mouse) and 3xTg-AD (triple transgenic mouse carrying AD-linked mutations) mice. We also investigated the effects on wild-type (WT) mice. Mice were monitored for body mass changes, fasting glycemia, glucose tolerance, and studied for changes in brain mitochondrial enzyme activity (complexes I and IV) as well as energy metabolism (lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)). Cognitive effects were investigated with the Morris water maze (MWM) test and the object recognition task (ORT). Behavioral analysis revealed that PIO treatment promoted positive cognitive effects in PS1-KI female mice. These effects were associated with normalization of peripheral gluco-regulatory abnormalities that were found in untreated PS1-KI females. PIO-treated PS1-KI females also showed no statistically significant alterations in brain mitochondrial enzyme activity but significantly increased reverse LDH activity.PIO treatment produced no effects on cognition, glucose metabolism, or mitochondrial functioning in 3xTg-AD mice. Finally, PIO treatment promoted enhanced short-term memory performance in WT male mice, a group that did not show deregulation of glucose metabolism but that showed decreased activity of complex I in hippocampal and cortical mitochondria. Overall, these results indicate metabolically driven cognitive-enhancing effects of PIO that are differentially gender-related among specific genotypes.

  8. Projection effects in coronal mass ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vršnak, B.; Sudar, D.; Ruždjak, D.; Žic, T.

    2007-07-01

    Context: Basic observational parameters of a coronal mass ejection (CME) are its speed and angular width. Measurements of the CME speed and angular width are severely influenced by projection effects. Aims: The goal of this paper is to investigate a statistical relationship between the plane-of-sky speeds of CMEs and the direction of their propagation, hopefully providing an estimate of the true speeds of CMEs. Methods: We analyze the correlation between the plane-of-sky velocity and the position of the CME source region, employing several non-halo CME samples. The samples are formed applying various restrictions to avoid crosstalk of relevant parameters. For example, we select only CMEs observed to radial distances larger than 10 solar radii; we omit CMEs showing a considerable acceleration in the considered distance range and treat CMEs of different angular widths separately. Finally, we combine these restriction criteria, up to the limits beyond which the statistical significance of the results becomes ambiguous. Results: A distinct anti-correlation is found between the angular width of CMEs and their source-region position, clearly showing an increasing trend towards the disc center. Similarly, all of the considered subsamples show a correlation between the CME projected speed and the distance of the source region from the disc center. On average, velocities of non-halo limb-CMEs are 1.5-2 times higher than in the case of non-halo CMEs launched from regions located close to the disc center. Conclusions: Unfortunately, the established empirical relationships provide only a rough estimate of the velocity correction as a function of the source-region location. To a certain degree, the results can be explained in terms of CME cone models, but only after taking crosstalk of various parameters and observational artifacts into account.

  9. Effective electrostatic interactions arising in core-shell charged microgel suspensions with added salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moncho-Jordá, A.; Anta, J. A.; Callejas-Fernández, J.

    2013-04-01

    The mixture formed by charged (ionic) microgels in the presence of 1:1 added salt, with explicit consideration of a core-shell structure of the microgel particles, is studied. By solving numerically the three-component Ornstein-Zernike integral equations, the counter- and coion penetration inside the microgel network and the resulting effective microgel-microgel electrostatic interaction are calculated. This is done in the limit of very low microgel concentration, so that the resulting pair-wise effective potential is not affected by many-body particle-particle interactions. The ion-ion, microgel-ion, and microgel-microgel correlations are all treated within the Hypernetted-Chain approximation. The results obtained clearly show that the addition of salt to the microgel suspension has a deep impact on the screening of the bare charge of the particles, confirming an already well-known result: the strong reduction of the effective charge of the microgel occurring even for diluted electrolyte concentrations. We show that this effect becomes more important as we increase the shell size of the particle and derive a semi-empirical model for the effective charge as a function of the electrolyte concentration and the shell extension. The resulting microgel-microgel effective pair potential is analysed as a function of the shell extension and salt concentration. In all cases the interaction is a soft potential when particles overlap. For non-overlapping distances, our theoretical results indicate that microgel particles can be regarded as hard spherical colloids bearing an effective charge given by the net charge inside the particle and the microgel-microgel interaction shows a Yukawa-like behaviour as a function of the interparticle distance. It is also observed that increasing the bare-charge of the microgel induces a strong microgel-counterion coupling in the limit of very low electrolyte concentrations, which cannot be justified using linearized theories. This leads to

  10. Effective electrostatic interactions arising in core-shell charged microgel suspensions with added salt.

    PubMed

    Moncho-Jordá, A; Anta, J A; Callejas-Fernández, J

    2013-04-01

    The mixture formed by charged (ionic) microgels in the presence of 1:1 added salt, with explicit consideration of a core-shell structure of the microgel particles, is studied. By solving numerically the three-component Ornstein-Zernike integral equations, the counter- and coion penetration inside the microgel network and the resulting effective microgel-microgel electrostatic interaction are calculated. This is done in the limit of very low microgel concentration, so that the resulting pair-wise effective potential is not affected by many-body particle-particle interactions. The ion-ion, microgel-ion, and microgel-microgel correlations are all treated within the Hypernetted-Chain approximation. The results obtained clearly show that the addition of salt to the microgel suspension has a deep impact on the screening of the bare charge of the particles, confirming an already well-known result: the strong reduction of the effective charge of the microgel occurring even for diluted electrolyte concentrations. We show that this effect becomes more important as we increase the shell size of the particle and derive a semi-empirical model for the effective charge as a function of the electrolyte concentration and the shell extension. The resulting microgel-microgel effective pair potential is analysed as a function of the shell extension and salt concentration. In all cases the interaction is a soft potential when particles overlap. For non-overlapping distances, our theoretical results indicate that microgel particles can be regarded as hard spherical colloids bearing an effective charge given by the net charge inside the particle and the microgel-microgel interaction shows a Yukawa-like behaviour as a function of the interparticle distance. It is also observed that increasing the bare-charge of the microgel induces a strong microgel-counterion coupling in the limit of very low electrolyte concentrations, which cannot be justified using linearized theories. This leads to

  11. Effect of added carbohydrates on glycemic and insulin responses to children’s milk products.

    PubMed

    Brand-Miller, Jennie; Atkinson, Fiona; Rowan, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Powdered milk products for children (Growing Up Milk Powders or GUMPs) containing added carbohydrates such as glucose and sucrose are now well established in parts of Asia. We surveyed GUMPs in Malaysia and Indonesia to determine the content of added carbohydrates. The ingredient lists and nutrition information panels were used to calculate the percentage of declared carbohydrates contributed by added carbohydrates and a subset of seven products was tested for their glycemic index (GI) and insulin responses in healthy adults. The glycemic load for each product was calculated. In total, 58 products (n = 24 in Malaysia and n = 34 in Indonesia) were surveyed. Added carbohydrate content (excluding fibre) ranged from 0 to 21.5 g per serve. Milk powders without added sources of carbohydrate had similar GI values to standard liquid whole milk. Products containing maltodextrins, corn or glucose syrups increased the GI by more than 2-fold, and glycemic load (GL) by 7-fold compared to milk powders with no added carbohydrates. Insulin responses were significantly but not strongly correlated with glucose responses (r = 0.32, p < 0.006). Children's milk powders containing higher levels of added carbohydrate ingredients elicit higher glucose and insulin responses than liquid or powdered whole milk. PMID:23306187

  12. [Properties of benzethonium chloride in micellar solutions and the effect of added sodium chloride].

    PubMed

    Kopecký, F; Kopecká, B; Kaclík, P

    2006-07-01

    Aqueous solutions of the antimicrobially effective quaternary ammonium salt benzethonium chloride (hyamine 1622) were studied using UV spectrophotometry and partially conductometry. The spectra of micellar solutions of benzethonium chloride revealed a concentration-dependent bathochromic and hyperchromic shift of a weak UV absorption band in the region 250-300 nm. This served to elaborate the spectrophotometric determination of the critical micellar concentration (CMC) of benzethonium chloride and the concentration of free benzethonium cations in micellar solutions without an addition of NaCl and with a constant addition of NaCl 0.003, 0.1 and 0.15 mol/l. Premicellar associations were not observed and in NaCl-free solutions CMC 0.0028 mol/l was spectrophotometrically determined. An addition of NaCl resulted in an increased hyperchromic effect and strengthening of micellization, manifested by a more than ten-times decrease in the CMC as well as the concentration of free benzethonium cations in micellar solutions. The courses of the determined concentrations of free benzethonium cations in the solutions both without and with the presence of NaCl were quite similar; their maximal values were always just a little higher than the corresponding CMC and with a further growth of the total concentration of benzethonium chloride there was, on the other hand, a marked decrease in the concentration of its free cations in micellar solution. Possible effects of a decreased concentration of free benzethonium cations due to an added electrolyte on antimicrobial activity and formation of ionic pairs are discussed.

  13. WITHDRAWN The analgesic effect of paracetamol when added to lidocaine for intravenous regional anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Celik, M; Saricaoglu, F; Canbay, O; Dal, D; Uzumcigil, A; Leblebicioglu, G; Aypar, U

    2011-10-21

    Ahead of Print article withdrawn by publisher AIM: Intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA) is frequently used in patients who will undergo upper extremity surgical operations for its ease of use, rapid effectiveness and short hospitalization period. Different drug combinations have been used to overcome some systemic adverse effects and to increase the postoperative analgesic effectiveness. In our study, we evaluated the effects of paracetamol (Perfalgan) when added to lidocaine for IVRA, looking specifically at tourniquet pain and postoperative pain. METHODS: Ninety patients undergoing elective hand surgery with IVRA were randomly assigned to three groups to receive either IV saline and C-IVRA with 0.5% lidocaine 3 mg/kg (control group, N=30), IV saline and IVRA with 0.5% lidocaine and 20 mL paracetamol (10 mg/cc) (P-IVRA group, N=30) or IV paracetamol and IVRA with 0.5% lidocaine (L-IV group, N=30). The following were measured: 1) sensory and motor block onset and recovery time, 2) tourniquet pain after tourniquet application and at 10, 20 and 30 min after tourniquet deflation, 3) the visual analog scale (VAS) scores of tourniquet pain at 30 min and 1, 2, 4, 6 and 24 h postoperatively, 4) the time to first analgesic requirement, 5) total analgesic consumption in 24 h and 6) side effects. RESULTS: Sensory and motor block onset and recovery times were similar in both groups. VAS scores of tourniquet pain were lower in group P-IRVA at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 24 h, postoperatively (P<0.01). Anesthesia quality, as determined by the anesthesiologist and surgeon, was similar in both groups. The time to the first postoperative analgesic request was 67.83±57.48 min in group C-IRVA and 93±80.79 min in group P-IRVA (P<0.05). Paracetamol consumption was significantly less in group P-IRVA (1.60± 1 [tablets]) when compared with group C-IRVA (2.45±0.9; P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Perfalgan as an adjunct to lidocaine improves postoperative analgesia in IVRA without adverse effects. PMID

  14. Theoretical re-evaluations of the black hole mass-bulge mass relation - I. Effect of seed black hole mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirakata, Hikari; Kawaguchi, Toshihiro; Okamoto, Takashi; Makiya, Ryu; Ishiyama, Tomoaki; Matsuoka, Yoshiki; Nagashima, Masahiro; Enoki, Motohiro; Oogi, Taira; Kobayashi, Masakazu A. R.

    2016-10-01

    We explore the effect of varying the mass of a seed black hole on the resulting black hole mass-bulge mass relation at z ˜ 0, using a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation combined with large cosmological N-body simulations. We constrain our model by requiring that the observed properties of galaxies at z ˜ 0 are reproduced. In keeping with previous semi-analytic models, we place a seed black hole immediately after a galaxy forms. When the mass of the seed is set at 105 M⊙, we find that the model results become inconsistent with recent observational results of the black hole mass-bulge mass relation for dwarf galaxies. In particular, the model predicts that bulges with ˜109 M⊙ harbour larger black holes than observed. On the other hand, when we employ seed black holes of 103 M⊙ or select their mass randomly within a 103-5 M⊙ range, the resulting relation is consistent with observation estimates, including the observed dispersion. We find that, to obtain stronger constraints on the mass of seed black holes, observations of less massive bulges at z ˜ 0 are a more powerful comparison than the relations at higher redshifts.

  15. Effects of adding MIN-AD to steam-flaked corn-based diets with or without wet corn distiller's grain plus solubles on performance by beef cattle during receiving and finishing phases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of wet corn distillers grain (WCDG) and MIN-AD (MIN-AD Inc., Amarillo, TX), a commercial source of calcium-magnesium carbonate, on cattle performance and carcass measurements were evaluated in a 42-d receiving phase (220 steers; initial BW = 279.3 kg) and a subsequent finishing phase (192 s...

  16. Mass Media Effects and Black Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroman, Carolyn A.

    1984-01-01

    Black Americans' use of and belief in the credibility of the mass media is no less extensive than that of the general population. In fact, television and radio use by blacks exceeds that of whites and research shows the broadcast media to be particularly important sources of information for blacks on consumer and political affairs. But many…

  17. An Effective Initial Mass Function for Galactic Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenbach, David

    2004-01-01

    We derive a semi-empirical effective galactic initial mass function (IMF), which represents the IMF averaged over the age of the galactic disk, from observational constraints. We assume that the star formation rate in a galaxy can be expressed as the product of the IMF,psi(m), which is a smooth function of mass m (in units of solar mass), and a time and space dependent rate zeta(sub *1). The mass dependence of the proposed IMF is determined by four parameters: the low-mass slope gamma, the high-mass slope -Gamma, the characteristic mass m(sub ch) at which the IMF turns over, and the upper limit on the mass, m(sub u).

  18. Music and Moral Judgment: The Effect of Background Music on the Evaluation of Ads Promoting Unethical Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziv, Naomi; Hoftman, Moran; Geyer, Mor

    2012-01-01

    Background music is often used in ads as a means of persuasion. Previous research has studied the effect of music in advertising using neutral or uncontroversial products. The aim of the studies reported here was to examine the effect of music on the perception of products promoting unethical behavior. Each of the series of three studies described…

  19. Effectiveness Measures for Cross-Sectional Studies: A Comparison of Value-Added Models and Contextualised Attainment Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenkeit, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    Educational effectiveness research often appeals to "value-added models (VAM)" to gauge the impact of schooling on student learning net of the effect of student background variables. A huge amount of cross-sectional studies do not, however, meet VAM's requirement for longitudinal data. "Contextualised attainment models (CAM)" measure the influence…

  20. Caffeine effects on resting-state electrodermal levels in AD/HD suggest an anomalous arousal mechanism.

    PubMed

    Barry, Robert J; Clarke, Adam R; McCarthy, Rory; Selikowitz, Mark; MacDonald, Brett; Dupuy, Franca E

    2012-03-01

    The effect of a single oral dose of caffeine was examined in a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled repeated-measures cross-over study. Eighteen children with AD/HD, aged between 8 and 13 years, were individually age- and gender-matched with a control group. All children participated in two sessions, one week apart. Skin conductance level (SCL) from a 3 min eyes-closed epoch, commencing 30 min after ingestion of caffeine or placebo, was examined. Across conditions, mean SCL was lower in the AD/HD group than controls, confirming hypoarousal in AD/HD. Caffeine produced an increase in SCL, and this increase did not differ between the groups. However, arousal increases were dose-dependent in controls, but not in AD/HD. Rather, caffeine-induced arousal increases in the AD/HD group were positively related to their hyperactivity/impulsivity levels. This suggests an anomalous arousal mechanism in AD/HD functionally related to impairment in one symptom dimension. PMID:22266163

  1. A non-resonant mass sensor to eliminate the "missing mass" effect during mass measurement of biological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrikanth, V.; Bobji, M. S.

    2014-10-01

    Resonant sensors and crystal oscillators for mass detection need to be excited at very high natural frequencies (MHz). Use of such systems to measure mass of biological materials affects the accuracy of mass measurement due to their viscous and/or viscoelastic properties. The measurement limitation of such sensor system is the difficulty in accounting for the "missing mass" of the biological specimen in question. A sensor system has been developed in this work, to be operated in the stiffness controlled region at very low frequencies as compared to its fundamental natural frequency. The resulting reduction in the sensitivity due to non-resonant mode of operation of this sensor is compensated by the high resolution of the sensor. The mass of different aged drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) is measured. The difference in its mass measurement during resonant mode of operation is also presented. That, viscosity effects do not affect the working of this non-resonant mass sensor is clearly established by direct comparison.

  2. Effect of adding impression material to mandibular denture space in Piezography.

    PubMed

    Ikebe, K; Okuno, I; Nokubi, T

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of adding impression material on denture space using a piezographical record. Subjects were ten voluntary edentulous patients, aged from 61 to 84 years old. A maxillary trial denture with anterior artificial teeth and a mandibular base plate with a keel were inserted into the oral cavity. Three ml of tissue-conditioning materials was injected on the base plate for each trial. Afterwards, the patients were instructed to pronounce various phonemes, so that tongue, cheeks and lips conformed to the denture space. The impression complexes were cut at the level of the estimated occlusal plane. Occlusal analogues were made by duplicating the impression complexes. Measurements were performed for five analogues from the first to fifth additions for each subject. The data were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA), and a Friedman's test followed by a Bonferroni test for multiple comparisons with a level of significance at 5%. At the molar and premolar positions, the bucco-lingual widths of the occlusal table increased significantly at incremental injection of impression materials from P1 to P4. The midpoints of the analogues were located at a distance of 1.5 mm buccally at the molar position and at a distance of 1.9 mm buccally at the premolar position from the top of the alveolar crest, independent of the addition of impression material. It was concluded that denture space was regulated by volume of material and was located slightly on the buccal side from the crest of the residual alveolar ridge.

  3. Comparison of the Effect of Lidocaine Adding Dexketoprofen and Paracetamol in Intravenous Regional Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Akdogan, Ali; Eroglu, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Comparison of dexketoprofen and paracetamol added to the lidocaine in Regional Intravenous Anesthesia in terms of hemodynamic effects, motor and sensorial block onset times, intraoperative VAS values, and analgesia requirements. Method. The files of 73 patients between 18 and 65 years old in the ASA I-II risk group who underwent hand and forearm surgery were analyzed and 60 patients were included in the study. Patients were divided into 3 groups: Group D (n = 20), 3 mg/kg 2% lidocaine and 50 mg/2 mL dexketoprofen trometamol; Group P (n = 20), 3 mg/kg 2% lidocaine and 3 mg/kg paracetamol; Group K (n = 20), 3 mg/kg 2% lidocaine. Demographic data, motor and sensorial block times, heart rate, mean blood pressure, VAS values, and intraoperative and postoperative analgesia requirements were recorded. Results. Sensorial and motor block onset durations of Group K were significantly longer than other groups. Motor block termination duration was found to be significantly longer in Group D than in Group K. VAS values of Group K were found higher than other groups. There was no significant difference in VAS values between Group D and Group P. Analgesia requirement was found to be significantly more in Group K than in Group P. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of heart rates and mean arterial pressures. Conclusion. We concluded that the addition of 3 mg/kg paracetamol and 50 mg dexketoprofen to lidocaine as adjuvant in Regional Intravenous Anesthesia applied for hand and/or forearm surgery created a significant difference clinically. PMID:24800256

  4. Comparison of the effects of acetaminophen to ketorolac when added to lidocaine for intravenous regional anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Myoung Jin; Cheong, Soon Ho; Shin, Chee Mahn; Kim, Young Jae; Choe, Young Kyun; Lee, Kun Moo; Lim, Se Hun; Kim, Young Hwan; Cho, Kwang Rae; Lee, Sang Eun

    2010-01-01

    Background This study was done to evaluate the effect on pain relief when acetaminophen was added to lidocaine for intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA). Methods Sixty patients undergoing hand or forearm surgery received IVRA were assigned to three groups: Group C received 0.5% lidocaine diluted with 0.9% normal saline to a total volume of 40 ml (n = 20), Group P received 0.5% lidocaine diluted with intravenous acetaminophen 300 mg to a total volume of 40 ml (n = 20) and Group K received 0.5% lidocaine diluted with 0.9% normal saline plus ketorolac 10 mg made up to a total volume of 40 ml (n = 20). Sensory block onset time, tourniquet pain onset time, which was defined as the time from tourniquet application to fentanyl administration for relieving tourniquet pain and amount of analgesic consumption during surgery were recorded. Following deflation of tourniquet sensory recovery time, postoperative pain and quantity of analgesic uses in post-anesthesia care unit were assessed. Results Sensory block onset time was shorter in Group P compared to Group C (P < 0.05). Tourniquet pain onset time was delayed in Group P when compared with group C (P < 0.05). Postoperative pain and analgesic consumption were reduced in Group P and Group K compared to Group C (P < 0.001). Conclusions The addition of acetaminophen to lidocaine for IVRA shortens the onset time of sensory block and delays tourniquet pain onset time, but not with ketorolac. Both acetaminophen and ketorolac reduce postoperative pain and analgesic consumption. PMID:20508792

  5. Effect of goserelin and leuprolide added to the semen on reproductive performance in rabbits - Short communication.

    PubMed

    Gogol, Piotr

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of two synthetic GnRH analogues, goserelin and leuprolide, to induce ovulation in rabbit does using intravaginal administration. A total of 252 primiparous lactating does were randomly divided into five groups that, at the time of insemination, received the following treatments for ovulation induction: 1 µg of buserelin administered intramuscularly (control group), 5 µg of goserelin added to the semen dose (Group G5), 10 µg of goserelin added to the semen dose (Group G10), 5 µg of leuprolide added to the semen dose (Group L5), and 10 µg of leuprolide added to the semen dose (Group L10). The kindling rate was 80.5% in Group G10 and 75.0% in Group L10; these values are comparable to the kindling rate obtained in the control group (85.9%). The kindling rates in Groups G5 and L5 were significantly lower than in the control group (60.0%, 54.2% and 85.9%, respectively). The number of live-born rabbits was not significantly affected by the ovulation induction treatment. As regards the total number of rabbits born the only significant difference was observed between Groups G5 and L5. This study shows the possibility of inducing ovulation in rabbits by adding goserelin and leuprolide directly to the semen dose.

  6. Effect of goserelin and leuprolide added to the semen on reproductive performance in rabbits - Short communication.

    PubMed

    Gogol, Piotr

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of two synthetic GnRH analogues, goserelin and leuprolide, to induce ovulation in rabbit does using intravaginal administration. A total of 252 primiparous lactating does were randomly divided into five groups that, at the time of insemination, received the following treatments for ovulation induction: 1 µg of buserelin administered intramuscularly (control group), 5 µg of goserelin added to the semen dose (Group G5), 10 µg of goserelin added to the semen dose (Group G10), 5 µg of leuprolide added to the semen dose (Group L5), and 10 µg of leuprolide added to the semen dose (Group L10). The kindling rate was 80.5% in Group G10 and 75.0% in Group L10; these values are comparable to the kindling rate obtained in the control group (85.9%). The kindling rates in Groups G5 and L5 were significantly lower than in the control group (60.0%, 54.2% and 85.9%, respectively). The number of live-born rabbits was not significantly affected by the ovulation induction treatment. As regards the total number of rabbits born the only significant difference was observed between Groups G5 and L5. This study shows the possibility of inducing ovulation in rabbits by adding goserelin and leuprolide directly to the semen dose. PMID:26919148

  7. The effects of malicious nodes on performance of mobile ad hoc networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fanzhi; Shi, Xiyu; Jassim, Sabah; Adams, Christopher

    2006-05-01

    Wireless ad hoc networking offers convenient infrastructureless communication over the shared wireless channel. However, the nature of ad hoc networks makes them vulnerable to security attacks. Unlike their wired counterpart, infrastructureless ad hoc networks do not have a clear line of defense, their topology is dynamically changing, and every mobile node can receive messages from its neighbors and can be contacted by all other nodes in its neighborhood. This poses a great danger to network security if some nodes behave in a malicious manner. The immediate concern about the security in this type of networks is how to protect the network and the individual mobile nodes against malicious act of rogue nodes from within the network. This paper is concerned with security aspects of wireless ad hoc networks. We shall present results of simulation experiments on ad hoc network's performance in the presence of malicious nodes. We shall investigate two types of attacks and the consequences will be simulated and quantified in terms of loss of packets and other factors. The results show that network performance, in terms of successful packet delivery ratios, significantly deteriorates when malicious nodes act according to the defined misbehaving characteristics.

  8. Metabolic effects of adding sucrose and aspartame to the diet of subjects with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Colagiuri, S; Miller, J J; Edwards, R A

    1989-09-01

    This study compared the effects of adding sucrose and aspartame to the usual diet of individuals with well-controlled noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). A double-blind, cross-over design was used with each 6-wk study period. During the sucrose period, 45 g sucrose (9% of total daily energy) was added, 10 g with each main meal and 5 g with each between-meal beverage. An equivalent sweetening quantity of aspartame (162 mg) was ingested during the aspartame period. The addition of sucrose did not have a deleterious effect on glycemic control, lipids, glucose tolerance, or insulin action. No differences were observed between sucrose and aspartame. Sucrose added as an integral part of the diabetic diet does not adversely affect metabolic control in well-controlled NIDDM subjects. Aspartame is an acceptable sugar substitute for diabetic individuals but no specific advantage over sucrose was demonstrated.

  9. SEM analysis of ionizing radiation effects in an analog to digital converter /AD571/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gauthier, M. K.; Perret, J.; Evans, K. C.

    1981-01-01

    The considered investigation is concerned with the study of the total-dose degradation mechanisms in an IIL analog to digital (A/D) converter. The A/D converter is a 10 digit device having nine separate functional units on the chip which encompass several hundred transistors and circuit elements. It was the objective of the described research to find the radiation sensitive elements by a systematic search of the devices on the LSI chip. The employed technique using a scanning electron microscope to determine the functional blocks of an integrated circuit which are sensitive to ionizing radiation and then progressively zeroing in on the soft components within those blocks, proved extremely successful on the AD571. Four functional blocks were found to be sensitive to radiation, including the Voltage Reference, DAC, IIL Clock, and IIL SAR.

  10. Protection from radiation injury by elemental diet: does added glutamine change the effect?

    PubMed

    McArdle, A H

    1994-01-01

    The feeding of a protein hydrolysate based 'elemental' diet supplemented with added glutamine did not provide superior protection to the small intestine of dogs subjected to therapeutic pelvic irradiation. Comparison of diets with and without the added glutamine showed significant protection of the intestine from radiation injury. Both histological examination and electron microscopy showed lack of tissue injury with both diets. The activity of the free radical generating enzymes, scavengers, and antioxidants were similar in the intestinal mucosa of dogs fed either diet. After radiation, however, the activity of xanthine oxidase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase were significantly (p < 0.002) higher in the intestine of dogs fed elemental diet without the added glutamine. If the activities of these enzymes are important in the protection of the intestine from radiation injury, then the addition of extra glutamine may provide no benefit.

  11. Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Quigg, Chris

    2007-12-05

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  12. A Reanalysis of the Effects of Teacher Replacement Using Value-Added Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Stuart S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In principle, value-added modeling (VAM) might be justified if it can be shown to be a more reliable indicator of teacher quality than existing indicators for existing low-stakes decisions that are already being made, such as the award of small merit bonuses. However, a growing number of researchers now advocate the use of VAM to…

  13. Estimating Teacher and School Effectiveness in Pittsburgh: Value-Added Modeling and Results. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipscomb, Stephen; Gill, Brian; Booker, Kevin; Johnson, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    At the request of Pittsburgh Public Schools (PPS) and the Pittsburgh Federation of Teachers (PFT), Mathematica is developing value-added models (VAMs) that aim to estimate the contributions of individual teachers, teams of teachers, and schools to the achievement growth of their students. The analyses described in this report are intended as an…

  14. Using Value-Added Models to Measure Teacher Effects on Students' Motivation and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruzek, Erik A.; Domina, Thurston; Conley, AnneMarie M.; Duncan, Greg J.; Karabenick, Stuart A.

    2015-01-01

    Value-added (VA) models measure teacher contributions to student learning and are increasingly employed in educational reform efforts. Using data from 35 seventh-grade teachers and 2,026 students across seven schools, we employ VA methods to measure teacher contributions to students' motivational orientations (mastery and performance achievement…

  15. Value-Added Modeling of Teacher Effectiveness: An Exploration of Stability across Models and Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Xiaoxia A.; Darling-Hammond, Linda; Haertel, Edward; Thomas, Ewart

    2010-01-01

    Recent policy interest in tying student learning to teacher evaluation has led to growing use of value-added methods for assessing student learning gains linked to individual teachers. VAM analyses rely on complex assumptions about the roles of schools, multiple teachers, student aptitudes and efforts, homes and families in producing measured…

  16. Do News Media Messages Mitigate the Effect of Corporate Environmental Ads? A Test of Source Credibility and Message Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trent, John; Greer, Jennifer

    Factors that influence attitudes toward a corporate environmental advertisement and its sponsoring company were examined with a quasi-experimental design. Subjects (undergraduate students) read one of five news stories about an ad touting an oil company's active environmental involvement to test for the effects of publication credibility and…

  17. Effects of Adding Multisensory Components to a Supplemental Reading Program on the Decoding Skills of Treatment Resisters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Monica L.; Helf, Shawnna; Cooke, Nancy L.

    2008-01-01

    A multiple-baseline across participants was used to analyze the effects of adding multisensory elements to an explicit, systematic phonics program on the reading achievement of six students identified as treatment resisters. Participants were given 10 minutes of daily instruction in the supplemental program in addition to instruction in the…

  18. Gravitational mass-shift effect in the standard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazinski, P. O.

    2012-02-01

    The gravitational mass-shift effect is investigated in the framework of the standard model with the energy cutoff regularization both for stationary and nonstationary backgrounds at the one-loop level. The problem of singularity of the effective potential of the Higgs field on the horizon of a black hole, which was reported earlier, is resolved. The equations characterizing the properties of a vacuum state are derived and solved in a certain approximation for the Schwarzschild black hole. The gravitational mass-shift effect is completely described in this case. The behavior of masses of the massive particles of the standard model depends on the value of the Higgs boson mass in a flat spacetime. If the Higgs boson mass in a flat spacetime is less than 263.6 GeV then a mass of any massive particle approaching a gravitating object grows. If the Higgs boson mass in a flat spacetime is greater than or equal to 278.2 GeV, the masses of all the massive particles decrease in a strong gravitational field. The Higgs boson masses lying between these two values prove to lead to instability, at least at the one-loop level, and so they are excluded. It turns out that the vacuum possesses the same properties as an ultrarelativistic fluid in a certain approximation. The expression for the entropy and enthalpy densities and the pressure of this fluid are obtained. The sound speed in this fluid is also derived.

  19. Excited-State Effective Masses in Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    George Fleming, Saul Cohen, Huey-Wen Lin

    2009-10-01

    We apply black-box methods, i.e. where the performance of the method does not depend upon initial guesses, to extract excited-state energies from Euclidean-time hadron correlation functions. In particular, we extend the widely used effective-mass method to incorporate multiple correlation functions and produce effective mass estimates for multiple excited states. In general, these excited-state effective masses will be determined by finding the roots of some polynomial. We demonstrate the method using sample lattice data to determine excited-state energies of the nucleon and compare the results to other energy-level finding techniques.

  20. The effect of footwear mass on the gait patterns of unilateral below-knee amputees.

    PubMed

    Donn, J M; Porter, D; Roberts, V C

    1989-12-01

    This study reports an investigation into the effect of shoe mass on the gait patterns of below-knee (BK) amputees. Ten established unilateral BK, patellar-tendon-bearing prosthesis wearers were assessed using a VICON system of gait analysis. Incremental masses of 50g (up to 200g) were added to the subjects' shoes and data captured as they walked along a 15m measurement field. Coefficients of symmetry of various parameters of the swing phase (knee frequency symmetry, swing time symmetry) were measured and their correlation was tested with the patient's preferred shoe mass and also their own shoe mass, all expressed as a proportion of body mass. The subjects' 'preferred' shoe mass (139-318g) showed the greatest symmetry in all the parameters examined (correlations 0.78-0.81 p less than 0.01 and less than 0.005), whereas there was no correlation between the subjects' own shoe mass (121-325g) and the symmetry coefficients measured.

  1. Natural Higgs mass in supersymmetry from nondecoupling effects.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Murayama, Hitoshi; Ruderman, Joshua T; Tobioka, Kohsaku

    2014-05-16

    The Higgs mass implies fine-tuning for minimal theories of weak-scale supersymmetry (SUSY). Nondecoupling effects can boost the Higgs mass when new states interact with the Higgs boson, but new sources of SUSY breaking that accompany such extensions threaten naturalness. We show that two singlets with a Dirac mass can increase the Higgs mass while maintaining naturalness in the presence of large SUSY breaking in the singlet sector. We explore the modified Higgs phenomenology of this scenario, which we call the "Dirac next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model."

  2. Effect of adding different thickening agents on the viscosity properties and in vitro mineral availability of infant formula.

    PubMed

    González-Bermúdez, Carlos A; Frontela-Saseta, Carmen; López-Nicolás, Rubén; Ros-Berruezo, Gaspar; Martínez-Graciá, Carmen

    2014-09-15

    The effect of adding different thickening agents (locust bean gum (LBG), modified corn and rice starches (MCS, MRS)) to an infant formula on both in vitro mineral availability (Ca, Fe and Zn), quantified by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS), and formula viscosity, after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, was investigated. LBG was the most effective agent to increase formula thickness. However, it showed a negative effect on Ca, Fe and Zn in vitro solubility and dialysability. MCS and MRS only affected calcium solubility and dialysability when they were used at ⩾50% of the maximum legal limit. No negative effect was observed for Fe and Zn when modified starches were added at the different concentrations assessed. The phytate content in the thickening ingredients was also analysed. Despite finding a considerable amount of phytic acid in the raw ingredients, its final concentration in the infant formula was insufficient to decrease in vitro mineral availability. PMID:24767020

  3. Analytic estimation of recycled products added value as a means for effective environmental management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batzias, Dimitris F.

    2012-12-01

    In this work, we present an analytic estimation of recycled products added value in order to provide a means for determining the degree of recycling that maximizes profit, taking also into account the social interest by including the subsidy of the corresponding investment. A methodology has been developed based on Life Cycle Product (LCP) with emphasis on added values H, R as fractions of production and recycle cost, respectively (H, R >1, since profit is included), which decrease by the corresponding rates h, r in the recycle course, due to deterioration of quality. At macrolevel, the claim that "an increase of exergy price, as a result of available cheap energy sources becoming more scarce, leads to less recovered quantity of any recyclable material" is proved by means of the tradeoff between the partial benefits due to material saving and resources degradation/consumption (assessed in monetary terms).

  4. The Effect of Manipulating Subject Mass on Lower Extremity Torque Patterns During Locomotion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeWitt, John K.; Cromwell, Ronita L.; Hagan, R. Donald

    2007-01-01

    During locomotion, humans adapt their motor patterns to maintain coordination despite changing conditions (Reisman et al., 2005). Bernstein (1967) proposed that in addition to the present state of a given joint, other factors, including limb inertia and velocity, must be taken into account to allow proper motion to occur. During locomotion with added mass counterbalanced using vertical suspension to maintain body weight, vertical ground reaction forces (GRF's) increase during walking but decrease during running, suggesting that adaptation may be velocity-specific (De Witt et al., 2006). It is not known, however, how lower extremity joint torques adapt to changes in inertial forces. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of increasing body mass while maintaining body weight upon lower-limb joint torque during walking and running. We hypothesized that adaptations in joint torque patterns would occur with the addition of body mass.

  5. SEASONALITY AND THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MASS VACCINATION

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Dennis L.; Dimitrov, Dobromir T.

    2016-01-01

    Many infectious diseases have seasonal outbreaks, which may be driven by cyclical environmental conditions (e.g., an annual rainy season) or human behavior (e.g., school calendars or seasonal migration). If a pathogen is only transmissible for a limited period of time each year, then seasonal outbreaks could infect fewer individuals than expected given the pathogen’s in-season transmissibility. Influenza, with its short serial interval and long season, probably spreads throughout a population until a substantial fraction of susceptible individuals are infected. Dengue, with a long serial interval and shorter season, may be constrained by its short transmission season rather than the depletion of susceptibles. Using mathematical modeling, we show that mass vaccination is most efficient, in terms of infections prevented per vaccine administered, at high levels of coverage for pathogens that have relatively long epidemic seasons, like influenza, and at low levels of coverage for pathogens with short epidemic seasons, like dengue. Therefore, the length of a pathogen’s epidemic season may need to be considered when evaluating the costs and benefits of vaccination programs. PMID:27105983

  6. Seasonality and the effectiveness of mass vaccination.

    PubMed

    Chao, Dennis L; Dimitrov, Dobromir T

    2016-04-01

    Many infectious diseases have seasonal outbreaks, which may be driven by cyclical environmental conditions (e.g., an annual rainy season) or human behavior (e.g., school calendars or seasonal migration). If a pathogen is only transmissible for a limited period of time each year, then seasonal outbreaks could infect fewer individuals than expected given the pathogen's in-season transmissibility. Influenza, with its short serial interval and long season, probably spreads throughout a population until a substantial fraction of susceptible individuals are infected. Dengue, with a long serial interval and shorter season, may be constrained by its short transmission season rather than the depletion of susceptibles. Using mathematical modeling, we show that mass vaccination is most efficient, in terms of infections prevented per vaccine administered, at high levels of coverage for pathogens that have relatively long epidemic seasons, like influenza, and at low levels of coverage for pathogens with short epidemic seasons, like dengue. Therefore, the length of a pathogen's epidemic season may need to be considered when evaluating the costs and benefits of vaccination programs. PMID:27105983

  7. The Effect of Mission Location on Mission Costs and Equivalent System Mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, John W.; Levri, Julie

    2002-01-01

    It is the goal of developers of advanced life support researcher to develop technology that reduces the cost of life support for future space missions and thereby enables missions that are currently infeasible or too expensive. Because the cost of propulsion dominates the cost of hardware emplacement in space and because the mass of a deliverable object controls its propulsive requirements, equivalent system mass (ESM) is used as a means for accounting for mission costs. ESM is typically calculated by adding to the actual mass the equivalent amount of mass that must be added to a mission due to other characteristics of a piece of hardware such as the item s volume or energy requirements. This approach works well for comparing different pieces of hardware when they go to the same location in space. However, different locations in mission space such low Earth orbit, Mars surface, or full trip to Mars and return to low Earth orbit require vastly different amounts of propulsion. Moving an object from Earth surface to the Martian surface and returning it to Earth will require as much as 100 times the propulsion that is required to move the object to low Earth orbit only. This paper presents the case for including the effect that location can have on cost as a part of ESM and suggests a method for achieving this improvement of ESM.

  8. On the nucleon effective mass role to the high energy proton spallation reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, B. M.; Pinheiro, A. R. C.; Gonçalves, M.; Duarte, S. B.; Cabral, R. G.

    2016-04-01

    We explore the effect of the nucleon effective mass to the dynamic evolution of the rapid phase of proton-nucleus spallation reactions. The analysis of the relaxation time for the non-equilibrium phase is studied by variations in the effective mass parameter. We determine the final excitation energy of the hot residual nucleus at the end of cascade phase and the de-excitation of the nuclear system is carried out considering the competition of particle evaporation and fission processes. It was shown that the excitation energy depends of the hot compound residual nucleus at the end of the rapid phase on the changing effective mass. The multiplicity of particles was also analyzed in cascade and evaporation phase of the reaction. The use of nucleon effective mass during cascade phase can be considered as an effect of the many-body nuclear interactions not included explicitly in a treatment to the nucleon-nucleon interaction inside the nucleus. This procedure represents a more realistic scenario to obtain the neutron multiplicity generated in this reaction, which is a benchmark for the calculation of the neutronic in the ADS reactors.

  9. Effective mass Schrödinger equation and nonlinear algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, B.; Roy, P.

    2005-06-01

    Using supersymmetry we obtain solutions of Schrödinger equation with a position dependent effective mass exhibiting a harmonic oscillator like spectrum. We also discuss the underlying nonlinear algebraic symmetry of the problem.

  10. A Correlated Random Effects Model for Nonignorable Missing Data in Value-Added Assessment of Teacher Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karl, Andrew T.; Yang, Yan; Lohr, Sharon L.

    2013-01-01

    Value-added models have been widely used to assess the contributions of individual teachers and schools to students' academic growth based on longitudinal student achievement outcomes. There is concern, however, that ignoring the presence of missing values, which are common in longitudinal studies, can bias teachers' value-added scores.…

  11. Thermal /Soret/ diffusion effects on interfacial mass transport rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosner, D. E.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that thermal (Soret) diffusion significantly alters convective mass transport rates and important transition temperatures in highly nonisothermal flow systems involving the transport of 'heavy' species (vapors or particles). Introduction of the Soret transport term is shown to result in mass transfer effects similar to those of 'suction' and a homogeneous chemical 'sink'. It is pointed out that this analogy provides a simple method of correlating and predicting thermal diffusion effects in the abovementioned systems.

  12. Systematics of Coupling Flows in AdS Backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberger, Walter D.; Rothstein, Ira Z.

    2003-03-18

    We give an effective field theory derivation, based on the running of Planck brane gauge correlators, of the large logarithms that arise in the predictions for low energy gauge couplings in compactified AdS}_5 backgrounds, including the one-loop effects of bulk scalars, fermions, and gauge bosons. In contrast to the case of charged scalars coupled to Abelian gauge fields that has been considered previously in the literature, the one-loop corrections are not dominated by a single 4D Kaluza-Klein mode. Nevertheless, in the case of gauge field loops, the amplitudes can be reorganized into a leading logarithmic contribution that is identical to the running in 4D non-Abelian gauge theory, and a term which is not logarithmically enhanced and is analogous to a two-loop effect in 4D. In a warped GUT model broken by the Higgs mechanism in the bulk,we show that the matching scale that appears in the large logarithms induced by the non-Abelian gauge fields is m_{XY}^2/k where m_{XY} is the bulk mass of the XY bosons and k is the AdS curvature. This is in contrast to the UV scale in the logarithmic contributions of scalars, which is simply the bulk mass m. Our results are summarized in a set of simple rules that can be applied to compute the leading logarithmic predictions for coupling constant relations within a given warped GUT model. We present results for both bulk Higgs and boundary breaking of the GUT gauge

  13. Effects of Added Salts on Surface Tension and Aggregation of Crown Ether Surfactants.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Maki; Fujio, Katsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Two crown ether surfactants, dodecanoyloxymethyl- (C11Φ6) and octanoyloxymethyl-18-crown-6 (C7Φ6), were synthesized and the surface tension dependence on surfactant concentration of their aqueous solutions was measured both in the absence and presence of alkali chlorides to confirm the critical micelle concentration (CMC) is highest for the added cation that have an ionic diameter comparable to the hole size of the crown ether ring and that several break points on the surface tension vs. concentration curves occur for these crown ether surfactants. For C11Φ6 and C7Φ6, in the absence of salt, the surface tension vs. concentration curves had two break points. Using the solubilization of a water-insoluble dye as an indicator, we found that the break point at the higher concentration (m0) for C7Φ6 was due to micelle formation. Two break points were also observed for the aqueous solution of C11Φ6 in the presence of NaCl, KCl, RbCl, and CsCl salts at concentrations of 0.22 mol kg(-1) and for C7Φ6 with 0.22 mol kg(-1) KCl added. The CMC (m0) was found to be the highest for solutions containing K(+) salts because K(+) has an ionic diameter comparable to the hole size of 18-crown-6 ring. Furthermore, the CMC decreased as the ionic diameters of the added cations deviated from the hole size. The molecular areas at two break points, estimated by the Gibbs adsorption isotherm, except for that at the break point at mI of C7Φ6, were very small for an adsorbed monolayer. Further investigation is required to elucidate the reason for the break point at mI. PMID:26666275

  14. Effects of Added Salts on Surface Tension and Aggregation of Crown Ether Surfactants.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Maki; Fujio, Katsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Two crown ether surfactants, dodecanoyloxymethyl- (C11Φ6) and octanoyloxymethyl-18-crown-6 (C7Φ6), were synthesized and the surface tension dependence on surfactant concentration of their aqueous solutions was measured both in the absence and presence of alkali chlorides to confirm the critical micelle concentration (CMC) is highest for the added cation that have an ionic diameter comparable to the hole size of the crown ether ring and that several break points on the surface tension vs. concentration curves occur for these crown ether surfactants. For C11Φ6 and C7Φ6, in the absence of salt, the surface tension vs. concentration curves had two break points. Using the solubilization of a water-insoluble dye as an indicator, we found that the break point at the higher concentration (m0) for C7Φ6 was due to micelle formation. Two break points were also observed for the aqueous solution of C11Φ6 in the presence of NaCl, KCl, RbCl, and CsCl salts at concentrations of 0.22 mol kg(-1) and for C7Φ6 with 0.22 mol kg(-1) KCl added. The CMC (m0) was found to be the highest for solutions containing K(+) salts because K(+) has an ionic diameter comparable to the hole size of 18-crown-6 ring. Furthermore, the CMC decreased as the ionic diameters of the added cations deviated from the hole size. The molecular areas at two break points, estimated by the Gibbs adsorption isotherm, except for that at the break point at mI of C7Φ6, were very small for an adsorbed monolayer. Further investigation is required to elucidate the reason for the break point at mI.

  15. Mechanisms for lowering of interfacial tension in alkali/acidic oil systems; Effect of added surfactant

    SciTech Connect

    Rudin, J. Wasan, D.T. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1992-08-01

    This paper reports that experimental studies are conducted in order to determine the physicochemical mechanism responsible for lowering of interfacial tension in alkali, surfactant, and surfactant-enhanced alkali/acidic oil systems. A well-defined model oil is chosen to examine the influence of various surfactants and surfactant mixtures, such as oleic acid and its ionic counterpart, sodium dodecyl sulfate, petroleum sulfonate, and isobutanol, on equilibrium interfacial tension. With added surfactant alone, the interfacial tension goes through an ultralow minimum with increasing acid concentration. This proves for the first time that the un-ionized acid species plays a major role in affecting interfacial tension, and the ionized acid species.

  16. Effect of added thiamine on the key odorant compounds and aroma of cooked ham.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Caroline; Mercier, Frédéric; Tournayre, Pascal; Martin, Jean-Luc; Berdagué, Jean-Louis

    2015-04-15

    This study shows that thiamine plays a major role in the formation of three key odorants of cooked ham: 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-methyl-3-methyldithiofuran, and bis(2-methyl-3-furyl)disulphide. Analyses revealed that under identical cooking conditions, the productions of these three aroma compounds increase in a closely intercorrelated way when the dose of thiamine increases. Using a specific 2-methyl-3-furanthiol extraction-quantification method, it was possible to relate the amounts of thiamine added in model cooked hams to the amounts of 2-methyl-3-furanthiol produced in the cooking process. Sensory analyses highlighted the role of thiamine as a precursor of cooked ham aroma.

  17. Charm structure functions and gluon shadowing effects with the AdS/CFT model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hong-Min; Hou, Zhao-Yu; Liu, Jia-Fu; Sun, Xian-Jing

    2012-08-01

    By means of the UGD function extracted from an AdS/CFT inspired saturation model, the charm and bottom structure functions are studied in fixed-order perturbation theory. It is shown that the theoretical results are in good agreement with the recent HERA data. Then, this UGD function is also used to investigate net-kaon rapidity distribution in Au+Au collisions at RHIC energies and the theoretical results fit well to the BRAHMS data. In the end of this paper, we give the predicted results for nuclear charm structure function at very small x where the popular shadowing parameterizations are invalid.

  18. Sensitivity of β -decay rates to the radial dependence of the nucleon effective mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severyukhin, A. P.; Margueron, J.; Borzov, I. N.; Van Giai, N.

    2015-03-01

    We analyze the sensitivity of β -decay rates in 78Ni and Sn,132100 to a correction term in Skyrme energy-density functionals (EDFs) which modifies the radial shape of the nucleon effective mass. This correction is added on top of several Skyrme parametrizations which are selected from their effective mass properties and predictions about the stability properties of 132Sn . The impact of the correction on high-energy collective modes is shown to be moderate. From the comparison of the effects induced by the surface-peaked effective mass in the three doubly magic nuclei, it is found that 132Sn is largely impacted by the correction, while 78Ni and 100Sn are only moderately affected. We conclude that β -decay rates in these nuclei can be used as a test of different parts of the nuclear EDF: 78Ni and 100Sn are mostly sensitive to the particle-hole interaction through the B (GT) values, while 132Sn is sensitive to the radial shape of the effective mass. Possible improvements of these different parts could therefore be better constrained in the future.

  19. Effect of added water on voltammetry in near-critical carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Philips, M.E.; Deakin, M.R.; Novotny, M.V.; Wightman, R.M.

    1987-07-16

    The use of microvoltammetric electrodes in near-critical carbon dioxide has been investigated. The working electrode is a platinum disk of 5 ..mu..m radius and the test compound employed is ferrocene. Voltammetry is not possible without the addition of water to the electrochemical cell. At temperatures and pressures above the critical point for pure CO/sub 2/, a well-defined voltammetric wave for ferrocene is obtained in the presence of 0.64 M water. Added water also enables the dissolution of tetrahexylammonium hexafluorophosphate in this medium. The diffusion coefficient obtained from voltammograms of ferrocene recorded in these fluids is similar to that reported for other compounds in supercritical carbon dioxide. However, in the presence of a high concentration (0.05 M) of the added salt, the value of the diffusion coefficient is lowered. These results demonstrate that the addition of water to near-critical carbon dioxide results in a fluid which has much greater solvating power than the pure supercritical fluid.

  20. The effects of body mass on cremation weight.

    PubMed

    May, Shannon E

    2011-01-01

    Cremains have become increasingly frequent in forensic contexts, while higher body mass in the general population has simultaneously made cremation a more cost-effective mortuary practice. This study analyzed the relationship between body mass and bone mass, as reflected through cremation weight. Antemortem data were recorded for samples used in the multi-regional data set. Each was rendered through commercial crematoriums and reweighed postincineration. Pearson's correlation demonstrates clear association between body mass and cremation weight (r=0.56; p<0.0001). However, multiple linear regression revealed sex and age variables also have a significant relationship (t=7.198; t=-2.5, respectively). Regressed in conjunction, body mass, sex, and age contribute approximately 67% of all variation observed in cremation weight (r=0.668). Analysis of covariance indicates significant regional variation in body and cremation weight. Explanations include bone modification resulting from increased loading stress, as well as glucose intolerance and altered metabolic pathways related to obesity.

  1. Race, socioeconomic status, and health. The added effects of racism and discrimination.

    PubMed

    Williams, D R

    1999-01-01

    Higher disease rates for blacks (or African Americans) compared to whites are pervasive and persistent over time, with the racial gap in mortality widening in recent years for multiple causes of death. Other racial/ethnic minority populations also have elevated disease risk for some health conditions. This paper considers the complex ways in which race and socioeconomic status (SES) combine to affect health. SES accounts for much of the observed racial disparities in health. Nonetheless, racial differences often persist even at "equivalent" levels of SES. Racism is an added burden for nondominant populations. Individual and institutional discrimination, along with the stigma of inferiority, can adversely affect health by restricting socioeconomic opportunities and mobility. Racism can also directly affect health in multiple ways. Residence in poor neighborhoods, racial bias in medical care, the stress of experiences of discrimination and the acceptance of the societal stigma of inferiority can have deleterious consequences for health.

  2. Twistor methods for AdS5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamo, Tim; Skinner, David; Williams, Jack

    2016-08-01

    We consider the application of twistor theory to five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space. The twistor space of AdS5 is the same as the ambitwistor space of the four-dimensional conformal boundary; the geometry of this correspondence is reviewed for both the bulk and boundary. A Penrose transform allows us to describe free bulk fields, with or without mass, in terms of data on twistor space. Explicit representatives for the bulk-to-boundary propagators of scalars and spinors are constructed, along with twistor action functionals for the free theories. Evaluating these twistor actions on bulk-to-boundary propagators is shown to produce the correct two-point functions.

  3. Mass-independent isotope effect in the earliest processed solids in the solar system: a possible chemical mechanism.

    PubMed

    Marcus, R A

    2004-11-01

    A major constraint is described for a possible chemical origin for the "mass-independent" oxygen isotope phenomenon in calcium-aluminum rich inclusions (CAIs) in meteorites at high temperatures ( approximately 1500-2000 K). A symmetry-based dynamical eta effect is postulated for O atom-monoxide recombination on the surface of growing CAIs. It is the surface analog of the volume-based eta effect occurring in a similar phenomenon for ozone in the gas phase [Y. Q. Gao, W. C. Chen, and R. A. Marcus, J. Chem. Phys. 117, 1536 (2002), and references cited therein]: In the growth of CAI grains an equilibrium is postulated between adsorbed species XO (ads)+O (ads) <==>XO*(2)(ads), where XO*(2)(ads) is a vibrationally excited adsorbed dioxide molecule and X can be Si, Al, Ti, or other metals and can be C for minerals less refractory than the CAIs. The surface of a growing grain has an entropic effect of many order of magnitude on the position of this monoxide-dioxide equilibrium relative to its volume-based position by acting as a concentrator. The volume-based eta effect for ozone in the earlier study is not applicable to gas phase precursors of CAIs, due to the rarity of three-body recombination collisions at very low pressures and because of the high H(2) and H concentration in solar gas, which reduces gaseous O and gaseous dioxides and prevents the latter from acting as storage reservoirs for the two heavier oxygen isotopes. A surface eta effect yields XO*(2)(ads) that is mass-independently rich in (17)O and (18)O, and yields XO (ads)+O (ads) that is mass-independently poor in the two heavier oxygen isotopes. When the XO*(2)(ads) is deactivated by vibrational energy loss to the grain, it has only one subsequent fate, evaporation, and so undergoes no further isotopic fractionation. After evaporation the XO(2) again has only one fate, which is to react rapidly with H and ultimately form (16)O-poor H(2)O. The other species, O (ads)+XO (ads), are (16)O rich and react with Ca

  4. Fermions Tunnelling from Black String and Kerr AdS Black Hole with Consideration of Quantum Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhong-hua; Zhang, Li-mei

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, using the Hamilton-Jacobi Ansatz, we discuss the tunnelling of fermions when effects of quantum gravity are taken into account. We investigate two cases, black string and Kerr AdS black hole. For black string, the uncharged and un-rotating case, we find that the correction of Hawking temperature is only affected by the mass of emitted fermions and the quantum gravitational corrections slow down the increases of the temperature, which naturally leads to remnants left in the evaporation. For another case, the Kerr AdS black hole, we find that the quantum gravitational corrections are not only determined by the mass of the emitted fermions but also affected by the rotating properties of the AdS black hole. So with consideration of the quantum gravity corrections, an offset around the standard temperature always exists.

  5. Effective mass discontinuity and current oscillations in stratified systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halilov, S.; Mil'shtein, S.

    2015-11-01

    Tunnelling transport in modulated film, which occurs either stoichiometrically or due to a stress field, is analysed in terms of the variable carrier effective mass tensor. It is shown that the mass tensor discontinuity alone, i.e. with no actual potential barrier present, may lead to current oscillations versus the size of the modulated region. While both effects of mass discontinuity and the band offset upon the carrier flow are formally described in terms of wave mechanics, their mechanisms are quite distinct: the magnitude of the current oscillations due to mass disruption is determined by the differential mass across the interface, i.e. by change in the covalency due to structural modulation, whereas the band offset is generally an effect of the affinity change across the interface. Both effects are superimposed by the 3D kinematic coupling of the orthogonal transport, either constructively or destructively, leading to an oscillatory dependence of the current magnitude on the film dimension. As an illustration, the analysis is applied to a Si1-x Ge x /Si stratified structure to demonstrate the effect of quasi-bound states on the transport. The modelling is corroborated by a device simulation of a SiGe system in a heterojunction bipolar transistor setting. The findings can be used as a general method to control anisotropic tunnelling transport in stratified structures.

  6. Estimation of the effective phase function of bulk diffusing materials with the inverse adding-doubling method.

    PubMed

    Leyre, Sven; Meuret, Youri; Durinck, Guy; Hofkens, Johan; Deconinck, Geert; Hanselaer, Peter

    2014-04-01

    The accuracy of optical simulations including bulk diffusors is heavily dependent on the accuracy of the bulk scattering properties. If no knowledge on the physical scattering effects is available, an iterative procedure is usually used to obtain the scattering properties, such as the inverse Monte Carlo method or the inverse adding-doubling (AD) method. In these methods, a predefined phase function with one free parameter is usually used to limit the number of free parameters. In this work, three predefined phase functions (Henyey-Greenstein, two-term Henyey-Greenstein, and Gegenbauer kernel (GK) phase function) are implemented in the inverse AD method to determine the optical properties of two strongly diffusing materials: low-density polyethylene and TiO₂ particles. Using the presented approach, an estimation of the effective phase function was made. It was found that the use of the GK phase function resulted in the best agreement between calculated and experimental transmittance, reflectance, and scattered radiant intensity distribution for the LDPE sample. For the TiO₂ sample, a good agreement was obtained with both the two-term Henyey-Greenstein and the GK phase function. PMID:24787170

  7. [Effects of adding straw carbon source to root knot nematode diseased soil on soil microbial biomass and protozoa abundance].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Si-Hui; Lian, Jian-Hong; Cao, Zhi-Ping; Zhao, Li

    2013-06-01

    A field experiment with successive planting of tomato was conducted to study the effects of adding different amounts of winter wheat straw (2.08 g x kg(-1), 1N; 4.16 g x kg(-1), 2N; and 8.32 g x kg(-1), 4N) to the soil seriously suffered from root knot nematode disease on the soil microbial biomass and protozoa abundance. Adding straw carbon source had significant effects on the contents of soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) and the abundance of soil protozoa, which all decreased in the order of 4N > 2N > 1N > CK. The community structure of soil protozoa also changed significantly under straw addition. In the treatments with straw addition, the average proportion of fagellate, amoeba, and ciliates accounted for 36.0%, 59.5%, and 4.5% of the total protozoa, respectively. Under the same adding amounts of wheat straw, there was an increase in the soil MBC and MBN contents, MBC/MBN ratio, and protozoa abundance with increasing cultivation period. PMID:24066551

  8. [Effects of adding straw carbon source to root knot nematode diseased soil on soil microbial biomass and protozoa abundance].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Si-Hui; Lian, Jian-Hong; Cao, Zhi-Ping; Zhao, Li

    2013-06-01

    A field experiment with successive planting of tomato was conducted to study the effects of adding different amounts of winter wheat straw (2.08 g x kg(-1), 1N; 4.16 g x kg(-1), 2N; and 8.32 g x kg(-1), 4N) to the soil seriously suffered from root knot nematode disease on the soil microbial biomass and protozoa abundance. Adding straw carbon source had significant effects on the contents of soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) and the abundance of soil protozoa, which all decreased in the order of 4N > 2N > 1N > CK. The community structure of soil protozoa also changed significantly under straw addition. In the treatments with straw addition, the average proportion of fagellate, amoeba, and ciliates accounted for 36.0%, 59.5%, and 4.5% of the total protozoa, respectively. Under the same adding amounts of wheat straw, there was an increase in the soil MBC and MBN contents, MBC/MBN ratio, and protozoa abundance with increasing cultivation period.

  9. Effects of adding red wine on the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of uncured frankfurter-type sausage.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xi; Sebranek, Joseph G; Lee, Hyun Yong; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the quality and sensory characteristics of RTE frankfurter-type sausage cured with celery juice powder and including red wine. Four frankfurter treatments including a conventionally cured treatment without red wine (control) and three treatments cured with pre-converted vegetable juice powder and 0%, 5% or 10% (v/w) red wine were prepared. Results showed that adding 5% red wine increased the a*-value, and the textural resilience, cohesiveness and springiness of the frankfurters, as well as decreased lipid/protein oxidation of the final products. Added wine also introduced new volatiles (alcohol and ester compounds) to the frankfurters. The principal component (PC) analysis showed that the pre-converted vegetable juice powder achieved the same effects as the conventional curing agents for typical frankfurter properties. However, the addition of excess amounts of red wine (10%) to the meat batter decreased the pH of meat batter and accelerated lipid oxidation.

  10. Effect of KOH added to ethylene glycol electrolyte on the self-organization of anodic ZrO2 nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozana, Monna; Soaid, Nurul Izza; Kawamura, Go; Kian, Tan Wai; Matsuda, Atsunori; Lockman, Zainovia

    2016-07-01

    ZrO2 nanotube arrays were formed by anodizing zirconium sheet in ethylene glycol (EG) and EG added to it KOH (EG/KOH) electrolytes. The effect of KOH addition into EG electrolyte to the morphology of nanotubes and their crystallinity was investigated. It was observed that the tubes with diameter of ˜80 nm were formed in EG electrolyte with <0.1 vol % water, but the wall smoothness is rather poor. When KOH was added into EG, the wall smoothness of the nanotubes improve, but the diameter of tubes is smaller (˜40 nm). Despite smoother wall and small tube diameter, the degradation of methyl orange (MO) on the tubes made in EG/KOH is less compared to the tubes made in EG only. This could be due to the less tetragonal ZrO2 presence in the tubes made in EG/KOH.

  11. Influence of adding borax and modifying pH on effectiveness of food attractants for melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Duyck, P F; Rousse, P; Ryckewaert, P; Fabre, F; Quilici, S

    2004-06-01

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the most damaging pest of cucurbits in Reunion Island. The influence of adding borax and modifying pH on the effectiveness of different food attractants for both sexes of the melon fly is analyzed by a release-recapture method in field cages. Adding borax to protein hydrolysates Nulure and Buminal strongly reduced their attractiveness for B. cucurbitae. Acidification of 5% Buminal solution (from pH 6 to pH 3) doubled its attractiveness for melon fly. Conversely, Torula yeast at pH 10.5 was significantly more attractive than the standard Torula yeast at pH 9 (28% of captured flies compared with 17%). However, a further pH increase of the yeast solution does not improve its attractiveness. The results are discussed in relation to other studies on pH modification of various baits for Tephritidae.

  12. The Effect of Ad Libitum Consumption of a Milk-Based Liquid Meal Supplement vs. a Traditional Sports Drink on Fluid Balance After Exercise.

    PubMed

    Baguley, Brenton; Zilujko, Jessica; Leveritt, Michael D; Desbrow, Ben; Irwin, Christopher

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of ad libitum intake of a milk-based liquid meal supplement against a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink following exercise induced fluid loss. Seven male participants (age 22.3 ± 3.4 years, height 179.3 ± 7.9 cm, body mass 74.3 ± 7.3 kg; mean ± SD) completed 4 separate trials and lost 1.89 ± 0.44% body mass through moderate intensity exercise in the laboratory. After exercise, participants consumed ad libitum over 2 h a milk-based liquid meal supplement (Sustagen Sport) on two of the trials (S1, S2) or a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink (Powerade) on two of the trials (P1, P2), with an additional 1 hr observational period. Measures of body mass, urine output, gastrointestinal tolerance and palatability were collected throughout the recovery period. Participants consumed significantly more Powerade than Sustagen Sport over the 2 h rehydration period (P1 = 2225 ± 888 ml, P2 = 2602 ± 1119 mL, S1 = 1375 ± 711 mL, S2 = 1447 ± 857 ml). Total urine output on both Sustagen trails was significantly lower than the second Powerade trial (P2 = 1447 ± 656 ml, S1 = 153 ± 62 ml, S2 = 182 ± 118 mL; p < .05) and trended toward being lower compared with the first Powerade trial (P1 = 1057 ± 699 ml vs. S1, p = .067 and vs. S2, p = .061). No significant differences in net fluid balance were observed between any of the drinks at the conclusion of each trial (P1 = -0.50 ±0. 46 kg, P2 = -0.40 ± 0.35 kg, S1 = -0.61 ± 0.74 kg, S2 = -0.45 ± 0.58 kg). Gastrointestinal tolerance and beverage palatability measures indicated Powerade to be preferred as a rehydration beverage. Ad libitum milk-based liquid meal supplement results in similar net fluid balance as a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink after exercise induced fluid loss.

  13. The Effect of Ad Libitum Consumption of a Milk-Based Liquid Meal Supplement vs. a Traditional Sports Drink on Fluid Balance After Exercise.

    PubMed

    Baguley, Brenton; Zilujko, Jessica; Leveritt, Michael D; Desbrow, Ben; Irwin, Christopher

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of ad libitum intake of a milk-based liquid meal supplement against a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink following exercise induced fluid loss. Seven male participants (age 22.3 ± 3.4 years, height 179.3 ± 7.9 cm, body mass 74.3 ± 7.3 kg; mean ± SD) completed 4 separate trials and lost 1.89 ± 0.44% body mass through moderate intensity exercise in the laboratory. After exercise, participants consumed ad libitum over 2 h a milk-based liquid meal supplement (Sustagen Sport) on two of the trials (S1, S2) or a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink (Powerade) on two of the trials (P1, P2), with an additional 1 hr observational period. Measures of body mass, urine output, gastrointestinal tolerance and palatability were collected throughout the recovery period. Participants consumed significantly more Powerade than Sustagen Sport over the 2 h rehydration period (P1 = 2225 ± 888 ml, P2 = 2602 ± 1119 mL, S1 = 1375 ± 711 mL, S2 = 1447 ± 857 ml). Total urine output on both Sustagen trails was significantly lower than the second Powerade trial (P2 = 1447 ± 656 ml, S1 = 153 ± 62 ml, S2 = 182 ± 118 mL; p < .05) and trended toward being lower compared with the first Powerade trial (P1 = 1057 ± 699 ml vs. S1, p = .067 and vs. S2, p = .061). No significant differences in net fluid balance were observed between any of the drinks at the conclusion of each trial (P1 = -0.50 ±0. 46 kg, P2 = -0.40 ± 0.35 kg, S1 = -0.61 ± 0.74 kg, S2 = -0.45 ± 0.58 kg). Gastrointestinal tolerance and beverage palatability measures indicated Powerade to be preferred as a rehydration beverage. Ad libitum milk-based liquid meal supplement results in similar net fluid balance as a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink after exercise induced fluid loss. PMID:26693643

  14. The effectiveness of the oncolytic activity induced by Ad5/F35 adenoviral vector is dependent on the cumulative cellular conditions of survival and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Y; Kang, Sujin; Song, Jae J; Kim, Joo-Hang

    2013-04-01

    To overcome the poor tumor transduction efficiency of adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) observed in several types of cancer, the fiber region of Ad5, apart from its tail, was replaced by adenovirus serotype 35 (Ad35). The chimeric Ad5/F35 adenoviral vector did not exhibit any significant enhancement of transduction efficiency. CD46, a receptor for Ad35, was expressed in relatively small amounts in most of the cancer cells examined. Therefore, we investigated the pivotal factor(s) that render cancer cells susceptible to transduction. We discovered that the tumor transduction efficiency of Ad5/F35 was enhanced in the presence of rapamycin, an autophagy inducer, in some cancer cells. Analysis of survival potential and cell proliferation rates revealed that Ad5/F35 exerted a more pronounced oncolytic effect in cancer cells with higher survival potential in the presence of rapamycin.

  15. Effect of transglutaminase on quality characteristics of a value-added product tilapia wastes.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Maria Lúcia Guerra; Mársico, Eliane Teixeira; Lázaro, César Aquiles; da Silva Canto, Anna Carolina Vilhena Cruz; Lima, Bruno Reis Carneiro da Costa; da Cruz, Adriano Gomes; Conte-Júnior, Carlos Adam

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the physico-chemical, instrumental color and texture, and sensory qualities of restructured tilapia steaks elaborated with small sized (non-commercial) tilapia fillets and different levels of microbial transglutaminase (MTG). Four concentrations of MTG were used: CON (0 % MTG), T1 (0.1 % MTG), T2 (0.5 % MTG), and T3 (0.8 % MTG). In addition, bacterial content and pH shifts were also evaluated during 90 days of frozen storage. The different levels of MTG did not affect (P > 0.05) either the proximate composition of the restructured tilapia steaks or the bacterial growth during the frozen storage. MTG improved (P < 0.05) cooking yield and instrumental hardness and chewiness as well as sensory (salty taste, succulence and tenderness) attributes; strongly contributing to greater overall acceptance. Therefore, restructured tilapia steaks manufactured with MTG are potentially valued-added products with good consumer acceptance and better purchase-intention than steaks formulated with 0 % MTG. PMID:25892758

  16. The Effect of Adding Corrosion Inhibitors into an Electroless Nickel Plating Bath for Magnesium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Rong; Su, Yongyao; Liu, Hongdong; Cheng, Jiang; Yang, Xin; Shao, Zhongcai

    2016-08-01

    In this work, corrosion inhibitors were added into an electroless nickel plating bath to realize nickel-phosphorus (Ni-P) coating deposition on magnesium alloy directly. The performance of five corrosion inhibitors was evaluated by inhibition efficiency. The results showed that only ammonium hydrogen fluoride (NH4HF2) and ammonium molybdate ((NH4)2MoO4) could be used as corrosion inhibitors for magnesium alloy in the bath. Moreover, compounding NH4HF2 and (NH4)2MoO4, the optimal concentrations were both at 1.5 ~ 2%. The deposition process of Ni-P coating was observed by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). It showed corrosion inhibitors inhibited undesired dissolution of magnesium substrate during the electroless plating process. In addition, SEM observation indicated that the corrosion inhibition reaction and the Ni2+ replacement reaction were competitive at the initial deposition time. Both electrochemical analysis and thermal shock test revealed that the Ni-P coating exhibited excellent corrosion resistance and adhesion properties in protecting the magnesium alloy.

  17. The Effect of Adding Corrosion Inhibitors into an Electroless Nickel Plating Bath for Magnesium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Rong; Su, Yongyao; Liu, Hongdong; Cheng, Jiang; Yang, Xin; Shao, Zhongcai

    2016-10-01

    In this work, corrosion inhibitors were added into an electroless nickel plating bath to realize nickel-phosphorus (Ni-P) coating deposition on magnesium alloy directly. The performance of five corrosion inhibitors was evaluated by inhibition efficiency. The results showed that only ammonium hydrogen fluoride (NH4HF2) and ammonium molybdate ((NH4)2MoO4) could be used as corrosion inhibitors for magnesium alloy in the bath. Moreover, compounding NH4HF2 and (NH4)2MoO4, the optimal concentrations were both at 1.5 ~ 2%. The deposition process of Ni-P coating was observed by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). It showed corrosion inhibitors inhibited undesired dissolution of magnesium substrate during the electroless plating process. In addition, SEM observation indicated that the corrosion inhibition reaction and the Ni2+ replacement reaction were competitive at the initial deposition time. Both electrochemical analysis and thermal shock test revealed that the Ni-P coating exhibited excellent corrosion resistance and adhesion properties in protecting the magnesium alloy.

  18. Effect of montelukast added to inhaled budesonide on control of mild to moderate asthma

    PubMed Central

    Vaquerizo, M; Casan, P; Castillo, J; Perpina, M; Sanchis, J; Sobradillo, V; Valencia, A; Verea, H; Viejo, J; Villasante, C; Gonzalez-Esteban, J; Picado, C

    2003-01-01

    Background: Proinflammatory leukotrienes, which are not completely inhibited by inhaled corticosteroids, may contribute to asthmatic problems. A 16 week multicentre, randomised, double blind, controlled study was undertaken to study the efficacy of adding oral montelukast, a leukotriene receptor antagonist, to a constant dose of inhaled budesonide. Methods: A total of 639 patients aged 18–70 years with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) ≥55% predicted and a minimum predefined level of asthma symptoms during a 2 week placebo run in period were randomised to receive montelukast 10 mg (n=326) or placebo (n=313) once daily for 16 weeks. All patients received a constant dose of budesonide (400–1600 µg/day) by Turbuhaler throughout the study. Results: Mean FEV1 at baseline was 81% predicted. The median percentage of asthma exacerbation days was 35% lower (3.1% v 4.8%; p=0.03) and the median percentage of asthma free days was 56% higher (66.1% v 42.3%; p=0.001) in the montelukast group than in the placebo group. Patients receiving concomitant treatment with montelukast had significantly (p<0.05) fewer nocturnal awakenings and significantly (p<0.05) greater improvements in ß agonist use and morning peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR). Conclusions: For patients with mild airway obstruction and persistent asthma symptoms despite budesonide treatment, concomitant treatment with montelukast significantly improves asthma control. PMID:12612294

  19. Effect of adding carbon fiber textiles to methanogenic bioreactors used to treat an artificial garbage slurry.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kengo; Morita, Masahiko; Hirano, Shin-Ichi; Ohmura, Naoya; Igarashi, Yasuo

    2009-08-01

    To compare the performances and microbial populations of methanogenic reactors with and without carbon fiber textiles (CFT), we operated small-scale (200 ml) reactors using a slurry of artificial garbage. For both types of reactors, the organic loading rate (OLR) was stepwisely and rapidly increased in the same manner. Start-up period was shortened by adding CFT. Reactors with CFT showed greater efficiency for removal of suspended solid and volatile suspended solid than reactors without CFT at a long hydraulic retention time (HRT) between 8 and 13 days. The reactors with CFT maintained stable methane production at an OLR of 15.3 g dichromate chemical oxygen demand (CODcr)/l/day and DNAs from microorganisms were highly concentrated in adhering fractions on CFT. As shown by quantitative PCR analysis, the proportions of methanogenic archaea were conserved more than 25% in adhering fractions on CFT in reactors with CFT. By contrast, reactors without CFT showed accumulation of volatile fatty acid and deteriorated at an OLR of 2.4 gCODcr/l/day. Methanogenic proportions dropped to 17.1% in suspended fractions of reactors without CFT. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis revealed that all archaeal DGGE bands in both types of reactors were related to methanogens, but more bands were observed in reactors with CFT. Thus the higher performance of reactors with CFT likely reflects the greater abundance of microorganisms and methanogenic diversity. PMID:19619860

  20. Active and sterile neutrino mass effects on beta decay spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Boillos, Juan Manuel; Moya de Guerra, Elvira

    2013-06-10

    We study the spectra of the emitted charged leptons in charge current weak nuclear processes to analyze the effect of neutrino masses. Standard active neutrinos are studied here, with masses of the order of 1 eV or lower, as well as sterile neutrinos with masses of a few keV. The latter are warm dark matter (WDM) candidates hypothetically produced or captured as small mixtures with the active neutrinos. We compute differential decay or capture rates spectra in weak charged processes of different nuclei ({sup 3}H, {sup 187}Re, {sup 107}Pd, {sup 163}Ho, etc) using different masses of both active and sterile neutrinos and different values of the mixing parameter.

  1. Probing effective nucleon masses with heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coupland, D. D. S.; Youngs, M.; Chajecki, Z.; Lynch, W. G.; Tsang, M. B.; Zhang, Y. X.; Famiano, M. A.; Ghosh, T. K.; Giacherio, B.; Kilburn, M. A.; Lee, Jenny; Liu, H.; Lu, F.; Morfouace, P.; Russotto, P.; Sanetullaev, A.; Showalter, R. H.; Verde, G.; Winkelbauer, J.

    2016-07-01

    It has been generally accepted that momentum-dependent potentials for neutrons and protons at energies well away from the Fermi surface cause both to behave as if their inertial masses are effectively 70% of the vacuum values. This similarity in effective masses may no longer hold in dense neutron-rich regions within neutron stars, core-collapse supernovas, and nuclear collisions. There differences in the momentum-dependent symmetry potentials may cause neutron and proton effective masses to differ significantly. We investigate this effect by measuring the energy spectra of neutrons, protons, and charged particles emitted in 112Sn+112Sn and 124Sn+124Sn collisions at Ebeam/A =50 and 120 MeV with precision sufficient to distinguish, in principle, between effective interactions with very different values of the neutron and proton effective masses. These data and model comparisons point the way towards future advances in our capabilities to understand the density and momentum dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy.

  2. Derivative expansion at small mass for the spinor effective action

    SciTech Connect

    Dunne, Gerald V.; Huet, Adolfo; Hur, Jin; Min, Hyunsoo

    2011-05-15

    We study the small-mass limit of the one-loop spinor effective action, comparing the derivative expansion approximation with exact numerical results that are obtained from an extension to spinor theories of the partial-wave cutoff method. In this approach, one can compute numerically the renormalized one-loop effective action for radially separable gauge field background fields in spinor QED. We highlight an important difference between the small-mass limit of the derivative expansion for spinor and scalar theories.

  3. COMPARISON OF TIME-OF-FLIGHT AND DOUBLE FOCUSING MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR REACHING TENTATIVE IDENTIFICATIONS FOR UNANTICIPATED COMPOUNDS ADDED TO DRINKING WATER BY TERRORISTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Local monitoring of post-treatment drinking water using bench-top mass spectrometers could identify target compounds in a mass spectral library. However, a terrorist might seek to incite greater hysteria by injecting or infusing a mixture of unanticipated compounds of unknown tox...

  4. Do Sex and Violence Sell? A Meta-Analytic Review of the Effects of Sexual and Violent Media and Ad Content on Memory, Attitudes, and Buying Intentions.

    PubMed

    Lull, Robert B; Bushman, Brad J

    2015-09-01

    It is commonly assumed that sex and violence sell. However, we predicted that sex and violence would have the opposite effect. We based our predictions on the evolution and emotional arousal theoretical framework, which states that people are evolutionarily predisposed to attend to emotionally arousing cues such as sex and violence. Thus, sexual and violent cues demand more cognitive resources than nonsexual and nonviolent cues. Using this framework, we meta-analyzed the effects of sexual media, violent media, sexual ads, and violent ads on the advertising outcomes of brand memory, brand attitudes, and buying intentions. The meta-analysis included 53 experiments involving 8,489 participants. Analyses found that brands advertised in violent media content were remembered less often, evaluated less favorably, and less likely to be purchased than brands advertised in nonviolent, nonsexual media. Brands advertised using sexual ads were evaluated less favorably than brands advertised using nonviolent, nonsexual ads. There were no significant effects of sexual media on memory or buying intentions. There were no significant effects of sexual or violent ads on memory or buying intentions. As intensity of sexual ad content increased, memory, attitudes, and buying intentions decreased. When media content and ad content were congruent (e.g., violent ad in a violent program), memory improved and buying intentions increased. Violence and sex never helped and often hurt ad effectiveness. These results support the evolution and emotional arousal framework. Thus, advertisers should consider the effects of media content, ad content, content intensity, and congruity to design and place more effective ads. PMID:26191956

  5. Do Sex and Violence Sell? A Meta-Analytic Review of the Effects of Sexual and Violent Media and Ad Content on Memory, Attitudes, and Buying Intentions.

    PubMed

    Lull, Robert B; Bushman, Brad J

    2015-09-01

    It is commonly assumed that sex and violence sell. However, we predicted that sex and violence would have the opposite effect. We based our predictions on the evolution and emotional arousal theoretical framework, which states that people are evolutionarily predisposed to attend to emotionally arousing cues such as sex and violence. Thus, sexual and violent cues demand more cognitive resources than nonsexual and nonviolent cues. Using this framework, we meta-analyzed the effects of sexual media, violent media, sexual ads, and violent ads on the advertising outcomes of brand memory, brand attitudes, and buying intentions. The meta-analysis included 53 experiments involving 8,489 participants. Analyses found that brands advertised in violent media content were remembered less often, evaluated less favorably, and less likely to be purchased than brands advertised in nonviolent, nonsexual media. Brands advertised using sexual ads were evaluated less favorably than brands advertised using nonviolent, nonsexual ads. There were no significant effects of sexual media on memory or buying intentions. There were no significant effects of sexual or violent ads on memory or buying intentions. As intensity of sexual ad content increased, memory, attitudes, and buying intentions decreased. When media content and ad content were congruent (e.g., violent ad in a violent program), memory improved and buying intentions increased. Violence and sex never helped and often hurt ad effectiveness. These results support the evolution and emotional arousal framework. Thus, advertisers should consider the effects of media content, ad content, content intensity, and congruity to design and place more effective ads.

  6. Dietary supplemented and meat-added antioxidants effect on the lipid oxidative stability of refrigerated and frozen cooked chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Avila-Ramos, F; Pro-Martínez, A; Sosa-Montes, E; Cuca-García, J Manuel; Becerril-Pérez, C; Figueroa-Velasco, J L; Ruiz-Feria, C A; Hernández-Cázares, A S; Narciso-Gaytán, C

    2013-01-01

    The oxidation of fatty acids decreases the quality and shelf-life of meats. To reduce this process, dietary supplemented and meat-added antioxidants were evaluated on the lipid oxidative stability of cooked chicken meat. Broilers were fed 2 levels of vitamin E (10 or 100 mg•kg(-1) of feed; VE-10 and VE-100, respectively) or oregano essential oil (100 mg•kg(-1) of feed; OR-100). Additionally, honey (3%) or butylated hydroxytoluene (0.02%; BHT) were added to chicken meat from the control treatment (VE-10). Breast meat was ground, formed into patties, and cooked on electric grills until it reached an internal temperature of 74°C. Cooked meat was cooled at room temperature, packaged, and stored under refrigeration for 9 d (4°C) or frozen for 45 d (-20°C). The 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substance test was used to quantify malondialdehyde (MDA) values in the meat. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures design, 5 treatments with 12 replications each, and the least squares means were compared with 4 orthogonal contrasts. The results showed that the meat of the VE-10 treatment had higher values of MDA (P ≤ 0.05) compared with the other antioxidant treatments in all the storage days. There were no differences (P ≥ 0.05) in MDA values between the dietary supplemented and meat-added antioxidant treatments. The meat added with honey had lower MDA values than the one with BHT (P ≤ 0.05). Meat of the VE-100 treatment showed lower MDA values than the one of OR-100 (P ≤ 0.05) in most storage days. In conclusion, supplementation of 10 mg•kg(-1) of vitamin E to the diet resulted in a higher development of lipid oxidation in the meat. Both dietary supplemented or meat-added antioxidants had similar effects on the lipid oxidative stability. The addition of honey maintained longer the lipid oxidative stability of the meat than BHT. Finally, dietary supplementation of vitamin E at the same level of oregano oil, 100 mg•kg(-1), resulted in a higher antioxidant

  7. Vibration of a carbyne nanomechanical mass sensor with surface effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agwa, M. A.; Eltaher, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive model to investigate the influence of surface elasticity and residual surface tension on the natural frequency of flexural vibrations of nanomechanical mass sensor using a carbyne resonator. Carbyne is modeled as an equivalent continuum circular cross-section Timoshenko nanobeam including rotary inertia and shear deformation effects. Surface stress and surface elasticity are presented via the Young-Laplace equation. The analytical solution is presented and verified with molecular dynamics solution. The results show that the carbyne resonator can measure a very small mass with weight below 10-3 zg. The effects of surface elasticity, residual surface tension, carbyne length, and mass position on the fundamental frequencies are illustrated. This study is helpful for characterizing the mechanical behavior of high-precision measurement devices such as chemical and biological sensor.

  8. Relation between meteor head echo mass-velocity selection effects, shower mass distribution indices, and mass threshold of the MU radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kero, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Observations are described that led to a study of the relationship between the head echo mass-velocity selection effect, the mass distribution indices of the Geminid and Orionid meteor showers, and the mass threshold of the MU radar, published by Kero et al. (2013).

  9. Investigating the effect of adding an on-axis jet to Ar gas puff Z pinches on Z.

    DOE PAGES

    Harvey-Thompson, Adam James; Jennings, Christopher Ashley; Jones, Brent M.; Ampleford, David J.; Lamppa, Derek C.; Coverdale, Christine A.; Cuneo, Michael E.; Hansen, Stephanie B.; Jones, Michael C.; Moore, Nathan W.; et al

    2016-10-20

    Double-shell Ar gas puff implosions driven by 16.5±0.5 MA on the Z generator at Sandia National Laboratories are very effective emitters of Ar K-shell radiation (photon energy >3 keV), producing yields of 330 ± 9% kJ (B. Jones et al., Phys. Plasmas, 22, 020706, 2015). In addition, previous simulations and experiments have reported dramatic increases in K-shell yields when adding an on-axis jet to double shell gas puffs for some configurations.

  10. Resonance Effects in Magnetically Driven Mass-Spring Oscillations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Resonance effects are among the most intriguing phenomena in physics and engineering. The classical case of a mass-spring oscillator driven at its resonant frequency is one of the earliest examples that students encounter. Perhaps the most commonly depicted method of driving the vibrating system is mechanical. An alternative approach presented in…

  11. Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Mass Media Ethics Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Byung; Padgett, George

    2000-01-01

    Examines the effectiveness of an ethics education component in a media law and ethics course. Suggests that a short-term mass media ethics study could not develop values considered essential for ethical behavior. Argues that students developed more complexity in their reasoning not measurable by the scale. Suggests a course or module on ethics…

  12. Cost-effectiveness analysis: adding value to assessment of animal health welfare and production.

    PubMed

    Babo Martins, S; Rushton, J

    2014-12-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) has been extensively used in economic assessments in fields related to animal health, namely in human health where it provides a decision-making framework for choices about the allocation of healthcare resources. Conversely, in animal health, cost-benefit analysis has been the preferred tool for economic analysis. In this paper, the use of CEA in related areas and the role of this technique in assessments of animal health, welfare and production are reviewed. Cost-effectiveness analysis can add further value to these assessments, particularly in programmes targeting animal welfare or animal diseases with an impact on human health, where outcomes are best valued in natural effects rather than in monetary units. Importantly, CEA can be performed during programme implementation stages to assess alternative courses of action in real time.

  13. Sugars and adiposity: the long‐term effects of consuming added and naturally occurring sugars in foods and in beverages

    PubMed Central

    Lee, A. K.; Chowdhury, R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objective The aim of this study was to determine if the association with adiposity varies by the type (added vs. naturally occurring) and form (liquid vs. solid) of dietary sugars consumed. Methods Data from the 10‐year National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Growth and Health Study (n = 2,021 girls aged 9–10 years at baseline; n = 5,156 paired observations) were used. Using mixed linear models, 1‐year changes in sugar intake, body mass index z‐score (BMIz) and waist circumference (WC) were assessed. Results The results showed mean daily added sugar (AS) intake: 10.3 tsp (41 g) liquid; 11.6 tsp (46 g) solid and naturally occurring sugar intake: 2.6 tsp (10 g) liquid; 2.2 tsp (9 g) solid. Before total energy adjustment, each additional teaspoon of liquid AS was associated with a 0.222‐mm increase in WC (p = 0.0003) and a 0.002 increase in BMIz (p = 0.003). Each teaspoon of solid AS was associated with a 0.126‐mm increase in WC (p = 0.03) and a 0.001 increase in BMIz (p = 0.03). Adjusting for total energy, this association was maintained only between liquid AS and WC among all and between solid AS and WC among those overweight/obese only. There was no significant association with naturally occurring sugar. Conclusions These findings demonstrate to suggest a positive association between AS intake (liquid and solid) and BMI that is mediated by total energy intake and an association with WC that is independent of it. PMID:27774248

  14. Transfer Effects of Adding Seductive Details to Case-Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abercrombie, Sara

    2013-01-01

    The current research investigates the efficacy of the case-based instructional method for teacher education when seductive details (i.e. interesting but extraneous details) are included or removed. Aspiring teachers (n = 108) learned about principles of writing effective feedback in a text-based lesson without a description of a classroom case (C…

  15. Assessing the Value-Added Effects of Literacy Collaborative Professional Development on Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biancarosa, Gina; Bryk, Anthony S.; Dexter, Emily R.

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on a 4-year longitudinal study of the effects of Literacy Collaborative (LC), a school-wide reform model that relies primarily on the one-on-one coaching of teachers as a lever for improving student literacy learning. Kindergarten through second-grade students in 17 schools were assessed twice annually with DIBELS and Terra…

  16. Precise effective masses from density functional perturbation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laflamme Janssen, J.; Gillet, Y.; Poncé, S.; Martin, A.; Torrent, M.; Gonze, X.

    2016-05-01

    The knowledge of effective masses is a key ingredient to analyze numerous properties of semiconductors, like carrier mobilities, (magneto)transport properties, or band extrema characteristics yielding carrier densities and density of states. Currently, these masses are usually calculated using finite-difference estimation of density functional theory (DFT) electronic band curvatures. However, finite differences require an additional convergence study and are prone to numerical noise. Moreover, the concept of effective mass breaks down at degenerate band extrema. We assess the former limitation by developing a method that allows to obtain the Hessian of DFT bands directly, using density functional perturbation theory. Then, we solve the latter issue by adapting the concept of "transport equivalent effective mass" to the k .p ̂ framework. The numerical noise inherent to finite-difference methods is thus eliminated, along with the associated convergence study. The resulting method is therefore more general, more robust, and simpler to use, which makes it especially appropriate for high-throughput computing. After validating the developed techniques, we apply them to the study of silicon, graphane, and arsenic. The formalism is implemented into the abinit software and supports the norm-conserving pseudopotential approach, the projector augmented-wave method, and the inclusion of spin-orbit coupling. The derived expressions also apply to the ultrasoft pseudopotential method.

  17. FEEDBACK EFFECTS ON LOW-MASS STAR FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Charles E.; Klein, Richard I.; McKee, Christopher F.; Fisher, Robert T.

    2012-03-01

    Protostellar feedback, both radiation and bipolar outflows, dramatically affects the fragmentation and mass accretion from star-forming cores. We use ORION, an adaptive mesh refinement gravito-radiation-hydrodynamics code, to simulate low-mass star formation in a turbulent molecular cloud in the presence of protostellar feedback. We present results of the first simulations of a star-forming cluster that include both radiative transfer and protostellar outflows. We run four simulations to isolate the individual effects of radiation feedback and outflow feedback as well as the combination of the two. We find that outflows reduce protostellar masses and accretion rates each by a factor of three and therefore reduce protostellar luminosities by an order of magnitude. This means that, while radiation feedback suppresses fragmentation, outflows render protostellar radiation largely irrelevant for low-mass star formation above a mass scale of 0.05 M{sub Sun }. We find initial fragmentation of our cloud at half the global Jeans length, around 0.1 pc. With insufficient protostellar radiation to stop it, these 0.1 pc cores fragment repeatedly, forming typically 10 stars each. The accretion rate in these stars scales with mass as predicted from core accretion models that include both thermal and turbulent motions; the accretion rate does not appear to be consistent with either competitive accretion or accretion from an isothermal sphere. We find that protostellar outflows do not significantly affect the overall cloud dynamics, in the absence of magnetic fields, due to their small opening angles and poor coupling to the dense gas. The outflows reduce the mass from the cores by 2/3, giving a core to star efficiency, {epsilon}{sub core} {approx_equal} 1/3. The simulations are also able to reproduce many observation of local star-forming regions. Our simulation with radiation and outflows reproduces the observed protostellar luminosity function. All of the simulations can

  18. This Ad is for You: Targeting and the Effect of Alcohol Advertising on Youth Drinking.

    PubMed

    Molloy, Eamon

    2016-02-01

    Endogenous targeting of alcohol advertisements presents a challenge for empirically identifying a causal effect of advertising on drinking. Drinkers prefer a particular media; firms recognize this and target alcohol advertising at these media. This paper overcomes this challenge by utilizing novel data with detailed individual measures of media viewing and alcohol consumption and three separate empirical techniques, which represent significant improvements over previous methods. First, controls for the average audience characteristics of the media an individual views account for attributes of magazines and television programs alcohol firms may consider when deciding where to target advertising. A second specification directly controls for each television program and magazine a person views. The third method exploits variation in advertising exposure due to a 2003 change in an industry-wide rule that governs where firms may advertise. Although the unconditional correlation between advertising and drinking by youth (ages 18-24) is strong, models that include simple controls for targeting imply, at most, a modest advertising effect. Although the coefficients are estimated less precisely, estimates with models including more rigorous controls for targeting indicate no significant effect of advertising on youth drinking.

  19. This Ad is for You: Targeting and the Effect of Alcohol Advertising on Youth Drinking.

    PubMed

    Molloy, Eamon

    2016-02-01

    Endogenous targeting of alcohol advertisements presents a challenge for empirically identifying a causal effect of advertising on drinking. Drinkers prefer a particular media; firms recognize this and target alcohol advertising at these media. This paper overcomes this challenge by utilizing novel data with detailed individual measures of media viewing and alcohol consumption and three separate empirical techniques, which represent significant improvements over previous methods. First, controls for the average audience characteristics of the media an individual views account for attributes of magazines and television programs alcohol firms may consider when deciding where to target advertising. A second specification directly controls for each television program and magazine a person views. The third method exploits variation in advertising exposure due to a 2003 change in an industry-wide rule that governs where firms may advertise. Although the unconditional correlation between advertising and drinking by youth (ages 18-24) is strong, models that include simple controls for targeting imply, at most, a modest advertising effect. Although the coefficients are estimated less precisely, estimates with models including more rigorous controls for targeting indicate no significant effect of advertising on youth drinking. PMID:25580931

  20. Finite-mass effects on inclusive B-meson hadroproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Kniehl, Bernd A.; Kramer, Gustav; Schienbein, Ingo; Spiesberger, Hubert

    2008-01-01

    We calculate the transverse-momentum (p{sub T}) distribution for the inclusive hadroproduction of B mesons at intermediate values of p{sub T} at next-to-leading order (NLO) in a dedicated finite-mass scheme using realistic nonperturbative fragmentation functions that are obtained through a global fit to e{sup +}e{sup -} data from CERN LEP1 and SLAC SLC exploiting their universality and scaling violations. We find that finite-mass effects moderately enhance the cross section, by about 20% at p{sub T}=2m{sub b}, and rapidly fade out with increasing value of p{sub T}, so that the zero-mass prediction is reached. We also perform comparisons with recent pp data taken by the CDF Collaboration in run II at the Fermilab Tevatron and comment on the usefulness of the fixed-flavor-number scheme.

  1. No Effect of Added Sugar Consumed at Median American Intake Level on Glucose Tolerance or Insulin Resistance.

    PubMed

    Lowndes, Joshua; Sinnett, Stephanie S; Rippe, James M

    2015-10-23

    Excess sugar consumption may promote adverse changes in hepatic and total body insulin resistance. Debate continues over the effects of sugars at more typically consumed levels and whether the identity of the sugar consumed is important. In the present study participants (20-60 years old) were randomly assigned to one of five groups, three that consumed low fat milk with added fructose containing sugars in amounts equivalent to the 50th percentile of fructose consumption (US), one which consumed low-fat milk sweetened with glucose, and one unsweetened low-fat milk control group. The intervention lasted ten weeks. In the entire study population there was less than 1 kg increase in weight (73.6 ±13.0 vs. 74.5 ± 13.3 kg, p < 0.001), but the change in weight was comparable among groups (p > 0.05). There were no changes in fasting glucose (49 ± 0.4 vs. 5.0 ± 0.5 mmol/L), insulin (56.9 ± 38.9 vs. 61.8 ± 50.0 pmol/L), or insulin resistance, as measured by the Homeostasis Model Assessment method (1.8 ± 1.3 vs. 2.0 ± 1.5, all p > 0.05). These data suggest that added sugar consumed at the median American intake level does not produce changes in measures of insulin sensitivity or glucose tolerance and that no sugar has more deleterious effects than others.

  2. Gravitational and mass distribution effects on stationary superwinds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Añorve-Zeferino, G. A.

    2016-11-01

    Here, we model the effect of non-uniform dynamical mass distributions and their associated gravitational fields on the stationary galactic superwind solution. We do this by considering an analogue injection of mass and energy from stellar winds and SNe. We consider both compact dark-matter and baryonic haloes that does not extend further from the galaxies optical radii Ropt as well as extended gravitationally interacting ones. We consider halo profiles that emulate the results of recent cosmological simulations and coincide also with observational estimations from galaxy surveys. This allows us to compare the analytical superwind solution with outflows from different kinds of galaxies. We give analytical formulae that establish when an outflow is possible and also characterize distinct flow regimes and enrichment scenarios. We also constraint the parameter space by giving approximate limits above which gravitation, self-gravitation and radiative cooling can inhibit the stationary flow. We obtain analytical expressions for the free superwind hydrodynamical profiles. We find that the existence or inhibition of the superwind solution highly depends on the steepness and concentration of the dynamical mass and the mass and energy injection rates. We compare our results with observational data and a recent numerical work. We put our results in the context of the mass-metallicity relationship to discuss observational evidence related to the selective loss of metals from the least massive galaxies and also discuss the case of massive galaxies.

  3. Gravitational and mass distribution effects on stationary superwinds.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Añorve-Zeferino, G. A.

    2016-08-01

    Here, we model the effect of non-uniform dynamical mass distributions and their associated gravitational fields on the stationary galactic superwind solution. We do this by considering an analogue injection of mass and energy from stellar winds and SNe. We consider both compact dark-matter and baryonic haloes that does not extend further from the galaxies optical radii Ropt as well as extended gravitationally-interacting ones. We consider halo profiles that emulate the results of recent cosmological simulations and coincide also with observational estimations from galaxy surveys. This allows to compare the analytical superwind solution with outflows from different kinds of galaxies. We give analytical formulae that establish when an outflow is possible and also characterize distinct flow regimes and enrichment scenarios. We also constraint the parameter space by giving approximate limits above which gravitation, self-gravitation and radiative cooling can inhibit the stationary flow. We obtain analytical expressions for the free superwind hydrodynamical profiles. We find that the existence or inhibition of the superwind solution highly depends on the steepness and concentration of the dynamical mass and the mass and energy injection rates. We compare our results with observational data and a recent numerical work. We put our results in the context of the mass-metallicity relationship to discuss observational evidence related to the selective loss of metals from the least massive galaxies and also discuss the case of massive galaxies.

  4. Effect of body mass and clothing on carrion entomofauna.

    PubMed

    Matuszewski, Szymon; Frątczak, Katarzyna; Konwerski, Szymon; Bajerlein, Daria; Szpila, Krzysztof; Jarmusz, Mateusz; Szafałowicz, Michał; Grzywacz, Andrzej; Mądra, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Carcass mass largely affects pattern and rate of carrion decomposition. Supposedly, it is similarly important for carrion entomofauna; however, most of its likely effects have not been tested experimentally. Here, simultaneous effects of carcass mass and clothing are analyzed. A factorial block experiment with four levels of carcass mass (small carcasses 5-15 kg, medium carcasses 15.1-30 kg, medium/large carcasses 35-50 kg, large carcasses 55-70 kg) and two levels of carcass clothing (clothed and unclothed) was made in a grassland habitat of Western Poland. Pig carcasses (N = 24) were grouped into spring, early summer, and late summer blocks. Insects were sampled manually and with pitfall traps. Results demonstrate that insect assemblages are more complex, abundant, and long-lasting on larger carcasses, whereas clothing is of minor importance in this respect. Only large or medium/large carcasses were colonized by all guilds of carrion insects, while small or medium carcasses revealed high underrepresentation of late-colonizing insects (e.g., Cleridae or Nitidulidae). This finding indicates that carcasses weighing about 23 kg-a standard in forensic decomposition studies-give an incomplete picture of carrion entomofauna. Residencies of all forensically relevant insects were distinctly prolonged on larger carcasses, indicating that cadaver mass is a factor of great importance in this respect. The pre-appearance interval of most taxa was found to be unrelated to mass or clothing of a carcass. Moreover, current results suggest that rate of larval development is higher on smaller carcasses. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that carcass mass is a factor of crucial importance for carrion entomofauna, whereas the importance of clothing is small. PMID:25874664

  5. Effect of genistein added to bull semen after thawing on pronuclear and sperm quality.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, M A; Vicente-Fiel, S; Raga, E; Salvador, I; Soler, C; Yániz, J L

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of different genistein treatments on bull sperm after thawing on pronuclear formation after in vitro fertilization (IVF) and on different sperm quality variables. Three experiments were performed. In Experiment 1, three treatments (Control, sperm incubation for 1h at 37 °C with or without genistein) and two sperm concentrations during IVF (1 or 3 × 10(6)sperm/mL) were evaluated to study the influence of genistein on pronuclear formation (PNF). Sperm incubation for 1h before IVF reduced PNF regardless of sperm concentration. However, after sperm incubation and with 3 × 10(6)sperm/mL in IVF, the genistein treatment group had greater fertilization rates than the untreated group. In Experiment 2, six treatments plus the control group were performed to study the effect of genistein (presence or not) and incubation conditions (30 min at 37 °C, 1h at 27 °C or at 37 °C) on PNF using 3 × 10(6)sperm/mL for IVF. When incubation time was reduced to 30 min, PNF rate from the genistein treatment group was no different from either the control group or in the group in which incubation occurred for 1h at 27 °C. In Experiment 3, the effect of several genistein treatments (control; genistein treatment for 30 min of incubation at 37 °C; genistein treatment for 1h of incubation at 27 °C) on sperm motility, viability and DNA fragmentation were evaluated. Genistein did not improve sperm motility and, depending on the experimental group or time, it either reduced or had no effect on sperm motility. Genistein treatment did not improve sperm viability after 5h of incubation. However, genistein treatment for 1h at 27 °C decreased sperm DNA fragmentation compared with the control group after 5h of sperm incubation. In conclusion, the treatment of bull sperm with genistein for 1h at 27 °C could decrease sperm DNA fragmentation, although PNF rate after IVF and sperm motility were reduced.

  6. Effects of added germination agents on loss of optical density in electron-irradiated spores.

    PubMed Central

    Stogaitis, G; Lefebvre, G M

    1976-01-01

    Spores of Bacillus megaterium ATCC 14581, subjected to partial-cell iradiation, were exposed to either lysozyme, H2O2, or glucose in an attempt to reduce or eliminate the nonmonotonic behavior in curves of percentage of germination versus energy, obtained when such spores were resuspended in phosphate buffer alone. Except at the lower doses. H2O2 effectively eliminated this anomalous dip in these curves, whereas lysozyme amplified it greatly. Glucose was generally ineffective. Coinciding with the increases in optical density when lysozyme was present was the formation of an occluding product. PMID:9902

  7. Effects of added germination agents on loss of optical density in electron-irradiated spores.

    PubMed

    Stogaitis, G; Lefebvre, G M

    1976-08-01

    Spores of Bacillus megaterium ATCC 14581, subjected to partial-cell iradiation, were exposed to either lysozyme, H2O2, or glucose in an attempt to reduce or eliminate the nonmonotonic behavior in curves of percentage of germination versus energy, obtained when such spores were resuspended in phosphate buffer alone. Except at the lower doses. H2O2 effectively eliminated this anomalous dip in these curves, whereas lysozyme amplified it greatly. Glucose was generally ineffective. Coinciding with the increases in optical density when lysozyme was present was the formation of an occluding product. PMID:9902

  8. Homogenization limit for a multiband effective mass model in heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Morandi, O.

    2014-06-15

    We study the homogenization limit of a multiband model that describes the quantum mechanical motion of an electron in a quasi-periodic crystal. In this approach, the distance among the atoms that constitute the material (lattice parameter) is considered a small quantity. Our model include the description of materials with variable chemical composition, intergrowth compounds, and heterostructures. We derive the effective multiband evolution system in the framework of the kp approach. We study the well posedness of the mathematical problem. We compare the effective mass model with the standard kp models for uniform and non-uniforms crystals. We show that in the limit of vanishing lattice parameter, the particle density obtained by the effective mass model, converges to the exact probability density of the particle.

  9. Added noise due to the effect of an upstream wake on a propeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takallu, M. A.; Spence, P. L.; Block, P. J. W.

    1987-10-01

    An analytical/computational study has been conducted to predict the effect of an upstream wing or pylon on the noise of an operating propeller. The wing trailing edge was placed at variable distances (0.1 and 0.3 chord) upstream of a scaled model propeller (SR-2). The wake was modeled using a similarity formulation. The instantaneous pressure distribution on the propeller blades during the passage through the wake was formulated in terms of a time-dependent variation of each blade section's angle of attack and in terms of the shed vortices from the blade trailing edge. It was found that the final expressions for the unsteady loads considerably altered the radiated noise pattern. Predicted noise for various observer positions, rotational speeds, and propeller/pylon distances were computed and are presented in terms of the pressure time history, harmonics of the Fourier analysis, and overall sound pressure levels (OASPL). The addition of the tangential stress due to skin friction was found to have a damping effect on the acoustic pressure time history and the resulting spectrum of the generated noise. It is shown that the positioning of a pylon upstream of a propeller indeed increases the overall noise.

  10. EFFECT OF ADDING TRICALCIUM PHOSPHATE TO FLUORIDE MOUTHRINSE ON MICROHARDNESS OF DEMINERALIZED PRIMARY HUMAN TOOTH.

    PubMed

    Rirattanapong, Praphasri; Vongsavan, Kadkao; Saengsirinavin, Chavengkiat; Phuekcharoen, Pimonchat

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of fluoride mouthrinse containing tricalcium phosphate on microhardness of demineralized primary enamel. Thirty-six sound primary incisors were immersed in a demineralizing solution (pH 4.4) for 96 hours at 37 degrees C to create artificial caries-like lesions. After artificial caries formation, the specimens were randomly divided into 3 groups (with 12 specimens in each group): Group A: deionized water; Group B: 0.05% NaF plus 20 ppm tricalcium phosphate mouthrinse and Group C: 0.05% NaF mouthrinse. All the specimens were immersed for 1 minute at 37 degrees C three times per day for 7 days in the respective mouthrinse among pH cycling. The surface microhardness was examined using a Vickers hardness tester (100 grams for 15 seconds) at baseline, before and after the pH-cycling procedure. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple comparison tests with a significance level of 0.05. After treatment, Group Ahad a significantly lower surface microhardness value than the other two groups (p=0.000); however, there was no significant difference between Groups B and C (p=0.728). We concluded fluoride mouthrinse containing tricalcium phosphate and fluoride mouthrinse have similar remineralizing effects on microhardness of demineralized primary teeth. PMID:26521528

  11. Effects of adding nitroprusside on arsenic stressed response of Pistia stratiotes L. under hydroponic conditions.

    PubMed

    Farnese, Fernanda S; Oliveira, Juraci A; Gusman, Grasielle S; Leão, Gabriela A; Silveira, Neidiquele M; Silva, Paulo M; Ribeiro, Cléberson; Cambraia, José

    2014-01-01

    Effect of nitric oxide (NO) in mitigating stress induced by arsenic (As) was assessed in Pistia stratiotes, with NO supplied as sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Plants were exposed to four treatments: control, SNP (0.1 mg L(-1)), As (1.5 mg L(-1)), As + SNP (1.5 and 0.1 mg L(-1)), for seven days (analyses of growth, absorption of As and mineral nutrients) and for 24 h (analyses of concentration of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs), antioxidant capacity and photosynthesis). P. stratiotes accumulated high concentrations of As and this accumulation wasn't affected by the addition of SNP, but the tolerance index of the plant to As increased. SNP attenuated effects of As on the absorption of mineral nutrients (Ca, Fe, Mn, and Mg), but not for phosphorus, and maintained concentrations of ROIs to normal levels, probably due to the increase in antioxidant capacity. The As damaged the photosynthesis by the decrease in pigment contents and by disturbance the photochemical (loss of PSII efficiency and increases in non-photochemical quenching coefficient) and biochemical (reductions in carbon assimilation, increase in the C(i)/C(a) and phi(PSII)/phi(CO2) ratios) steps. The addition of SNP restored these parameters to normal levels. Thus, NO was able to increasing the resistance of P. stratiotes to As.

  12. Effects of olive mill wastes added to olive grove soils on erosion and soil properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano-García, Beatriz; Parras-Alcántara, Luis

    2014-05-01

    INTRODUCTION The increasing degradation of olive groves by effect of organic matter losses derived from intensive agricultural practices has promoted the use (by olive farmers) of olive mill wastes (olive leaves and alperujo) which contain large amounts of organic matter and are free of heavy metals and pathogenic microorganisms. In this work we compared the effects of these oil mill wastes on the decrease of soil erosion, also, we undertook the assessment of the organic carbon and nitrogen contents of soil, their distribution across the profile, the accumulation and Stratification ratios (SRs) of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN), and the C:N ratio, in Cambisols in Mediterranean olive groves treated with olive leaves and alperujo. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study area was a typical olive grove in southern Spain under conventional tillage (CT). Three plots were established. The first one was the control plot; the second one was treated with olive leaves (CTol) and the third one, with alperujo (CTa). 9 samples per plot were collected to examine the response of the soil 3 years after application of the wastes. Soil properties determined were: soil particle size, pH, bulk density, the available water capacity, SOC, TN and C:N ratio. SOC and N stock, expressed for a specific depth in Mg ha-1. Stratification ratios (SRs) (that can be used as an indicator of dynamic soil quality) for SOC and TN at three different depths were calculated. The erosion study was based on simulations of rain; that have been carried out in order to highlight differences in the phenomena of runoff and soil losses in the three plots considered. The effect of different treatments on soil properties was analyzed using a ANOVA, followed by an Anderson-Darling test. RESULTS Supplying the soil with the wastes significantly improved physical and chemical properties in the studied soils with respect to the control. C and N stocks increased, the SOC stock was 75.4 Mg ha-1 in CT, 91.5 Mg

  13. Effect of added herb extracts on oxidative stability of ghee (butter oil) during accelerated oxidation condition.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Nilkanth; Gandhi, Kamal; Purohit, Akash; Arora, Sumit; Singh, R R B

    2014-10-01

    The antioxidant activities of vidarikand (Pueraria tuberosa), shatavari (Asparagus racemosus) and ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) extracts (aqueous and ethanolic) were evaluated and compared with BHA using β-carotene bleaching assay, DPPH assay and Rancimat method. Phenolic contents of ethanolic extracts of herbs were high compared to their aqueous extracts. The ethanolic extracts showed more antioxidant activity (β-carotene-linoleic acid model system) than their aqueous counterparts. In DPPH system also, ethanolic extracts were superior to that of aqueous extracts. The ethanolic extracts of the herbs were more effective in preventing the development of the peroxide value and conjugated diene in ghee compared to their aqueous extracts. Ethanolic extracts of herbs showed the higher induction period as compared to their aqueous counter parts in the Rancimat. Antioxidant activity of the herbs decreased in the order vidarikand > ashwagandha > shatavari. Thus, the ethanolic extract of vidarikand was having the maximum antioxidant activity among all the herbs. PMID:25328218

  14. Effect of adding phosphate to drinking water on bacterial growth in slightly and highly corroded pipes.

    PubMed

    Appenzeller, B M; Batté, M; Mathieu, L; Block, J C; Lahoussine, V; Cavard, J; Gatel, D

    2001-03-01

    The effect of phosphate addition in drinking water was tested under static conditions as batch tests and under dynamic conditions using continuously fed reactors. Phosphate supplements in batch tests from 0.1 to 2 mg P-PO4 L(-1) did not show any relationship between bacterial growth and phosphate concentration. Dynamic tests in slightly corroded reactor (stainless steel) treated at 1 mg P-PO4 L(-1) showed only a moderate improvement in the growth of microorganisms. On the contrary, phosphate treatment applied to the highly corroded reactor (unlined cast iron) led to an immediate, drastic drop in iron oxide release and bacterial production. Phosphate uptake by the reactor wall was less than 14% with the stainless-steel reactor and 70-90% with the corroded cast iron reactor. Moreover, about 5% of the phosphate associated to corroded iron pipe walls was released for 20 days after the end of treatment.

  15. Effects of adding ethanol to KOH electrolyte on electrochemical performance of titanium carbide-derived carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiang; Zhang, Ruijun; Chen, Peng; Ge, Shanhai

    2014-01-01

    Porous carbide-derived carbons (CDCs) are synthesized from TiC at different chlorination temperatures as electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors. It is found that the microstructure of the produced CDCs has significant influence on both the hydrophilicity in aqueous KOH electrolyte and the resultant electrochemical performance. Because the TiC-CDC synthesized at higher temperature (e.g. 1000 °C) contains well-ordered graphite ribbons, it shows lower hydrophilicity and specific capacitance. It is also found that addition of a small amount of ethanol to KOH electrolyte effectively improves the wettability of the CDCs synthesized at higher temperature and the corresponding specific capacitance. Compared with the CDC synthesized at 600 °C, the CDC synthesized at 1000 °C shows fast ion transport and excellent capacitive behavior in KOH electrolyte with addition of ethanol because of the existences of mesopores and high specific surface area.

  16. Effects of Added Rigid Vegetation on the Bar Formation: Results from Full-scale Experimental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, K. Y.; Chen, S. C.; An, H. P.

    2015-12-01

    River corridors were characterized by island and floodplain development driven by the inter-play of flows, sediments and vegetation. This study used a natural stream as an experimental site with the site was 60m long by 30m wide, which was in downstream of Landao Creek, Huisun forest, Taiwan. The field experiment was designed to investigate the effects of river processes on bar, and the effects vegetation dynamics had on bar formation, which cause by upstream dam broke. To analysis how vegetation impact on bar-form and bar-stabilization, we used wood piles (4.4×4.4×80cm) as natural rigid vegetation, which inserted into the bar upstream. In the field site, we chose 6 site to set wood piles, each site was designed 4 row and were total 11 piles within, which set at in-row and in- line spacing of 50×20cm. According to the results, two primary phase of forming bar in the fluvial processes were discussed. First, in the flood period, presence of piles could trap large gravel in the front and turn the gravel into deposition. When the deposition gradually accreted, the front of deposition would induce flow to divide, let flow disperse into two branches around the deposition; some coarser particles rather are transported along the bar surface with momentum of flow movement and deposited at the top of bar, than are transported along the diversion channel around the bar (the median grain size of bar top were coarser 50% than before). Second, in the flood recession period, bar quickly accreted portions of passing bed load sheets and grew laterally and in the headward direction. Phenomenon showed that the composition of grain size were decreasing in the headward direction, which flow entrained were getting smaller with flood recession (the median grain size between top and the front of bar differed 30%).

  17. Tuning The Properties of Quantum Dots Via The Effective Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, R. A.; Sinha, Abhinav; Pathak, Praveen

    2011-07-15

    In the present work we revisit effective mass theory (EMT) for a semiconductor quantum dot (QD) and employ the BenDaniel-Duke (BDD) boundary condition. In effective mass theory mass m{sub i} inside the dot of radius R is different from the mass m{sub o} outside the dot. That gives us a crucial factor in determining the electronic spectrum namely {beta} = m{sub i}/m{sub 0}. We show both by numerical calculations and asymptotic analysis that the ground state energy and the surface charge density, {rho}(r) can be large. We also show that the dependence of the ground state energy on the radius of the well is infraquadratic. We demonstrate that the significance of BDD condition is pronounced at large R. We also study the dependence of excited state on the radius as well as the difference between energy states. Both exhibit an infra quadratic behavior with radius. The energy difference is important in study of absorption and emission spectra. We find that the BDD condition substantially alters the energy difference. Hence the interpretation of experimental result may need to be reexamined.

  18. Impact of Heat Wave Definitions on the Added Effect of Heat Waves on Cardiovascular Mortality in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Wentan; Zeng, Qiang; Ma, Yue; Li, Guoxing; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2016-01-01

    Heat waves are associated with increased mortality, however, few studies have examined the added effect of heat waves. Moreover, there is limited evidence for the influence of different heat wave definitions (HWs) on cardiovascular mortality in Beijing, the capital of China. The aim of this study was to find the best HW definitions for cardiovascular mortality, and we examined the effect modification by an individual characteristic on cardiovascular mortality in Beijing, a typical northern city in China. We applied a Poisson generalized additive approach to estimate the differences in cardiovascular mortality during heat waves (using 12 HWs) compared with non-heat-wave days in Beijing from 2006 to 2009. We also validated the model fit by checking the residuals to ensure that the autocorrelation was successfully removed. In addition, the effect modifications by individual characteristics were explored in different HWs. Our results showed that the associations between heat waves and cardiovascular mortality differed from different HWs. HWs using the 93th percentile of the daily average temperature (27.7 °C) and a duration ≥5 days had the greatest risk, with an increase of 18% (95% confidence interval (CI): 6%, 31%) in the overall population, 24% (95% CI: 10%, 39%) in an older group (ages ≥65 years), and 22% (95% CI: 3%, 44%) in a female group. The added effect of heat waves was apparent after 5 consecutive heat wave days for the overall population and the older group. Females and the elderly were at higher risk than males and younger subjects (ages <65 years). Our findings suggest that heat wave definitions play a significant role in the relationship between heat wave and cardiovascular mortality. Using a suitable definition may have implications for designing local heat early warning systems and protecting the susceptible populations during heat waves. PMID:27657103

  19. Effect of hydrogen addition on the deposition of titanium nitride thin films in nitrogen added argon magnetron plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikia, P.; Bhuyan, H.; Diaz-Droguett, D. E.; Guzman, F.; Mändl, S.; Saikia, B. K.; Favre, M.; Maze, J. R.; Wyndham, E.

    2016-06-01

    The properties and performance of thin films deposited by plasma assisted processes are closely related to their manufacturing techniques and processes. The objective of the current study is to investigate the modification of plasma parameters occurring during hydrogen addition in N2  +  Ar magnetron plasma used for titanium nitride thin film deposition, and to correlate the measured properties of the deposited thin film with the bulk plasma parameters of the magnetron discharge. From the Langmuir probe measurements, it was observed that the addition of hydrogen led to a decrease of electron density from 8.6 to 6.2  ×  (1014 m-3) and a corresponding increase of electron temperature from 6.30 to 6.74 eV. The optical emission spectroscopy study reveals that with addition of hydrogen, the density of argon ions decreases. The various positive ion species involving hydrogen are found to increase with increase of hydrogen partial pressure in the chamber. The thin films deposited were characterized using standard surface diagnostic tools such as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy (RS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Although it was possible to deposit thin films of titanium nitride with hydrogen addition in nitrogen added argon magnetron plasma, the quality of the thin films deteriorates with higher hydrogen partial pressures.

  20. Situated learning theory: adding rate and complexity effects via Kauffman's NK model.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yu; McKelvey, Bill

    2004-01-01

    For many firms, producing information, knowledge, and enhancing learning capability have become the primary basis of competitive advantage. A review of organizational learning theory identifies two approaches: (1) those that treat symbolic information processing as fundamental to learning, and (2) those that view the situated nature of cognition as fundamental. After noting that the former is inadequate because it focuses primarily on behavioral and cognitive aspects of individual learning, this paper argues the importance of studying learning as interactions among people in the context of their environment. It contributes to organizational learning in three ways. First, it argues that situated learning theory is to be preferred over traditional behavioral and cognitive learning theories, because it treats organizations as complex adaptive systems rather than mere information processors. Second, it adds rate and nonlinear learning effects. Third, following model-centered epistemology, it uses an agent-based computational model, in particular a "humanized" version of Kauffman's NK model, to study the situated nature of learning. Using simulation results, we test eight hypotheses extending situated learning theory in new directions. The paper ends with a discussion of possible extensions of the current study to better address key issues in situated learning.

  1. Effects of Adding Midazolam and Sufentanil to Intrathecal Bupivacaine on Analgesia Quality and Postoperative Complications in Elective Cesarean Section

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahpour, Abolfazl; Azadi, Raheleh; Bandari, Razieh; Mirmohammadkhani, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intrathecal adjutants can be used for regional anesthesia (RA) in cesarean section to improve its quality in terms of time and complications. Some previous studies focused on the effects of adding sufentanil and/or midazolam to bupivacaine and compared each with using bupivacaine alone. However, there has been no study to assess the effects of using sufentanil and midazolam in combination with bupivacaine. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare properties (time of achievement/recovery of sensory/motor blocks; and time to request opium), complications (nausea, vomiting, shivering and hypotension), and neonatal first minute Apgar score with and without the addition of midazolam (M) or sufentanil (S) to bupivacaine (B) through intrathecal injection for spinal anesthesia, after the cesarean section. Patients and Methods: In this double blind randomized clinical trial participants were randomly allocated to three equal groups: Group B (2.5 cc of bupivacaine 0.5% + 1 cc normal saline 0.9%), Group BM (2.5 cc of bupivacaine + 0.02 mg/kg midazolam) and Group BS (2.5 cc of bupivacaine 0.5% + 0.7 cc normal saline 0.9% + 1.5 µg of sufentanil, 0.3 cc). We used analysis of variance (ANOVA), post hoc test with Bonferroni adjustment, and chi-square test for statistical analysis; the analyses were performed using the SPSS-16 software. Given a significant level of 0.05, overall and pair-wise comparisons were made. Results: Seventy-five females participated in the study with no significant age difference (mean ± standard deviation (SD): 28.60 ± 6.06, 28.12 ± 5.29 and 28.76 ± 3.97 year; P = 0.9). Except for “time to motor block recovery” (P = 0.057), the overall differences among the three groups was significant in terms of “time to sensory/motor block” (P < 0.001), “time to sensory block recovery” (P < 0.001), and “time to request opium” (P < 0.001). In all pair-wise comparisons there was no significant difference between the BM

  2. Analgesic Effect of Clonidine Added to Bupivacaine in Spinal Anesthesia for Cruciate Ligament Repair

    PubMed Central

    Lak, Marzieh; Yousefi, Asghar; Karimi-Sari, Hamidreza; Saghafinia, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several researchers have suggested that addition of local anesthetics to spinal anesthesia increases the duration of post-operative analgesia. Objectives: This study sought to assess the effect of addition of clonidine to bupivacaine in spinal anesthesia on analgesia after cruciate ligament repair. Patients and Methods: This double-blind clinical trial was conducted on 50 American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class I or II patients who were candidates for cruciate ligament repair. Patients were randomly assigned to two groups; one group received 15 mg of bupivacaine (group B) and the other 15 mg of bupivacaine plus clonidine (75 µg, group BC). The two groups were compared in terms of post-operative analgesia and related factors using the SPSS software version 20. Results: All patients were males with a mean age of 24.9 years in group B, and 25.2 years in group BC (P > 0.05). In group BC, time lapse to request analgesics was 160 minutes longer and the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) at this time was 0.3 units less than group B. The time to regression of sensory block by two dermatomes was seven minutes longer, VAS in the recovery room was 1 unit less and Bromage scale in the recovery room and ward was 0.6 and 0.9 units more, respectively in the BC group. Hypotension and ephedrine usage was 36% more in the BC group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Clonidine plus bupivacaine can increase the duration of motor and sensory block in arthroscopic cruciate ligament repair under spinal anesthesia. However, due to significant hemodynamic changes, further studies are required to determine a safer dose. PMID:26290855

  3. Experimental observations on the effect of added dispersing agent on phenol biodegradation in a microporous membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Juang, Ruey-Shin; Chung, Tsuey-Ping; Wang, Maw-Ling; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2008-03-01

    The effect of added dispersing agent tetrasodium pyrophosphate (TSP) on the degradation of phenol by Pseudomonas putida BCRC 14365 in a microporous membrane bioreactor was experimentally studied at 30 degrees C and pH 7. The hollow fibers were pre-wetted with ethanol to make them more hydrophilic. Phenol solution was passed through the lumen of the module and the cell medium was flowed across the shell. All Experiments were carried out at a fixed initial cell density of 0.023 g/L (0.06 optical density). Phenol could be completely degraded with the help of the biofilm formed on the outer surfaces of the fibers even though its level was high up to 3 g/L. It was also shown that the presence of TSP in cell medium could improve biodegradation. The amount of added TSP was optimized to be 1 g/L under the conditions studied. In this situation, 3 g/L of phenol could be completely removed within 76 h, much shorter than the absence of TSP (within 92 h).

  4. Effects of adding red wine on the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of uncured frankfurter-type sausage.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xi; Sebranek, Joseph G; Lee, Hyun Yong; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the quality and sensory characteristics of RTE frankfurter-type sausage cured with celery juice powder and including red wine. Four frankfurter treatments including a conventionally cured treatment without red wine (control) and three treatments cured with pre-converted vegetable juice powder and 0%, 5% or 10% (v/w) red wine were prepared. Results showed that adding 5% red wine increased the a*-value, and the textural resilience, cohesiveness and springiness of the frankfurters, as well as decreased lipid/protein oxidation of the final products. Added wine also introduced new volatiles (alcohol and ester compounds) to the frankfurters. The principal component (PC) analysis showed that the pre-converted vegetable juice powder achieved the same effects as the conventional curing agents for typical frankfurter properties. However, the addition of excess amounts of red wine (10%) to the meat batter decreased the pH of meat batter and accelerated lipid oxidation. PMID:27388819

  5. The effects of adding leucine to pre and postexercise carbohydrate beverages on acute muscle recovery from resistance training.

    PubMed

    Stock, Matt S; Young, John C; Golding, Lawrence A; Kruskall, Laura J; Tandy, Richard D; Conway-Klaassen, Janice M; Beck, Travis W

    2010-08-01

    The present study examined the effects of adding leucine to pre and postexercise carbohydrate beverages on selected markers of muscle damage, delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), and squat performance for up to 72 hours after lower-body resistance training. Seventeen resistance trained men (mean +/- SD age 22.9 +/- 2.9 years) and 3 resistance trained women (mean +/- SD age 21.6 +/- 2.6 years) performed 6 sets of squats to fatigue using 75% of the 1 repetition maximum. Each subject consumed a carbohydrate beverage 30 minutes before and immediately after exercise with or without the addition of 22.5 mgxkg (45 mgxkg total) of leucine in a randomized, double-blind fashion. Serum creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and DOMS were analyzed immediately before (TIME1), 24 (TIME2), 48 (TIME3), and 72 (TIME4) hours after exercise. The subjects repeated the squat protocol at TIME4 to test recovery. No differences were observed between groups for squat performance, defined as the total number of repetitions performed during 6 sets of squats, for both TIME1 and TIME4. The addition of leucine did not significantly decrease CK and LDH activity or DOMS. These results suggested that adding leucine to carbohydrate beverages did not affect acute muscle recovery and squat performance during both initial testing and during a subsequent exercise bout 72 hours later in resistance trained subjects.

  6. DHA diet reduces AD pathology in young APPswe/PS1 Delta E9 transgenic mice: possible gender effects.

    PubMed

    Perez, Sylvia E; Berg, Brian M; Moore, Kenneth A; He, Bin; Counts, Scott E; Fritz, Jason J; Hu, Yuan-Shih; Lazarov, Orly; Lah, James J; Mufson, Elliott J

    2010-04-01

    Epidemiological and clinical trial findings suggest that consumption of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) lowers the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We examined the effects of short-term (3 months) DHA enriched diet on plaque deposition and synaptic defects in forebrain of young APPswe/PS1 Delta E9 transgenic (tg) and non-transgenic (ntg) mice. Gas chromatography revealed a significant increase in DHA concomitant with a decrease of arachidonic acid in both brain and liver in mice fed with DHA. Female tg mice consumed relatively more food daily than ntg female mice, independent of diet. Plaque load was significantly reduced in the cortex, ventral hippocampus and striatum of female APPswe/PS1 Delta E9 tg mice on DHA diet compared to female tg mice on control diet. Immunoblot quantitation of the APOE receptor, LR11, which is involved in APP trafficking and A beta production, were unchanged in mice on DHA or control diets. Moreover drebrin levels were significantly increased in the hippocampus of tg mice on the DHA diet. Finally, in vitro DHA treatment prevented amyloid toxicity in cell cultures. Our findings support the concept that increased DHA consumption may play and important role in reducing brain insults in female AD patients. PMID:19859965

  7. Evaluation of the "added value" of SIMS: A mass spectrometric and spectroscopic study of an unusual Naples yellow oil paint reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keune, Katrien; Hoogland, Frank; Boon, Jaap J.; Peggie, David; Higgitt, Catherine

    2009-07-01

    Naples yellow-containing oil paints aged under natural and artificial conditions were investigated as model systems to evaluate the potential of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) when used in combination with other mass spectrometric and spectroscopic analytical methods. Although the advantage of SIMS is the simultaneous detection of organic and inorganic components and their spatial distribution, the methodology has limitations in compound sensitivity and shows bias towards certain constituents. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) shows dicarboxylic fatty acids to be main components in the paint, but SIMS detects these compounds poorly. Electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) shows a broad range of glyceryl derivatives of mono- and dicarboxylic fatty acids (mono-, di- and triglyceride derivatives), while SIMS only detects the mono- and diglycerides of the monocarboxylic acids. Compared to SIMS, direct temperature-resolved mass spectrometry (DTMS) offers greater insight into how the various constituents are incorporated into the paint film, but SIMS data supports the information provided by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) on metal soap formation. The surface sensitivity of SIMS is an advantage for probing paint constituent distributions and was exploited to examine variations in the composition of the top and bottom of a paint film, and the spatial correlation between metal and fatty acid composition in metal soap aggregates. Disadvantages of SIMS are the low yields and matrix dependency of the organic species in the paint matrix. Application of an ultra-thin gold coating overcomes this, and enhances the organic secondary ion yields leading to more accurate spatial distribution.

  8. Giant Planets on Resonant Orbits: The Effect of Mass Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzari, Francesco; D'Angelo, Gennaro

    Two giant planets that undergo convergent migration, driven by tidal interactions with their gaseous disk, may become locked into a mean motion resonance (MMR). For planet masses similar to those of Jupiter (the internal planet) and Saturn and for typical post-formation (i.e., after planets have formed) disk conditions, capture occurs in the 2:1 MMR (D'Angelo and Marzari 2012). Capture in the 3:2 MMR may occur if the post-formation gas density around the planet locations is large enough (e.g., > ~2000 g/cm2 at ~1AU). This scenario, however, neglects the effects of ongoing gas accretion on the planets, which may be significant especially at large disk gas densities. In fact, recent work (Gressel et al. 2013; Keith and Wardle 2014), suggests that even if turbulence in the proximity of the planets is caused by MRI, gas accretion may still be vigorous. In particular, the MHD calculations of Gressel et al. (2013) resulted in accretion rates compatible to those derived from hydrodynamical calculations (D'Angelo et al. 2003; Bate et al. 2003). In order to address this issue, we perform hydrodynamical models of the evolution of a pair of planets that interact with each other and with the disk. The planets are initially locked in the 2:1 or 3:2 MMR. Gas accretion depends on the local disk mass. The large gas densities required for capture in the 3:2 MMR rapidly change the planet masses and mass ratio. Ensuing planet-planet interactions affect orbital eccentricities, leading to scattering and ejection episodes. The conditions required by 2:1 MMR locking can also produce a significant mass growth, if the local disk is sufficiently massive. For planets orbiting in the 1 AU region, however, the resonant configuration appears stable up to several Jupiter's masses.

  9. The effect of adding roughness and thickness to a transonic axial compressor rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suder, Kenneth L.; Chima, Rodrick V.; Strazisar, Anthony J.; Roberts, William B.

    1995-01-01

    The performance deterioration of a high speed axial compressor rotor due to surface roughness and airfoil thickness variations is reported. A 0.025 mm (0.001 in.) thick rough coating with a surface finish of 2.54-3.18 RMS microns (100-125 RMS microinches) is applied to the pressure and suction surface of the rotor blades. Coating both surfaces increases the leading edge thickness by 10% at the hub and 20% at the tip. Application of this coating results in a loss in efficiency of 6 points and a 9% reduction in the pressure ratio across the rotor at an operating condition near the design point. To separate the effect of thickness and roughness, a smooth coating of equal thickness is also applied to the blade. The smooth coating surface finish is 0.254-0.508 RMS microns (10-20 RMS microinches), compared to the bare metal blade surface finish of 0.508 RMS microns (20 RMS microinches). The smooth coating results in approximately half of the performance deterioration found from the rough coating. Both coatings are then applied to different portions of the blade surface to determine which portions of the airfoil are most sensitive to thickness/roughness variations. Aerodynamic performance measurements are presented for a number of coating configurations at 60%, 80%, and 100% of design speed. The results indicate that thickness/roughness over the first 10% of blade chord accounts for virtually all of the observed performance degradation for the smooth coating, compared to about 70% of the observed performance degradation for the rough coating. The performance deterioration is investigated in more detail at design speed using laser anemometer measurements as well as predictions generated by a quasi-3D Navier-Stokes flow solver which includes a surface roughness model. Measurements and analysis are performed on the baseline blade and the full-coverage smooth and rough coatings. The results indicate that coating the blade causes a thickening of the blade boundary layers. The

  10. Effects of Syn-Pandemic Reforestation on Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide From 1500 to 1700 A.D.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevle, R. J.; Bird, D. K.

    2005-12-01

    Recent analysis of paleoclimate proxies suggests that biomass burning by humans during the past eight millennia produced quantities of CO2 sufficient to counteract the effects of decreasing insolation driven by orbital variations and thus prevented ice sheet expansion. Correlation between periods of declining population and biomass burning, such as implied by the synchroneity of the American pandemics and decreasing atmospheric CO2 concentration during the 16th-18th centuries, provides an important test of the extent to which pre-industrial anthropogenic activity affected the atmospheric greenhouse gas budget. Numerous studies have attributed the ~5 ppm decline of atmospheric CO2 concentration, as well as the synchronous ~0.1 per mil increase of the δ13C of atmospheric CO2 between 1500 and 1700 A.D., to the effects of Little Ice Age cooling. However, this interpretation is not supported by recent multiproxy-based surface temperature reconstructions, which demonstrate a diminutive global temperature anomaly of ~0.1 C that was unlikely to have independently produced the distinct effect observed in atmospheric CO2 concentration. Alternatively, it is possible that a decline in CO2 concentration driven by massive reforestation produced cooling as a by-product. The timing and magnitude of changes in both the concentration and carbon-isotope composition of atmospheric CO2 recorded by globally distributed climate proxies from the tropics (sponges), temperate latitudes (tree rings), and polar regions (ice cores) are compatible with fixation of >10 Gt C due to reforestation. Reforestation, which explains pre-industrial atmospheric CO2 variations between 1500 and 1700 A.D. in a manner more consistent with the global surface temperature record than explanations requiring substantial cooling, presumably occurred on lands that were cultivated and seasonally burned, then subsequently abandoned, by indigenous Americans who perished in pandemics during European conquest. The

  11. EFFECT OF MOBILITY ON PERFORMANCE OF WIRELESS AD-HOC NETWORK PROTOCOLS.

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, C. L.; Drozda, M.; Marathe, M. V.; Marathe, A.

    2001-01-01

    We empirically study the effect of mobility on the performance of protocols designed for wireless adhoc networks. An important ohjective is to study the interaction of the Routing and MAC layer protocols under different mobility parameters. We use three basic mobility models: grid mobility model, random waypoint model, and exponential correlated random model. The performance of protocols was measured in terms of (i) latency, (ii) throughput, (iii) number of packels received, (iv) long term fairness and (v) number of control packets at the MAC layer level. Three different commonly studied routing protocols were used: AODV, DSR and LAR1. Similarly three well known MAC protocols were used: MACA, 802.1 1 and CSMA. The inair1 conclusion of our study include the following: 1. 'I'he performance of the: network varies widely with varying mobility models, packet injection rates and speeds; and can ba in fact characterized as fair to poor depending on the specific situation. Nevertheless, in general, it appears that the combination of AODV and 802.1 I is far better than other combination of routing and MAC protocols. 2. MAC layer protocols interact with routing layer protocols. This concept which is formalized using statistics implies that in general it is not meaningful to speak about a MAC or a routing protocol in isolation. Such an interaction leads to trade-offs between the amount of control packets generated by each layer. More interestingly, the results wise the possibility of improving the performance of a particular MAC layer protocol by using a cleverly designed routing protocol or vice-versa. 3. Routing prolocols with distributed knowledge about routes are more suitable for networks with mobility. This is seen by comparing the performance of AODV with DSR or LAR scheme 1. In DSli and IAR scheme 1, information about a computed path is being stored in the route query control packct. 4. MAC layer protocols have varying performance with varying mobility models. It is

  12. Long-term effects of ad libitum whole milk prior to weaning and prepubertal protein supplementation on skeletal growth rate and first-lactation milk production.

    PubMed

    Moallem, U; Werner, D; Lehrer, H; Zachut, M; Livshitz, L; Yakoby, S; Shamay, A

    2010-06-01

    Our objectives were to determine the effects of rapid growth rate during the preweaning period and prepubertal protein supplementation on long-term growth pattern and milk production during the first lactation. Forty-six Israeli Holstein heifer calves were fed either milk replacer (MR) or whole milk (WM) from 4 to 60 d age. Calves had free access to WM or MR for 30 min twice daily and free-choice water and starter mix for the entire day. From weaning until 150 d of age, all heifers were fed the same ration. At 150 d of age the heifers were divided into 2 subgroups, with one subgroup supplemented with an additional 2% protein until 320 d of age. Thereafter, all heifers were housed and fed together until calving. Another cluster of 20 heifers was raised on MR and WM treatments and 3 animals from each nursery treatment were slaughtered at 60 d and 10 mo age to determine effects of nursery treatment on organ and adipose tissue mass. Prior to weaning, the MR heifers consumed 0.12 kg/d more DM than the WM heifers, but metabolizable energy intake was not different. Body weight at weaning and average daily gain during the preweaning period were 3.1 kg and 0.074 kg/d higher, respectively, in the WM treatment than in the MR treatment, with no differences in other measurements. Nursery feeding treatment and added protein had no effect on growth rate in the prepubertal period, but the postweaning difference in BW between the WM and MR heifers remained throughout the entire rearing period. The age at first insemination was 23 d earlier and age at pregnancy and first calving was numerically lower for the WM heifers than for the MR heifers. Adipose tissue weights at weaning were doubled in the WM calves. First-lactation milk production and 4% fat-corrected milk were 10.3 and 7.1% higher, respectively, for WM heifers than for MR heifers, whereas prepubertal added protein tended to increase milk yield. In conclusion, preweaning WM at high feeding rates appears to have long

  13. Mass Effect of Pulmonary Sequestration: Multiloculated–Multiseptated Pneumomediastinum

    PubMed Central

    Unal, Sezin; Türkyılmaz, Canan; Derinkuyu, Betül Emine; Aktaş, Selma; Ergenekon, Ebru; Boyunağa, Öznur; Atalay, Yıldız

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary sequestration (PS) and pneumomediastinum are two rare clinical diseases. Pneumomediastinum was generally observed in infants either with diseased lungs or who were performed assisted ventilation or resuscitation following birth. It was reported in patients with existing ectopic thoracic kidney and laryngeal cysts however, no coexisting congenital lung anomalies were reported. Here, we report the pneumomediastinum occurred due the extralobar PS because of the mass effect of the lesion. PMID:27123402

  14. Phonon effects on the double mass differences in magic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saperstein, E. E.; Baldo, M.; Gnezdilov, N. V.; Tolokonnikov, S. V.

    2016-03-01

    Odd-even double mass differences (DMDs) of magic nuclei are found within an approach starting from the free N N interaction, accounting for particle-phonon coupling (PC) effects. We consider three PC effects: the phonon-induced effective interaction, the renormalization of the "ends" due to the pole PC contribution to the nucleon mass operator, and the change of the single-particle energies. The perturbation theory in gL2, where gL is the vertex of the creation of the L -multipole phonon, is used for PC calculations. PC corrections to single-particle energies are found with an approximate accounting for the tadpole diagram. Results for magic Ca,4840, Ni,7856, Sn,132100, and 208Pb nuclei are presented. For the lighter part of this set of nuclei, from 40Ca to 56Ni, the cases divide approximately in half, between those where the PC corrections to DMD values are in good agreement with the data and the ones with the opposite result. In the major part of the cases of worsening description of DMD, a poor applicability of the perturbation theory for the induced interaction is the most probable reason of the phenomenon. For intermediate nuclei, 78Ni and 100Sn, there are no sufficiently accurate data on masses of nuclei necessary for finding DMD values. Finally, for heavier nuclei, 132Sn and 208Pb, PC corrections always result in better agreement with experiment.

  15. Isotope mass and charge effects in tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Pusztai, I.; Candy, J.; Gohil, P.

    2011-12-15

    The effect of primary ion species of differing charge and mass - specifically, deuterium, hydrogen, and helium - on instabilities and transport is studied in DIII-D plasmas through gyrokinetic simulations with gyro [J. Candy and E. Belli, General Atomics Technical Report No. GA-A26818, 2010]. In linear simulations under imposed similarity of the profiles, there is an isomorphism between the linear growth rates of hydrogen isotopes, but the growth rates are higher for Z > 1 main ions due to the appearance of the charge in the Poisson equation. On ion scales the most significant effect of the different electron-to-ion mass ratio appears through collisions stabilizing trapped electron modes. In nonlinear simulations, significant favorable deviations from pure gyro-Bohm scaling are found due to electron-to-ion mass ratio effects and collisions. The presence of any non-trace impurity species cannot be neglected in a comprehensive simulation of the transport; including carbon impurity in the simulations caused a dramatic reduction of energy fluxes. The transport in the analyzed deuterium and helium discharges could be well reproduced in gyrokinetic and gyrofluid simulations while the significant hydrogen discrepancy is the subject of ongoing investigation.

  16. Effect of adding nanometre-sized heterogeneities on the structural dynamics and the excess wing of a molecular glass former

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, S.; Fischer, J. K. H.; Lunkenheimer, P.; Loidl, A.; Novak, E.; Jalarvo, N.; Ohl, M.

    2016-01-01

    We present the relaxation dynamics of glass-forming glycerol mixed with 1.1 nm sized polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) molecules using dielectric spectroscopy (DS) and two different neutron scattering (NS) techniques. Both, the reorientational dynamics as measured by DS and the density fluctuations detected by NS reveal a broadening of the α relaxation when POSS molecules are added. Moreover, we find a significant slowing down of the α-relaxation time. These effects are in accord with the heterogeneity scenario considered for the dynamics of glasses and supercooled liquids. The addition of POSS also affects the excess wing in glycerol arising from a secondary relaxation process, which seems to exhibit a dramatic increase in relative strength compared to the α relaxation. PMID:27725747

  17. Effect of extended morning fasting upon ad libitum lunch intake and associated metabolic and hormonal responses in obese adults

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, E A; Richardson, J D; Tsintzas, K; Thompson, D; Betts, J A

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Breakfast omission is positively associated with obesity and increased risk of disease. However, little is known about the acute effects of extended morning fasting upon subsequent energy intake and associated metabolic/regulatory factors in obese adults. Subjects/Methods: In a randomised cross-over design, 24 obese men (n=8) and women (n=16) extended their overnight fast by omitting breakfast consumption or ingesting a typical carbohydrate-rich breakfast of 2183±393 kJ (521±94 kcal), before an ad libitum pasta lunch 3 h later. Blood samples were obtained throughout the day until 3 h post lunch and analysed for hormones implicated in appetite regulation, along with metabolic outcomes and subjective appetite measures. Results: Lunch intake was unaffected by extended morning fasting (difference=218 kJ, 95% confidence interval −54 kJ, 490 kJ; P=0.1) resulting in lower total intake in the fasting trial (difference=−1964 kJ, 95% confidence interval −1645 kJ, −2281 kJ; P<0.01). Systemic concentrations of peptide tyrosine–tyrosine and leptin were lower during the afternoon following morning fasting (P⩽0.06). Plasma-acylated ghrelin concentrations were also lower following the ad libitum lunch in the fasting trial (P<0.05) but this effect was not apparent for total ghrelin (P⩾0.1). Serum insulin concentrations were greater throughout the afternoon in the fasting trial (P=0.05), with plasma glucose also greater 1 h after lunch (P<0.01). Extended morning fasting did not result in greater appetite ratings after lunch, with some tendency for lower appetite 3 h post lunch (P=0.09). Conclusions: We demonstrate for the first time that, in obese adults, extended morning fasting does not cause compensatory intake during an ad libitum lunch nor does it increase appetite during the afternoon. Morning fasting reduced satiety hormone responses to a subsequent lunch meal but counterintuitively also reduced concentrations of

  18. The Effect of Protein Mass Modulation on Human Dihydrofolate Reductase.

    PubMed

    Francis, Kevin; Sapienza, Paul J; Lee, Andrew L; Kohen, Amnon

    2016-02-23

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from Escherichia coli has long served as a model enzyme with which to elucidate possible links between protein dynamics and the catalyzed reaction. Such physical properties of its human counterpart have not been rigorously studied so far, but recent computer-based simulations suggest that these two DHFRs differ significantly in how closely coupled the protein dynamics and the catalyzed C-H → C hydride transfer step are. To test this prediction, two contemporary probes for studying the effect of protein dynamics on catalysis were combined here: temperature dependence of intrinsic kinetic isotope effects (KIEs), which are sensitive to the physical nature of the chemical step, and protein mass modulation, which slows down fast dynamics (femto- to picosecond time scale) throughout the protein. The intrinsic H/T KIEs of human DHFR, like those of E. coli DHFR, are shown to be temperature-independent in the range from 5 to 45 °C, indicating fast sampling of donor and acceptor distances (DADs) at the reaction's transition state (or tunneling ready state, TRS). Mass modulation of these enzymes through isotopic labeling with (13)C, (15)N, and (2)H at nonexchangeable hydrogens yields an 11% heavier enzyme. The additional mass has no effect on the intrinsic KIEs of the human enzyme. This finding indicates that the mass modulation of the human DHFR affects neither DAD distribution nor the DAD's conformational sampling dynamics. Furthermore, reduction in the enzymatic turnover number and the dissociation rate constant for the product indicate that the isotopic substitution affects kinetic steps that are not the catalyzed C-H → C hydride transfer. The findings are discussed in terms of fast dynamics and their role in catalysis, the comparison of calculations and experiments, and the interpretation of isotopically modulated heavy enzymes in general.

  19. The Effect of Protein Mass Modulation on Human Dihydrofolate Reductase.

    PubMed

    Francis, Kevin; Sapienza, Paul J; Lee, Andrew L; Kohen, Amnon

    2016-02-23

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from Escherichia coli has long served as a model enzyme with which to elucidate possible links between protein dynamics and the catalyzed reaction. Such physical properties of its human counterpart have not been rigorously studied so far, but recent computer-based simulations suggest that these two DHFRs differ significantly in how closely coupled the protein dynamics and the catalyzed C-H → C hydride transfer step are. To test this prediction, two contemporary probes for studying the effect of protein dynamics on catalysis were combined here: temperature dependence of intrinsic kinetic isotope effects (KIEs), which are sensitive to the physical nature of the chemical step, and protein mass modulation, which slows down fast dynamics (femto- to picosecond time scale) throughout the protein. The intrinsic H/T KIEs of human DHFR, like those of E. coli DHFR, are shown to be temperature-independent in the range from 5 to 45 °C, indicating fast sampling of donor and acceptor distances (DADs) at the reaction's transition state (or tunneling ready state, TRS). Mass modulation of these enzymes through isotopic labeling with (13)C, (15)N, and (2)H at nonexchangeable hydrogens yields an 11% heavier enzyme. The additional mass has no effect on the intrinsic KIEs of the human enzyme. This finding indicates that the mass modulation of the human DHFR affects neither DAD distribution nor the DAD's conformational sampling dynamics. Furthermore, reduction in the enzymatic turnover number and the dissociation rate constant for the product indicate that the isotopic substitution affects kinetic steps that are not the catalyzed C-H → C hydride transfer. The findings are discussed in terms of fast dynamics and their role in catalysis, the comparison of calculations and experiments, and the interpretation of isotopically modulated heavy enzymes in general. PMID:26813442

  20. No Effect of Added Sugar Consumed at Median American Intake Level on Glucose Tolerance or Insulin Resistance.

    PubMed

    Lowndes, Joshua; Sinnett, Stephanie S; Rippe, James M

    2015-10-01

    Excess sugar consumption may promote adverse changes in hepatic and total body insulin resistance. Debate continues over the effects of sugars at more typically consumed levels and whether the identity of the sugar consumed is important. In the present study participants (20-60 years old) were randomly assigned to one of five groups, three that consumed low fat milk with added fructose containing sugars in amounts equivalent to the 50th percentile of fructose consumption (US), one which consumed low-fat milk sweetened with glucose, and one unsweetened low-fat milk control group. The intervention lasted ten weeks. In the entire study population there was less than 1 kg increase in weight (73.6 ±13.0 vs. 74.5 ± 13.3 kg, p < 0.001), but the change in weight was comparable among groups (p > 0.05). There were no changes in fasting glucose (49 ± 0.4 vs. 5.0 ± 0.5 mmol/L), insulin (56.9 ± 38.9 vs. 61.8 ± 50.0 pmol/L), or insulin resistance, as measured by the Homeostasis Model Assessment method (1.8 ± 1.3 vs. 2.0 ± 1.5, all p > 0.05). These data suggest that added sugar consumed at the median American intake level does not produce changes in measures of insulin sensitivity or glucose tolerance and that no sugar has more deleterious effects than others. PMID:26512691

  1. No Effect of Added Sugar Consumed at Median American Intake Level on Glucose Tolerance or Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Lowndes, Joshua; Sinnett, Stephanie S.; Rippe, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Excess sugar consumption may promote adverse changes in hepatic and total body insulin resistance. Debate continues over the effects of sugars at more typically consumed levels and whether the identity of the sugar consumed is important. In the present study participants (20–60 years old) were randomly assigned to one of five groups, three that consumed low fat milk with added fructose containing sugars in amounts equivalent to the 50th percentile of fructose consumption (US), one which consumed low-fat milk sweetened with glucose, and one unsweetened low-fat milk control group. The intervention lasted ten weeks. In the entire study population there was less than 1 kg increase in weight (73.6 ± 13.0 vs. 74.5 ± 13.3 kg, p < 0.001), but the change in weight was comparable among groups (p > 0.05). There were no changes in fasting glucose (49 ± 0.4 vs. 5.0 ± 0.5 mmol/L), insulin (56.9 ± 38.9 vs. 61.8 ± 50.0 pmol/L), or insulin resistance, as measured by the Homeostasis Model Assessment method (1.8 ± 1.3 vs. 2.0 ± 1.5, all p > 0.05). These data suggest that added sugar consumed at the median American intake level does not produce changes in measures of insulin sensitivity or glucose tolerance and that no sugar has more deleterious effects than others. PMID:26512691

  2. Effect of added water, sodium erythorbate and storage time on the functional properties of prerigor beef preblends in a model system.

    PubMed

    Abu-Bakar, A; Reagan, J O; Carpenter, J A; Miller, M F

    1989-01-01

    Singular and combined effects of added water, sodium erythorbate and storage time on salt soluble protein extractability, bacteriological and chemical characteristics of preblended hot-boned beef were evaluated. Waterholding and gel forming capacities of preblended hot-boned beef containing either 0, 10 or 20% added water were determined. Significant interactions between added water level and storage time on microbial counts and between sodium erythorbate level and storage time on thiobarbituric acid values and residual nitrite levels were noted. The presence of sodium erythorbate resulted in a more (P < 0·05) rapid rate of nitrite disappearance, but it did not affect (P > 0·05) microbial counts. Salt-soluble protein extractability was not affected (P > 0·05) by added water, but more protein could be extracted with increasing storage time. A trend existed to suggest that the presence of added water in the meat preblends slightly improved the gel formation and waterholding capacities.

  3. Effects of adding different surfactants on antibiotic resistance genes and intI1 during chicken manure composting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yajun; Li, Haichao; Gu, Jie; Qian, Xun; Yin, Yanan; Li, Yang; Zhang, Ranran; Wang, Xiaojuan

    2016-11-01

    Aerobic composting is usually employed to treat livestock manure. In this study, a bio-surfactant (rhamnolipid, RL) and chemical surfactant (Tween 80, Tw) were added to chicken manure during composting and their effects were determined on the variations in ARGs and intI1. After composting, the reductions in the RAs of ARGs and intI1 with the addition of Tw (1-4.7logs) were generally greater than that with the addition of RL (0.8-3.7logs) and the control (CK) (0.3-2.6logs), and the enrichment of ARGs was higher with CK (0.9-1.8logs). The ARG profiles were affected significantly by temperature and the water-soluble carbon contents. RL and Tw effectively reduced the concentrations of bio-available Cu and Zn, thereby hindering the co-selection of ARGs by heavy metals. The effects of RL and Tw on ARGs and intI1 indicate that the addition of Tw was slightly more effective than RL after composting.

  4. Effects of adding different surfactants on antibiotic resistance genes and intI1 during chicken manure composting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yajun; Li, Haichao; Gu, Jie; Qian, Xun; Yin, Yanan; Li, Yang; Zhang, Ranran; Wang, Xiaojuan

    2016-11-01

    Aerobic composting is usually employed to treat livestock manure. In this study, a bio-surfactant (rhamnolipid, RL) and chemical surfactant (Tween 80, Tw) were added to chicken manure during composting and their effects were determined on the variations in ARGs and intI1. After composting, the reductions in the RAs of ARGs and intI1 with the addition of Tw (1-4.7logs) were generally greater than that with the addition of RL (0.8-3.7logs) and the control (CK) (0.3-2.6logs), and the enrichment of ARGs was higher with CK (0.9-1.8logs). The ARG profiles were affected significantly by temperature and the water-soluble carbon contents. RL and Tw effectively reduced the concentrations of bio-available Cu and Zn, thereby hindering the co-selection of ARGs by heavy metals. The effects of RL and Tw on ARGs and intI1 indicate that the addition of Tw was slightly more effective than RL after composting. PMID:27526207

  5. Effects of Distortion on Mass Flow Plug Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sasson, Jonathan; Davis, David O.; Barnhart, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    A numerical, and experimental investigation to study the effects of flow distortion on a Mass Flow Plug (MFP) used to control and measure mass-flow during an inlet test has been conducted. The MFP was first calibrated using the WIND-US flow solver for uniform (undistorted) inflow conditions. These results are shown to compare favorably with an experimental calibration under similar conditions. The effects of distortion were investigated by imposing distorted flow conditions taken from an actual inlet test to the inflow plane of the numerical simulation. The computational fluid dynamic (CFD) based distortion study only showed the general trend in mass flow rate. The study used only total pressure as the upstream boundary condition, which was not enough to define the flow. A better simulation requires knowledge of the turbulence structure and a specific distortion pattern over a range of plug positions. It is recommended that future distortion studies utilize a rake with at least the same amount of pitot tubes as the AIP rake.

  6. Heavy-quark mass effects in Higgs plus jets production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederix, R.; Frixione, S.; Vryonidou, E.; Wiesemann, M.

    2016-08-01

    We study the production of a Standard Model Higgs boson in the gluon-fusion channel at the 13 TeV LHC. Our results are accurate to the next-to-leading order in QCD, bar for the lack of some two-loop amplitudes, for up to two extra jets and are matched to the P ythia8 Monte Carlo. We address the impact, at the level of inclusive rates and of differential distributions, of the merging of samples characterised by different final-state multiplicities, and of the effects induced by top and bottom masses through heavy-quark loop diagrams. We find that both the merging and the heavy-quark masses must be included in the calculation in order to realistically predict observables of experimental interest.

  7. Finding the Effective Mass and Spring Constant of a Force Probe from Simple Harmonic Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Nathaniel R.; Gill, Tom; Eyerly, Stephen

    2016-03-01

    Force probes are versatile tools in the physics lab, but their internal workings can introduce artifacts when measuring rapidly changing forces. The Dual-Range Force Sensor by Vernier (Fig. 1) uses strain gage technology to measure force, based on the bending of a beam. Strain gages along the length of the beam change resistance as the beam bends (Fig. 2). The elasticity of the beam leads to oscillations that persist after being excited by an impulsive force. How quickly the force probe freely returns to zero is thus related to the rigidity of the beam and the total mass attached to it. By varying the added mass and measuring the resulting frequency of the probe's internal free oscillations, the effective mass and spring constant of the probe's moveable parts can be found. Weighing of the probe parts and conducting a Hooke's law experiment provide static verification of these parameters. Study of the force sensor's behavior helps students to learn about damped harmonic motion, mathematical modeling, and the limitations of measuring devices.

  8. Elicitation, an Effective Strategy for the Biotechnological Production of Bioactive High-Added Value Compounds in Plant Cell Factories.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Estrada, Karla; Vidal-Limon, Heriberto; Hidalgo, Diego; Moyano, Elisabeth; Golenioswki, Marta; Cusidó, Rosa M; Palazon, Javier

    2016-02-03

    Plant in vitro cultures represent an attractive and cost-effective alternative to classical approaches to plant secondary metabolite (PSM) production (the "Plant Cell Factory" concept). Among other advantages, they constitute the only sustainable and eco-friendly system to obtain complex chemical structures biosynthesized by rare or endangered plant species that resist domestication. For successful results, the biotechnological production of PSM requires an optimized system, for which elicitation has proved one of the most effective strategies. In plant cell cultures, an elicitor can be defined as a compound introduced in small concentrations to a living system to promote the biosynthesis of the target metabolite. Traditionally, elicitors have been classified in two types, abiotic or biotic, according to their chemical nature and exogenous or endogenous origin, and notably include yeast extract, methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, vanadyl sulphate and chitosan. In this review, we summarize the enhancing effects of elicitors on the production of high-added value plant compounds such as taxanes, ginsenosides, aryltetralin lignans and other types of polyphenols, focusing particularly on the use of a new generation of elicitors such as coronatine and cyclodextrins.

  9. Effect of added caffeic acid and tyrosol on the fatty acid and volatile profiles of camellia oil following heating.

    PubMed

    Haiyan, Zhong; Bedgood, Danny R; Bishop, Andrea G; Prenzler, Paul D; Robards, Kevin

    2006-12-13

    Camellia oil is widely used in some parts of the world partly because of its high oxidative stability. The effect of heating a refined camellia oil for 1 h at 120 degrees C or 2 h at 170 degrees C with exogenous antioxidant, namely, caffeic acid and tyrosol, was studied. Parameters used to assess the effect of heating were peroxide and K values, volatile formation, and fatty acid profile. Of these, volatile formation was the most sensitive index of change as seen in the number of volatiles and the total area count of volatiles in gas chromatograms. Hexanal was generally the dominant volatile in treated and untreated samples with a concentration of 2.13 and 5.34 mg kg(-1) in untreated oils heated at 120 and 170 degrees C, respectively. The hexanal content was significantly reduced in heated oils to which tyrosol and/or caffeic acid had been added. Using volatile formation as an index of oxidation, tyrosol was the more effective antioxidant of these compounds. This is contradictory to generally accepted antioxidant structure-activity relationships. Changes in fatty acid profiles after heating for up to 24 h at 180 degrees C were not significant.

  10. Effect of adding ball-milled achenes to must on bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities in fruit wine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Pao-Ju; Chen, Shaun

    2016-03-01

    This study reports the utilization of ball-milled achenes in fermentation to increase the levels of ellagic acid and total phenol content, as well as to enhance the antioxidant capacity of strawberry wine. Achenes were micronized using ball-milling process, and then added to strawberry must prior to fermentation. The effects of the addition of ball-milled achenes on the ellagic acid and total phenol content in strawberry wine were determined, and the free radical scavenging and iron chelation activities were also analyzed. Quality attributes and acceptance were studied in comparison with a leading commercial strawberry wine for market application. The particle sizes of achenes were reduced from 1.1 mm to 400 nm after 30 min of ball-milling, and this led to an increase in the amount of extracted ellagic acid from 550.72 to 915.24 μg/g. The addition of ball-milled achenes to must led to a 19.72 % and 52.37 % increase in ellagic acid and total phenol content in strawberry wine, respectively. The increase in bioactive compounds resulted in increases of 54.09 %, 51.49 % and 56.97 % in ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging, and ferrous ion chelating activities, respectively. Although the commercial strawberry wine showed greater aroma intensity, no significant differences in overall quality and acceptance among the conventional process, added ball-milled achenes and the leading commercial strawberry wines were found. This study demonstrates that supplementation of ball-milled achenes in fermentation can be beneficial in increasing the levels of bioactive compounds and antioxidative capacity, indicating a good market potential. PMID:27570280

  11. Effect of adding clonidine to intrathecal bupivacaine on the quality of subarachnoid block: A prospective randomized double-blind study

    PubMed Central

    Yallapragada, Srivishnu Vardhan; Vemuri, Nagendra Nath; Shaik, Mastan Saheb

    2016-01-01

    Context: The purpose of adding an adjuvant to local anesthetic in a central neuraxial blockade is to augment the desirable pharmacological actions of the agent and/or to minimize its undesirable pharmacological effects. Clonidine is an alfa-2 receptor agonist which has gained popularity in recent times as an adjuvant in spinal anesthesia. Aims: To evaluate the influence of clonidine on the hemodynamic stability and the duration of anesthesia when added to intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine. Settings and Design: Prospective randomized double blind study. Subjects and Methods: Fifty patients scheduled for spinal anesthesia were randomized into two Groups A and B with 25 in each. Group A patients received 3 ml 0.5% heavy bupivacaine + 30 μg (0.2 ml) clonidine and Group B patients received 3 ml 0.5% heavy bupivacaine + 0.2 ml normal saline in the subarachnoid space. The blood pressure and heart rate were closely monitored. The time for attaining peak sensory block, time for two segment regression, decrease in the heart rate, total requirement of mephentermine to counter the hypotension, and the number of patients requiring mephentermine in each group was tabulated and analyzed. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive and inferential statistical methods were used to analyse the data. The power of the study was calculated using online power calculator for two independent sample study. Results: The time for attaining peak sensory block was similar in both the groups. The time for two segment regression in Group A was 62.6 min and in Group B was 38.08 min. Twelve percent of patients in Group A and 52% of patients in Group B required mephentermine with the mean consumption being 0.72 mg in Group A and 5.65 mg in Group B. Conclusions: Addition of low-dose clonidine to intrathecal bupivacaine not only prolonged the duration of spinal anesthesia but also provided a stable intraoperative hemodynamic profile. PMID:27746531

  12. The Preventive Effects of Nanopowdered Peanut Sprout-added Caciocavallo Cheese on Collagen-induced Arthritic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yoon Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of nanopowdered peanut sprout-added Caciocavallo cheese (NPCC) on the prevention and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in DBA/IJ mice immunized with type II collagen. After the induction of arthritis, the mice were being divided into five groups: (1) normal, no immunization; (2) CIA, collagen-induced arthritis; (3) MTX, collagen-induced arthritis treated with methotrexate (0.3 mg/kg body weight); (4) CC, collagen-induced arthritis treated with Caciocavallo cheese (0.6 g/d); (5) NPCC, collagen-induced arthritis treated with nanopowdered peanut sprout-added Caciocavallo cheese (0.6 g/d). Nanopowdered peanut sprout was ranged from 300 to 350 nm, while regular powdered peanut sprouts were ranged from 50 to 150 μm. The NPCC group had considerable reductions of clinical scores and paw thicknesses at the end of experiment as compared to the CIA group. In the serum analysis, the TNF-α, IL-1β, IL- 6 and IgG1 levels in the NPCC group have decreased by 69.4, 75.9, 66.6, and 61.9%, respectively, when compared to the CIA group. The histological score and spleen index of the NPCC group were significantly lower than the CIA group. In conclusion, the feeding NPCC method could delay and/or prevent the rheumatoid arthritis in the collagen-induced arthritis mouse model. Based on this study, nanopowdered peanut sprouts could be applied to various functional cheeses. PMID:26760745

  13. Effects of Added Zinc on Skeletal Muscle Morphometrics and Gene Expression of Finishing Pigs Fed Ractopamine-HCL.

    PubMed

    Burnett, D D; Paulk, C B; Tokach, M D; Nelssen, J L; Vaughn, M A; Phelps, K J; Dritz, S S; DeRouchey, J M; Goodband, R D; Haydon, K D; Gonzalez, J M

    2016-01-01

    Finishing pigs (n = 320) were used in a 35-day study to determine the effects of ractopamine-HCl (RAC) and supplemental Zinc (Zn) level on loin eye area (LEA) and gene expression. Pens were randomly allotted to the following treatments for the final 35 days on feed: a corn-soybean meal diet (CON), a diet with 10 ppm RAC (RAC+), and RAC diet plus added Zn at 75, 150, or 225 ppm. Sixteen pigs per treatment were randomly selected for collection of serial muscle biopsies and carcass data on day 0, 8, 18, and 32 of the treatment phase. Compared to CON carcasses, RAC+ carcasses had 12.6% larger (P = 0.03) LEA. Carcasses from RAC diets with added Zn had a tendency for increased (quadratic, P < 0.10) LEA compared to the RAC+ carcasses. Compared to RAC+ pigs, relative expression of IGF1 decreased with increasing levels of Zn on day 8 and 18 of treatment, but expression levels were similar on day 32 due to Zn treatments increasing in expression while the RAC+ treatment decreased (Zn quadratic × day quadratic, P = 0.04). A similar trend was detected for the expression of β1-receptor where expression levels in the RAC+ pigs were greater than Zn supplemented pigs on day 8 and 18 of the experiment, but the magnitude of difference between the treatments was reduced on day 32 due to a decrease in expression by RAC+ pigs and an increase in expression by the Zn pigs (Zn quadratic × day quadratic, P = 0.01). The ability of Zn to prolong the expression of these two genes may be responsible for the tendency of Zn to increase LEA in RAC supplemented pigs. PMID:26634949

  14. Mass discharge assessment at a brominated DNAPL site: Effects of known DNAPL source mass removal.

    PubMed

    Johnston, C D; Davis, G B; Bastow, T P; Woodbury, R J; Rao, P S C; Annable, M D; Rhodes, S

    2014-08-01

    Management and closure of contaminated sites is increasingly being proposed on the basis of mass flux of dissolved contaminants in groundwater. Better understanding of the links between source mass removal and contaminant mass fluxes in groundwater would allow greater acceptance of this metric in dealing with contaminated sites. Our objectives here were to show how measurements of the distribution of contaminant mass flux and the overall mass discharge emanating from the source under undisturbed groundwater conditions could be related to the processes and extent of source mass depletion. In addition, these estimates of mass discharge were sought in the application of agreed remediation targets set in terms of pumped groundwater quality from offsite wells. Results are reported from field studies conducted over a 5-year period at a brominated DNAPL (tetrabromoethane, TBA; and tribromoethene, TriBE) site located in suburban Perth, Western Australia. Groundwater fluxes (qw; L(3)/L(2)/T) and mass fluxes (Jc; M/L(2)/T) of dissolved brominated compounds were simultaneously estimated by deploying Passive Flux Meters (PFMs) in wells in a heterogeneous layered aquifer. PFMs were deployed in control plane (CP) wells immediately down-gradient of the source zone, before (2006) and after (2011) 69-85% of the source mass was removed, mainly by groundwater pumping from the source zone. The high-resolution (26-cm depth interval) measures of qw and Jc along the source CP allowed investigation of the DNAPL source-zone architecture and impacts of source mass removal. Comparable estimates of total mass discharge (MD; M/T) across the source zone CP reduced from 104gday(-1) to 24-31gday(-1) (70-77% reductions). Importantly, this mass discharge reduction was consistent with the estimated proportion of source mass remaining at the site (15-31%). That is, a linear relationship between mass discharge and source mass is suggested. The spatial detail of groundwater and mass flux distributions

  15. Long-term dietary compensation for added sugar: effects of supplementary sucrose drinks over a 4-week period.

    PubMed

    Reid, Marie; Hammersley, Richard; Hill, Andrew J; Skidmore, Paula

    2007-01-01

    The long-term physiological effects of refined carbohydrates on appetite and mood remain unclear. Reported effects when subjects are not blind may be due to expectations and have rarely been studied for more than 24 h. The present study compared the effects of supplementary soft drinks added to the diet over 4 weeks on dietary intake, mood and BMI in normal-weight women (n 133). Subjects were categorised as 'watchers' or 'non-watchers' of what they ate then received sucrose or artificially sweetened drinks (4 x 250 ml per d). Expectancies were varied by labelling drinks 'sugar' or 'diet' in a counter-balanced design. Sucrose supplements provided 1800 kJ per d and sweetener supplements provided 67 kJ per d. Food intake was measured with a 7 d diary and mood with ten single Likert scales. By 4 weeks, sucrose supplements significantly reduced total carbohydrate intake (F(1,129) = 53.81; P<0.001), fat (F(2,250) = 33.33; P<0.001) and protein intake (F(2,250) = 28.04; P<0-001) compared with sweetener supplements. Mean daily energy intake increased by just under 1000 kJ compared with baseline (t (67 df) = 3.82; P< 0.001) and was associated with a non-significant trend for those receiving sucrose to gain weight. There were no effects on appetite or mood. Neither dietary restraint status as measured by the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire nor the expectancy procedure had effects. Expectancies influenced mood only during baseline week. It is concluded that sucrose satiates, rather than stimulates, appetite or negative mood in normal-weight subjects.

  16. Oxygen in egg masses: interactive effects of temperature, age, and egg-mass morphology on oxygen supply to embryos.

    PubMed

    Moran, Amy L; Woods, H Arthur

    2007-02-01

    Embryos of many marine invertebrates are encased in gelatinous masses for part or all of development. Because gel and intervening embryos retard oxygen flux, such a life-history mode profoundly affects partial pressures of metabolic gases surrounding embryos. However, little is known about relationships between egg-mass structure and the opportunities and constraints imposed on structure by metabolic gas transport. We examined the effects of four factors (temperature, embryo age, embryo density and egg-mass size) on the metabolism of egg masses using both natural egg masses of a nudibranch and artificial egg masses made from sand dollar embryos and low-melting point agarose. Both temperature and embryo age strongly affected metabolic rates of nudibranch embryos. For embryos of a given age (stage), rates of oxygen consumption roughly doubled between 12 and 21 degrees C; from early cleavage to the veliger stage, consumption rose two- to fourfold, depending on temperature. Oxygen profiles in egg masses showed that advanced embryonic age, and to a lesser extent high temperature, both led to steeper oxygen gradients into egg masses. Egg masses containing advanced embryos at 21 degrees C had very low central oxygen levels. Small-diameter artificial masses (2 mm diameter) had virtually no internal oxygen gradients regardless of embryo density or temperature, while medium (4 mm) and large diameter (10 mm) artificial masses had oxygen profiles that depended strongly and interactively on embryo density and temperature. Together, our data on natural and artificial egg masses suggest that (i) multiple factors have strong effects on metabolic rate; (ii) rates of oxygen transport are relatively invariant with temperature in simple, artificial systems but may vary more strongly with temperature in natural egg masses; and (iii) the four factors--temperature, embryo age, embryo density and egg-mass size--interact in important ways bearing on egg mass design. A simple mathematical

  17. Oxygen in egg masses: interactive effects of temperature, age, and egg-mass morphology on oxygen supply to embryos.

    PubMed

    Moran, Amy L; Woods, H Arthur

    2007-02-01

    Embryos of many marine invertebrates are encased in gelatinous masses for part or all of development. Because gel and intervening embryos retard oxygen flux, such a life-history mode profoundly affects partial pressures of metabolic gases surrounding embryos. However, little is known about relationships between egg-mass structure and the opportunities and constraints imposed on structure by metabolic gas transport. We examined the effects of four factors (temperature, embryo age, embryo density and egg-mass size) on the metabolism of egg masses using both natural egg masses of a nudibranch and artificial egg masses made from sand dollar embryos and low-melting point agarose. Both temperature and embryo age strongly affected metabolic rates of nudibranch embryos. For embryos of a given age (stage), rates of oxygen consumption roughly doubled between 12 and 21 degrees C; from early cleavage to the veliger stage, consumption rose two- to fourfold, depending on temperature. Oxygen profiles in egg masses showed that advanced embryonic age, and to a lesser extent high temperature, both led to steeper oxygen gradients into egg masses. Egg masses containing advanced embryos at 21 degrees C had very low central oxygen levels. Small-diameter artificial masses (2 mm diameter) had virtually no internal oxygen gradients regardless of embryo density or temperature, while medium (4 mm) and large diameter (10 mm) artificial masses had oxygen profiles that depended strongly and interactively on embryo density and temperature. Together, our data on natural and artificial egg masses suggest that (i) multiple factors have strong effects on metabolic rate; (ii) rates of oxygen transport are relatively invariant with temperature in simple, artificial systems but may vary more strongly with temperature in natural egg masses; and (iii) the four factors--temperature, embryo age, embryo density and egg-mass size--interact in important ways bearing on egg mass design. A simple mathematical

  18. Impaired thermoregulation and beneficial effects of thermoneutrality in the 3×Tg-AD model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Vandal, Milene; White, Philip J; Tournissac, Marine; Tremblay, Cyntia; St-Amour, Isabelle; Drouin-Ouellet, Janelle; Bousquet, Melanie; Traversy, Marie-Thérèse; Planel, Emmanuel; Marette, Andre; Calon, Frederic

    2016-07-01

    The sharp rise in the incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) at an old age coincides with a reduction in energy metabolism and core body temperature. We found that the triple-transgenic mouse model of AD (3×Tg-AD) spontaneously develops a lower basal body temperature and is more vulnerable to a cold environment compared with age-matched controls. This was despite higher nonshivering thermogenic activity, as evidenced by brown adipose tissue norepinephrine content and uncoupling protein 1 expression. A 24-hour exposure to cold (4 °C) aggravated key neuropathologic markers of AD such as: tau phosphorylation, soluble amyloid beta concentrations, and synaptic protein loss in the cortex of 3×Tg-AD mice. Strikingly, raising the body temperature of aged 3×Tg-AD mice via exposure to a thermoneutral environment improved memory function and reduced amyloid and synaptic pathologies within a week. Our results suggest the presence of a vicious cycle between impaired thermoregulation and AD-like neuropathology, and it is proposed that correcting thermoregulatory deficits might be therapeutic in AD. PMID:27255814

  19. Does Student Sorting Invalidate Value-Added Models of Teacher Effectiveness? An Extended Analysis of the Rothstein Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koedel, Cory; Betts, Julian R.

    2011-01-01

    Value-added modeling continues to gain traction as a tool for measuring teacher performance. However, recent research questions the validity of the value-added approach by showing that it does not mitigate student-teacher sorting bias (its presumed primary benefit). Our study explores this critique in more detail. Although we find that estimated…

  20. Hepatitis A outbreaks: the effect of a mass vaccination programme.

    PubMed

    Torner, N; Broner, S; Martinez, A; Godoy, P; Batalla, J; Dominguez, A

    2011-04-01

    A Hepatitis A vaccination programme of people belonging to risk groups begun in Catalonia in 1995 and a universal vaccination programme of pre-adolescents 12 years of age with the hepatitis A + B vaccine was added in 1998. The aim of the study was to investigate the characteristics of hepatitis A outbreaks occurring in Catalonia between 1991 and 2007 to determine the associated risk factors and optimize the use of vaccination. Incidence rates of outbreaks, cases and hospitalizations associated with outbreaks and the rate ratios (RR) of person-to-person transmission outbreaks between the periods before and after mass vaccination and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. A rate of 2.45 outbreaks per million persons per year was found. The rate of cases affected in these outbreaks was 1.28 per 10(5) persons per year and the rate of hospitalizations was 0.45 per million persons per year. In person-to-person outbreaks, the highest incidence rate (5.26 and 6.33 per million persons per year) of outbreaks according to the age of the index case was in the 5 to 14 year age group in both periods (RR:0.83; 95% CI:0.48-1.43). A significant increase was observed in the 25 to 44 year age group (RR: 0.35; 95% CI 0.14-0.77). Hepatitis A vaccination has made an important impact on burden and characteristics of outbreaks and could provide greater benefits to the community if the vaccine was administrated to children during their first years of life.

  1. Isotope mass and charge effects in tokamak plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pusztai, I.; Candy, J.; Gohil, P.

    2011-12-01

    The effect of primary ion species of differing charge and mass—specifically, deuterium, hydrogen, and helium—on instabilities and transport is studied in DIII-D plasmas through gyrokinetic simulations with gyro [J. Candy and E. Belli, General Atomics Technical Report No. GA-A26818, 2010]. In linear simulations under imposed similarity of the profiles, there is an isomorphism between the linear growth rates of hydrogen isotopes, but the growth rates are higher for Z > 1 main ions due to the appearance of the charge in the Poisson equation. On ion scales the most significant effect of the different electron-to-ion mass ratio appears through collisions stabilizing trapped electron modes. In nonlinear simulations, significant favorable deviations from pure gyro-Bohm scaling are found due to electron-to-ion mass ratio effects and collisions. The presence of any non-trace impurity species cannot be neglected in a comprehensive simulation of the transport; including carbon impurity in the simulations caused a dramatic reduction of energy fluxes. The transport in the analyzed deuterium and helium discharges could be well reproduced in gyrokinetic and gyrofluid simulations while the significant hydrogen discrepancy is the subject of ongoing investigation.

  2. Violence and mass media: are laws and regulations effective?

    PubMed

    Wulff, Christian

    2007-10-01

    In Germany, there are several laws and legal and administrative regulations restricting presentation and propagation of violence in mass media. They have proven to be partly effective. Whilst control and supervision of public media is feasible, the containment of what is distributed over the internet proves to be very difficult. It is well recognized that laws and regulations can be only one part of protection for children and youngsters; school, kindergarten and above all the parents must be educated and held responsible for creating media competence in children and adolescents. PMID:17890154

  3. Isospin effects on the mass dependence of the balance energy

    SciTech Connect

    Gautam, Sakshi; Sood, Aman D.

    2010-07-15

    We study the effect of isospin degree of freedom on balance energy throughout the mass range between 50 and 350 for two sets of isotopic systems with N/A= 0.54 and 0.57 as well as isobaric systems with N/A= 0.5 and 0.58. Our findings indicate that different values of balance energy for two isobaric systems may be mainly due to the Coulomb repulsion. We also demonstrate clearly the dominance of Coulomb repulsion over symmetry energy.

  4. Effective Mass of an Electron Bubble in Superfluid Helium-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yunhu; Maris, Humphrey J.

    2016-10-01

    We present the results of computer simulations of the motion of an electron bubble through superfluid helium-4 when acted upon by an electric field. The simulations are based on an extended version of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The temperature is assumed to be sufficiently low for the drag exerted on the bubble by thermal excitations to be negligible, and the calculations are made for velocities below the critical velocitie for nucleation of vortices and roton production. We calculate the effective mass m* of the bubble and obtain results in excellent agreement with the measurements of Poitrenaud and Williams, and Ellis, McClintock, and Bowley.

  5. Generation of the Higgs Mass through Radiative Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanif, Tanvir

    We consider the effective potential V in the Standard Model with a single Higgs doublet in the limit that the only mass scale mu present is radiatively generated. Using a technique that has been shown to determine V completely in terms of the renormalization group (RG) functions when using the Coleman-Weinberg (CW) renormalization scheme, we first sum leading-log (LL) contributions to V using the one loop RG functions, associated with five couplings (the top quark Yukawa coupling x, the quartic coupling of the Higgs field y, the SU(3) gauge coupling z, and the SU(2) ⊗U(1) couplings r and s). We then employ the two loop RG functions with the three couplings x, y, z to sum the next-to-leading-log (NLL) contributions to V and then the three to five loop RG functions with one coupling y to sum all the N2LL ... N 4LL contributions to V. In order to compute these sums, it is necessary to convert those RG functions that have been originally computed explicitly in the minimal subtraction (MS) scheme to their form in the CW scheme. The Higgs mass can then be determined from the effective potential: the LL result is m H = 219 GeV/c2 decreases to mH = 188 GeV/c2 at N2LL order and mH = 163 GeV/c2 at N 4LL order. No reasonable estimate of m H can be made at orders VNLL or VN3LL, since the method employed gives either negative or imaginary values for the quartic scalar coupling. The fact that we get reasonable values for m H from the LL, N2LL and N4LL approximations is taken to be an indication that this mechanism for spontaneous symmetry breaking is in fact viable, though one in which there is slow convergence towards the actual value of mH. If the decrease in the values of mH observed when we get from the LL to the N4 LL estimate were to continue, then mH = 163 GeV/c2 would be an upper bound on the mass of the Higgs. Keywords: lagrangian; action; field; standard model; effective action; effective potential; abelian; gauge transformation; gauge field; gauge-fixing; self

  6. The effect on performance and biochemical parameters when soil was added to aflatoxin-contaminated poultry rations.

    PubMed

    Madden, U A; Stahr, H M; Stino, F K

    1999-08-01

    The effects of silty clay loam soil on the performance and biochemical parameters of chicks were investigated when the soil was added to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-contaminated diets. One hundred 14-d-old White Leghorn chicks were fed a control ration (clean corn), a low aflatoxin-contaminated ration (120 ng AFB1/g), a high aflatoxin-contaminated ration (700 ng AFB1/g), or high aflatoxin-contaminated rations (700 ng AFB1/g) +10% or 25% soil. Body weight, feed consumption and blood samples were monitored weekly. Decreased feed consumption, body weight gain and efficiency of feed utilization, increased SGOT and LDH activities, and cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, and decreased uric acid concentrations and ALP activity were observed in the chicks fed the high aflatoxin-contaminated ration without soil. Hepatomegaly was prominent in chicks fed the high aflatoxin-contaminated ration without soil, and some livers had extensive hepatocyte vacuolation, hepatocellular swelling, fatty change and hydropic degeneration, and stained positive for fat accumulation. Addition of soil reduced the detrimental effects of AFB1 for some parameters, although the reduction was less when 10% soil was fed compared with the 25% soil feeding. PMID:10434374

  7. Effect of heat treatment temperature on superconducting performance of B 4C added MgB 2/Nb conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viljamaa, J.; Kario, A.; Dobročka, E.; Reissner, M.; Kulich, M.; Kováč, P.; Häßler, W.

    2012-02-01

    A previously observed enhancing effect of addition of 10 wt.% of B 4C on critical current density ( Jc) dependence on magnetic flux density ( B) in MgB 2 superconductors is examined here in more detail. Nb sheathed in situ MgB 2 monofilamentary Powder-in-Tube (PIT) samples are prepared with the 10 wt.% addition of boron carbide. The samples are heat treated at different temperatures, namely at 650, 700, 750, and 800 °C for 30 min. The phases and lattice parameters of the samples are studied using X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The amount of B 4C does not decrease from the initial amount with increasing heat treatment temperature ( Tht) but instead increases. This indicates that some of the Mg from the precursor reacts with the Nb sheath. Magnetic Jc( B) characteristics are obtained at several temperatures in external B in a Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). The magnetic and transport Jc( B) results disagree with each other which can be explained by unsuitability of Nb as the sheath with higher Tht. From these results, also pinning force densities ( Fp) are calculated. No effect on pinning mechanism of B 4C added samples is observed by the heat treatment conditions. Resistance dependencies on temperature are also measured in a Physical Properties Measurement System (PPMS). Mg deficiency with high Tht is supported by these measurements.

  8. Virologic and immunologic effects of adding maraviroc to suppressive ART in subjects with suboptimal CD4+ T-cell recovery

    PubMed Central

    Cillo, Anthony R.; Hilldorfer, Benedict B.; Lalama, Christina M.; McKinnon, John E.; Coombs, Robert W.; Tenorio, Allan R.; Fox, Lawrence; Gandhi, Rajesh T.; Ribaudo, Heather; Currier, Judith S.; Gulick, Roy M.; Wilkin, Timothy J.; Mellors, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) suppresses HIV-1 replication, but does not restore CD4+ T-cell counts in all subjects. To investigate the effects of maraviroc on HIV-1 persistence and the relations between virologic and immunologic parameters in subjects with incomplete CD4+ T-cell recovery, we performed a prospective, open-label pilot trial in which maraviroc was added to a suppressive ART regimen for 24 weeks. Design A5256 was a single-arm trial in which subjects on suppressive ART with incomplete CD4+ T-cell recovery added maraviroc for 24 weeks. Methods We quantified low-level, residual viremia in plasma and total HIV-1 DNA and 2-LTR circles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells before and after maraviroc intensification. We also evaluated markers of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell immune activation (%CD38+HLA-DR+) and apoptosis (%caspase3+/Bcl-2−). Results No effect of maraviroc was found on the probability of detectable plasma viremia (≥1 copy/mL; n=31, exact McNemar p=1.0) or detectable 2-LTR circles (n=28, p=0.25) or on total HIV-1 DNA (n=28, 90% confidence interval: −0.1, +0.3 log10 copies/106 CD4+ T-cells). Pre-maraviroc HIV-1 DNA levels were inversely related to pre-maraviroc %CD38+HLA-DR+ CD4+ T-cells (Spearman=−0.52, p=0.004), and lower pre-maraviroc HIV-1 DNA levels were associated with larger decreases in %CD38+HLA-DR+ CD4+ T-cells during maraviroc intensification (Spearman=0.44, p=0.018). Conclusions In subjects on suppressive ART with incomplete CD4+ T-cell recovery, maraviroc intensification did not affect measures of HIV-1 persistence but did decrease persistent CD4+ T-cell immune activation especially in subjects with low pre-intensification levels of HIV-1 DNA. PMID:26544577

  9. The Effects of Partial Ionization on Prominence Mass Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpen, J. T.; Olson, K.; DeVore, C. R.; Martinez Gomez, D.; Sokolov, I.

    2015-12-01

    The origin of the prominence mass has been an open question since this cool plasma suspended in the hot corona was first discovered. We have known for a long time that the mass must come from the chromosphere, but it is unclear whether this mass is lifted bodily through magnetic levitation, injected by reconnection-driven upflows, or driven from the chromosphere by evaporation and then condensed. One evaporation-condensation scenario, the thermal nonequilibrium (TNE) model, is the most fully developed, quantitative model for the prominence plasma to date. In the TNE scenario, localized heating concentrated at the coronal loop footpoints produces chromospheric evaporation, filling the flux tube with hot, dense plasma that subsequently collapses radiatively to form cool condensations. Thus far this model has been successful in explaining the key properties of the long, persistent threads and small, highly dynamic, transient blobs in prominences, the damping of large-amplitude field-aligned prominence oscillations, the appearance of horn-shaped features above the cool prominence in EUV images of coronal cavities, and coronal rain in the ambient corona. To date, all studies of TNE have assumed that the plasma is fully ionized, which is appropriate for the hot coronal gas but unrealistic for the cool plasma below ~30,000 K. The energetics, dynamics, and evolutionary time scales of the TNE process are expected to be altered when the effects of ionization and recombination are considered. We have modified ARGOS, our 1D hydrodynamic code with adaptive mesh refinement, to include an equation of state that accounts for the effects of partial ionization of the plasma over a wide range of temperatures and densities. We will discuss the results of these simulations and their comparison with our previous studies of TNE in typical filament-supporting flux tubes. This work was partially supported by NASA's LWS Strategic Capability program.

  10. Stellar evolution at high mass including the effect of a stellar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, R.; Chin, C.-W.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of a stellar wind on the evolution of stars in the mass range from 15 to 120 solar masses is investigated. All the stellar models are constructed with the use of Cox-Stewart opacities. Four possible cases of mass loss are considered: (1) no mass loss at all; (2) substantial mass loss from stars in all stages of evolution; (3) heavy mass loss from red supergiants only; and (4) sudden and very heavy mass loss from luminous yellow supergiants. The assumption of mass loss during the main-sequence phase of evolution is found to lead to a lowering of the luminosity and, unless the mass loss is extremely heavy, of the effective temperature as well. A comparison of the adopted mass-loss rates with observed rates suggests that stellar winds are probably not an important factor in the evolution of main-sequence stars and supergiants unless the initial masses are greater than about 30 solar masses.

  11. The Effect of Mergers on Galaxy Cluster Mass Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Ryan E.; Zuhone, John A.; Thorsen, Tessa; Hinds, Andre

    2015-08-01

    At vertices within the filamentary structure that describes the universal matter distribution, clusters of galaxies grow hierarchically through merging with other clusters. As such, the most massive galaxy clusters should have experienced many such mergers in their histories. Though we cannot see them evolve over time, these mergers leave lasting, measurable effects in the cluster galaxies' phase space. By simulating several different galaxy cluster mergers here, we examine how the cluster galaxies kinematics are altered as a result of these mergers. Further, we also examine the effect of our line of sight viewing angle with respect to the merger axis. In projecting the 6-dimensional galaxy phase space onto a 3-dimensional plane, we are able to simulate how these clusters might actually appear to optical redshift surveys. We find that for those optical cluster statistics which are most often used as a proxy for the cluster mass (variants of σv), the uncertainty due to an inprecise or unknown line of sight may alter the derived cluster masses moreso than the kinematic disturbance of the merger itself. Finally, by examining these, and several other clustering statistics, we find that significant events (such as pericentric crossings) are identifiable over a range of merger initial conditions and from many different lines of sight.

  12. Detailed ultraviolet asymptotics for AdS scalar field perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evnin, Oleg; Jai-akson, Puttarak

    2016-04-01

    We present a range of methods suitable for accurate evaluation of the leading asymptotics for integrals of products of Jacobi polynomials in limits when the degrees of some or all polynomials inside the integral become large. The structures in question have recently emerged in the context of effective descriptions of small amplitude perturbations in anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime. The limit of high degree polynomials corresponds in this situation to effective interactions involving extreme short-wavelength modes, whose dynamics is crucial for the turbulent instabilities that determine the ultimate fate of small AdS perturbations. We explicitly apply the relevant asymptotic techniques to the case of a self-interacting probe scalar field in AdS and extract a detailed form of the leading large degree behavior, including closed form analytic expressions for the numerical coefficients appearing in the asymptotics.

  13. Effects of CX3CR1 and Fractalkine Chemokines in Amyloid Beta Clearance and p-Tau Accumulation in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) Rodent Models: Is Fractalkine a Systemic Biomarker for AD?

    PubMed

    Merino, José Joaquín; Muñetón-Gómez, Vilma; Alvárez, María-Isabel; Toledano-Díaz, Adolfo

    2016-01-01

    Microglia and astrocytes are the major source of cytokines in Alzheimer,s disease (AD). CX3CR1 is a delta chemokine receptor found in microglia and its neuronal ligand, Fractalkine, has two isoforms: an anchored-membrane isoform, and a soluble isoform. The reduced soluble fractalkine levels found in the brain (cortex/hippocampus) of aged rats, may be a consequence of neuronal loss. This soluble fractalkine maintains microglia in an appropiate state by interacting with CX3CR1. The ablation of the CX3CR1 gene in mice overexpressing human amyloid precursor protein (APP/PS-1) increased cytokine levels, enhanced Tau pathology and worsened behavioural performance in these mice. However, CX3CR1 deficiency resulted in a gene dose-dependent Aβ clearance in the brain, and induced microglial activation. In addition, CX3CR1 deficiency can have benefical effects by preventing neuronal loss in the 3xTg model. In fact, CX3CR1 deficiency increases microglial phagocytosome activity by inducing selective protofibrillar amyloid-beta phagocytosis in microglial cells in transgenic AD models. On the other hand, the fractalkine membrane isoform plays a differential role in amyloid beta clearance and Tau deposition. This anchored membrane FKN signalling might increase amyloid pathology while soluble fractalkine levels could prevent taupathies. However, in human AD, the only published study has reported higher systemic fractalkine levels in AD patients with cognitive impairment. In mouse models, inflammatory activation of microglia accelerates Tau pathology. Studies in transgenic mice with fractalkine null mice suggest that APP/PS-1 mice deficient for the anchored membrane-fractalkine isoform exhibited enhanced neuronal MAPT phosphorylation despite their reduced amyloid burden. The soluble fractalkine overexpression with adenoviral vectors reduced tau pathology and prevented neurodegeneration in a Tg4510 model of taupathy Finally, animals with Aβ (1-42) infused by lentivirus (cortex) or

  14. Cost-effectiveness of Canagliflozin versus Sitagliptin When Added to Metformin and Sulfonylurea in Type 2 Diabetes in Canada.

    PubMed

    Sabapathy, Suthakar; Neslusan, Cheryl; Yoong, Kim; Teschemaker, Anna; Johansen, Pierre; Willis, Michael

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundCanagliflozin, an agent that inhibits sodium glucose co-transporter 2, is approved as add-on to metformin plus sulfonylurea for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in Canada. Canagliflozin offers greater glycemic control, as well as important additional benefits such as weight loss and blood pressure reductions, versus dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors such as sitagliptin.  ObjectiveThis analysis evaluated the cost-effectiveness of canagliflozin 300 mg and canagliflozin 100 mg versus sitagliptin 100 mg in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on metformin plus sulfonylurea from the perspective of the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health. MethodsA 40-year cost-effectiveness analysis was performed using the validated Economic and Health Outcomes Model of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (ECHO-T2DM). Patient characteristics, treatment effects, and rates of hypoglycemia and adverse events were sourced from the canagliflozin clinical program. Canada-specific costs and utilities were applied. Sensitivity analyses were conducted using alternative values for key model inputs. ResultsBoth canagliflozin 300 and 100 mg dominated sitagliptin 100 mg over 40 years, providing quality-adjusted life-year gains of 0.31 and 0.28, and cost offsets of $2,217 and $2,560, respectively. Both canagliflozin doses dominated sitagliptin in each of the sensitivity analyses. ConclusionsSimulation results suggested that canagliflozin 300 and 100 mg provided better health outcomes and lower costs than sitagliptin 100 mg as a third-line therapy added-on to metformin and sulfonylurea in patients with type 2 diabetes in Canada. PMID:27463416

  15. Effect of added citrus fibre and spice essential oils on quality characteristics and shelf-life of mortadella.

    PubMed

    Viuda-Martos, M; Ruiz-Navajas, Y; Fernández-López, J; Pérez-Alvarez, J A

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of adding orange dietary fibre (1%), rosemary essential oil (0.02%) or thyme essential oil (0.02%) and the storage conditions on the quality characteristics and the shelf-life of mortadella, a bologna-type sausage. The moisture, fat, ash content and colour coordinates lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) were affected by the fibre content. The treatments analysed lowered the levels of residual nitrite (57.56% and 57.61%) and the extent of lipid oxidation, while analysis of the samples revealed the presence of the flavonoids, hesperidin and narirutin. No enterobacteria or psychotropic bacteria were found in any of the treatments. The treated samples stored in vacuum packaging showed the lowest aerobic and lactic acid bacteria counts. Sensorially, the most appreciated sample was the one containing orange dietary fibre and rosemary essential oil, stored in vacuum packaging. Orange dietary fibre and spice essential oils could find a use in the food industry to improve the shelf-life of meat products.

  16. Effect of baking process on added folic acid and endogenous folates stability in wheat and rye breads.

    PubMed

    Gujska, Elzbieta; Majewska, Katarzyna

    2005-06-01

    In Poland bread as a staple food both made from wheat and rye flour can be a potential product for future fortification with folic acid. The objective of the study was to examine the effect of fermentation and baking on added folic acid and some endogenous folates stability during breadmaking of rye and wheat breads. Breads were produced using the formulation containing enriched flour with 0.2 mg folic acid/100 g product, baker's yeast and additionally ascorbic acid for wheat bread and lactic acid for rye bread. Folates were extracted with Hepes/Ches buffer (pH = 7.85) followed by destruction of matrix by amylase and protease and deconjugation with rat serum conjugase. Affinity chromatography (FBP bovine milk) was used to purify and concentrate samples. The folates were separated by HPLC with C18 column and with a combination of fluorescence and UV detection. For both rye and wheat breads there was a decrease of folic acid from flour to bread stage. The total losses depend on baking process and ranged from 12 to 21%. Some changes in the level of different native folate forms during the stage of baking process were also observed.

  17. Effects of adding bulking agent, inorganic nutrient and microbial inocula on biopile treatment for oil-field drilling waste.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jie; Yang, Yongqi; Dai, Xiaoli; Chen, Yetong; Deng, Hanmei; Zhou, Huijun; Guo, Shaohui; Yan, Guangxu

    2016-05-01

    Contamination from oil-field drilling waste is a worldwide environmental problem. This study investigated the performance of four bench-scale biopiles in treating drilling waste: 1) direct biopile (DW), 2) biopile plus oil-degrading microbial consortium (DW + M), 3) biopile plus microbial consortium and bulking agents (saw dust) (DW + M + BA), 4) biopile plus microbial consortium, bulking agents, and inorganic nutrients (Urea and K2HPO4) (DW + M + BA + N). Ninety days of biopiling removed 41.0%, 44.0%, 55.7% and 87.4% of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in the pile "DW", "DW + M", "DW + M + BA", and "DW + M + BA + N" respectively. Addition of inorganic nutrient and bulking agents resulted in a 56.9% and 26.6% increase in TPH removal efficiency respectively. In contrast, inoculation of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms only slightly enhanced the contaminant removal (increased 7.3%). The biopile with stronger contaminant removal also had higher pile temperature and lower pile pH (e.g., in "DW + M + BA + N"). GC-MS analysis shows that biopiling significantly reduced the total number of detected contaminants and changed the chemical composition. Overall, this study shows that biopiling is an effective remediation technology for drilling waste. Adding inorganic nutrients and bulking agents can significantly improve biopile performance while addition of microbial inocula had minimal positive impacts on contaminant removal.

  18. The Effects of Adding Elements of Zinc and Magnesium on Ag-Cu Eutectic Alloy for Warming Acupuncture

    PubMed Central

    Park, Il Song; Kim, Keun Sik; Lee, Min Ho

    2013-01-01

    The warming acupuncture for hyperthermia therapy is made of STS304. However, its needle point cannot be reached to a desirable temperature due to heat loss caused by low thermal conductivity, and the quantification of stimulation condition and the effective standard establishment of warming acupuncture are required as a heat source. Accordingly, in this study, after Ag-Cu alloys with different composition ratios were casted and then mixed with additives to improve their physical and mechanical properties, the thermal conductivity and biocompatibility of the alloy specimens were evaluated for selecting suitable material. Ag-Cu binary alloys and ternary alloys added 5 wt% Zn or 2 wt% Mg were casted and then cold drawn to manufacture needles for acupuncture, and their physical properties, thermal conductivity, and biocompatibility were evaluated for their potential use in warming acupuncture. The results of this study showed that the physical and mechanical properties of the Ag-Cu alloys were improved by additives and that the thermal conductivity, machinability, and biocompatibility of the Ag-Cu alloys were improved by Mg addition. PMID:24078827

  19. Effects of adding bulking agent, inorganic nutrient and microbial inocula on biopile treatment for oil-field drilling waste.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jie; Yang, Yongqi; Dai, Xiaoli; Chen, Yetong; Deng, Hanmei; Zhou, Huijun; Guo, Shaohui; Yan, Guangxu

    2016-05-01

    Contamination from oil-field drilling waste is a worldwide environmental problem. This study investigated the performance of four bench-scale biopiles in treating drilling waste: 1) direct biopile (DW), 2) biopile plus oil-degrading microbial consortium (DW + M), 3) biopile plus microbial consortium and bulking agents (saw dust) (DW + M + BA), 4) biopile plus microbial consortium, bulking agents, and inorganic nutrients (Urea and K2HPO4) (DW + M + BA + N). Ninety days of biopiling removed 41.0%, 44.0%, 55.7% and 87.4% of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in the pile "DW", "DW + M", "DW + M + BA", and "DW + M + BA + N" respectively. Addition of inorganic nutrient and bulking agents resulted in a 56.9% and 26.6% increase in TPH removal efficiency respectively. In contrast, inoculation of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms only slightly enhanced the contaminant removal (increased 7.3%). The biopile with stronger contaminant removal also had higher pile temperature and lower pile pH (e.g., in "DW + M + BA + N"). GC-MS analysis shows that biopiling significantly reduced the total number of detected contaminants and changed the chemical composition. Overall, this study shows that biopiling is an effective remediation technology for drilling waste. Adding inorganic nutrients and bulking agents can significantly improve biopile performance while addition of microbial inocula had minimal positive impacts on contaminant removal. PMID:26891352

  20. The effect of volcanic eruptions on the North Atlantic ocean temperatures over the past millennium (800-2000 AD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyrina, M.; Wagner, S.; Zorita, E.

    2014-12-01

    Several studies suggest that the North Atlantic Ocean is of particular importance for the climate variability, especially that of western Europe (Schlesinger M. E. & Ramankutty 1994, Knight J., Folland C. K. & Scaife A. 2006). The changes in North Atlantic sea surface temperatures are related to the thermohaline's circulation strength (Kushnir Y., 1994) and affected by volcanic eruptions (Church J.A, White N.J. & Arblaster J.M. 2005), due to their release of aerosols into the stratosphere. In this study we examine the signal of tropical volcanic eruptions in the temperatures of the North Atlantic Ocean in various depths (6, 100, 560 and 3070 m from the sea surface), for the past millennium. The temperatures are derived from the comprehensive COSMOS Earth System Model (ECHAM5-OM at T30 spatial resolution) and are presented for a control run and for three fully forced ensemble simulations including changes in orbital, solar, volcanic, land use and greenhouse gas changes. The model shows a response in the years following volcanic eruptions, being mostly pronounced after the large eruptions that took place between 1200 and 1300 AD, as well as at the beginning of the 19thcentury. The strongest impact on the ocean temperatures, due to the increased atmospheric optical depth, is evident in the uppermost level, especially for two out of the three ensemble simulations. In these simulations a pronounced decrease in the ocean temperature between 1400 and 1500 AD is observed due to the increase of the aerosol effective radius. In the mixed ocean layers the response to volcanic aerosols is more obvious in the third ensemble simulation, whereas in the deep ocean the temperatures do not seem to be strongly affected by volcanic eruptions. Schlesinger, M. E. & Ramankutty, N. An oscillation in the global climate system of period 65-70 years. Nature 367, 723-726 (1994). Kushnir, Y. Interdecadal variations in North Atlantic sea surface temperature and associated atmospheric conditions

  1. Cost-Effectiveness of Adding Bedaquiline to Drug Regimens for the Treatment of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Wolfson, Lara J.; Walker, Anna; Hettle, Robert; Lu, Xiaoyan; Kambili, Chrispin; Murungi, Andrew; Knerer, Gerhart

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of adding bedaquiline to a background regimen (BR) of drugs for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in the United Kingdom (UK). Methods A cohort-based Markov model was developed to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of bedaquiline plus BR (BBR) versus BR alone (BR) in the treatment of MDR-TB, over a 10-year time horizon. A National Health Service (NHS) and personal social services perspective was considered. Cost-effectiveness was evaluated in terms of Quality-Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). Data were sourced from a phase II, placebo-controlled trial, NHS reference costs, and the literature; the US list price of bedaquiline was used and converted to pounds (£18,800). Costs and effectiveness were discounted at a rate of 3.5% per annum. Probabilistic and deterministic sensitivity analysis was conducted. Results The total discounted cost per patient (pp) on BBR was £106,487, compared with £117,922 for BR. The total discounted QALYs pp were 5.16 for BBR and 4.01 for BR. The addition of bedaquiline to a BR resulted in a cost-saving of £11,434 and an additional 1.14 QALYs pp over a 10-year period, and is therefore considered to be the dominant (less costly and more effective) strategy over BR. BBR remained dominant in the majority of sensitivity analyses, with a 81% probability of being dominant versus BR in the probabilistic analysis. Conclusions In the UK, bedaquiline is likely to be cost-effective and cost-saving, compared with the current MDR-TB standard of care under a range of scenarios. Cost-savings over a 10-year period were realized from reductions in length of hospitalization, which offset the bedaquiline drug costs. The cost-benefit conclusions held after several sensitivity analyses, thus validating assumptions made, and suggesting that the results would hold even if the actual price of bedaquiline in the UK were higher than in the US. PMID:25794045

  2. Cost-effectiveness of adding rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide for treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia in Ukraine

    PubMed Central

    Mandrik, Olena; Corro Ramos, Isaac; Knies, Saskia; Al, Maiwenn; Severens, Johan L

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness, from a health care perspective, of adding rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide scheme (FCR versus FC) for treatment-naïve and refractory/relapsed Ukrainian patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. A decision-analytic Markov cohort model with three health states and 1-month cycle time was developed and run within a life time horizon. Data from two multinational, prospective, open-label Phase 3 studies were used to assess patients’ survival. While utilities were generalized from UK data, local resource utilization and disease-associated treatment, hospitalization, and side effect costs were applied. The alternative scenario was performed to assess the impact of lower life expectancy of the general population in Ukraine on the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for treatment-naïve patients. One-way, two-way, and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the robustness of the results. The ICER (in US dollars) of treating chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with FCR versus FC is US$8,704 per quality-adjusted life year gained for treatment-naïve patients and US$11,056 for refractory/relapsed patients. When survival data were modified to the lower life expectancy of the general population in Ukraine, the ICER for treatment-naïve patients was higher than US$13,000. This value is higher than three times the current gross domestic product per capita in Ukraine. Sensitivity analyses have shown a high impact of rituximab costs and a moderate impact of differences in utilities on the ICER. Furthermore, probabilistic sensitivity analyses have shown that for refractory/relapsed patients the probability of FCR being cost-effective is higher than for treatment-naïve patients and is close to one if the threshold is higher than US$15,000. State coverage of rituximab treatment may be considered a cost-effective treatment for the Ukrainian population under conditions of economic

  3. Segmented strings in AdS 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callebaut, Nele; Gubser, Steven S.; Samberg, Andreas; Toldo, Chiara

    2015-11-01

    We study segmented strings in flat space and in AdS 3. In flat space, these well known classical motions describe strings which at any instant of time are piecewise linear. In AdS 3, the worldsheet is composed of faces each of which is a region bounded by null geodesics in an AdS 2 subspace of AdS 3. The time evolution can be described by specifying the null geodesic motion of kinks in the string at which two segments are joined. The outcome of collisions of kinks on the worldsheet can be worked out essentially using considerations of causality. We study several examples of closed segmented strings in AdS 3 and find an unexpected quasi-periodic behavior. We also work out a WKB analysis of quantum states of yo-yo strings in AdS 5 and find a logarithmic term reminiscent of the logarithmic twist of string states on the leading Regge trajectory.

  4. Polarised black holes in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Miguel S.; Greenspan, Lauren; Oliveira, Miguel; Penedones, João; Santos, Jorge E.

    2016-06-01

    We consider solutions in Einstein-Maxwell theory with a negative cosmological constant that asymptote to global AdS 4 with conformal boundary {S}2× {{{R}}}t. At the sphere at infinity we turn on a space-dependent electrostatic potential, which does not destroy the asymptotic AdS behaviour. For simplicity we focus on the case of a dipolar electrostatic potential. We find two new geometries: (i) an AdS soliton that includes the full backreaction of the electric field on the AdS geometry; (ii) a polarised neutral black hole that is deformed by the electric field, accumulating opposite charges in each hemisphere. For both geometries we study boundary data such as the charge density and the stress tensor. For the black hole we also study the horizon charge density and area, and further verify a Smarr formula. Then we consider this system at finite temperature and compute the Gibbs free energy for both AdS soliton and black hole phases. The corresponding phase diagram generalizes the Hawking-Page phase transition. The AdS soliton dominates the low temperature phase and the black hole the high temperature phase, with a critical temperature that decreases as the external electric field increases. Finally, we consider the simple case of a free charged scalar field on {S}2× {{{R}}}t with conformal coupling. For a field in the SU(N ) adjoint representation we compare the phase diagram with the above gravitational system.

  5. Drying temperature effects on fish dry mass measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lantry, B.F.; O'Gorman, R.

    2007-01-01

    Analysis of tissue composition in fish often requires dry samples. Time needed to dry fish decreases as temperature is increased, but additional volatile material may be lost. Effects of 10??C temperature increases on percentage dry mass (%DM) were tested against 60??C controls for groups of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush, rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax, slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus, and alewife Alosa pseudoharengus. Lake trout %DMs were lower at greater temperatures, but not significantly different from 60??C controls. Rainbow smelt and slimy sculpin %DMs were lower at greater temperatures and differences were significant when test temperatures reached 90??C. Significant differences were not found in tests using alewives because variability in %DM was high between fish. To avoid inter-fish variability, 30 alewives were each dried successively at 60, 70, 80, and then 90??C and for all fish %DM declined at each higher temperature. In general, %DMs were lower at greater temperatures and after reaching a stable dry weight, fish did not lose additional mass if temperature remained constant. Results indicate that caution should be used when comparing dry mass related indices from fish dried at different temperatures because %DM was negatively related to temperature. The differences in %DM observed with rising temperature could account for substantial portions of the variability in reported energy values for the species tested. Differences in %DM means for the 60 vs. 80??C and 60 vs. 90??C tests for rainbow smelt and alewife could represent of from 8 to 38% of observed annual energy cycles for Lakes Ontario and Michigan.

  6. Defensive effect of lansoprazole in dementia of AD type in mice exposed to streptozotocin and cholesterol enriched diet.

    PubMed

    Sodhi, Rupinder K; Singh, Nirmal

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the potential of lansoprazole (a proton pump inhibitor and agonist of liver x receptors) in experimental dementia of AD type. Streptozotocin [STZ, 3 mg/kg, injected intracerebroventricular (i.c.v), and high fat diet (HFD, administered for 90 days)] were used to induce dementia in separate groups of Swiss mice. Morris water maze (MWM) test was performed to assess learning and memory of the animals. A battery of biochemical and histopathological studies were also performed. Extent of oxidative stress was measured by estimating the levels of brain reduced glutathione (GSH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS). Brain acetylcholinestrase (AChE) activity and serum cholesterol levels were also estimated. The brain level of myeloperoxidase (MPO) was measured as a marker of inflammation. STZ and HFD produced a marked decline in MWM performance of the animals, reflecting impairment of learning and memory. STZ/HFD treated mice exhibited a marked accentuation of AChE activity, TBARS and MPO levels along with a fall in GSH levels. Further, the stained micrographs of STZ/HFD treated mice indicated pathological changes, severe neutrophilic infiltration and amyloid deposition. Lansoprazole treatment significantly attenuated STZ and HFD -induced memory deficits, biochemical and histopathological alterations. It also prevented HFD-induced rise in the cholesterol level. Therefore, the findings demonstrate potential of lansoprazole in memory dysfunctions which may probably be attributed to its anti-cholinesterase, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Moreover, both cholesterol-dependent as well as cholesterol-independent effects of lansoprazole appear to play a role. In addition study indicates the role of liver x receptors in dementia.

  7. Effective Biology Teaching: A Value-Added Instructional Improvement Analysis Model. Research Watch. E&R Report No. 05.28

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynie, Glenda

    2006-01-01

    This research study developed a value-added instructional improvement analysis model. North Carolina state testing results were used in regression and residual analyses of student achievement. This analysis allowed for identification of the "most effective" and "least effective" biology teachers in Wake County Public Schools…

  8. Effects of weather on daily body mass regulation in wintering dunlin.

    PubMed

    Kelly, John P; Warnock, Nils; Page, Gary W; Weathers, Wesley W

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the influence of changes in weather associated with winter storms on mass balance, activity and food consumption in captive dunlin (Calidris alpina) held in outdoor aviaries, and compared the aviary results with weather-related body mass differences in free-living dunlin collected at Bolinas Lagoon, California. Captive birds fed ad libitum increased their body mass at higher wind speeds and lower temperatures, suggesting regulation of energy stores, whereas free-living birds exhibited patterns suggesting thermoregulatory limits on body mass regulation. Daily energy expenditure in aviary dunlin was 2.85 kJ g d(-1), or 2.8x basal metabolic rate (BMR), with thermostatic costs averaging 59 % of daily expenditure. Slight but significant increases in body mass and energy expenditure in captive birds on rainy days, adjusted for possible external water mass, suggested rainfall as a proximate cue in regulating daily body mass. Body mass changes under artificial rainfall indicated similar results, and field masses suggested that free-living birds have greater body mass on days with measurable rainfall. Increased activity costs under artificial rainfall were associated with an increase in maintenance activities, relative to controls. Whether activity costs increased on days with natural rates of rainfall was unclear. Our results are consistent with current hypotheses regarding the role of body mass regulation in providing insurance against increased starvation risk during deteriorating thermal or foraging conditions, or in reducing the costs of extra mass as conditions improve.

  9. The effect of adding PDMS-OH and silica nanoparticles on sol-gel properties and effectiveness in stone protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dan; Xu, Feigao; Liu, Zhenghua; Zhu, Jiaqi; Zhang, Qingjian; Shao, Li

    2013-02-01

    Inorganic-organic hybrid crack-free xerogels were obtained using di-n-butyltin dilaurate (DBTL) as a catalyst containing tetraethoxyorthosilicate (TEOS) and hydroxyl-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS-OH) as an additive. We studied the effect of gelling time and sol pH on DBTL concentration. The xerogels' structure was studied by FTIR, TGA-DTA and SEM techniques. The results showed that the catalyst (DBTL) would substantially shorten the gelling time of the sol. With the addition of PDMS-OH, the viscosity of the sol increased while the gel time decreased. In addition, we noticed an improvement in the cracking of the xerogel with the addition of PDMS-OH. However, the xerogels were opaque when mole ratio of PDMS/TEOS is higher than 0.153. Addition of silica nanoparticles at 0.1% (w/v) in sol could increase xerogels' surface roughness and hydrophobicity and did not change color of the xerogels. The protective performance evaluated by its ability to resist acid rain revealed that the protective effects were satisfying.

  10. Mass-dependent and non-mass-dependent isotope effects in ozone photolysis: Resolving theory and experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, Amanda S.; Boering, Kristie A.

    2006-11-14

    In addition to the anomalous {sup 17}O and {sup 18}O isotope effects in the three-body ozone formation reaction O+O{sub 2}+M, isotope effects in the destruction of ozone by photolysis may also play a role in determining the isotopic composition of ozone and other trace gases in the atmosphere. While previous experiments on ozone photolysis at 254 nm were interpreted as evidence for preferential loss of light ozone that is anomalous (or 'non-mass-dependent'), recent semiempirical theoretical calculations predicted a preferential loss of heavy ozone at that wavelength that is mass dependent. Through photochemical modeling results presented here, we resolve this apparent contradiction between experiment and theory. Specifically, we show that the formation of ozone during the UV photolysis experiments is not negligible, as had been assumed, and that the well-known non-mass-dependent isotope effects in ozone formation can account for the non-mass-dependent enrichment of the heavy isotopologs of ozone observed in the experiment. Thus, no unusual non-mass-dependent fractionation in ozone photolysis must be invoked to explain the experimental results. Furthermore, we show that theoretical predictions of a mass-dependent preferential loss of the heavy isotopologs of ozone during UV photolysis are not inconsistent with the experimental data, particularly if mass-dependent isotope effects in the chemical loss reactions of ozone during the photolysis experiments or experimental artifacts enrich the remaining ozone in {sup 17}O and {sup 18}O. Before the calculated fractionation factors can be quantitatively evaluated, however, further investigation of possible mass-dependent isotope effects in the reactions of ozone with O({sup 1}D), O({sup 3}P), O{sub 2}({sup 1}{delta}), and O{sub 2}({sup 1}{sigma}) is needed through experiments we suggest here.

  11. Low frequency anomalies of the effective mass of charged clusters in liquid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shikin, V.

    2013-10-01

    The dynamic behavior of charged clusters in liquid helium is discussed in detail. The matter is their added mass which has ideal, Msass, and normal, Mnass, components. The normal component has a number of interesting features of viscous origin. Some of them were found in recent experiments.

  12. Effect of adding dexamethasone to bupivacaine on transversus abdominis plane block for abdominal hysterectomy: A prospective randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ammar, Amany S.; Mahmoud, Khaled M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Different adjuvants have been used to improve the quality and increase the duration of local anesthetics during various nerve block techniques. The current study was aimed to evaluate the effect of adding dexamethasone to bupivacaine on the quality and duration of transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block. Methods: Sixty adult patients undergoing elective open abdominal hysterectomy were randomly allocated to receive TAP block using 20 mL of bupivacaine hydrochloride 0.25% + 2 mL saline 0.9% (control group, n=30) or 20 mL of bupivacaine hydrochloride 0.25% + 2 mL dexamethasone “8 mg” (dexamethasone group, n=30). The primary outcome was postoperative pain, as evaluated by visual analog scale (VAS) for pain scoring at 1, 2, 4, 12, 24 and 48 h postoperatively, whereas the secondary outcomes were time to first analgesia (TFA), morphine consumption and the occurrence of nausea, vomiting or somnolence. Results: The pain VAS score was significantly lower at the postoperative 2 h (4.9 vs. 28.1, P=0.01), 4 h (12.2 vs. 31.1, P=0.01) and 12 h (15.7 vs. 25.4, P=0.02). Furthermore, TFA was significantly longer in the dexamethasone group (459.8 vs. 325.4 min, P=0.002), with lesser morphine requirements in the postoperative 48 h (4.9 vs. 21.2 mg, P=0.003) and lower incidence of nausea and vomiting (6 vs. 14, P=0.03). No complications attributed to the block were recorded. Conclusion: Addition of dexamethasone to bupivacaine in TAP block prolonged the duration of the block and decreased the incidence of nausea and vomiting. PMID:23162395

  13. Cognitive and emotional alterations in young Alzheimer's disease (3xTgAD) mice: effects of neonatal handling stimulation and sexual dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Cañete, T; Blázquez, G; Tobeña, A; Giménez-Llort, L; Fernández-Teruel, A

    2015-03-15

    Alzheimer disease is the most common neurodegenerative disorder and cause of senile dementia. It is characterized by an accelerated memory loss, and alterations of mood, reason, judgment and language. The main neuropathological hallmarks of the disorder are β-amyloid (βA) plaques and neurofibrillary Tau tangles. The triple transgenic 3xTgAD mouse model develops βA and Tau pathologies in a progressive manner which mimicks the pattern that takes place in the human brain with AD, and showing cognitive alterations characteristic of the disease. The present study intended to examine whether 3xTgAD mice of both sexes present cognitive, emotional and other behavioral alterations at the early age of 4 months, an age in which only some intraneuronal amyloid accumulation is found. Neonatal handling (H) is an early-life treatment known to produce profound and long-lasting behavioral and neurobiological effects in rodents, as well as improvements in cognitive functions. Therefore, we also aimed at evaluating the effects of H on the behavioral/cognitive profile of 4-month-old male and female 3xTgAD mice. The results indicate that, (1) 3xTgAD mice present spatial learning/memory deficits and emotional alterations already at the early age of 4 months, (2) there exists sexual dimorphism effects on several behavioral variables at this age, (3) neonatal handling exerts a preventive effect on some cognitive (spatial learning) and emotional alterations appearing in 3xTgAD mice already at early ages, and 4) H treatment appears to produce stronger positive effects in females than in males in several spatial learning measures and in the open field test.

  14. Adding disk effects to N-body simulations with REBOUNDx: Application to overstability of resonances in exoplanet pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamayo, Daniel; Rein, Hanno; Chen, Alice; bennett, morgan

    2015-12-01

    Mean-motion resonances (MMRs) are typically stable configurations for pairs of planets. Given that planets should migrate relative to one another in their natal disk, one might expect to have found most planets locked in such MMRs. The fact that most Kepler planets are not observed in MMRs therefore requires an explanation. Goldreich and Schlichting (2014) recently argued that, in fact, due to interactions with the protoplanetary disk, planets below a threshold mass should break out of the strongest MMRs, i.e., the MMRs become overstable.While follow-up work has studied the robustness of this result to varying orbital architectures, we focus on the specific numerical implementation of the disk effects, which translates into differing physical interpretations of the planet-disk interactions. We will present how these physical choices affect the parameter space in which overstability sets in, and how certain choices can generate spurious results. We will then extend our results to general cases of broad applicability, and summarize the merits and pitfalls of these different numerical implementations of perturbations from the protoplanetary disk, particularly in tightly packed systems.We have packaged these numerical implementations into REBOUNDx, an open-source C and Python package for incorporating planet-disk interactions, as well as additional effects (like post-newtonian corrections), into N-body simulations using REBOUND. We will give a brief demo that highlights its ease of installation and use, as well as its synergy with Python's powerful plotting and scientific analysis libraries.

  15. Cognitive and emotional profiles of aged Alzheimer's disease (3×TgAD) mice: effects of environmental enrichment and sexual dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Blázquez, Gloria; Cañete, Toni; Tobeña, Adolf; Giménez-Llort, Lydia; Fernández-Teruel, Alberto

    2014-07-15

    Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with age which represents the most common cause of dementia. It is characterized by an accelerated memory loss compared to normal aging, and deterioration of other cognitive abilities that interfere with mood, reason, judgment and language. The main neuropathological hallmarks of the disorder are β-amyloid (βA) plaques and neurofibrillary Tau tangles. Triple transgenic 3×TgAD mouse model develops βA and Tau pathologies in a progressive manner, with a specific temporal and anatomic profile mimicking the pattern that takes place in the human brain with AD, and showing cognitive alterations characteristic of the disease. Environmental enrichment treatment in mice induces behavioral and emotional reactivity changes, including cognitive improvements in some AD-related transgenic mice. The present work intended to characterize the behavioral profile of 3×TgAD mice at advanced stages of neuropathological development (12 and 15 months of age) and to investigate whether environmental enrichment administered during adulthood was able to modify some of their behavioral and cognitive alterations. Results show that, at advanced stages of the disease 3×TgAD mice show deficits of spatial learning acquisition, as well as short-term and working memory deficits, while displaying increased levels of anxiety/fearfulness and normal sensorimotor functions. 3×TgAD mice also show sexual dimorphism, as reflected by increased cognitive deficits in females and increased levels of novelty-induced behavioral inhibition in males. Environmental enrichment exerts some slight positive effects, by mainly improving the initial acquisition of the spatial learning and working memory in 12-month-old 3×TgAD mice. Such effects vary depending on the gender.

  16. Nonclassical properties and purity of a qubit system in photon-added squeezed thermal states with time-dependent coupling effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrada, K.; Abdel-Khalek, S.

    2016-10-01

    The degree of purity and nonclassical properties for a two-level system interacting with a photon-added squeezed thermal field (PASTF) are described in terms of the physical parameters involved in the whole system state with and without time-dependent coupling effect. Specially, we investigate the influence of the squeezed parameter and photon-added number on the behavior of the linear entropy and the Mandel's parameter. We find that for each value of the photon-added number, there exist critical value of the squeezed parameter for which the linear entropy is maximal and the statistical properties get farther from the trivial case. Moreover, we show that the presence of the time-dependent coupling effect may increase the periodicity time and lead to quench oscillations of the Mandel's parameter during the evolution. Finally, we exploit an interesting relationship between the linear entropy and the Mandel's parameter in terms of the physical parameters.

  17. Negative muon chemistry: the quantum muon effect and the finite nuclear mass effect.

    PubMed

    Posada, Edwin; Moncada, Félix; Reyes, Andrés

    2014-10-01

    The any-particle molecular orbital method at the full configuration interaction level has been employed to study atoms in which one electron has been replaced by a negative muon. In this approach electrons and muons are described as quantum waves. A scheme has been proposed to discriminate nuclear mass and quantum muon effects on chemical properties of muonic and regular atoms. This study reveals that the differences in the ionization potentials of isoelectronic muonic atoms and regular atoms are of the order of millielectronvolts. For the valence ionizations of muonic helium and muonic lithium the nuclear mass effects are more important. On the other hand, for 1s ionizations of muonic atoms heavier than beryllium, the quantum muon effects are more important. In addition, this study presents an assessment of the nuclear mass and quantum muon effects on the barrier of Heμ + H2 reaction.

  18. MASS SPECTROMETRY

    DOEpatents

    Friedman, L.

    1962-01-01

    method is described for operating a mass spectrometer to improve its resolution qualities and to extend its period of use substantially between cleanings. In this method, a small amount of a beta emitting gas such as hydrogen titride or carbon-14 methane is added to the sample being supplied to the spectrometer for investigation. The additive establishes leakage paths on the surface of the non-conducting film accumulating within the vacuum chamber of the spectrometer, thereby reducing the effect of an accumulated static charge on the electrostatic and magnetic fields established within the instrument. (AEC)

  19. Changes in Kicking Pattern: Effect of Experience, Speed, Accuracy, and Effective Striking Mass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southard, Dan L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this study were to: (a) examine the effect of experience and goal constraints (speed, accuracy) on kicking patterns; (b) determine if effective striking mass was independent of ankle velocity at impact; and (c) determine the accuracy of kicks relative to independent factors. Method: Twenty participants were recruited to…

  20. Understanding ligand effects in gold clusters using mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Grant E; Laskin, Julia

    2016-06-21

    This review summarizes recent research on the influence of phosphine ligands on the size, stability, and reactivity of gold clusters synthesized in solution. Sub-nanometer clusters exhibit size- and composition-dependent properties that are unique from those of larger nanoparticles. The highly tunable properties of clusters and their high surface-to-volume ratio make them promising candidates for a variety of technological applications. However, because "each-atom-counts" toward defining cluster properties it is critically important to develop robust synthesis methods to efficiently prepare clusters of predetermined size. For decades phosphines have been known to direct the size-selected synthesis of gold clusters. Despite the preparation of numerous species it is still not understood how different functional groups at phosphine centers affect the size and properties of gold clusters. Using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) it is possible to characterize the effect of ligand substitution on the distribution of clusters formed in solution at defined reaction conditions. In addition, ligand exchange reactions on preformed clusters may be monitored using ESI-MS. Collision induced dissociation (CID) may also be employed to obtain qualitative insight into the fragmentation of mixed ligand clusters and the relative binding energies of differently substituted phosphines. Quantitative ligand binding energies and cluster stability may be determined employing surface induced dissociation (SID) in a custom-built Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR-MS). Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) based modeling of the SID data allows dissociation energies and entropy values to be extracted. The charge reduction and reactivity of atomically precise gold clusters, including partially ligated species generated in the gas-phase by in source CID, on well-defined surfaces may be explored using ion soft landing (SL) in a custom

  1. The effect of adding CO2 to hypoxic inspired gas on cerebral blood flow velocity and breathing during incremental exercise.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jui-Lin; Kayser, Bengt

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia increases the ventilatory response to exercise, which leads to hyperventilation-induced hypocapnia and subsequent reduction in cerebral blood flow (CBF). We studied the effects of adding CO2 to a hypoxic inspired gas on CBF during heavy exercise in an altitude naïve population. We hypothesized that augmented inspired CO2 and hypoxia would exert synergistic effects on increasing CBF during exercise, which would improve exercise capacity compared to hypocapnic hypoxia. We also examined the responsiveness of CO2 and O2 chemoreception on the regulation ventilation ([Formula: see text]E) during incremental exercise. We measured middle cerebral artery velocity (MCAv; index of CBF), [Formula: see text]E, end-tidal PCO2, respiratory compensation threshold (RC) and ventilatory response to exercise ([Formula: see text]E slope) in ten healthy men during incremental cycling to exhaustion in normoxia and hypoxia (FIO2 = 0.10) with and without augmenting the fraction of inspired CO2 (FICO2). During exercise in normoxia, augmenting FICO2 elevated MCAv throughout exercise and lowered both RC onset and[Formula: see text]E slope below RC (P<0.05). In hypoxia, MCAv and [Formula: see text]E slope below RC during exercise were elevated, while the onset of RC occurred at lower exercise intensity (P<0.05). Augmenting FICO2 in hypoxia increased [Formula: see text]E at RC (P<0.05) but no difference was observed in RC onset, MCAv, or [Formula: see text]E slope below RC (P>0.05). The [Formula: see text]E slope above RC was unchanged with either hypoxia or augmented FICO2 (P>0.05). We found augmenting FICO2 increased CBF during sub-maximal exercise in normoxia, but not in hypoxia, indicating that the 'normal' cerebrovascular response to hypercapnia is blunted during exercise in hypoxia, possibly due to an exhaustion of cerebral vasodilatory reserve. This finding may explain the lack of improvement of exercise capacity in hypoxia with augmented CO2. Our data further indicate that

  2. The mass media alone are not effective change agents.

    PubMed

    Ruijter, J M

    1991-01-01

    Social mobilization programs for immunization have been used by African leaders, however, coverage from 20% to 70% in capitals like Mogadishu, Maputo, and Dakar were the result of short campaigns rather than the consequence of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) improvement. One-party states relied on their network of cadres issuing decrees from the top down to enforce completion of these immunization campaigns. Sometimes resistance developed against these programs, as the military mobilized people (e.g., Somalia). These efforts became rather superficial once the temporary pressure evaporated. In Mogadishu coverage increased from 22% to 70% in 1985, and within a year it dropped back to 8% above the original level. Nigeria, Senegal, and Togo where they used regular mini campaigns had better results. Research data from Botswana, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia were analyzed. In 1983 in Kenya 73% of health workers never advised their clients, and 82% were incompetent to do so. Data also showed that clinics provided the bulk of information to women aged 15-45 in lower income groups, but they rarely consulted village health workers. Radio and TV programs were not reaching people because radio ownership was not universal (47% in Zambia and 30% in Zimbabwe), and batteries were often not available. In addition, most people turned to the radio for entertainment. In 1989, vaccination coverage was 19% in Luanda, Angola, but only 5% of 232 respondents to an evaluation could name the immunizable diseases. An identical percentage was familiar with these diseases in a Zambian study in 1986. Media experts proposed dramas to raise interest, but innovative mass media programs of dissemination of the message advocated in the 1960s did not prove effective to bring about KAP changes. Training of health and paramedical personnel by mass organizations as initiated in Ethiopia may prove to be worthwhile.

  3. Conserved charges in timelike warped AdS3 spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnay, L.; Fernández-Melgarejo, J. J.; Giribet, G.; Goya, A.; Lavia, E.

    2015-06-01

    We consider the timelike version of warped anti-de Sitter space (WAdS), which corresponds to the three-dimensional section of the Gödel solution of four-dimensional cosmological Einstein equations. This geometry presents closed timelike curves (CTCs), which are inherited from its four-dimensional embedding. In three dimensions, this type of solution can be supported without matter provided the graviton acquires mass. Here, among the different ways to consistently give mass to the graviton in three dimensions, we consider the parity-even model known as new massive gravity (NMG). In the bulk of timelike WAdS3 space, we introduce defects that, from the three-dimensional point of view, represent spinning massive particlelike objects. For this type of source, we investigate the definition of quasilocal gravitational energy as seen from infinity, far beyond the region where the CTCs appear. We also consider the covariant formalism applied to NMG to compute the mass and the angular momentum of spinning particlelike defects and compare the result with the one obtained by means of the quasilocal stress tensor. We apply these methods to special limits in which the WAdS3 solutions coincide with locally AdS3 and locally AdS2×R spaces. Finally, we make some comments about the asymptotic symmetry algebra of asymptotically WAdS3 spaces in NMG.

  4. Effects of mass on aircraft sidearm controller characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Charles A.

    1994-01-01

    When designing a flight simulator, providing a set of low mass variable-characteristic pilot controls can be very difficult. Thus, a strong incentive exists to identify the highest possible mass that will not degrade the validity of a simulation. The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has conducted a brief flight program to determine the maximum acceptable mass (system inertia) of an aircraft sidearm controller as a function of force gradient. This information is useful for control system design in aircraft as well as development of suitable flight simulator controls. A modified Learjet with a variable-characteristic sidearm controller was used to obtain data. A boundary was defined between mass considered acceptable and mass considered unacceptable to the pilot. This boundary is defined as a function of force gradient over a range of natural frequencies. This investigation is limited to a study of mass-frequency characteristics only. Results of this investigation are presented in this paper.

  5. Intramedium Interaction and the Third-Person Effect: How Partisans Respond to YouTube Ads and Comments.

    PubMed

    Veenstra, Aaron S; Park, Chang Sup; Lyons, Benjamin A; Kang, Cheeyoun Stephanie; Iyer, Narayanan

    2015-07-01

    As digital media technologies have evolved and become more powerful, the prevalence of mixed-media content-that is, content that mixes multiple media such as text and video-has increased considerably. Perhaps nowhere is this more apparent than YouTube, now the Web's third most trafficked site. YouTube provides for video sharing in an environment otherwise dominated by textual titles, descriptions, and comments. As such, it is an ideal venue in which to examine the impact of intramedium interaction on message evaluation. This study uses a survey experiment to test first-person and third-person evaluations of campaign ads from the Obama and Romney campaigns, and the comments posted about them on YouTube, using two real ads and one set of fake comments. Findings suggest that partisan perceptions of the manipulated ads transfer to the constant comments, and that the contextual cue of the YouTube environment reciprocally impacts partisan evaluation of the ads themselves.

  6. Intramedium Interaction and the Third-Person Effect: How Partisans Respond to YouTube Ads and Comments.

    PubMed

    Veenstra, Aaron S; Park, Chang Sup; Lyons, Benjamin A; Kang, Cheeyoun Stephanie; Iyer, Narayanan

    2015-07-01

    As digital media technologies have evolved and become more powerful, the prevalence of mixed-media content-that is, content that mixes multiple media such as text and video-has increased considerably. Perhaps nowhere is this more apparent than YouTube, now the Web's third most trafficked site. YouTube provides for video sharing in an environment otherwise dominated by textual titles, descriptions, and comments. As such, it is an ideal venue in which to examine the impact of intramedium interaction on message evaluation. This study uses a survey experiment to test first-person and third-person evaluations of campaign ads from the Obama and Romney campaigns, and the comments posted about them on YouTube, using two real ads and one set of fake comments. Findings suggest that partisan perceptions of the manipulated ads transfer to the constant comments, and that the contextual cue of the YouTube environment reciprocally impacts partisan evaluation of the ads themselves. PMID:26167840

  7. The Effect of Comorbid AD/HD and Learning Disabilities on Parent-Reported Behavioral and Academic Outcomes of Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Thomas J.; Adams, Gail

    2006-01-01

    Data from the 2001 National Household Education Survey were examined to estimate the prevalence of comorbid AD/HD and LD among school-aged children in the United States and assess how this comorbidity was associated with selected parent-reported behavioral and academic outcomes. The observed prevalence of comorbidity coincided with estimates in…

  8. Evidence for the Need to More Closely Examine School Effects in Value-Added Modeling and Related Accountability Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franco, M. Suzanne; Seidel, Kent

    2014-01-01

    Value-added approaches for attributing student growth to teachers often use weighted estimates of building-level factors based on "typical" schools to represent a range of community, school, and other variables related to teacher and student work that are not easily measured directly. This study examines whether such estimates are likely…

  9. How Teacher Evaluation Methods Matter for Accountability: A Comparative Analysis of Teacher Effectiveness Ratings by Principals and Teacher Value-Added Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Douglas N.; Ingle, William K.; Rutledge, Stacey A.

    2014-01-01

    Policymakers are revolutionizing teacher evaluation by attaching greater stakes to student test scores and observation-based teacher effectiveness measures, but relatively little is known about why they often differ so much. Quantitative analysis of thirty schools suggests that teacher value-added measures and informal principal evaluations are…

  10. Instructional and Organizational Effectiveness in Selected PREPS-Identified Value Added and PREPS-Identified Value Subtracted Elementary Schools in Mississippi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Jimmy Dale

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the perceptions of principals, teachers, and support staff at 3 PREPS-identified value added and three PREPS-identified value subtracted elementary schools in Mississippi to determine if there were "effective schools" practices in the areas of instructional and organizational systems that were unique to either group. The…

  11. Effects of adding fibrous feedstuffs to the diet of young pigs on growth performance, intestinal cytokines, and circulating acute phase proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of adding fibrous feedstuffs on growth performance, intestinal cytokine expression, markers of inflammation, abundance of phosphorylated S6 kinase (S6K), and the expression of genes that control intestinal growth was evaluated in weanling pigs. Pigs (n = 120; 5.2 kg and 24 d of age) wer...

  12. Effects of diet on rate of body mass gain by wintering canvasbacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorde, D.G.; Haramis, G.M.; Bunck, C.M.; Pendleton, G.W.

    1995-01-01

    Because habitat degradation has led to the loss of submerged vegetation in Chesapeake Bay, wintering canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) have shifted from a plant diet of American wildcelery (Vallisneria americana) to an animal diet of Baltic clams (Macoma balthica). We conducted experiments with pen-reared canvasbacks (n = 32, 1990; n = 32, 1991) to assess the effect of this diet change on mass recovery rate following a simulated period of food deprivation. During the recovery phase, canvasbacks were fed ad libitum either (1) Baltic clams (1991 only), (2) tubers of wildcelery, 3) corn, or (4) commercial control diet. Initial body mass of ducks did not differ between years (P = 0.754) or among pens (P > 0.264) or diets within years (1990, P = 0.520; 1991, P = 0.684). Body mass decline during food deprivation (x super(-) = 26.0 g/day plus or minus 0.6 SE) did not differ among diets (1990, P = 0.239; 1991, P = 0.062) or between sexes in 1990 (P = 0.197), but was greater (P = 0.039) for males (x super(-) = 28 g/day plus or minus 0.8 SE) than females (x super(-) = 25 g/day plus or minus 0.9) in 1991. Mass recovery rate differed between diets (clams excluded) in 1990 (P = 0.003) and 1991 (clams included) (P = 0.011); mean = 42 g/bird super(-1)/day super(-1) plus or minus 3.8 (SE) control diet, mean = 32 g/bird super(-1)/day super(-1) plus or minus 2.8 wildcelery tubers, mean = 24 g/bird super(-1)/day super(-1) plus or minus 4.9 whole corn, and mean = 23 g/bird super(-1)/day super(-1) plus or minus 1.0 Baltic clams. Canvasbacks consumed an average of 2,169 g/bird super(-1)/day super(-1) of Baltic clams, 1,158 g/bird super(-1)/day super(-1) of wildcelery tubers, 152 g/bird super(-1)/day super(-1) whole corn, and 208 g/bird super(-1)/day super(-1) (dry mass) control diet during recovery. Managers should restore and maintain aquatic plant foods that enhance winter survival of canvasbacks and other waterfowl in response to declining habitat quality.

  13. Effects of fore-aft body mass distribution on acceleration in dogs.

    PubMed

    Walter, Rebecca M; Carrier, David R

    2011-05-15

    The ability of a quadruped to apply propulsive ground reaction forces (GRF) during rapid acceleration may be limited by muscle power, foot traction or the ability to counteract the nose-up pitching moment due to acceleration. Because the biomechanics of acceleration change, both throughout the stride cycle and over subsequent strides as velocity increases, the factors limiting propulsive force production may also change. Depending on which factors are limiting during each step, alterations in fore-aft body mass distribution may either increase or decrease the maximum propulsive GRF produced. We analyzed the effects of experimental alterations in the fore-aft body mass distribution of dogs as they performed rapid accelerations. We measured the changes in trunk kinematics and GRF as dogs accelerated while carrying 10% body mass in saddlebags positioned just in front of the shoulder girdle or directly over the pelvic girdle. We found that dogs applied greater propulsive forces in the initial hindlimb push-off and first step by the lead forelimb in both weighted conditions. During these steps dogs appear to have been limited by foot traction. For the trailing forelimb, propulsive forces and impulses were reduced when dogs wore caudally placed weights and increased when dogs wore cranially placed weights. This is consistent with nose-up pitching or avoidance thereof having limited propulsive force production by the trailing forelimb. By the second stride, the hindlimbs appear to have been limited by muscle power in their ability to apply propulsive force. Adding weights decreased the propulsive force they applied most in the beginning of stance, when limb retractor muscles were active in supporting body weight. These results suggest that all three factors: foot traction, pitching of the body, and muscle power play roles in limiting quadrupedal acceleration. Digging in to the substrate with claws or hooves appears to be necessary for maximizing propulsion in the initial

  14. Matrix effects in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xiaoshan

    1995-07-07

    The inductively coupled plasma is an electrodeless discharge in a gas (usually Ar) at atmospheric pressure. Radio frequency energy generated by a RF power source is inductively coupled to the plasma gas through a water cooled load coil. In ICP-MS the {open_quotes}Fassel{close_quotes} TAX quartz torch commonly used in emission is mounted horizontally. The sample aerosol is introduced into the central flow, where the gas kinetic temperature is about 5000 K. The aerosol is vaporized, atomized, excited and ionized in the plasma, and the ions are subsequently extracted through two metal apertures (sampler and skimmer) into the mass spectrometer. In ICP-MS, the matrix effects, or non-spectroscopic interferences, can be defined as the type of interferences caused by dissolved concomitant salt ions in the solution. Matrix effects can be divided into two categories: (1) signal drift due to the deposition of solids on the sampling apertures; and/or (2) signal suppression or enhancement by the presence of the dissolved salts. The first category is now reasonably understood. The dissolved salts, especially refractory oxides, tend to deposit on the cool tip of the sampling cone. The clogging of the orifices reduces the ion flow into the ICP-MS, lowers the pressure in the first stage of ICP-MS, and enhances the level of metal oxide ions. Because the extent of the clogging increases with the time, the signal drifts down. Even at the very early stage of the development of ICP-MS, matrix effects had been observed. Houk et al. found out that the ICP-MS was not tolerant to solutions containing significant amounts of dissolved solids.

  15. Vehicle surge detection and pathway discrimination by pedestrians who are blind: Effect of adding an alert sound to hybrid electric vehicles on performance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall; Naghshineh, Koorosh; Pliskow, Jay; Myers, Kyle

    2012-05-01

    This study examined the effect of adding an artificially generated alert sound to a quiet vehicle on its detectability and localizability with 15 visually impaired adults. When starting from a stationary position, the hybrid electric vehicle with an alert sound was significantly more quickly and reliably detected than either the identical vehicle without such added sound or the comparable internal combustion engine vehicle. However, no significant difference was found between the vehicles in respect to how accurately the participants could discriminate the path of a given vehicle (straight vs. right turn). These results suggest that adding an artificial sound to a hybrid electric vehicle may help reduce delay in street crossing initiation by a blind pedestrian, but the benefit of such alert sound may not be obvious in determining whether the vehicle in his near parallel lane proceeds straight through the intersection or turns right in front of him. PMID:22707841

  16. Vehicle surge detection and pathway discrimination by pedestrians who are blind: Effect of adding an alert sound to hybrid electric vehicles on performance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall; Naghshineh, Koorosh; Pliskow, Jay; Myers, Kyle

    2012-05-01

    This study examined the effect of adding an artificially generated alert sound to a quiet vehicle on its detectability and localizability with 15 visually impaired adults. When starting from a stationary position, the hybrid electric vehicle with an alert sound was significantly more quickly and reliably detected than either the identical vehicle without such added sound or the comparable internal combustion engine vehicle. However, no significant difference was found between the vehicles in respect to how accurately the participants could discriminate the path of a given vehicle (straight vs. right turn). These results suggest that adding an artificial sound to a hybrid electric vehicle may help reduce delay in street crossing initiation by a blind pedestrian, but the benefit of such alert sound may not be obvious in determining whether the vehicle in his near parallel lane proceeds straight through the intersection or turns right in front of him.

  17. Vehicle surge detection and pathway discrimination by pedestrians who are blind: Effect of adding an alert sound to hybrid electric vehicles on performance

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall; Naghshineh, Koorosh; Pliskow, Jay; Myers, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effect of adding an artificially generated alert sound to a quiet vehicle on its detectability and localizability with 15 visually impaired adults. When starting from a stationary position, the hybrid electric vehicle with an alert sound was significantly more quickly and reliably detected than either the identical vehicle without such added sound or the comparable internal combustion engine vehicle. However, no significant difference was found between the vehicles in respect to how accurately the participants could discriminate the path of a given vehicle (straight vs. right turn). These results suggest that adding an artificial sound to a hybrid electric vehicle may help reduce delay in street crossing initiation by a blind pedestrian, but the benefit of such alert sound may not be obvious in determining whether the vehicle in his near parallel lane proceeds straight through the intersection or turns right in front of him. PMID:22707841

  18. Effects of intermediate mass black holes on nuclear star clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Mastrobuono-Battisti, Alessandra; Perets, Hagai B.; Loeb, Abraham

    2014-11-20

    Nuclear star clusters (NSCs) are dense stellar clusters observed in galactic nuclei, typically hosting a central massive black hole. Here we study the possible formation and evolution of NSCs through the inspiral of multiple star clusters hosting intermediate mass black holes (IMBHs). Using an N-body code, we examine the dynamics of the IMBHs and their effects on the NSC. We find that IMBHs inspiral to the core of the newly formed NSC and segregate there. Although the IMBHs scatter each other and the stars, none of them is ejected from the NSC. The IMBHs are excited to high eccentricities and their radial density profile develops a steep power-law cusp. The stars also develop a power-law cusp (instead of the central core that forms in their absence), but with a shallower slope. The relaxation rate of the NSC is accelerated due to the presence of IMBHs, which act as massive perturbers. This in turn fills the loss cone and boosts the tidal disruption rate of stars both by the MBH and the IMBHs to a value excluded by rate estimates based on current observations. Rate estimates of tidal disruptions can therefore provide a cumulative constraint on the existence of IMBHs in NSCs.

  19. Multivalley effective mass theory simulation of donors in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamble, John King; Jacobson, N. Tobias; Nielsen, Erik; Baczewski, Andrew D.; Moussa, Jonathan E.; Montaño, Inès; Muller, Richard P.

    2015-06-01

    Last year, Salfi et al. made the first direct measurements of a donor wave function and found extremely good theoretical agreement with atomistic tight-binding theory results [Salfi et al., Nat. Mater. 13, 605 (2014), 10.1038/nmat3941]. Here, we show that multivalley effective mass theory, applied properly, does achieve close agreement with tight-binding results and hence gives reliable predictions. To demonstrate this, we variationally solve the coupled six-valley Shindo-Nara equations, including silicon's full Bloch functions. Surprisingly, we find that including the full Bloch functions necessitates a tetrahedral, rather than spherical, donor central cell correction to accurately reproduce the experimental energy spectrum of a phosphorus impurity in silicon. We cross-validate this method against atomistic tight-binding calculations, showing that the two theories agree well for the calculation of donor-donor tunnel coupling. Further, we benchmark our results by performing a statistical uncertainty analysis, confirming that derived quantities such as the wave function profile and tunnel couplings are robust with respect to variational energy fluctuations. Finally, we apply this method to exhaustively enumerate the tunnel coupling for all donor-donor configurations within a large search volume, demonstrating conclusively that the tunnel coupling has no spatially stable regions. Although this instability is problematic for reliably coupling donor pairs for two-qubit operations, we identify specific target locations where donor qubits can be placed with scanning tunneling microscopy technology to achieve reliably large tunnel couplings.

  20. Effects of Intermediate Mass Black Holes on Nuclear Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastrobuono-Battisti, Alessandra; Perets, Hagai B.; Loeb, Abraham

    2014-11-01

    Nuclear star clusters (NSCs) are dense stellar clusters observed in galactic nuclei, typically hosting a central massive black hole. Here we study the possible formation and evolution of NSCs through the inspiral of multiple star clusters hosting intermediate mass black holes (IMBHs). Using an N-body code, we examine the dynamics of the IMBHs and their effects on the NSC. We find that IMBHs inspiral to the core of the newly formed NSC and segregate there. Although the IMBHs scatter each other and the stars, none of them is ejected from the NSC. The IMBHs are excited to high eccentricities and their radial density profile develops a steep power-law cusp. The stars also develop a power-law cusp (instead of the central core that forms in their absence), but with a shallower slope. The relaxation rate of the NSC is accelerated due to the presence of IMBHs, which act as massive perturbers. This in turn fills the loss cone and boosts the tidal disruption rate of stars both by the MBH and the IMBHs to a value excluded by rate estimates based on current observations. Rate estimates of tidal disruptions can therefore provide a cumulative constraint on the existence of IMBHs in NSCs.

  1. Device-Level Models Using Multi-Valley Effective Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baczewski, Andrew D.; Frees, Adam; Gamble, John King; Gao, Xujiao; Jacobson, N. Tobias; Mitchell, John A.; Montaño, Inès; Muller, Richard P.; Nielsen, Erik

    2015-03-01

    Continued progress in quantum electronics depends critically on the availability of robust device-level modeling tools that capture a wide range of physics and effective mass theory (EMT) is one means of building such models. Recent developments in multi-valley EMT show quantitative agreement with more detailed atomistic tight-binding calculations of phosphorus donors in silicon (Gamble, et. al., arXiv:1408.3159). Leveraging existing PDE solvers, we are developing a framework in which this multi-valley EMT is coupled to an integrated device-level description of several experimentally active qubit technologies. Device-level simulations of quantum operations will be discussed, as well as the extraction of process matrices at this level of theory. The authors gratefully acknowledge support from the Sandia National Laboratories Truman Fellowship Program, which is funded by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  2. Effect of pretreatment and drying methods on quality of value-added dried aonla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn) shreds.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, V K; Nema, Prabhat K; Rathore, S S

    2011-02-01

    Value added dried Indian gooseberry (aonla) shreds were prepared using aonla fruits of cv. 'NA-7'. Two blanching methods (hot water and potassium metabisulphite (KMS) at 0.1%) and two drying methods (solar and hot air oven drying) were tried for the production of aonla shreds. Common salt, black salt and ginger juice were mixed for enhancing sensory quality of the product. The best product was obtained with KMS blanching and drying in solar dryer with added common salt at 3%. The most acceptable product had ascorbic acid content 298.3 mg/100 g, tannin 2.4%, acidity 2.6%, reducing sugar 3.0%, non-reducing sugar 21.0% and total sugar 24.0%. The recovery was 8.0-8.5%.

  3. Effect of pretreatment and drying methods on quality of value-added dried aonla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn) shreds.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, V K; Nema, Prabhat K; Rathore, S S

    2011-02-01

    Value added dried Indian gooseberry (aonla) shreds were prepared using aonla fruits of cv. 'NA-7'. Two blanching methods (hot water and potassium metabisulphite (KMS) at 0.1%) and two drying methods (solar and hot air oven drying) were tried for the production of aonla shreds. Common salt, black salt and ginger juice were mixed for enhancing sensory quality of the product. The best product was obtained with KMS blanching and drying in solar dryer with added common salt at 3%. The most acceptable product had ascorbic acid content 298.3 mg/100 g, tannin 2.4%, acidity 2.6%, reducing sugar 3.0%, non-reducing sugar 21.0% and total sugar 24.0%. The recovery was 8.0-8.5%. PMID:23572715

  4. Effect of adding a diagnostic aid to best practice to manage suspicious pigmented lesions in primary care: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Helen C; Humphrys, Elka; Hall, Per N; Prevost, A Toby; Burrows, Nigel; Bradshaw, Lucy; Wilson, Edward C F; Norris, Paul; Walls, Joe; Johnson, Margaret; Kinmonth, Ann Louise; Emery, Jon D

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To assess whether adding a novel computerised diagnostic tool, the MoleMate system (SIAscopy with primary care scoring algorithm), to current best practice results in more appropriate referrals of suspicious pigmented lesions to secondary care, and to assess its impact on clinicians and patients. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting 15 general practices in eastern England. Participants 1297 adults with pigmented skin lesions not immediately diagnosed as benign. Interventions Patients were assessed by trained primary care clinicians using best practice (clinical history, naked eye examination, seven point checklist) either alone (control group) or with the MoleMate system (intervention group). Main outcome measures Appropriateness of referral, defined as the proportion of referred lesions that were biopsied or monitored. Secondary outcomes related to the clinicians (diagnostic performance, confidence, learning effects) and patients (satisfaction, anxiety). Economic evaluation, diagnostic performance of the seven point checklist, and five year follow-up of melanoma incidence were also secondary outcomes and will be reported later. Results 1297 participants with 1580 lesions were randomised: 643 participants with 788 lesions to the intervention group and 654 participants with 792 lesions to the control group. The appropriateness of referral did not differ significantly between the intervention or control groups: 56.8% (130/229) v 64.5% (111/172); difference −8.1% (95% confidence interval −18.0% to 1.8%). The proportion of benign lesions appropriately managed in primary care did not differ (intervention 99.6% v control 99.2%, P=0.46), neither did the percentage agreement with an expert decision to biopsy or monitor (intervention 98.5% v control 95.7%, P=0.26). The percentage agreement with expert assessment that the lesion was benign was significantly lower with MoleMate (intervention 84.4% v control 90.6%, P<0.001), and a higher proportion of

  5. Dyonic AdS black holes from magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldarelli, Marco M.; Dias, Óscar J. C.; Klemm, Dietmar

    2009-03-01

    We use the AdS/CFT correspondence to argue that large dyonic black holes in anti-de Sitter spacetime are dual to stationary solutions of the equations of relativistic magnetohydrodynamics on the conformal boundary of AdS. The dyonic Kerr-Newman-AdS4 solution corresponds to a charged diamagnetic fluid not subject to any net Lorentz force, due to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields compensating each other. The conserved charges, stress tensor and R-current of the fluid are shown to be in exact agreement with the corresponding quantities of the black hole. Furthermore, we obtain stationary solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations in four dimensions, which yield predictions for (yet to be constructed) charged rotating black strings in AdS5 carrying nonvanishing momentum along the string. Finally, we consider Scherk-Schwarz reduced AdS gravity on a circle. In this theory, large black holes and black strings are dual to lumps of deconfined plasma of the associated CFT. We analyze the effects that a magnetic field introduces in the Rayleigh-Plateau instability of a plasma tube, which is holographically dual to the Gregory-Laflamme instability of a magnetically charged black string.

  6. Effect of rAd5-Vector HIV-1 Preventive Vaccines on HIV-1 Acquisition: A Participant-Level Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yunda; Follmann, Dean; Nason, Martha; Zhang, Lily; Huang, Ying; Mehrotra, Devan V.; Moodie, Zoe; Metch, Barbara; Janes, Holly; Keefer, Michael C.; Churchyard, Gavin; Robb, Merlin L.; Fast, Patricia E.; Duerr, Ann; McElrath, M. Juliana; Corey, Lawrence; Mascola, John R.; Graham, Barney S.; Sobieszczyk, Magdalena E.; Kublin, James G.; Robertson, Michael; Hammer, Scott M.; Gray, Glenda E.; Buchbinder, Susan P.; Gilbert, Peter B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Three phase 2b, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized efficacy trials have tested recombinant Adenovirus serotype-5 (rAd5)-vector preventive HIV-1 vaccines: MRKAd5 HIV-1 gag/pol/nef in Step and Phambili, and DNA/rAd5 HIV-1 env/gag/pol in HVTN505. Due to efficacy futility observed at the first interim analysis in Step and HVTN505, participants of all three studies were unblinded to their vaccination assignments during the study but continued follow–up. Rigorous meta-analysis can provide crucial information to advise the future utility of rAd5-vector vaccines. Methods We included participant-level data from all three efficacy trials, and three Phase 1–2 trials evaluating the HVTN505 vaccine regimen. We predefined two co-primary analysis cohorts for assessing the vaccine effect on HIV-1 acquisition. The modified-intention-to-treat (MITT) cohort included all randomly assigned participants HIV-1 uninfected at study entry, who received at least the first vaccine/placebo, and the Ad5 cohort included MITT participants who received at least one dose of rAd5-HIV vaccine or rAd5-placebo. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of HIV-1 infection (vaccine vs. placebo) and evaluate HR variation across vaccine regimens, time since vaccination, and subgroups using interaction tests. Findings Results are similar for the MITT and Ad5 cohorts; we summarize MITT cohort results. Pooled across the efficacy trials, over all follow-up time 403 (n = 224 vaccine; n = 179 placebo) of 6266 MITT participants acquired HIV-1, with a non-significantly higher incidence in vaccine recipients (HR 1.21, 95% CI 0.99–1.48, P = 0.06). The HRs significantly differed by vaccine regimen (interaction P = 0.03; MRKAd5 HR 1.41, 95% CI 1.11–1.78, P = 0.005 vs. DNA/rAd5 HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.61–1.26, P = 0.48). Results were similar when including the Phase 1–2 trials. Exploratory analyses based on the efficacy trials supported that the MRKAd5

  7. The effect of retinyl palmitate added to iron-fortified maize porridge on erythrocyte incorporation of iron in African children with vitamin A deficiency.

    PubMed

    Davidsson, Lena; Adou, Pierre; Zeder, Christophe; Walczyk, Thomas; Hurrell, Richard

    2003-08-01

    Retinyl palmitate added to Fe-fortified maize bread has been reported to enhance Fe absorption in adult Venezuelan subjects but not in Western Europeans. It is not known to what extent these results were influenced by differences in vitamin A status of the study subjects. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of retinyl palmitate added to Fe-fortified maize porridge on erythrocyte incorporation of Fe in children with vitamin A deficiency, before and after vitamin A supplementation. Erythrocyte incorporation of Fe-stable isotopes was measured 14 d after intake of maize porridge (2.0 mg Fe added as ferrous sulfate) with and without added retinyl palmitate (3.5 micromol; 3300 IU). The study was repeated 3 weeks after vitamin A supplementation (intake of a single dose of 210 micromol retinyl palmitate; 'vitamin A capsule'). Vitamin A status was evaluated by the modified relative dose-response (MRDR) technique. Retinyl palmitate added to the test meal reduced the geometric mean erythrocyte incorporation of Fe at baseline from 4.0 to 2.6 % (P=0.008, n 13; paired t test). At 3 weeks after vitamin A supplementation, geometric mean erythrocyte incorporation was 1.9 and 2.3 % respectively from the test meal with and without added retinyl palmitate (P=0.283). Mean dehydroretinol:retinol molar ratios were 0.156 and 0.125 before and after intake of the single dose of 210 micromol retinyl palmitate; 'vitamin A capsule' (P=0.15). In conclusion, retinyl palmitate added to the labelled test meals significantly decreased erythrocyte incorporation of Fe in children with vitamin A deficiency at baseline but had no statistically significant effect 3 weeks after vitamin A supplementation. The difference in response to retinyl palmitate added to Fe-fortified maize porridge on erythrocyte incorporation of Fe before and after intake of the vitamin A capsule indicates, indirectly, changes in vitamin A status not measurable by the MRDR technique. The lack of

  8. An isotopic mass effect on the intermolecular potential

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, Michael F.; Currier, Robert Patrick; Clegg, Samuel M.

    2015-09-28

    The impact of isotopic variation on the electronic energy and intermolecular potentials is often suppressed when calculating isotopologue thermodynamics. Intramolecular potential energy surfaces for distinct isotopologues are in fact equivalent under the Born–Oppenheimer approximation, which is sometimes used to imply that the intermolecular interactions are independent of isotopic mass. In this paper, the intermolecular dipole–dipole interaction between hetero-nuclear diatomic molecules is considered. It is shown that the intermolecular potential contains mass-dependent terms even though each nucleus moves on a Born–Oppenheimer surface. Finally, the analysis suggests that mass dependent variations in intermolecular potentials should be included in comprehensive descriptions of isotopologue thermodynamics.

  9. Effects of feeding wheat straw or orchardgrass at ad libitum or restricted intake during the dry period on postpartum performance and lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Litherland, N B; Weich, W D; Hansen, W P; Linn, J G

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of forage source [wheat straw (WS) or orchardgrass hay (OG)] and total amount of diet dry matter fed [ad libitum or restricted to 70% of predicted dry matter intake (DMI)] prepartum on postpartum performance. The study design was a 2×2 factorial design with 10 cows per treatment. Treatments were WS total mixed ration (TMR) ad libitum, OG TMR ad libitum, WS TMR restricted, and OG TMR restricted. The WS TMR (dry matter basis) contained 30% WS, 20.7% corn silage, 10.0% alfalfa hay, 18.2% ground corn, 16.8% soybean meal, and 4.3% molasses mineral mix (14.7% CP, 1.5 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 37.0% neutral detergent fiber). The OG TMR contained 30% OG, 46.2% corn silage, 10.0% alfalfa hay, 9.5% soybean meal, and 4.3% molasses (14.2% CP, 1.5 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 41.0% neutral detergent fiber). Cows received 1 lactation diet after calving (17.7% CP, 1.6 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 27.3% neutral detergent fiber). Total diet DMI prepartum was higher for ad libitum than for restricted as designed, but forage source had no effect on DMI. Total tract apparent digestibilities of DM and NDF were greater for OG than for WS. Postpartum DMI expressed as a percentage of body weight for the first week of lactation was higher for ad libitum than for restricted diets. Postpartum DMI during the first 30 d of lactation was higher for OG than for WS, but no effect was observed for the amount fed prepartum. Milk yield during the first week of lactation was higher for OG than for WS; however, during the first 30 d, 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield and yield of milk fat were highest for OG TMR restricted and WS TMR ad libitum. Prepartum treatments had a limited effect on pre- and postpartum lipid metabolism; however, cows fed WS TMR ad libitum had the highest postpartum β-hydroxybutyrate. Eating behavior was observed by 10-min video scans of 24-h video surveillance for 5d pre- and postpartum

  10. Finite volume effects for nucleon and heavy meson masses

    SciTech Connect

    Colangelo, Gilberto; Fuhrer, Andreas; Lanz, Stefan

    2010-08-01

    We apply the resummed version of the Luescher formula to analyze finite volume corrections to the mass of the nucleon and of heavy mesons. We show that by applying the subthreshold expansion of the scattering amplitudes one can express the finite volume corrections in terms of only a few physical observables and the size of the box. In the case of the nucleon, the available information about the quark mass dependence of these physical quantities is discussed and used to assess the finite volume corrections to the nucleon mass as a function of the quark mass including a detailed analysis of the remaining uncertainties. For heavy mesons, the Luescher formula is derived both fully relativistically and in a nonrelativistic approximation and a first attempt at a numerical analysis is made.

  11. Whole body exposure to 2.4 GHz WIFI signals: effects on cognitive impairment in adult triple transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (3xTg-AD).

    PubMed

    Banaceur, Sana; Banasr, Sihem; Sakly, Mohsen; Abdelmelek, Hafedh

    2013-03-01

    The present investigation aimed at evaluating the effects of long-term exposure to WIFI type radiofrequency (RF) signals (2.40 GHz), two hours per day during one month at a Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) of 1.60 W/kg. The effects of RF exposure were studied on wildtype mice and triple transgenic mice (3xTg-AD) destined to develop Alzheimer's-like cognitive impairment. Mice were divided into four groups: two sham groups (WT, TG; n=7) and two exposed groups (WTS, TGS; n=7). The cognitive interference task used in this study was designed from an analogous human cognitive interference task including the Flex field activity system test, the two-compartment box test and the Barnes maze test. Our data demonstrate for the first time that RF improves cognitive behavior of 3xTg-AD mice. We conclude that RF exposure may represent an effective memory-enhancing approach in Alzheimer's disease.

  12. Exenatide promotes cognitive enhancement and positive brain metabolic changes in PS1-KI mice but has no effects in 3xTg-AD animals.

    PubMed

    Bomba, M; Ciavardelli, D; Silvestri, E; Canzoniero, L M T; Lattanzio, R; Chiappini, P; Piantelli, M; Di Ilio, C; Consoli, A; Sensi, S L

    2013-05-02

    Recent studies have shown that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor for cognitive dysfunction or dementia. Insulin resistance is often associated with T2DM and can induce defective insulin signaling in the central nervous system as well as increase the risk of cognitive impairment in the elderly. Glucagone like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone and, like GLP-1 analogs, stimulates insulin secretion and has been employed in the treatment of T2DM. GLP-1 and GLP-1 analogs also enhance synaptic plasticity and counteract cognitive deficits in mouse models of neuronal dysfunction and/or degeneration. In this study, we investigated the potential neuroprotective effects of long-term treatment with exenatide, a GLP-1 analog, in two animal models of neuronal dysfunction: the PS1-KI and 3xTg-AD mice. We found that exenatide promoted beneficial effects on short- and long-term memory performances in PS1-KI but not in 3xTg-AD animals. In PS1-KI mice, the drug increased brain lactate dehydrogenase activity leading to a net increase in lactate levels, while no effects were observed on mitochondrial respiration. On the contrary, exenatide had no effects on brain metabolism of 3xTg-AD mice. In summary, our data indicate that exenatide improves cognition in PS1-KI mice, an effect likely driven by increasing the brain anaerobic glycolysis rate.

  13. Exenatide promotes cognitive enhancement and positive brain metabolic changes in PS1-KI mice but has no effects in 3xTg-AD animals

    PubMed Central

    Bomba, M; Ciavardelli, D; Silvestri, E; Canzoniero, L MT; Lattanzio, R; Chiappini, P; Piantelli, M; Di Ilio, C; Consoli, A; Sensi, S L

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor for cognitive dysfunction or dementia. Insulin resistance is often associated with T2DM and can induce defective insulin signaling in the central nervous system as well as increase the risk of cognitive impairment in the elderly. Glucagone like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone and, like GLP-1 analogs, stimulates insulin secretion and has been employed in the treatment of T2DM. GLP-1 and GLP-1 analogs also enhance synaptic plasticity and counteract cognitive deficits in mouse models of neuronal dysfunction and/or degeneration. In this study, we investigated the potential neuroprotective effects of long-term treatment with exenatide, a GLP-1 analog, in two animal models of neuronal dysfunction: the PS1-KI and 3xTg-AD mice. We found that exenatide promoted beneficial effects on short- and long-term memory performances in PS1-KI but not in 3xTg-AD animals. In PS1-KI mice, the drug increased brain lactate dehydrogenase activity leading to a net increase in lactate levels, while no effects were observed on mitochondrial respiration. On the contrary, exenatide had no effects on brain metabolism of 3xTg-AD mice. In summary, our data indicate that exenatide improves cognition in PS1-KI mice, an effect likely driven by increasing the brain anaerobic glycolysis rate. PMID:23640454

  14. On information loss in AdS3/CFT2

    DOE PAGES

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Li, Daliang; Wang, Junpu

    2016-05-18

    We discuss information loss from black hole physics in AdS3, focusing on two sharp signatures infecting CFT2 correlators at large central charge c: ‘forbidden singularities’ arising from Euclidean-time periodicity due to the effective Hawking temperature, and late-time exponential decay in the Lorentzian region. We study an infinite class of examples where forbidden singularities can be resolved by non-perturbative effects at finite c, and we show that the resolution has certain universal features that also apply in the general case. Analytically continuing to the Lorentzian regime, we find that the non-perturbative effects that resolve forbidden singularities qualitatively change the behavior ofmore » correlators at times t ~SBH, the black hole entropy. This may resolve the exponential decay of correlators at late times in black hole backgrounds. By Borel resumming the 1/c expansion of exact examples, we explicitly identify ‘information-restoring’ effects from heavy states that should correspond to classical solutions in AdS3. Lastly, our results suggest a line of inquiry towards a more precise formulation of the gravitational path integral in AdS3.« less

  15. An improved AFS phase for AdS3 string integrability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, Michael C.; Aniceto, Inês

    2015-04-01

    We propose a number of modifications to the classical term in the dressing phase for integrable strings in AdS3 ×S3 ×S3 ×S1, and check these against existing perturbative calculations, crossing symmetry, and the semiclassical limit of the Bethe equations. The principal change is that the phase for different masses should start with a term Q1Q2, like the one-loop AdS3 dressing phase, rather than Q2Q3 as for the original AdS5 AFS phase.

  16. Effect of bread baking on the bioavailability of hydrogen-reduced iron powder added to unenriched refined wheat flour.

    PubMed

    Maekawa, Atsushi A; Glahn, Raymond P; Lei, Xin Gen; Miller, Dennis D

    2006-10-18

    Elemental iron powders are widely used to fortify flour and other cereal products. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that baking enhances the bioavailability of elemental iron powders by oxidizing Fe(0) to Fe(2+) or Fe(3+). An in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell culture model and a piglet model were used to measure bioavailability. Bread flour, either unfortified or fortified with hydrogen-reduced (HR) iron powder or FeSO(4) (300 mg Fe/kg flour), was baked into bread. For the in vitro studies, bread samples were treated with pepsin at pH 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, or 7 and subsequently incubated with pancreatic enzymes at pH 7 in a chamber positioned above monolayers of cultured Caco-2 cells. Ferritin formation in the cells was used as an index of iron bioavailability. Ferritin formation in cells fed HR Fe bread was similar to cells fed FeSO(4) bread when the peptic digestion was conducted at a pH 2 but lower when the peptic phase was conducted at pH 3, 4, 5, 6, or 7 (P < 0.05). Pig diets containing 35% dried bread were prepared and fed to cross-bred (Hampshire x Landrace x Yorkshire) anemic pigs in two studies. The rate of increase in hemoglobin Fe over the feeding period was used to calculate relative biological value (RBV), an index of iron bioavailability. In the first pig study, RBV of HR Fe added to flour prior to baking was 47.9% when compared to FeSO(4) fortified flour (P < 0.05). In the second pig study, a third treatment consisting of unfortified bread with HR iron added during diet mixing (after bread baking) was included. RBVs of the HR Fe diet (Fe added after baking) and HR Fe diet (Fe added before baking) were 40.1% and 53.5%, respectively, compared to the FeSO(4) diet. Differences in RBV between the HR Fe (before and after baking) and FeSO(4) (before baking) treatment groups were significant, but the difference between the before and after HR treatment groups was not significant. We conclude that bread baking does not enhance the bioavailability of elemental

  17. A simulated insect diet as a water source for quail: effects on body mass and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Giuliano, W M; Lutz, R S; Patiño, R

    1995-06-01

    Compared with control birds receiving ad libitum free-water, the total water intake of male and female northern bobwhite declined when only mealworms were available as a source of water. Male northern bobwhite sustained tissue mass and reproductive function with mealworms as their only source of water. Female northern bobwhite could not sustain body, ovary, and oviduct mass, and rate of egg production with mealworms as their only source of water. We suggest that, without free-water, breeding females require a diet with a water:dry matter ratio of greater than 1:1.29 (> 44% water).

  18. Developing crash modification functions to assess safety effects of adding bike lanes for urban arterials with different roadway and socio-economic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Park, Juneyoung; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Lee, Jaeyoung; Lee, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Although many researchers have estimated crash modification factors (CMFs) for specific treatments (or countermeasures), there is a lack of studies that explored the heterogeneous effects of roadway characteristics on crash frequency among treated sites. Generally, the CMF estimated by before-after studies represents overall safety effects of the treatment in a fixed value. However, as each treated site has different roadway characteristics, there is a need to assess the variation of CMFs among the treated sites with different roadway characteristics through crash modification functions (CMFunctions). The main objective of this research is to determine relationships between the safety effects of adding a bike lane and the roadway characteristics through (1) evaluation of CMFs for adding a bike lane using observational before-after with empirical Bayes (EB) and cross-sectional methods, and (2) development of simple and full CMFunctions which are describe the CMF in a function of roadway characteristics of the sites. Data was collected for urban arterials in Florida, and the Florida-specific full SPFs were developed. Moreover, socio-economic parameters were collected and included in CMFunctions and SPFs (1) to capture the effects of the variables that represent volume of bicyclists and (2) to identify general relationship between the CMFs and these characteristics. In order to achieve better performance of CMFunctions, data mining techniques were used. The results of both before-after and cross-sectional methods show that adding a bike lane on urban arterials has positive safety effects (i.e., CMF<1) for all crashes and bike crashes. It was found that adding a bike lane is more effective in reducing bike crashes than all crashes. It was also found that the CMFs vary across the sites with different roadway characteristics. In particular, annual average daily traffic (AADT), number of lanes, AADT per lane, median width, bike lane width, and lane width are significant

  19. Expression of APP, BACE1, AChE and ChAT in an AD model in rats and the effect of donepezil hydrochloride treatment.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Chen, Min; Liu, Hongmin; Yang, Liqun; Yang, Guiying

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the pathological changes in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the effect of donepezil hydrochloride (HCl) treatment. The rat model of AD was established by the bilateral injection of amyloid β₁₋₄₀ (Aβ₁₋₄₀) into the hippocampus. Changes in spatial learning and memory functions were examined using the Morris water maze test and changes in catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were determined using chemical colorimetry. Moreover, the changes in acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) expression were analyzed using immunohistochemical staining. The mRNA expression levels of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and β-secreted enzyme 1 (BACE1) were evaluated using RT-PCR. The effects of donepezil HCl on the aforementioned indices were also observed. The rat memories of the platform quadrants in the blank, sham and donepezil HCl groups were improved compared with those of the rats in the model group. The ratio of swim distance in the fourth platform quadrant (l₄) to the total swim distance (l total) for the model group rats (l₄/l total) was significantly decreased compared with that for the blank and sham group rats. Following donepezil HCl treatment, the ratio of l₄/l total significantly increased. AD modeling caused a significant decrease in the CAT and GSH-Px activities in the brain tissues of the rats. The CAT and GSH-Px activities in the AD model rats significantly increased following donepezil HCl treatment. Moreover, donepezil HCl treatment significantly decreased the AChE, APP and BACE1 mRNA expression levels and increased the ChAT expression levels. Therefore, donepezil HCl was able to significantly decrease learning and memory damage in a rat model of AD.

  20. Effects of bilingualism on the age of onset and progression of MCI and AD: evidence from executive function tests.

    PubMed

    Bialystok, Ellen; Craik, Fergus I M; Binns, Malcolm A; Ossher, Lynn; Freedman, Morris

    2014-03-01

    Previous articles have reported that bilingualism is associated with a substantial delay in the onset of both Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). The present study reports results from 74 MCI patients and 75 AD patients; approximately half of the patients in each group were bilingual. All patients were interviewed to obtain details of their language use, onset of their condition, and lifestyle habits. Patients performed three executive function (EF) tests from the D-KEFS battery (Trails, Color-Word Interference, Verbal Fluency) on 3 occasions over a period of approximately 1 year. Results replicated the finding that bilingual patients are several years older than comparable monolinguals at both age of symptom onset and date of first clinic visit. This result could not be attributed to language group differences in such lifestyle variables as diet, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, or social activity. On the first testing occasion, performance on the EF tasks was generally comparable between the language groups, contesting arguments that bilinguals wait longer before attending the clinic. Finally, EF performance tended to decline over the 3 sessions, but no differences were found between monolinguals and bilinguals in the rate of decline.

  1. Atmospheric pressure gas chromatography coupled to quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry as a powerful tool for identification of non intentionally added substances in acrylic adhesives used in food packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Canellas, E; Vera, P; Domeño, C; Alfaro, P; Nerín, C

    2012-04-27

    Acrylic adhesives are used to manufacture multilayer laminates that are used in food packaging to form the geometric shape of the package as well as to stick labels on the packages. Once applied on the packaging adhesives can supply potential migrants that could endanger the packaged food. Adhesives are complex matrices where intentionally and non intentionally added substances are present, but the identification of the migrants is required by law. In this study atmospheric pressure gas chromatography coupled to a quadrupole hyphenated to a time of flight mass spectrometer (APGC-MS/Q-TOF) has been explored for identification of unknowns coming from three different acrylic adhesives. The results are compared to those obtained by conventional GC-MS-Q (quadrupole). Sixteen compounds were identified by GC-MS/Q and five of them were confirmed by APGC-MS/Q-TOF as their molecular ions were found. Moreover, additional three new compounds were identified and their structure was elucidated working with the spectra obtained by APGC-MS/Q-TOF. This finding was very relevant as these compounds were biocides suspected to be allergenic and cytotoxic in humans. Migration studies were carried out using Tenax as solid food simulant and the results showed that the three acrylic adhesives tested in this work were safe for being used in food packaging materials since the migration of compounds previously identified was below the limit established in the current legislation.

  2. Effects of n-3 FA supplementation on the release of proresolving lipid mediators by blood mononuclear cells: the OmegAD study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuzhe; Hjorth, Erik; Vedin, Inger; Eriksdotter, Maria; Freund-Levi, Yvonne; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Cederholm, Tommy; Palmblad, Jan; Schultzberg, Marianne

    2015-03-01

    Specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs) induce resolution of inflammation. SPMs are derivatives of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs and may mediate their beneficial effects. It is unknown whether supplementation with PUFAs influences the production of SPMs. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with brain inflammation and reduced levels of SPMs. The OmegAD study is a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled clinical trial on AD patients, in which placebo or a supplement of 1.7 g DHA and 0.6 g EPA was taken daily for 6 months. Plasma levels of arachidonic acid decreased, and DHA and EPA levels increased after 6 months of n-3 FA treatment. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained before and after the trial. Analysis of the culture medium of PBMCs incubated with amyloid-β 1-40 showed unchanged levels of the SPMs lipoxin A4 and resolvin D1 in the group supplemented with n-3 FAs, whereas a decrease was seen in the placebo group. The changes in SPMs showed correspondence to cognitive changes. Changes in the levels of SPMs were positively correlated to changes in transthyretin. We conclude that supplementation with n-3 PUFAs for 6 months prevented a reduction in SPMs released from PBMCs of AD patients, which was associated with changes in cognitive function. PMID:25616438

  3. Evaluation of the effects of testosterone and luteinizing hormone on regulation of β-amyloid in male 3xTg-AD mice.

    PubMed

    Rosario, Emily R; Carroll, Jenna C; Pike, Christian J

    2012-07-23

    During normal aging, men experience a significant decline in testosterone levels and a compensatory elevation in levels of gonadotropin luteinizing hormone (LH). Both low testosterone and elevated LH have been identified as significant risk factors for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in men. It is unclear whether changes in testosterone or LH primarily underlie the relationship with AD, and therefore may be a more suitable therapeutic target. To examine this issue, we compared levels of β-amyloid (Aβ) immunoreactivity in male 3xTg-AD mice under varying experimental conditions associated with relatively low or high levels of testosterone and/or LH. In gonadally intact mice, Aβ accumulation increased after treatment with the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist leuprolide, which inhibits the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and reduces both testosterone and LH levels. In gonadectomized (GDX) mice with low testosterone and high LH, we also observed increased Aβ levels. Treatment of GDX mice with testosterone significantly reduced Aβ levels. In contrast, leuprolide did not significantly decrease Aβ levels and moreover, inhibited the Aβ-lowering effect of testosterone. Evaluation of hippocampal-dependent behavior revealed parallel findings, with performance in GDX mice improved by testosterone but not leuprolide. These data suggest that Aβ-lowering actions of testosterone are mediated directly by androgen pathways rather than indirectly via regulation of LH and the HPG axis. These findings support the clinical evaluation of androgen therapy in the prevention and perhaps treatment of AD in hypogonadal men.

  4. Effects of mass transfer on the hydrodynamic behavior of a Karr reciprocating plate column

    SciTech Connect

    Aravamudan, K.; Baird, M.H.I.

    1999-04-01

    A 5 cm internal diameter Karr reciprocating plate column has been operated in countercurrent liquid-liquid flow in the absence of mass transfer and with mass transfer of i-propanol from the dispersed phase (Isopar M) to the continuous phase (water). The effect of mass transfer is to increase the drop diameter, while the holdup is reduced and axial dispersion is increased. Although an unstable density gradient was created by the mass-transfer process, earlier models developed under non-mass-transfer conditions, based on Kolmogoroff`s isotropic turbulence theory, were not applicable in describing the enhancement in axial mixing. It was concluded that the density gradient effect was masked by the effect of the larger drops which were formed because of mass-transfer-induced coalescence. Mass-transfer coefficients for the dispersed phase were found to show the same trends as the Handlos and Baron oscillating drop model.

  5. Effects of a high fat diet on bone of growing rats. Correlations between visceral fat, adiponectin and bone mass density

    PubMed Central

    Lac, Gerard; Cavalie, Helian; Ebal, Edmond; Michaux, Odile

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we investigated some bone parameters (bone mineral content, bone mineral density, skeleton area) in growing rats fed with a high fat diet. Correlations between bone and body composition parameters are reported. Two groups of Wistar male rats (35 days old, body mass 80 ± 6 g) were used. Water and food were given "ad libitum" during 10 weeks. Sixteen rats (L) were given a lipid enriched diet and were compared to 16 rats (S) fed with a standard diet. Body composition and bone parameters were assessed using DXA. Results indicated that L rats had lower body mass, lean body mass; fat mass was not different between the two groups. Bone mineral content, bone mineral density, skeleton area of L rats were lower compared with S rats. Significant correlations were noted between body composition, adiponectin and bone parameters. High fat diet intake during the growing period has deleterious effects on bone parameters in rats. This study confirms in growing rats that a high fat diet is pathogenic, including bone metabolism. PMID:18442361

  6. The effects of variability in Antarctic krill ( Euphausia superba) spawning behavior and sex/maturity stage distribution on Adélie penguin ( Pygoscelis adeliae) chick growth: A modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Erik W.; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Patterson, Donna L.; Fraser, William R.

    2010-04-01

    Factors that control variability in energy density of Antarctic krill ( Euphausia superba) populations, and the consequences of this variability for growth and fledging mass of Adélie penguin ( Pygoscelis adeliae) chicks, were investigated using an individual-based energetics model. Lipid content as a function of sex/maturity stage and season was used to calculate the energy density of krill ingested by chicks. Simulations tested the influence of variability in krill size-class distribution, sex-ratio, length-at-maturity, and the timing of spawning on krill population energy density and penguin chick fledging mass. Of the parameters included in simulations, variability in the timing of krill spawning had the greatest influence on predicted Adélie penguin fledging mass, with fledging mass decreasing from 3.30 to 2.92 kg when peak spawning was shifted from early December to early March. Adélie penguin chicks that fledge from colonies along the western Antarctic Peninsula (wAP) and survive to recruit into the breeding population are 0.117 kg heavier than those that do not survive to breed. Thus, it appears that small differences in fledging mass potentially have significant implications for Adélie penguin chick survivorship. Therefore, the timing of krill spawning may have important consequences for Adélie penguins, and other top-predator species, that may time critical activities to coincide with a period of dependable prey availability with maximum energy density.

  7. Lorentzian AdS geometries, wormholes, and holography

    SciTech Connect

    Arias, Raul E.; Silva, Guillermo A.; Botta Cantcheff, Marcelo

    2011-03-15

    We investigate the structure of two-point functions for the quantum field theory dual to an asymptotically Lorentzian Anti de Sitter (AdS) wormhole. The bulk geometry is a solution of five-dimensional second-order Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity and causally connects two asymptotically AdS spacetimes. We revisit the Gubser-Klebanov-Polyakov-Witten prescription for computing two-point correlation functions for dual quantum field theories operators O in Lorentzian signature and we propose to express the bulk fields in terms of the independent boundary values {phi}{sub 0}{sup {+-}} at each of the two asymptotic AdS regions; along the way we exhibit how the ambiguity of normalizable modes in the bulk, related to initial and final states, show up in the computations. The independent boundary values are interpreted as sources for dual operators O{sup {+-}} and we argue that, apart from the possibility of entanglement, there exists a coupling between the degrees of freedom living at each boundary. The AdS{sub 1+1} geometry is also discussed in view of its similar boundary structure. Based on the analysis, we propose a very simple geometric criterion to distinguish coupling from entanglement effects among two sets of degrees of freedom associated with each of the disconnected parts of the boundary.

  8. One-loop diagrams in AdS space

    SciTech Connect

    Hung Lingyan; Shang Yanwen

    2011-01-15

    We study the complex scalar loop corrections to the boundary-boundary gauge two-point function in pure AdS space in Poincare coordinates, in the presence of boundary quadratic perturbations to the scalar. These perturbations correspond to double-trace perturbations in the dual CFT and modify the boundary conditions of the bulk scalars in AdS. We find that, in addition to the usual UV divergences, the one-loop calculation suffers from a divergence originating in the limit as the loop vertices approach the AdS horizon. We show that this type of divergence is independent of the boundary coupling; making use of this we extract the finite relative variation of the imaginary part of the loop via Cutkosky rules as the boundary perturbation varies. Applying our methods to compute the effects of a time-dependent impurity to the conductivities using the replica trick in AdS/CFT, we find that generally an IR-relevant disorder reduces the conductivity and that in the extreme low frequency limit the correction due to the impurities overwhelms the planar CFT result even though it is supposedly 1/N{sup 2} suppressed. We also comment on the more physical scenario of a time-independent impurity.

  9. An isotopic mass effect on the intermolecular potential

    DOE PAGES

    Herman, Michael F.; Currier, Robert Patrick; Clegg, Samuel M.

    2015-09-28

    The impact of isotopic variation on the electronic energy and intermolecular potentials is often suppressed when calculating isotopologue thermodynamics. Intramolecular potential energy surfaces for distinct isotopologues are in fact equivalent under the Born–Oppenheimer approximation, which is sometimes used to imply that the intermolecular interactions are independent of isotopic mass. In this paper, the intermolecular dipole–dipole interaction between hetero-nuclear diatomic molecules is considered. It is shown that the intermolecular potential contains mass-dependent terms even though each nucleus moves on a Born–Oppenheimer surface. Finally, the analysis suggests that mass dependent variations in intermolecular potentials should be included in comprehensive descriptions of isotopologuemore » thermodynamics.« less

  10. An effective method for enhancing metal-ions' selectivity of ionic liquid-based extraction system: Adding water-soluble complexing agent.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao Qi; Peng, Bo; Chen, Ji; Li, De Qian; Luo, Fang

    2008-01-15

    Selective extraction-separation of yttrium(III) from heavy lanthanides into 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C(8)mim][PF(6)]) containing Cyanex 923 was achieved by adding a water-soluble complexing agent (EDTA) to aqueous phase. The simple and environmentally benign complexing method was proved to be an effective strategy for enhancing the selectivity of [C(n)mim][PF(6)]/[Tf(2)N]-based extraction system without increasing the loss of [C(n)mim](+).

  11. New Stringy Instanton Effects And Neutrino Majorana Masses

    SciTech Connect

    Cvetic, M.; Richter, R.; Weigand, T.

    2007-10-03

    D-brane instantons can generate open string couplings in the superpotential which violate global abelian symmetries and are therefore perturbatively forbidden. After discussing the main ingredients, focussing for concretenes on Type IIA orientifold compactifications, we exemplify the computation of instanton-induced Majorana mass terms for right-handed neutrinos in a local SU(5) GUT-like model. In particular, we show that the instanton allows for naturally engineering the intermediate scale of the Majorana masses, thereby realizing the seesaw mechanism for neutrinos.

  12. Agricultural Education: Value Adding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riesenberg, Lou E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This issue develops the theme of "Agricultural Education--Value Adding." The concept value adding has been a staple in the world of agricultural business for describing adding value to a commodity that would profit the producer and the local community. Agricultural education should add value to individuals and society to justify agricultural…

  13. Neutron-proton effective mass splitting in terms of symmetry energy and its density slope

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, S.; Sahoo, B.; Sahoo, S.

    2015-01-15

    Using a simple density-dependent finite-range effective interaction having Yukawa form, the density dependence of isoscalar and isovector effective masses is studied. The isovector effective mass is found to be different for different pairs of like and unlike nucleons. Using HVH theorem, the neutron-proton effective mass splitting is represented in terms of symmetry energy and its density slope. It is again observed that the neutron-proton effective mass splitting has got a positive value when isoscalar effective mass is greater than the isovector effective mass and has a negative value for the opposite case. Furthermore, the neutron-proton effective mass splitting is found to have a linear dependence on asymmetry β. The second-order symmetry potential has a vital role in the determination of density slope of symmetry energy but it does not have any contribution on neutron-proton effective mass splitting. The finite-range effective interaction is compared with the SLy2, SKM, f{sub −}, f{sub 0}, and f{sub +} forms of interactions.

  14. Effects of cadmium in herbage on the apparent absorption of elements by sheep in comparison with inorganic cadmium added to their diet

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, C.J.C. . E-mail: c.phillips@uq.edu.au; Chiy, P.C.; Zachou, E.

    2005-10-01

    A meta-analysis of existing scientific literature recently suggested that Cd is absorbed more efficiently by sheep if it is in the organic form in grass, than if it is added as an inorganic supplement to the diet. We tested this experimentally by feeding sheep grass from contaminated soil, compared with uncontaminated grass and with Cd added to the diet. To produce contaminated herbage, Cd nitrate was added to soil in 11 lysimeters sown with perennial ryegrass, with a further 11 lysimeters receiving no Cd to produce uncontaminated herbage. In the Cd-treated lysimeters, soil had increased exchangeable K, Mg, and Ca, leachate had increased K, Mg, Ca, Na, and P, grass had increased Cd and reduced Mg, Na, P, Mn, Fe, Cr, Al, and Ni, and there was some reduction in grass yield compared with untreated lysimeters. Grass from Cd-treated or untreated lysimeters was fed to groups of 12 ewes for 2 days, with Cd intake equated by adding Cd nitrate to the concentrate feed of ewes receiving the uncontaminated grass. The apparent absorption of Cd, Zn, Mo, Cr, and Al was increased for ewes receiving Cd-enriched grass, and apparent absorption of Cu was reduced, compared to those receiving supplementary inorganic Cd. Most of the unabsorbed Cd was excreted in feces within 4 days of feeding. The ewes consuming Cd in grass had increased B concentrations in their urine, possibly due to adverse effects of Cd on kidney function. Finally, the ewes were offered a choice of the two herbages and they ate significantly more of the uncontaminated grass. It is concluded that the apparent absorption of Cd and other heavy metals by sheep in a short-term experiment was greater when Cd was in the grass than when the Cd was added in in an inorganic form and that sheep partially avoided herbage with a high Cd concentration.

  15. Intergenerational Educational Effects of Mass Imprisonment in America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagan, John; Foster, Holly

    2012-01-01

    In some American schools, about a fifth of the fathers have spent time in prison during their child's primary education. We examine how variation across schools in the aggregation and concentration of the mass imprisonment of fathers is associated with their own children's intergenerational educational outcomes and "spills over" into the…

  16. Finite volume effects in the chiral extrapolation of baryon masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, M. F. M.; Bavontaweepanya, R.; Kobdaj, C.; Schwarz, K.

    2014-09-01

    We perform an analysis of the QCD lattice data on the baryon octet and decuplet masses based on the relativistic chiral Lagrangian. The baryon self-energies are computed in a finite volume at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order (N3LO), where the dependence on the physical meson and baryon masses is kept. The number of free parameters is reduced significantly down to 12 by relying on large-Nc sum rules. Altogether we describe accurately more than 220 data points from six different lattice groups, BMW, PACS-CS, HSC, LHPC, QCDSF-UKQCD and NPLQCD. Values for all counterterms relevant at N3LO are predicted. In particular we extract a pion-nucleon sigma term of 39-1+2 MeV and a strangeness sigma term of the nucleon of σsN=84-4+28 MeV. The flavor SU(3) chiral limit of the baryon octet and decuplet masses is determined with (802±4) and (1103±6) MeV. Detailed predictions for the baryon masses as currently evaluated by the ETM lattice QCD group are made.

  17. The effectiveness of mass communication to change public behavior.

    PubMed

    Abroms, Lorien C; Maibach, Edward W

    2008-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the ways in which mass communication has been used -- or can be used -- to promote beneficial changes in behavior among members of populations. We use an ecological perspective to examine the ways in which mass media interventions can be used to influence public behavior both directly and indirectly. Mass media interventions that seek to influence people directly -- by directly targeting the people burdened by the public health problem of concern and/or the people who influence them -- have a long basis in public health history, and recent reviews have clarified our expectations about what can be expected from such approaches. Mass media interventions that seek to influence people indirectly -- by creating beneficial changes in the places (or environments) in which people live and work -- have equal if not greater potential to promote beneficial changes in population health behaviors, but these are currently less explored options. To have the greatest possible beneficial influence on public behavior with the public health resources available, we recommend that public health program planners assess their opportunities to use media to target both people and places in a manner that complements and extends other investments being made in population health enhancement. PMID:18173391

  18. Effect of calcium lactate in erosion and S. mutans in rats when added to Coca-Cola.

    PubMed

    Beiraghi, S; Atkins, S; Rosen, S; Wilson, S; Odom, J; Beck, M

    1989-12-01

    Thirty-six Sprague Dawley rats, 22 days of age, were divided randomly into three groups of 12 each and housed in a programmable feeder. The three experimental groups received either Coca-Cola (CC), Coca-Cola with calcium lactate (CC-CaL), or distilled water. The programmable feeder was set to deliver 17 equal volumes of fluid per day with each feeding period lasting between 80-90 min. All groups were given Diet MIT 305 in one premeasured amount per 24 hr period (ad libitum). The pH of the CC with calcium lactate was adjusted to match the CC without calcium lactate by the addition of citric and phosphoric acids. The test period lasted five weeks. Each week, the food and fluid consumed and the weight gain were measured. Erosion of the teeth was scored by the method of Restarski et al. (1945). ANOVA indicated that there was a significant difference in the amount of erosion among groups. A Newman-Keuls analysis showed that the mean erosion score of the CC group was significantly greater (P less than 0.05) than that of the CC-CaL and distilled water groups (54.2 +/- 0.12; 0.0275 +/- 0.0123; 0.132 +/- 0.070, respectively). There was no significant difference in erosion between the CC-CaL and distilled water groups. There was no difference in the amount of food and fluid consumed among the group of rats. In conclusion, calcium lactate added to CC resulted in significantly reduced tooth erosion in rats.

  19. Effects of mass transfer between Martian satellites on surface geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Michael; Nimmo, Francis; Udrea, Bogdan

    2016-03-01

    Impacts on planetary bodies can lead to both prompt secondary craters and projectiles that reimpact the target body or nearby companions after an extended period, producing so-called "sesquinary" craters. Here we examine sesquinary cratering on the moons of Mars. We model the impact that formed Voltaire, the largest crater on the surface of Deimos, and explore the orbital evolution of resulting high-velocity ejecta across 500 years using four-body physics and particle tracking. The bulk of mass transfer to Phobos occurs in the first 102 years after impact, while reaccretion of ejecta to Deimos is predicted to continue out to a 104 year timescale (cf. Soter, S. [1971]. Studies of the Terrestrial Planets. Cornell University). Relative orbital geometry between Phobos and Deimos plays a significant role; depending on the relative true longitude, mass transfer between the moons can change by a factor of five. Of the ejecta with a velocity range capable of reaching Phobos, 25-42% by mass reaccretes to Deimos and 12-21% impacts Phobos. Ejecta mass transferred to Mars is <10%. We find that the characteristic impact velocity of sesquinaries on Deimos is an order of magnitude smaller than those of background (heliocentric) hypervelocity impactors and will likely result in different crater morphologies. The time-averaged flux of Deimos material to Phobos can be as high as 11% of the background (heliocentric) direct-to-Phobos impactor flux. This relatively minor contribution suggests that spectrally red terrain on Phobos (Murchie, S., Erard, S. [1996]. Icarus 123, 63-86) is not caused by Deimos material. However the high-velocity ejecta mass reaccreted to Deimos from a Voltaire-sized impact is comparable to the expected background mass accumulated on Deimos between Voltaire-size events. Considering that the high-velocity ejecta contains only 0.5% of the total mass sent into orbit, sesquinary ejecta from a Voltaire-sized impact could feasibly resurface large parts of the Moon

  20. Heterogeneity in Sedimentary Aquifers: Effects on Chlorinated Solvent Mass Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinovich, I. K.; Allen-King, R.; Carlone, D.; Clarke, D.; George, S. S.; Weissmann, G. S.; McNamara, K. C.; Frechette, J. D.

    2011-12-01

    Dynamic mass storage of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOC) is affected by physical and geochemical aquifer heterogeneities, creating a need for targeted remediation. In glacially-derived aquifers (such as the well-known Borden study site), sedimentary lithocomponents contain varying types and quantities of highly-sorbing carbonaceous matter. These lithocomponents are distributed throughout the aquifer through transport and depositional processes. Compared to fine-grained lithofacies, lithofacies with greater texture have increased magnitudes and variability of Kd (equilibrium sorption coefficient) due to lithocomponent variety and deposition. Sedimentological features with greater physical and geochemical heterogeneity (such as scours and troughs) are potential areas for mass storage of HOCs, requiring targeted remediation efforts. In this study, a spatial data set collected from the Borden study site is combined with a nearby outcrop analogue to investigate how geochemical and physical heterogeneity influences the mass storage of HOCs. Outcrop analogue-derived lithofacies from a nearby sand quarry allow us to quantify geochemical heterogeneity in the sedimentary architectural context. Each scour feature consists of several sediment facies layered on top of one another in identifiable and predictable patterns. These patterns extend beyond the massive packages of medium grained facies; they include fine grained facies toward the top of the scour. Outcrop investigations of spatial deposition of lithocomponents and Kd analysis shows that areas of increased lateral heterogeneity and overall Kd magnitude are associated with the sharp contact at the bottom of these scours with fine-grained facies. Both lateral heterogeneity and Kd are associated with the abundance of dark and light carbonaceous lithocomponents. Particle size, lithocomponent analysis and distinct cumulative density functions for Kd (of chlorinated volatile organic compounds) were derived for

  1. Effects of dietary vanadium on growth and lipid storage in a larval anuran: results from studies employing ad libitum and rationed feeding.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Christopher L; Heyes, Andrew; Hopkins, William

    2009-01-31

    Vanadium (V) exerts a variety of effects related to metabolic function in vertebrates, including modifying glycolytic pathways and lipid metabolism. However, little is known about toxicity of V to wildlife in natural systems. We conducted parallel, independent studies to evaluate the effect of dietary exposure to vanadium on survival, metabolism, growth, and lipid storage of larval leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala). In one study ("Ad lib") larvae were fed unlimited food and in the other ("Ration") larvae were fed a restricted diet. Experimental diets contained 10 ppm dw V(total) (Control, "C"), 109 ppm (Low, "L"), and 363 ppm (High, "H"). In neither study did V affect metabolic rate or survival to forelimb emergence. However, in the Ration study, 31% of individuals in H that had initiated metamorphosis died prior to completion of metamorphosis, compared with 22% in M and 9% in C, however the difference was not significant at alpha=0.05. Mortality during metamorphosis in the Ad lib study was more variable, yet followed a similar trend (26, 14, and 12% mortality in H, L, and C). In both studies, individuals that died during the metamorphic period were smaller at the time of forelimb emergence than those that survived. In the Ration study, individuals in H also had significantly lower growth rates, delayed metamorphosis, and reduced lipid content at metamorphosis compared to C and L. Growth was not affected by V in the Ad lib study. Our results suggest that habitat contamination by V may present risks to amphibians during the metamorphic period attributable to energetic responses influencing size at the initiation of metamorphosis and body lipid stores. Furthermore, while we cannot make formal comparisons between the studies, our results imply that protocols that employ ad libitum feeding regimes could fail to capture the effects of contaminants as they may be expressed in natural situations in which resources are typically more limited.

  2. Analysis of stationary roving mass effect for damage detection in beams using wavelet analysis of mode shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solís, Mario; Benjumea, Antonio J.; Algaba, Mario; Galvín, Pedro

    2015-07-01

    One of the main challenges in damage detection techniques is sensitivity to damage. During the last years, a large number of papers have used wavelet analysis as a sensitive mathematical tool for identifying changes in mode shapes induced by damage. This paper analyzes the effect of adding a mass to the structure at different positions. Depending on the location and severity of damage, the presence of the mass affects the natural frequencies and mode shapes in a different way. The paper applies a damage detection methodology proposed by the authors, although it has been modified in order to consider the addition of the mas. This methodology is based on a wavelet analysis of the difference of mode shapes of a damaged and a reference state. The singular behavior of a normalized weighted addition of wavelet coefficients is used as an indicator of damage. The presence of damage is detected by combining all the information provided by mode shapes and natural frequencies for different positions of the roving mass. A continuous wavelet transform is used to detect the difference between the response of a healthy state and a damaged one. The paper shows the results obtained for a beam with different cracks. The paper analyzes the sensitivity to damage of the proposed methodology by considering some practical issues such as the size of the crack, the number of measuring points and the effect of experimental noise.

  3. Use of an autosampler for dynamic headspace extraction of volatile compounds from grains and effect of added water on the extraction.

    PubMed

    Ram, M S; Seitz, L M; Rengarajan, R

    1999-10-01

    An autosampler attached to a purge and trap instrument was used to aid routine analyses of grain samples for volatile compounds associated with off-odors. Trapped volatiles were transferred to a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer instrument for separation and detection. Dynamic extraction of volatiles from approximately 18 g of whole grain at 80 degrees C was accomplished by purging helium through a sample vial with a Teflon-lined septum on each end. The autosampler automatically added internal standard to the sample before purging began, which required the addition of 1 mL of water for complete transfer of the standard to the sample. The added water enhanced extraction of 1-octen-3-ol, 1-octen-3-one, and some other compounds from soybeans but not from starchy grains such as corn and wheat. Addition of a free radical scavenger, such as citric acid, greatly diminished the recovery of 1-octen-3-ol and 1-octen-3-one from soybeans. PMID:10552791

  4. Wholegrain vs. refined wheat bread and pasta. Effect on postprandial glycemia, appetite, and subsequent ad libitum energy intake in young healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Mette; Jensen, Morten G; Riboldi, Giancarlo; Petronio, Michela; Bügel, Susanne; Toubro, Søren; Tetens, Inge; Astrup, Arne

    2010-02-01

    Wholegrain foods have received much attention in recent years, and have been proposed to play a role in energy regulation through lowering of postprandial glycemia and appetite. This randomized crossover single meal study in 16 young adults was conducted to test the effect of iso-caloric meals based on wholemeal wheat breads and pasta in comparison to similar refined wheat products on postprandial glycemia, appetite and ad libitum energy intake (EI). Test meals (50 g carbohydrates; 2MJ) consisted of refined wheat bread (RWB), wholegrain wheat bread (WWB), refined wheat pasta (RWP) and wholegrain wheat pasta (WWP) and were served after an overnight fast. Appetite ratings and blood glucose were assessed for 180 min after which an ad libitum lunch meal was served and EI measured. The 180 min glucose responses were similar for wholemeal and refined products, but pasta meals gave significantly lower glucose responses. Only RWP had a lower glycemic index compared to RWB. WWB, but not WWP, resulted in increased satiety and reduced hunger compared to RWB. Ad libitum EI did not differ. In conclusion, the results show that wholemeal breads increased satiety measures compared to their refined counterparts; however no significant effect on subsequent EI was observed.

  5. Extending an In Vitro Panel for Estrogenicity Testing: The Added Value of Bioassays for Measuring Antiandrogenic Activities and Effects on Steroidogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Si; Rijk, Jeroen C.W.; Besselink, Harrie T.; Houtman, René; Peijnenburg,  Ad A.C.M.; Brouwer, Abraham; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.; Bovee,  Toine F.H.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, a previously established integrated testing strategy (ITS) for in vitro estrogenicity testing was extended with additional in vitro assays in order to broaden its sensitivity to different modes of action resulting in apparent estrogenicity, i.e., other than estrogen receptor (ER) binding. To this end, an extra set of 10 estrogenic compounds with modes of action in part different from ER binding, were tested in the previously defined ITS, consisting of a yeast estrogen reporter gene assay, an U2OS ERα CALUX reporter gene assay and a cell-free coregulator binding assay. Two androgen reporter gene assays and the enhanced H295R steroidogenesis assay were added to that previous defined ITS. These assays had added value, as several estrogenic model compounds also elicited clear and potent antiandrogenic properties and in addition also showed effects on steroidogenesis that might potentiate their apparent estrogenic effects in vivo. Adding these assays, examining mechanisms of action for estrogenicity apart from ERα binding, gives a more complete and comprehensive assessment of the ability of test compounds to interfere with endocrine signaling. It was concluded that the extended ITS will go beyond in vivo estrogenicity testing by the uterotrophic assay, thereby contributing to the 3R-principles. PMID:24928889

  6. Androgens exert opposite effects on body mass of heavy and light meadow voles.

    PubMed

    Dark, J; Whaling, C S; Zucker, I

    1987-12-01

    The influence of gonadal hormones on body mass of adult male meadow voles varied systematically as a function of the animals' baseline body weight; heavier voles decreased and lighter voles increased their body mass after castration. Testosterone replacement reversed the effects of castration; changes in body mass during hormone treatment were negatively correlated with changes observed after castration. Body mass of intact males was not correlated with plasma testosterone titers. Individual differences in body mass of male voles appear to reflect variations among animals in substrate responsiveness to hormones rather than differences in circulating hormone levels. PMID:3323026

  7. CONSORT: Effects of adding adefovirdipivoxil to peginterferon alfa-2a at different time points on HBeAg-positivepatients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ka; Cao, Hong; Liang, Jiayi; Shu, Xin; Sun, Haixia; Li, Gang; Xu, Qihuan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The aims of this study were to compare the efficacy and safety of the addition of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) (started at different time points) to pegylated interferon alpha-2a (PEG-INF-α2a) and PEG-INF-α2a monotherapy. This prospective, randomized study sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the combination of PEG-INF-α2a and ADV at different time points.120 patients were randomized into groups that received PEG-INF-α2a as monotherapy (group A) or in combination with ADV started at week 0 (group B), 12 (group C), or 24 (group D). All patients were followed for 48 weeks. Efficacy and safety analyses were performed. Methods: Patients in group a received 135 μg of PEG-INF-α2a by subcutaneous injection once weekly for 48 weeks. Patients in the ADV add-on group received 135 μg of PEG-INF-α2a subcutaneously once weekly and received 10 mg of ADV administered once daily for 48 weeks. HBV DNA, HBsAg, HBeAg, and hepatitis B e antibody levels were determined. Responses were determined at week 12 (ADV add-on), the end of treatment for PEG-INF-α2a (48weeks) and ADV (EOT) and at the end of 96 weeks of follow-up (EOF). Results: The rate of HBV DNA loss were higher in the combination groups than group A at the week 12, week 48, the EOT and EOF (P < 0.05). The rates of HBeAg seroconversion and HBsAg loss were similar among the treatment groups (P>0.05). The alanineaminotransferase (ALT) normalization rate was higher in the combination group than group A only at the EOT (P = 0.007). By the EOF, the patients with ADV added at week 12 achieved higher rates of HBV DNA loss (71.9%), HBeAg seroconversion (50.0%), HBsAg loss (15.6%), and ALT normalization (78.1%). Conclusions: PEG-INF-α2a plus ADV combination therapy is safe and superior to PEG-INF-α2amonotherapyfor decreasing serum HBV DNA and normalizing the ALT level but has no significant impact on the rate of HBeAg seroconversion and HBsAg loss. Adding ADV at week 12 may be an

  8. The AdS/QCD Correspondence and Exclusive Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.; Deur, Alexandre; /Jefferson Lab

    2010-08-25

    The AdS/CFT correspondence between theories in AdS space and conformal field theories in physical space-time provides an analytic, semi-classical, color-confining model for strongly-coupled QCD. The soft-wall AdS/QCD model modified by a positive-sign dilaton metric leads to a remarkable one-parameter description of nonperturbative hadron dynamics at zero quark mass, including a zero-mass pion and a Regge spectrum of linear trajectories with the same slope in orbital angular momentum L and radial quantum number n for both mesons and baryons. One also predicts the form of the non-perturbative effective coupling {alpha}{sub s}{sup AdS}(q) and its {beta}-function which agrees with the effective coupling {alpha}{sub ga} extracted from the Bjorken sum rule. Light-front holography, which connects the fifth-dimensional coordinate of AdS space z to an invariant impact separation variable {zeta}, allows one to compute the analytic form of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions, the fundamental entities which encode hadron properties as well as decay constants, form factors, deeply virtual Compton scattering, exclusive heavy hadron decays and other exclusive scattering amplitudes. One thus obtains a relativistic description of hadrons in QCD at the amplitude level with dimensional counting for hard exclusive reactions at high momentum transfer. As specific examples we discuss the behavior of the pion and nucleon form factors in the space-like and time-like regions. We also review the phenomenology of exclusive processes including some anomalous empirical results.

  9. The ADS/QCD correspondence and exclusive processes

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley J. Brodsky, Guy F. De Teramond, Alexandre Deur

    2011-05-01

    The AdS/CFT correspondence between theories in AdS space and conformal field theories in physical space-time provides an analytic, semi-classical, color-confining model for strongly-coupled QCD. The soft-wall AdS/QCD model, modified by a positive-sign dilaton metric, leads to a remarkable one-parameter description of nonperturbative hadron dynamics at zero quark mass, including a zero-mass pion and meson and baryon Regge spectra of linear trajectories with the same slope in orbital angular momentum L and radial quantum number n. One also predicts the form of the non-perturbative effective coupling alpha^AdS/s (Q) and its Beta-function which agrees with the effective coupling alphag1 extracted from the Bjorken sum rule. Light-front holography, which connects the fifth-dimensional coordinate of AdS space z to an invariant impact separation variable zeta, allows one to compute the analytic form of the frame-independent light-front wave functions, the fundamental entities which encode hadron properties as well as decay constants, form factors, deeply-virtual Compton scattering, exclusive heavy hadron decays, and other exclusive scattering amplitudes. One thus obtains a relativistic description of hadrons in QCD at the amplitude level with dimensional counting for exclusive reactions at high momentum transfer. As specific examples, we discuss the behavior of the pion and nucleon form factors in the space-like and time-like regions. We also review the phenomenology of exclusive processes including some anomalous empirical results.

  10. Critical Values of Porosity in Rice Cultures of Isaria fumosorosea by Adding Water Hyacinth: Effect on Conidial Yields and Quality.

    PubMed

    Angel-Cuapio, Alejandro; Figueroa-Montero, Arturo; Favela-Torres, Ernesto; Viniegra-González, Gustavo; Perraud-Gaime, Isabelle; Loera, Octavio

    2015-09-01

    Conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosorosea are used to control insect pests in crops. Commercially available mycoinsecticides manufactured with this fungus are produced on a large scale via solid-state cultures (SSC). In order to favour gaseous exchange in SCC, texturizers can be added to increase porosity fraction (ε). This work presents results of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) as a novel texturizer. A mixture of parboiled rice (PR), with a ε = 0.23, was used as a substrate, which was then mixed with water hyacinth (WH amendment) as a texturizer at different proportions affecting ε. Strains CNRCB1 and ARSEF3302 of I. fumosorosea yielded 1.6 (1.49-1.71) × 10(9) and 7.3 (7.02-7.58) × 10(9) conidia per gram of initial dry rice after 8 days, at ε values of 0.34 and 0.36, respectively. Improvement of conidial yields corresponded to 1.33 and 1.55 times, respectively, compared to rice alone using WH amendment in the mixtures PR:WH (%) at 90-10 and 80-20. In addition, infectivity against Galleria mellonella larvae was maintained. This is the first report of the use of water hyacinth as a texturizer in SSC, affecting ε, which is proposed a key parameter in conidia production by I. fumosorosea, without affecting conidial infectivity. PMID:26184013

  11. Scale effects and morphological diversification in hindlimb segment mass proportions in neognath birds

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In spite of considerable work on the linear proportions of limbs in amniotes, it remains unknown whether differences in scale effects between proximal and distal limb segments has the potential to influence locomotor costs in amniote lineages and how changes in the mass proportions of limbs have factored into amniote diversification. To broaden our understanding of how the mass proportions of limbs vary within amniote lineages, I collected data on hindlimb segment masses – thigh, shank, pes, tarsometatarsal segment, and digits – from 38 species of neognath birds, one of the most speciose amniote clades. I scaled each of these traits against measures of body size (body mass) and hindlimb size (hindlimb length) to test for departures from isometry. Additionally, I applied two parameters of trait evolution (Pagel’s λ and δ) to understand patterns of diversification in hindlimb segment mass in neognaths. Results All segment masses are positively allometric with body mass. Segment masses are isometric with hindlimb length. When examining scale effects in the neognath subclade Land Birds, segment masses were again positively allometric with body mass; however, shank, pedal, and tarsometatarsal segment masses were also positively allometric with hindlimb length. Methods of branch length scaling to detect phylogenetic signal (i.e., Pagel’s λ) and increasing or decreasing rates of trait change over time (i.e., Pagel’s δ) suffer from wide confidence intervals, likely due to small sample size and deep divergence times. Conclusions The scaling of segment masses appears to be more strongly related to the scaling of limb bone mass as opposed to length, and the scaling of hindlimb mass distribution is more a function of scale effects in limb posture than proximo-distal differences in the scaling of limb segment mass. Though negative allometry of segment masses appears to be precluded by the need for mechanically sound limbs, the positive allometry of

  12. Validating Components of Teacher Effectiveness: A Random Assignment Study of Value-Added, Observation, and Survey Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacher-Hicks, Andrew; Chin, Mark; Kane, Thomas J.; Staiger, Douglas O.

    2015-01-01

    Policy changes from the past decade have resulted in a growing interest in identifying effective teachers and their characteristics. This study is the third study to use data from a randomized experiment to test the validity of measures of teacher effectiveness. The authors collected effectiveness measures across three school years from three…

  13. Bone mass in schoolchildren in Brazil: the effect of racial miscegenation, pubertal stage, and socioeconomic differences.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Roberto Regis; Guerra-Junior, Gil; de Azevedo Barros-Filho, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate bone mass by phalanges ultrasound in healthy white and black schoolchildren in relationship to socioeconomic level, pubertal stage, and body composition. Included were 1,356 healthy schoolchildren aged from 6 to 11 years from different socioeconomic levels and both genders; all were placed into white and black groups. Weight, height, body mass index, fat percentage, fat mass, and lean mass were evaluated by anthropometric methods, and AD-SoS bone quantity and UBPI bone quality were evaluated using a third-generation IGEA phalanges DBM Sonic BP ultrasound. Data were compared using the Mann-Whitney, chi-squared, correlation coefficient, and analyses of multiple linear regression statistical tests with 5% significance. Black schoolchildren predominated in the low socioeconomic levels. Higher values of weight and height for black boys and girls were observed in the lean mass in relation to white children of the same gender and age. An increasing variation in the bone quantity mean was observed from 6 to 11 years of age and with pubertal stage for both genders and skin color. The white schoolchildren presented higher values of bone quantity and quality in relation to the black children. The anthropometric, gender, and socioeconomic level variables explained only 16 and 11% of the variability of bone quantity and quality, respectively. As such, the present study, carried out with healthy black and white Brazilian schoolchildren, demonstrated higher bone mass, as evaluated by ultrasound, in white than in black schoolchildren.

  14. Effect of neutrino rest mass on ionization equilibrium freeze-out

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grohs, E.; Fuller, G. M.; Kishimoto, C. T.; Paris, M. W.

    2015-12-01

    We show how small neutrino rest masses can increase the expansion rate near the photon decoupling epoch in the early Universe, causing an earlier, higher temperature freeze-out for ionization equilibrium compared to the massless neutrino case. This yields a larger free-electron fraction, thereby affecting the photon diffusion length differently than the sound horizon at photon decoupling. This neutrino-mass and recombination effect depends strongly on the neutrino rest masses. Though below current sensitivity, this effect could be probed by next-generation cosmic microwave background experiments, giving another observational handle on neutrino rest mass.

  15. Effect of neutrino rest mass on ionization equilibrium freeze-out

    SciTech Connect

    Grohs, Evan Bradley; Fuller, George M.; Kishimoto, Chad T.; Paris, Mark W.

    2015-12-23

    We show how small neutrino rest masses can increase the expansion rate near the photon decoupling epoch in the early Universe, causing an earlier, higher temperature freeze-out for ionization equilibrium compared to the massless neutrino case. This yields a larger free-electron fraction, thereby affecting the photon diffusion length differently than the sound horizon at photon decoupling. This neutrino-mass and recombination effect depends strongly on the neutrino rest masses. Ultimately, though below current sensitivity, this effect could be probed by next-generation cosmic microwave background experiments, giving another observational handle on neutrino rest mass.

  16. Effects of added surfactant on swelling and molecular transport in drug-loaded tablets based on hydrophobically modified poly(acrylic acid).

    PubMed

    Knöös, Patrik; Wahlgren, Marie; Topgaard, Daniel; Ulvenlund, Stefan; Piculell, Lennart

    2014-08-14

    A combination of NMR chemical shift imaging and self-diffusion experiments is shown to give a detailed molecular picture of the events that occur when tablets of hydrophobically modified poly(acrylic acid) loaded with a drug (griseofulvin) swell in water in the presence or absence of surfactant (sodium octylbenzenesulfonate). The hydrophobic substituents on the polymer bind and trap the surfactant molecules in mixed micelles, leading to a slow effective surfactant transport that occurs via a small fraction of individually dissolved surfactant molecules in the water domain. Because of the efficient binding of surfactant, the penetrating water is found to diffuse past the penetrating surfactant into the polymer matrix, pushing the surfactant front outward as the matrix swells. The added surfactant has little effect on the transport of drug because both undissolved solid drug and surfactant-solubilized drug function as reservoirs that essentially follow the polymer as it swells. However, the added surfactant nevertheless has a strong indirect effect on the release of griseofulvin, through the effect of the surfactant on the solubility and erosion of the polymer matrix. The surfactant effectively solubilizes the hydrophobically modified polymer, making it fully miscible with water, leading to a more pronounced swelling and a slower erosion of the polymer matrix.

  17. Adding flavor to AdS4/CFT3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammon, Martin; Erdmenger, Johanna; Meyer, René; O'Bannon, Andy; Wrase, Timm

    2009-11-01

    Aharony, Bergman, Jafferis, and Maldacena have proposed that the low-energy description of multiple M2-branes at a Bbb C4/Bbb Zk singularity is a (2+1)-dimensional Script N = 6 supersymmetric U(Nc) × U(Nc) Chern-Simons matter theory, the ABJM theory. In the large-Nc limit, its holographic dual is supergravity in AdS4 × S7/Bbb Zk. We study various ways to add fields that transform in the fundamental representation of the gauge groups, i.e. flavor fields, to the ABJM theory. We work in a probe limit and perform analyses in both the supergravity and field theory descriptions. In the supergravity description we find a large class of supersymmetric embeddings of probe flavor branes. In the field theory description, we present a general method to determine the couplings of the flavor fields to the fields of the ABJM theory. We then study four examples in detail: codimension-zero Script N = 3 supersymmetric flavor, described in supergravity by Kaluza-Klein monopoles or D6-branes; codimension-one Script N = (0,6) supersymmetric chiral flavor, described by D8-branes; codimension-one Script N = (3,3) supersymmetric non-chiral flavor, described by M5/D4-branes; codimension-two Script N = 4 supersymmetric flavor, described by M2/D2-branes. Finally we discuss special physical equivalences between brane embeddings in M-theory, and their interpretation in the field theory description.

  18. Effect on postoperative analgesia of small-dose lysine acetylsalicylate added to prilocaine during intravenous regional anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Corpataux, J B; Van Gessel, E F; Donald, F A; Forster, A; Gamulin, Z

    1997-05-01

    Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs act largely peripherally by blocking the local synthesis of prostaglandins. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the addition of a small dose of lysine acetylsalicylate (LA) to the prilocaine used for intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA) would improve the quality of postoperative analgesia. Sixty patients undergoing lower extremity IVRA for foot or ankle surgery were randomly assigned to three double-blind groups: LA-IVRA where 90 mg of LA was mixed with prilocaine 0.5% for IVRA and 1 mL of 0.9% NaCl administered intravenously (IV) through the forearm catheter after tourniquet inflation; LA-IV where 1 mL of 0.9% NaCl was mixed with prilocaine and 90 mg of LA administered IV; and placebo where 1 mL of 0.9% NaCl was administered both with prilocaine for the IVRA and IV. Duration of analgesia (time elapsed between tourniquet release and first injection of morphine, expressed as mean +/- SD) was significantly longer (P < 0.05) in LA-IVRA (387 +/- 216 min) when compared with LA-IV (175 +/- 264 min) and placebo (126 +/- 201 min). Analgesic requirements remained significantly lower in LA-IVRA when compared with placebo only during the first six postoperative hours, LA-IV being in an intermediate position. Pain scores were significantly lower in LA-IVRA during the first postoperative hour when compared with LA-IV and during the first 3 postoperative hours when compared with placebo. We conclude that 90 mg of LA (corresponding to 50 mg of acetylsalicylic acid) added to prilocaine 0.5% during IVRA improves the quality of postoperative analgesia in the early postoperative period.

  19. Effect of added proteinases and level of starter culture on the formation of biogenic amines in raw milk Manchego cheese.

    PubMed

    Fernández-García, E; Tomillo, J; Núñez, M

    1999-11-15

    The influence of two proteinases (Bacillus subtilis neutral proteinase and Micrococcus sp. cysteine proteinase) and two starter culture levels (0.1% and 1%) on biogenic amine formation has been studied in raw ewes' milk Manchego cheese. Amino acid decarboxylating micro-organisms were determined on tyrosine enriched selective media. Biogenic amines were analysed by capillary electrophoresis in citrate buffer at pH 3.6. Addition of proteinases and level of starter culture did not influence the population of micro-organisms with amino acid decarboxylating activity, which represented on average 1% of the bacterial population in 30-day-old cheeses. Tyramine and histamine were detected in all batches of cheese from day 30. Concentrations of tyramine and histamine were higher in cheeses made from milk with neutral proteinase (up to 356 and 284 mg kg(-1), respectively, after 90 days) than in cheeses made from milk with cysteine proteinase (up to 269 and 189 mg kg(-1), respectively) or with no proteinase added (up to 305 and 226 mg kg(-1), respectively). Formation of tyramine and histamine was also favoured in cheeses made with 1% starter culture with respect to cheeses made with only 0.1% starter culture, probably due to the higher pH values of the former cheeses. After 90 days of ripening, concentrations of 10-20 mg kg(-1) phenylethylamine were observed in 9 of the 12 batches, and levels < 10 mg kg(-1) tryptamine were only detected in 3 batches, with no significant relationship between the concentration of these amines and proteinase addition or level of starter culture. PMID:10733250

  20. Effects of Properties on S45C Carbon Steel by Electroless NiP Adding Al2O3 Powder of Composite Deposition and Various Heat Treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Shih-Hsien; Liang, Cheng; Chang, Chih-Chung

    2014-06-01

    This research studies the effects on the surface microstructure and mechanical properties of S45C carbon steel via electroless Ni-P, by adding αAl2O3 powder via composite deposition and various heat treatments. The plating specimens were treated with pH5 and pH8 baths heated to 350°C and 300°C, respectively, and soaked for 1 hr. Meanwhile, two different particle sizes of Al2O3 powder were added to the electroless Ni-P plating: 0.3 μm of αAl2O3 and 0.05 μm of γAl2O3 powder, respectively. The experimental results show that, after 1 hr of heat treatment at 300°C, the optimal hardness for the specimens using the pH8 of Ni-P with αAl2O3 and γAl2O3 added by composite deposition are HV0.05 1237 and HV0.05 1145, respectively. All of the specimens underwent the main precipitate phase of Ni3P after heat treatment.

  1. Charged Kaon Mass Measurement using the Cherenkov Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, N.; Lebedev, A.; Abrams, R.J.; Akgun, U.; Aydin, G.; Baker, W.; Barnes, P.D., Jr.; Bergfeld, T.; Beverly, L.; Bujak, A.; Carey, D.; /Fermilab /Virginia U. /Iowa U.

    2009-09-01

    The two most recent and precise measurements of the charged kaon mass use X-rays from kaonic atoms and report uncertainties of 14 ppm and 22 ppm yet differ from each other by 122 ppm. We describe the possibility of an independent mass measurement using the measurement of Cherenkov light from a narrow-band beam of kaons, pions, and protons. This technique was demonstrated using data taken opportunistically by the Main Injector Particle Production experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory which recorded beams of protons, kaons, and pions ranging in momentum from +37 GeV/c to +63 GeV/c. The measured value is 491.3 {+-} 1.7 MeV/c{sup 2}, which is within 1.4{sigma} of the world average. An improvement of two orders of magnitude in precision would make this technique useful for resolving the ambiguity in the X-ray data and may be achievable in a dedicated experiment.

  2. Effect of gas mass flux on cryogenic liquid jet breakup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingebo, R. D.

    A scattered-light scanning instrument developed at NASA Lewis Research Center was used to measure the characteristic drop size of clouds of liquid nitrogen droplets. The instrument was calibrated with suspensions of monosized polystyrene spheres. In this investigation of the mechanism of liquid nitrogen jet disintegration in a high-velocity gas flow, the Sauter mean diameter, D32, was found to vary inversely with the nitrogen gas mass flux raised to the power 1.33. Values of D32 varied from 5 to 25 microns and the mass flux exponent of 1.33 agrees well with theory for liquid jet breakup in high-velocity gas flows. The loss of very small droplets due to the high vaporization rate of liquid nitrogen was avoided by sampling the spray very close to the atomizer, i.e., 1.3 cm downstream of the nozzle orifice. The presence of high velocity and thermal gradients in the gas phase also made sampling of the particles difficult. As a result, it was necessary to correct the measurements for background noise produced by both highly turbulent gas flows and thermally induced density gradients in the gas phase.

  3. Effect of gas mass flux on cryogenic liquid jet breakup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingebo, R. D.

    1992-01-01

    A scattered-light scanning instrument developed at NASA Lewis Research Center was used to measure the characteristic drop size of clouds of liquid nitrogen droplets. The instrument was calibrated with suspensions of monosized polystyrene spheres. In this investigation of the mechanism of liquid nitrogen jet disintegration in a high-velocity gas flow, the Sauter mean diameter, D32, was found to vary inversely with the nitrogen gas mass flux raised to the power 1.33. Values of D32 varied from 5 to 25 microns and the mass flux exponent of 1.33 agrees well with theory for liquid jet breakup in high-velocity gas flows. The loss of very small droplets due to the high vaporization rate of liquid nitrogen was avoided by sampling the spray very close to the atomizer, i.e., 1.3 cm downstream of the nozzle orifice. The presence of high velocity and thermal gradients in the gas phase also made sampling of the particles difficult. As a result, it was necessary to correct the measurements for background noise produced by both highly turbulent gas flows and thermally induced density gradients in the gas phase.

  4. AdS3: the NHEK generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bena, Iosif; Heurtier, Lucien; Puhm, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    It was argued in [1] that the five-dimensional near-horizon extremal Kerr (NHEK) geometry can be embedded in String Theory as the infrared region of an infinite family of non-supersymmetric geometries that have D1, D5, momentum and KK monopole charges. We show that there exists a method to embed these geometries into asymptotically- {AdS}_3× {S}^3/{{Z}}_N solutions, and hence to obtain infinite families of flows whose infrared is NHEK. This indicates that the CFT dual to the NHEK geometry is the IR fixed point of a Renormalization Group flow from a known local UV CFT and opens the door to its explicit construction.

  5. ADS/CFT and QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U. /SLAC

    2007-02-21

    The AdS/CFT correspondence between string theory in AdS space and conformal .eld theories in physical spacetime leads to an analytic, semi-classical model for strongly-coupled QCD which has scale invariance and dimensional counting at short distances and color confinement at large distances. Although QCD is not conformally invariant, one can nevertheless use the mathematical representation of the conformal group in five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space to construct a first approximation to the theory. The AdS/CFT correspondence also provides insights into the inherently non-perturbative aspects of QCD, such as the orbital and radial spectra of hadrons and the form of hadronic wavefunctions. In particular, we show that there is an exact correspondence between the fifth-dimensional coordinate of AdS space z and a specific impact variable {zeta} which measures the separation of the quark and gluonic constituents within the hadron in ordinary space-time. This connection allows one to compute the analytic form of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions, the fundamental entities which encode hadron properties and allow the computation of decay constants, form factors, and other exclusive scattering amplitudes. New relativistic lightfront equations in ordinary space-time are found which reproduce the results obtained using the 5-dimensional theory. The effective light-front equations possess remarkable algebraic structures and integrability properties. Since they are complete and orthonormal, the AdS/CFT model wavefunctions can also be used as a basis for the diagonalization of the full light-front QCD Hamiltonian, thus systematically improving the AdS/CFT approximation.

  6. Mass Transfer Effects on the Unsteady Flow of UCM Fluid Over a Stretching Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayat, T.; Awais, M.; Sajid, M.

    This paper looks at the mass transfer effects on the unsteady two-dimensional and magnetohydrodynamic flow of an upper-convected Maxwell fluid bounded by a stretching surface. Homotopy analysis method is used for the development of series solution of the arising nonlinear problem. Plots of velocity and concentration fields are displayed and discussed. The values of surface mass transfer and gradient of mass transfer are also tabulated.

  7. Mass spectrometric analysis of isotope effects in bioconversion of benzene to cyclohexanone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, In-Hyun; Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Kim, Young-Mo; Yang, In-Hee; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2006-06-01

    Pseudomonas veronii strain PH-03 has been shown to convert benzene to cyclohexanone through phenol. Mass spectrometry results revealed that unusual isotopic effects have been occurred in the transformation product, cyclohexanone. The isotopic composition was strongly depends on the compound specific hydrogen or oxygen source. The exchange of labile deuterium atoms has been investigated through electrospray ionization liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. The mass spectrometric analysis of biotransformation products enabled the proposal of a corresponding bioconversion pathway.

  8. Shadows, currents, and AdS fields

    SciTech Connect

    Metsaev, R. R.

    2008-11-15

    Conformal totally symmetric arbitrary spin currents and shadow fields in flat space-time of dimension greater than or equal to four are studied. A gauge invariant formulation for such currents and shadow fields is developed. Gauge symmetries are realized by involving the Stueckelberg fields. A realization of global conformal boost symmetries is obtained. Gauge invariant differential constraints for currents and shadow fields are obtained. AdS/CFT correspondence for currents and shadow fields and the respective normalizable and non-normalizable solutions of massless totally symmetric arbitrary spin AdS fields are studied. The bulk fields are considered in a modified de Donder gauge that leads to decoupled equations of motion. We demonstrate that leftover on shell gauge symmetries of bulk fields correspond to gauge symmetries of boundary currents and shadow fields, while the modified de Donder gauge conditions for bulk fields correspond to differential constraints for boundary conformal currents and shadow fields. Breaking conformal symmetries, we find interrelations between the gauge invariant formulation of the currents and shadow fields, and the gauge invariant formulation of massive fields.

  9. Effect of flow pulsation on mass transport in a cathode channel of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Hun Sik; Kim, Yun Ho; Kim, Seo Young; Hyun, Jae Min

    2012-09-01

    An experimental and theoretical study on the cathode flow pulsation in a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell is performed. A 10-cell PEM fuel cell stack with open-air cathode channels is employed to investigate the effects of the cathode flow pulsation on the overall performance. The polarization and corresponding power curves obtained show that both the limiting current density and the maximum power density are substantially enhanced when the pulsating component is added to the cathode mainstream flow. The flow pulsation at Re = 77 provides the maximum increment of 40% and 35.5% in the limiting current density and in the maximum power density, respectively. The enhancement of the overall performance is more pronounced at low Reynolds numbers. Also, the theoretical mass transport analysis in the pulsating cathode flow channel is carried out to verify the present experimental results. The momentum and species conservation equations are analytically solved, and the effective time-averaged dispersion coefficient is defined to account for the enhanced mass transport by the flow pulsation. Comprehensive analytical solutions show that the effect of the relevant parameters is in well accordance with the experimental results.

  10. Exercise Does Not Protect against Peripheral and Central Effects of a High Cholesterol Diet Given Ad libitum in Old ApoE−/− Mice

    PubMed Central

    Di Cataldo, Vanessa; Géloën, Alain; Langlois, Jean-Baptiste; Chauveau, Fabien; Thézé, Benoît; Hubert, Violaine; Wiart, Marlène; Chirico, Erica N.; Rieusset, Jennifer; Vidal, Hubert; Pialoux, Vincent; Canet-Soulas, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Advanced atherosclerosis increases inflammation and stroke risk in the cerebral vasculature. Exercise is known to improve cardio-metabolic profiles when associated with a caloric restriction, but it remains debated whether it is still beneficial without the dietary control. The aim of this study was to determine both the peripheral and central effects of exercise training combined with a cholesterol-rich diet given ad libitum in old ApoE−/− mice. Methods: Forty-five-weeks old obese ApoE−/− mice fed with a high cholesterol diet ad libitum were divided into Exercise-trained (EX; running wheel free access) and Sedentary (SED) groups. Insulin tolerance and brain imaging were performed before and after the twelve-weeks training. Tissue insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and inflammation markers in plasma, aorta, and brain were then assessed. Results: In EX ApoE−/− mice, no beneficial effect of exercise was observed on weight, abdominal fat, metabolic parameters, oxidative stress, or inflammation compared to SED. Despite the regular exercise training in ApoE−/− EX mice (mean of 12.5 km/week during 12 weeks), brain inflammation imaging score was significantly associated with increased blood brain barrier (BBB) leakage evaluated by imaging follow-up (r2 = 0.87; p = 0.049) with a faster evolution compared to SED ApoE−/−mice. Conclusion: We conclude that in a context of high cardio-metabolic risk, exercise does not provide any protective effect in old ApoE−/− animals under high cholesterol diet given ad libitum. Peripheral (insulin sensitivity and oxidative/inflammatory status) but also central features (BBB preservation and protection against inflammation) did not show any benefits of exercise. Indeed, there was a fast induction of irreversible brain damage that was more pronounced in exercise-trained ApoE−/− mice. PMID:27766082

  11. Cytarabine added to interferon improves the cost-effectiveness of initial therapy for patients with early chronic phase chronic myelogenous leukemia.

    PubMed

    Beck, J R; Guilhot, J; Giles, F J; Aoki, N; Wirt, D P; Guilhot, F

    2001-03-01

    The French Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Study Group prospective randomized study results indicate that the addition of cytarabine to alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) increases the rate of major cytogenetic response and prolongs survival in patients with early chronic phase chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). The French group study design permitted a single crossover to include or discontinue cytarabine or interferon. Endpoints were overall survival, complete hematologic remission (CHR) at six months, and major cytogenetic response at 12 months. We modified a published Markov model that compared IFN-alpha alone to IFN-alpha plus cytarabine and included the possibility of crossover as in the French study. The model permits allogeneic and autologous stem cell transplantation (SCT), and follows cytogenetic response and acceleration of CML through death. Treatment response, toxicity, and survival are drawn from the French Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Study Group population of 810 patients on an intention-to-treat model. Survivals are extended to 62 months based on currently available follow-up. Costs from a United States oncology specialty institution, and state utilities from previous research and a quality-adjusted Time Without Symptoms or Toxicity analysis of the subject study were discounted at 3% per annum. At the median cohort age of 50, cytarabine offers 21 months of added median survival to IFN-alpha, which itself is superior to conventional chemotherapy by 21 months. Cost-effectiveness estimates for cytarabine added to IFN-alpha range from $7,000 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) to $35,000 per QALY, under all plausible assumptions superior to IFN-alpha alone. The model is sensitive to the quality of life on therapy, as well as to remission rate with additive cytarabine, although the cost-effectiveness calculations are robust over the entire range of clinical assumptions. Based on data from the French study, cytarabine added to IFN-alpha substantially improves the cost-effectiveness

  12. The effect of Livermore OPAL opacities on the evolutionary masses of RR Lyrae stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yi, Sukyoung; Lee, Young-Wook; Demarque, Pierre

    1993-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of the new Livermore OPAL opacities on the evolution of horizontal-branch (HB) stars. This work was motivated by the recent stellar pulsation calculations using the new Livermore opacities, which suggest that the masses of double-mode RR Lyrae stars are 0.1-0.2 solar mass larger than those based on earlier opacities. Unlike the pulsation calculations, we find that the effect of opacity change on the evolution of HB stars is not significant. In particular, the effect of the mean masses of RR Lyrae stars is very small, showing a decrease of only 0.01-0.02 solar mass compared to the models based on old Cox-Stewart opacities. Consequently, with the new Livermore OPAL opacities, both the stellar pulsation and evolution models now predict approximately the same masses for the RR Lyrae stars. Our evolutionary models suggest that the mean masses of the RR Lyrae stars are about 0.76 and about 0.71 solar mass for M15 (Oosterhoff group II) and M3 (group I), respectively. If (alpha/Fe) = 0.4, these values are decreased by about 0.03 solar mass. Variations of the mean masses of RR Lyrae stars with HB morphology and metallicity are also presented.

  13. Mass Transfer and Light Time Effect Studies for AU Serpentis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, S. M.

    2015-02-01

    The orbital period changes of theWUMa eclipsing binary AU Ser are studied using the (O-C) method. We conclude that the period variation is due to mass transfer from the primary star to the secondary one at a very low and decreasing rate dP/dt = -8.872 × 10-8, superimposed on the sinusoidal variation due to a third body orbiting the binary with period 42.87 ± 3.16 years, orbital eccentricity e = 0.52±0.12 and a longitude of periastron passage ! = 133.7±15. On studying the magnetic activity, we have concluded that the Applegate mechanism failed to describe the cycling variation of the (O-C) diagram of AU Ser.

  14. Optimizing the band gap of effective mass negativity in acoustic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, K. T.; Huang, H. H.; Sun, C. T.

    2012-12-01

    A dual-resonator microstructure design is proposed for acoustic metamaterials to achieve broadband effective mass negativity. We demonstrate the advantage of acoustic wave attenuation over a wider frequency spectrum as compared to the narrow band gap of a single-resonator design. We explicitly confirm the effect of negative effective mass density by analysis of wave propagation using finite element simulations. Examples of practical application like vibration isolation and blast wave mitigation are presented and discussed.

  15. Metabolomics approach to explore the effects of Kai-Xin-San on Alzheimer's disease using UPLC/ESI-Q-TOF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chu, Hang; Zhang, Aihua; Han, Ying; Lu, Shengwen; Kong, Ling; Han, Jinwei; Liu, Zhidong; Sun, Hui; Wang, Xijun

    2016-03-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disease that influences elderly populations, with no effective method for its treatment so far. To improve its diagnosis and treatment, changes of small molecule metabolite during AD should be elucidated. Kai-Xin-San (KXS) is an herbal formulae that has been widely used to treat mental disorders, especially amnesia and depression in China. Experimental AD was induced in rats by an intraperitoneal injection of d-galactose (d-gal) and administered intragastrically with aluminum chloride (AlCl3) simultaneously for 105 days. Morris water maze task as a behavior test was used for testing the effects of KXS on AD model and pathological changes to the brain were assessed by hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry. The levels of Bcl-2 and ChAT in hippocampus were evaluated by western-blot. Furthermore, metabolite profiling of AD was performed through ultra-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization quadruple time-of- flight-high-definition mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-Q-TOF/HDMS) combined with pattern recognition approaches and pathway analysis. d-gal and AlCl3-treated caused a decline in spatial learning and memory, hippocampal histopathological abnormalities and increased Aβ1-40 levels in the brain cortex and hippocampus along with decreased Bcl-2 and ChAT expression in the hippocampus. KXS significantly improved the cognitive impairment induced by d-gal and AlCl3, attenuated hippocampal histopathological abnormalities, reduced Aβ1-40 levels and increased Bcl-2 and ChAT expression in the hippocampus. A total of 48 metabolites were considered as potential biomarkers of AD, and 36 metabolites may correlate with the regulation of KXS treatment on AD. Changes in AD metabolic profiling were close to normal states through regulating multiple perturbed pathways after KXS treatment. This study has revealed the potential biomarkers and metabolic networks of AD, illuminated the biochemistry

  16. The electrooxidation mechanism of formic acid on platinum and on lead ad-atoms modified platinum studied with the kinetic isotope effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bełtowska-Brzezinska, M.; Łuczak, T.; Stelmach, J.; Holze, R.

    2014-04-01

    Kinetics and mechanism of formic acid (FA) oxidation on platinum and upd-lead ad-atoms modified platinum electrodes have been studied using unlabelled and deuterated compounds. Poisoning of the electrode surface by CO-like species was prevented by suppression of dissociative chemisorption of FA due to a fast competitive underpotential deposition of lead ad-atoms on the Pt surface from an acidic solution containing Pb2+ cations. Modification of the Pt electrode with upd lead induced a catalytic effect in the direct electrooxidation of physisorbed FA to CO2. With increasing degree of H/D substitution, the rate of this reaction decreased in the order: HCOOH > DCOOH ≥ HCOOD > DCOOD. HCOOH was oxidized 8.5-times faster on a Pt/Pb electrode than DCOOD. This primary kinetic isotope effect proves that the C-H- and O-H-bonds are simultaneously cleaved in the rate determining step. A secondary kinetic isotope effect was found in the dissociative chemisorption of FA in the hydrogen adsorption-desorption range on a bare Pt electrode after H/D exchange in the C-H bond, wherein the influence of deuterium substitution in the O-H group was negligibly small. Thus the C-H bond cleavage is accompanied by the C-OH and not the O-H bond split in the FA decomposition, producing CO-like species on the Pt surface sites.

  17. Introduction to chemistry and applications in nature of mass independent isotope effects special feature.

    PubMed

    Thiemens, Mark H

    2013-10-29

    Stable isotope ratio variations are regulated by physical and chemical laws. These rules depend on a relation with mass differences between isotopes. New classes of isotope variation effects that deviate from mass dependent laws, termed mass independent isotope effects, were discovered in 1983 and have a wide range of applications in basic chemistry and nature. In this special edition, new applications of these effects to physical chemistry, solar system origin models, terrestrial atmospheric and biogenic evolution, polar paleo climatology, snowball earth geology, and present day atmospheric sciences are presented.

  18. Introduction to Chemistry and Applications in Nature of Mass Independent Isotope Effects Special Feature

    PubMed Central

    Thiemens, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Stable isotope ratio variations are regulated by physical and chemical laws. These rules depend on a relation with mass differences between isotopes. New classes of isotope variation effects that deviate from mass dependent laws, termed mass independent isotope effects, were discovered in 1983 and have a wide range of applications in basic chemistry and nature. In this special edition, new applications of these effects to physical chemistry, solar system origin models, terrestrial atmospheric and biogenic evolution, polar paleo climatology, snowball earth geology, and present day atmospheric sciences are presented. PMID:24167299

  19. Introduction to chemistry and applications in nature of mass independent isotope effects special feature.

    PubMed

    Thiemens, Mark H

    2013-10-29

    Stable isotope ratio variations are regulated by physical and chemical laws. These rules depend on a relation with mass differences between isotopes. New classes of isotope variation effects that deviate from mass dependent laws, termed mass independent isotope effects, were discovered in 1983 and have a wide range of applications in basic chemistry and nature. In this special edition, new applications of these effects to physical chemistry, solar system origin models, terrestrial atmospheric and biogenic evolution, polar paleo climatology, snowball earth geology, and present day atmospheric sciences are presented. PMID:24167299

  20. THE EFFECT OF MASS LOSS ON THE TIDAL EVOLUTION OF EXTRASOLAR PLANET

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, J. H.

    2010-04-01

    By combining mass loss and tidal evolution of close-in planets, we present a qualitative study on their tidal migrations. We incorporate mass loss in tidal evolution for planets with different masses and find that mass loss could interfere with tidal evolution. In an upper limit case (beta = 3), a significant portion of mass may be evaporated in a long evolution timescale. Evidence of greater modification of the planets with an initial separation of about 0.1 AU than those with a = 0.15 AU can be found in this model. With the assumption of a large initial eccentricity, the planets with initial mass <=1 M{sub J} and initial distance of about 0.1 AU could not survive. With the supposition of beta = 1.1, we find that the loss process has an effect on the planets with low mass at a {approx} 0.05 AU. In both cases, the effect of evaporation on massive planets can be neglected. Also, heating efficiency and initial eccentricity have significant influence on tidal evolution. We find that even low heating efficiency and initial eccentricity have a significant effect on tidal evolution. Our analysis shows that evaporation on planets with different initial masses can accelerate (decelerate) the tidal evolution due to the increase (decrease) in tide of the planet (star). Consequently, the effect of evaporation cannot be neglected in evolutionary calculations of close-in planets. The physical parameters of HD 209458b can be fitted by our model.

  1. Historical Earthquake Scenarios and Effects on the Ancient City of İstanbul (A.D. 478 - 1999)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şahin, Murat; Elitez, İrem; Özmen, Aybars; Yaltırak, Cenk

    2016-04-01

    Active fault mapping is one of the most important subject in the active tectonic studies. The consistency of the active fault maps with the reality is curial for the settlements and socio-economic conditions. The Marmara region is one of the precious area where the longest duration settlement and civilization are observed along a fault system. The Marmara Sea and its surrounding area are unique on the earth which has the remarkable history of 1500 years in non-instrumental period. Because, İstanbul was the capital city of both Byzantium and Ottoman Empire and the historical records of İstanbul are reliable for this environment such as A.D. 1509 earthquake known as 'little apocalypse'. Although the active faults of the Marmara Sea have studied and mapped by many researchers, there are only three different main fault model suggested for the Marmara Sea. These are single fault model (Le Pichon et al., 2001), pull-apart model (Armijo et al., 2005) and horsetail model (Yaltırak, 2002; 2015). Yaltırak (2015) grouped the 38 destructive historical earthquakes according to their felt area for these three fault models in the Marmara region. In this study we have modelled the Modified Mercalli Intensities (MMI) of historical buildings and cross checked with damages on the related structure in order to investigate the consistency of fault pattern with historical earthquakes. In this study three-stage evaluation has been made. In the first stage, three models that differ from each other were prepared on a database in commercial ArcGIS software. Mw values were calculated for each segment according to their lengths, seismogenic depths and 18 mm/yr accumulation by using the equation of Kanamori (1977). In the second stage, the 1:25000-scale geological map of the ancient city of İstanbul was revised according to Vs30 data of the İstanbul Metropolitan Municipality. The exact location of the historical constructions in the İstanbul have been plotted by using non

  2. Effect of adding mFOLFOX6 after neoadjuvant chemoradiation in locally advanced rectal cancer: a multicentre, phase 2 trial

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Aguilar, Julio; Chow, Oliver S; Smith, David D; Marcet, Jorge E; Cataldo, Peter A; Varma, Madhulika G; Kumar, Anjali S; Oommen, Samuel; Coutsoftides, Theodore; Hunt, Steven R; Stamos, Michael J; Ternent, Charles A; Herzig, Daniel O; Fichera, Alessandro; Polite, Blase N; Dietz, David W; Patil, Sujata; Avila, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who achieve a pathological complete response to neoadjuvant chemoradiation have an improved prognosis. The need for surgery in these patients has been questioned, but the proportion of patients achieving a pathological complete response is small. We aimed to assess whether adding cycles of mFOLFOX6 between chemoradiation and surgery increased the proportion of patients achieving a pathological complete response. Methods We did a phase 2, non-randomised trial consisting of four sequential study groups of patients with stage II–III locally advanced rectal cancer at 17 institutions in the USA and Canada. All patients received chemoradiation (fluorouracil 225 mg/m2 per day by continuous infusion throughout radiotherapy, and 45.0 Gy in 25 fractions, 5 days per week for 5 weeks, followed by a minimum boost of 5.4 Gy). Patients in group 1 had total mesorectal excision 6–8 weeks after chemoradiation. Patients in groups 2–4 received two, four, or six cycles of mFOLFOX6, respectively, between chemoradiation and total mesorectal excision. Each cycle of mFOLFOX6 consisted of racemic leucovorin 200 mg/m2 or 400 mg/m2, according to the discretion of the treating investigator, oxaliplatin 85 mg/m2 in a 2-h infusion, bolus fluorouracil 400 mg/m2 on day 1, and a 46-h infusion of fluorouracil 2400 mg/m2. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who achieved a pathological complete response, analysed by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00335816. Findings Between March 24, 2004, and Nov 16, 2012, 292 patients were registered, 259 of whom (60 in group 1, 67 in group 2, 67 in group 3, and 65 in group 4) met criteria for analysis. 11 (18%, 95% CI 10–30) of 60 patients in group 1, 17 (25%, 16–37) of 67 in group 2, 20 (30%, 19–42) of 67 in group 3, and 25 (38%, 27–51) of 65 in group 4 achieved a pathological complete response (p=0.0036). Study group was

  3. Effects of Adding On-the-Job Feedback to Conventional Analog Staff Training in a Nursing Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arco, Lucius; du Toit, Elaine

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine effects of on-the-job feedback after conventional analog staff training and to corroborate earlier findings of competent performance maintained without feedback from others. The study took place in a nursing home with four staff participants and a resident with problem behaviors. A multiple baseline design…

  4. Effects of maternal characteristics and climatic variation on birth masses of Alaskan caribou

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, L.G.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding factors that influence birth mass of mammals provides insights to nutritional trade-offs made by females to optimize their reproduction, growth, and survival. I evaluated variation in birth mass of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) in central Alaska relative to maternal characteristics (age, body mass, cohort, and nutritional condition as influenced by winter severity) during 11 years with substantial variation in winter snowfall. Snowfall during gestation was the predominant factor explaining variation in birth masses, influencing birth mass inversely and through interactions with maternal age and lactation status. Maternal age effects were noted for females ??? 5 years old, declining in magnitude with each successive age class. Birth mass as a proportion of autumn maternal mass was inversely related to winter snowfall, even though there was no decrease in masses of adult females in late winter associated with severe winters. I found no evidence of a hypothesized intergenerational effect of lower birth masses for offspring of females born after severe winters. Caribou produce relatively small offspring but provide exceptional lactation support for those that survive. Conservative maternal investment before parturition may represent an optimal reproductive strategy given that caribou experience stochastic variation in winter severity during gestation, uncertainty of environmental conditions surrounding the birth season, and intense predation on neonates. ?? 2005 American Society of Mammalogists.

  5. The effects of excitation waveforms and shaker moving mass on the measured modal characteristics of a 2- by 5-foot aluminum plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voracek, David F.; Morales, Adolfo M.

    1988-01-01

    Ground vibration tests were conducted to compare and to investigate the effects of five excitation waveforms and the shaker moving mass (equipment and armature used to attach the shaker to the structure) on the experimental modal characteristics of a 2- by 5-ft aluminum plate using fast Fourier transform techniques. The five types of excitation waveforms studied were sine dwell, random, impact, sine sweep, and impulsive sine. The results showed that the experimental modal frequencies for all types of excitation were within 3 percent, while the modal damping data exhibited greater scatter. The sets of mode shapes obtained by the five types of excitation were consistent. The results of the shaker moving mass investigation on the 2- by 5-ft aluminum plate showed that modal frequency decreases and modal damping remains relatively constant with an increase in shaker moving mass. The generalized mass of the structure appears to decrease with an increase in shaker moving mass. In addition, it was seen that having a shaker near a node line can reduce some of the effects of the added shaker moving mass on the frequencies and the damping.

  6. Acute effects of mustard, horseradish, black pepper and ginger on energy expenditure, appetite, ad libitum energy intake and energy balance in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Gregersen, N T; Belza, A; Jensen, M G; Ritz, C; Bitz, C; Hels, O; Frandsen, E; Mela, D J; Astrup, A

    2013-02-14

    Chilli peppers have been shown to enhance diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) and reduce energy intake (EI) in some studies, but there are few data on other pungent spices. The primary aim of the present study was to test the acute effects of black pepper (pepper), ginger, horseradish and mustard in a meal on 4 h postprandial DIT. The secondary aim was to examine the effects on subjective appetite measures, ad libitum EI and energy balance. In a five-way placebo-controlled, single-blind, cross-over trial, twenty-two young (age 24·9 (SD 4·6) years), normal-weight (BMI 21·8 (SD 2·1) kg/m²) males were randomly assigned to receive a brunch meal with either pepper (1·3 g), ginger (20 g), horseradish (8·3 g), mustard (21 g) or no spices (placebo). The amounts of spices were chosen from pre-testing to make the meal spicy but palatable. No significant treatment effects were observed on DIT, but mustard produced DIT, which tended to be larger than that of placebo (14 %, 59 (SE 3) v. 52 (SE 2) kJ/h, respectively, P=0·08). No other spice induced thermogenic effects approaching statistical significance. Subjective measures of appetite (P>0·85), ad libitum EI (P=0·63) and energy balance (P=0·67) also did not differ between the treatments. Finally, horseradish decreased heart rate (P=0·048) and increased diastolic blood pressure (P= 0·049) compared with placebo. In conclusion, no reliable treatment effects on appetite, EI or energy balance were observed, although mustard tended to be thermogenic at this dose. Further studies should explore the possible strength and mechanisms of the potential thermogenic effect of mustard actives, and potential enhancement by, for example, combinations with other food components.

  7. Effect of solar Coronal Mass Ejections on the ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheiner, Olga; Fridman, Vladimir; Rakhlin, Alexander; Pershin, Alexsander; Vybornov, Feodor

    The influence of solar processes on the state of near-earth space is constantly the object of serious study. First of all the solar radiation affects the parameters of the ionosphere and ionizing processes in it. The basic level indicator of the ionized particles is the critical frequency f0F2 of the reflection of radio signal during sounding of ionosphere. Understanding of the role of Coronal Mass Ejections (CME) in global solar-terrestrial processes allow us to put up the problem about their possible influence on near Earth’ processes and ionosphere behavior. Earlier the authors proposed the procedure of the detection the influence of CMEs on the differential parameters of the upper ionosphere Deltaf0F2 as more sensitive in comparison with the traditional methods. First results were based on the data of regular observations of critical frequency f0F2 during the cycle of solar activity (1975-1986). To verify the relationship discovered we used in the proposed study the data of critical frequency f0F2, determined from uniform ionograms obtained with the modern digital Ionosonde CADI. This ionosonde is installed at the landfill NIRFI "Vasilsursk" (near Nizhny Novgorod), and working program of regular observations allowed to obtain ionograms at least once in 1 minutes. The accuracy of determining the critical frequency was less than ± 50 kHz. There are many examples of time coincidence between the periods of CMEs existence and negative deflection in Deltaf0F2 behaviour.

  8. Effects of adding on-the-job feedback to conventional analog staff training in a nursing home.

    PubMed

    Arco, Lucius; du Toit, Elaine

    2006-09-01

    The aims of this study were to examine effects of on-the-job feedback after conventional analog staff training and to corroborate earlier findings of competent performance maintained without feedback from others. The study took place in a nursing home with four staff participants and a resident with problem behaviors. A multiple baseline design with measures of staff and resident behavior was used, supplemented with social validity reports. The staff training program consisted of conventional group workshops plus individual on-the-job feedback. During maintenance, staff members continued recording resident behaviors but without further on-the-job feedback. Results show that after workshop training, staff performance increased, but only one staff participant demonstrated competency. With on-the-job feedback, all staff participants achieved and maintained competency. Procedures were effective and acceptable, and resident behaviors showed corresponding changes.

  9. Effects of added dopants on various triboluminescent properties of europium dibenzoylmethide triethylammonium (EuD4TEA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Constance; Fontenot, Ross S.; Bhat, Kamala N.; Aggarwal, Mohan D.

    2014-03-01

    A triboluminescent (TL) material is one that emits light upon pressure, impact, friction, or mechanical shock. TL materials are desirable for investigation because they have the potential to be used as the active element for smart impact sensors. While the material europium dibenzoylmethide triethylammonium (EuD4TEA) produces a TL emission yield that can be observed by the naked eye, it is still not sufficiently bright for use in smart sensor devices. Previous studies have shown that additional materials can be combined with EuD4TEA in order to improve the TL emission yield. In this paper, we discuss the effects of doping on EuD4TEA at different concentrations with a variety of materials on the TL emission yield and decay times. The dopants that were used in this study were nicotine, dibutyl phosphate (DBP), and magnesium. We also discuss both the effects of pH on EuD4TEA, and the doping effects on impact energy. For testing triboluminescent properties, we use a custom-built drop tower that generates triboluminescence by fracturing compounds through impact. Collected data is analyzed using specially written LabVIEW programs.

  10. Nonlinear Ion Harmonics in the Paul Trap with Added Octopole Field: Theoretical Characterization and New Insight into Nonlinear Resonance Effect.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Caiqiao; Zhou, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Ning; Zhan, Lingpeng; Chen, Yongtai; Nie, Zongxiu

    2016-02-01

    The nonlinear harmonics within the ion motion are the fingerprint of the nonlinear fields. They are exclusively introduced by these nonlinear fields and are responsible to some specific nonlinear effects such as nonlinear resonance effect. In this article, the ion motion in the quadrupole field with a weak superimposed octopole component, described by the nonlinear Mathieu equation (NME), was studied by using the analytical harmonic balance (HB) method. Good accuracy of the HB method, which was comparable with that of the numerical fourth-order Runge-Kutta (4th RK), was achieved in the entire first stability region, except for the points at the stability boundary (i.e., β = 1) and at the nonlinear resonance condition (i.e., β = 0.5). Using the HB method, the nonlinear 3β harmonic series introduced by the octopole component and the resultant nonlinear resonance effect were characterized. At nonlinear resonance, obvious resonant peaks were observed in the nonlinear 3β series of ion motion, but were not found in the natural harmonics. In addition, both resonant excitation and absorption peaks could be observed, simultaneously. These are two unique features of the nonlinear resonance, distinguishing it from the normal resonance. Finally, an approximation equation was given to describe the corresponding working parameter, q nr , at nonlinear resonance. This equation can help avoid the sensitivity degradation due to the operation of ion traps at the nonlinear resonance condition. PMID:26497312

  11. The effect of pair-instability mass loss on black-hole mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belczynski, K.; Heger, A.; Gladysz, W.; Ruiter, A. J.; Woosley, S.; Wiktorowicz, G.; Chen, H.-Y.; Bulik, T.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Holz, D. E.; Fryer, C. L.; Berti, E.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Mergers of two stellar-origin black holes are a prime source of gravitational waves and are under intensive investigation. One crucial ingredient in their modeling has been neglected: pair-instability pulsation supernovae with associated severe mass loss may suppress the formation of massive black holes, decreasing black-hole-merger rates for the highest black-hole masses. Aims: We demonstrate the effects of pair-instability pulsation supernovae on merger rate and mass using populations of double black-hole binaries formed through the isolated binary classical evolution channel. Methods: The mass loss from pair-instability pulsation supernova is estimated based on existing hydrodynamical calculations. This mass loss is incorporated into the StarTrack population synthesis code. StarTrack is used to generate double black-hole populations with and without pair-instability pulsation supernova mass loss. Results: The mass loss associated with pair-instability pulsation supernovae limits the Population I/II stellar-origin black-hole mass to 50 M⊙, in tension with earlier predictions that the maximum black-hole mass could be as high as 100 M⊙. In our model, neutron stars form with mass 1-2 M⊙. We then encounter the first mass gap at 2-5 M⊙ with the compact object absence due to rapid supernova explosions, followed by the formation of black holes with mass 5-50 M⊙, with a second mass gap at 50-135 M⊙ created by pair-instability pulsation supernovae and by pair-instability supernovae. Finally, black holes with masses above 135 M⊙ may potentially form to arbitrarily high mass limited only by the extent of the initial mass function and the strength of stellar winds. Suppression of double black-hole-merger rates by pair-instability pulsation supernovae is negligible for our evolutionary channel. Our standard evolutionary model, with the inclusion of pair-instability pulsation supernovae and pair-instability supernovae, is fully consistent with the Laser

  12. Effects of 2 nm size added heterogeneity on non-exponential dielectric response, and the dynamic heterogeneity view of molecular liquids.

    PubMed

    Johari, G P; Khouri, J

    2012-09-14

    To investigate how non-exponential response could vary under different conditions, we studied the effects of adding 2 nm size polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) to diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A, whose molecules have the same terminal (epoxide) dipoles as the tentacle-like side chains attached to the silsesquioxane core of the POSS molecule. Dielectric relaxation spectra show that, on initial addition, the POSS nano-heterogeneity decreases the non-exponential response parameter β, which is consistent with the dynamic heterogeneity view, but it also decreases the relaxation time τ(m), which is inconsistent with that view. The variations in β and τ(m) with the composition have a thermal equivalence. Despite the lack of translational diffusion required for dynamic heterogeneity, plastic crystals show non-exponential response and non-Arrhenius dynamics. Measurements of β and τ(m) seem more appropriate than using probe molecules or modeling nonlinear response data as a sum of linear responses for testing the dynamic heterogeneity view. Data on molecular liquid mixtures is not generally consistent with this view, and adding a solute does not always decrease β. Studies of mixtures of different size rigid molecules with identical dipolar groups, including polymers, may be useful for comparing the relative effects of temperature and molecular size on β and τ(m).

  13. Effects of 2 nm size added heterogeneity on non-exponential dielectric response, and the dynamic heterogeneity view of molecular liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johari, G. P.; Khouri, J.

    2012-09-01

    To investigate how non-exponential response could vary under different conditions, we studied the effects of adding 2 nm size polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) to diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A, whose molecules have the same terminal (epoxide) dipoles as the tentacle-like side chains attached to the silsesquioxane core of the POSS molecule. Dielectric relaxation spectra show that, on initial addition, the POSS nano-heterogeneity decreases the non-exponential response parameter β, which is consistent with the dynamic heterogeneity view, but it also decreases the relaxation time τm, which is inconsistent with that view. The variations in β and τm with the composition have a thermal equivalence. Despite the lack of translational diffusion required for dynamic heterogeneity, plastic crystals show non-exponential response and non-Arrhenius dynamics. Measurements of β and τm seem more appropriate than using probe molecules or modeling nonlinear response data as a sum of linear responses for testing the dynamic heterogeneity view. Data on molecular liquid mixtures is not generally consistent with this view, and adding a solute does not always decrease β. Studies of mixtures of different size rigid molecules with identical dipolar groups, including polymers, may be useful for comparing the relative effects of temperature and molecular size on β and τm.

  14. Main-Sequence Effective Temperatures from a Revised Mass-Luminosity Relation Based on Accurate Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eker, Z.; Soydugan, F.; Soydugan, E.; Bilir, S.; Yaz Gökçe, E.; Steer, I.; Tüysüz, M.; Şenyüz, T.; Demircan, O.

    2015-04-01

    The mass-luminosity (M-L), mass-radius (M-R), and mass-effective temperature (M-{{T}eff}) diagrams for a subset of galactic nearby main-sequence stars with masses and radii accurate to ≤slant 3% and luminosities accurate to ≤slant 30% (268 stars) has led to a putative discovery. Four distinct mass domains have been identified, which we have tentatively associated with low, intermediate, high, and very high mass main-sequence stars, but which nevertheless are clearly separated by three distinct break points at 1.05, 2.4, and 7 {{M}⊙ } within the studied mass range of 0.38-32 {{M}⊙ }. Further, a revised mass-luminosity relation (MLR) is found based on linear fits for each of the mass domains identified. The revised, mass-domain based MLRs, which are classical (L\\propto {{M}α }), are shown to be preferable to a single linear, quadratic, or cubic equation representing an alternative MLR. Stellar radius evolution within the main sequence for stars with M\\gt 1 {{M}⊙ } is clearly evident on the M-R diagram, but it is not clear on the M-{{T}eff} diagram based on published temperatures. Effective temperatures can be calculated directly using the well known Stephan-Boltzmann law by employing the accurately known values of M and R with the newly defined MLRs. With the calculated temperatures, stellar temperature evolution within the main sequence for stars with M\\gt 1 {{M}⊙ } is clearly visible on the M-{{T}eff} diagram. Our study asserts that it is now possible to compute the effective temperature of a main-sequence star with an accuracy of ˜6%, as long as its observed radius error is adequately small (\\lt 1%) and its observed mass error is reasonably small (\\lt 6%).

  15. Effects of reservoir heterogeneity on scaling of effective mass transfer coefficient for solute transport.

    PubMed

    Leung, Juliana Y; Srinivasan, Sanjay

    2016-09-01

    Modeling transport process at large scale requires proper scale-up of subsurface heterogeneity and an understanding of its interaction with the underlying transport mechanisms. A technique based on volume averaging is applied to quantitatively assess the scaling characteristics of effective mass transfer coefficient in heterogeneous reservoir models. The effective mass transfer coefficient represents the combined contribution from diffusion and dispersion to the transport of non-reactive solute particles within a fluid phase. Although treatment of transport problems with the volume averaging technique has been published in the past, application to geological systems exhibiting realistic spatial variability remains a challenge. Previously, the authors developed a new procedure where results from a fine-scale numerical flow simulation reflecting the full physics of the transport process albeit over a sub-volume of the reservoir are integrated with the volume averaging technique to provide effective description of transport properties. The procedure is extended such that spatial averaging is performed at the local-heterogeneity scale. In this paper, the transport of a passive (non-reactive) solute is simulated on multiple reservoir models exhibiting different patterns of heterogeneities, and the scaling behavior of effective mass transfer coefficient (Keff) is examined and compared. One such set of models exhibit power-law (fractal) characteristics, and the variability of dispersion and Keff with scale is in good agreement with analytical expressions described in the literature. This work offers an insight into the impacts of heterogeneity on the scaling of effective transport parameters. A key finding is that spatial heterogeneity models with similar univariate and bivariate statistics may exhibit different scaling characteristics because of the influence of higher order statistics. More mixing is observed in the channelized models with higher-order continuity. It

  16. Effects of reservoir heterogeneity on scaling of effective mass transfer coefficient for solute transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Juliana Y.; Srinivasan, Sanjay

    2016-09-01

    Modeling transport process at large scale requires proper scale-up of subsurface heterogeneity and an understanding of its interaction with the underlying transport mechanisms. A technique based on volume averaging is applied to quantitatively assess the scaling characteristics of effective mass transfer coefficient in heterogeneous reservoir models. The effective mass transfer coefficient represents the combined contribution from diffusion and dispersion to the transport of non-reactive solute particles within a fluid phase. Although treatment of transport problems with the volume averaging technique has been published in the past, application to geological systems exhibiting realistic spatial variability remains a challenge. Previously, the authors developed a new procedure where results from a fine-scale numerical flow simulation reflecting the full physics of the transport process albeit over a sub-volume of the reservoir are integrated with the volume averaging technique to provide effective description of transport properties. The procedure is extended such that spatial averaging is performed at the local-heterogeneity scale. In this paper, the transport of a passive (non-reactive) solute is simulated on multiple reservoir models exhibiting different patterns of heterogeneities, and the scaling behavior of effective mass transfer coefficient (Keff) is examined and compared. One such set of models exhibit power-law (fractal) characteristics, and the variability of dispersion and Keff with scale is in good agreement with analytical expressions described in the literature. This work offers an insight into the impacts of heterogeneity on the scaling of effective transport parameters. A key finding is that spatial heterogeneity models with similar univariate and bivariate statistics may exhibit different scaling characteristics because of the influence of higher order statistics. More mixing is observed in the channelized models with higher-order continuity. It

  17. Effects of reservoir heterogeneity on scaling of effective mass transfer coefficient for solute transport.

    PubMed

    Leung, Juliana Y; Srinivasan, Sanjay

    2016-09-01

    Modeling transport process at large scale requires proper scale-up of subsurface heterogeneity and an understanding of its interaction with the underlying transport mechanisms. A technique based on volume averaging is applied to quantitatively assess the scaling characteristics of effective mass transfer coefficient in heterogeneous reservoir models. The effective mass transfer coefficient represents the combined contribution from diffusion and dispersion to the transport of non-reactive solute particles within a fluid phase. Although treatment of transport problems with the volume averaging technique has been published in the past, application to geological systems exhibiting realistic spatial variability remains a challenge. Previously, the authors developed a new procedure where results from a fine-scale numerical flow simulation reflecting the full physics of the transport process albeit over a sub-volume of the reservoir are integrated with the volume averaging technique to provide effective description of transport properties. The procedure is extended such that spatial averaging is performed at the local-heterogeneity scale. In this paper, the transport of a passive (non-reactive) solute is simulated on multiple reservoir models exhibiting different patterns of heterogeneities, and the scaling behavior of effective mass transfer coefficient (Keff) is examined and compared. One such set of models exhibit power-law (fractal) characteristics, and the variability of dispersion and Keff with scale is in good agreement with analytical expressions described in the literature. This work offers an insight into the impacts of heterogeneity on the scaling of effective transport parameters. A key finding is that spatial heterogeneity models with similar univariate and bivariate statistics may exhibit different scaling characteristics because of the influence of higher order statistics. More mixing is observed in the channelized models with higher-order continuity. It

  18. Effect of virtual mass on the characteristics and the numerical stability in two-phase flows

    SciTech Connect

    No, H.C.; Kazimi, M.S.

    1981-04-01

    It is known that the typical six equation two-fluid model of the two-phase flow possesses complex characteristics, exhibits unbounded instabilities in the short-wavelength limit and constitutes an ill-posed initial value problem. Among the suggestions to overcome these difficulties, one model for the virtual mass force terms were studied here, because the virtual mass represents real physical effects to accomplish the dissipation for numerical stability. It was found that the virtual mass has a profound effect upon the mathematical characteristic and numerical stability. Here a quantitative bound on the coefficient of the virtual mass terms was suggested for mathematical hyperbolicity and numerical stability. It was concluded that the finite difference scheme with the virtual mass model is restricted only by the convective stability conditions with the above suggested value.

  19. Neuroprotective effect of novel cognitive enhancer noopept on AD-related cellular model involves the attenuation of apoptosis and tau hyperphosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Noopept (N-phenyl-acetyl-L-prolylglycine ethyl ester) was constructed as a dipeptide analog of the standard cognition enhancer, piracetam. Our previous experiments have demonstrated the cognition restoring effect of noopept in several animal models of Alzheimer disease (AD). Noopept was also shown to prevent ionic disbalance, excitotoxicity, free radicals and pro-inflammatory cytokines accumulation, and neurotrophine deficit typical for different kinds of brain damages, including AD. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective action of noopept on cellular model of AD, Aβ25–35-induced toxicity in PC12 cells and revealed the underlying mechanisms. Results The neuroprotective effect of noopept (added to the medium at 10 μM concentration, 72 hours before Аβ25–35) was studied on Аβ25–35-induced injury (5 μM for 24 h) in PC12 cells. The ability of drug to protect the impairments of cell viability, calcium homeostasis, ROS level, mitochondrial function, tau phosphorylation and neurite outgrowth caused by Аβ25–35 were evaluated. Following the exposure of PC12 cells to Аβ25–35 an increase of the level of ROS, intracellular calcium, and tau phosphorylation at Ser396 were observed; these changes were accompanied by a decrease in cell viability and an increase of apoptosis. Noopept treatment before the amyloid-beta exposure improved PC12 cells viability, reduced the number of early and late apoptotic cells, the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species and calcium and enhanced the mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, pretreatment of PC12 cell with noopept significantly attenuated tau hyperphosphorylation at Ser396 and ameliorated the alterations of neurite outgrowth evoked by Аβ25–35. Conclusions Taken together, these data provide evidence that novel cognitive enhancer noopept protects PC12 cell against deleterious actions of Aβ through inhibiting the oxidative damage and calcium overload as well as suppressing

  20. Advertising health: the case for counter-ads.

    PubMed

    Dorfman, L; Wallack, L

    1993-01-01

    Public service advertisements have been used by many in hopes of "selling" good health behaviors. But selling good behavior--even if it could be done more effectively--is not the best goal for using mass media to prevent health problems. Personal behavior is only part of what determines health status. Social conditions and the physical environment are important determinants of health that are usually ignored by health promotion advertising. Public service advertising may be doing more harm than good if it is diverting attention from more effective socially based health promotion strategies. Counter-ads are one communications strategy that could be used to promote a broader responsibility for rectifying health problems. In the tradition of advocacy advertising directly promoting policy rather than products, counter-ads promote views consistent with a public health perspective. Counter-ads set the agenda for health issues, conferring status on policy-oriented strategies for addressing health problems. The primary purpose of counter-ads is to challenge the dominant view that public health problems reflect personal health habits. They are controversial because they place health issues in a social and political context. Advertising strategies for health promotion range over a spectrum from individually oriented public service advertising to socially oriented counter-advertising. The recent anti-tobacco campaign from the California Department of Health Services represents advertisements across the spectrum. Counter-ads that focus on a politically controversial definition for health problems are an appropriate and necessary alternative to public service advertising.

  1. Advertising health: the case for counter-ads.

    PubMed

    Dorfman, L; Wallack, L

    1993-01-01

    Public service advertisements have been used by many in hopes of "selling" good health behaviors. But selling good behavior--even if it could be done more effectively--is not the best goal for using mass media to prevent health problems. Personal behavior is only part of what determines health status. Social conditions and the physical environment are important determinants of health that are usually ignored by health promotion advertising. Public service advertising may be doing more harm than good if it is diverting attention from more effective socially based health promotion strategies. Counter-ads are one communications strategy that could be used to promote a broader responsibility for rectifying health problems. In the tradition of advocacy advertising directly promoting policy rather than products, counter-ads promote views consistent with a public health perspective. Counter-ads set the agenda for health issues, conferring status on policy-oriented strategies for addressing health problems. The primary purpose of counter-ads is to challenge the dominant view that public health problems reflect personal health habits. They are controversial because they place health issues in a social and political context. Advertising strategies for health promotion range over a spectrum from individually oriented public service advertising to socially oriented counter-advertising. The recent anti-tobacco campaign from the California Department of Health Services represents advertisements across the spectrum. Counter-ads that focus on a politically controversial definition for health problems are an appropriate and necessary alternative to public service advertising. PMID:8265756

  2. Maternal influences on seed mass effect and initial seedling growth in four Quercus species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Rodríguez, Victoria; Villar, Rafael; Navarro-Cerrillo, Rafael M.

    2011-01-01

    Seed mass represents the reserves available for growth in the first stages of plant establishment. Variation in seed mass is an important trait which may have consequences for growth and survival of seedlings. Three mechanisms have been proposed to explain how seed mass influences seedling development: the reserve use effect, the metabolic effect and the seedling-size effect. Few studies have evaluated at the same time the three hypotheses within species and none have evaluated the effect of the mother trees. We studied four Quercus species by selecting five mother trees per species. Seeds were sown in a glasshouse and the use of seed reserves, seedling growth and morphology were measured. Considering all mothers of the same species together, we did not find the reserve effect for any species, the metabolic effect was observed in all species except for Quercus suber, and the seedling-size effect was matched for all the species. Within species, maternal origin modified the studied relationships and thus the studied mechanisms as we did not observe seed mass effects on all mothers from each species. Moreover, the metabolic effect was not found in any mother of Quercus ilex and Quercus faginea. We concluded that a maternal effect can change seed mass relationships with traits related to seedling establishment. The conservation of this high intra-specific variability must be considered to guarantee species performance in heterogeneous environments and in particular in the current context of climate change.

  3. Demonstration of tank effect on growth indices of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during an ad libitum feeding trial.

    PubMed

    Speare, D J; MacNair, N; Hammell, K L

    1995-10-01

    Growth indices were examined in 24 identically managed tanks, each containing 120 diploid juvenile rainbow trout (initial mean body weight, 9.3 g) during a 12-week study to examine tank effects associated with tank location in a multi user research facility. Growth indices included mean body weight, feed intake, feed conversion index, and specific growth rate. The null hypothesis that tank effect had no effect on growth over the 12-week period was rejected (P = 0.038), and mean weight in individual tanks differed by as much as 18.7%). During the study it was determined that the proximity of tanks to common-use walkways in the facility could affect growth indices. This was indicated by significant differences in the mean fish weights among blocks of tanks served by different header tanks after 4 (P = 0.001) and 8 (P = 0.024) week. The block containing tanks of fish with the highest them weight was nearest to the 2 common-use walkways in the facility. Fish in this block of tanks, compared with those in other blocks, had significantly greater feed intake but no significant differences in conversion efficiency. Compensatory growth, a well known growth attribute in fishes, diminished the difference in mean weight be tween these blocks of tanks by the end of the study. Comparison of paired ranks within header tank blocks indicated that fish in those located nearest to walkways had higher feeding rates over the 12-week period (P = 0.048), but less efficient feed conversion (P = 0.040) than did fish in matched tanks located farthest from walkways. However, there were no differences in mean weight of fish. Results of this trial document the risks involved in identifying fish in a tank as the experimental unit when treatments are administered to the tank of fish, the latter being the true experimental unit.

  4. Simply adding the word "fruit" makes sugar healthier: The misleading effect of symbolic information on the perceived healthiness of food.

    PubMed

    Sütterlin, Bernadette; Siegrist, Michael

    2015-12-01

    People may use simple heuristics to assess the healthiness of food products. For instance, the information that a product contains "fruit sugar" (in German, "fruit sugar" is the colloquial term for fructose) could be interpreted as a cue that the product is relatively healthy, since the term "fruit" symbolizes healthiness. This can have a misleading effect on the perceived healthiness of a product. In Experiment 1, participants (N = 164) were asked to evaluate the healthiness of one of two breakfast cereals based on the information provided in a nutrition table. For one group, the label "fruit sugar" was used; for the other, the label "sugar" was used. Results suggest that the phrase "fruit sugar" listed as an ingredient of the breakfast cereal resulted in a more positive perception of the healthiness of the cereal compared with the ingredient labeled "sugar." In Experiment 2 (N = 202), the results of Experiment 1 were replicated with a within-subjects design in which participants evaluated the two products simultaneously. Experiment 3 (N = 251) ruled out the alternative explanation that the effect could be due to differing inferences about the product's ingredients based on the label used, that is, that the product labeled with "fruit sugar" contains fruit. Finally, in Experiment 4 (N = 162), the results show that the healthiness associated with the labeling of the ingredient "sugar" ("fruit sugar" vs. "sugar") mediates the observed effect. Results of the four experiments indicate that symbolic information is an important factor that can influence people's health perceptions of food. These findings have implications for marketing and public health. PMID:26184340

  5. Simply adding the word "fruit" makes sugar healthier: The misleading effect of symbolic information on the perceived healthiness of food.

    PubMed

    Sütterlin, Bernadette; Siegrist, Michael

    2015-12-01

    People may use simple heuristics to assess the healthiness of food products. For instance, the information that a product contains "fruit sugar" (in German, "fruit sugar" is the colloquial term for fructose) could be interpreted as a cue that the product is relatively healthy, since the term "fruit" symbolizes healthiness. This can have a misleading effect on the perceived healthiness of a product. In Experiment 1, participants (N = 164) were asked to evaluate the healthiness of one of two breakfast cereals based on the information provided in a nutrition table. For one group, the label "fruit sugar" was used; for the other, the label "sugar" was used. Results suggest that the phrase "fruit sugar" listed as an ingredient of the breakfast cereal resulted in a more positive perception of the healthiness of the cereal compared with the ingredient labeled "sugar." In Experiment 2 (N = 202), the results of Experiment 1 were replicated with a within-subjects design in which participants evaluated the two products simultaneously. Experiment 3 (N = 251) ruled out the alternative explanation that the effect could be due to differing inferences about the product's ingredients based on the label used, that is, that the product labeled with "fruit sugar" contains fruit. Finally, in Experiment 4 (N = 162), the results show that the healthiness associated with the labeling of the ingredient "sugar" ("fruit sugar" vs. "sugar") mediates the observed effect. Results of the four experiments indicate that symbolic information is an important factor that can influence people's health perceptions of food. These findings have implications for marketing and public health.

  6. Cost-effectiveness of adding vaccination with the AS04-adjuvanted human papillomavirus 16/18 vaccine to cervical cancer screening in Hungary

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The cervical cancer screening program implemented in Hungary to date has not been successful. Along with screening, vaccination is an effective intervention to prevent cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of adding vaccination with the human papillomavirus 16/18 vaccine to the current cervical cancer screening program in Hungary. Methods We developed a cohort simulation state-transition Markov model to model the life course of 12-year-old girls. Eighty percent participation in the HPV vaccination program at 12 years of age was assumed. Transitional probabilities were estimated using data from the literature. Local data were used regarding screening participation rates, and the costs were estimated in US $. We applied the purchasing power parity exchange rate of 129 HUF/$ to the cost data. Only direct health care costs were considered. We used a 3.7% discount rate for both the cost and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). The time horizon was 88 years. Results Inclusion of HPV vaccination at age 12 in the cervical cancer prevention program was predicted to be cost-effective. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of adding HPV vaccination to the current national cancer screening program was estimated to be 27 588 $/QALY. The results were sensitive to the price of the vaccine, the discount rate, the screening participation rate and whether herd immunity was taken into account. Conclusions Our modeling analysis showed that the vaccination of 12-year-old adolescent girls against cervical cancer with the AS04-adjuvanted human papillomavirus 16/18 vaccine would be a cost-effective strategy to prevent cervical cancer in Hungary. PMID:23110361

  7. Effect of added phosphate and type of cooking method on physico-chemical and sensory features of cooked lamb loins.

    PubMed

    Roldán, Mar; Antequera, Teresa; Pérez-Palacios, Trinidad; Ruiz, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluated the effect of brining with phosphates on the physico-chemical and sensory features of sous-vide and roasted cooked lamb. Lamb loins (n=48) were injected with either 10% w/w of distilled water or a solution containing 0.2% or 0.4% (w/v) of a mixture of phosphate salts. After injection, samples were either sous-vide cooked (12h-60°C) or oven roasted (180°C until 73°C of core temp.). Expressible moisture, cooking loss, instrumental color, pH, water holding capacity, instrumental texture and sensory properties were evaluated. Brining with phosphates led to lower cooking loss in both sous-vide and oven roasted samples, but only the former showed significantly higher moisture content. Phosphates increased instrumental hardness and shear force values in sous-vide samples, while this effect was not as evident in roasted ones. Toughness was reduced and juiciness was improved as a consequence of phosphate addition. Overall, injection of a phosphate solution appears as a potential procedure for improving sensory textural features of cooked lamb whole cuts. PMID:24530991

  8. Effect of added phosphate and type of cooking method on physico-chemical and sensory features of cooked lamb loins.

    PubMed

    Roldán, Mar; Antequera, Teresa; Pérez-Palacios, Trinidad; Ruiz, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluated the effect of brining with phosphates on the physico-chemical and sensory features of sous-vide and roasted cooked lamb. Lamb loins (n=48) were injected with either 10% w/w of distilled water or a solution containing 0.2% or 0.4% (w/v) of a mixture of phosphate salts. After injection, samples were either sous-vide cooked (12h-60°C) or oven roasted (180°C until 73°C of core temp.). Expressible moisture, cooking loss, instrumental color, pH, water holding capacity, instrumental texture and sensory properties were evaluated. Brining with phosphates led to lower cooking loss in both sous-vide and oven roasted samples, but only the former showed significantly higher moisture content. Phosphates increased instrumental hardness and shear force values in sous-vide samples, while this effect was not as evident in roasted ones. Toughness was reduced and juiciness was improved as a consequence of phosphate addition. Overall, injection of a phosphate solution appears as a potential procedure for improving sensory textural features of cooked lamb whole cuts.

  9. Therapeutic Effects of Microbubbles Added to Combined High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound and Chemotherapy in a Pancreatic Cancer Xenograft Model

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Mi Hye; Kim, Hae Ri; Kim, Bo Ram; Park, Eun-Joo; Kim, Hoe Suk; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) combined with microbubbles enhances the therapeutic effects of chemotherapy. Materials and Methods A pancreatic cancer xenograft model was established using BALB/c nude mice and luciferase-expressing human pancreatic cancer cells. Mice were randomly assigned to five groups according to treatment: control (n = 10), gemcitabine alone (GEM; n = 12), HIFU with microbubbles (HIFU + MB, n = 11), combined HIFU and gemcitabine (HIGEM; n = 12), and HIGEM + MB (n = 13). After three weekly treatments, apoptosis rates were evaluated using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay in two mice per group. Tumor volume and bioluminescence were monitored using high-resolution 3D ultrasound imaging and in vivo bioluminescence imaging for eight weeks in the remaining mice. Results The HIGEM + MB group showed significantly higher apoptosis rates than the other groups (p < 0.05) and exhibited the slowest tumor growth. From week 5, the tumor-volume-ratio relative to the baseline tumor volume was significantly lower in the HIGEM + MB group than in the control, GEM, and HIFU + MB groups (p < 0.05). Despite visible distinction, the HIGEM and HIGEM + MB groups showed no significant differences. Conclusion High-intensity focused ultrasound combined with microbubbles enhances the therapeutic effects of gemcitabine chemotherapy in a pancreatic cancer xenograft model. PMID:27587968

  10. Light-Front Quantization and AdS/QCD: An Overview

    SciTech Connect

    de Teramond, Guy F.; Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2011-08-19

    We give an overview of the light-front holographic approach to strongly coupled QCD, whereby a confining gauge theory, quantized on the light front, is mapped to a higher-dimensional anti de Sitter (AdS) space. The framework is guided by the AdS/CFT correspondence incorporating a gravitational background asymptotic to AdS space which encodes the salient properties of QCD, such as the ultraviolet conformal limit at the AdS boundary at z {yields} 0, as well as modifications of the geometry in the large z infrared region to describe confinement and linear Regge behavior. There are two equivalent procedures for deriving the AdS/QCD equations of motion: one can start from the Hamiltonian equation of motion in physical space time by studying the off-shell dynamics of the bound state wavefunctions as a function of the invariant mass of the constituents. To a first semiclassical approximation, where quantum loops and quark masses are not included, this leads to a light-front Hamiltonian equation which describes the bound state dynamics of light hadrons in terms of an invariant impact variable {zeta} which measures the separation of the partons within the hadron at equal light-front time. Alternatively, one can start from the gravity side by studying the propagation of hadronic modes in a fixed effective gravitational background. Both approaches are equivalent in the semiclassical approximation. This allows us to identify the holographic variable z in AdS space with the impact variable {zeta}. Light-front holography thus allows a precise mapping of transition amplitudes from AdS to physical space-time. The internal structure of hadrons is explicitly introduced and the angular momentum of the constituents plays a key role.

  11. Asymmetry distributions and mass effects in dijet events at a polarized HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maul, M.; Schäfer, A.; Mirkes, E.; Rädel, G.

    1998-09-01

    The asymmetry distributions for several kinematic variables are considered for finding a systematic way to maximize the signal for the extraction of the polarized gluon density. The relevance of mass effects for the corresponding dijet cross section is discussed and the different approximations for including mass effects are compared. We also compare via the programs Pepsi and Mepjet two different Monte Carlo (MC) approaches for simulating the expected signal in the dijet asymmetry at a polarized HERA.

  12. Nonequilibrium Green's function formulation of intersubband absorption for nonparabolic single-band effective mass Hamiltonian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolek, Andrzej

    2015-05-01

    The formulas are derived that enable calculations of intersubband absorption coefficient within nonequilibrium Green's function method applied to a single-band effective-mass Hamiltonian with the energy dependent effective mass. The derivation provides also the formulas for the virtual valence band components of the two-band Green's functions which can be used for more exact estimation of the density of states and electrons and more reliable treatment of electronic transport in unipolar n-type heterostructure semiconductor devices.

  13. Nonequilibrium Green's function formulation of intersubband absorption for nonparabolic single-band effective mass Hamiltonian

    SciTech Connect

    Kolek, Andrzej

    2015-05-04

    The formulas are derived that enable calculations of intersubband absorption coefficient within nonequilibrium Green's function method applied to a single-band effective-mass Hamiltonian with the energy dependent effective mass. The derivation provides also the formulas for the virtual valence band components of the two-band Green's functions which can be used for more exact estimation of the density of states and electrons and more reliable treatment of electronic transport in unipolar n-type heterostructure semiconductor devices.

  14. The Additional-Mass Effect of Plates as Determined by Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gracey, William

    1941-01-01

    The apparent increase in the inertia properties of a body moving in a fluid medium has been called the additional-mass effect. This report presents a resume of test procedures and results of experimental determinations of the additional-mass effect of flat plates. In addition to data obtained from various foreign sources and from a NACA investigation in 1933, the results of tests recently conducted by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics are included.

  15. Stability of charged global AdS4 spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, Raúl; Mas, Javier; Serantes, Alexandre

    2016-09-01

    We study linear and nonlinear stability of asymptotically AdS4 solutions in Einstein-Maxwell-scalar theory. After summarizing the set of static solutions we first examine thermodynamical stability in the grand canonical ensemble and the phase transitions that occur among them. In the second part of the paper we focus on nonlinear stability in the microcanonical ensemble by evolving radial perturbations numerically. We find hints of an instability corner for vanishingly small perturbations of the same kind as the ones present in the uncharged case. Collapses are avoided, instead, if the charge and mass of the perturbations come to close the line of solitons. Finally we examine the soliton solutions. The linear spectrum of normal modes is not resonant and instability turns on at extrema of the mass curve. Linear stability extends to nonlinear stability up to some threshold for the amplitude of the perturbation. Beyond that, the soliton is destroyed and collapses to a hairy black hole. The relative width of this stability band scales down with the charge Q, and does not survive the blow up limit to a planar geometry.

  16. Acute effects of protein composition and fibre enrichment of yogurt consumed as snacks on appetite sensations and subsequent ad libitum energy intake in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Doyon, Caroline Y; Tremblay, Angelo; Rioux, Laurie-Eve; Rhéaume, Caroline; Cianflone, Katherine; Poursharifi, Pegah; Turgeon, Sylvie L

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the impact of protein composition and/or fibre enrichment of yogurt on appetite sensations and subsequent energy intake. In this double-blind crossover study, 20 healthy men (aged 32.4 ± 9.1 years) were submitted to 5 randomized testing sessions, during which they had to consume 5 isocaloric and isonproteinemic yogurt snacks (120-g servings, ∼230 kJ, ∼4.5 g protein) differing by their casein-to-whey protein ratio (C:W) or dietary fibre content: (i) control C:W = 2.8:1; (ii) high whey (HW) C:W = 1.5:1, and fibre-enriched formulations using control; (iii) 2.4 g of inulin; (iv) 1.9 g of inulin and 0.5 g of β-glucan (+IN-βG); and (v) 0.5 g of β-glucan. Appetite sensations were assessed using 150-mm visual analog scales. Plasma variables (glucose, insulin, ghrelin) were measured at 30-min intervals post-yogurt consumption for 2 h. Finally, energy intakes during ad libitum lunches offered 2 h after yogurt snacks were recorded. None of the yogurts impacted appetite sensations. Ad libitum energy intake was significantly different only between HW and control yogurts (-812 kJ; p = 0.03). Regarding post-yogurt plasma variables, a significant difference was found only between ghrelin area under the curve of the +IN-βG and the HW yogurts (-15 510 pmol/L per 120 min, p = 0.04). In conclusion, although appetite sensations were not influenced by variations in yogurts' protein compositions, a reduced energy intake was observed during the ad libitum lunch after the HW yogurt that may be attributable to its lower C:W. Surprisingly, the fibre enrichments studied did not exert effect on appetite sensations and energy intake.

  17. Effects on transthyretin in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid by DHA-rich n - 3 fatty acid supplementation in patients with Alzheimer's disease: the OmegAD study.

    PubMed

    Faxén-Irving, Gerd; Freund-Levi, Yvonne; Eriksdotter-Jönhagen, Maria; Basun, Hans; Hjorth, Erik; Palmblad, Jan; Vedin, Inger; Cederholm, Tommy; Wahlund, Lars-Olof

    2013-01-01

    Transthyretin (TTR) binds amyloid-β (Aβ) and may reduce brain Aβ, a pathological feature in Alzheimer's disease (AD). N - 3 fatty acids (FA), docosahexaenoic (DHA), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) may increase TTR transcription in rat hippocampus. We studied effects of n - 3 FA supplementation on TTR-levels in patients with AD. Outpatients were randomized to receive 1.7 g DHA and 0.6 g EPA (n - 3/n - 3 group) or placebo (placebo/n - 3 group) during 6 months. After 6 months, all patients received n - 3 FA for another 6 months. TTR and FA were measured in plasma in all subjects, whereas TTR in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was measured in a subgroup. The study was completed by 89 patients in the n - 3/n - 3 group (75 y, 57% w) and 85 in the placebo/n - 3 group (75 y, 46% w). Baseline plasma-TTR was within normal range in both groups. After 6 months, plasma-TTR decreased in the placebo/n - 3 group (p < 0.001 within and p < 0.015 between the groups). No changes were observed in CSF TTR. From 6 to 12 months when both groups were supplemented, plasma-TTR increased significantly in both groups. Repeated measures ANOVA indicated an increase in TTR over time (p = 0.04) in those receiving n - 3 FA for 12 months. By linear regression analyses, n - 3 FA treatment was independently associated with increased plasma-TTR at 6 months (β = -0.172, p = 0.028). Thus, n - 3 FA treatment appeared to increase plasma-TTR in patients with AD. Since TTR may influence Aβ deposition in the brain, the results warrant further exploration. PMID:23563245

  18. Acute effects of protein composition and fibre enrichment of yogurt consumed as snacks on appetite sensations and subsequent ad libitum energy intake in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Doyon, Caroline Y; Tremblay, Angelo; Rioux, Laurie-Eve; Rhéaume, Caroline; Cianflone, Katherine; Poursharifi, Pegah; Turgeon, Sylvie L

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the impact of protein composition and/or fibre enrichment of yogurt on appetite sensations and subsequent energy intake. In this double-blind crossover study, 20 healthy men (aged 32.4 ± 9.1 years) were submitted to 5 randomized testing sessions, during which they had to consume 5 isocaloric and isonproteinemic yogurt snacks (120-g servings, ∼230 kJ, ∼4.5 g protein) differing by their casein-to-whey protein ratio (C:W) or dietary fibre content: (i) control C:W = 2.8:1; (ii) high whey (HW) C:W = 1.5:1, and fibre-enriched formulations using control; (iii) 2.4 g of inulin; (iv) 1.9 g of inulin and 0.5 g of β-glucan (+IN-βG); and (v) 0.5 g of β-glucan. Appetite sensations were assessed using 150-mm visual analog scales. Plasma variables (glucose, insulin, ghrelin) were measured at 30-min intervals post-yogurt consumption for 2 h. Finally, energy intakes during ad libitum lunches offered 2 h after yogurt snacks were recorded. None of the yogurts impacted appetite sensations. Ad libitum energy intake was significantly different only between HW and control yogurts (-812 kJ; p = 0.03). Regarding post-yogurt plasma variables, a significant difference was found only between ghrelin area under the curve of the +IN-βG and the HW yogurts (-15 510 pmol/L per 120 min, p = 0.04). In conclusion, although appetite sensations were not influenced by variations in yogurts' protein compositions, a reduced energy intake was observed during the ad libitum lunch after the HW yogurt that may be attributable to its lower C:W. Surprisingly, the fibre enrichments studied did not exert effect on appetite sensations and energy intake. PMID:26394259

  19. [Effects of aging time on the form transformation and eco-toxicity threshold (ECx) of added Zn in typical China soils].

    PubMed

    Lin, Lei; Chen, Shi-Bao; Liu, Ji-Fang; Ma, Yi-Bing

    2013-07-01

    Six typical China soils with different properties were selected and added with seven concentrations of ZnCl2 to study the effects of different aging time (14, 90, 180, 360, and 540 days) on the form transformation and eco-toxicity threshold (ECx) of added Zn in the soils, with the main affecting factors analyzed. The results indicated that with the increase of aging time, the fraction of 0.01 mol x L(-1) CaCl2-extracted Zn in the soils decreased sharply initially, then slowed down, and reached the dynamic balance after 540 d incubation. The eco-toxicity thresholds (ECx, x = 10, 50) of Zn to bok choy increased significantly with aging time (P < 0.05), which implied the marked decrease of the phyto-toxicity of Zn. The measured aging factors AF10 and AF50 of Zn ranged from 1.077-1.743 and 1.174-1.441, respectively, and increased with aging time. The balanced concentration of Zn in the soils was significantly negatively correlated with soil pH, CEC, and organic carbon (Org-C) content, and soil pH was the most important controlling factor, followed by CEC and Org-C. It took shorter time to reach Zn balance in the soils with higher pH. The prediction model of the ECx of Zn was developed based on the aging factors and the main soil properties, and could be well validated by the measured ECx under field condition. This study would provide theoretical basis for the normalization of the eco-toxicity thresholds of added Zn in different soils and the formulation of the environmental criterion of Zn in China soils.

  20. [Effects of aging time on the form transformation and eco-toxicity threshold (ECx) of added Zn in typical China soils].

    PubMed

    Lin, Lei; Chen, Shi-Bao; Liu, Ji-Fang; Ma, Yi-Bing

    2013-07-01

    Six typical China soils with different properties were selected and added with seven concentrations of ZnCl2 to study the effects of different aging time (14, 90, 180, 360, and 540 days) on the form transformation and eco-toxicity threshold (ECx) of added Zn in the soils, with the main affecting factors analyzed. The results indicated that with the increase of aging time, the fraction of 0.01 mol x L(-1) CaCl2-extracted Zn in the soils decreased sharply initially, then slowed down, and reached the dynamic balance after 540 d incubation. The eco-toxicity thresholds (ECx, x = 10, 50) of Zn to bok choy increased significantly with aging time (P < 0.05), which implied the marked decrease of the phyto-toxicity of Zn. The measured aging factors AF10 and AF50 of Zn ranged from 1.077-1.743 and 1.174-1.441, respectively, and increased with aging time. The balanced concentration of Zn in the soils was significantly negatively correlated with soil pH, CEC, and organic carbon (Org-C) content, and soil pH was the most important controlling factor, followed by CEC and Org-C. It took shorter time to reach Zn balance in the soils with higher pH. The prediction model of the ECx of Zn was developed based on the aging factors and the main soil properties, and could be well validated by the measured ECx under field condition. This study would provide theoretical basis for the normalization of the eco-toxicity thresholds of added Zn in different soils and the formulation of the environmental criterion of Zn in China soils. PMID:24175536

  1. In utero glucocorticoid exposure reduces fetal skeletal muscle mass in rats independent of effects on maternal nutrition.

    PubMed

    Gokulakrishnan, Ganga; Estrada, Irma J; Sosa, Horacio A; Fiorotto, Marta L

    2012-05-15

    Maternal stress and undernutrition can occur together and expose the fetus to high glucocorticoid (GLC) levels during this vulnerable period. To determine the consequences of GLC exposure on fetal skeletal muscle independently of maternal food intake, groups of timed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 7/group) were studied: ad libitum food intake (control, CON); ad libitum food intake with 1 mg dexamethasone/l drinking water from embryonic day (ED)13 to ED21 (DEX); pair-fed (PF) to DEX from ED13 to ED21. On ED22, dams were injected with [(3)H]phenylalanine for measurements of fetal leg muscle and diaphragm fractional protein synthesis rates (FSR). Fetal muscles were analyzed for protein and RNA contents, [(3)H]phenylalanine incorporation, and MuRF1 and atrogin-1 (MAFbx) mRNA expression. Fetal liver tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) expression was quantified to assess fetal exposure to GLCs. DEX treatment reduced maternal food intake by 13% (P < 0.001) and significantly reduced placental mass relative to CON and PF dams. Liver TAT expression was elevated only in DEX fetuses (P < 0.01). DEX muscle protein masses were 56% and 70% than those of CON (P < 0.01) and PF (P < 0.05) fetuses, respectively; PF muscles were 80% of CON (P < 0.01). Muscle FSR decreased by 35% in DEX fetuses (P < 0.001) but were not different between PF and CON. Only atrogin-1 expression was increased in DEX fetus muscles. We conclude that high maternal GLC levels and inadequate maternal food intake impair fetal skeletal muscle growth, most likely through different mechanisms. When combined, the effects of decreased maternal intake and maternal GLC intake on fetal muscle growth are additive.

  2. Social Effects of Mass Media Advertising on the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ruth B.; And Others

    A study examined the effects of media advertising on the elderly to determine whether they use the media to help combat social disengagement, whether they perceived the elderly as positively portrayed in advertising, whether they perceive their role as consumer as declining, whether television advertising reinforced sex roles, and whether the…

  3. Tuning the tetrahedrality of the hydrogen-bonded network of water: Comparison of the effects of pressure and added salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Saurav; Chakravarty, Charusita

    2016-06-01

    Experiments and simulations demonstrate some intriguing equivalences in the effect of pressure and electrolytes on the hydrogen-bonded network of water. Here, we examine the extent and nature of equivalence effects between pressure and salt concentration using relationships between structure, entropy, and transport properties based on two key ideas: first, the approximation of the excess entropy of the fluid by the contribution due to the atom-atom pair correlation functions and second, Rosenfeld-type excess entropy scaling relations for transport properties. We perform molecular dynamics simulations of LiCl-H2O and bulk SPC/E water spanning the concentration range 0.025-0.300 molefraction of LiCl at 1 atm and pressure range from 0 to 7 GPa, respectively. The temperature range considered was from 225 to 350 K for both the systems. To establish that the time-temperature-transformation behaviour of electrolyte solutions and water is equivalent, we use the additional observation based on our simulations that the pair entropy behaves as a near-linear function of pressure in bulk water and of composition in LiCl-H2O. This allows for the alignment of pair entropy isotherms and allows for a simple mapping of pressure onto composition. Rosenfeld-scaling implies that pair entropy is semiquantitatively related to the transport properties. At a given temperature, equivalent state points in bulk H2O and LiCl-H2O (at 1 atm) are defined as those for which the pair entropy, diffusivity, and viscosity are nearly identical. The microscopic basis for this equivalence lies in the ability of both pressure and ions to convert the liquid phase into a pair-dominated fluid, as demonstrated by the O-O-O angular distribution within the first coordination shell of a water molecule. There are, however, sharp differences in local order and mechanisms for the breakdown of tetrahedral order by pressure and electrolytes. Increasing pressure increases orientational disorder within the first

  4. Tuning the tetrahedrality of the hydrogen-bonded network of water: Comparison of the effects of pressure and added salts.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Saurav; Chakravarty, Charusita

    2016-06-21

    Experiments and simulations demonstrate some intriguing equivalences in the effect of pressure and electrolytes on the hydrogen-bonded network of water. Here, we examine the extent and nature of equivalence effects between pressure and salt concentration using relationships between structure, entropy, and transport properties based on two key ideas: first, the approximation of the excess entropy of the fluid by the contribution due to the atom-atom pair correlation functions and second, Rosenfeld-type excess entropy scaling relations for transport properties. We perform molecular dynamics simulations of LiCl-H2O and bulk SPC/E water spanning the concentration range 0.025-0.300 molefraction of LiCl at 1 atm and pressure range from 0 to 7 GPa, respectively. The temperature range considered was from 225 to 350 K for both the systems. To establish that the time-temperature-transformation behaviour of electrolyte solutions and water is equivalent, we use the additional observation based on our simulations that the pair entropy behaves as a near-linear function of pressure in bulk water and of composition in LiCl-H2O. This allows for the alignment of pair entropy isotherms and allows for a simple mapping of pressure onto composition. Rosenfeld-scaling implies that pair entropy is semiquantitatively related to the transport properties. At a given temperature, equivalent state points in bulk H2O and LiCl-H2O (at 1 atm) are defined as those for which the pair entropy, diffusivity, and viscosity are nearly identical. The microscopic basis for this equivalence lies in the ability of both pressure and ions to convert the liquid phase into a pair-dominated fluid, as demonstrated by the O-O-O angular distribution within the first coordination shell of a water molecule. There are, however, sharp differences in local order and mechanisms for the breakdown of tetrahedral order by pressure and electrolytes. Increasing pressure increases orientational disorder within the first

  5. On the computation of finite bottom-quark mass effects in Higgs boson production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Romain; Öztürk, Deniz Gizem

    2016-08-01

    We present analytic results for the partonic cross-sections contributing to the top-bottom interference in Higgs production via gluon fusion at hadron colliders at NLO accuracy in QCD. We develop a method of expansion in small bottom-mass for master integrals and combine it with the usual infinite top-mass effective theory. Our method of expansion admits a simple algorithmic description and can be easily generalized to any small parameter. These results for the integrated cross-sections will be needed in the computation of the renormalization counter-terms entering the computation of finite bottom-quark mass effects at NNLO.

  6. Many-Body Effects on Bandgap Shrinkage, Effective Masses, and Alpha Factor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jian-Zhong; Ning, C. Z.; Woo, Alex C. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Many-body Coulomb effects influence the operation of quantum-well (QW) laser diode (LD) strongly. In the present work, we study a two-band electron-hole plasma (EHP) within the Hatree-Fock approximation and the single plasmon pole approximation for static screening. Full inclusion of momentum dependence in the many-body effects is considered. An empirical expression for carrier density dependence of the bandgap renormalization (BGR) in an 8 nm GaAs/Al(0.3)G(4.7)As single QW will be given, which demonstrates a non-universal scaling behavior for quasi-two-dimension structures, due to size-dependent efficiency of screening. In addition, effective mass renormalization (EMR) due to momentum-dependent self-energy many-body correction, for both electrons and holes is studied and serves as another manifestation of the many-body effects. Finally, the effects on carrier density dependence of the alpha factor is evaluated to assess the sensitivity of the full inclusion of momentum dependence.

  7. RETIRED A STARS: THE EFFECT OF STELLAR EVOLUTION ON THE MASS ESTIMATES OF SUBGIANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, John Asher; Morton, Timothy D.; Wright, Jason T.

    2013-01-20

    Doppler surveys have shown that the occurrence rate of Jupiter-mass planets appears to increase as a function of stellar mass. However, this result depends on the ability to accurately measure the masses of evolved stars. Recently, Lloyd called into question the masses of subgiant stars targeted by Doppler surveys. Lloyd argues that very few observable subgiants have masses greater than 1.5 M {sub Sun }, and that most of them have masses in the range 1.0-1.2 M {sub Sun }. To investigate this claim, we use Galactic stellar population models to generate an all-sky distribution of stars. We incorporate the effects that make massive subgiants less numerous, such as the initial mass function and differences in stellar evolution timescales. We find that these effects lead to negligibly small systematic errors in stellar mass estimates, in contrast to the Almost-Equal-To 50% errors predicted by Lloyd. Additionally, our simulated target sample does in fact include a significant fraction of stars with masses greater than 1.5 M {sub Sun }, primarily because the inclusion of an apparent magnitude limit results in a Malmquist-like bias toward more massive stars, in contrast to the volume-limited simulations of Lloyd. The magnitude limit shifts the mean of our simulated distribution toward higher masses and results in a relatively smaller number of evolved stars with masses in the range 1.0-1.2 M {sub Sun }. We conclude that, within the context of our present-day understanding of stellar structure and evolution, many of the subgiants observed in Doppler surveys are indeed as massive as main-sequence A stars.

  8. ADS pilot program Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clauson, J.; Heuser, J.

    1981-01-01

    The Applications Data Service (ADS) is a system based on an electronic data communications network which will permit scientists to share the data stored in data bases at universities and at government and private installations. It is designed to allow users to readily locate and access high quality, timely data from multiple sources. The ADS Pilot program objectives and the current plans for accomplishing those objectives are described.

  9. Interactive effects of mass proportions and coupling properties on external loading in simulated forefoot impact landings.

    PubMed

    Gittoes, Marianne J R; Kerwin, David G

    2009-08-01

    This study aimed to gain insight into the individual and interactive effects of segmental mass proportions and coupling properties on external loading in simulated forefoot landings. An evaluated four-segment wobbling mass model replicated forefoot drop landings (height: 0.46 m) performed by two subjects. A comparison of the peak impact forces (GFzmax) produced during the evaluated landing and further simulated landings performed using modified (+/-5% perturbation) mass proportions and coupling properties was made. Independent segmental mass proportion changes, particularly in the upper body, produced a prominent change in GFzmax of up to 0.32 bodyweight (BW) whereas independent mass coupling stiffness and damping alterations had less effect on GFzmax (change in GFzmax of up to 0.18 BW). When combining rigid mass proportion reductions with damping modifications, an additional GFzmax attenuation of up to 0.13 BW was produced. An individual may be predisposed to high loading and traumatic and overuse injury during forefoot landings owing to their inherent inertia profile. Subject-specific neuromuscular modifications to mass coupling properties may not be beneficial in overriding the increased forces associated with larger rigid mass proportions. PMID:19827473

  10. Quality of Low Fat Chicken Nuggets: Effect of Sodium Chloride Replacement and Added Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Hull Flour.

    PubMed

    Verma, Arun K; Banerjee, Rituparna; Sharma, B D

    2012-02-01

    While attempting to develop low salt, low fat and high fibre chicken nuggets, the effect of partial (40%) common salt substitution and incorporation of chickpea hull flour (CHF) at three different levels viz., 5, 7.5 and 10% (Treatments) in pre-standardized low fat chicken nuggets (Control) were observed. Common salt replacement with salt substitute blend led to a significant decrease in pH, emulsion stability, moisture, ash, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness values while incorporation of CHF in low salt, low fat products resulted in decreased emulsion stability, cooking yield, moisture, protein, ash, color values, however dietary fibre and textural properties were increased (p<0.01). Lipid profile revealed a decrease in total cholesterol and glycolipid contents with the incorporation of CHF (p<0.01). All the sensory attributes except appearance and flavor, remained unaffected with salt replacement, while addition of CHF resulted in lower sensory scores (p<0.01). Among low salt, low fat chicken nuggets with CHF, incorporation CHF at 5% level was found optimum having sensory ratings close to very good. Thus most acceptable low salt, low fat and high fibre chicken nuggets could be developed by a salt replacement blend and addition of 5% CHF.

  11. An investigation of AdS2 backreaction and holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelsöy, Julius; Mertens, Thomas G.; Verlinde, Herman

    2016-07-01

    We investigate a dilaton gravity model in AdS2 proposed by Almheiri and Polchinski [1] and develop a 1d effective description in terms of a dynamical boundary time with a Schwarzian derivative action. We show that the effective model is equivalent to a 1d version of Liouville theory, and investigate its dynamics and symmetries via a standard canonical framework. We include the coupling to arbitrary conformal matter and analyze the effective action in the presence of possible sources. We compute commutators of local operators at large time separation, and match the result with the time shift due to a gravitational shockwave interaction. We study a black hole evaporation process and comment on the role of entropy in this model.

  12. Spatial and foveal biases, not perceived mass or heaviness, explain the effect of target size on representational momentum and representational gravity.

    PubMed

    De Sá Teixeira, Nuno; Oliveira, Armando Mónica

    2014-11-01

    The spatial memory for the last position occupied by a moving target is usually displaced forward in the direction of motion. Interpreted as a mental analogue of physical momentum, this phenomenon was coined representational momentum (RM). As momentum is given by the product of an object's velocity and mass, both these factors came to be under scrutiny in RM studies, the goal being to provide support for the internalization hypothesis. Although velocity was found to determine RM's magnitude, possible effects of mass were more elusive. Recently, an effect of target size on RM was reported, adding to previous findings that bigger targets were more mislocalized downward in the direction of gravity (via perceived heaviness and representational gravity; RG). The aim in the present research was to test that those outcomes reflect an internalization of momentum by excluding oculomotor factors. The results showed that an effect of target size, when it emerged, could be accounted for by a foveal bias such that bigger targets were more displaced toward gaze than were smaller ones. Specific contingencies between eye movements and target size seem to account for previous reports regarding the alleged effects of perceived mass on both RM and RG. This phenomenon seems furthermore to be modulated by the presence of other visual elements (fixation point) and the range of target velocities. These outcomes are taken as a rebuttal to the claim that cognitive analogues of mass or heaviness are responsible for previously reported effects of target size on both RM and RG.

  13. An evaluation of the effects of added vitamin D3 in maternal diets on sow and pig performance.

    PubMed

    Flohr, J R; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; DeRouchey, J M; Goodband, R D; Nelssen, J L; Bergstrom, J R

    2014-02-01

    A total of 84 sows (PIC 1050) and their litters were used to determine the effects of supplementing maternal diet with vitamin D3 on sow and pig performance, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3), milk vitamin D3, neonatal bone mineralization, and neonatal tissue vitamin D3. After breeding, sows were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 dietary vitamin D3 treatments (1,500, 3,000, or 6,000 IU/kg of complete diets). Sows were bled on d 0 and 100 of gestation and at farrowing and weaning (d 21). Pig BW was recorded at birth and weaning, and serum was collected from 2 pigs/litter at birth, on d 10 and at weaning. A total of 54 pigs (18/treatment) were euthanized at birth and necropsied to sample bones and tissues. Sow and suckling pig performance and neonatal bone ash and bone density did not differ among maternal vitamin D3 treatments; however, sow 25(OH)D3 and milk vitamin D3 increased (linear, P < 0.01) with increasing maternal vitamin D3 supplementation. Piglet serum 25(OH)D3 increased (quadratic, P < 0.03) with increased maternal vitamin D3. Neonatal kidney vitamin D3 tended (quadratic, P = 0.08) to decrease with increasing maternal vitamin D3, but liver vitamin D3 tended (linear, P = 0.09) to increase with increasing maternal vitamin D3. At weaning, a subsample of 180 pigs (PIC 327 × 1050) were used in a 3 × 2 split plot design for 35 d to determine the effects of maternal vitamin D3 and 2 levels of dietary vitamin D3 (1,800 or 18,000 IU/kg) from d 0 to 10 postweaning on nursery growth and serum 25(OH)D3. Overall (d 0 to 35), nursery ADG and G:F were not affected by either concentration of vitamin D3, but ADFI tended (quadratic, P < 0.06) to decrease with increasing maternal vitamin D3 as pigs from sows fed 3,000 IU had lower ADFI compared with pigs from sows fed 1,500 or 6,000 IU/kg. Nursery pig serum 25(OH)D3 increased with increasing maternal vitamin D3 (weaning) on d 0 (linear, P < 0.01), and maternal × diet interactions (P < 0.01) were observed on d 10 and 21

  14. Effectiveness of an intercultural module added to the treatment guidelines for Moroccan and Turkish patients with depressive and anxiety disorders

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Since the sixties of the last century, many people from Morocco and Turkey have migrated into the Netherlands. In the last decade, Moroccan and Turkish patients have found their way to organizations for mental health care. However, they often drop out of treatment. Problems in the communication with therapists and different expectations regarding treatment seem to be causal factors for the early drop-out of therapy. In the Netherlands as in other countries courses have been developed for training cultural competence of therapists. Yet, up to now, the effectiveness of increased cultural competence of therapists in reducing drop-out of treatment has not been studied. Methods/Design A randomized clinical trial was started in January 2010. Moroccan and Turkish adult patients who are referred to our outpatient clinics for mood and anxiety disorders are randomly assigned to mental health workers who are trained in a cultural module and to those who are not. The therapists have been trained in the Cultural Formulation and in techniques bridging the (cultural) gap between them and their Moroccan and Turkish patients. The target number of participants is 150 patients, 75 for each group. Drop-out of treatment is the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcome measures are no-show and patients' perspective of care. Discussion The study will give an answer to the question whether increasing cultural competence of therapists reduces drop-out of treatment in Moroccan and Turkish outpatients with depressive and anxiety disorders. Trial Registration The Dutch Cochrane Centre, NTR1989 PMID:21247455

  15. Acute effects of active gaming on ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations of 8-11-year-old boys.

    PubMed

    Allsop, Susan; Dodd-Reynolds, Caroline J; Green, Benjamin P; Debuse, Dorothée; Rumbold, Penny L S

    2015-12-28

    The present study examined the acute effects of active gaming on energy intake (EI) and appetite responses in 8-11-year-old boys in a school-based setting. Using a randomised cross-over design, twenty-one boys completed four individual 90-min gaming bouts, each separated by 1 week. The gaming bouts were (1) seated gaming, no food or drink; (2) active gaming, no food or drink; (3) seated gaming with food and drink offered ad libitum; and (4) active gaming with food and drink offered ad libitum. In the two gaming bouts during which foods and drinks were offered, EI was measured. Appetite sensations - hunger, prospective food consumption and fullness - were recorded using visual analogue scales during all gaming bouts at 30-min intervals and at two 15-min intervals post gaming. In the two bouts with food and drink, no significant differences were found in acute EI (MJ) (P=0·238). Significant differences were detected in appetite sensations for hunger, prospective food consumption and fullness between the four gaming bouts at various time points. The relative EI calculated for the two gaming bouts with food and drink (active gaming 1·42 (sem 0·28) MJ; seated gaming 2·12 (sem 0·25) MJ) was not statistically different. Acute EI in response to active gaming was no different from seated gaming, and appetite sensations were influenced by whether food was made available during the 90-min gaming bouts. PMID:26435259

  16. Acute effects of active gaming on ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations of 8-11-year-old boys.

    PubMed

    Allsop, Susan; Dodd-Reynolds, Caroline J; Green, Benjamin P; Debuse, Dorothée; Rumbold, Penny L S

    2015-12-28

    The present study examined the acute effects of active gaming on energy intake (EI) and appetite responses in 8-11-year-old boys in a school-based setting. Using a randomised cross-over design, twenty-one boys completed four individual 90-min gaming bouts, each separated by 1 week. The gaming bouts were (1) seated gaming, no food or drink; (2) active gaming, no food or drink; (3) seated gaming with food and drink offered ad libitum; and (4) active gaming with food and drink offered ad libitum. In the two gaming bouts during which foods and drinks were offered, EI was measured. Appetite sensations - hunger, prospective food consumption and fullness - were recorded using visual analogue scales during all gaming bouts at 30-min intervals and at two 15-min intervals post gaming. In the two bouts with food and drink, no significant differences were found in acute EI (MJ) (P=0·238). Significant differences were detected in appetite sensations for hunger, prospective food consumption and fullness between the four gaming bouts at various time points. The relative EI calculated for the two gaming bouts with food and drink (active gaming 1·42 (sem 0·28) MJ; seated gaming 2·12 (sem 0·25) MJ) was not statistically different. Acute EI in response to active gaming was no different from seated gaming, and appetite sensations were influenced by whether food was made available during the 90-min gaming bouts.

  17. Effects of adding HfO2 on the microstructure and dielectric properties of giant dielectric constant ceramic CaCu3Ti4O12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, W. X.; Hark, S. K.

    2010-03-01

    CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO), an unusual perovskite-like ceramic, is known for its extraordinarily high (˜10^4) and relatively frequency independent dielectric constant. It has drawn a lot of attention recently because of its potential applications in microelectronics and microwave devices. In this investigation, HfO2 powder was added to a pre-reacted CCTO powder, which was synthesized by a conventional solid-state reaction, at different concentrations from 1 to 70 wt% and the mixture was sintered into disc-shaped ceramic samples. The effects of adding HfO2 on the microstructure and dielectric properties of CCTO ceramics were investigated. In general, we found that the dielectric constant tends to increase with HfO2 addition up to 8 wt% and then decrease with further addition. Moreover, the dielectric loss was also influenced by the addition of HfO2, and a low loss tangent of ˜0.035 was obtained. The ac conductivity, impedance, complex dielectric permittivity and electric modulus graphs were used to analyze the data. These observations were explained on the basis of the internal-barrier-layer capacitor model with Maxwell-Wagner relaxations.

  18. Effective photon mass and exact translating quantum relativistic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Fernando; Manrique, Marcos Antonio Albarracin

    2016-04-01

    Using a variation of the celebrated Volkov solution, the Klein-Gordon equation for a charged particle is reduced to a set of ordinary differential equations, exactly solvable in specific cases. The new quantum relativistic structures can reveal a localization in the radial direction perpendicular to the wave packet propagation, thanks to a non-vanishing scalar potential. The external electromagnetic field, the particle current density, and the charge density are determined. The stability analysis of the solutions is performed by means of numerical simulations. The results are useful for the description of a charged quantum test particle in the relativistic regime, provided spin effects are not decisive.

  19. The effects of mass on the radiation of a relativistically rotating neutron star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbst, R. S.; Qadir, A.; Momoniat, E.

    2013-12-01

    We investigate the effect of mass on the radiation of a relativistically rotating neutron star. The method of Haxton and Ruffini is used to find the radiation flux from a relativistically rotating neutron star. By extending the idea of a point charge orbiting a black hole, a pulsar is modeled by simulating a relativistically rotating magnetic dipole embedded within a neutron star. The resulting equations retain the mass of the neutron star, thereby introducing effects of general relativity on the radiation from the dipole. We present exact solutions to the modeling equation as well as plots of energy spectra at different rotational velocities and inclination angles. We also present plots of total energy versus mass and two tables containing a comparison of energy ratios. These demonstrate that, for realistic neutron star masses, the high speed enhancement of the radiation is always more than compensated by the frame dragging effect, leading to a net reduction of radiation from the star. It is found that the inclusion of mass not only reduced the special relativistic enhancement, but negates it entirely as the mass of the neutron star approaches the mass limit.

  20. Fire extinct experiments with water mist by adding additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lijun; Zhao, Jianbo

    2011-12-01

    The effects of fire extinguishment with water mist by adding different additives were studied. Tens of chemical substances (including alkali metal salt, dilution agent and surface active agent) were selected as additives due to their different extinct mechanisms. At first the performance of fire extinguishment with single additive was studied, then the effects of the same kinds of chemical substances under the same mass fraction were compared to study their influences on the fire extinguishment factors, including extinct time, fire temperature and oxygen concentration from which the fire extinct mechanism with additives could be concluded. Based on this the experiments were conducted to study the cooperate effect of the complexity of different additives. It indicated the relations between different firefighting mechanisms and different additives were competitive. From a large number of experiments the extinct mechanism with water mist by adding additives was concluded and an optimal compounding additive was selected.